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Sample records for pseudostratified respiratory epithelium

  1. A case of foregut gastric duplication cyst with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium.

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    Hosomura, Naohiro; Kono, Hiroshi; Kawaida, Hiromichi; Amemiya, Hidetake; Itakura, Jun; Fujii, Hideki

    2012-02-01

    Gastrointestinal duplication is a congenital rare disease. Duplication cyst of the stomach with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is extremely rare. A 44-year-old Japanese woman visited University of Yamanashi Hospital for evaluation of an abnormal tumor detected by abdominal ultrasonography at an annual general health examination. Abdominal computed tomography indicated a subserosal cystic lesion 6 cm in diameter on the posterior wall of the stomach. The cystic lesion was resected through partial resection of the stomach. Histopathology showed that the cyst did not communicate with the gastric lumen, was covered with gastric epithelium and pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with circular muscle layers, and did not contain cartilaginous tissue. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as having foregut duplication cyst of the stomach. Gastrointestinal duplication can occur in any region of the gastrointestinal tract, but foregut duplication cyst of the stomach is rare. The present case was a subserosal cyst on the greater curvature that did not communicate with the gastric lumen and was covered with gastric epithelium and pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium, suggesting a foregut cyst caused by an aberrant respiratory organ.

  2. Ciliated Cells of Pseudostratified Airway Epithelium Do Not Become Mucous Cells after Ovalbumin Challenge

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    Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Law, Brandon M.; Gonzalez-Celeiro, Meryem; Vinarsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Mucous cell metaplasia is a hallmark of airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The majority of human airway epithelium is pseudostratified, but the cell of origin of mucous cells has not been definitively established in this type of airway epithelium. There is evidence that ciliated, club cell (Clara), and basal cells can all give rise to mucus-producing cells in different contexts. Because pseudostratified airway epithelium contains distinct progenitor cells from simple columnar airway epithelium, the lineage relationships of progenitor cells to mucous cells may be different in these two epithelial types. We therefore performed lineage tracing of the ciliated cells of the murine basal cell–containing airway epithelium in conjunction with the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic lung disease. We genetically labeled ciliated cells with enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (eYFP) before the allergen challenge, and followed the fate of these cells to determine whether they gave rise to newly formed mucous cells. Although ciliated cells increased in number after the OVA challenge, the newly formed mucous cells were not labeled with the eYFP lineage tag. Even small numbers of labeled mucous cells could not be detected, implying that ciliated cells make virtually no contribution to the new goblet cell pool. This demonstrates that, after OVA challenge, new mucous cells do not originate from ciliated cells in a pseudostratified basal cell–containing airway epithelium. PMID:23239495

  3. Papillary cystadenoma of the lower lip exhibiting ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium: report of a bizarre case and review of the literature.

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    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Gagari, Eleni

    2013-09-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and constitute 2-6.5 % of all head and neck neoplasms. Tumors of minor salivary gland origin account for less than 25 % of all salivary gland neoplasms. Papillary cystadenoma of salivary glands is a rare benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by multicystic growth in which the epithelium exhibits adenomatous proliferation. Papillary cystadenoma of minor salivary glands most frequently involves the lip, buccal mucosa, and palate. This tumor typically presents as a slow-growing, painless mass, usually with diameter of less than 1 cm and clinical resemblance to a mucocele. Although most papillary cystadenomas are predominantly of one cell type, a regional variability may be present. We present a case of papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands in a 58-year-old patient exhibiting an upper respiratory tract epithelium, a profoundly atypical benign tumor. This type of minor salivary gland tumor epithelium in the lower lip may be the result of a metaplastic process or simply another neoplastic manifestation of papillary cystadenoma. As far as the differential diagnosis of this entity is concerned, it is important to distinguish it from papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (Warthin's tumor), low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma, and cystadenocarcinoma Recognition of this lesion is important for the clinician since the differential diagnosis includes lesions with similar clinical appearance and infiltrative behavior.

  4. Kinetics Analysis of Respiratory Epithelium by Virtual Instrumentation

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    Libor HARGAŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with measurement and analysis of kinetic parameters of human respiratory epithelium. The article shows possibilities of data acquisition (videosequences and postprocessing using virtual instrumentation – LabVIEW. The designed methods enable analysis and measurement of two parameters: cilia beat frequency (CBF and trajectory of cilia of respiratory epithelium. The problem task is divided into videosequence acquisition of cilia from the microscope, region of interest (ROI selection for analyzed data reduction, preprocessing of reduced sequences. Frequency analysis is done by intensity method, which records and evaluates intensity variations in ROI. Trajectory analysis uses sophisticated algorithms of object detection in the image called pattern matching. Results of this work are used for diagnostics of some pathology of respiratory apparatus and epithelium. All solution steps are realized in LabVIEW development system.

  5. Respiratory Epithelium Lined Cyst of the Maxilla: Differential Diagnosis

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    C. P. Martinelli-Kläy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary cysts, including the cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, can present a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of a maxillary cyst on an endodontically treated tooth #16, in which the cavity was totally lined by a respiratory epithelium. The patient, a 35-year-old male, presented with a generalized chronic periodontitis and complained of a pain in the tooth #16 region. A periodontal pocket extending to the root apices with pus coming out from the gingival was found. A combined endodontic periodontal was observed on a panoramic radiography. CBCT-scan revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion at the apices of the distobuccal root of the 16. A communication with the right maxillary sinus cavity and a maxillary and ethmoidal sinusitis were also observed. The lesion was removed and histological examination revealed a cyst lined exclusively by respiratory epithelium. Ciliated and rare mucous cells were also observed. The diagnosis could evoke a surgical ciliated cyst mimicking the radicular cyst but the patient has no previous history of trauma or surgery in the maxillofacial region. It could also be an unusual radicular cyst in which the stratified squamous epithelium was destroyed by inflammation and replaced by a respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus.

  6. Respiratory Epithelium Lined Cyst of the Maxilla: Differential Diagnosis

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    Chatelain, S.; Salvado, F.

    2017-01-01

    Maxillary cysts, including the cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, can present a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of a maxillary cyst on an endodontically treated tooth #16, in which the cavity was totally lined by a respiratory epithelium. The patient, a 35-year-old male, presented with a generalized chronic periodontitis and complained of a pain in the tooth #16 region. A periodontal pocket extending to the root apices with pus coming out from the gingival was found. A combined endodontic periodontal was observed on a panoramic radiography. CBCT-scan revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion at the apices of the distobuccal root of the 16. A communication with the right maxillary sinus cavity and a maxillary and ethmoidal sinusitis were also observed. The lesion was removed and histological examination revealed a cyst lined exclusively by respiratory epithelium. Ciliated and rare mucous cells were also observed. The diagnosis could evoke a surgical ciliated cyst mimicking the radicular cyst but the patient has no previous history of trauma or surgery in the maxillofacial region. It could also be an unusual radicular cyst in which the stratified squamous epithelium was destroyed by inflammation and replaced by a respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus. PMID:29093979

  7. Cigarette smoke facilitates allergen penetration across respiratory epithelium.

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    Gangl, K; Reininger, R; Bernhard, D; Campana, R; Pree, I; Reisinger, J; Kneidinger, M; Kundi, M; Dolznig, H; Thurnher, D; Valent, P; Chen, K-W; Vrtala, S; Spitzauer, S; Valenta, R; Niederberger, V

    2009-03-01

    The association between cigarette smoke exposure and allergic airway disease is a matter for debate. We sought to investigate in an in vitro system whether active smoking reduces the integrity and barrier function of the respiratory epithelium and thus facilitates allergen penetration. We cultured the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o- in a transwell culture system as a surrogate for the intact respiratory epithelium. The cell monolayer was exposed to standardized cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The extent and effects of trans-epithelial allergen penetration were measured using 125I-labelled purified major respiratory allergens (rBet v 1, rPhl p 5 and rDer p 2) and histamine release experiments. Exposure of cells to concentrations of CSE similar to those found in smokers induced the development of para-cellular gaps and a decrease in trans-epithelial resistance. CSE exposure induced a more than threefold increase in allergen penetration. Increased subepithelial allergen concentrations provoked a substantial augmentation of histamine release from sensitized basophils. Our results indicate that cigarette smoke is a potent factor capable of reducing the barrier function of the respiratory epithelium for allergens and may contribute to increased allergic inflammation, exacerbation of allergic disease and boosting of IgE memory.

  8. New Aspects in Respiratory Epithelium Diagnostics Using Virtual Instrumentation

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    Dušan KONIAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of interest is trajectory analysis of moving object. Object is represented by respiratory epithelium cilium. Cilium trajectory and another parameter – beating frequency – are very important parameters in respiratory apparatus diagnostics. Main method of motion detection is Geometric Matching and gray level variance capturing. Primary experiments were taken on video phantoms simulating cilia movement using two camera systems: Marlin and PONTOS. All the phantoms were processed in LabVIEW development environment. Article focuses on acquisition conditions, preprocessing of videosequences and basic measurement on acquired phantoms.

  9. Enteric Duplication Cyst Containing Squamous and Respiratory Epithelium: An Interesting Case of a Typically Pediatric Entity Presenting in an Adult Patient

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    Jessica Leigh Baumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations that can occur at any point along the digestive tract, most commonly the small bowel. They are characterized by the presence of an outer layer of smooth muscle and an inner lining of mucosa that may resemble any portion of the digestive tract. Less commonly, cases have been reported that also contain mucosal components of nonintestinal origin. This entity is typically diagnosed in young children, but occasionally presents in adolescence and young adulthood. We present a rare case of a 21-year-old male who presented with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal discomfort and weight loss and was later found to have a 9 cm nonenhancing mass in the distal ileum on CT imaging. Laparoscopic dissection of the mass revealed a cystic lesion lined mainly by pseudostratified ciliated columnar respiratory-type epithelium, with patchy areas of squamous epithelium as well as villous columnar epithelium resembling small bowel. The unique histology and advanced patient age make this case a unique presentation of what is already a rare pathological entity.

  10. Macrophages are required for dendritic cell uptake of respiratory syncytial virus from an infected epithelium.

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    Ugonna, Kelechi; Bingle, Colin D; Plant, Karen; Wilson, Kirsty; Everard, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] can productively infect monocyte derived dendritic cells [MoDC] and remain dormant within the same cells for prolonged periods. It is therefore possible that infected dendritic cells act as a reservoir within the airways of individuals between annual epidemics. In the present study we explored the possibility that sub-epithelial DCs can be infected with RSV from differentiated bronchial epithelium and that in turn RSV from DCs can infect the epithelium. A dual co-culture model was established in which a differentiated primary airway epithelium on an Air Liquid Interface (ALI) was cultured on a transwell insert and MoDCs were subsequently added to the basolateral membrane of the insert. Further experiments were undertaken using a triple co-culture model in which in which macrophages were added to the apical surface of the differentiated epithelium. A modified RSV [rr-RSV] expressing a red fluorescent protein marker of replication was used to infect either the MoDCs or the differentiated epithelium and infection of the reciprocal cell type was assessed using confocal microscopy. Our data shows that primary epithelium became infected when rr-RSV infected MoDCs were introduced onto the basal surface of the transwell insert. MoDCs located beneath the epithelium did not become infected with virus from infected epithelial cells in the dual co-culture model. However when macrophages were present on the apical surface of the primary epithelium infection of the basal MoDCs occurred. Our data suggests that RSV infected dendritic cells readily transmit infection to epithelial cells even when they are located beneath the basal layer. However macrophages appear to be necessary for the transmission of infection from epithelial cells to basal dendritic cells.

  11. Macrophages are required for dendritic cell uptake of respiratory syncytial virus from an infected epithelium.

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    Kelechi Ugonna

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] can productively infect monocyte derived dendritic cells [MoDC] and remain dormant within the same cells for prolonged periods. It is therefore possible that infected dendritic cells act as a reservoir within the airways of individuals between annual epidemics. In the present study we explored the possibility that sub-epithelial DCs can be infected with RSV from differentiated bronchial epithelium and that in turn RSV from DCs can infect the epithelium. A dual co-culture model was established in which a differentiated primary airway epithelium on an Air Liquid Interface (ALI was cultured on a transwell insert and MoDCs were subsequently added to the basolateral membrane of the insert. Further experiments were undertaken using a triple co-culture model in which in which macrophages were added to the apical surface of the differentiated epithelium. A modified RSV [rr-RSV] expressing a red fluorescent protein marker of replication was used to infect either the MoDCs or the differentiated epithelium and infection of the reciprocal cell type was assessed using confocal microscopy. Our data shows that primary epithelium became infected when rr-RSV infected MoDCs were introduced onto the basal surface of the transwell insert. MoDCs located beneath the epithelium did not become infected with virus from infected epithelial cells in the dual co-culture model. However when macrophages were present on the apical surface of the primary epithelium infection of the basal MoDCs occurred. Our data suggests that RSV infected dendritic cells readily transmit infection to epithelial cells even when they are located beneath the basal layer. However macrophages appear to be necessary for the transmission of infection from epithelial cells to basal dendritic cells.

  12. Sox2 Activates Cell Proliferation and Differentiation in the Respiratory Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Tompkins, David H.; Besnard, Valérie; Lange, Alexander W.; Keiser, Angela R.; Wert, Susan E.; Bruno, Michael D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Sox2, a transcription factor critical for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and induction of pluripotent stem cells, is expressed exclusively in the conducting airway epithelium of the lung, where it is required for differentiation of nonciliated, goblet, and ciliated cells. To determine the role of Sox2 in respiratory epithelial cells, Sox2 was selectively and conditionally expressed in nonciliated airway epithelial cells and in alveolar type II cells in the adult mouse. Sox2 induced e...

  13. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

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    Magda Patricia Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP staining. The goblet cells (GCs were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium P<0.05 and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs P<0.05 compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections.

  14. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

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    Carrillo, Magda Patricia; Martinez, Nhora María; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) staining. The goblet cells (GCs) were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium (P < 0.05) and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs (P < 0.05) compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:25810949

  15. DNA strand breaks in human nasal respiratory epithelium are induced upon exposure to urban pollution

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    Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Osnaya-Brizuela, N.; Ramirez-Martinez, L. [Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Mexico City (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    All organisms have the ability to respond and adapt to a myriad of environmental insults. The human respiratory epithelium, when exposed to oxidant gases in photochemical smog, is at risk of DNA damage and requires efficient cellular adaptative responses to resist the environmentally induced cell damage. Ozone and its reaction products induce in vitro and in vivo DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. To determine if exposure to a polluted atmosphere with ozone as the main criteria pollutant of 19 children and 13 adult males who lived in a low-polluted Pacific port, 69 males and 16 children who were permanent residents of Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), and 22 young males newly arrived to SWMMC and followed for 12 weeks. Respiratory symptoms, nasal cytology and histopathology, cell viabilities, and single-cell gel electrophoresis were investigated. Atmospheric pollutant data were obtained from a fixed-site monitoring station. SWMMC volunteers spent >7 hr/day outdoors and all had upper respiratory symptoms. A significant difference in the numbers of DNA-damaged nasal cells was observed between control and chronically exposed subjects, both in children (p<0.00001) and in adults (p>0.01). SSBs in newly arrived subjects quickly increased upon arrival to the city, from 39.8 {+-}8.34% in the first week to 67.29 {+-}2.35 by week 2. Thereafter, the number of cells with SSBs remained stable in spite of the continuous increase in cumulative ozone, suggesting a threshold for cumulative DNA nasal damage. Exposure to a polluted urban atmosphere induces SSBs in human nasal respiratory epithelium, and nasal SSBs could serve as a biomarker of ozone exposure. Further, because DNA strand breaks are a threat to cell viability and genome integrity and appear to be a critical lesion responsible for p53 induction, nasal SSBs should be evaluated in ozone-exposed individuals. 43 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Isolated omental duplication cyst with respiratory epithelium & pancreatic glands: Case report & review of literature

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    Phuoc T. Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplication cysts are uncommon congenital anomalies. They are usually in communication with or are attached to an adjacent segment of bowel. Rarely are they completely isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. To date, there have been 29 reported cases of non-communicating or isolated duplication cysts. Few contain respiratory epithelium and pancreatic glands. Patients may present with pain, an acute abdomen, bleeding or malignant degeneration. Differential diagnoses for an isolated cystic mass should include duplication cyst in the pediatric population. Recognition and awareness of these anomalies and their various presentations can aid in management. The unusual case of an isolated duplication cyst containing respiratory and pancreatic tissue, found within omentum, is presented with a review of the literature.

  17. Pyocyanin effects on respiratory epithelium: relevance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections.

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    Rada, Balázs; Leto, Thomas L

    2013-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) uses several virulence factors to establish chronic respiratory infections in bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. One of its toxins, pyocyanin (PYO), is a redox-active pigment that is required for full virulence in animal models and has been detected in patients' airway secretions. PYO promotes virulence by interfering with several cellular functions in host cells including electron transport, cellular respiration, energy metabolism, gene expression, and innate immune mechanisms. This review summarizes recent advances in PYO biology with special attention to current views on its role in human airway infections and on its interactions with the first line of our airway defense, the respiratory epithelium. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A model of the deciliation process caused by Mycoplasma fermentans strain incognitus on respiratory epithelium.

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    Stadtländer, Christian T K H

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate by light microscopy as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy the deciliation process which takes place on the respiratory epithelium of tracheal explants after experimental infection with Mycoplasma fermentans strain incognitus. Time-point photography allowed distinguishing five phases which occurred during the infection on the epithelial cell surface: (1) Attachment of M. fermentans to the cilia causing clumping of the cilia tips; (2) matting of cilia into bundles; (3) formation of abnormally shaped and shorter cilia; (4) collapse of cilia onto the epithelial cell surface; and (5) widespread loss of cilia. Based on the photographic images, a schematic model of the deciliation process was developed. Various potential factors contributing to the cilia destruction are discussed, including the release of mycoplasmal toxins, the physical presence of a high number of M. fermentans cells attached to the cilia, and the depletion of culture medium components by the mycoplasmas. This model of M. fermentans strain incognitus infection of respiratory epithelium is important for understanding mycoplasmal pathogenicity on a comparative level.

  19. Sox2 activates cell proliferation and differentiation in the respiratory epithelium.

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    Tompkins, David H; Besnard, Valérie; Lange, Alexander W; Keiser, Angela R; Wert, Susan E; Bruno, Michael D; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2011-07-01

    Sox2, a transcription factor critical for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and induction of pluripotent stem cells, is expressed exclusively in the conducting airway epithelium of the lung, where it is required for differentiation of nonciliated, goblet, and ciliated cells. To determine the role of Sox2 in respiratory epithelial cells, Sox2 was selectively and conditionally expressed in nonciliated airway epithelial cells and in alveolar type II cells in the adult mouse. Sox2 induced epithelial cell proliferation within 3 days of expression. Epithelial cell proliferation was associated with increased Ki-67 and cyclin D1 staining. Expression of cell cycle genes, including FoxM1, Ccna2 (Cyclin A2), Ccnb2 (Cyclin B2), and Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1), was increased. Consistent with a role in cell proliferation, Sox2 activated the transcription of FoxM1 in vitro. In alveoli, Sox2 caused hyperplasia and ectopic differentiation of epithelial cells to those with morphologic and molecular characteristics of conducting airway epithelium. Sox2 induced the expression of conducting airway epithelial specific genes, including Scgb1a1, Foxj1, Tubb3, and Cyp2f2. Although prolonged expression of Sox2 caused cell proliferation and epithelial hyperplasia, Sox2 did not induce pulmonary tumors. Sox2 induces proliferation of respiratory epithelial cells and, subsequently, partially reprograms alveolar epithelial cells into cells with characteristics of the conducting airways.

  20. Clinical evaluation and changes of the respiratory epithelium function after administration of Pidotimod in Greek children with recurrent respiratory tract infections.

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    Aivazis, V; Hatzimichail, A; Papachristou, A; Valeri, R; Iuga-Donca, G

    2002-08-01

    Several studies have been conducted on young children with recurrent respiratory infections using several compounds (synthetic derivates or lyophilized bacterial extracts) causing improvement in the clinical process. We conducted a prospective, randomized study comparing the clinical results and the changes of the respiratory epithelium function after the administration of immunostimulating drug (Pidotimod) to children with respiratory infections over a 9 month period. A total of 32 children (group A) were randomly assigned to receive Pidotimod therapy while a second group of 18 children (group B) weren't. All the children in group A received Pidotimod (400 mg x 2 daily) for fifteen days and 400 mg daily for the next twenty days. The proper function of the ciliary respiratory epithelium in all children was checked, using the Edicol Orange and CaH PO4 2H2O, coloring method before the therapeutic intervention and after the first and the sixth month. 87.5% of group A, responded exceptionally well to treatment presenting two or less infections in the nine month period, whereas only 33.3% of group B showed improvement (pPidotimod therapy is a reliable, simple and safe approach to treat children with recurrent respiratory infections and it can reduce the frequency of such infections as a result of improvement of the ciliary respiratory epithelium.

  1. [Inhibitory effect of nasal mucus on the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium].

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    Hayashi, H

    1990-01-01

    The absorption of Dibekacin (DKB) through rabbit's tracheal mucosa with and without nasal mucus were examined in vitro. The modified double chamber method was used for the purpose of this study. DKB solution (20 mg/ml) and Hanks' balanced salt solution were put into the donor compartment (DC) and the receiver compartment (RC), respectively. A plate with a hole and the tracheal mucosa were inserted between the compartments in the order of DC, dialytic membrane, the plate, the rabbit tracheal mucosa and RC. The hole of the plate was filled with nasal mucus or Hanks' solution. The latter was used as the control. The chamber was incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The absorption rate (AR) was obtained by dividing the concentration of DKB in RC by that in DC. The nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis significantly decreased the AR of DKB compared with that in the control (P less than 0.05). The AR significantly decreased with increments in the thickness of nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis. This decreased AR was improved by the addition of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to DKB solution in DC. NAC can cleave disulfied bonds of mucus glycoprotein and this results in the decrease of viscoelasticity of nasal mucus. The results indicate that nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis intercept the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium in vitro. One of the mechanisms of the intercepter may be due to the high molecular-reticular structure of nasal mucus.

  2. cAMP response element binding protein is required for differentiation of respiratory epithelium during murine development.

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    A Daniel Bird

    Full Text Available The cAMP response element binding protein 1 (Creb1 transcription factor regulates cellular gene expression in response to elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. Creb1(-/- fetal mice are phenotypically smaller than wildtype littermates, predominantly die in utero and do not survive after birth due to respiratory failure. We have further investigated the respiratory defect of Creb1(-/- fetal mice during development. Lungs of Creb1(-/- fetal mice were pale in colour and smaller than wildtype controls in proportion to their reduced body size. Creb1(-/- lungs also did not mature morphologically beyond E16.5 with little or no expansion of airway luminal spaces, a phenotype also observed with the Creb1(-/- lung on a Crem(-/- genetic background. Creb1 was highly expressed throughout the lung at all stages examined, however activation of Creb1 was detected primarily in distal lung epithelium. Cell differentiation of E17.5 Creb1(-/- lung distal epithelium was analysed by electron microscopy and showed markedly reduced numbers of type-I and type-II alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, immunomarkers for specific lineages of proximal epithelium including ciliated, non-ciliated (Clara, and neuroendocrine cells showed delayed onset of expression in the Creb1(-/- lung. Finally, gene expression analyses of the E17.5 Creb1(-/- lung using whole genome microarray and qPCR collectively identified respiratory marker gene profiles and provide potential novel Creb1-regulated genes. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial role for Creb1 activity for the development and differentiation of the conducting and distal lung epithelium.

  3. An electron microscope study of the respiratory epithelium in the lungs of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

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    Meban, C

    1979-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium in the lungs of the common fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) has been studied by electron microscopy. The entire pulmonary gas-exchange area is covered by a continuous epithelium, the cells of which are all of the same type and are termed 'pneumonocytes'. Typically, each pneumonocyte is squamous and has attenuated sheets of cytoplasm which extend over the pulmonary capillaries. Its free surface bears squat microvilli, and osmiophilic inclusion bodies and other organelles are prominent in the cytoplasm. The lateral cell walls have numerous desmosomes and interdigitating cytoplasmic processes. Many cells send cytoplasmic processes deep into the substance of the lung septa. The morphological evidence suggests that the pneumonocytes are responsible for the secretion of pulmonary surface-active agents and for maintaining the integrity of the gaseous diffusion membrane. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:422482

  4. Assessment of Pasteurella multocida A Lipopolysaccharide, as an Adhesin in an In Vitro Model of Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium

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    Romero, Stefany; Esquinas, Paula; Patiño, Pilar; Martínez, Nhora

    2017-01-01

    The role of the P. multocida lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a putative adhesin during the early stages of infection with this bacterium in the respiratory epithelium of rabbits was investigated. By light microscopy and double enzyme labeling of nasal septa tissues, the amount of bacteria attached to the respiratory epithelium and the amount of LPS present in goblet cells at different experimental times were estimated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and LPS labeling with colloidal gold particles were also used to determine the exact location of LPS in the cells. Septa that were challenged with LPS of P. multocida and 30 minutes later with P. multocida showed more adherent bacteria and more severe lesions than the other treatments. Free LPS was observed in the lumen of the nasal septum, forming bilamellar structures and adhering to the cilia, microvilli, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytoplasm of epithelial ciliated and goblet cells. The above findings suggest that P. multocida LPS plays an important role in the process of bacterial adhesion and that it has the ability of being internalized into host cells. PMID:28251016

  5. Assessment of Pasteurella multocida A Lipopolysaccharide, as an Adhesin in an In Vitro Model of Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium

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    Carolina Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the P. multocida lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a putative adhesin during the early stages of infection with this bacterium in the respiratory epithelium of rabbits was investigated. By light microscopy and double enzyme labeling of nasal septa tissues, the amount of bacteria attached to the respiratory epithelium and the amount of LPS present in goblet cells at different experimental times were estimated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and LPS labeling with colloidal gold particles were also used to determine the exact location of LPS in the cells. Septa that were challenged with LPS of P. multocida and 30 minutes later with P. multocida showed more adherent bacteria and more severe lesions than the other treatments. Free LPS was observed in the lumen of the nasal septum, forming bilamellar structures and adhering to the cilia, microvilli, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytoplasm of epithelial ciliated and goblet cells. The above findings suggest that P. multocida LPS plays an important role in the process of bacterial adhesion and that it has the ability of being internalized into host cells.

  6. Assessment of Pasteurella multocida A Lipopolysaccharide, as an Adhesin in an In Vitro Model of Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Carolina; Romero, Stefany; Esquinas, Paula; Patiño, Pilar; Martínez, Nhora; Iregui, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The role of the P. multocida lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a putative adhesin during the early stages of infection with this bacterium in the respiratory epithelium of rabbits was investigated. By light microscopy and double enzyme labeling of nasal septa tissues, the amount of bacteria attached to the respiratory epithelium and the amount of LPS present in goblet cells at different experimental times were estimated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and LPS labeling with colloidal gold particles were also used to determine the exact location of LPS in the cells. Septa that were challenged with LPS of P. multocida and 30 minutes later with P. multocida showed more adherent bacteria and more severe lesions than the other treatments. Free LPS was observed in the lumen of the nasal septum, forming bilamellar structures and adhering to the cilia, microvilli, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytoplasm of epithelial ciliated and goblet cells. The above findings suggest that P. multocida LPS plays an important role in the process of bacterial adhesion and that it has the ability of being internalized into host cells.

  7. Effect of oxidative stress on respiratory epithelium from children with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Martijn; Lutter, René; Eldering, Eric; Bos, Albert P.; van Woensel, Job B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. In Down syndrome, both regulation of inflammation and apoptosis, important in acute respiratory distress syndrome pathophysiology, are abnormal. This has been linked to an imbalance in free radical scavengers. We

  8. Use of sensitive, broad-spectrum molecular assays and human airway epithelium cultures for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pyrc

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate detection and identification of viruses causing respiratory tract infections is important for patient care and disease control. Despite the fact that several assays are available, identification of an etiological agent is not possible in ~30% of patients suffering from respiratory tract diseases. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic set for the detection of respiratory viruses with sensitivity as low as 1-10 copies per reaction. Evaluation of the assay using a training clinical sample set showed that viral nucleic acids were identified in ~76% of cases. To improve assay performance and facilitate the identification of novel species or emerging strains, cultures of fully differentiated human airway epithelium were used to pre-amplify infectious viruses. This additional step resulted in the detection of pathogens in all samples tested. Based on these results it can be hypothesized that the lack of an etiological agent in some clinical samples, both reported previously and observed in the present study, may result not only from the presence of unknown viral species, but also from imperfections in the detection methods used.

  9. Interactive effects of ozone and formaldehyde on the nasal respiratory lining epithelium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuzel, P.G.; Wilmer, J.W.; Woutersen, R.A.; Zwart, A.; Rombout, P.J.; Feron, V.J. (TNO-CIVO Toxicology and Nutrition Institute, Zeist (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    The combined effects on the nasal epithelium of mixtures of ozone and formaldehyde at cytotoxic and noncytotoxic concentrations were examined. Male Wistar rats were exposed by inhalation during 22 h/d for 3 consecutive days to 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 ppm formaldehyde, or to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 ppm ozone, or to mixtures of 0.4 ppm ozone and 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 ppm formaldehyde, or to 1.0 ppm formaldehyde and 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 ppm ozone, or they were sham-exposed to clean air. The noses were examined for pathological changes at six standard cross levels by light microscopy and for epithelial cell proliferation by counting (3H-methyl)thymidine-labeled cells at cross levels II and III. Ozone at 0.4 ppm or 0.8 ppm or formaldehyde at 3 ppm enhanced cell proliferation at cross level II at all locations, except for the epithelium of the septum, which was not affected by ozone. At cross level III ozone alone did not induce cell proliferation, but formaldehyde at 0.3 and 1 ppm tended to reduce cell proliferation while at 3 ppm proliferation was slightly stimulated. The combined exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone and 0.3 ppm formaldehyde induced less cell proliferation at cross levels II and III when compared with that of 0.4 ppm ozone alone. Less cell proliferation was also seen at cross level II when animals were exposed to 0.4 or 0.8 ppm ozone in combination with 1 ppm formaldehyde than when exposed to these ozone concentrations alone. A more than additive increase in cell proliferation was found at cross level II after exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone in combination with 3 ppm formaldehyde, and at cross level III in animals exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone and 1 or 3 ppm formaldehyde. Treatment-related histopathological nasal changes, such as disarrangement, loss of cilia, and hyper/metaplasia of the epithelium were seen at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm ozone and at 3 ppm formaldehyde.

  10. Demonstration of carboxylesterase in cytology samples of human nasal respiratory epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, D.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Avila, K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The epithelial lining of the nasal airways is a target for responses induced by a variety of toxicant exposures. The high metabolic capacity of this tissue has been suggested to play a role in both protection of the airways through detoxication of certain toxicants, as well as in activation of other compounds to more toxic metabolites. Specifically, nasal carboxylesterase (CE) has been shown to mediate the toxicity of inhaled esters and acrylates by converting them to more toxic acid and alcohol metabolites which can be cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. Due to difficulties in extrapolating rodent models to human, new paradigms using human cells and tissues are essential to understanding and evaluating the metabolic processes in human nasal epithelium.

  11. Interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Its Lipopolysaccharide with In Vitro Culture of Respiratory Nasal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gallego

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasal septa of fetal rabbits at 26 days of gestation were harvested by cesarean section of the does while under anesthesia and then exposed to Bordetella bronchiseptica or its lipopolysaccharide (LPS for periods of 2 and 4 hours. A total of 240 explants were used. The tissues were examined using the Hematoxylin & Eosin technique. Then, semithin sections (0.5 m were stained with toluidine blue and examined with indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI and lectin histochemistry. The most frequent and statistically significant findings were as follows: (1 cell death and increased goblet cell activity when exposed to bacteria and (2 cell death, cytoplasmic vacuolation and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes when exposed to LPS. The lesions induced by the bacterium were more severe than with LPS alone, except for the cytoplasmic vacuolation in epithelial cells. IPI stained the ciliated border of the epithelium with the bacterium more intensely, while LPS lectin histochemistry preferentially labeled the cytoplasm of goblet cell. These data indicate that B. bronchiseptica and its LPS may have an affinity for specific glycoproteins that would act as adhesion receptors in both locations.

  12. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M; Herrler, Georg

    2014-02-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this purpose, two culture systems for well-differentiated BAEC were used: the air-liquid interface (ALI) system, where filter-grown BAEC differentiate into a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) where BAEC are maintained in the original tissue organisation. Comparative infection studies demonstrated that entry and release of BPIV3 occurred specifically via the apical membrane with ciliated cells being the major target cells. By contrast, airway epithelial cells were largely resistant to infection by BHV-1. When the epithelial barrier was abolished by opening tight junctions or by injuring the cell monolayer, BHV-1 infected mainly basal cells. Respiratory epithelial cells were also refractory to infection by BRSV. However, this virus infected neither differentiated epithelial cells nor basal cells when the integrity of the epithelial barrier was destroyed. In contrast to cells of the airway epithelium, subepithelial cells were susceptible to infection by BRSV. Altogether, these results indicate that the three viruses of the same disease complex follow different strategies to interact with the airway epithelium. Possible entry mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Interactions of Francisella tularensis with Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and the Murine Respiratory Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Faron

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is classified as a Tier 1 select agent by the CDC due to its low infectious dose and the possibility that the organism can be used as a bioweapon. The low dose of infection suggests that Francisella is unusually efficient at evading host defenses. Although ~50 cfu are necessary to cause human respiratory infection, the early interactions of virulent Francisella with the lung environment are not well understood. To provide additional insights into these interactions during early Francisella infection of mice, we performed TEM analysis on mouse lungs infected with F. tularensis strains Schu S4, LVS and the O-antigen mutant Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn. For all three strains, the majority of the bacteria that we could detect were observed within alveolar type II epithelial cells at 16 hours post infection. Although there were no detectable differences in the amount of bacteria within an infected cell between the three strains, there was a significant increase in the amount of cellular debris observed in the air spaces of the lungs in the Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant compared to either the Schu S4 or LVS strain. We also studied the interactions of Francisella strains with human AT-II cells in vitro by characterizing the ability of these three strains to invade and replicate within these cells. Gentamicin assay and confocal microscopy both confirmed that F. tularensis Schu S4 replicated robustly within these cells while F. tularensis LVS displayed significantly lower levels of growth over 24 hours, although the strain was able to enter these cells at about the same level as Schu S4 (1 organism per cell, as determined by confocal imaging. The Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant that we have previously described as attenuated for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence displayed interesting properties as well. This mutant induced significant airway inflammation (cell debris and had an attenuated growth phenotype in the human AT-II cells. These

  14. deltaNp63 has a role in maintaining epithelial integrity in airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Jon Arason

    Full Text Available The upper airways are lined with a pseudostratified bronchial epithelium that forms a barrier against unwanted substances in breathing air. The transcription factor p63, which is important for stratification of skin epithelium, has been shown to be expressed in basal cells of the lungs and its ΔN isoform is recognized as a key player in squamous cell lung cancer. However, the role of p63 in formation and maintenance of bronchial epithelia is largely unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the expression pattern of the ΔN and TA isoforms of p63 and the role of p63 in the development and maintenance of pseudostratified lung epithelium in situ and in culture. We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line with basal cell characteristics (VA10 to model bronchial epithelium in an air-liquid interface culture (ALI and performed a lentiviral-based silencing of p63 to characterize the functional and phenotypic consequences of p63 loss. We demonstrate that ΔNp63 is the major isoform in the human lung and its expression was exclusively found in the basal cells lining the basement membrane of the bronchial epithelium. Knockdown of p63 affected proliferation and migration of VA10 cells and facilitated cellular senescence. Expression of p63 is critical for epithelial repair as demonstrated by wound healing assays. Importantly, generation of pseudostratified VA10 epithelium in the ALI setup depended on p63 expression and goblet cell differentiation, which can be induced by IL-13 stimulation, was abolished by the p63 knockdown. After knockdown of p63 in primary bronchial epithelial cells they did not proliferate and showed marked senescence. We conclude that these results strongly implicate p63 in the formation and maintenance of differentiated pseudostratified bronchial epithelium.

  15. The histogenic origin of melanoma arising in respiratory epithelium of a teratomatous germ cell tumor of the mediastinum: an enigma unraveled from an unlikely source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Patricia; Quigley, Brian; Mendoza, Tania; Hakam, Ardeshir; Khalil, Farah; Fishman, Mayer; Altiok, Soner

    2012-01-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors are rare neoplasms that are known to occur in the anterior mediastinum. Characterized by two or more types of germ cell components, these tumors comprise upwards of 25% of mediastinal germ cell tumors. Even rarer are those harboring somatic-type malignancies such as carcinoma, sarcoma, and hematopoietic malignancies. To date, however, there are no known cases of melanoma arising in a malignant mixed germ cell tumor of the anterior mediastinum. We describe the first case of malignant melanoma with spindle and epithelioid components arising from respiratory epithelium in a mediastinal malignant mixed germ cell tumor of a 32-year-old male. In addition, we also provide evidence supporting the theory of neuroendocrine cells as the origin of melanoma arising in the respiratory epithelium. This case emphasizes the need to carefully evaluate all germ cell tumors, not only for a myriad of benign embryological components, but also for malignancies arising in these components, as they might change the prognosis and patient's course of treatment. This microscopic approach should bring to light the diversity of mixed germ cell tumors in addition to somatic malignancies with corresponding biologic potentials.

  16. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5) and keratin 14 (K14) for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub) for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10), but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion The data are

  17. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musah Sadiatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5 and keratin 14 (K14 for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10, but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion

  18. The impact of topically applied preservation solutions on the respiratory epithelium of tracheal grafts submitted to cold ischemia: functional and morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Eugênio de Azevedo-Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Advances in graft reepithelialization and revascularization have renewed interest in airway transplantation. This study aims to determine whether topically applied preservation solutions can ameliorate ischemic injury to tracheal grafts. We analyzed 1 the effects of cold ischemia on the mucociliary clearance of tracheal grafts and 2 the impact of topically applied preservation solutions on the effects of cold ischemia on mucociliary clearance. METHOD: Tracheal segments (n=217 from 109 male Wistar rats were harvested, submerged in low-potassium-dextran-glucose, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate, or saline solution (saline group, and stored at 4°C for 6, 10, 16, or 24 hours. A control group (not submerged was analyzed immediately after harvesting. In situ mucociliary transport and ciliary beating frequency were measured using a stroboscope. Epithelial integrity, cellular infiltration, and mucus storage were quantified by light microscopy and image analysis software, along with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: 1 The effects of cold ischemia: in situ mucociliary transport and ciliary beating frequency were greater in the control group than after cold ischemia. Microscopic analysis results were similar between groups. 2 The effects of preservation solutions: there was no difference between the low-potassium-dextran-glucose, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate, and saline groups in functional or light microscopy analysis. The saline group presented stronger signs of ischemic injury with transmission electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Cold ischemia diminished the mucociliary clearance of the tracheal respiratory epithelium. Topically applied preservation solutions did not ameliorate the injury caused by cold ischemia to the tracheal respiratory epithelium.

  19. Ammonium sulphate induced stress related alterations in the respiratory epithelium of the airbreathing organ of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paul, V.I.; Banerjee, T.K.

    In this paper, histopathological changes in the inner lining of the accessory respiratory organ of Heteropneustes fossilis following exposure to sublethal concentration (0.2 gl sup(-1)) of ammonium sulphate (3 mg l sup(-1) total ammonia-N) has been...

  20. Postprandial morphological response of the intestinal epithelium of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    OpenAIRE

    Lignot, J.H.; Helmstetter, C.; Secor, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The postprandial morphological changes of the intestinal epithelium of Burmese pythons were examined using fasting pythons and at eight time points after feeding. In fasting pythons, tightly packed enterocytes possess very short microvilli and are arranged in a pseudostratified fashion. Enterocyte width increases by 23% within 24 h postfeeding, inducing significant increases in villus length and intestinal mass. By 6 days postfeeding, enterocyte volume had peaked, following as much as an 80% ...

  1. Vitamin D receptor agonists inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production from the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-07-22

    BACKGROUND: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) has been shown to mitigate epithelial inflammatory responses after antigen exposure. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at particular risk for vitamin D deficiency. This may contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response to pulmonary infection in CF. METHODS: CF respiratory epithelial cell lines were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pseudomonas conditioned medium (PCM) in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or a range of vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in cell supernatants, and cellular total and phosphorylated IκBα were determined. Levels of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18) mRNA and protein were measured in cells after treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). RESULTS: Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was associated with significant reductions in IL-6 and IL-8 protein secretion after antigen exposure, a finding reproduced with a range of low calcaemic VDR agonists. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment led to a decrease in IκBα phosphorylation and increased total cellular IκBα. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was associated with an increase in hCAP18\\/LL-37 mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: Both 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and other VDR agonists significantly reduce the pro-inflammatory response to antigen challenge in CF airway epithelial cells. VDR agonists have significant therapeutic potential in CF.

  2. Analysis of toxicity produced by inhalation of trichloroethylene within rat and mice`s respiratory epithelium; Comparazione del danno indotto dall`inalazione di tricloroetilene nell`epitelio nasale e tracheobronchiale del ratto e del topo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, M.T.; Fravolini, M.E.; Parasacchi, P.; Lombardi, C.C.; Giovanetti, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the sites of cytotoxicity within the respiratory tract (nasal cavity and tracheobronchial tree) after acute inhalation of trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic solvent requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P-450 enzymatic system to exert its toxic effects. Two animals species, rats and mice, were exposed to 3500 and 7000 ppm of TCE for 30 minutes. The morphological analysis of the respiratory epithelium has underlined a species-specific difference in the cellular sensitivity after treatment with TCE. This work is a part of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) INTO program, environmental department, sector of effects on man and ecosystem.

  3. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  4. Expression of an X-family DNA polymerase, pol lambda, in the respiratory epithelium of non-small cell lung cancer patients with habitual smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Taro; Kometani, Takurou; Shoji, Fumihiro; Yano, Tokujiro; Yoshino, Ichiro; Ichiro, Yoshino; Taguchi, Kenichi; Kuraoka, Isao; Oda, Shinya; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    DNA polymerase lambda, pol lambda, is a eukaryotic member of the X-family DNA polymerases that is involved in two modes of DNA repair, i.e. base excision repair (BER) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Using immunohistochemical approaches, we have observed pol lambda expression in human tissues, particularly in the respiratory system of lung cancer patients. pol lambda proteins were distributed in the nuclei of the epithelial cells in the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. Intriguingly, the level of pol lambda expression in the bronchiolar epithelia significantly correlated with the amount of habitual smoking in the individuals. Conversely, pol lambda expression in cancer tissues did not correlate with the smoking status of the patients. Pol lambda expression was sometimes discrepant between the tumor tissues and adjacent bronchioles. More importantly, tumors without pol lambda expression that occurred in heavy smokers significantly tended to be at an advanced clinical stage. Pol lambda may thus be involved in the DNA repair processes counteracting DNA damage caused by tobacco smoke in the respiratory system.

  5. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Soleas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990. In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium.

  6. Bronchial epithelium in children: a key player in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, Ania; Mazenq, Julie; Ilstad, Alexandra; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Bronchial epithelium is a key element of the respiratory airways. It constitutes the interface between the environment and the host. It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. The bronchial epithelium is abnormal in asthma, even in children. It represents a key component promoting airway inflammation and remodelling that can lead to chronic symptoms. In this review, we present an overview of bronchial epithelium and how to study it, with a specific focus on children. We report physical, chemical and immunological properties from ex vivo and in vitro studies. The responses to various deleterious agents, such as viruses or allergens, may lead to persistent abnormalities orchestrated by bronchial epithelial cells. As epithelium dysfunctions occur early in asthma, reprogramming the epithelium may represent an ambitious goal to induce asthma remission in children. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  7. The fine structure of the midgut epithelium in a centipede, Scolopendra cingulata (Chilopoda, Scolopendridae), with the special emphasis on epithelial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajec, Lukasz; Sonakowska, Lidia; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M

    2014-01-01

    Scolopendra cingulata has a tube-shaped digestive system that is divided into three distinct regions: fore-, mid- and hindgut. The midgut is lined with a pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. Hemocytes also appear between the digestive cells of the midgut epithelium. The ultrastructure of three types of epithelial cells and hemocytes of the midgut has been described with the special emphasis on the role of regenerative cells in the protection of midgut epithelium. The process of midgut epithelium regeneration proceeds due to the ability of regenerative cells to proliferate and differentiate according to a circadian rhythm. The regenerative cells serve as unipotent stem cells that divide in an asymmetric manner. Additionally, two types of hemocytes have been distinguished among midgut epithelial cells. They enter the midgut epithelium from the body cavity. Because of the fact that numerous microorganisms occur in the cytoplasm of midgut epithelial cells, we discuss the role of hemocytes in elimination of pathogens from the midgut epithelium. The studies were conducted with the use of transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescent methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corneal epithelium in penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R F; Bobb, K C

    1980-08-01

    We studied corneal epithelium in 66 patients with bullous keratopathy treated with penetrating keratoplasty using McCarey-Kaufman stored donor corneas. Epithelium was evaluated at times of storage, surgery, and postoperative dressing changes. Epithelium was intact in 43 of the donor corneas at storage, and 23 had 5 to 100% (median, 50%) epithelium missing. At the end of the keratoplasty procedure, 16 grafts had epithelium intact, and 50 had 5 to 100% (median, 20%) epithelium missing. Postoperative epithelial healing time ranged from one to 12 days, with a median of two days. Postoperative healing was significantly prolonged when donor corneal epithelium was missing at keratoplasty. As the amount of epithelium intact at the end of surgery decreased, the number of days to heal postoperatively increased. We found that donor corneas could be stored as long as 79 hours, with 63 hours in McCarey-Kaufman medium, and still have epithelium intact at the end of the keratoplasty procedure.

  9. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  10. Developmental Origin of Vaginal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental origin of vaginal epithelium has been controversial for nearly a century, with speculation that vaginal epithelium originates from the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, and/or urogenital sinus. None of these possibilities has been definitively proven or disproven by direct scientific data. To define precisely the origin of vaginal epithelium, epithelial cells of the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, or urogenital sinus were fluorescently labeled in mouse embryos by crossing tdTomato-EGFP dual-reporter transgenic mice with transgenic mouse lines that express Cre recombinase in each type of epithelium. In embryos and newborn mice, the vagina consisted of fused Müllerian ducts plus the sinus vagina of urogenital sinus origin. However, the proportion of the sinus vagina was significantly reduced as the Müllerian vagina grew caudally. By postpartum day 7, the Müllerian vagina extended to the caudal end of the body, whereas the sinus vagina remained only at the junction between the vagina and perineal skin. As the vagina opened in puberty, urogenital sinus epithelium was detected only in the vulva, but not in the vagina. Additionally, from embryo to adult stages, residual Wolffian duct epithelium was present in the dorsolateral stromal wall of the vagina, but not within vaginal or vulvar epithelium. In conclusion, adult mouse vaginal epithelium is derived solely from Müllerian duct epithelium. PMID:20638775

  11. A gradient in the duration of the G1 phase in the murine neocortical proliferative epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyama, S.; Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1997-01-01

    Neuronogenesis in the neocortical pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) is initiated rostrolaterally and progresses caudo-medially as development progresses. Here we have measured the cytokinetic parameters and the fractional neuronal output parameter, Q, of laterally located early-maturing regions over the principal embryonic days (E12-E15) of neocortical neuronogenesis in the mouse. These measures are compared with ones previously made of a medial, late-maturing portion of the PVE. Laterally, as medially, the duration of the neuronogenetic interval is 6 days and comprises 11 integer cell cycles. Also, in both lateral and medial areas the length of G1 phase (TG1) increases nearly 4-fold and is the only cell cycle parameter to change. Q progresses essentially identically laterally and medially with respect to the succession of integer cell cycles. Most importantly, from E12 to E13 there is a steeply declining lateral to medial gradient in TG1. The gradient is due both to the lateral to medial graded stage of neuronogenesis and to the stepwise increase in TG1 with each integer cycle during the neuronogenetic interval. To our knowledge this gradient in TG1 of the cerebral PVE is the first cell biological gradient to be demonstrated experimentally in such an extensive proliferative epithelial sheet. We suggest that this gradient in TG1 is the cellular mechanism for positionally encoding a protomap of the neocortex within the PVE.

  12. Efeitos do cigarro sobre o epitélio respiratório e sua participação na rinossinusite crônica Effects of cigarette smoking on the respiratory epithelium and its role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Tamashiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescente consumo de cigarro tem despertado preocupações com o desenvolvimento e agravamento de doenças, em especial às relacionadas ao trato respiratório. OBJETIVO: Neste artigo revisamos as evidências que apontam os efeitos da fumaça de cigarro sobre o epitélio respiratório bem como o seu papel na fisiopatogenia na rinossinusite crônica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora existam dados que fortaleçam um vínculo entre o hábito de fumar e a RSC, em seu conjunto, os estudos demonstram que deve haver grande dependência da susceptibilidade individual na resposta à fumaça de cigarro para o desenvolvimento ou manutenção da RSC. Uma adequada orientação a esses pacientes para interrupção do consumo de cigarro, assim como o reforço de campanhas de combate ao tabagismo, são de extrema importância para o controle dessa doença de grande impacto sócio-econômico.The increasing consumption of cigarettes has aroused concerns about the development and worsening of diseases, particularly those related to the respiratory tract. AIM: In this paper we review the evidence suggesting the effects of cigarette smoking on the respiratory epithelium and its role in the pathogenesis in chronic rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is evidence supporting a link between smoking and CRS, studies suggest that there might be individual susceptibility to cigarette smoking causing the development and/or maintenance of CRS. Proper patient educations to quit smoking as well as reinforcement of antismoking campaigns are extremely important to control this disease of major socio-economic impact.

  13. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 6. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium : More than ... Author Affiliations. Sarita Ahlawat1. Research Associate Malaria Group International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Aruna Asaf Ali Marg New Delhi 110067, India.

  14. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  15. Corneal epithelium following penetrating keratoplasty.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsubota, K; Mashima, Y; Murata, H; Yamada, M.; Sato, N.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--This study was designed to observe any changes to the corneal epithelium after penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS--The corneal epithelia of 26 patients were observed by specular microscopy 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following penetrating keratoplasty. RESULTS--After re-epithelialisation was confirmed by biomicroscopy 1 week after surgery, specular microscopy revealed many abnormal cells, including spindle shaped cells, nucleated cells, large cells, as well as irregular cell ...

  16. The leaving or Q fraction of the murine cerebral proliferative epithelium: a general model of neocortical neuronogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1996-01-01

    Neurons of neocortical layers II-VI in the dorsomedial cortex of the mouse arise in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) through 11 cell cycles over the six embryonic days 11-17 (E11-E17). The present experiments measure the proportion of daughter cells that leave the cycle (quiescent or Q fraction or Q) during a single cell cycle and the complementary proportion that continues to proliferate (proliferative or P fraction or P; P = 1 - Q). Q and P for the PVE become 0.5 in the course of the eighth cycle, occurring on E14, and Q rises to approximately 0.8 (and P falls to approximately 0.2) in the course of the 10th cycle occurring on E16. This indicates that early in neuronogenesis, neurons are produced relatively slowly and the PVE expands rapidly but that the reverse happens in the final phase of neuronogenesis. The present analysis completes a cycle of analyses that have determined the four fundamental parameters of cell proliferation: growth fraction, lengths of cell cycle, and phases Q and P. These parameters are the basis of a coherent neuronogenetic model that characterizes patterns of growth of the PVE and mathematically relates the size of the initial proliferative population to the neuronal population of the adult neocortex.

  17. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  18. Lentivirus vector-mediated gene transfer to the developing bronchiolar airway epithelium in the fetal lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ze-Yan; McKay, Karen; van Asperen, Peter; Zheng, Maolin; Fleming, Jane; Ginn, Samantha L; Kizana, Eddy; Latham, Margot; Feneley, Michael P; Kirkland, Peter D; Rowe, Peter B; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Alexander, Ian E

    2007-06-01

    Development of effective and durable gene therapy for treatment of the respiratory manifestations of cystic fibrosis remains a formidable challenge. Obstacles include difficulty in achieving efficient gene transfer to mature airway epithelium and the need to stably transduce self-renewing epithelial progenitor cells in order to avoid loss of transgene expression through epithelial turnover. Targeting the developing airway epithelium during fetal life offers the prospect of circumventing these challenges. In the current study we investigated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVg)-pseudotyped HIV-1-derived lentivirus vector-mediated gene transfer to the airway epithelium of mid-gestation fetal lambs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro studies epithelial sheet explants and lung organ culture were used to examine transduction of the proximal and more distal airway epithelium, respectively. For the in vivo studies, vector was delivered directly into the proximal airway. We found that even during the early pseudoglandular and canalicular phases of lung development, occurring through mid-gestation, the proximal bronchial airway epithelium was relatively mature and highly resistant to lentivirus-mediated transduction. In contrast, the more distal bronchiolar airway epithelium was relatively permissive for transduction although the absolute levels achieved remained low. This result is promising as the bronchiolar airway epithelium is a major site of pathology in the cystic fibrosis airway, and much higher levels of transduction are likely to be achieved by developing strategies that increase the amount of vector reaching the more distal airway after intratracheal delivery.

  19. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  20. Differential expression of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tracts of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Widagdo; V.S. Raj (Stalin); D. Schipper (Debby); K. Kolijn (Kimberley); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); A. Bensaid (Albert); J. Segalés (Joaquim); W. Baumgärtner (Wolfgang); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor-dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels

  1. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  2. Corneal epithelium following penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, K; Mashima, Y; Murata, H; Yamada, M; Sato, N

    1995-03-01

    This study was designed to observe any changes to the corneal epithelium after penetrating keratoplasty. The corneal epithelia of 26 patients were observed by specular microscopy 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following penetrating keratoplasty. After re-epithelialisation was confirmed by biomicroscopy 1 week after surgery, specular microscopy revealed many abnormal cells, including spindle shaped cells, nucleated cells, large cells, as well as irregular cell configurations. Although these abnormal findings tended to decrease with time, they were still present in some cases as much as 6 months postoperatively. Computerised morphometric analysis yielded mean cell areas of 1121 (SD 168) microns 2, 1139 (675) microns 2, 1712 (496) microns 2, and 1400 (377) microns 2 at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months respectively, all significantly greater than that of age matched controls (710 (151) microns 2). The shape factor decreased with time, but was still greater than the control level at 6 months. This study demonstrates that epithelial abnormalities persist longer than expected after penetrating keratoplasty, and that these subtle changes can be detected by specular microscopic observation, potentially allowing for modification and enhancement of the wound healing process.

  3. Histological description of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla P. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The massive agricultural expansion converted the Cerdocyon thous, a South American native predator, in vulnerable specie. Basic data, such as histological description, are important to raise awareness on animal species, helping on preservation strategies. Considering the difficult in obtain samples, as the euthanasia of wild animals for this purpose is not allowed, data on histology are very scarce or inexistent. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed histological description of the trachea and bronchial tree of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. The specimens (one adult male and one adult female used were provided by the Federal University of Pelotas (Pelotas, RS, Brazil Rehabilitation Center of Wild Fauna (NURFS. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and included in paraffin. After slicing, samples were stained with HE (hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid-Schiff and resorcin fuchsin. Trachea had an average diameter of 7.87mm, and approximately 57% of the mucosa ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium was composed of goblet cells, mostly in the dorsal region. Bronchia and bronchioles had a mucosal fold with higher number of goblet cells. Using all these techniques there is no great remarkable differences from C. thous trachea and lung, when compared with the previous described structures for carnivores and most mammals, except for the goblet cells “regionalization”. Described results are important to understand the animal physiological and behavioral habits, allowing the development of preservation and protection strategies.

  4. Morphological study of the respiratory system of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flavio Panattoni Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe, macroscopically and with light microscopy, the respiratory organs of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua. Five animals were euthanized, fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and stored for dissection. The respiratory tracts of the coati were examined, measured and photographed. For the light microscopy study, fragments were collected from the respiratory organs, processed using standard techniques for histology and stained with HE and toluidine blue. The nose of the coati is pointed and turned upward. Internally it has ethmoidal, dorsal nasal and ventral nasal conchae that are separated by the dorsal and ventral nasal meatuses. The larynx has four cartilaginous structures: arytenoid, cricoid, epiglottis and thyroid. The trachea contains 34 tracheal rings and tracheal ligaments that are covered with ciliated pseudostratified epithelial tissue. The lungs are divided into lobes by interlobular fissures. The right lung is divided into four lobes and is larger than the left lung, whereas the left lung has only two lobes. Microscopically, the primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi have epithelial tissue that is similar to the trachea. We conclude that the respiratory tract of the brown-nosed coati resembles the respiratory tracts described for domestic carnivores.

  5. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  6. A Pediatric Patient With an Orbital Respiratory Epithelial Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jason E; Bahrami, Arash; Monteleone, Christina; Pascasio, Judy Mae; Davis, Wellington J

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory epithelial cysts are rare orbital cysts that can arise secondary to choristomatous rests of respiratory epithelium. Approximately 15 congenital cases have been described in the literature, making it a rare disease entity. We present a case of a 14-month-old Middle Eastern male with a right infraorbital respiratory epithelial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits revealed a right infraorbital cyst hyperintense on T1-weighted images and followed fluid density on T2-weighted images. This cyst was noted to displace the globe superiorly and inferior rectus muscle laterally. This cyst was excised using a transconjunctival approach. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined by ciliated columnar cells with interspersed mucus-containing cells and ciliated transitional epithelium was present, establishing the diagnosis of respiratory epithelial cyst. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with a respiratory epithelial cyst of the orbit reported in the literature.

  7. Analysis of Cell Turnover in the Bronchiolar Epithelium Through the Normal Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martínez, Marta; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Ancer-Arellano, Adriana; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; de-la-Garza-González, Carlos; Ancer-Rodríguez, Jesús; Jaramillo-Rangel, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with changes in the lung that leads to a decrease in its function. Alterations in structure and function in the small airways are well recognized in chronic lung diseases. The aim of this study was the assessment of cell turnover in the bronchiolar epithelium of mouse through the normal aging process. Lungs from CD1 mice at the age of 2, 6, 12, 18, or 24 months were fixed in neutral-buffered formalin and paraffin-embedded. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was examined by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was analyzed by in situ end-labeling of fragmented DNA. Epithelial dimensions were analyzed by morphometry. The 2-month-old mice showed significantly higher number of proliferating cells when compared with mice at all other age groups. The number of apoptotic cells in mice at 24 months of age was significantly greater than in mice at all other age groups. Thus, the number of epithelial cells decreased as the age of the subject increased. We also found reductions in both area and height of the bronchiolar epithelium in mice at 18 and 24 months of age. We found a decrease in the total number of epithelial cells in the aged mice, which was accompanied by a thinning of the epithelium. These changes reflect a dysregulated tissue regeneration process in the bronchiolar epithelium that might predispose to respiratory diseases in elderly subjects.

  8. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  9. Human Reconstituted Nasal Epithelium, a promising in vitro model to assess impacts of environmental complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Gaëlle; Mignon, Virginie; Momas, Isabelle; Achard, Sophie; Seta, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Considering the impact of respiratory diseases around the world, appropriate experimental tools to help understand the mechanisms involved in such diseases are becoming essential. Our aim was to investigate the cellular and morphological reactivity of a human Reconstituted Nasal Epithelium (hRNE) to evaluate the impact of environmental complex mixture (ECM), with tobacco smoke as a model, after three weeks of repeated exposures. Staining of hRNE showed a multilayered ciliated epithelium, with a regular cilia beats, and a mucus production. When hRNE was exposed to ECM for 5 min once or twice a week, during 3 weeks, significant changes occurred: IL-8 production significantly increased 24h after the first exposure compared with Air-exposure and only during the first week, without any loss of tissue integrity. Immunostaining of F-actin cytoskeleton showed a modification in cellular morphology (number and diameter). Taken together our results indicate that hRNE is well suited to study the cellular and morphological effects of repeated exposures to an environmental complex mixture. Human reconstituted epithelium models are currently the best in vitro representation of human respiratory tract physiology, and also the most robust for performing repeated exposures to atmospheric pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-06-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Lobar collapse with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, S.F.; Erickson, S.; Oshman, D.; Hayden, F.

    1985-05-01

    In a study of 30 children with uncomplicated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonias, a high incidence of lobar collapse (8/30-26%) was noted. This involved the right upper lobe in seven patients and the left upper lobe in one patient. It is probably attributable to anatomical predispositions, sloughing of necrotic epithelium, and stimulation of mucus production. Lobar collapse should be considered part of the spectrum of RSV pneumonitis.

  12. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  13. Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard J; Birkner, Jeffrey S

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory protection is used as a method of protecting individuals from inhaling harmful airborne contaminants and in some cases to supply them with breathable air in oxygen-deficient environments. This article focuses on the use and types of personal respiratory protection (respirators) worn by individuals at workplaces where airborne hazardous contaminants may exist. Respirators are increasingly also being used in nonindustrial settings such as health care facilities, as concerns regarding infectious epidemics and terrorist threats grow. Pulmonologists and other clinicians should understand fundamental issues regarding respiratory protection against airborne contaminants and the use of respirators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Buccal Epithelium, Cigarette Smoking, and Lung Cancer: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Raya; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Saleem, Nasir; Oliff, Ira A

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women in the United States, and optimal screening methods are still lacking. The field effect is a well-supported phenomenon wherein a noxious stimulus triggers genetic, epigenetic and molecular changes that are widespread throughout the entire exposed organ system. The buccal epithelium is an easily accessible part of the respiratory tree that has good potential of yielding a surrogate marker for the field effect in cigarette smokers, and thus, a noninvasive, reliable lung cancer screening method. Herein, we review the literature on the relationship between the buccal epithelium, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clewell, H.J., E-mail: hclewell@thehamner.org; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-10-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  16. Respiratory Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saturated with workers, and other areas (more often, rural areas) will be in need of respiratory therapists’ ... workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. ...

  17. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  18. Visualization of ex vivo human ciliated epithelium and induced flow using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Gamm, Uta A.; Yao, Xinwen; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Emala, Charles W.; Choma, Michael A.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-04-01

    The ciliated epithelium is important to the human respiratory system because it clears mucus that contains harmful microorganisms and particulate matter. We report the ex vivo visualization of human trachea/bronchi ciliated epithelium and induced flow characterized by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A total number of 17 samples from 7 patients were imaged. Samples were obtained from Columbia University Department of Anesthesiology's tissue bank. After excision, the samples were placed in Gibco Medium 199 solution with oxygen at 4°C until imaging. The samples were maintained at 36.7°C throughout the experiment. The imaging protocol included obtaining 3D volumes and 200 consecutive B-scans parallel to the head-to-feet direction (superior-inferior axis) of the airway, using Thorlabs Telesto system at 1300 nm at 28 kHz A-line rate and a custom built high resolution SDOCT system at 800nm at 32 kHz A-line rate. After imaging, samples were processed with H and E histology. Speckle variance of the time resolved datasets demonstrate significant contrast at the ciliated epithelium sites. Flow images were also obtained after injecting 10μm polyester beads into the solution, which shows beads traveling trajectories near the ciliated epithelium areas. In contrary, flow images taken in the orthogonal plane show no beads traveling trajectories. This observation is in line with our expectation that cilia drive flow predominantly along the superior-inferior axis. We also observed the protective function of the mucus, shielding the epithelium from the invasion of foreign objects such as microspheres. Further studies will be focused on the cilia's physiological response to environmental changes such as drug administration and physical injury.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  20. Efficient Biodistribution and Gene Silencing in the Lung epithelium via Intravenous Liposomal Delivery of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskill, Jana; Singhania, Richa; Burgess, Melinda; Allavena, Rachel; Wu, Sherry; Blumenthal, Antje; McMillan, Nigel Aj

    2013-06-04

    RNA interference (RNAi) may provide a therapeutic solution to many pulmonary epithelium diseases. However, the main barrier to the clinical use of RNAi remains the lack of efficient delivery vectors. Research has mainly concentrated on the intranasal route of delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) effector molecules for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, this may be complicated in a diseased state due to the increased fluid production and tissue remodeling. Therefore, we investigated our hydration of a freeze-dried matrix (HFDM) formulated liposomes for systemic delivery to the lung epithelium. Here, we show that 45 ± 2% of epithelial murine lung cells receive siRNA delivery upon intravenous (IV) liposomal administration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that liposomal siRNA delivery resulted in targeted gene and protein knockdown throughout the lung, including lung epithelium. Taken together, this is the first description of lung epithelial delivery via cationic liposomes, and provides a proof of concept for the use of IV liposomal RNAi delivery to specifically knockdown targeted genes in the respiratory system. This approach may provide an attractive alternate therapeutic delivery strategy for the treatment of lung epithelium diseases.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e96; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.22; published online 4 June 2013.

  1. Efficient Biodistribution and Gene Silencing in the Lung epithelium via Intravenous Liposomal Delivery of siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana McCaskill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi may provide a therapeutic solution to many pulmonary epithelium diseases. However, the main barrier to the clinical use of RNAi remains the lack of efficient delivery vectors. Research has mainly concentrated on the intranasal route of delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA effector molecules for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, this may be complicated in a diseased state due to the increased fluid production and tissue remodeling. Therefore, we investigated our hydration of a freeze-dried matrix (HFDM formulated liposomes for systemic delivery to the lung epithelium. Here, we show that 45 ± 2% of epithelial murine lung cells receive siRNA delivery upon intravenous (IV liposomal administration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that liposomal siRNA delivery resulted in targeted gene and protein knockdown throughout the lung, including lung epithelium. Taken together, this is the first description of lung epithelial delivery via cationic liposomes, and provides a proof of concept for the use of IV liposomal RNAi delivery to specifically knockdown targeted genes in the respiratory system. This approach may provide an attractive alternate therapeutic delivery strategy for the treatment of lung epithelium diseases.

  2. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and olfactory epithelium as portals of entry for Burkholderia pseudomallei in murine melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzzanne J; Batzloff, Michael; Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Meedeniya, Adrian; Casart, Yveth; Logue, Carie-Anne; Hirst, Robert G; Peak, Ian R; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Beacham, Ifor R

    2009-06-15

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is generally considered to be acquired via inhalation of dust or water droplets from the environment. In this study, we show that infection of the nasal mucosa is potentially an important portal of entry in melioidosis. After intranasal inoculation of mice, infection was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and by immunohistological analysis of coronal sections. The bacterial loads in organ and tissue specimens were also monitored. Bioluminescence imaging showed colonization and replication in the nasal cavity, including the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Analysis of coronal sections and immunofluorescence microscopy further demonstrated the presence of infection in the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory epithelium (including associated nerve bundles), as well as in the NALT. Of significance, the olfactory epithelium and the brain were rapidly infected before bacteria were detected in blood, and a capsule-deficient mutant infected the brain without significantly infecting blood. These data suggest that the olfactory nerve is the route of entry into the brain and that this route of entry may be paralleled in cases of human neurologic melioidosis. This study focuses attention on the upper respiratory tract as a portal of entry, specifically focusing on NALT as a route for the development of systemic infection via the bloodstream and on the olfactory epithelium as a direct route to the brain.

  3. The structure of the middle ear epithelium of the rat and the effect of Eustachian tube obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, W; van der Beek, J M; Jap, P H; Tonnaer, E L

    1984-08-01

    The middle ear cavity of the rat is lined with ciliated and squamous epithelium. The arrangement of the ciliated cells, interspersed with secretory cells, in distinct tracts and their continuity with the ciliated epithelium of the Eustachian tube, suggests the existence of a mucociliary transport system for cleaning the middle ear cleft. The secretory cells produce either neutral or sulphated glycoproteins, dependent on their location. In addition to these secretions, the epithelium of the lower part of the Eustachian tube is bathed with secretory products of seromucous glands. Also in the areas with squamous epithelium, numerous small secretory cells, the character of which is only identifiable with the electronmicroscope, are present. It is concluded that the middle ear lining can be considered as a locally modified respiratory epithelium. Blockade of the mucociliary transport system, supposedly a crucial aetiological factor in secretory otitis media, by obstruction of the Eustachian tube, induces pathogenic behaviour of microorganisms normally present in the middle ear. This results in either a transient or a longstanding infective middle ear disease, associated with a large variety of changes of the mucosa, especially with respect to the secretory activity. The data obtained indicate that the increased secretory activity encountered in secretory otitis media cannot be attributed to the isolated effect of tubal occlusion, but rather to an infective process.

  4. Efficient Biodistribution and Gene Silencing in the Lung epithelium via Intravenous Liposomal Delivery of siRNA

    OpenAIRE

    McCaskill, Jana; Singhania, Richa; Burgess, Melinda; Allavena, Rachel; Wu, Sherry; Blumenthal, Antje; McMillan, Nigel AJ

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) may provide a therapeutic solution to many pulmonary epithelium diseases. However, the main barrier to the clinical use of RNAi remains the lack of efficient delivery vectors. Research has mainly concentrated on the intranasal route of delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) effector molecules for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, this may be complicated in a diseased state due to the increased fluid production and tissue remodeling. Therefore, we inves...

  5. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Changes the Landscape of the Alveolar Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Downs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC. The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  6. Respiratory Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin R. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory Mechanics by Theodore Wilson is a slim paperback volume (64 pages) describing three aspects of the way the lungs work: 1) pressure?volume relationships with regard to the lungs, 2) chest wall and muscles with regard to how the respiratory pump works, and 3) gas flow and transport. Relevant details about the author are missing, which I think is a loss. He is Emeritus Professor of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics and this background and his expertise was a perfect fit for the inv...

  7. Transdifferentiation of pigmented epithelium induced by the influence of lens epithelium in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopashov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The influence of lens epithelium (LE) of adult frogs on the character of transdifferentiation of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) of adult frogs and tadpoles of Rana temporaria has been studied. After a period of intense proliferation RPE cultured in vivo in contact with LE in the tadpole orbit almost exclusively transforms into retina. RPE precultivated in vitro in contact with LE for three days in protein-free medium does not manifest cell divisions and mostly transdifferentiates into lentoids. The problem of the relative significance of inducing determinants and the role of activation or inhibition of proliferation in transdifferentiation is discussed.

  8. Ultrastructure of the epithelium lining of cauda epididymidis in mongrel dogs Ultraestrutura do epitélio de revestimento da cauda epididimária em cães sem raça definida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Schimming

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining of cauda epididymidis in mongrel dogs was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The epididymal epithelium is pseudostratified with stereocilia and is composed predominantly of principal and clear cells. Therefore, exist basal and apical cells. The principal and clear cells show features suggesting that they may be preferentially involved in absorptive and secretive functions. These results are compared with previously published data on the cauda epididymidis of other mammalian species, in order to understand the significance of the epididymis in sperm maturation.O epitélio de revestimento da cauda epididimária em cães sem raça definida foi examinado através da microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O epitélio epididimário é pseudoestratificado com estereocílios na borda luminal e é composto principalmente por células principais e claras. Além destes tipos, foi observado algumas células basais e apicais. As células principais e claras apresentaram características ultra-estruturais que sugerem que as mesmas estão envolvidas com funções absortivas e secretórias. Os resultados foram comparados com estudos prévios realizados na cauda do ducto epididimário de outros mamíferos, com o objetivo de melhor entender o papel do epidídimo na maturação espermática.

  9. Respiratory Support

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can be caused by inappropriate mechanical ventilation. This soft-cover review of the current practice of appropriate respiratory support is not controversia(it describes in an easily readable and concise fashio-n the development, physiological implications, mechanical and technological basis, safety aspects and careful ...

  10. Imprinting of the COPD airway epithelium for dedifferentiation and mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Sophie T; Hupin, Cloé; Fregimilicka, Chantal; Detry, Bruno R; Bouzin, Caroline; Gaide Chevronay, Héloïse; Lecocq, Marylène; Weynand, Birgit; Ladjemi, Maha Z; Pierreux, Christophe E; Birembaut, Philippe; Polette, Myriam; Pilette, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), epithelial changes and subepithelial fibrosis are salient features in conducting airways. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recently suggested in COPD, but the mechanisms and relationship to peribronchial fibrosis remain unclear. We hypothesised that de-differentiation of the COPD respiratory epithelium through EMT could participate in airway fibrosis and thereby, in airway obstruction. Surgical lung tissue and primary broncho-epithelial cultures (in air-liquid interface (ALI)) from 104 patients were assessed for EMT markers. Cell cultures were also assayed for mesenchymal features and for the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The bronchial epithelium from COPD patients showed increased vimentin and decreased ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression. Increased vimentin expression correlated with basement membrane thickening and airflow limitation. ALI broncho-epithelial cells from COPD patients also displayed EMT phenotype in up to 2 weeks of culture, were more spindle shaped and released more fibronectin. Targeting TGF-β1 during ALI differentiation prevented vimentin induction and fibronectin release. In COPD, the airway epithelium displays features of de-differentiation towards mesenchymal cells, which correlate with peribronchial fibrosis and airflow limitation, and which are partly due to a TGF-β1-driven epithelial reprogramming. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  11. Living with Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Respiratory Failure Respiratory Failure What Is Respiratory (RES-pih-rah-tor- ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the ...

  12. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Respiratory Failure Respiratory Failure What Is Respiratory (RES-pih-rah-tor- ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the ...

  13. Analysis of ethanol effects on corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joo Youn; Yu, Ji Min; Ko, Jung Hwa

    2013-06-04

    Ethanol is widely used in ocular surface surgeries and for the treatment of corneal diseases. However, ethanol is a toxic agent that is related to the development of a number of alcohol-related diseases. Despite the common use of ethanol for therapeutic purposes in ophthalmology, effects of ethanol on the ocular surface have been poorly defined. Hence, we performed this study to investigate effects of ethanol on corneal epithelium from various aspects. We exposed corneal epithelial cells in culture to different concentrations of ethanol for 30 seconds and evaluated the cells for toxicity, survival, and expression of cell-specific markers and inflammatory cytokines at 24, 48, and 72 hours after ethanol exposure. We found that ethanol markedly decreased the viability of cells in a concentration-dependent manner by causing cell lysis, suppressing proliferation, and inducing apoptosis. Also, expression of corneal epithelial cell-specific markers, both stem cell and differentiation markers, was significantly reduced by ethanol exposure. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was highly increased in corneal epithelial and stromal cells that were exposed to ethanol. Together, data suggest that brief exposure of the corneal surface to ethanol may have long-term effects by disrupting the integrity of corneal epithelium and generating inflammation, both of which are precursors to a number of ocular surface diseases.

  14. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  15. Deterioration of epithelium mediated mechanisms in diabetic-antigen sensitized airways of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Saidullah; Swati, Omanwar; Kambadur, Muralidhar; Mohammad, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    The onset of diabetes causes disruption of respiratory epithelial mediators. The present study investigates whether diabetes modifies the epithelium mediated bronchial responses in hyper-reactive airway smooth muscle (ASM) primarily through nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), and epithelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF) pathways. Experimental model of guinea pigs having hyper-reactive airways with or without diabetes were developed. The responses of tracheal rings to cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and isoproterenol (IP) in the presence and absence of epithelium and before and after incubation with NO, K+ATP and COX inhibitors, N-(ω)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μM), glybenclamide (10 μM) and indomethacin (100 μM) were assessed. In diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, a decrease in ACh induced bronchoconstriction was observed after epithelium removal and after incubation with L-NAME/indomethacin, suggesting damage to NO/COX pathways. Hyper-reactivity did not alter the response of trachea to ACh but affected the response to IP which was further reduced in hyper-reactive animals with diabetes. The ASM response to IP after glybenclamide treatment did not alter in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, suggesting damage to the EpDHF pathway. Treatment with indomethacin reduced IP response in the hyper-reactive model, and did not produce any change in diabetic model with hyper-reactive airways, indicating further disruption of the COX pathway. EpDHF pathway is damaged in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways. Diabetes further aggravates the NO and COX mediated pathways in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways.

  16. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  17. Quantification and visualization of injury and regeneration in the developing ciliated epithelium using quantitative flow imaging and speckle variance optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Ute A.; Huang, Brendan K.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2017-02-01

    Premature infants are at a high risk for respiratory diseases owing to an underdeveloped respiratory system that is very susceptible to infection and inflammation. One aspect of respiratory health is the state of the ciliated respiratory epithelium which lines the trachea and bronchi. The ciliated epithelium is responsible for trapping and removing pathogens and pollutants from the lungs and an impairment of ciliary functionality can lead to recurring respiratory infections and subsequent lung damage. Mechanisms of cilia-driven fluid flow itself but also factors influenced by development like ciliary density and flow generation are incompletely understood. Furthermore, medical interventions like intubation and accidental aspiration can lead to focal or diffuse loss of cilia and disruption of flow. In this study we use two animal models, Xenopus embryo and ex vivo mouse trachea, to analyze flow defects in the injured ciliated epithelium. Injury is generated either mechanically with a scalpel or chemically by calcium chloride (CaCl2) shock, which efficiently but reversibly deciliates the embryo skin. In this study we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to quantify cilia driven fluid flow over the surface of the Xenopus embryo. We additionally visualized damage to the ciliated epithelium by capturing 3D speckle variance images that highlight beating cilia. Mechanical injury disrupted cilia-driven fluid flow over the injured site, which led to a reduction in cilia-driven fluid flow over the whole surface of the embryo (n=7). The calcium chloride shock protocol proved to be highly effective in deciliating embryos (n=6). 3D speckle variance images visualized a loss of cilia and cilia-driven flow was halted immediately after application. We also applied CaCl2-shock to cultured ex vivo mouse trachea (n=8) and found, similarly to effects in Xenopus embryo, an extensive loss of cilia with resulting cessation of flow. We

  18. Mucosal inflammation at the respiratory interface: a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progatzky, Fränze; Cook, H Terence; Lamb, Jonathan R; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J

    2016-03-15

    Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are increasing globally and remain poorly understood conditions. Although attention has long focused on the activation of type 1 and type 2 helper T cells of the adaptive immune system in these diseases, it is becoming increasingly apparent that there is also a need to understand the contributions and interactions between innate immune cells and the epithelial lining of the respiratory system. Cigarette smoke predisposes the respiratory tissue to a higher incidence of inflammatory disease, and here we have used zebrafish gills as a model to study the effect of cigarette smoke on the respiratory epithelium. Zebrafish gills fulfill the same gas-exchange function as the mammalian airways and have a similar structure. Exposure to cigarette smoke extracts resulted in an increase in transcripts of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP9 in the gill tissue, which was at least in part mediated via NF-κB activation. Longer term exposure of fish for 6 wk to cigarette smoke extract resulted in marked structural changes to the gills with lamellar fusion and mucus cell formation, while signs of inflammation or fibrosis were absent. This shows, for the first time, that zebrafish gills are a relevant model for studying the effect of inflammatory stimuli on a respiratory epithelium, since they mimic the immunopathology involved in respiratory inflammatory diseases of humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  3. Oral epithelium in diabetics: A cytomorphometric correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Nandita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to establish an etiological association between diabetes and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity by cytomorphometric analysis of the oral epithelium. Study Design: Smears were obtained from three distinct oral sites - buccal mucosa, dorsum of the tongue and the floor of the mouth in ten controls and ten patients previously diagnosed with type II diabetes. The oral smears were stained with Papanicolaou SA-36 solution. An eye - piece graticule was used to obtain the cytoplasm and nuclear dimension; where larger dimension was denoted as "D" and the smaller dimension was denoted as "d". The nuclear area (NA, nuclear diameter (ND, cytoplasmic area (CA and the cytoplasmic / nuclear ratio (C/N were evaluated from 50 cells predominant in each oral site. Statistical Analysis: The cytomorphometric data obtained was compared between the group of diabetic patients and the control groups using the student′s t- test (SPSS version 11.0. Results: Results showed that the nuclear area and the nuclear diameter of oral epithelial cells were increased in diabetic patients, as compared to non- diabetics, while the non- diabetic patients demonstrated an increase in nuclear ratio. Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in oral epithelial cells that are detectable with exfoliative cytology.

  4. Primary culture of chinchilla middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; DeMaria, T F; Lim, D J; van Blitterswijk, C A

    1991-09-01

    Chinchilla middle ear epithelium was successfully cultured in medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, Ham's F12 mixture, and fetal bovine serum. After 3 to 5 days, the explants produced outgrowths of primarily flat polygonal and ciliated cells that persisted for up to 10 days in culture. These cells in the outgrowth often formed a "dome" indicating the presence of functional polarization and fluid transportation capability. The ciliated cells were more frequently found near the explant, and were fewer in number in the area distant from the explant. This finding suggests that the ciliated cells in the outgrowth are migrated ciliated cells deriving from the explant. That secretory cells were not identified in the outgrowth indicated that the present culture technique did not support secretory activity. Using the present culture technique, we were able to maintain the explants and primary cultured cells for up to 14 days in a majority of cases; hence, these techniques appear to be applicable to a number of in vitro studies.

  5. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  6. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  7. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  8. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal and intrathoracic (bronchial epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome", we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for

  9. Post-autotomy regeneration of respiratory trees in the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Aspidochirotida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatov, Igor Y; Ginanova, Talia T

    2009-04-01

    Specialised respiratory organs, viz. the respiratory trees attached to the dorsal part of the cloaca, are present in most holothurians. These organs evolved within the class Holothuroidea and are absent in other echinoderms. Some holothurian species can regenerate their respiratory trees but others lack this ability. Respiratory trees therefore provide a model for investigating the origin and evolution of repair mechanisms in animals. We conducted a detailed morphological study of the regeneration of respiratory trees after their evisceration in the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus. Regeneration of the respiratory trees occurred rapidly and, on the 15th day after evisceration, their length reached 15-20 mm. Repair involved cells of the coelomic and luminal epithelia of the cloaca. Peritoneocytes and myoepithelial cells behaved differently during regeneration: the peritoneocytes kept their intercellular junctions and migrated as a united layer, whereas groups of myoepithelial cells disaggregated and migrated as individual cells. Although myoepithelial cells did not divide during regeneration, the peritoneocytes proliferated actively. The contractile system of the respiratory trees was assumed to develop during regeneration by the migration of myoepithelial cells from the coelomic epithelium of the cloaca. The luminal epithelium of the respiratory trees formed as a result of dedifferentiation, migration and transformation of cells of the cloaca lining. The mode of regeneration of holothurian respiratory trees is discussed.

  10. Human ovarian surface epithelium in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auersperg, N; Siemens, C H; Myrdal, S E

    1984-10-01

    The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) represents a minute fraction of the cell mass of the ovary but gives rise to over 80% of human ovarian carcinomas. No experimental models for the study of human OSE exist. To characterize OSE cells in culture, explants of ovarian surface from normal ovary of premenopausal women were grown on plastic, glass, and collagen gel in 25% fetal bovine serum/Waymouth's medium 752/1. About 25% of explants produced epithelial outgrowths. Morphologically, these outgrowths resembled OSE in vivo and endothelial and mesothelial cells in culture, but they differed from cultured ovarian stromal, granulosa, and luteal cells. Only OSE among ovarian cell types were intensely keratin positive by immunofluorescence. Keratin also distinguished OSE cells from the keratin-negative endothelial cells. Most but not all OSE colonies tested showed 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity, which was absent in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Colonies from most patients were limited to a few millimetres and became stationary within a few weeks. Changes that accompanied cessation of growth included senescence, increased keratin content, or the formation of multicellular papillary aggregates. With time, OSE cells tended to assume a fibroblast-like morphology but remained keratin positive and continued to resemble OSE by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Subcultured OSE cells persisted in a stationary keratin-positive form for many weeks. Throughout this study, all pavementlike epithelial outgrowths that were contiguous with an explant stained for keratin; thus, such colonies can be assumed to be OSE. Conversely, fibroblast-shaped cells may represent OSE as indicated by keratin content and SEM appearance. The methods presented here permit culture of normal human OSE under conditions in which the cells exhibit morphologic plasticity, variable 17 beta-HSD activity, and presence of keratin.

  11. The 3-layered ductal epithelium in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegoor, Robert; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Buerger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-05-01

    Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality in the male breast and has been associated with male breast cancer, but whether there is an etiological role remains unknown. In the present study we conducted an immunohistochemical investigation to further characterize gynecomastia. A total of 46 cases of gynecomastia were immunohistochemically stained on tissue microarrays for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, androgen receptor, cytokeratins (CK5, CK14, CK7, and CK8/18), p63, E-cadherin, BRST2, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, p53, p16, p21, and Ki67. In addition, 8 cases of male ductal carcinoma in situ and normal breast tissue obtained from autopsies (n=10) and adjacent to male breast cancer (n=5) were studied. Normal ductal male breast epithelial cells were very often ER and Bcl-2 positive (>69%), and progesterone receptor and androgen receptor expression was also common (>39%). Gynecomastia showed a consistent 3-layered pattern: 1 myoepithelial and 2 epithelial cell layers with a distinctive immunohistochemical staining pattern. The intermediate luminal layer, consisting of vertically oriented cuboidal-to-columnar cells, is hormone receptor positive and expresses Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. The inner luminal layer is composed of smaller cells expressing CK5 and often CK14 but is usually negative for hormone receptors and Bcl-2. Male ductal carcinoma in situ was consistently ER positive and CK5/CK14 negative. In conclusion, for the first time we describe the 3-layered ductal epithelium in gynecomastia, which has a distinctive immunohistochemical profile. These results indicate that different cellular compartments exist in gynecomastia, and therefore gynecomastia does not seem to be an obligate precursor lesion of male breast cancer.

  12. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  13. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayasri; Tribeni

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility...

  14. Bronchial epithelium: morphology, function and pathophysiology in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der V.H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Versnel, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Summary : Human bronchial epithelium has a number of mechanical functions, including mucociliary clearance and protection against noxious agents. Bronchial epithelial cells are also able to release a variety of mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and arachidonic acid

  15. [Tissue culture of middle ear epithelium of the guinea pig--differences of the cellular growth activity in the middle ear cavity using collagen gel culture method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, S

    1990-12-01

    Primary tissue culture system from the middle ear and the tracheal epithelium of the guinea pig was established using collagen gel method. The cultured epithelium was studied by phase-contrast microscopy, light and scanning electron microscopy. The outgrowth area of the epithelium was quantitatively measured for period of up to ten days. In the middle ear cavity, the mucosal explants were sampled from various sites in order to compare their differential and proliferative activities. The mucosal explants attached on collagen substrates were composed of ciliated, non-ciliated, goblet and basal cells. This basic structure was similar to the natural middle ear epithelium. The ciliated cells showed well organized cilia. Most of the outgrowth cells devoid of fibroblastic cells in the monolayer were polygonal shaped with numerous microvilli. The morphology of the outgrowth cells changed from columnar or cuboidal to squamous shapes in the area away from the explants. There was a correlation between the distribution of the ciliated cells in the outgrowths and these in the explants. The explants with columnar or cuboidal ciliated epithelia sampled from the opening of the eustachian tube or its neighborhood formed more than eightfold outgrowth sheets in vitro. This is comparable to tracheal epithelia. On the other hand, the explants with simple squamous epithelia sampled from the area distal to the eustachian tube showed about fourfold proliferative activity. We concluded that this culture system would be useful for the study of cellular multiplication and differentiation mechanisms of the respiratory tract epithelium.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of sulfuric acid mist, carbon particulates, and their mixtures on hamster tracheal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, L.J. (IIT Research Inst., Chicago, IL); Bryne, M.M.; Fenters, J.D.; Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.

    1979-08-01

    Hamster tracheal tissue was used to study the effects of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mist, carbon particles, and mixtures of the two on cilia beating frequency and morphological alterations of respiratory epithelium. Hamsters were exposed for 3 h to 1.1 mg/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (mean size, 0.12 ..mu..m) and 1.5 mg/m/sup 3/ carbon (mean size, 0.3 ..mu..m) particle aerosols alone or in combination. Trachea of animals exposed in vivo to the mixture and held in vivo showed cytotoxic effects in the epithelium that were greater than those produced by either the acid mist or carbon alone. In tracheas of hamsters exposed in vivo and maintained in vitro the damage produced by acid mist-carbon mixture did not differ significantly from that produced by acid mist per se but was greater than that observed after exposure to carbon. Organ cultures of tracheal rings exposed for 3 h to a 1:10/sup 6/ dilution of concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 100 ..mu..g/ml carbon produced epithelial damage in vitro similar to that seen in in vivo exposures. The extent of recovery over a period of 72 h was also studied following different combinations of in vivo and in vitro exposure and/or maintenance.

  17. Glutathione and glutathione S-transferases in Barrett's epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, W. H.; Roelofs, H. M.; Hectors, M P; Nagengast, F. M.; Jansen, J B

    1993-01-01

    Glutathione content, enzyme activity and isoenzyme composition of glutathione S-transferases were assayed in normal and Barrett's esophageal epithelium of ten patients with Barrett's esophagus. In addition, gastric and duodenal specimens from the same patients were also investigated. Glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity as well as glutathione S-transferase pi content were all significantly lower in Barrett's epithelium as compared to normal esophageal mucosa. In cont...

  18. A Method for Quantification of Epithelium Colonization Capacity by Pathogenic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha Pedersen, Rune; Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Stærk, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    layers is then performed by in situ time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automatic detection of bacterial surface coverage. The method is demonstrated in three different infection models, simulating Staphylococcus aureus endothelial infection and Escherichia coli intestinal- and uroepithelial infection......Most bacterial infections initiate at the mucosal epithelium lining the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts. At these sites, bacterial pathogens must adhere and increase in numbers to effectively breach the outer barrier and invade the host. If the bacterium succeeds in reaching...... a method in which epithelia/endothelia are simulated by flow chamber-grown human cell layers, and infection is induced by seeding of pathogenic bacteria on these surfaces under conditions that simulate the physiological microenvironment. Quantification of bacterial adhesion and colonization of the cell...

  19. Culture and characterization of rat middle-ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blitterswijk, C A; Ponec, M; van Muijen, G N; Wijsman, M C; Koerten, H K; Grote, J J

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to design a method for the culture of rat middle-ear epithelium and to apply the method to investigate the characteristics of this epithelium. Culture of explants of middle-ear epithelium in the presence of the epidermal growth factor was successful, whereas serial cultivation required 3T3 feeder cells in addition to the epidermal growth factor. Cultured middle-ear epithelium was studied by phase-contrast microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and combined light and scanning electron microscopy (LM/SEM). These techniques showed similarity between the cultured and the natural middle-ear epithelium. Explants and outgrowths showed both flat polygonal and ciliated epithelial cells. In serial cultivation, however, only the first of these cell types was observed. Frequently, a single primary cilium was found on the cell surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed cross-linked envelopes whose formation was promoted by ionophore X537A. Cytokeratin was demonstrated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoperoxidase methods, using an anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. The model described here permits study of the differentiation of middle-ear epithelium in vitro and may be of future value for the study of chronic middle-ear diseases.

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  1. The histopathological comparison on the destruction of the periodontal tissue between normal junctional epithelium and long junctional epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, S; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Yoshinaga, Y; Nakamura, H; Takamori, Y; Yamashita, Y; Hara, Y

    2017-02-01

    The barrier function of long junctional epithelium is thought to be important after periodontal initial therapy and periodontal surgery. Although the difference between long junctional epithelium and normal junctional epithelium regarding their resistance to destruction of periodontal tissue has been investigated, the mechanism still remains unclear. Using our rat experimental periodontitis model in which loss of attachment and resorption of alveolar bone is induced by the formation of immune complexes, we investigated the resistance of periodontal tissue containing long junctional epithelium and normal junctional epithelium to destruction. Rats were divided into four groups. In the immunized long junctional epithelium (I-LJE) group, rats were immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and curettage and root planing procedures were performed on the palatal gingiva of the maxillary first molars to obtain reattachment by long junctional epithelium. In the immunized normal junctional epithelium (I-JE) group, rats were immunized without curettage and root planing procedures. In the nonimmunized long junctional epithelium (nI-LJE) group, rats were not immunized but curettage and root-planing procedures were performed. In the control group, neither immunization nor curettage and root-planing was performed. In all rats, periodontal inflammation was induced by topical application of LPS into the palatal gingival sulcus of maxillary first molars. The rats were killed at baseline and after the third and fifth applications of LPS. Attachment loss and the number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the four groups were compared histopathologically and histometrically. After the third application of LPS in the I-LJE group, attachment loss showed a greater increase than in control and nI-LJE groups, and inflammatory cell infiltration and osteoclasts were increased more than in the other groups. After the fifth application of LPS, attachment loss was greater and there was a

  2. A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study of Anal Canal Epithelium in Humans and Swine, Focusing on the Anal Transitional Zone Epithelium and the Anal Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Futoshi; Nakajima, Tomoyuki; Iwaya, Mai; Ishii, Keiko; Higuchi, Kayoko; Ogiwara, Naoko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2017-12-12

    To better understand the cellular origins and differentiation of anal canal epithelial neoplasms, the immunohistochemical profiles of the anal canal epithelium in humans and swine were evaluated. Formalin-fixed tissue sections were immunostained for mucin (MUC: MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B), desmoglein 3 (DGS3), p63, CDX2, SOX2, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The anal transitional zone (ATZ) epithelium covered the anal sinus and consisted of a stratified epithelium with mucous cells interspersed within the surface lining. Anal glands opened into the anal sinus. Ducts and acini of intraepithelial or periepithelial mucous type were the main structures of human anal glands, whereas those of swine were compound tubuloacinar mixed glands. Distal to the ATZ epithelium, non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium merged with the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the perianal skin. MUC5AC expression predominated over MUC5B expression in the ATZ epithelium, while MUC5B expression was higher in the anal glands. SOX2 was positive in the ATZ epithelium, anal glands, and squamous epithelium except in the perianal skin. In humans, DGS3 was expressed in the ATZ epithelium, anal gland ducts, and squamous epithelium. p63 was detected in the ATZ epithelium, anal glands, and squamous epithelium. Myoepithelial cells positive for α-SMA and p63 were present in the anal glands of swine. Colorectal columnar cells were MUC5B+ /MUC2+ /CDX2+ /MUC5AC- /SOX2- . The ATZ epithelium seems to be a distinctive epithelium, with morphological and functional features allowing smooth defecation. The MUC5AC+ /SOX2+ /MUC2- /CDX2- profile of the ATZ epithelium and anal glands is a useful feature for diagnosing adenocarcinoma arising from these regions. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Azithromycin ameliorates airway remodeling via inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanqi; Pu, Yue; Li, Diandian; Zhou, Liming; Wan, Lihong

    2017-02-01

    Azithromycin can benefit treating allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. In the present study, we hypothesized that azithromycin alleviated airway epithelium injury through inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis via down regulation of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in vivo and in vitro. Ovalbumin induced rat asthma model and TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis model were established, respectively. In vivo experiments, airway epithelium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to histologically evaluate the airway inflammation and remodeling. Airway epithelium apoptotic index (AI) was further analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), while expression of apoptosis related gene (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-3) in lungs were measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. In vitro experiments, apoptosis were evaluated by Flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL. Above apoptosis related gene were also measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Compared with the OVA group, azithromycin significantly reduced the inflammation score, peribronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, epithelial thickening and goblet cell metaplasia (Pazithromycin-treated rats (Pazithromycin significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cells apoptosis (PAzithromycin is an attractive treatment option for reducing airway epithelial cell apoptosis by improving the imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibiting Caspase-3 level in airway epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  5. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/264105834

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  6. Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bormusov, Elvira; P.Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Sch?chter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-01-01

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35?C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was us...

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  9. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  10. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  11. Quantification and visualization of injury and regeneration to the ciliated epithelium using quantitative flow imaging and speckle variance optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Ute A.; Huang, Brendan K.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Mucociliary flow is an important defense mechanism in the lung to remove inhaled pathogens and pollutants. A disruption of ciliary flow can lead to respiratory infections. Even though patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) either have or are very susceptible to respiratory infections, mucociliary flow is not well understood in the ICU setting. We recently demonstrated that hyperoxia, a consequence of administering supplemental oxygen to a patient in respiratory failure, can lead to a significant reduction of cilia-driven fluid flow in mouse trachea. There are other factors that are relevant to ICU medicine that can damage the ciliated tracheal epithelium, including inhalation injury and endotracheal tube placement. In this study we use two animal models, Xenopus embryo and ex vivo mouse trachea, to analyze flow defects in the injured ciliated epithelium. Injury is generated either mechanically with a scalpel or chemically by calcium chloride (CaCl2) shock, which efficiently but reversibly deciliates the embryo skin. In this study we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to quantify cilia driven fluid flow over the surface of the Xenopus embryo. We additionally visualized damage to the ciliated epithelium by capturing 3D speckle variance images that highlight beating cilia. Mechanical injury disrupted cilia-driven fluid flow over the injured site, which led to a reduction in cilia-driven fluid flow over the whole surface of the embryo (n=7). The calcium chloride shock protocol proved to be highly effective in deciliating embryos (n=6). 3D speckle variance images visualized a loss of cilia and cilia-driven flow was halted immediately after application. We also applied CaCl2-shock to cultured ex vivo mouse trachea (n=8) and found, similarly to effects in Xenopus embryo, an extensive loss of cilia with resulting cessation of flow. We investigated the regeneration of the ciliated epithelium after an 8 day incubation period

  12. Respiratory Protection in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-

    2014-01-01

    Farm workers can encounter a variety of respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort caused by allergic reactions to fatal asphyxiation. However, the risk of contracting serious lung diseases or death can be significantly decreased by using respiratory protection. This publication lists farm work that requires respiratory protection and equipment that will help prevention of future problems.

  13. How Is Respiratory Failure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Respiratory Failure Respiratory Failure What Is Respiratory (RES-pih-rah-tor- ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the ...

  14. How Is Respiratory Failure Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Respiratory Failure Respiratory Failure What Is Respiratory (RES-pih-rah-tor- ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the ...

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  16. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome What Is Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  17. The multi-tasking gut epithelium of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Jing, Xiangfeng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-12-01

    The insect gut epithelium plays a vital role in multiple processes, including nutrition, immunity and osmoregulation. Recent research is revealing the molecular and biochemical basis of these functions. For example, the pattern of nutrient acquisition by the gut epithelium is integrated into the overall regulation of nutrient allocation, as illustrated by evidence for systemic controls over expression of key genes coding digestive enzymes and transporters in carbohydrate acquisition; and the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in the gut lumen is regulated by multiple molecular properties of the gut epithelial cells, including the synthesis of enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species and anti-microbial peptides. These traits are underpinned by the function of the gut epithelium as a selective barrier which mediates the controlled movement of water, ions, metabolites and macromolecules between the gut lumen and insect tissues. Breakdown of the gut epithelial barrier has been implicated in muscle paralysis of insects at low temperatures (chill coma) and in aging. The key challenge for future research is to understand how the multiple functions of the insect gut epithelium are integrated by signaling interactions among epithelial cells, the gut microbiota and other insect organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK(Ca))-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) was used to induce EpDHF-type relaxation. IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 positive immunoreactions were observed mainly in the epithelium and endothelium of bronchioles and arteries...

  19. Role of airway epithelium in engulfing apoptotic eosinophils | Alenzi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of airway epithelium in engulfing apoptotic eosinophils. FQ Alenzi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v18i2.45054 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  20. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis serotypes to pocket epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierickx, K; Pauwels, M; Laine, ML; Van Eldere, J; Cassiman, JJ; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen in periodontitis, is able to adhere to and invade the pocket epithelium. Different capsular antigens of P gingivalis have been identified (K-serotyping). These P gingivalis capsular types show differences in adhesion capacity to human cell lines

  1. DIFFERENTIAL HISTOMORPHOMETRIC CHANGES IN NORMAL AND INFLAMED GINGIVAL EPITHELIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaskovic Stankovic Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: In recent decades, many factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet as well as high alcohol intake were marked as risk factors that can lead to increased incidence of malignant alterations, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other oral epithelium pathological changes. Having in mind that in the group of non-malignant and non-dental oral pathology gingivitis and periodontal disease are the most common oral mucosa alterations aim of our research was to investigate histomorphometric characteristics of healthy and altered oral and gingival epithelium. Material and methods: Tissue samples of 24 oral and gingival mucosa specimens were collected. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered paraformaldehyde, routinely processed and embedded in paraffin blocks. From each block sections 5 micrometer thin were made and standard H/E staining as well as immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67 proliferation marker and CD79a lymphocyte marker were performed. Measurements and image analysis was performed with Image Pro Plus software (Media Cybernetics, USA and Axiovision (Ziess, USA. Results: We showed that inflamed gingival epithelium is increasing its thickness in proportion to the severity of adjacent inflammation. Furthermore, mitotic index is rising (up to 132% in the same manner as well as basal lamina length (up to 70% when normal and inflamed gingiva is compared. Architecture of epithelial ridges is changed from straightforward to mesh-like. Conclusion: Assessment of the free gingival epithelium thickness is directly related to the severity of the inflammation process i

  2. Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in relation to otolith growth in the perch Perca fluviatilis (Telostei) ... Electron microscopy indicated: 1) The apical surface of each hair cell is covered with a ciliary bundle which varies in length in different epithelial regions. Each bundle is formed from a long ...

  3. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Booij (Judith); S. van Soest (Simone); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); A.H.W. Essing (Anke); J.H.M. Verkerk (Annemieke); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy

  4. The distribution of free calcium ions in the cholesteatoma epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Rasmussen, Gurli; Ottosen, Peter D

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of free calcium ions in normal skin and cholesteatoma epithelium was investigated using the oxalate precipitation method. In agreement with previous observations, we could demonstrate a calcium ion gradient in normal epidermis where the cells in stratum basale and spinosum reside...

  5. Vitamin A and ciliated cells. I. Respiratory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, H K; Stofft, E; Wellner, U; Niederauer, U; Bässler, K H

    1986-06-01

    To estimate the role of vitamin A on ciliated cells we investigated whether ciliated cells undergo any alteration during vitamin A deficiency. The epithelia examined include the ciliated cells of the respiratory tract and the ciliated sensory cells of the inner ear, the tongue, and the olfactory cells. This part of the paper will describe the ciliated epithelium of the tracheobronchial tract and its relation to vitamin A status. During vitamin A deficiency a partial loss of ciliae can be observed before any squamous metaplasia (which usually occurs during longer lasting vitamin A deficiency) develops. The scanning electron microscopic data illustrate the altered surface of the epithelium during vitamin A deficiency better than transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Human upper airway epithelium produces nitric oxide in response to Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Lee, Robert J; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by sinonasal epithelial cells as part of the innate immune response against bacteria. We previously described bitter-taste-receptor-dependent and -independent NO responses to product(s) secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. We hypothesized that sinonasal epithelium would be able to detect the gram-positive, coagulase-negative bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and mount a similar NO response. Sinonasal air-liquid interface cultures were treated with conditioned medium (CM) from lab strains and clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and S aureus. NO production was quantified by fluorescence imaging. Bitter taste receptor signaling inhibitors were utilized to characterize the pathway responsible for NO production in response to S epidermidis CM. S epidermidis CM contains a low-molecular-weight, heat, and protease-stabile product that induces an NO synthase (NOS)-mediated NO production that is less robust than the response triggered by S aureus CM. The S epidermidis CM-stimulated NO response is not inhibited by antagonists of phospholipase C isoform β-2 nor the transient receptor potential melastatin isoform 5 ion channel, both critical to bitter taste signaling. This study identifies an NO-mediated innate defense response in sinonasal epithelium elicited by S epidermidis product(s). The active bacterial product is likely a small, nonpeptide molecule that stimulates a pathway independent of bitter taste receptors. Although the NO response to S epidermidis is less vigorous compared with S aureus, the product(s) share similar characteristics. Together, the responses to staphylococci species may help explain the pathophysiology of upper respiratory infections. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Kinetics of corneal epithelium turnover in vivo. Studies of lovastatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R. (Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, MO (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The authors developed a direct chemical approach for estimating the rate of turnover of the corneal epithelium in vivo. The method was used to examine the effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, on proliferation and turnover of the epithelium. Corneal DNA was labeled by pulse injection (IP) of the rat with 3H-thymidine, and 3H-labeled DNA was recovered from peripheral and central corneas over the next 15 days. Only the epithelium became labeled, and the loss of label by cell desquamation began 3 days after injection. The loss of 3H-DNA from the cornea (peripheral plus central region) followed first-order kinetics. The half-life of the disappearance was about 3 days. The peripheral cornea became more highly labeled than the central cornea and began to lose 3H-DNA before the central cornea. These observations support the possibility of a higher mitotic rate in the peripheral region and the centripetal movement of a population of peripheral epithelial cells in the normal cornea. The half-lives of the disappearance of 3H-DNA from peripheral and central corneas measured between days 5 and 15 postinjection were identical, both at 3 days. Complete turnover of the corneal epithelium would, therefore, require about 2 weeks (4-5 half-lives). Treatment of the rat with lovastatin had no obvious effects upon the proliferation or turnover of the corneal epithelium. Although lovastatin inhibited corneal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, the cornea compensated by induction of this enzyme so that there was no net inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the cornea.

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: 30 Years Later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lesur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS was first described about 30 years ago. Modern definitions and statements have recently been proposed to describe ARDS accurately, but none is perfect. Diffuse alveolar damage is the basic pathological pattern most commonly observed in ARDS, and the term includes permeability edema. The alveolar epithelium of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly a key component requiring repair, given its multipotent functional activity. Lung inflammation and neutrophil accumulation are essential markers of disease in ARDS, and a wide variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been described in the alveolar fluid and blood of patients. These molecules still have to prove their value as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of ARDS.

  9. THE ROLE OF THE VIRUS RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF THE ASTHMATIC EXARCEBATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Djindjic

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The virus infections of the respiratory pathways represent an important cause of the emergence of the symptoms of the puffing (wheezing in the lungs of the patients of all age groups. In the patients suffering from asthma the virus respiratory infections are the main causes of asthmatic exarcebations. In 80 to 85 % of the school children and in 50 % of the adult asthmatics, the exarcebations are caused by the respiratory virus infection while the most frequent cause is the rhinovirus. It is believed that in the pathogenesis of the virus-induced asthmatic exarcebations the following mechanisms are involved: the damage of the epithelium, the inflammation increase in the respiratory pathways, the disturbance of the small respiratory pathways' geometry, the disturbance of the nerve controlling mechanisms and the disturbance of the IgE synthesis regulation.

  10. Dissociation of rod and cone sensitivity by acute localized retinal pigment epithelium loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    To assess the impact of acute retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) loss on photopic and scotopic sensitivity.......To assess the impact of acute retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) loss on photopic and scotopic sensitivity....

  11. [The respiratory therapist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, O; Bubulj, C; Esche, B; Geiseler, J; Bonnet, R; Mäder, I

    2008-11-01

    Because of the expected significant growth in the elderly population and respiratory diseases, the topic of "delegation of physician's duties" is of increasing importance to the German health-care system. In 2004 the German Respiratory Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e. V. (DGP)) established the new profession: respiratory therapist. A curriculum was defined which offers training for certified nurses and physiotherapists. Respiratory therapists evaluate, treat, document and care for patients with pulmonary disorders. Under appropriate supervision a licensed respiratory therapist performs some of the work previously done by physicians at the same quality of care. The first respiratory therapists have finished their professional training in Germany. Most of these respiratory therapists are now employed in hospital-based positions requiring their specific skills. Generally, the increased medical responsibility and the increased degree of decision-making possibilities associated with the new profession contribute to a better job satisfaction. However, this is not yet true for all the newly employed respiratory therapists. Only few of the new graduate respiratory therapists were awarded higher salaries. It is a strongly recommendation to the heads of medical departments and the human resources managers of hospitals that they should recognise the increased qualifications of nurses and physiotherapists who become respiratory therapists by appropriate remuneration.

  12. The ultrastructural localization of gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) in breast epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazoujian, G.; Warhol, M. J.; Haagensen, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    GCDFP-15 is a major constituent protein of 15,000-dalton monomer size present in breast gross cystic disease fluid. Immunoperoxidase staining of GCDFP-15 has shown the protein to be present in normal apocrine epithelium, metaplastic apocrine epithelium of the breast, and breast carcinomas with apocrine features. To delineate ultrastructurally the localization of GCDFP-15 in benign breast epithelium, a low-temperature embedding colloidal gold technique was used. Metaplastic apocrine epithelium...

  13. Reduced MBD2 expression enhances airway inflammation in bronchial epithelium in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng ZL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhilin Zeng,1,2 Miao Li,1 Jinkun Chen,3 Qinghai Li,1 Qin Ning,2 Jianping Zhao,1 Yongjian Xu,1 Jungang Xie,1 Jun Yu4 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Disease, 2Department of Infectious Disease, Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Acadia Junior High School, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common inflammatory lung disease characterized by inflammatory cells activation and production of inflammatory mediators. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2 plays an important role in diverse immunological disorders by regulating immune cell functions, such as differentiation and mediator secretion. However, the role of MBD2 in COPD remains unknown.Methods: MBD2 protein expression in lung tissues of patients with COPD and cigarette smoke (CS-exposed mice were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The role of MBD2 in cigarette smoke extract (CSE-induction of inflammatory mediator expression in the human bronchial epithelial (HBE cell line was assessed by silencing MBD2 expression in vitro. The involvement of signaling pathways in mediation of inflammation was tested with signaling inhibitors.Results: Compared with controls, MBD2 expression was distinctly reduced in the bronchial epithelium of both patients with COPD and CS-exposed mice. Moreover, MBD2 expression was decreased in HBE after CSE stimulation in vitro. Moreover, MBD2 knockdown enhanced interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 expression in HBE in the presence and absence of CSE treatment by the ERK signaling pathway.Conclusion: MBD2 protein expression was reduced in the airway epithelium of COPD. In

  14. File list: Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. Respiratory physiology at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, C; Naylor, J

    2011-03-01

    The changes in respiratory physiology that occur with increasing altitude are driven by the fall in the partial pressure of oxygen that occurs with decreasing barometric pressure. At altitude, respiratory system changes occur which impact on each step of the oxygen cascade that occurs within the body. These changes are pivotal to the process of acclimatisation to altitude. The study of human respiratory physiology at altitude has the potential to produce research that will be translational to disease states characterised by hypoxaemia.

  2. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  3. Managing respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Sarah; Restrick, Louise; Stern, Myra

    2017-02-01

    The diverse and evolving role of a psychologist within a respiratory multidisciplinary team (MDT) is described, providing a working model for service provision. The rationale for appointing a psychologist within a respiratory MDT is presented first, citing relevant policy and research and outlining the wider psychosocial impact of respiratory disease. This is followed by an insight into the psychologist's role by highlighting important areas, including key therapy themes and the challenge of patient engagement. The way in which the psychologist supports the collective aims and aspirations of respiratory colleagues to provide a more holistic package of care is illustrated throughout.

  4. Barrier function of the coelomic epithelium in the developing pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Preuett, Barry; Krishna, Prasadan; Xiao, Xiangwei; Shiota, Chiyo; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iliana; Tulachan, Sidhartha; El-Gohary, Yousef; Song, Zewen; Gittes, George

    2014-11-01

    Tight spatial regulation of extracellular morphogen signaling within the close confines of a developing embryo is critical for proper organogenesis. Given the complexity of extracellular signaling in developing organs, together with the proximity of adjacent organs that use disparate signaling pathways, we postulated that a physical barrier to signaling may exist between organs in the embryo. Here we describe a previously unrecognized role for the embryonic coelomic epithelium in providing a physical barrier to contain morphogenic signaling in the developing mouse pancreas. This layer of cells appears to function both to contain key factors required for pancreatic epithelial differentiation, and to prevent fusion of adjacent organs during critical developmental windows. During early foregut development, this barrier appears to play a role in preventing splenic anlage-derived activin signaling from inducing intestinalization of the pancreas-specified epithelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Entamoeba histolytica: Host parasite interactions at the colonic epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, Steve; Chadee, Kris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is the protozoan parasite responsible for intestinal amebiasis and interacts dynamically with the host intestinal epithelium during disease pathogenesis. A multifaceted pathogenesis profile accounts for why 90% of individuals infected with Eh are largely asymptomatic. For 100 millions individuals that are infected each year, key interactions within the intestinal mucosa dictate disease susceptibility. The ability for Eh to induce amebic colitis and disseminate into extraintestinal organs depends on the parasite competing with indigenous bacteria and overcoming the mucus barrier, binding to host cells inducing their cell death, invasion through the mucosa and outsmarting the immune system. In this review we summarize how Eh interacts with the intestinal epithelium and subverts host defense mechanisms in disease pathogenesis. PMID:28452682

  6. Lateral cell membranes and shunt resistance in rabbit esophageal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Nelia A; Djukic, Zorka; Brighton, Luisa E; Gambling, Todd M; Carson, John L; Orlando, Roy C

    2010-07-01

    The structures that contribute to shunt resistance (Rs) in esophageal epithelium are incompletely understood, with 35-40% of Rs known to be calcium-dependent, reflecting the role of e-cadherin. Two calcium-independent candidates for the remaining approximately 60% of Rs have been identified: the glycoprotein matrix (GPM) within stratum corneum of esophageal epithelium, and the lateral cell membranes (LCMs) from neighboring cells. To determine the contribution of GPM and LCMs to Rs, rabbit esophageal epithelium was mounted in Ussing chambers so that transepithelial resistance (R(T)), a marker of Rs, could be monitored during luminal exposure to either glycosidases for disruption of the GPM or to hypertonic urea for separation of the LCMs. Glycosidases had no effect on R(T). In contrast, hypertonic urea reduced R(T), increased fluorescein flux and widened the intercellular spaces. That urea reduced R(T), and so Rs, by widening the intercellular spaces, and not by altering the e-cadherin-dependent apical junctional complex, was supported by the ability of: (a) calcium-free solution to reduce R(T) beyond that produced by urea, (b) hypertonic urea to reduce R(T) beyond that produced by calcium free solution, (c) hypertonic sucrose to collapse the intercellular spaces and raise R(T), and (d) empigen, a zwitterionic detergent, to non-osmotically widen the intercellular spaces and reduce R(T). These data indicate that the LCMs from neighboring cells are a major contributor to shunt resistance in esophageal epithelium. As resistor, they are distinguishable from the apical junctional complex by their sensitivity to (luminal) hypertonicity and insensitivity to removal of calcium.

  7. Nerve endings in the epithelium and submucosa of human epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, R; Pastor, L M; Calvo, A; Ferrán, A; Sprekelsen, C

    1994-07-01

    An electron-microscopic study of the sensory innervation of human epiglottis was undertaken. The nerve supply of this structure was abundant; numerous free unmyelinated nerve endings of 2.5-3 microns were observed in the stratified epithelium of the epiglottis associated with clear cells containing mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, microtubules and dense-cored granules. The nerve and cell complex resembled a corpuscular structure, probably of a quimiosensitive character. In the submucosa, unmyelinated nerves were observed which may come from deeper myelinated trunks, and some of them entered the epithelium. Encapsulated corpuscles were also found in the submucosa. Four elements could be distinguished: nerve endings, lamellar cells, interlamellar substance, and capsule. Our observations at an ultrastructural level complete previous observations by means of light microscopy indicating that the epiglottis is a zone with an important innervation in the epithelium as well as in the submucosa. This sensory innervation probably bears a relation to reflexes, such as cough and deglution, to protect the airways.

  8. Effect of carbonated drinks on wound healing of oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Ayesha; Ilyas, Muhammad Sharjeel; Jafari, Fahim Haider; Farzana, Fauzia

    2016-01-01

    Carbonated drinks are the second most consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world after tea. The effects of these drinks on hard tissues and vital organs of the body have been proved beyond doubt. This study, however, explains the effect of these drinks on wound healing of oral epithelium. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were considered for the study. A circular wound of 3.0 mm was created on the buccal mucosa of all animals and they were divided into two groups. Animals in group 1 were fed with chow pellet and water, while those in group 2 were fed with a commercially available carbonated drink instead of water. Six animals from each group were euthanized at 0, 7, and 21 days. Wound site was histologically assessed for differences in thickness and characteristics of the regenerating epithelium between two groups. There was a marked difference in the healing pattern between the two groups. Animals in group 1 showed a normal healing pattern at the end of day 21. In the group 2, the regenerated epithelium showed hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis along with acanthosis at the end of the experiment with a subsequent delayed inflammatory reaction at day 21. Consumption of carbonated drinks can disrupt oral wound healing. The contents in carbonated drinks have a proinflammatory action on the soft tissue. Results suggest that epithelial changes seen in experimental group 2 could be a result of constant irritation by the acidic and fizzy nature of carbonated drinks.

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus can infect basal cells and alter human airway epithelial differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B David Persson

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing severe respiratory illness in infants and immune compromised patients. The ciliated cells of the human airway epithelium have been considered to be the exclusive target of RSV, although recent data have suggested that basal cells, the progenitors for the conducting airway epithelium, may also become infected in vivo. Using either mechanical or chemical injury models, we have demonstrated a robust RSV infection of p63+ basal cells in air-liquid interface (ALI cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, proliferating basal cells in 2D culture were also susceptible to RSV infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that RSV infection of this progenitor cell would influence the differentiation status of the airway epithelium. RSV infection of basal cells on the day of seeding (MOI≤0.0001, resulted in the formation of an epithelium that showed a profound loss of ciliated cells and gain of secretory cells as assessed by acetylated α-tubulin and MUC5AC/MUC5B immunostaining, respectively. The mechanism driving the switch in epithelial phenotype is in part driven by the induced type I and type III interferon response that we demonstrate is triggered early following RSV infection. Neutralization of this response attenuates the RSV-induced loss of ciliated cells. Together, these data show that through infection of proliferating airway basal cells, RSV has the potential to influence the cellular composition of the airway epithelium. The resulting phenotype might be expected to contribute towards both the severity of acute infection, as well as to the longer-term consequences of viral exacerbations in patients with pre-existing respiratory diseases.

  10. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  11. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H.; Deatly, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesenchymal tissue-like assemblies (3D hLEM TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infection with the virus. Therefore, we assert TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host s immune system.

  12. Surveillance of respiratory viruses.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance of respiratory viruses. A 10-year laboratory-based study. J. M. McAnerney, S. Johnson, B. D. Schoub. Respiratory virus isolates made at the National Institute for. Virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. An active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network ...

  13. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which requires the most regu- lar and precise evaluation of physiological function for complete assessment of the patient. The very nature of respiratory physiology requires the availability of a range of technological devices. Physiological measurements that may be.

  14. Transduction efficiencies of novel AAV vectors in mouse airway epithelium in vivo and human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberis, Maria P; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Zhang, Liqun; Pickles, Raymond J; Wilson, James M

    2009-02-01

    We have characterized the ability of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1-9 in addition to nineteen novel vectors isolated from various tissues, to transduce mouse and human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE). Vectors expressing alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) and beta-galactosidase were co-instilled into the mouse lung. Of all the vectors tested rh.64R1, AAV5 and AAV6 were the most efficient. The high transduction observed in mouse was reproduced in HAE cell cultures for both rh.64R1 and AAV6 but not for AAV5. Since AAV6 was the most efficient vector in mouse and HAE we also tested the transduction efficiencies of the AAV6 singleton vectors (i.e., AAV6 variants with targeted mutations) in these models. Of these, AAV6.2 transduced mouse airway epithelium and HAE with greater efficiency than all other AAV vectors tested. We demonstrated that AAV6.2 exhibits improved transduction efficiency compared to previously reported AAVs in mouse airways and in culture models of human airway epithelium and that this vector requires further development for preclinical and clinical testing.

  15. Restoring pulmonary surfactant membranes and films at the respiratory surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaide, Mercedes; Autilio, Chiara; Arroyo, Raquel; Perez-Gil, Jesus

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of lipids and proteins assembled and secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the thin layer of fluid coating the respiratory surface of lungs. There, surfactant forms interfacial films at the air-water interface, reducing dramatically surface tension and thus stabilizing the air-exposed interface to prevent alveolar collapse along respiratory mechanics. The absence or deficiency of surfactant produces severe lung pathologies. This review describes some of the most important surfactant-related pathologies, which are a cause of high morbidity and mortality in neonates and adults. The review also updates current therapeutic approaches pursuing restoration of surfactant operative films in diseased lungs, mainly through supplementation with exogenous clinical surfactant preparations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory protease/antiprotease balance determines susceptibility to viral infection and can be modified by nutritional antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Megan; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-06-15

    The respiratory epithelium functions as a central orchestrator to initiate and organize responses to inhaled stimuli. Proteases and antiproteases are secreted from the respiratory epithelium and are involved in respiratory homeostasis. Modifications to the protease/antiprotease balance can lead to the development of lung diseases such as emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, altered protease/antiprotease balance, in favor for increased protease activity, is associated with increased susceptibility to respiratory viral infections such as influenza virus. However, nutritional antioxidants induce antiprotease expression/secretion and decrease protease expression/activity, to protect against viral infection. As such, this review will elucidate the impact of this balance in the context of respiratory viral infection and lung disease, to further highlight the role epithelial cell-derived proteases and antiproteases contribute to respiratory immune function. Furthermore, this review will offer the use of nutritional antioxidants as possible therapeutics to boost respiratory mucosal responses and/or protect against infection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth through dysregulation of nutritional immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Matthew R; Lashua, Lauren P; Fischer, Douglas K; Flitter, Becca A; Eichinger, Katherine M; Durbin, Joan E; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Coyne, Carolyn B; Empey, Kerry M; Bomberger, Jennifer M

    2016-02-09

    Clinical observations link respiratory virus infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronic lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The development of P. aeruginosa into highly antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities promotes airway colonization and accounts for disease progression in patients. Although clinical studies show a strong correlation between CF patients' acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infections and respiratory virus infection, little is known about the mechanism by which chronic P. aeruginosa infections are initiated in the host. Using a coculture model to study the formation of bacterial biofilm formation associated with the airway epithelium, we show that respiratory viral infections and the induction of antiviral interferons promote robust secondary P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. We report that the induction of antiviral IFN signaling in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces bacterial biofilm formation through a mechanism of dysregulated iron homeostasis of the airway epithelium. Moreover, increased apical release of the host iron-binding protein transferrin during RSV infection promotes P. aeruginosa biofilm development in vitro and in vivo. Thus, nutritional immunity pathways that are disrupted during respiratory viral infection create an environment that favors secondary bacterial infection and may provide previously unidentified targets to combat bacterial biofilm formation.

  18. A role for airway taste receptor modulation in the treatment of upper respiratory infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jennifer E.; Saunders, Cecil J.; Reed, Danielle R.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Taste receptors, initially identified in the oral epithelium, have since been shown to be widely distributed, being found in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, gastrointestinal epithelium, thyroid, and brain. The presence of taste receptors in the nasal epithelium has led to the discovery of their role in innate immunity, defending the paranasal sinuses against pathogens. This article addresses the current paradigm for understanding the role of extraoral taste receptors, specifically the T2R38 bitter taste receptor and the T1R2+3 sweet taste receptor, in respiratory innate defenses and presents evidence for the use of these and other taste receptors as therapeutic targets in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Future studies should focus on understanding the polymorphisms of taste receptors beyond T2R38 to fully elucidate their potential therapeutic use and lay the groundwork for their modulation in a clinical setting to decrease the health impact and economic burden of upper respiratory disease. PMID:26731661

  19. Cytoarchitecture of the normal rat olfactory epithelium: light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Sugata; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2004-06-01

    The three-dimensional cytoarchitecture of the normal rat olfactory epithelium was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of KOH digested tissues as well as by light and transmission electron microscopy of plastic sections. Observations specimens from the lateral side of the olfactory epithelium allowed identification of four cell types by their surface structure: olfactory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells, and duct cells of the Bowman's gland. The olfactory neurons were characterized by the presence of a thick apical process (i.e., dendrite) and a thin basal process (i.e., axon). These olfactory neurons tended to be aligned along the vertical axis of the epithelium. Immature olfactory neurons were present at the basal part of the epithelium and had a pear-shaped cell body with a thin and long axon and a short dendrite which failed to reach the epithelial surface. Supporting cells were roughly columnar in shape and occupied the full length of the epithelium. They became thinner in the basal two thirds of their length but had branched foot processes spreading on the basal surface of the epithelium. Basal cells located in the basal epithelial region were oval, round or cuboidal and present among the foot processes of the supporting cells. The ducts of the Bowman's gland entered the epithelium from the lamina propria and took straight, perpendicular courses within the epithelium. These intraepithelial ducts were composed of several slender cells. The acinar cells are sometimes present in the epithelium and appeared as a globular bulge of the duct at the basal part of the epithelium. SEM observation of the basal surface of the olfactory epithelium also clearly showed that axon bundles were surrounded by the sheet-like processes of Schwann cells, the investment being found at the base of the epithelium just before axon bundles leave the epithelium.

  20. Airway epithelium directed gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, April F; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2006-09-01

    Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). Despite a better understanding of the molecular organization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and mutations resulting in pathophysiological and phenotypic alterations, several forms of treatments including gene therapy have failed to yield clinical success. Major limitations for the delivery of drugs and gene therapy vectors from reaching target cells in CF patients lie in physical and immunological barriers of airway epithelium. Over the last decade, non-viral and viral gene therapy approaches have been tested in preclinical studies and human clinical trials of CF. Outcomes of these studies have helped to identify hurdles that need to be overcome before such approaches can be routinely applied to patients. In addition to the physiological and immunological barriers of airway epithelium, vector transduction is also impaired by the absence or low-abundance of cellular receptors and co-receptors for viral binding and internalization. Thus, the initial enthusiasm for gene replacement therapy for CF following cloning of the CFTR gene dampened, as more limitations were recognized. Research directed towards improving the efficiency of gene transfer technology in CF, is focused on testing of compounds to enhance vector permeability and trafficking, identification and development of vectors which can transduce through alternate pathways, identification of airway epithelium-specific targeting ligands, and the identification of stem cells for combining cell therapy and gene therapy by ex vivo methods. Details provided in this article will give a comprehensive analysis of the prospects and limitations in CF gene therapy using viral and non-viral vectors.

  1. TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Emily R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE in the nasal cavity detects a variety of air borne molecules that provide information regarding the presence of food, predators and other relevant social and environmental factors. Within the epithelium are ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and microvillous cells, each of which is distinct in morphology and function. Arguably, the least understood, are the microvillous cells, a population of cells that are small in number and whose function is not known. We previously found that in a mouse strain in which the TRPM5 promoter drives expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, a population of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, as well as a population of cells displaying microvilli-like structures is labeled. Here we examined the morphology and immunocytochemical properties of these microvillous-like cells using immunocytochemical methods. Results We show that the GFP-positive microvillous cells were morphologically diversified and scattered throughout the entire MOE. These cells immunoreacted to an antibody against TRPM5, confirming the expression of this ion channel in these cells. In addition, they showed a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation current in electrophysiological recordings. They did not immunoreact to antibodies that label cell markers and elements of the transduction pathways from olfactory sensory neurons and solitary chemosensory cells of the nasal cavity. Further, the TRPM5-expressing cells did not display axon-like processes and were not labeled with a neuronal marker nor did trigeminal peptidergic nerve fibers innervate these cells. Conclusion We provide morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of the TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium. Our data demonstrate that these cells are non-neuronal and in terms of chemosensory transduction do not resemble the TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons

  2. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  3. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caernohabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Retinoid metabolism in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Das; Gouras, P.

    1988-01-01

    Uptake, esterification and release of all-trans-retinol in primary cultures of human retinal epithelium were studied. Cultured cells were supplemented with 3H-labelled 11,12-all-trans-retinol, using fatty-acid-free albumin as the carrier. This led to incorporation of retinal and the formation of all-trans- and 11-cis-retinyl palmitate. The metabolism of the all-trans ester was monitored in a medium containing various concentrations of foetal-bovine serum (FBS). In 20% (v/v) FBS, the ester was...

  6. ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURES OF HUMAN INTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTULAR EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetris, A. J.; Markus, B. H.; Saidman, S.; Fung, J. J.; Makowka, L.; Graner, S.; Duquesnoy, R.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY A technique for the isolation of human intrahepatic bile ductular epithelium, and the establishment of primary cultures using a serum- and growth-factor-supplemented medium combined with a connective tissue substrata is described. Initial cell isolates and monolayer cultures display phenotypic characteristics of biliary epithelial cells (low molecular weight prekeratin positive; albumin, alphafetoprotein, and Factor VIII-related antigen negative). Ultrastructural features of the cultured cells show cell polarization with surface microvilli, numerous interepithelial junctional complexes and cytoplasmic intermediate prekeratin filaments. PMID:3131298

  7. Diurnal rhythm of mitosis in rabbit corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, J A; Yoza, B K; Neufeld, A H

    1980-01-01

    Incorporation of 3H-thymidine by rabbit corneal epithelium during the course of a one-hour incubation in vitro varies according to the time of day, suggesting a diurnal rhythm of mitotic activity. Adrenergic decentralization of the cornea does not affect this rhythm. Furthermore, there is no diurnal variation in the basal or sympathomimetically-stimulated cyclic AMP production by freshly excised rabbit corneas, incubated in vitro. Therefore, the diurnal rhythm of corneal epithelial mitotsis in the rabbit is not paced by catecholamines.

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH-ul) ... diseases that affect the lungs, heart, or immune system , RSV infections can lead to other more serious ...

  9. Respiratory disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Niharika; Chen, Kenneth; Hardy, Erica; Powrie, Raumond

    2015-07-01

    Many physiological and anatomical changes of pregnancy affect the respiratory system. These changes often affect the presentation and management of the various respiratory illnesses in pregnancy. This article focuses on several important respiratory issues in pregnancy. The management of asthma, one of the most common chronic illnesses in pregnancy, remains largely unchanged compared to the nonpregnant state. Infectious respiratory illness, including pneumonia and tuberculosis, are similarly managed in pregnancy with antibiotics, although special attention may be needed for antibiotic choices with more pregnancy safety data. When mechanical ventilation is necessary, consideration should be given to the maternal hemodynamics of pregnancy and fetal oxygenation. Maintaining maternal oxygen saturation above 95% is recommended to sustain optimal fetal oxygenation. Cigarette smoking has known risks in pregnancy, and current practice guidelines recommend offering cognitive and pharmacologic interventions to pregnant women to assist in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that secretes mucus. The mucus traps smaller particles like pollen or smoke. Hairlike structures called cilia line the mucous membrane ...

  11. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wing Ho; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-05-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity. The ecological and environmental factors that direct the development of microbial communities in the respiratory tract and how these communities affect respiratory health are the focus of current research. Concurrently, the functions of the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the physiology of the human host are being studied in detail. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiological, biological and functional evidence that support the physiological role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  14. Alexithymia in respiratory rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Federica; Alesii, Annalisa; Dall'armi, Valentina; Rubino, Salvatore; Ferri, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    To date, there are no studies that have investigated the role of alexithymia in respiratory rehabilitation. We aimed to observe the prevalence of alexithymia in patients attending respiratory rehabilitation and to verify the presence of a difference between alexithymics and non-alexithymics responsiveness to the respiratory rehabilitation standard protocol. A prospective cohort study evaluating the influence of alexithymia on functional recovery of in-patients afferent to the Respiratory Rehabilitation Unit of IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana. Sixty patients were consecutively enrolled into the study and evaluated for alexithymia, anxiety and depression. Functional recovery was assessed with the six-minute walking test (6MWT). Prior and post-completion of this test dyspnoea, oxygen saturation and cardiac frequency were recorded. Alexithymia was not found to be significantly affecting the functional recovery of participants in respiratory rehabilitation. The distance walked at the 6MWT (6MWD) increased in both alexithymics and non-alexithymics (p(alexithymics) = 0.014; p(non-alexithymics) respiratory rehabilitation.

  15. Tissue-engineered epithelium transplantation for severe ocular surface burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Pi, Yuli; Dong, Ying; Zhu, Jing

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of tissue-engineered epithelium transplantation for severe ocular surface burns. This was a retrospective observational case series. From October 2005 to May 2011, 19 eyes of 19 patients with grade IV to VI ocular surface burns (Dua Classification) were treated by autologous transplantation of corneal stem cells cultivated on a fibrin gel membrane, with a mean follow-up of 16.2 months (range 12-36 months). Postoperative corneal surface stability, visual acuity (VA), corneal opacity, and neovascularization were evaluated. No corneal perforations occurred and the entire corneal surface was free from epithelial defects in all eyes. At the final follow-up visit, VA in 17 eyes was improved after surgery, with 6 eyes achieving a VA of 20/100 or better. Corneal vascularization was significantly reduced in 17 (89.5%) eyes. Corneal opacity was also improved in 12 (63.2%) eyes. All donor eyes remained healthy. Tissue-engineered epithelium transplantation can promote rapid reepithelialization of the ocular surface, inhibit corneal neovascularization, and improve vision for patients with severe ocular surface burns.

  16. Cultured human ocular surface epithelium on therapeutic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nick; Chui, Jeanie; Wakefield, Denis; Coroneo, Minas T

    2007-04-01

    This study was initiated after observation of some intriguing epithelial growth properties of contact lenses used as a bandage for patients after pterygium surgery. To determine the efficacy of culturing human ocular surface epithelial cells on therapeutic contact lenses in autologous serum with a view of using this system to transfer epithelial cells to patients with persistent corneal or limbal defects. Excess graft tissue resected from patients undergoing pterygium surgery (n = 3) consisting of limbal epithelium was placed on siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses (lotrafilcon A and balafilcon A). Limbal explants were cultured in media with 10% autologous serum. Morphology, proliferative capacity and cytokeratin profile were determined by phase contrast, light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical analysis. Lotrafilcon A contact lenses sustained proliferation and migration from limbal tissue. Cells became confluent after 10-14 days and consisted of 2-3 layers with a corneal phenotype (CK3(+)/CK12(+)/CK19(-)) and a propensity to proliferate (p63(+)). Electron microscopy showed microvilli on the apical surface with adhesive projections, indicating that these cells were stable and likely to survive for a long term. Growth was not observed from limbal explants cultured on balafilcon A contact lenses. A method for culturing human ocular surface epithelium on contact lenses that may facilitate expansion and transfer of autologous limbal epithelial cells while avoiding the risks associated with transplanting allogeneic tissue has been developed. This technique may be potentially useful for the treatment of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency.

  17. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  18. Clinical outcome of autologous cultivated limbal epithelium transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan Virender

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation. Methods: Eighty-six patients′ records and their clinical photographs were reviewed for demographics, primary etiology, type of limbal transplantation, ocular surface stability, visual acuity, final outcome, and possible factors affecting outcome and complications. Results: Eighty-eight eyes of 86 patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD underwent autologous cultivated limbal epithelium transplantation between March 2001 and May 2003, with a mean follow-up of 18.3 months. The etiology of LSCD was alkali burns in 64% patients. Sixty-one eyes had total LSCD. Thirty-two of the 88 eyes had undergone amniotic membrane transplantation and 10 eyes had previously undergone limbal transplantation with unfavorable outcome. Nineteen eyes underwent penetrating keratoplasty, of which 11 grafts survived at the final follow-up. Finally, 57 eyes (73.1%, 95% CI: 63.3-82.9 had a successful outcome with a stable ocular surface without conjunctivalization, 21 eyes (26.9%, 95%CI: 17.1-36.7 were considered failures, and 10 patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: LSCD can be successfully treated by autologous cultivated limbal epithelium transplantation in majority of the cases.

  19. Endolymphatic sodium homeostasis by extramacular epithelium of the saccule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Marcus, Daniel C

    2009-12-16

    The saccule is a vestibular sensory organ that depends upon regulation of its luminal fluid, endolymph, for normal transduction of linear acceleration into afferent neural transmission. Previous studies suggested that endolymph in the saccule was merely derived from cochlear endolymph. We developed and used a preparation of isolated mouse saccule to measure transepithelial currents from the extramacular epithelium with a current density probe. The direction and pharmacology of transepithelial current was consistent with Na(+) absorption by the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and was blocked by the ENaC-specific inhibitors benzamil and amiloride. Involvement of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and K(+) channels was demonstrated by reduction of the current by ouabain and the K(+) channel blockers Ba(2+), XE991, and 4-AP. Glucocorticoids upregulated the current via glucocorticoid receptors. Dexamethasone stimulated the current after 24 h and the stimulation was blocked by mifepristone but not spironolactone. No acute response was observed to elevated cAMP in the presence of amiloride nor to bumetanide, a blocker of Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter. The results are consistent with a canonical model of corticosteroid-regulated Na(+) absorption that includes entry of luminal Na(+) through apical membrane Na(+) channels and active basolateral exit of Na(+) via a Na(+) pump, with recycling of K(+) at the basolateral membrane via K(+)-permeable channels. These observations provide our first understanding of the active role played by saccular epithelium in the local regulation of the [Na(+)] of endolymph for maintenance of our sense of balance.

  20. Nasal epithelium biomarkers in children and adolescents : associations with allergic sensitization and environmental stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Sardella, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    In this project we have used biomarkers to investigate the effects of environmental stressors, to which we are daily exposed, on the nasal epithelium integrity and explored the possible associations between nasal epithelium changes and the development of allergic sensitization. The integrity of the nasal epithelium of children was assessed non-invasively by measuring two proteins in nasal lavage fluid (NALF). The first protein is albumin, a plasma-derived albumin that is a well-established bi...

  1. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  2. Lugol staining pattern in background epithelium of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Kazuo; Ito, Hiroaki; Kushima, Miki; Mitamura, Keiji

    2004-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus often arises in the setting of chronic esophagitis. We investigated whether chronic esophagitis was associated with carcinogenesis in the esophageal squamous epithelium. Videoendoscopy with Lugol staining was performed in 70 patients with invasive carcinoma of the esophagus. We especially focused the study on background epithelium of the esophagus, then background epithelium was classified into two groups according to differences in Lugol staining patterns. Following Lugol solution spraying, background epithelium showing uniform greenish-brown staining was defined as having a uniform pattern. In contrast, when multiple Lugol-unstained speckles were present throughout the esophagus, the pattern was defined as speckled. Furthermore, we also investigated whether glycogenic acanthosis is present or not in background epithelium. Chronic esophagitis was present in 11 of 70 patients (16%) with invasive carcinoma, indicating a speckled pattern in background epithelium following Lugol solution spraying. The remaining 84% of patients with invasive carcinoma showed normally uniform Lugol staining background epithelium. Glycogenic acanthosis was found in 65 (93%) of 70 patients. Approximately 80% of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma showed normal Lugol staining of background epithelium. Field carcinogenesis is postulated to be not predominant in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in our Japanese subjects. In contrast, glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus was associated with the background epithelium accompanied with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Epithelial maturation pattern of dysplastic epithelium and normal oral epithelium exposed to tobacco and alcohol: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Nithya; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

    2013-05-01

    The detection of oral cancer at an early stage is an optimal strategy and is the most effective approach for preventing further progression. The rationale of the study was to evaluate the epithelial maturation pattern in oral mucosa exposed to tobacco/alcohol and on dysplastic oral mucosa using the scanning electron microscope. Fifteen subjects were selected based on clinical examination and divided into three groups: group 1-patients with apparently normal oral mucosa; group 2-patients with oral mucosa exposed to tobacco/alcohol; group 3-patients with clinical diagnosis of leukoplakia. An incisional biopsy was performed from the buccal mucosa. One part of the specimen was prepared for light microscopy and the other part was prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Light microscopy revealed nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in group 1, while group 2 demonstrated hyperparakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with mild cytological atypia, and group 3 showed architectural and cytological changes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated flat-surfaced cells with equidistant parallel microridges in group 1, while group 2 showed irregular and widened microridges with numerous pits and absence of honeycomb pattern. Group 3 showed irregularly arranged broad and swollen cells with numerous pits and irregular microvilli projecting over the surface. The present study establishes the relationship of the surface abnormalities to the tendency of the cells to become malignant and thus serves as a tool in early detection of squamous cell carcinoma. It also emphasizes the need of routine follow-up in these high-risk patients for progression of carcinoma.

  4. Respiratory care informatics and the practice of respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Constance C

    2008-04-01

    Recently I reported the results of a study that was conducted to determine how respiratory care information is managed and processed in respiratory care departments. Data obtained from the respiratory care departments surveyed indicated that their information systems (paper-based or automated) do not manage and process respiratory care information effectively or efficiently. Since the goal of an information system is to improve delivery of services, any useful information system must mirror business processes (or professional activities) to achieve that goal. Consequently, I suggested that, in addition to inadequate database management systems, the shortcomings of the information systems surveyed may have stemmed from a failure to accurately define and describe the data, information, and knowledge unique to the respiratory care profession. Accurate description and definition of respiratory care data, information, and knowledge, however, require a formal language and taxonomy for the respiratory care profession. This article explores the concept of respiratory care informatics and its relevance to the practice of respiratory care.

  5. Non-thermal electromagnetic radiation damage to lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormusov, Elvira; P Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Schächter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-05-21

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35°C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was used to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the lenses. 58 lenses were used in this study. The lenses were divided into four groups: (1) Control lenses incubated in organ culture for 10 to15 days. (2) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated with 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwave radiation for 90 cycles of 50 minutes irradiation followed by 10 minutes pause and cultured up to 10 days. (3) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated as group 2 with 192 cycles of radiation and cultured for 15 days. (4) Lenses exposed to 39.5°C for 2 hours 3 times with 24 hours interval after each treatment beginning on the second day of the culture and cultured for 11 days. During the culture period, lens optical quality was followed daily by a computer-operated scanning laser beam. At the end of the culture period, control and treated lenses were analyzed morphologically and by assessment of the lens epithelial ATPase activity. Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat.

  6. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  7. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. Methods The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Results Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Conclusions Regular high-load exercise is associated with decrease in serum CC16

  8. Intermediate Filaments and Polarization in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Coch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic intermediate filament cytoskeleton provides a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. This is particularly apparent in the intestinal epithelium, in which the intermediate filament network is localized below the apical terminal web region and is anchored to the apical junction complex. This arrangement is conserved from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The review summarizes compositional, morphological and functional features of the polarized intermediate filament cytoskeleton in intestinal cells of nematodes and mammals. We emphasize the cross talk of intermediate filaments with the actin- and tubulin-based cytoskeleton. Possible links of the intermediate filament system to the distribution of apical membrane proteins and the cell polarity complex are highlighted. Finally, we discuss how these properties relate to the establishment and maintenance of polarity in the intestine.

  9. Intermediate Filaments and Polarization in the Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Richard A; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-07-15

    The cytoplasmic intermediate filament cytoskeleton provides a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. This is particularly apparent in the intestinal epithelium, in which the intermediate filament network is localized below the apical terminal web region and is anchored to the apical junction complex. This arrangement is conserved from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The review summarizes compositional, morphological and functional features of the polarized intermediate filament cytoskeleton in intestinal cells of nematodes and mammals. We emphasize the cross talk of intermediate filaments with the actin- and tubulin-based cytoskeleton. Possible links of the intermediate filament system to the distribution of apical membrane proteins and the cell polarity complex are highlighted. Finally, we discuss how these properties relate to the establishment and maintenance of polarity in the intestine.

  10. Gelsolin Restores Aβ-Induced Alterations in Choroid Plexus Epithelium

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    Teo Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histologically, Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by senile plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits. In previous studies we demonstrated that in AD patients, amyloid-β (Aβ peptide also accumulates in choroid plexus, and that this process is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and epithelial cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Aβ accumulation at the choroid plexus epithelium remain unclear. Aβ clearance, from the brain to the blood, involves Aβ carrier proteins that bind to megalin, including gelsolin, a protein produced specifically by the choroid plexus epithelial cells. In this study, we show that treatment with gelsolin reduces Aβ-induced cytoskeletal disruption of blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier at the choroid plexus. Additionally, our results demonstrate that gelsolin plays an important role in decreasing Aβ-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting nitric oxide production and apoptotic mitochondrial changes. Taken together, these findings make gelsolin an appealing tool for the prophylactic treatment of AD.

  11. Gelsolin Restores Aβ-Induced Alterations in Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Teo; Antequera, Desiree; Ugalde, Cristina; Spuch, Carlos; Carro, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Histologically, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by senile plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits. In previous studies we demonstrated that in AD patients, amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide also accumulates in choroid plexus, and that this process is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and epithelial cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Aβ accumulation at the choroid plexus epithelium remain unclear. Aβ clearance, from the brain to the blood, involves Aβ carrier proteins that bind to megalin, including gelsolin, a protein produced specifically by the choroid plexus epithelial cells. In this study, we show that treatment with gelsolin reduces Aβ-induced cytoskeletal disruption of blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier at the choroid plexus. Additionally, our results demonstrate that gelsolin plays an important role in decreasing Aβ-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting nitric oxide production and apoptotic mitochondrial changes. Taken together, these findings make gelsolin an appealing tool for the prophylactic treatment of AD. PMID:20369065

  12. Druse-Induced Morphology Evolution in Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzitello, K I; Chrenek, M A; Family, F; Grossniklaus, H E; Nickerson, J M; Jiang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a key site of pathogenesis for many retina diseases. The formation of drusen in the retina is characteristic of retinal degeneration. We investigate morphological changes in the RPE in the presence of soft drusen using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. We collect RPE flat mount images from donated human eyes and develop 1) statistical tools to quantify the images and 2) a cell-based model to simulate the morphology evolution. We compare three different mechanisms of RPE repair evolution, cell apoptosis, cell fusion, and expansion, and Simulations of our RPE morphogenesis model quantitatively reproduce deformations of human RPE morphology due to drusen, suggesting that a purse-string mechanism is sufficient to explain how RPE heals cell loss caused by drusen-damage. We found that drusen beneath tissue promote cell death in a number that far exceeds the cell numbers covering the drusen. Tissue deformations are studied using area distributions, Voronoi doma...

  13. Piezoelectric materials mimic the function of the cochlear sensory epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takatoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Satoyuki; Ogita, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Hamanishi, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Juichi

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear hair cells convert sound vibration into electrical potential, and loss of these cells diminishes auditory function. In response to mechanical stimuli, piezoelectric materials generate electricity, suggesting that they could be used in place of hair cells to create an artificial cochlear epithelium. Here, we report that a piezoelectric membrane generated electrical potentials in response to sound stimuli that were able to induce auditory brainstem responses in deafened guinea pigs, indicating its capacity to mimic basilar membrane function. In addition, sound stimuli were transmitted through the external auditory canal to a piezoelectric membrane implanted in the cochlea, inducing it to vibrate. The application of sound to the middle ear ossicle induced voltage output from the implanted piezoelectric membrane. These findings establish the fundamental principles for the development of hearing devices using piezoelectric materials, although there are many problems to be overcome before practical application. PMID:22025702

  14. Ciliary function of the frog oro-pharyngeal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, E; Sleigh, M

    1977-03-09

    The palate epithelium of the frog was examined by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and high speed cine micrography. The cilia remain stationary for much of time in the end-of-effective stroke position. Each beat cycle begins with a forwardly-directed recovery stroke lasting about 60 ms, followed by an effective stroke towards the oesophagus lasting about 12 ms. Activity can often be correlated with the presence of mucus, which is carried as strands on the tips of the ciliary effective strokes whilst the recovery strokes move beneath the mucus. Coordination of ciliary activity was very variable; local antiplectic metachrony of the recovery strokes could almost always be seen, and on very active epithelia effective strokes were associated with approximately diaplectic waves (either to left or right), but any particular pattern of coordinated activity was transient and quickly transformed to another pattern. Beating and coordination of these short cilia were compared with those of cilia propelling water.

  15. Transcriptome of the human retina, retinal pigmented epithelium and choroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lifeng; Kazmierkiewicz, Krista L; Bowman, Anita S; Li, Mingyao; Curcio, Christine A; Stambolian, Dwight E

    2015-01-01

    The retina and its adjacent supporting tissues -- retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and choroid -- are critical structures in human eyes required for normal visual perception. Abnormal changes in these layers have been implicated in diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. With the advent of high-throughput methods, such as serial analysis of gene expression, cDNA microarray, and RNA sequencing, there is unprecedented opportunity to facilitate our understanding of the normal retina, RPE, and choroid. This information can be used to identify dysfunction in age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. In this review, we describe the current status in our understanding of these transcriptomes through the use of high throughput techniques. PMID:25645700

  16. Differential activities of peroxisomes along the mouse intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvay, Petruta L; Baes, Myriam; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    The presence of peroxisomes in mammalian intestine has been revealed formerly by catalase staining combined with electron microscopy. Despite the central role of intestine in lipid uptake and the established importance of peroxisomes in different lipid-related pathways, few data are available on the physiological role of peroxisomes in intestinal metabolism, more specifically, α-, β-oxidation, and etherlipid synthesis. Hence, the peroxisomal compartment was analyzed in more detail in mouse intestine. On the basis of immunohistochemistry, the organelles are mainly confined to the epithelial cells. The expression of the classical peroxisome marker catalase was highest in the proximal part of jejunum and decreased along the tract. PEX14 showed a similar profile, but was still substantial expressed in large intestinal epithelium. Immunoblotting of epithelial cells, isolated from the different segments, showed also such gradient for some enzymes, ie, catalase, ACOX1, and D-specific multifunctional protein 2, and for the ABCD1 transporter, being high in small and low or absent in large intestine. Other peroxisomal enzymes (PHYH, HACL1, and ACAA1), the ABCD2 and ABCD3 transporters, and peroxins PEX13 and PEX14, however, did not follow this pattern, displaying rather constant signals throughout the intestinal epithelium. The small intestine displayed the highest peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and is particularly active on dicarboxylic acids. Etherlipid synthesis was high in the large intestine, and colonic cells had the highest content of plasmalogens. Overall, these data suggest that peroxisomes exert different functions according to the intestinal segment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Alcohol-assisted versus Mechanical Epithelium Removal in Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghoreishi,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes and complications of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical corneal epithelial debridement for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included 1,250 eyes of 625 patients undergoing PRK for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Each patient was randomly assigned to alcohol-assisted or mechanical epithelial removal. Results: A total of 658 eyes underwent alcohol-assisted epithelial removal while the epithelium was removed mechanically in 592 eyes. Mean spherical equivalent was ‑4.37}2.3 D in the alcohol group and ‑3.8}1.3 D in the mechanical group (P = 0.78. There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between the study groups (P = 0.22. Uncorrected visual acuity ≥ 20/20 and ≥ 20/40 was achieved in 90.9% versus 93.4% (P = 0.08, and 98.9% versus 99.5% (P = 0.36 of eyes in the alcohol and mechanical groups, respectively. Final refractive error within 1D of emmetropia was achieved in 90% versus 92.2% of eyes in the alcohol and mechanical groups, respectively (P = 0.23. Alcohol-assisted debridement required less time than mechanical debridement (96±18 vs. 118±26 seconds, P=0.035. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of early and late postoperative complications. Conclusion: Alcohol-assisted and mechanical epithelium removal are comparable in terms of efficacy and side effects. The method of epithelial debridement in PRK may be left to the surgeon′s choice.

  18. Waterpipe smoking induces epigenetic changes in the small airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Walters

    Full Text Available Waterpipe (also called hookah, shisha, or narghile smoking is a common form of tobacco use in the Middle East. Its use is becoming more prevalent in Western societies, especially among young adults as an alternative form of tobacco use to traditional cigarettes. While the risk to cigarette smoking is well documented, the risk to waterpipe smoking is not well defined with limited information on its health impact at the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic levels with respect to lung disease. Based on the knowledge that airway epithelial cell DNA methylation is modified in response to cigarette smoke and in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases, we assessed the impact of light-use waterpipe smoking on DNA methylation of the small airway epithelium (SAE and whether changes in methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of the cells. Small airway epithelium was obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 7 light-use (2.6 ± 1.7 sessions/wk waterpipe-only smokers. Genome-wide comparison of SAE DNA methylation of waterpipe smokers to nonsmokers identified 727 probesets differentially methylated (fold-change >1.5, p<0.05 representing 673 unique genes. Dominant pathways associated with these epigenetic changes include those linked to G-protein coupled receptor signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and xenobiotic metabolism signaling, all of which have been associated with cigarette smoking and lung disease. Of the genes differentially methylated, 11.3% exhibited a corresponding significant (p<0.05 change in gene expression with enrichment in pathways related to regulation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis (eIF2 signaling and regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling. Overall, these data demonstrate that light-use waterpipe smoking is associated with epigenetic changes and related transcriptional modifications in the SAE, the cell population demonstrating the earliest pathologic abnormalities associated with chronic cigarette smoking.

  19. Waterpipe smoking induces epigenetic changes in the small airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Matthew S; Salit, Jacqueline; Ju, Jin Hyun; Staudt, Michelle R; Kaner, Robert J; Rogalski, Allison M; Sodeinde, Teniola B; Rahim, Riyaad; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Mezey, Jason G; Almulla, Ahmad M; Sattar, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mai; Crystal, Ronald G

    2017-01-01

    Waterpipe (also called hookah, shisha, or narghile) smoking is a common form of tobacco use in the Middle East. Its use is becoming more prevalent in Western societies, especially among young adults as an alternative form of tobacco use to traditional cigarettes. While the risk to cigarette smoking is well documented, the risk to waterpipe smoking is not well defined with limited information on its health impact at the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic levels with respect to lung disease. Based on the knowledge that airway epithelial cell DNA methylation is modified in response to cigarette smoke and in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases, we assessed the impact of light-use waterpipe smoking on DNA methylation of the small airway epithelium (SAE) and whether changes in methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of the cells. Small airway epithelium was obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 7 light-use (2.6 ± 1.7 sessions/wk) waterpipe-only smokers. Genome-wide comparison of SAE DNA methylation of waterpipe smokers to nonsmokers identified 727 probesets differentially methylated (fold-change >1.5, pepigenetic changes include those linked to G-protein coupled receptor signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and xenobiotic metabolism signaling, all of which have been associated with cigarette smoking and lung disease. Of the genes differentially methylated, 11.3% exhibited a corresponding significant (psmoking is associated with epigenetic changes and related transcriptional modifications in the SAE, the cell population demonstrating the earliest pathologic abnormalities associated with chronic cigarette smoking.

  20. A Method for Quantification of Epithelium Colonization Capacity by Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune M. Pedersen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most bacterial infections initiate at the mucosal epithelium lining the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts. At these sites, bacterial pathogens must adhere and increase in numbers to effectively breach the outer barrier and invade the host. If the bacterium succeeds in reaching the bloodstream, effective dissemination again requires that bacteria in the blood, reestablish contact to distant endothelium sites and form secondary site foci. The infectious potential of bacteria is therefore closely linked to their ability to adhere to, colonize, and invade epithelial and endothelial surfaces. Measurement of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells is therefore standard procedure in studies of bacterial virulence. Traditionally, such measurements have been conducted with microtiter plate cell cultures to which bacteria are added, followed by washing procedures and final quantification of retained bacteria by agar plating. This approach is fast and straightforward, but yields only a rough estimate of the adhesive properties of the bacteria upon contact, and little information on the ability of the bacterium to colonize these surfaces under relevant physiological conditions. Here, we present a method in which epithelia/endothelia are simulated by flow chamber-grown human cell layers, and infection is induced by seeding of pathogenic bacteria on these surfaces under conditions that simulate the physiological microenvironment. Quantification of bacterial adhesion and colonization of the cell layers is then performed by in situ time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automatic detection of bacterial surface coverage. The method is demonstrated in three different infection models, simulating Staphylococcus aureus endothelial infection and Escherichia coli intestinal- and uroepithelial infection. The approach yields valuable information on the fitness of the bacterium to successfully adhere to and colonize epithelial surfaces and can be used

  1. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  2. Enhanced Analgesic Responses After Preferential Delivery of Morphine and Fentanyl to the Olfactory Epithelium in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, John D.; Ho, Rodney J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Centrally acting opioid analgesics such as morphine and fentanyl are effective, but their efficacy is often limited by a delayed response or side effects resulting from systemic first-pass before reaching the brain and the central nervous system (CNS). It is generally accepted that drugs applied to the nasal cavity can directly access the brain and the CNS, which could provide therapeutic advantages such as rapid onset and lower systemic exposure. The olfactory region of the nasal cavity has been implicated in facilitating this direct nose-to-CNS transfer. If the fraction of opioid administered to the olfactory region could be improved, there could be a larger fraction of drug directly delivered to the CNS, mediating greater therapeutic benefit. Methods We have developed a pressurized olfactory delivery (POD) device to consistently and non-invasively deposit a majority of drug on the olfactory region of the nasal cavity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using the tail-flick latency test and analysis of plasma and CNS tissue drug exposure, we compared distribution and efficacy of the opioids morphine and fentanyl administered to the nasal olfactory region with the POD device or the nasal respiratory region with nose drops or systemically via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Results Compared to nose drop, POD administration of morphine resulted in significantly higher overall therapeutic effect (AUCeffect) without a significant increase in plasma drug exposure (AUCplasma). POD delivery of morphine resulted in a nose-to-CNS direct transport percentage of 38–55%. POD delivery of fentanyl led to a faster (5 min vs. 10 min) and more intense analgesic effect compared to nasal respiratory administration. Unlike IP injection or nose drop administration, both morphine and fentanyl given by the POD device to olfactory nasal epithelium exhibited clockwise [plasma] versus effect hysteresis after nasal POD administration, consistent with direct nose-to-CNS drug transport

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78 mediates cigarette smoke-induced necroptosis and injury in bronchial epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Yong Wang,1 Jie-Sen Zhou,1 Xu-Chen Xu,1 Zhou-Yang Li,1 Hai-Pin Chen,1 Song-Min Ying,1 Wen Li,1 Hua-Hao Shen,1,2 Zhi-Hua Chen1 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 2State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Bronchial epithelial cell death and airway inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS have been involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. GRP78, belonging to heat shock protein 70 family, has been implicated in cell death and inflammation, while little is known about its roles in COPD. Here, we demonstrate that GRP78 regulates CS-induced necroptosis and injury in bronchial epithelial cells.Materials and methods: GRP78 and necroptosis markers were examined in human bronchial epithelial (HBE cell line, primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells, and mouse lungs. siRNA targeting GRP78 gene and necroptosis inhibitor were used. Expression of inflammatory cytokines, mucin MUC5AC, and related signaling pathways were detected.Results: Exposure to CS significantly increased the expression of GRP78 and necroptosis markers in HBE cell line, primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells, and mouse lungs. Inhibition of GRP78 significantly suppressed CS extract (CSE-induced necroptosis. Furthermore, GRP78–necroptosis cooperatively regulated CSE-induced inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL6, IL8, and mucin MUC5AC in HBE cells, likely through the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1 pathways, respectively.Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrate that GRP78 promotes CSE-induced inflammatory response and mucus hyperproduction in airway epithelial cells, likely through upregulation of necroptosis and subsequent activation of NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. Thus, inhibition of GRP78 and/or inhibition of necroptosis could be the effective therapeutic approaches for the

  4. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  5. [Cell-molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide-induced damaging effect on bronchial epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, O N; Lebedeva, E S; Kuzubova, N A; Preobrazhenskaia, T N

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and reactive nitrogen species play a key role in the development environment related diseases by initiation of cell death and damage of bronchoalveolar epithelium. This review examines the possible cell-molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide-induced damaging effect on bronchial epithelium.

  6. A mathematical model of amphibian skin epithelium with two types of transporting cellular units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1985-01-01

    A computer model of ion transport across amphibian skin epithelium containing two types of cellular units, their relative number and sizes, and a paracellular pathway has been developed. The two cellular units are, a large Na+ transporting compartment representing the major epithelium from stratum...

  7. ACTA-EVER lecture 2007 - The retinal pigment epithelium: friend or foe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the vertebrate retina. The RPE absorbs fluid from the retinal extracellular space, via a proton-lactate-water co-transport mechanism located in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This mechanism...

  8. Spatial Localization of A2E in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Grey, Angus C.; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Koutalos, Yiannis; Schey, Kevin L.; Ablonczy, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of A2E across the murine retinal pigment epithelium was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization imaging mass spectrometry. This is the first technique to allow mapping of specific lipofuscin components in native retinal pigment epithelium tissue with high spatial resolution and to allow spatial correlation of lipofuscin fluorescence with A2E distribution.

  9. Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a common complication of many diseases. Its polyetiological pattern determines the specific features of lung morphological changes and the clinical course of ARDS. Objective: to analyze the pathogenesis of ARDS in the context of the general pathological processes underlying its development. Material and methods. More than 200 lungs from the people who had died from severe concomitant injury or ARDS-complicated pneumonia were investigated. More than 150 rat experiments simulated various types of lung injury: ventilator-induced lung injury with different ventilation parameters; reperfusion injuries (systemic circulation blockade due to 12-minute vascular fascicle ligation, followed by the recovery of cardiac performance and breathing; microcirculatory disorder (injection of a thromboplastin solution into the jugular vein; blood loss; betaine-pepsin aspiration; and closed chest injury. Different parts of the right and left lungs were histologically examined 1 and 3 hours and 1 and 3 days after initiation of the experiment. Lung pieces were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and using the van Gieson and Weigert procedures; the Schiff test was used. Results. The influence of aggression factors (trauma, blood loss, aspiration, infection, etc. results in damage to the lung and particularly air-blood barrier structures (endothelium, alveolar epithelium, their basement membrane. In turn the alteration of cellular and extracellular structures is followed by the increased permeability of hemomicrocirculatory bed vessels, leading to the development of non-cardiogenic (interstitial, alveolar pulmonary edema that is a central component in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Conclusion. The diagnosis of the early manifestations of ARDS must account for the nature of an aggression factor, the signs confirming the alteration of the lung

  10. Content of Trans Fatty Acids in Human Cheek Epithelium: Comparison with Serum and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ransi A. Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA, which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 ( and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (. This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake.

  11. Mucous cell metaplasia in rat nasal epithelium after a 20-month exposure to ozone: A morphometric study of epithelial differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Griffith, W.C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of long-term ozone exposure on nasal epithelia and intraepithelial mucosubstances (IM) throughout the nasal airways of F344/N rats. Animals were exposed to 0 (controls). 0. 12. 0.5, or 1.0 ppm ozone. 6 h/day, 5 days/wk. for 20 mo. Rats were killed 1 wk after the end of the exposure. and nasal tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Standard morphometric techniques were used to determine epithelial cell densities and the amounts of IM in the surface epithelium lining the nasal airways. No mucous cells or IM were present in the epithelia lining the nasal lateral meatus and maxillary sinus of rats exposed to 0 or 0.12 ppm ozone. In contrast, rats exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 ppm ozone had marked mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) with numerous mucous cells and conspicuous amounts of IM in the surface epithelium lining these upper airways. Ozone-induced increases in total epithelial cells (i.e., epithelial hyperplasia) were present only in rats exposed to 1.0 ppm. The results of this study indicate that rats chronically exposed to 1.0 or 0.5 ppm, but not 0. 121 ppm. ozone can develop marked MCM with significant increases in IM in both proximal and distal nasal airways. The epithelial chances observed throughout the nasal passages of ozone-exposed rats may be adaptive responses in an attempt to protect the upper and lower respiratory tract from further ozone-induced injury.

  12. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413982653; Bogaert, Debby|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/264105834

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  13. Therapy for respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J.; Kimpen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infancy and young children. No effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (RSV-LRTI) exists. Ribavirin initially proved to be an effective anti-viral drug for RSV-LTRI.

  14. Therapy for respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J; Kimpen, J

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infancy and young children. No effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (RSV-LRTI) exists. Ribavirin initially proved to be an effective anti-viral drug for RSV-LTRI.

  15. [Nutrition and respiratory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Burgos, R

    2000-01-01

    Unlike other pathologies, not much attention has been paid to the relationship between nutrition and respiratory disease. This is probably because some of these diseases, such as cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are closely associated with smoking while others that could be more directly linked with nutrition such as cystic fibrosis and emphysema are not directly caused by nutrition disorders. Not all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are undernourished. When malnutrition is present in these patients it is because of multiple reasons and is associated with an increase in both mortality and morbidity. In patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, malnutrition is often secondary to a heightened catabolic state leading to the severe fundamental illness. We also know that nutritional treatment may not only correct malnutrition but also help in improving the respiratory function. This nutritional therapy is not normally easy to comply with. It must be accompanied by other non-pharmacological therapies such as rehabilitation. Renourishment may also entail risks for patients with respiratory diseases so it is very important to know as closely as possible their nutritional requirements and to focus on specific actions.

  16. Respiratory transfusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Marić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory transfusion-related reactions are not very frequent, partly also because recognition and reporting transfusion reactions is still underemphasized. Tis article describes the most important respiratory transfusion reactions, their pathophysiology, clinical picture and treatment strategies. Respiratory transfusion related reactions can be primary or secondary. The most important primary transfusion-related reactions are TRALI - transfusion-related acute lung injury, TACO – transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and TAD - transfusion-associated dyspnea. TRALI is immuneassociated injury of alveolar basal membrane, which becomes highly permeable and causes noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment of TRALI is mainly supportive with oxygen, fluids (in case of hypotension and in cases of severe acute respiratory failure also mechanic ventilation. TACO is caused by volume overload in predisposed individuals, such as patients with heart failure, the elderly, infants, patients with anemia and patients with positive fluid balance. Clinical picture is that of a typical pulmonary cardiogenic edema, and the therapy is classical: oxygen and diuretics, and in severe cases also non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. TAD is usually a mild reaction of unknown cause and cannot be classified as TACO or TRALI, nor can it be ascribed to patient’s preexisting diseases. Although the transfusion-related reactions are not very common, knowledge about them can prevent serious consequences. On the one hand preventive measures should be sought, and on the other early recognition is beneficial, so that proper treatment can take place.

  17. Surveillance of respiratory viruses.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory virus isolates made at the National Institute for. Virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. An active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network of monitoring centres - mainly in the Witwatersrand and Vereeniging area with one centre in Middelburg - that ...

  18. Respiratory effects of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Despreaux, Thomas; Perros, Frédéric; Lau, Edmund; Andujar, Pascal; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Descatha, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated solvent that has been used widely around the world in the twentieth century for metal degreasing and dry cleaning. Although TCE displays general toxicity and is classified as a human carcinogen, the association between TCE exposure and respiratory disorders are conflicting. In this review we aimed to systematically evaluate the current evidence for the respiratory effects of TCE exposure and the implications for the practicing clinician. There is limited evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with TCE exposure based on animal and human data. However, the effect of other chlorinated solvents and mixed solvent exposure should be further investigated. Limited data are available to support an association between TCE exposure and respiratory tract disorders such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or rhinitis. The most consistent data is the association of TCE with autoimmune and vascular diseases such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Although recent data are reassuring regarding the absence of an increased lung cancer risk with TCE exposure, clinicians should be aware of other potential respiratory effects of TCE. In particular, occupational exposure to TCE has been linked to less common conditions such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Preventing infections can help the respiratory home care patient stay as healthy as possible. Hand-washing is the single most important thing for patients and caregivers to perform on a routine basis. Use a liquid soap and lots of warm running water. Work up a good lather and scrub for at ...

  20. Respiratory Symptoms in Firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans E.; Rooyackers, Jos M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Heederik, Dick J.

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms in common firefighters in the Netherlands. Methods A total of 1,330 firefighters from the municipal fire brigades of three provinces of the Netherlands were included in the

  1. 3-chlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochaski, Mark A; Jarabek, Annie M; Murphy, John; Andersen, Melvin E

    2008-01-01

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physiological conditions. To date, there has been no application of these biomarkers for determining the extent of exposure to environmentally present gaseous chlorinating chemicals. In this manuscript, we present a method using selective ion monitoring gas chromatography for the simultaneous analysis of both CY and dCY in nasal tissue excised from Fisher 344 rats exposed to varying concentrations of chlorine gas. Using this method, we were able to demonstrate the following: 1. a dose-dependent increase in the conversion of tyrosine to CY and dCY in the respiratory epithelium tissue; 2. preferential formation of CY and dCY in the respiratory and transitional epithelium versus the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the rat; and 3. similar rates of formation for CY and dCY when exposed to chlorine gas based on a strong [CY] versus [dCY] correlation (slope = 1.001, r(2) = 0.912).

  2. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / ARDS ARDS What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  4. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  5. Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, D; Flowers, D; Clarke, J R; Valman, H B; MacNaughton, M R

    1983-01-01

    Human coronaviruses were found by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in upper respiratory tract secretions taken during 30% of 108 acute respiratory infections experienced by 30 children under age 6 years with recurrent respiratory infections (index group), and during 29% of 51 acute infections experienced by their siblings. Lower respiratory tract infection--predominantly wheezy bronchitis--occurred in 30% of the index children's coronavirus positive infections but in none of their siblings' ...

  6. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  7. Immunohistological features of basement membrane formation of uterine cervical epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, K

    1996-07-01

    The state of the basement membrane (BM) was investigated in the normal epithelium, dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix as well as metastatic lymph nodes by performing immunohistological staining for the presence of laminin (LN) and type IV collagen (CIV) and periodic acid-methenamine silver (PAM) staining of the BM. Moreover, to clarify the relationship between the epithelial cells and the BM, simultaneous staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed on the repaired tissue after punch biopsy. In the normal tissues, positive linear staining was observed beneath the epithelium with both PAM staining and LN.C IV staining. Some of the cases of dysplasia/CIS were continuously positive with PAM staining. However, there were sites which showed weakening and disruption of the continuity of positive staining for LN and C IV. As a function of the histological type of invasive carcinoma, the intensity of staining for LN and C IV decreased in the order of keratinizing (K), large cell non-keratinizing (LNK) and small cell non-keratinizing (SNK) histological types. However, no correlation was found between the stage of the carcinoma and the intensity of staining. In addition, the staining of the metastatic lymph nodes was similar to that of the primary lesion, and cancer foci that were in direct contact with lymphocytes were also stained for LN and C IV. During the process of reformation of the BM, LN and C IV were already present at the time when the epithelial interstitium was still negative for PAM staining. Moreover, at the time when the epithelial basal cells were PCNA-positive, LN and C IV could not be detected, and, conversely, when PCNA was negative, LN and C IV were detected. The BM is a structure which is formed when the interstitium is in a static state, and it was surmised that the production of LN and C IV is carried out by epithelial cells, including cancerous cells. Furthermore, it was surmised

  8. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  9. How Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome What Is Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  10. [Respiratory Rehabilitation to Reduce Respiratory Complications after Cardiovascular Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2017-07-01

    The number of cardiovascular surgical operations has been increasing, accompanied by an increase in the number of patients with an aging patient and various comorbidities. For this reason, the risk of respiratory complications after cardiovascular surgery is high, and ingenuity to alleviate this is necessary. We evaluated preoperative respiratory function and examined whether there is a difference in the onset of postoperative respiratory complications with or without respiratory rehabilitation from preoperative. As a result, the incidence of respiratory complications was significantly reduced in the group subjected to preoperative respiratory rehabilitation. Also, the intensive care unit stay was significantly shortened. From this, it is important to perform respiratory rehabilitation from preoperative time. And as a breathing exercise method, active cycle breathing technique is safe and highly effective.

  11. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of dysplastic epithelium of human ocular surface: basement membrane and intermediate filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, S; Kawashima, Y; Okada, Y; Ohkawa, K; Yamanaka, O; Katoh, T; Ohnishi, Y; Ooshima, A; Kao, W W

    1999-05-01

    The dysplastic corneal epithelium is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of epithelial cells. The phenotypes of these cells have not been elucidated. We investigated whether such epithelium expresses the phenotypes of corneal or conjunctival epithelial cells. The corneas and conjunctivae from four normal subjects and from one patient with epithelial dysplasia of the central cornea were immunostained for IV and VII collagens and for cytokeratins. Monoclonal antibodies against collagen IV reacted to the [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) or alpha5(IV) molecule. Anti-cytokeratin antibodies were used to define epithelial cell types. The ultrastructure of the basement membrane (BM) of each specimen also was examined. Type VII collagen immunoreactivity was detected in all the specimens of epithelial BM. The anti-collagen IV [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) antibody labeled the conjunctival BMs, not the BMs of the corneal epithelia, of each subject. The normal corneal epithelial BM, not the BM of the conjunctival or dysplastic corneal epithelium, was immunolabeled with anti-alpha5(IV) antibody. The pattern of cytokeratin expression in the corneal epithelial dysplasia resembled that seen in the normal conjunctivae. Small breaks in the BM of dysplastic corneal epithelium were ultrastructurally revealed. The number of hemidesmosomes in the dysplastic corneal epithelium was decreased as compared with that in the normal BM. The composition of collagen types within the BM and the cellular phenotype of the dysplastic epithelium in the cornea resembled those of conjunctival epithelium, not of the cornea.

  12. Transmigration of macrophages across the choroid plexus epithelium in response to the feline immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Rick B.; Bragg, D. C.; Poulton, Winona; Hudson, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Although lentiviruses such as human, feline and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, FIV, SIV) rapidly gain access to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the mechanisms that control this entry are not well understood. One possibility is that the virus may be carried into the brain by immune cells that traffic across the blood–CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Since few studies have directly examined macrophage trafficking across the blood–CSF barrier, we established transwell and explant cultures of feline choroid plexus epithelium and measured trafficking in the presence or absence of FIV. Macrophages in co-culture with the epithelium showed significant proliferation and robust trafficking that was dependent on the presence of epithelium. Macrophage migration to the apical surface of the epithelium was particularly robust in the choroid plexus explants where 3-fold increases were seen over the first 24 h. Addition of FIV to the cultures greatly increased the number of surface macrophages without influencing replication. The epithelium in the transwell cultures was also permissive to PBMC trafficking, which increased from 17 to 26% of total cells after exposure to FIV. Thus, the choroid plexus epithelium supports trafficking of both macrophages and PBMCs. FIV significantly enhanced translocation of macrophages and T cells indicating that the choroid plexus epithelium is likely to be an active site of immune cell trafficking in response to infection. PMID:22281685

  13. Modelling apical columnar epithelium mechanics from circumferential contractile fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A R B; Moore, S; Sader, J E; Lee, P V S

    2017-10-01

    Simple columnar epithelia are formed by individual epithelial cells connecting together to form single cell high sheets. They are a main component of many important body tissues and are heavily involved in both normal and cancerous cell activities. Prior experimental observations have identified a series of contractile fibres around the circumference of a cross section located in the upper (apical) region of each cell. While other potential mechanisms have been identified in both the experimental and theoretical literature, these circumferential fibres are considered to be the most likely mechanism controlling movement of this cross section. Here, we investigated the impact of circumferential contractile fibres on movement of the cross section by creating an alternate model where movement is driven from circumferential contractile fibres, without any other potential mechanisms. In this model, we utilised a circumferential contractile fibre representation based on investigations into the movement of contractile fibres as an individual system, treated circumferential fibres as a series of units, and matched our model simulation to experimental geometries. By testing against laser ablation datasets sourced from existing literature, we found that circumferential fibres can reproduce the majority of cross-sectional movements. We also investigated model predictions related to various aspects of cross-sectional movement, providing insights into epithelium mechanics and demonstrating the usefulness of our modelling approach.

  14. Glucose, epithelium, and enteric nervous system: dialogue in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2009-06-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The expression and activity of both transport proteins is directly linked to the amount of intraluminal glucose. Besides the direct interaction between glucose and the enterocytes, glucose also stimulates different sensory mechanisms within the intestinal wall. The most important types of cells involved in the sensing of intraluminal contents are enteroendocrine cells and neurones of the enteric nervous system. Regarding glucosensing, a distinct type of enteroendocrine cells, the enterochromaffine (EC) cells are involved. Excitation of EC cells by intraluminal glucose results in the release of serotonin (5-HT), which modulates epithelial functions and activates enteric secretomotorneurones. Enteric neurones are not only activated by 5-HT, but also directly by glucose. The activation of different cell types and the subsequent crosstalk between these cells may trigger appropriate absorptive and secretory processes within the intestine.

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  16. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  17. Abl suppresses cell extrusion and intercalation during epithelium folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Jeanne N.; Martin, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires control over cell shape changes and rearrangements. In the Drosophila mesoderm, linked epithelial cells apically constrict, without cell extrusion or intercalation, to fold the epithelium into a tube that will then undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Apical constriction drives tissue folding or cell extrusion in different contexts, but the mechanisms that dictate the specific outcomes are poorly understood. Using live imaging, we found that Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase depletion causes apically constricting cells to undergo aberrant basal cell extrusion and cell intercalation. abl depletion disrupted apical–basal polarity and adherens junction organization in mesoderm cells, suggesting that extruding cells undergo premature EMT. The polarity loss was associated with abnormal basolateral contractile actomyosin and Enabled (Ena) accumulation. Depletion of the Abl effector Enabled (Ena) in abl-depleted embryos suppressed the abl phenotype, consistent with cell extrusion resulting from misregulated ena. Our work provides new insight into how Abl loss and Ena misregulation promote cell extrusion and EMT. PMID:27440923

  18. Ion channels and transporters of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhart, Nadine; Strauss, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Ion channels and ion transporters play essential roles in the function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The use of cell cultures has been exploited as a key method for successfully identifying and studying ion channels and transporters of the RPE. Cultured RPE cells enable robust and long-lasting patch-clamp recordings, Ussing chamber investigations of the transepithelial transport within the isolated RPE, and analyses of the intracellular Ca(2+) or pH with fluorescent probes. Furthermore, cultured RPE can be transfected at high success rates, permitting the easy use of siRNA to study the involvement of ion channels on the molecular level. However, the expression patterns of the ion channels in the RPE appear to be a very sensitive marker reflecting the extent of RPE differentiation in vitro. Having originated from the neuroectoderm, cultured RPE cells seem to retain some capacity to change into a more neuronal phenotype expressing TTX-blockable Na(+) channels or synaptic Ca(2+) channels. Therefore, the identification of ion channels and transporters in cultured cells should be verified in freshly isolated RPE cells and in situ preparations of the RPE, via immunohistochemistry and the analysis of RPE-specific signals in the electroretinogram from transgenic animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  20. Selenium compound protects corneal epithelium against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Higuchi

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, and anti-oxidative systems are maintained in corneal epithelial cells and tear fluid. Dry eye is recognized as an oxidative stress-induced disease. Selenium compound eye drops are expected to be a candidate for the treatment of dry eye. We estimated the efficacy of several selenium compounds in the treatment of dry eye using a dry eye rat model. All of the studied selenium compounds were uptaken into corneal epithelial cells in vitro. However, when the selenium compounds were administered as eye drops in the dry eye rat model, most of the selenium compounds did not show effectiveness except for Se-lactoferrin. Se-lactoferrin is a lactoferrin that we prepared that binds selenium instead of iron. Se-lactoferrin eye drops suppressed the up-regulated expression of heme oxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and interleukin-6 and also suppressed 8-OHdG production in the cornea induced by surgical removal of the lacrimal glands. Compared with Se-lactoferrin, apolactoferrin eye drops weakly improved dry eye in high dose. The effect of Se-lactoferrin eye drops on dry eye is possibly due to the effect of selenium and also the effect of apolactoferrin. Se-lactoferrin is a candidate for the treatment of dry eye via regulation of oxidative stress in the corneal epithelium.

  1. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  2. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  3. Process of tight junction recovery in the injured vocal fold epithelium: Morphological and paracellular permeability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Katsuno, Tatsuya; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Mizuta, Masanobu; Suehiro, Atsushi; Yamashita, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Tateya, Ichiro; Omori, Koichi

    2017-10-31

    The vocal fold epithelium that includes tight junction (TJ)-based barrier function protects underlying connective tissues from external insults. TJs play an important role to control paracellular permeability of not only solutes but also ions, and preserve the vocal fold homeostasis. However, the distribution of TJs and paracellular diffusion barrier across the entire vocal fold epithelium are still unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of TJs in the vocal fold epithelium and to characterize the recovery process of TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier in a rat model of vocal fold injury. Animal experiments with controls. Normal and vocal fold-injured rats were used. Larynges were harvested for immunohistochemical examination of TJ proteins. For functional analysis, a tracer permeability assay was performed using EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin. TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens 1 signals were localized to the junctional regions of the most luminal cell layers of the vocal fold epithelium. The injured region had been recovered with epithelium at 5 days postinjury, but the paracellular diffusion barrier assays revealed that biotinylation reagents diffused into the lamina propria at 5 days postinjury, and were blocked at the epithelium at 14 and 28 days postinjury. It was strongly suggested that TJs in the vocal fold epithelium exist at the junctional regions of the first layer of stratified squamous epithelium. TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier following vocal fold injury is recovered by 14 days postinjury, and this period corresponds with the time course of structural changes in the regenerating epithelium layer. NA Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, M J; Lemen, R J

    1997-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is associated with the clinical signs and symptoms of small airway obstruction. A major public health problem throughout the world, this condition is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Management is primarily preventive, through strict hand washing, avoidance of exposure during the respiratory illness season and intravenously administered prophylactic anti-RSV Immune globulin, especially in selected small infants with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Supportive measures, including fluid hydration, good nutrition, aerosolized bronchodilators and steroids, may be helpful. Ribavirin may be useful in severely ill children or those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. A significant number of patients have recurrent episodes of bronchiolitis and wheezing, and may develop asthma later in life. Avoidance of exposure to tobacco smoke, cold air and air pollutants is also beneficial to long-term recovery from RSV bronchiolitis. A number of vaccines to prevent this infection are currently being studied.

  5. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  6. Local immunity of the respiratory mucosal system in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiałek, M; Tykałowski, B; Stenzel, T; Koncicki, A

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents fundamental mechanisms of the local mucosal immunity in selected regions of the respiratory tract in healthy birds and in some pathological conditions. The respiratory system, whose mucosa come into direct contact with microorganisms contaminating inhaled air, has some associated structures, such as Harderian gland (HG), conjunctive-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and paranasal glands (PG), whose participation in local mechanisms of the mucosal immunity has been corroborated by numerous scientific studies. The nasal mucosa, with structured clusters of lymphoid tissue (NALT - nasal-associated lymphoid tissue) is the first to come into contact with microorganisms which contaminate inhaled air. Lymphoid nodules, made up of B cells with frequently developed germinal centres (GC), surrounded by a coat of CD4+ cells, are the major NALT structures in chickens, whereas CD8+ cells are situated in the epithelium and in the lamina propria of the nasal cavity mucosa. Studies into respiratory system infections (e.g. Mycoplasma gallisepticum) have shown the reactivity of the tracheal mucosa to infection, despite a lack of essential lymphoid tissue. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) takes part in bronchial immune processes and its structure, topography and ability to perform defensive function in birds is largely age-dependent. Mature BALT is covered by a delicate layer of epithelial cells, called follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). Germinal centres (GC), surrounded by CD4+ cells are developed in most mature BALT nodules, while CD8+ lymphocytes are dispersed among lymphoid nodules and in the epithelium, and they are rarely present in GC. Macrophages make up the first line of defence mechanisms through which the host rapidly responds to microorganisms and their products in the respiratory mucosal system. Another very important element are polymorphonuclear cells, with heterophils being the most important of them. Phagocytic cells obtained

  7. PRODUCTION OF OVOGONIA BY GERMINATIVE EPITHELIUM OF THE OVARY AT SOME MAMMALIA AND BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sincai

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were effected on ovaries from sows, cows, bitches, dous and hens. Our investigations revealed the generation of cellular rows of germinative epithelium into the cortex not only during the embrionary period but also in the adult ovary. The histological investigations revealed an intense proliferative process of the germinative epithelium of adult ovary which generated groups of ovogonia under the lamina basalis. From ovogonia developed oocytes and then ovarian follicles. The cause for the proliferation of ovary germinative epithelium could be: the multiple folliculary dehiscences, the premature degeneration of ovarian follicles and formation of the corpus luteum, phenomena that reduce continually the number of embrionary ovogonia.

  8. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  9. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  10. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  11. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium.

  12. Combined effects of ventilation mode and positive end-expiratory pressure on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium in mice with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (V(T)) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of the epithelium. Additionally, it is implicitly assumed that the best PEEP-V(T) combination also protects the epithelium. We aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation mode and PEEP on respiratory mechanics, peak airway pressures and gas exchange as well as on lung surfactant and epithelial cell integrity in mice with acute lung injury. HCl-injured mice were ventilated at PEEPs of 3 and 6 cmH(2)O with conventional ventilation (CV), CV with intermittent large breaths (CV(LB)) to promote recruitment, and a new mode, variable ventilation, optimized for mice (VV(N)). Mechanics and gas exchange were measured during ventilation and surfactant protein (SP)-B, proSP-B and E-cadherin levels were determined from lavage and lung homogenate. PEEP had a significant effect on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium. The higher PEEP reduced lung collapse and improved mechanics and gas exchange but it also down regulated surfactant release and production and increased epithelial cell injury. While CV(LB) was better than CV, VV(N) outperformed CV(LB) in recruitment, reduced epithelial injury and, via a dynamic mechanotransduction, it also triggered increased release and production of surfactant. For long-term outcome, selection of optimal PEEP and ventilation mode may be based on balancing lung physiology with epithelial injury.

  13. Combined Effects of Ventilation Mode and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Mechanics, Gas Exchange and the Epithelium in Mice with Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (VT) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of the epithelium. Additionally, it is implicitly assumed that the best PEEP-VT combination also protects the epithelium. We aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation mode and PEEP on respiratory mechanics, peak airway pressures and gas exchange as well as on lung surfactant and epithelial cell integrity in mice with acute lung injury. HCl-injured mice were ventilated at PEEPs of 3 and 6 cmH2O with conventional ventilation (CV), CV with intermittent large breaths (CVLB) to promote recruitment, and a new mode, variable ventilation, optimized for mice (VVN). Mechanics and gas exchange were measured during ventilation and surfactant protein (SP)-B, proSP-B and E-cadherin levels were determined from lavage and lung homogenate. PEEP had a significant effect on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium. The higher PEEP reduced lung collapse and improved mechanics and gas exchange but it also down regulated surfactant release and production and increased epithelial cell injury. While CVLB was better than CV, VVN outperformed CVLB in recruitment, reduced epithelial injury and, via a dynamic mechanotransduction, it also triggered increased release and production of surfactant. For long-term outcome, selection of optimal PEEP and ventilation mode may be based on balancing lung physiology with epithelial injury. PMID:23326543

  14. Effects of current clamp on chick retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, S; Hughes, B A; Steinberg, R H

    1991-06-01

    The basal membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the origin of two components of the electroretinogram, the fast oscillation and the light peak. Both of these responses originate from changes in basal membrane potential (Vba), and both are associated with changes in basal membrane resistance (Rba). In addition, many experimental manipulations that alter Vba also produce apparent changes in Rba. These findings raise the possibility that the basal membrane contains a voltage-sensitive conductance that operates in the physiologic range and is involved causally in light-evoked and other responses. We report the results of current clamp experiments on the isolated retina-RPE-choroid of chick that were designed to test for the presence of such a voltage-sensitive conductance in the basal membrane. Depolarizing Vba by 15 mV with retina-to-choroid current had essentially no effect on either the ratio of membrane resistances (Rap/Rba) or the transtissue resistance (RTotal), indicating no alteration in Rba. In contrast, hyperpolarizing Vba by 15 mV with choroid-to-retina current caused a gradual decrease in RTotal and increase in Rap/Rba. Analysis of accompanying changes in membrane voltages and changes in intracellular c-wave amplitude suggested that the most likely cause of the decrease in RTotal is a decrease in paracellular resistance. Voltage-sensitive conductances of the basal membrane appear to play little or no role in the resistance changes that accompany changes in Vba in the physiologic range. The conductance changes underlying the fast oscillation and light peak probably result from either the modulation of channels by second messengers or changes in intracellular ion concentration.

  15. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Theo GMF

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy human donor eyes (aged 63–78 years were laser dissected and used for 22k microarray studies (Agilent technologies. Data were analyzed with Rosetta Resolver, the web tool DAVID and Ingenuity software. Results In total, we identified 19,746 array entries with significant expression in the RPE. Gene expression was analyzed according to expression levels, interindividual variability and functionality. A group of highly (n = 2,194 expressed RPE genes showed an overrepresentation of genes of the oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and ribosome pathways. In the group of moderately expressed genes (n = 8,776 genes of the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and aminosugars metabolism were overrepresented. As expected, the top 10 percent (n = 2,194 of genes with the highest interindividual differences in expression showed functional overrepresentation of the complement cascade, essential in inflammation in age-related macular degeneration, and other signaling pathways. Surprisingly, this same category also includes the genes involved in Bruch's membrane (BM composition. Among the top 10 percent of genes with low interindividual differences, there was an overrepresentation of genes involved in local glycosaminoglycan turnover. Conclusion Our study expands current knowledge of the RPE transcriptome by assigning new genes, and adding data about expression level and interindividual variation. Functional annotation suggests that the RPE has high levels of protein synthesis, strong energy demands, and is exposed to high levels of oxidative stress and a variable degree of inflammation. Our data sheds new light on the molecular composition of BM, adjacent to the

  16. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  17. Pigment epithelium-derived factor protects retinal ganglion cells

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    Fleenor Debra L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are responsible for the transmission of visual signals to the brain. Progressive death of RGCs occurs in glaucoma and several other retinal diseases, which can lead to visual impairment and blindness. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a potent antiangiogenic, neurotrophic and neuroprotective protein that can protect neurons from a variety of pathologic insults. We tested the effects of PEDF on the survival of cultured adult rat RGCs in the presence of glaucoma-like insults, including cytotoxicity induced by glutamate or withdrawal of trophic factors. Results Cultured adult rat RGCs exposed to glutamate for 3 days showed signs of cytotoxicity and death. The toxic effect of glutamate was concentration-dependent (EC50 = 31 μM. In the presence of 100 μM glutamate, RGC number decreased to 55 ± 4% of control (mean ± SEM, n = 76; P 50 values of 13.6 ng/mL (glutamate and 3.4 ng/mL (trophic factor withdrawal, respectively. At 100 ng/mL, PEDF completely protected the cells from both insults. Inhibitors of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 significantly reduced the protective effects of PEDF. Conclusion We demonstrated that PEDF potently and efficaciously protected adult rat RGCs from glutamate- and trophic factor withdrawal-mediated cytotoxicity, via the activation of the NFκB and ERK1/2 pathways. The neuroprotective effect of PEDF represents a novel approach for potential treatment of retinopathies, such as glaucoma.

  18. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  19. Homeostatic capabilities of the choroid plexus epithelium in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan John

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the secretory source of vitamins, peptides and hormones for neurons, the choroid plexus (CP epithelium critically provides substances for brain homeostasis. This distributive process of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF volume transmission reaches many cellular targets in the CNS. In ageing and ageing-related dementias, the CP-CSF system is less able to regulate brain interstitial fluid. CP primarily generates CSF bulk flow, and so its malfunctioning exacerbates Alzheimers disease (AD. Considerable attention has been devoted to the blood-brain barrier in AD, but more insight is needed on regulatory systems at the human blood-CSF barrier in order to improve epithelial function in severe disease. Using autopsied CP specimens from AD patients, we immunocytochemically examined expression of heat shock proteins (HSP90 and GRP94, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFr and a fluid-regulatory protein (NaK2Cl cotransporter isoform 1 or NKCC1. CP upregulated HSP90, FGFr and NKCC1, even in end-stage AD. These CP adjustments involve growth factors and neuropeptides that help to buffer perturbations in CNS water balance and metabolism. They shed light on CP-CSF system responses to ventriculomegaly and the altered intracranial pressure that occurs in AD and normal pressure hydrocephalus. The ability of injured CP to express key regulatory proteins even at Braak stage V/VI, points to plasticity and function that may be boosted by drug treatment to expedite CSF dynamics. The enhanced expression of human CP 'homeostatic proteins' in AD dementia is discussed in relation to brain deficits and pharmacology.

  20. The ultrastructure of the midgut epithelium in millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinka, A; Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M; Chajec, Ł; Sonakowska, L; Kamińska, K; Hyra, M; Poprawa, I

    2014-09-01

    The midgut epithelia of the millipedes Polyxenus lagurus, Archispirostreptus gigas and Julus scandinavius were analyzed under light and transmission electron microscopies. In order to detect the proliferation of regenerative cells, labeling with BrdU and antibodies against phosphohistone H3 were employed. A tube-shaped midgut of three millipedes examined spreads along the entire length of the middle region of the body. The epithelium is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. The digestive cells are responsible for the accumulation of metals and the reserve material as well as the synthesis of substances, which are then secreted into the midgut lumen. The secretions are of three types - merocrine, apocrine and microapocrine. The oval or pear-like shaped secretory cells do not come into contact with the midgut lumen and represent the closed type of secretory cells. They possess many electron-dense granules (J. scandinavius) or electron-dense granules and electron-lucent vesicles (A. gigas, P. lagurus), which are accompanied by cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The regenerative cells are distributed individually among the basal regions of the digestive cells. The proliferation and differentiation of regenerative cells into the digestive cells occurred in J. scandinavius and A. gigas, while these processes were not observed in P. lagurus. As a result of the mitotic division of regenerative cells, one of the newly formed cells fulfills the role of a regenerative cell, while the second one differentiates into a digestive cell. We concluded that regenerative cells play the role of unipotent midgut stem cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rectification of oxygen transfer through the rat colonic epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraví, Fernando D; Carra, Graciela E; Matus, Daniel A; Ibáñez, Jorge E

    2017-05-15

    To assess whether higher sensitivity of colonic epithelium to hypoxia at the serosal side is associated with oxygen transfer asymmetry. Rats were fed either with normal chow or a low-sodium diet. Tissues were mounted as flat sheets in a modified, airtight Ussing chamber with oxygen meters in each hemichamber. Mucosal samples from normal diet animals were studied under control conditions, in low-chloride solution and after adding chloride secretion inhibitors and chloride secretagogues. Samples from sodium-deprived rats were studied before and after ouabain addition. In separate experiments, the correlation between short-circuit current and oxygen consumption was analyzed. Finally, hypoxia was induced in one hemichamber to assess the relationship between its oxygen content and the oxygen pressure difference between both hemichambers. In all studied conditions, oxygen consumption was larger in the serosal hemichamber than in the mucosal one (P = 0.0025 to P circuit current showed significant correlation with both total oxygen consumption (r = 0.765; P = 0.009) in normoxia and oxygen consumption in the serosal hemichamber (r = 0.754; P = 0.011) during mucosal hypoxia, but not with oxygen consumption in the mucosal hemichamber. When hypoxia was induced in the mucosal hemichamber, an oxygen pressure difference of 13 kPa with the serosal hemichamber was enough to keep its oxygen content constant. However, when hypoxia was induced in the serosal hemichamber, the oxygen pressure difference with the mucosal hemichamber necessary to keep its oxygen content constant was 40 kPa (P circuit current. This may be partly due to a rectifying behavior of transepithelial oxygen transfer.

  2. Anterior lens epithelium in cataract patients with retinitis pigmentosa - scanning and transmission electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelic, Sofija; Drašlar, Kazimir; Hvala, Anastazija; Hawlina, Marko

    2017-05-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients, relatively minor lens opacity in central part of posterior pole of the lens may cause disproportionate functional symptoms requiring cataract operation. To investigate the possible structural reasons for this opacity development, we studied the structure of the lens epithelium of patients with RP. The anterior lens capsule (aLC: basement membrane and associated lens epithelial cells, LECs) was obtained from cataract surgery and prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Both SEM and TEM show a number of abnormal features in the anterior lens epithelium of cataract patients with RP. The abnormalities appear mainly as holes, thinning and degradation of the epithelium, with the dimensions from cataractous lens. We suggest that the lens epithelium has a role in the development of the cataract in patients with RP. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The ureteric bud epithelium: Morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K.; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components –the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium– that differentiate from two different tissues –the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively– of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is also physiologically divided along the cortico-medullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortical-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney. PMID:25783232

  4. Transport mechanism of lipid covered saquinavir pure drug nanoparticles in intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; He, Yuan; Li, Qiuxia

    2018-01-01

    Pure drug nanoparticles (NPs) represent a promising formulation for improved drug solubility and controlled dissolution velocity. However, limited absorption by the intestinal epithelium remains challenge to their clinical application, and little is known about how these NPs within the cells...

  5. Regional variations of cell surface carbohydrates in human oral stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hakomori, S

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of blood group carbohydrate chains with antigen A, B, H type 2 chain (A and B precursor), and N-acetyllactosamine (H type 2 precursor) specificity was studied in human oral epithelium from different anatomical regions. These represented various epithelial differentiation patterns...... epithelium from nine blood group A, two blood group B, and nine blood group O individuals. The blood group carbohydrate chains were examined in tissue sections by immunofluorescence microscopy. The A and B blood group antigens were detected by human blood group sera, and antigen H type 2 chains and N...... antigen H type 2 chains in metaplastically keratinized buccal epithelium was found to differ significantly from that seen in normal non-keratinized buccal epithelium. The regional variations demonstrated in cell surface carbohydrates are suggested to reflect differences in tissue differentiation....

  6. Scale morphology of Prochilodus lineatus with emphasis on the scale epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    RMS. Alves; BF. Pereira; DL. Pitol; JA. Senhorini; RCG. Alcântara-Rocha; FH. Caetano

    2013-01-01

    The fish body is entirely covered by a thin, smooth and glandular epidermis, closely attached to the scales inserted on the dermis. The descriptive work on this tissue dates to twenty or thirty years ago, bears very little photographic record and does not focus on the scale epithelium, despite the fact that it is in direct contact with the environment. Thereupon, the present study characterizes the scale epithelium of Prochilodus lineatus, a robust species of fish. The observations show that ...

  7. Discrete movements of foot epithelium during adhesive locomotion of a land snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrakowski, Tomasz; Kaczorowski, Piotr; Pawłowicz, Wojciech; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Trojanowska, Iwona; Marszałek, Andrzej; Zebrowska, Małgorzata; Lutowska, Monika; Kopczyńska, Ewa; Lampka, Magdalena; Hołyńska-Iwan, Iga; Piskorska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    During the adhesive locomotion of land snails a series of short dark transverse bands, called pedal or foot waves, is visible ifa moving snail's ventral surface is observed through a sheet of glass. Moreover, the mucus secreted from the pedal glands and some pedal epithelial cells forms a thin layer which acts as a glue augmenting adherence, while also acting as a lubricant under the moving parts of the snail's foot. The relationships between velocity and the frequency of pedal waves as well as changes in the volume of small air bubbles under foot waves were analyzed by means of digital recordings made through a glass sheet on which the snails were moving. On the ventral surface of a moving snail foot, the adhering parts of the foot constituted about 80% of the total area, while several moving parts only about 20%. The single moving region of the foot (the pedal wave) amounted to about 3% of snail length. The epithelium in the region of the pedal wave was arched above the substrate and was also more wrinkled than the stationary epithelium, which enabled the forward motion of each specific point of epithelium during the passage of a pedal wave above it. The actual area of epithelium engaged by a pedal wave was at least 30% greater than the area of the epithelium as recorded through a glass sheet. In the region of the pedal wave, the tiny subepithelial muscles acting on the epithelium move it up in the front part of the wave, and then down at the end of the wave, operating vertically in relation to the substrate. In the middle part of the wave, the epithelium only moves forward. In summary, during the adhesive locomotion of snails, the horizontal movement of the ventral surface epithelium proceeds as temporally separate phases of upward, forward and downward movement.

  8. Mechanisms and Treatment of Deployment-Related Lung Injury: Repair of the Injured Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0018 TITLE: Mechanisms and Treatment of Deployment-Related Lung Injury: Repair of the Injured Epithelium PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE Mechanisms and Treatment of Deployment-Related Lung Injury: Repair of the Injured Epithelium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...initial experiments confirm our preliminary data that pretreatment with PM from Iraq or Afghanistan (5- 10 µg/cm2) significantly delay wound closure in

  9. Oxidative stress induces dysregulated autophagy in corneal epithelium of keratoconus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevour, Priyanka; Padmajan, Neeraja; Dhamodaran, Kamesh; Jayadev, Chaitra; M. M. A. Nuijts, Rudy; Ghosh, Arkasubhra

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key factors that contributes to the pathogenesis of keratoconus (KC). Macroautophagy is a vital cellular mechanism that is activated in response to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to understand the role of the autophagic lysosomal pathway in the oxidative damage of KC corneal epithelium and the human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE).The corneal epithelium was collected from 78 KC patients undergoing corneal cross-linking or topography guided photorefractive keratectomy. We performed microarray, qPCR and western blot analysis for the expression of autophagy markers on this epithelium from patients with different clinical grades of KC. A differential expression pattern of autophagy related markers was observed in the diseased corneal cone-specific epithelium compared to matched peripheral epithelium from KC patients with increasing clinical severity. Human corneal epithelial cells exposed to oxidative stress were analyzed for the expression of key proteins associated with KC pathogenesis and the autophagic pathway. Oxidative stress led to an increase in reactive oxygen species and an imbalanced expression of autophagy markers in the HCE cells. Further, reduced levels of Akt/p70S6 Kinase, which is a known target of the mTOR pathway was observed in HCE cells under oxidative stress as well as in KC epithelium. Our results suggest that an altered expression of proteins suggestive of defective autophagy and is a consequence of oxidative damage. This could play a possible role in the pathogenesis of KC. PMID:28902914

  10. Spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Mochizuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis. We examined cell proliferation and cell division in zebrafish lens epithelium by visualizing cell-cycle phases and nuclear positions, using fluorescent-labeled geminin and histone proteins. Proliferation was low in the anterior region of lens epithelium and higher in the marginal zone anterior to the equator, suggesting that the proliferation zone, called the germinative zone, is formed in zebrafish lens. Interestingly, cell-division orientation was biased longitudinally in the anterior region, shifted from longitudinal to circumferential along the anterior–posterior axis of lens sphere, and was biased circumferentially in the peripheral region. These data suggest that cell-division orientation is spatially regulated in zebrafish lens epithelium. The Hertwig rule indicates that cells tend to divide along their long axes. Orientation of long axes and cell division were biased similarly in zebrafish lens epithelium, suggesting that cell geometry correlates with cell-division orientation. A cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is expressed in lens epithelium. In a zebrafish e-cadherin mutant, the long axes and cell-division orientation were shifted more longitudinally. These data suggest that E-cadherin is required for the spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium.

  11. Topographical organization of TRPV1-immunoreactive epithelium and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve terminals in rodent tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kawashima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1 is activated by capsaicin, acid, and heat and mediates pain through peripheral nerves. In the tongue, TRPV1 expression has been reported also in the epithelium. This indicates a possibility that sensation is first received by the epithelium. However, how nerves receive sensations from the epithelium remains unclear. To clarify the anatomical basis of this interaction, we performed immunohistochemical studies in the rodent tongue to detect TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a neural marker. Strong expression of TRPV1 in the epithelium was observed and was restricted to the apex of the tongue. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that CGRP-expressing nerve terminals were in close apposition to the strongly TRPV1-expressing epithelium of fungiform papilla in the apex of rodent tongues. These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing epithelium monitors the oral environment and acquired information may then be conducted to the adjacent CGRPexpressing terminals.

  12. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision.

  13. Usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium in prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rey, J A; Chantada-de la Fuente, D; Peteiro-Cancelo, M Á; Gómez-de María, C; San Miguel-Fraile, M P

    2017-11-01

    The incidental presence of seminal vesicle epithelium in prostate needle biopsies is generally recognisable through routine microscopy. However, the biopsy can sometimes be erroneously interpreted as malignant due to its architectural and cytological characteristics, and immunohistochemistry can be useful for correctly identifying the biopsy. Our objective was to analyse the potential usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium. Through immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal anti-GATA-3 antibody (clone L50-823), we studied seminal vesicle sections from 20 prostatectomy specimens, 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal vesicle tissue and 68 prostate biopsies without seminal vesicle epithelium, 36 of which showed adenocarcinoma. Staining for GATA-3 was intense in the 20 seminal vesicles of the prostatectomy specimens and in the 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal epithelium. In the 60 biopsies without a seminal vesicle, GATA-3 was positive in the prostate basal cells and even in the secretory cells (57 cases), although with less intensity in 55 of the cases. One of the 36 prostatic adenocarcinomas tested positive for GATA-3. The intense immunohistochemical expression of GATA-3 in the seminal vesicle epithelium can help identify the epithelium in prostate biopsies. This marker is also positive in the basal cells of healthy prostates and, with less intensity, in the secretory cells. Positivity, weak or moderate, is observed on rare occasions in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Dobrowolski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision.

  15. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  16. Paediatric respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual "home". Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  17. Respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsney, K M; Forsyth, D

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory dysfunction has been associated with Parkinson's disease since it was first described in 1817. The respiratory symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease patients vary greatly. Most patients remain asymptomatic, whereas others present with acute shortness of breath and even stridor. In August 2016, an electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. Results were screened and studies reporting on respiratory dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease were included. Respiratory dysfunction is due to a combination of factors including restrictive changes, upper airway obstruction, abnormal ventilatory drive and response to medications. Much debate surrounds the mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, its prevalence and the effect of levodopa on respiration. It is clear from this review that larger studies, comparing patients of similar disease duration and severity using the same pulmonary function parameters, are required to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

  18. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  19. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium. Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access.

  20. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium : The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-01-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  2. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  4. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. MECHANISMS OF IMMUNE DISBALANCE FORMING IN PATIENTS WITH VIRAL INFECTIONS OF RESPIRATORY TRACT, AND NEW OPPORTUNITIES OF IMMUNOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Khoroshilova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the leading etiological factor of recurrent infections of respiratory tract. Experimental trials showed that influenza, respiratory syncytial and rhinovirus render toxic action on the elements of inborn and acquired immunity, resulting in hyperproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines with damaging effect on tissues and organs. According to this fact application of immunomodulator treatment seems to be quite actually. At the present times, there’s only one immunomodulator, recommended by WHO for the treatment of patients with recurrent respiratory infections. It is pidotimod (Imunorix. The article presents data from experimental clinical trials, studying influence of pidotimod on parameters of inborn and acquired immunity and, accordingly, on the clinical course of respiratory infections in children’s and adults. Different double-blinded placebo-controlled studies showed that pidotimod decreases a severity and duration of respiratory infections, improves functional state of respiratory epithelium. Thus, pidotimod is perspective immunomodulator for the prophylaxis and treatment of respiratory tract.Key words: children, pidotimod, viral infections, prophylaxis, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(5:56-61

  6. The AgI/II family adhesin AspA is required for respiratory infection by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Franklin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS is a human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive diseases such as toxic shock syndrome and sepsis. The upper respiratory tract is the primary reservoir from which GAS can infect new hosts and cause disease. The factors involved in colonisation are incompletely known however. Previous evidence in oral streptococci has shown that the AgI/II family proteins are involved. We hypothesized that the AspA member of this family might be involved in GAS colonization. We describe a novel mouse model of GAS colonization of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract to elucidate these interactions. We used two clinical M serotypes expressing AspA, and their aspA gene deletant isogenic mutants in experiments using adherence assays to respiratory epithelium, macrophage phagocytosis and neutrophil killing assays and in vivo models of respiratory tract colonisation and infection. We demonstrated the requirement for AspA in colonization of the respiratory tract. AspA mutants were cleared from the respiratory tract and were deficient in adherence to epithelial cells, and susceptible to phagocytosis. Expression of AspA in the surrogate host Lactococcus lactis protected bacteria from phagocytosis. Our results suggest that AspA has an essential role in respiratory infection, and may function as a novel anti-phagocytic factor.

  7. Tracheal epithelium cell volume responses to hyperosmolar, isosmolar and hypoosmolar solutions: relation to epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Fedan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In asthmatic patients, inhalation of hyperosmolar saline or D-mannitol (D-M elicits bronchoconstriction, but in healthy subjects exercise causes bronchodilation. Hyperventilation causes drying of airway surface liquid (ASL and increases its osmolarity. Hyperosmolar challenge of airway epithelium releases epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF, which relaxes the airway smooth muscle. This pathway could be involved in exercise-induced bronchodilation. Little is known of ASL hyperosmolarity effects on epithelial function. We investigated the effects of osmolar challenge maneuvers on dispersed and adherent guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells to examine the hypothesis that EpDRF-mediated relaxation is associated with epithelial cell shrinkage. Enzymatically-dispersed cells shrank when challenged with ≥10 mOsM added D M, urea or NaCl with a concentration-dependence that mimics relaxation of the of isolated, perfused tracheas (IPT. Cells shrank when incubated in isosmolar N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG chloride, Na gluconate (Glu, NMDG-Glu, K-Glu and K2SO4, and swelled in isosmolar KBr and KCl. However, isosmolar challenge is not a strong stimulus of relaxation in IPTs. In previous studies amiloride and 4,4' diisothiocyano 2,2' stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS inhibited relaxation of IPT to hyperosmolar challenge, but had little effect on shrinkage of dispersed cells. Confocal microscopy in tracheal segments showed that adherent epithelium is refractory to low hyperosmolar concentrations that induce dispersed cell shrinkage and relaxation of IPT. Except for gadolinium and erythro 9 (2 hydroxy 3 nonyladenine (EHNA, actin and microtubule inhibitors and membrane permeabilizing agents did not affect on ion transport by adherent epithelium or shrinkage responses of dispersed cells. Our studies dissociate relaxation of IPT from cell shrinkage after hyperosmolar challenge of airway epithelium .

  8. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus conven...

  9. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  10. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (p<0.001 across all probes tested) with increasing upper airway pressure repeatable across the range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions studied. These were: the three fundamental modulations in amplitude (AM-Effort), baseline (BM-Effort) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA-Effort); two pulse transit time modulations - one using a pulse oximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper

  11. Implementing change in respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2010-06-01

    Though people are generally averse to change, change and innovation are critically important in respiratory care to maintain scientific and clinical progress. This paper reviews the issue of change in respiratory care. I summarize several available models of organizational and personal change (ie, those of Kotter and of Silversin and Kornacki, and the Intentional Change Theory of Boyatzis), review the characteristics of change-avid respiratory therapy departments, offer an example of a change effort in respiratory care (implementation of respiratory care protocols) and then analyze this change effort as it took place at one institution, the Cleveland Clinic, using these models. Finally, I present the results of an analysis of change-avid respiratory therapy departments and offer some suggestions regarding change management for the profession and for individual respiratory care clinicians. Common features of theories of organizational change include developing a sense of urgency, overcoming resistance, developing a guiding coalition, and involving key stakeholders early. With the understanding that change efforts may seem unduly "clean" and orderly in retrospect, the models help explain the sustainable success of efforts to implement the Respiratory Therapy Consult Service at the Cleveland Clinic. By implication, these models offer value in planning change efforts prospectively. Further analysis of features of change-avid respiratory therapy departments indicates 11 highly desired features, of which four that especially characterize change-avid departments include: having an up-to-date leadership team; employee involvement in change; celebrating wins; and an overall sense of progressiveness in the department. This analysis suggests that understanding and embracing change is important. To anchor change in our profession, greater attention should be given to developing a pipeline of respiratory care clinicians who, by virtue of their advanced training, have the skills

  12. Follicular development and morphological changes in the vaginal epithelium during the estrous cycle of Galea spixii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Amilton Cesar; Viana, Diego Carvalho; Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides; Silva, Renata Santos; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Assis-Neto, Antônio Chaves

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to determine if characteristics observed in vaginal cytology during the estrous cycle of female SYT cavies corresponded with proliferation of the vaginal epithelium, characterized by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolocalization, and with follicular development at different phases of the estrous cycle. After determining estrous cycle phases by vaginal cytology, females were euthanized at metestrus, diestrus, proestrus, and estrus. Histological study of the vaginal epithelium and ovary were then performed. Immunohistochemistry for PCNA in vaginal tissue at each cycle phase was also performed. Superficial cornified cells and early post-ovulatory follicles were found at estrus. Few nuclei below the enucleate superficial cells were immunoreactive to PCNA. At metestrus, the vaginal epithelium underwent desquamation and lost the superficial cornified cells; basal and intermediate cells appeared, and the post-ovulatory follicle formed an early corpus luteum. No PCNA immunoreactivity was observed. At diestrus, the corpus luteum was developed, and the vaginal epithelium contained basal and intermediate cells. There was PCNA immunoreactivity in the cellular nucleus in the germinative stratum of the epithelium. Because of the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles, the vaginal epithelium suffered intense proliferation at proestrus. Vaginal cytology revealed large intermediate cells and nucleated and enucleated superficial cornified cells. In the ovary, mature follicles were present. More apparent immunoreactivity of PCNA in the germinative layer was found. In summary, we inferred that vaginal exfoliative findings matched the proliferation process of the vaginal epithelium. PCNA immunolocalization occurred as well as corresponding follicular development in the ovaries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Novel multiplexed low coherence interferometry endoscopic probe for analyzing the cervical epithelium in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Derek; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Crose, Michael; Desoto, Michael; Peters, Jennifer J.; Murtha, Amy P.; Wax, Adam

    2017-02-01

    The cervix is primarily composed of two types of epithelium: stratified squamous ectocervix and simple columnar endocervix. In between these two layers lies a metaplastic squamocolumnar junction commonly referred to as the transformation zone (T-zone). During puberty, the cervical epithelium undergoes dynamic changes including cervical ectropion and increased area and rates of metaplasia. Although these metaplastic changes have been linked to higher incidence of cervical cancer among young women, research in this field has been limited to surface analysis using computerized planimetry of colopophotographs. Here, we present a novel multiplexed low coherence interferometry (mLCI) system for interrogating the cervical epithelium. The system is comprised of 6 parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers in a time-multiplexed configuration that increases throughput by 6-fold to realize a combined 36-channel acquisition. A custom designed endoscopic handheld probe is used to collect sparsely sampled, depth-resolved scattering intensity profiles (A-scans) from a large field of view (25 x 25 mm) on the cervical epithelium in vivo. The instrument incorporates white light imaging through a plastic fiber bundle to co-register the mLCI A-scans to colpophotographs which are analyzed by a clinician to manually segment the cervical epithelium. Our preliminary data shows significant differences in characteristic A-scans from endocervical and ectocervical epithelium. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using mLCI as both a research tool for studying the relationship between cervical ectopy and cancer as well as a clinical instrument for identifying the at-risk T-zone on the cervix in vivo as a means to improve biopsy targeting. Further analysis will be performed to develop an algorithm for distinguishing the mLCI A-scans of endocervical, ectocervical, and metaplastic epithelium in real time.

  14. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Lungs & Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Lungs & Respiratory System What's ... your body, and your lungs especially hate it. Cigarette smoke damages the cilia in the trachea so they ...

  15. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    symptoms (nausea, vomiting, itching, altered defecation after receiving medicinal plant its use should be discontinued; pediatricians should not recommend using herbs with potential toxic effects (for example, high concentrations or prolonged use of shoots of wild rosemary, tansy and other. The dosage is a very important question, which depends on the age of a child. The scheme proposed by N.P. Menshikova et al. is convenient for practice. The daily dose in terms of dry plant material is: for сhildren under 1 year old — 1/2 teaspoon, from 1 to 3 years — 1 teaspoon, 3 to 6 years — 1 dessert spoon, 6 to 10 years — 1 tablespoon, 10 and older — 1–2 tablespoons. In case of the appointment of herbal me­dicine pediatrician should take into account the characteristics of the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants, their dosing and possible side effects; it is necessary to monitor treatment to assess its efficacy and safety. In the treatment of respiratory diseases inhalation is effective, using inhalation devices. Aerosol inhalation for treatment of respiratory disease may have different effects: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, a bronchodilator, and may promote the liquefaction of sputum evacuation, improve the function of the ciliated epithelium. For the purpose of inhalations medicinal plants containing essential oils are used: Calendula, Peppermint, Chamomile, Salvia, Eucalyptus, Thyme, birch, Plantain. The first inhalation lasts for 1–2 minu­tes and later 5–10 minutes. Also ready officinal herbal drugs can be used in pediatric practice: essential oils, teas, juices. A good effect of essential oil of Peppermint, Eucalyptus, Salvia and others, tincture of Calendula, Eucalyptus, Salvia, Peppermint. Relative contraindications are considered: a allergic conditions in children, b acute, life-threatening conditions and diseases, c pregnancy — for medicinal plants causing changes in hormonal balance. In pediatric practice, taking into account the characteristics

  16. Unravelling the transcriptome profile of the Swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas.

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    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.

  17. Learn about Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus ( ... file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RSV Symptoms, Causes & ...

  18. Cigarette smoking and mechanisms of susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract and other organ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of oral and respiratory infections caused by microbial pathogens is well recognised, with those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at particularly high risk. Smoking cigarettes has a suppressive effect on the protective functions of airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and adaptive immune mechanisms, in the setting of chronic systemic activation of neutrophils. Cigarette smoke also has a direct effect on microbial pathogens to promote the likelihood of infective disease, specifically promotion of microbial virulence and antibiotic resistance. In addition to interactions between smoking and HIV infection, a number of specific infections/clinical syndromes have been associated epidemiologically with cigarette smoking, including those of the upper and lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous and other organ systems. Smoking cessation benefits patients in many ways, including reduction of the risk of infectious disease. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory epithelial cell responses to cigarette smoke: the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Cigarette smoking exposes the respiratory epithelium to highly toxic, reactive oxygen nitrogen species which damage lung proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the cell organelle in which all secreted and membrane proteins are processed. Accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins in the ER, a condition termed ER stress, activates a complex cellular process termed the unfolded protein responses (UPR). The UPR acts to restore cellular protein homeostasis by regulating all aspects of protein metabolism including: protein translation and syntheses; protein folding; and protein degradation. However, activation of the UPR may also induce signaling pathways which induce inflammation and cell apoptosis. This review discusses the role of UPR in the respiratory epithelial cell response to cigarette smoke and the pathogenesis of lung diseases like COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of immunizing gilts against zearalenone on height of vaginal epithelium and urinary excretion of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougald, O A; Thulin, A J; Weldon, W C; Pestka, J J; Fogwell, R L

    1990-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to develop a vaginal epithelium bioassay for zearalenone (Z) and to determine whether immunization against Z would prevent Z mycotoxicosis. Eleven gilts were ovariectomized and allotted by weight to dietary doses of 50, 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. All doses of Z increased height of the vaginal epithelium. Height of the vaginal epithelium in gilts fed 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW increased more than that in gilts fed 50 micrograms Z/kg BW. Twenty-four gilts then were ovariectomized and allotted to be immunized or not immunized. A Z-bovine serum albumin conjugate was injected into gilts to achieve immunization. Ten weeks after initial immunization, antibodies to Z were detected after a 1:10(7) dilution at greater than .1 absorbance units using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gilts were allotted by weight to diets with no Z or 150 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. Immunization alone had no effect on height of vaginal epithelium, but after 3 and 10 d, immunized gilts fed Z had higher vaginal epithelium than did nonimmunized gilts fed Z. Immunized gilts excreted a larger percentage of ingested Z than nonimmunized gilts did. Therefore, immunizing gilts against Z potentiated both the estrogenic effects of Z and urinary excretion of Z equivalents.

  1. The location of olfactory receptors within olfactory epithelium is independent of odorant volatility and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeFazio Anthony R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to study the pattern of olfactory receptor expression within the dorsal and ventral regions of the mouse olfactory epithelium. We hypothesized that olfactory receptors were distributed based on the chemical properties of their ligands: e.g. receptors for polar, hydrophilic and weakly volatile odorants would be present in the dorsal region of olfactory epithelium; while receptors for non-polar, more volatile odorants would be distributed to the ventral region. To test our hypothesis, we used micro-transplantation of cilia-enriched plasma membranes derived from dorsal or ventral regions of the olfactory epithelium into Xenopus oocytes for electrophysiological characterization against a panel of 100 odorants. Findings Odorants detected by ORs from the dorsal and ventral regions showed overlap in volatility and water solubility. We did not find evidence for a correlation between the solubility and volatility of odorants and the functional expression of olfactory receptors in the dorsal or ventral region of the olfactory epithelia. Conclusions No simple clustering or relationship between chemical properties of odorants could be associated with the different regions of the olfactory epithelium. These results suggest that the location of ORs within the epithelium is not organized based on the physico-chemical properties of their ligands.

  2. Ultrastructural study of the corneal epithelium in the recurrent erosion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, D A; Beirouty, Z A; Lee, W R

    1995-03-01

    This study describes the adhesion systems in the corneal epithelium in the recurrent erosion syndrome and the mechanisms by which binucleate and multinucleate cells are formed within the epithelium. Twenty five samples of sliding epithelium were obtained from 23 patients and were examined by conventional light and transmission electron microscopy. The separation of the anchoring system occurred either below the level of the anchoring plaques or at the level of the epithelial cell membrane. Normal and degenerate polymorphonuclear leucocytes were found within and between the epithelial cells and within the anchoring layer. Binucleate and multinucleate cells were found within all the layers of the epithelium as were cysts containing degenerate cellular material. The presence of leucocytes and degenerate epithelial cells within the sliding epithelium suggests that these are the source of the metalloproteinases which cleave Bowman's layer below the anchoring system. The formation of binucleate and multinucleate giant cells does not appear to occur by fusion of adjacent cells, but rather by nuclear indentation and cleaving due to an abnormal microtubular system in the cytoskeleton.

  3. Expression pattern of odontogenic ameloblast-associated and amelotin during formation and regeneration of the junctional epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, S.; Moffatt, P; Nanci, A.; R Wazen; C Nishio

    2010-01-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) adheres to the tooth surface, and seals off periodontal tissues from the oral environment. This incompletely differentiated epithelium is formed initially by the fusion of the reduced enamel organ with the oral epithelium (OE). Two proteins, odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) and amelotin (AMTN), have been identified in the JE. The objective of this study was to evaluate their expression pattern during formation and regeneration of the JE. Cytokeratin 14 w...

  4. Role of Corneal Epithelium in Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A Mediated Corneal Cross-Linking Treatment in Rabbit Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangchen Tao; Haiqun Yu; Yong Zhang; Zhiwei Li; Vishal Jhanji; Shouxiang Ni; Ya Wang; Guoying Mu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) mediated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Methods. Fifty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups: UVA treatment with or without corneal epithelium, UVA+riboflavin treatment with or without corneal epithelium, and control without any treatment. All rabbits were sacrificed after irradiation and subsequently 4?mm???10?mm corneal strips were harvested for biomechanical evaluation. Results. UVA ir...

  5. Activation of cytokines and NF-kappa B in corneal epithelial cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus: potential relevance in ocular inflammation and respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakes John E

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection, claiming millions of lives annually. The virus infects various cells of the respiratory tract as well as resident inflammatory cells such as macrophages. Infection activates a variety of cellular factors such as cytokines and the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NF-kappa B, all of which are important players in the respiratory disease. However, the exact natural route of RSV infection and its etiology remain relatively unknown. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that human corneal epithelial cells, which constitute the outermost layer of the cornea, can be infected with RSV, and that the infection leads to the activation of proinflammatory macromolecules. Results Corneal swabs obtained from pediatric patients with acute respiratory disease were found to contain RSV at a high frequency (43 positive out of 72 samples, i.e., 60%. Primary corneal epithelial cells in tissue culture supported robust infection and productive growth of RSV. Infection resulted in the activation of TNF-α, IL-6 and sixteen chemokines as well as NF-κB. Three proinflammatory CXC chemokines (MIG, I-TAC, IP-10 underwent the greatest activation. Conclusions The ocular epithelium is readily infected by RSV. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are likely to play critical roles in the etiology of inflammation and conjunctivitis commonly seen in pediatric patients with respiratory infections. RSV-eye interactions have important implications in RSV transmission, immunopathology of RSV disease, and in the management of conjunctivitis.

  6. The effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on human ciliated respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Merrill A; Jones, John W; Pedigo, Lisa; Gibbs, Aaron; Loebel, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Chronic recurrent sinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic conditions in the United States. There is a significant subpopulation of CRS patients who remain resistant to cure despite rigorous treatment regimens including surgery, allergy therapy, and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a noninvasive nonantibiotic broad spectrum antimicrobial treatment. Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that aPDT reduced CRS polymicrobial biofilm and planktonic bacteria and fungi by > 99.9% after a single treatment. Prior to human treatment however, aPDT treatment must be demonstrated to not result in histologic damage to the sinus ciliated respiratory epithelium. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety of aPDT treatment on a living human ciliated respiratory mucosal model (EpiAirway). A study of aPDT treatment of EpiAirway was performed. Treatment groups included a nontreatment control, laser light alone, photosensitizer alone, and therapeutic photosensitizer and light combination (aPDT). At completion of treatment, the EpiAirway tissue was fixed in 10% formalin, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, H&E stained and mounted. All samples were blinded and microscopically examined by a human pathologist to assess any effect of aPDT on the tissue, cilia, or mucosal glands. The results were correlated with the treatment parameters. The EpiAirway histologic study demonstrated no histologic alteration of the respiratory cilia or mucosal epithelium in any of the treatment groups. aPDT is a safe treatment for CRS resulting in no histologic alteration of human ciliated respiratory mucosa as is found in the human sinuses. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

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    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  8. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  9. [Light and electron microscopic studies of oropharyngeal epithelium in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Urodela: Salamandridae) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1984-01-01

    The oropharyngeal-epithelium of intrauterine and free swimming larvae of Salamandra salamandra has been investigated by electron microscopy. With the exception of the toothed areas, where it is multi-layered, the epithelium of intrauterine larvae consists of two cell layers, pavement and basal cells. In older larvae, however, the entire epithelium is multi-layered. The outermost layer contains nonciliated pavement cells, goblet cells and sporadically mitochondria-rich cells. Both, goblet cells and pavement cells synthesize mainly acid mucosubstances, which are localized in big confluent secretory granules in the former and in small granules immediately beneath the apical plasmalemm in the latter. In the second layer different developmental stages of goblet cells and pavement cells can be identified.

  10. Tooth regeneration from newly established cell lines from a molar tooth germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, Akihiko; Suenaga, Momoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Tsuji, Takashi; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2007-04-13

    In order to investigate tooth development, several cell lines of the dental epithelium and ectomesenchyme have been established. However, no attempt has been reported to regenerate teeth with cell lines. Here, we have established several clonal cell lines of the dental epithelium from a p53-deficient fetal mouse. They expressed specific markers of the dental epithelium such as ameloblastin and amelogenin. A new method has been developed to bioengineer tooth germs with dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Reconstructed tooth germs with cell lines and fetal mesenchymal cells were implanted under kidney capsule. The germs regenerated teeth with well-calcified structures as seen in natural tooth. Germs without the cell lines developed bone. This is the first success to regenerate teeth with dental epithelial cell lines. They are useful models in vitro for investigation of mechanisms in morphogenesis and of cell lineage in differentiation, and for clinical application for tooth regeneration.

  11. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  12. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (pVIH (pVIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic profiling of fetal esophageal epithelium, esophageal cancer, and tumor-adjacent esophageal epithelium and immunohistochemical characterization of a representative differential protein, PRX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-Hui; Xing, Guo-Lan; Fang, Xin-Hui; Wu, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Zong-Min; Wang, Li-Dong

    2017-01-01

    AIM To understand the molecular mechanism of esophageal cancer development and provide molecular markers for screening high-risk populations and early diagnosis. METHODS Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry were adopted to screen differentially expressed proteins in nine cases of fetal esophageal epithelium, eight cases of esophageal cancer, and eight cases of tumor-adjacent normal esophageal epithelium collected from fetuses of different gestational age, or esophageal cancer patients from a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in China. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase complex method) was used to detect the expression of peroxiredoxin (PRX)6 in 91 cases of esophageal cancer, tumor-adjacent normal esophageal tissue, basal cell hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ, as well as 65 cases of esophageal epithelium from fetuses at a gestational age of 3-9 mo. RESULTS After peptide mass fingerprint analysis and search of protein databases, 21 differential proteins were identified; some of which represent a protein isoform. Varying degrees of expression of PRX6 protein, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, were detected in adult and fetal normal esophageal tissues, precancerous lesions, and esophageal cancer. With the progression of esophageal lesions, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend (P < 0.05). In fetal epithelium from fetuses at gestational age 3-6 mo, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend with age (P < 0.05). PRX6 protein expression was significantly higher in well-differentiated esophageal cancer tissues than in poorly differentiated esophageal cancer tissues (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Development and progression of esophageal cancer result from interactions of genetic changes (accumulation or superposition). PRX6 protein is associated with fetal esophageal development and cancer differentiation. PMID:28293090

  14. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary [Brentwood, CA; Slezak, Thomas [Livermore, CA; Birch, James M [Albany, CA

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  15. A stab-and-roll biopsy technique to maintain gingival epithelium for desquamative gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroyasu; Rees, Terry D; Allen, Edward P; Kuyama, Kayo; Aoki, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Ito, Takanori

    2014-06-01

    Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical manifestation common to several diseases. It is known that most cases of DG are caused by mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), oral lichen planus (OLP), or pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Early recognition and treatment of these diseases can improve the prognosis, but diagnostic delays are common in patients with DG because obtaining a diagnostic biopsy is technically challenging. A biopsy technique designed to maintain the gingival epithelium for patients with DG was developed. The usefulness of this technique is discussed. This study is based on a retrospective review of 27 DG cases. A stab-and-roll technique was used to obtain gingival tissue. This technique is designed to reduce lateral forces on the epithelium during the procedure and to thereby prevent the inadvertent removal of the epithelium from the biopsy specimen. A total of 52 biopsies comprising 27 for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained samples and 25 for direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing were reviewed. Fifty-one of the 52 biopsies (98.1%) maintained the epithelium. Only one biopsy (1.9%) showed that the epithelium was totally absent. Therefore, H&E and DIF features of 51 biopsies were analyzed. Definitive diagnoses of the diseases causing DG included MMP (13 cases), PV (eight cases), and OLP (six cases). A diagnostic biopsy was obtained from the gingiva of patients with DG using the stab-and-roll technique. The gingival epithelium was well maintained, and the relationship with the underlying connective tissue was diagnostic. In the future, this stab-and-roll biopsy technique may facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of diseases causing DG.

  16. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Smoking-mediated up-regulation of GAD67 expression in the human airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Wang, Rui; Ferris, Barbara; Salit, Jacqueline; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G

    2010-10-29

    The production of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is dependent on glutamate decarboxylases (GAD65 and GAD67), the enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA. Based on studies suggesting a role of the airway epithelial GABAergic system in asthma-related mucus overproduction, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking, another disorder associated with increased mucus production, may modulate GABAergic system-related gene expression levels in the airway epithelium. We assessed expression of the GABAergic system in human airway epithelium obtained using bronchoscopy to sample the epithelium and microarrays to evaluate gene expression. RT-PCR was used to confirm gene expression of GABAergic system gene in large and small airway epithelium from heathy nonsmokers and healthy smokers. The differences in the GABAergic system gene was further confirmed by TaqMan, immunohistochemistry and Western analysis. The data demonstrate there is a complete GABAergic system expressed in the large and small human airway epithelium, including glutamate decarboxylase, GABA receptors, transporters and catabolism enzymes. Interestingly, of the entire GABAergic system, smoking modified only the expression of GAD67, with marked up-regulation of GAD67 gene expression in both large (4.1-fold increase, p smoking. In the context that GAD67 is the rate limiting enzyme in GABA synthesis, the correlation of GAD67 gene expression with MUC5AC expressions suggests that the up-regulation of airway epithelium expression of GAD67 may contribute to the increase in mucus production observed in association with cigarette smoking. NCT00224198; NCT00224185.

  18. Architectural organization of filiform papillae in normal and black hairy tongue epithelium: dissection of differentiation pathways in a complex human epithelium according to their patterns of keratin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, M; Lim, H W; Winzer, M; Loomis, C A

    1999-02-01

    An inadequate understanding of the complex morphologic characteristics of human filiform papillae has hampered the histopathological characterization of disorders affecting tongue keratinization. To better define the 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture of tongue epithelium, we performed detailed immunohistochemical analyses of normal and black hairy tongue tissues using a panel of antikeratin antibodies. The dome-shaped base of the human filiform papilla (primary papilla) is surmounted by 3 to 8 elongated structures (secondary papillae). These secondary papillae are composed of a central column of epithelial cells expressing hair-type keratins and an outer rim of cells expressing skin-type keratins. The epithelium overlying the primary papillae and between the individual primary papillae express esophageal-type keratins. In black hairy tongue disease, there is a marked retention of secondary papillary cells expressing hair-type keratins. Using a panel of antikeratin probes, we define the precise topographical localization of cell populations undergoing 3 distinct differentiation programs in dorsal tongue epithelium. Comparative analyses of black hairy tongue specimens indicate that defective desquamation of the cells in the central column of filiform papillae results in the formation of highly elongated, cornified spines or, "hairs"--the hallmark of this disease.

  19. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlić, Z; Rudez, I; Biocina, B; Husedzinović, I

    1997-01-01

    In this article the authors present a case of successful treatment of a 54-year old male patient with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and triple-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent surgical myocardial revascularization and was reoperated on the same day because of excessive bleeding. The patient was given cca 5000 mL of whole blood and cca 3000 mL of blood derivatives. The first postoperative chest X-ray showed radiological signs of ARDS. The therapy was based upon authors' experience and was consisted of controlled mechanical ventilation (respiratory volume 12-15 mL/kg, 10-14 cycles/min, I/E ratio 1:2, FIO2 0.6, PEEP 2-5 cm H2O), daily bronchoscopies with bronchoaspiration, aggressive diuresis, negative fluid balance, specific antibiotic therapy, and last but not least, of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) 0.5-20 micrograms/kg/min combined with dopamine inotropic support (2-5 micrograms/kg/h). Simple but careful clinical observation still remains a milestone for all therapeutic measures taken in ARDS patients.

  20. Surgical treatment in combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Rueda-Rueda, T; Llerena-Manzorro, L; Molina-Socola, F E; Contreras-Díaz, M; Szewc, M; Vital-Berral, C; Alfaro-Juárez, A; Medina-Tapia, A; López-Herrero, F; González-García, L; Muñoz-Morales, A

    2017-03-01

    The case is presented of a 39 year-old man with a combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium, who experienced progressive visual loss and worsening of metamorphopsia. The patient underwent vitrectomy and epiretinal component peeling, with improvement in visual acuity, metamorphopsia, and retinal architecture, assessed by optical coherence tomography. Selected patients with combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium may benefit from surgical management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Transplantation tool integrated with MEMS manipulator for retinal pigment epithelium cell sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H; Konishi, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a transplantation tool for the retinal pigment epithelium in an eye. We have developed MEMS manipulator as an end-effector for transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium cell sheet. Typical size of MEMS manipulator is 3mm×3mm. MEMS manipulator was made of polydimethylsiloxane and driven by pneumatic balloon actuators. MEMS manipulator have been improved and integrated with several functions by sensors and actuators. MEMS manipulator is integrated into a transplantation tool. A whole tool also requires improvements based on our experimental results. We have improved our tool in terms of assembling, sealing, and operation.

  2. Airway responses towards allergens - from the airway epithelium to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Hansen, Søren; Würtzen, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis is increasing, affecting up to 30% of the human population worldwide. Allergic sensitization arises from complex interactions between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility, resulting in inflammatory T helper 2 (Th2) cell......-damaged, healthy epithelium lowers the DCs ability to induce inflammatory T cell responses towards allergens. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on which signals from the airway epithelium, from first contact with inhaled allergens all the way to the ensuing Th2 cell responses......, influence the pathology of allergic diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  3. Hypotonicity induced K+ and anion conductive pathways activation in eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, M G; Giordano, M E; De Nuccio, F

    2005-01-01

    Control of cell volume is a fundamental and highly conserved physiological mechanism, essential for survival under varying environmental and metabolic conditions. Epithelia (such as intestine, renal tubule, gallbladder and gills) are tissues physiologically exposed to osmotic stress. Therefore......, the activation of 'emergency' systems of rapid cell volume regulation is fundamental in their physiology. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological response to hypotonic stress in a salt-transporting epithelium, the intestine of the euryhaline teleost Anguilla anguilla. Eel intestinal epithelium...

  4. Different Cell Types In the Lower Respiratory Tract of the Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. - A Transmission Electron Microscopical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo A.m. Saari

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium of the trachea and distal airways of 12 healthy adult reindeer were studied with transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the reindeer respiratory tract corresponded to the findings of previous investigators studying other mammalian species. The epithelium of the trachea and bronchi, down to the level of the distal bronchioli, was composed of three main types of cell: ciliated, goblet, and basal. In the distal brochioli, non-ciliated cells similar to those known as Clara cells were predominant. Numerous electron-dense granules and the cell organelle pattern resembled the Clara cell type observed in laboratory rodents, rabbit, sheep, pig, horse, and llama. Pneumocyte 1 and pneumocyte 2 cells were readily identified in the alveoli. The pneumocyte 2 cells possessed short microvilli and granules with lamellar content. Micropinocytotic vesicles were very numerous in the alveolar wall, and a small number of alveolar macrophages occasionally seen in the alveolar lumen.

  5. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  6. [Respiratory syncytial virus infection and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Mateos, M A

    2001-01-01

    Presentation of bronchial asthma, in the years following the first outbreak of bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first described by McIntosh, who postulated a common pathogenesis that was confirmed by the greater frequency (50%) of wheezing bronchiolitis and asthma during the more than 5 year follow up of these children. More recently, Hibbert and Schroechkenstein have again confirmed this phenomenon. These authors report that the percentage of asthma was increased by up to 71% in a group of children who contracted bronchiolitis during the first year of life and who were closely followed-up for 5 years after the outbreak. Other authors report figures between 25% and 57%. Stein et al. followed-up 888 children with RSV bronchiolitis until the age of 13 years and observed that at the age of 3-5 years 69% had asthma, at 4-5 years 55% did so and at 6-8 years 31% were asthmatic. In our experience of children who developed RSV bronchiolitis before the age of 6 months, 58 of 75 developed infantile asthma in following 3 years. Seventeen infants were aged more than 6 months at onset of bronchiolitis and of these 5 had bronchiolitis. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged 3-7 months with RSV bronchiolitis from December 1997 to February 1998. Follow-up was until the year 2000. Of these children, 22 (44%) had asthma and the remaining 28 (56%) had isolated episodes of cough and wheezing, which did not fulfill the criteria for asthma. Of the 22 children with asthma, all presented elevated total IgE by the second year of follow-up but only one of the children presented hypersensitivity to egg. The breathing difficulties that appeared in the initial outbreak of bronchiolitis is well explained by the cytopathic effect of the virus on the airways of infants. RSV virus produces inflammation of the bronchial mucosa, the effects of which may persist for 6-7 weeks, even after recovery from the first episode. The damaged and denuded epithelium

  7. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  8. [Demonstration of leucine aminopeptidase in the peritoneal epithelium of early post-larval stages of Anguilla anguilla L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, H

    1975-01-01

    The coelom of elvers (Anguilla anguilla L.), eel0, is contenting glycoproteids, but these are not improvable in following stages of development. In peritoneal epithelium of eel0 activity of leucinamino-peptidase is present, but absent in the stage 2a. We can suppose that glycoproteids vanish by enzymatic catabolism and resorption within the peritoneal epithelium.

  9. Megalin–deficiency causes high myopia, retinal pigment epithelium-macromelanosomes and abnormal development of the ciliary body in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Tina; Heegaard, Steffen; Christensen, Erik I

    2014-01-01

    of megalin-deficient mice were examined with immunological techniques using light, confocal and electron microscopy. We identified megalin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium (NPCBE) in normal mouse eyes. Immunocytochemical investigations furthermore showed...

  10. Effect of the dental adhesive, 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, on adhesion and keratinization of regenerating oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Y; Muramatsu, T; Masaoka, T; Hashimoto, S; Shimono, M

    2009-08-01

    The 4-META/MMA-TBB [4-(2-methacryloxyethyl)trimellitic anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tributylborane] resin is widely used as a dental adhesive. It has also been applied in the dressing of gingival wound surfaces following periodontal surgery. However, its effect on the regeneration and/or cell attachment of the oral epithelium remains to be clarified. To evaluate the effect of the resin applied as a wound dressing, we investigated expression of laminin 5, integrin beta(4) and cytokeratin 14 in regenerating oral epithelium treated with this resin following gingivectomy from the viewpoint of cell attachment and differentiation. The resin was applied to the entire wound surface in rats after gingival surgery, and regenerating epithelium was examined immediately and at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days later. The resin was removed 2 weeks after application in some animals and tissue further examined at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days later. Regenerating epithelium under the resin was not keratinized, but became keratinized immediately after removal of the resin. Laminin 5 and integrin beta(4) were immunolocalized in the basal lamina, the internal basal lamina, in marginal cells of the regenerating epithelium and at the resin-regenerating epithelium interface. Cytokeratin 14 localized in the regenerating epithelium underneath the resin, as well as in healthy and regenerated junctional epithelial cells. These results suggest that this resin covers the wound surface and that the regenerating epithelium biologically adheres to the resin during the initial process of its regeneration.

  11. Role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A mediated corneal cross-linking treatment in rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiangchen; Yu, Haiqun; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhiwei; Jhanji, Vishal; Ni, Shouxiang; Wang, Ya; Mu, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) mediated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Fifty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups: UVA treatment with or without corneal epithelium, UVA+riboflavin treatment with or without corneal epithelium, and control without any treatment. All rabbits were sacrificed after irradiation and subsequently 4 mm × 10 mm corneal strips were harvested for biomechanical evaluation. UVA irradiation alone did not enhance the maximal stress and Young's modulus of corneal specimens with (3.15 ± 0.56 mpa, 1.00 ± 0.09 mpa) or without (3.53 ± 0.85 mpa, 0.94 ± 0.21 mpa) the corneal epithelium, compared to specimens in the control group (4.30 ± 0.68 mpa, 1.03 ± 0.24 mpa). However, UVA irradiation combined with riboflavin significantly increased the maximal stress and Young's modulus of corneal specimens with (5.27 ± 1.09 mpa, 1.23 ± 0.23 mpa, P cornea in UVA+riboflavin and "epithelium-off" group were 35.9% and 15.4% higher compared to the UVA+riboflavin and "epithelium-on" group, respectively (P biomechanical properties of the cornea with and without epithelial removal. However, corneas without epithelium seem to benefit more compared to corneas with the epithelium.

  12. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) silencing in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Muhammad, Jibran Sualeh; Nanjo, Sohachi; Ando, Takayuki; Fujinami, Haruka; Kajiura, Shinya; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection induces methylation silencing of specific genes in gastric epithelium. Various stimuli activate the nonselective cation channel TRPV4, which is expressed in gastric epithelium where it detects mechanical stimuli and promotes ATP release. As CpG islands in TRPV4 are methylated in HP-infected gastric epithelium, we evaluated HP infection-dependent changes in TRPV4 expression in gastric epithelium. Human gastric biopsy samples, a human gastric cancer cell line (AGS), and a normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) were used to detect TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Ca(2+) imaging was used to evaluate TRPV4 ion channel activity. TRPV4 methylation status was assessed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). ATP release was measured by a luciferin-luciferase assay. TRPV4 mRNA and protein were detected in human gastric biopsy samples and in GES-1 cells. MSP and demethylation assays showed TRPV4 methylation silencing in AGS cells. HP coculture directly induced methylation silencing of TRPV4 in GES-1 cells. In human samples, HP infection was associated with TRPV4 methylation silencing that recovered after HP eradication in a time-dependent manner. HP infection-dependent DNA methylation suppressed TRPV4 expression in human gastric epithelia, suggesting that TRPV4 methylation may be involved in HP-associated dyspepsia. © 2016 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human and mouse choroid plexus epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Janssen (Sarah); S.J.F. van der Spek (Sophie); J.B. ten Brink (Jacoline); A.H.W. Essing (Anke); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is

  14. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly

  15. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte...... as a subepithelial lamina propria, harboring the immune cells of the gut mucosa....

  16. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    surface facing the outside and accessible for analysis of ciliary function. METHODS: We performed a two-group comparison study of ciliary beat pattern and ciliary beat frequency in spheroids derived from nasal airway epithelium in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in healthy controls...

  17. Protection of germinal epithelium with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Huben, R.P.; Klioze, S.S.; Pontes, J.E.

    1985-07-01

    A dog model for chemotherapy and radiation-induced testicular damage was created to study the protective potential of superactive analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, buserelin. Buserelin appeared to offer protection of the canine germinal epithelium against cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and radiation. Clinical trials with buserelin in patients of reproductive age undergoing treatment for cancer should be encouraged.

  18. Ophthalmoscopy for congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, A; Myrhøj, T; Bülow, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in sporadic colorectal cancer, ophthalmoscopy was carried out in 34 patients with colorectal carcinoma without known familial disposition. CHRPE is one of the most frequent extracolonic...

  19. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly...

  20. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  1. Regulation of ion transport via apical purinergic receptors in intact rabbit airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Pedersen, Peter Steen

    2005-01-01

    We investigated purinergic receptors involved in ion transport regulation in the intact rabbit nasal airway epithelium. Stimulation of apical membrane P2Y receptors with ATP or UTP (200 microM) induced transient increases in short-circuit current (Isc) of 13 and 6% followed by sustained inhibitions...

  2. Xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    Full Text Available Amniotic membrane-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium has been widely used in the reconstruction of the ocular surface. However, it often degrades too early to ensure the success of the transplanted corneal epithelium when treating patients with severe ocular surface disorders. In the present study, we investigated the preparation of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix (aCM and evaluated its efficacy and safety as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium. Native porcine conjunctiva was decellularized with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS for 12 h at 37°C and sterilized via γ-irradiation. Compared with native conjunctiva, more than 92% of the DNA was removed, and more than 90% of the extracellular matrix components (glycosaminoglycan and collagen remained after the decellularization treatment. Compared with denuded amniotic membrane (dAM, the aCM possessed favorable optical transmittance, tensile strength, stability and biocompatibility as well as stronger resistance to degradation both in vitro and in vivo. The corneal epithelial cells seeded on aCM formed a multilayered epithelial structure and endured longer than did those on dAM. The aCM-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium was more effective in the reconstruction of the ocular surface in rabbits with limbal stem cell deficiency. These findings support the application of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold for reconstructing the ocular surface.

  3. Interleukin-13–Induced Mucous Metaplasia Increases Susceptibility of Human Airway Epithelium to Rhinovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E.; Boushey, Homer A.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Widdicombe, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of airway epithelium by rhinovirus is the most common cause of asthma exacerbations. Even in mild asthma, airway epithelium exhibits mucous metaplasia, which increases with increasing severity of the disease. We previously showed that squamous cultures of human airway epithelium manifest rhinoviral infection at levels many times higher than in well-differentiated cultures of a mucociliary phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that mucous metaplasia is also associated with increased levels of rhinoviral infection. Mucous metaplasia was induced with IL-13, which doubled the numbers of goblet cells. In both control (mucociliary) and IL-13– treated (mucous metaplastic) cultures, goblet cells were preferentially infected by rhinovirus. IL-13 doubled the numbers of infected cells by increasing the numbers of infected goblet cells. Furthermore, IL-13 increased both the maturity of goblet cells and the probability that a goblet cell would be infected. The infection of cells other than goblet cells was unaltered by IL-13. Treatment with IL-13 did not alter the levels of rhinovirus receptor ICAM-1, nor did the proliferative effects of IL-13 enhance infection, because rhinovirus did not colocalize with dividing cells. However, the induction of mucous metaplasia caused changes in the apical membrane structure, notably a marked decrease in overall ciliation, and an increase in the overall flatness of the apical surface. We conclude that mucous metaplasia in asthma increases the susceptibility of airway epithelium to infection by rhinovirus because of changes in the overall architecture of the apical surface. PMID:20081054

  4. Senile macular degeneration and geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerson, D.; Aaberg, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    The case is reported of a man who had oval areas of atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium in paracentral areas which previously had heavy concentrations of drusen OU. This supports the suggestion by others that atrophy of the RPE in senile macular disease may in some cases occur in the absence of previous serous detachment of the RPE. Images PMID:687554

  5. Spatiotemporal expression of Ezh2 in the developing mouse cochlear sensory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Wenyan; Li, Wen; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-09-01

    The enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (Ezh2) is a histone-lysine Nmethyltransferase enzyme that participates in DNA methylation. Ezh2 has also been reported to play crucial roles in stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the detailed expression profile of Ezh2 during mouse cochlear development has not been investigated. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Ezh2 in the cochlea during embryonic and postnatal development. Ezh2 expression began to be observed in the whole otocyst nuclei at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5). At E12.5, Ezh2 was expressed in the nuclei of the cochlear prosensory epithelium. At E13.5 and E15.5, Ezh2 was expressed from the apical to the basal turns in the nuclei of the differentiating cochlear epithelium. At postnatal day (P) 0 and 7, the Ezh2 expression was located in the nuclei of the cochlear epithelium in all three turns and could be clearly seen in outer and inner hair cells, supporting cells, the stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells. Ezh2 continued to be expressed in the cochlear epithelium of adult mice. Our results provide the basic Ezh2 expression pattern and might be useful for further investigating the detailed role of Ezh2 during cochlear development.

  6. Epithelial Cell Damage Activates Bactericidal/Permeability Increasing-Protein (BPI Expression in Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Balakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense against invading pathogen, intestinal epithelium produces various antimicrobial proteins (AMP that help in clearance of pathogen. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI is a 55 kDa AMP that is expressed in intestinal epithelium. Dysregulation of BPI in intestinal epithelium is associated with various inflammatory diseases like Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative colitis, and Infectious enteritis’s. In this paper, we report a direct correlation between intestinal damage and BPI expression. In Caco-2 cells, we see a significant increase in BPI levels upon membrane damage mediated by S. aureus infection and pore-forming toxins (Streptolysin and Listeriolysin. Cells detect changes in potassium level as a Danger-associated molecular pattern associated with cell damage and induce BPI expression in a p38 dependent manner. These results are further supported by in vivo findings that the BPI expression in murine intestinal epithelium is induced upon infection with bacteria which cause intestinal damage (Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella flexneri whereas mutants that do not cause intestinal damage (STM ΔfliC and STM ΔinvC did not induce BPI expression. Our results suggest that epithelial damage associated with infection act as a signal to induce BPI expression.

  7. Inhibition of endotoxin effects on cultured human middle ear epithelium by bactericidal permeability-increasing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, M J; Albers-Op 't Hof, B M; Koerten, H K; Grote, J J

    2000-09-01

    Endotoxin can induce morphologic changes to middle ear epithelium, which can disturb the mucociliary clearance system (MCS) and lead to otitis media with effusion (OME). The bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is a major component of neutrophil granules and binds with high affinity to endotoxin. In this study, the capacity to inhibit the effects of endotoxin by rBPI21, a recombinant amino-terminal analog derived from BPI, was investigated on cultured human middle ear epithelium using light microscopy and scanning- and transmission electron microscopy. Human middle ear epithelium was air-exposed cultured on a collagenous underlayer with different additions of endotoxin and rBPI21 to the culture medium. The tissue specimens were inspected after 4 weeks for the number of ciliated and secretory cells, thickness of the mucosal layer, and cell size. The morphologic changes induced by endotoxin were increased thickness of the mucosal layer and increased number of secretory cells. These changes were significantly diminished or even absent when endotoxin was added with rBPI21 to the culture medium. rBPI21 can inhibit morphologic changes in the middle ear epithelium due to endotoxin. Hence, the authors believe that rBPI21 can be a new therapeutic agent in the treatment of OME.

  8. Comparative gene expression study and pathway analysis of the human iris- and the retinal pigment epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, Anna; Ten Brink, Jacoline B; Moerland, Perry D; Heine, Vivi M; Bergen, Arthur A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a neural monolayer lining the back of the eye. Degeneration of the RPE leads to severe vision loss in, so far incurable, diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa. A promising future replacement

  9. Chemokine production by buccal epithelium as a distinctive feature of pediatric Crohn disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, GM; Hol, J; de Ruiter, L.; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M; van der Woude, J; Laman, JD; Hop, WCJ; Buller, HA; Escher, JC; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent an aberrant immune response by the mucosal immune system to luminal bacteria. Because the oral mucosa harbors the first epithelial cells that interact with microorganisms, we assessed the immunologic activity of buccal epithelium in children

  10. The Phototoxicity of ’Blue Light’ on the Functional Properties of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-15

    Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 30, 1916-1922. 12 12. Frambach, D.A. and Misfeldt, D.S. (1983) Furosemide -sensitive Cl transport in embryonic chicken retinal...of ethanol on the blue light depolarization of the retinal pigment epithelium. Alcoholism : Clin. Exp. Res. (in press). Pautler, E.L. and Beezley, D

  11. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  12. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol...

  13. Study and retina allotransplantation of porcine ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cogliati, Tiziana Paola

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports the isolation, characterization and allotransplantation in porcine retina of ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells, also known as retinal stem cells (RSCs). The self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of these cells in vitro and in vivo makes them candidate donors in

  14. Intermediate cells in human prostate epithelium are enriched in proliferative inflammatory atrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Gage, W.R.; Hicks, J.L.; Balken, B. van; Aalders, T.W.; Schalken, J.A.; Marzo, A.M. De

    2003-01-01

    Within the human prostate epithelium four cell populations can be discriminated based on their expression of keratins (K). Basal cells express high levels of K5 and K14, as well as p63, whereas they have very low levels of androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), K8, and K18. Luminal

  15. Adaptation of image cytometry methodology for DNA ploidy analysis of cervical epithelium samples: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Eliza Motta Duarte

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Image cytometry of the cervical specimens revealed DNA aneuploidy, most probably resulting from chromosomal alterations and appearing as precancerous lesions in 65% of the cases. The adaptations implemented in this study, enabled the DNA-image cytometry to become more accessible, enhancing its extended use as an adjuvant strategy for the early screening of the cervical epithelium samples during routine analyses.

  16. Effect of bisphosphonates on the mandibular bone and gingival epithelium of rats without tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Ponte, Francesco Saverio; Catalfamo, Luciano; Micali, Gregorio; Runci, Michele; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Vermiglio, Giovanna; Centofanti, Antonio; Rizzo, Giuseppina

    2016-05-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an adverse effect of bisphosphonate treatment that has become the subject of increasing investigations, in particular due to its poorly understood pathogenesis. Several experimental studies on animal models have been conducted; however, the majority of these replicate human ONJ following tooth extraction, and describe alterations in the bone and gingival epithelium when necrosis is manifested. The aim of the present study was to analyze the rat mandibular bone and gingival epithelium during 45 days of zoledronate treatment (which is a bisphosphonate agent), without tooth extraction. Intraperitoneal injections of zoledronate acid (0.1 mg/kg) were performed three times a week in normal male Wistar rats (n=20), while a control group of rats (n=20) was treated with saline solution for 45 days. After 7, 15, 30 and 45 days of drug treatment, all rats were sacrificed and hematoxilin and eosin staining, immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed. The results of the analyses after 7 and 15 days of treatment were similar in the treatment and control group. After 30 and 45 days of treatment, structural alterations were observed in the bone. No structural alterations to the gingival epithelium were observed. Based on these results, it was hypothesized that low doses of zoledronate act directly on the bone tissues to induce morphological alterations from bone to necrotic tissue following surgical procedures, although no cytotoxic effects were detected in the gingival epithelium.

  17. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  18. Morphological Alterations of the Palpebral Conjunctival Epithelium in a Dry Eye Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Farley, William; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Burns, Alan R.; Bergmanson, Jan P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the normal palpebral conjunctival histology in C57BL/6 mice, and the structural changes that occur in a dry eye model. Methods 24 male and female C57BL/6 mice, 8 untreated (UT) and 16 exposed to experimental ocular surface desiccating stress (DS). Ocular dryness was induced by administration of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.5 mg/0.2 ml) QID for 5 (DS5) or 10 (DS10) days. Counts and measurements were obtained using anatomical reference points and goblet cell density was investigated with a variety of stains. Results Near the junction between the lid margin and the normal palpebral conjunctiva, the epithelium had an average thickness of 45.6±10.5μm, 8.8±2.0 cell layers, versus 37.7±5.6μm, 7.4±1.3 layers in DS10 (P<0.05). In the goblet cell populated palpebral region the normal epithelium was thicker (P<0.05) than in DS5 and DS10. In the control, 43% of the goblet cells were covered by squamous epithelium, compared to 58% (DS5) and 63% (DS10) (P<0.05). A decreased number of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue stained goblet cells was observed in the dry eye. Not all goblet cells stained with PAS and Alcian blue. Conclusions The mouse palpebral conjunctival epithelium was structurally similar to the human. After DS the palpebral conjunctival epithelium decreased in thickness and goblet cell access to the surface appeared to be inhibited by surrounding epithelial cells, potentially slowing down their migration to the surface. Differential staining with PAS and Alcian blue suggests there may be different subtypes of conjunctival goblet cells. PMID:23146932

  19. Conserved form and function of the germinal epithelium through 500 million years of vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Harry J; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Mims, Steven D; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-08-01

    The germinal epithelium, i.e., the site of germ cell production in males and females, has maintained a constant form and function throughout 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. The distinguishing characteristic of germinal epithelia among all vertebrates, males, and females, is the presence of germ cells among somatic epithelial cells. The somatic epithelial cells, Sertoli cells in males or follicle (granulosa) cells in females, encompass and isolate germ cells. Morphology of all vertebrate germinal epithelia conforms to the standard definition of an epithelium: epithelial cells are interconnected, border a body surface or lumen, are avascular and are supported by a basement membrane. Variation in morphology of gonads, which develop from the germinal epithelium, is correlated with the evolution of reproductive modes. In hagfishes, lampreys, and elasmobranchs, the germinal epithelia of males produce spermatocysts. A major rearrangement of testis morphology diagnoses osteichthyans: the spermatocysts are arranged in tubules or lobules. In protogynous (female to male) sex reversal in teleost fishes, female germinal epithelial cells (prefollicle cells) and oogonia transform into the first male somatic cells (Sertoli cells) and spermatogonia in the developing testis lobules. This common origin of cell types from the germinal epithelium in fishes with protogynous sex reversal supports the homology of Sertoli cells and follicle cells. Spermatogenesis in amphibians develops within spermatocysts in testis lobules. In amniotes vertebrates, the testis is composed of seminiferous tubules wherein spermatogenesis occurs radially. Emerging research indicates that some mammals do not have lifetime determinate fecundity. The fact emerged that germinal epithelia occur in the gonads of all vertebrates examined herein of both sexes and has the same form and function across all vertebrate taxa. Continued study of the form and function of the germinal epithelium in vertebrates

  20. Quantification of Transcriptome Responses of the Rumen Epithelium to Butyrate Infusion using RNA-seq Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Li, Congjun; Bequette, Brian J; Li, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms, play a critical role in energy metabolism and physiology of ruminants as well as in human health. In this study, the temporal effect of elevated butyrate concentrations on the transcriptome of the rumen epithelium was quantified via serial biopsy sampling using RNA-seq technology. The mean number of genes transcribed in the rumen epithelial transcriptome was 17,323.63 ± 277.20 (±SD; N = 24) while the core transcriptome consisted of 15,025 genes. Collectively, 80 genes were identified as being significantly impacted by butyrate infusion across all time points sampled. Maximal transcriptional effect of butyrate on the rumen epithelium was observed at the 72-h infusion when the abundance of 58 genes was altered. The initial reaction of the rumen epithelium to elevated exogenous butyrate may represent a stress response as Gene Ontology (GO) terms identified were predominantly related to responses to bacteria and biotic stimuli. An algorithm for the reconstruction of accurate cellular networks (ARACNE) inferred regulatory gene networks with 113,738 direct interactions in the butyrate-epithelium interactome using a combined cutoff of an error tolerance (ɛ = 0.10) and a stringent P-value threshold of mutual information (5.0 × 10(-11)). Several regulatory networks were controlled by transcription factors, such as CREBBP and TTF2, which were regulated by butyrate. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of butyrate transport and metabolism in the rumen epithelium, which will guide our future efforts in exploiting potential beneficial effect of butyrate in animal well-being and human health.

  1. In vitro culture of embryonic mouse intestinal epithelium: cell differentiation and introduction of reporter genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornsey Mark A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study of the normal development of the intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable model systems, in particular ones that enable the introduction of exogenous genes. Production of such a system would advance our understanding of normal epithelial development and help to shed light on the pathogenesis of intestinal neoplasia. The criteria for a reliable culture system include the ability to perform real time observations and manipulations in vitro, the preparation of wholemounts for immunostaining and the potential for introducing genes. Results The new culture system involves growing mouse embryo intestinal explants on fibronectin-coated coverslips in basal Eagle's medium+20% fetal bovine serum. Initially the cultures maintain expression of the intestinal transcription factor Cdx2 together with columnar epithelial (cytokeratin 8 and mesenchymal (smooth muscle actin markers. Over a few days of culture, differentiation markers appear characteristic of absorptive epithelium (sucrase-isomaltase, goblet cells (Periodic Acid Schiff positive, enteroendocrine cells (chromogranin A and Paneth cells (lysozyme. Three different approaches were tested to express genes in the developing cultures: transfection, electroporation and adenoviral infection. All could introduce genes into the mesenchyme, but only to a small extent into the epithelium. However the efficiency of adenovirus infection can be greatly improved by a limited enzyme digestion, which makes accessible the lateral faces of cells bearing the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor. This enables reliable delivery of genes into epithelial cells. Conclusion We describe a new in vitro culture system for the small intestine of the mouse embryo that recapitulates its normal development. The system both provides a model for studying normal development of the intestinal epithelium and also allows for the manipulation of gene expression. The explants can be cultured for up

  2. An examination of surface epithelium structures of the embryo across the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhuis, Tami M; Fris, Megan; Tuhela, Laura; Kwan, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    In viviparous, teleost fish, with postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning, embryonic structures that facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer are predicted to be present. For the family Poeciliidae, only a handful of morphological studies have explored these embryonic specializations. Here, we present a comparative morphological study in the viviparous poeciliid genus, Poeciliopsis. Using microscopy techniques, we examine the embryonic surface epidermis of Poeciliopsis species that vary in their level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning and placentation across two phylogenetic clades and three independent evolutionary origins of placentation. We focus on surface features of the embryo that may facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer. Specifically, we studied cell apical-surface morphology associated with the superficial epithelium that covers the body and sac (yolk and pericardial) of embryos at different developmental stages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed common surface epithelial cells across species, including pavement cells with apical-surface microridges or microvilli and presumed ionocytes and/or mucus-secreting cells. For three species, in the mid-stage embryos, the surface of the body and sac were covered in microvillus epithelium. The remaining species did not display microvillus epithelium at any of the stages examined. Instead, their epithelium of the body and sac were composed of cells with apical-surface microridges. For all species, in the late stage embryos, the surface of the body proper was composed of apical-surface microridges in a "fingerprint-like arrangement." Despite the differences in the surface epithelium of embryos across Poeciliopsis species and embryonic developmental stages, this variation was not associated with the level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning. We discuss these results in light of previous morphological studies of matrotrophic, teleost fish, phylogenetic

  3. Th2-type cytokine-induced mucus metaplasia decreases susceptibility of human bronchial epithelium to rhinovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakiela, Bogdan; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Mastalerz, Lucyna; Bochenek, Grazyna; Soja, Jerzy; Januszek, Rafal; Aab, Alar; Musial, Jacek; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A; Sanak, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of exacerbations in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. A characteristic feature of asthmatic epithelium is goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. Bronchial epithelium is also an important source of lipid mediators, including pro- and antiinflammatory eicosanoids. By using air-liquid interface cultures of airway epithelium from patients with asthma and nonasthmatic control subjects, we compared RV16 replication-induced changes in mRNA expression of asthma candidate genes and eicosanoid production in the epithelium with or without IL-13-induced mucus metaplasia. Mucus metaplastic epithelium was characterized by a 20-fold less effective replication of RV16 and blunted changes in gene expression; this effect was seen to the same extent in patients with asthma and control subjects. We identified ciliary cells as the main target for RV16 by immunofluorescence imaging and demonstrated that the numbers of ciliary cells decreased in RV16-infected epithelium. RV16 infection of mucociliary epithelium resulted in overexpression of genes associated with bronchial remodeling (e.g., MUC5AC, FGF2, and HBEGF), induction of cyclooxygenase-2, and increased secretion of prostaglandins. These responses were similar in both studied groups. These data indicate that structural changes associated with mucus metaplasia renders airway epithelium less susceptible to RV infection. Thus, exacerbations of the lung disease caused by RV may result from severe impairment in mucociliary clearance or activation of immune defense rather than from preferential infection of mucus metaplastic epithelium. Repeated rhinoviral infections of compromised epithelium may contribute to the remodeling of the airways.

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H(2)O(2) levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD.

  5. Computerized management of respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, L; Jeffs, M; Turner, K

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory care as an organized discipline is only about 45 years old, and the management of this dynamic allied health profession has usually been characterized by a demand-for-service mentality. As pressure continues to control costs, those departments that maximize quality patient care cost-effectively with thoroughly documented outcomes are in a better position to compete for future resources. The practice of respiratory care is changing as is the practice of medical care in general. Accountability for resource consumption and the quality of the product delivered are essential elements in the delivery of respiratory modalities. We have developed and implemented a comprehensive patient-data-based approach to the management of respiratory care. The essential elements of this approach are (1) relative-value-unit procedure base; (2) individual, shift, and department productivity that is attached to the annual performance review process; (3) management reporting on a 24-hour basis, with biweekly review at the management level; (4) development and implementation of a comprehensive patient-data-documentation system that permits automatic patient billing and 100% data review for quality-assurance documentation; (5) the development of a medical alerting system that alerts the Medical Director and Respiratory Care staff to potentially harmful events that, if untreated, may result in increased morbidity or mortality; and (6) the development of concurrent and retrospective tools for patient-outcomes research. These functions are supported by an active Medical Informatics Department that is nationally recognized in medical computing and logic application.

  6. Altered Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Conventional respiratory function tests are only mildly affected by obesity except in extreme cases. The major circulatory complications are increased total and pulmonary blood volume, high cardiac output and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Patients with obesity commonly develop hypoventilation and sleep apnea syndromes with attenuated hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. The final result is hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and progressively worsening disability. Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. Decreased muscle, increased joint pain and skin friction are important determinants of decreased exercise capacity, in addition to the cardiopulmonary effects of obesity. The effects of obesity on mortality in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not been definitively resolved. Whether obesity contributes to asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is uncertain. Weight reduction and physical activity are effective means of reversing the respiratory complications of obesity.

  7. Clinicopathological evaluation of 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts with emphasis on the presence of odontogenic epithelium in the connective tissue. The hypothesis of "focal ameloblastoma"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meleti, M.; van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Some ameloblastomas presumably originate from odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue of dental follicles and dentigerous cysts. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to discuss as whether odontogenic epithelium proliferations, frankly displaying ameloblastomatous features

  8. Cytokeratin patterns in corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium. An immunofluorescence study with PKK-1, 8.12, 8.60, and 4.62 anticytokeratin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, M I; Weinreb, R N

    1990-11-01

    The authors examined immunofluorescently the specific cytokeratin staining patterns of corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium with PKK-1, 8.12, 4.62, and 8.60 monoclonal anticytokeratin antibodies. Observations were made on unfixed frozen postmortem human tissue. The PKK-1 antibody stain was observed in all layers of corneal epithelium but only in suprabasal layers of limbal and conjunctival epithelium. By contrast, the 8.12 antibody stain was observed only in the superficial layer of corneal epithelium but through all layers of limbal and conjunctival epithelium. The 4.60 antibody stain was seen in focal areas of corneal and limbal epithelium and through all layers of conjunctival epithelium. The 8.60 antibody stain was not present in the three epithelia. These immunofluorescence studies showed unique cytokeratin patterns among layers in corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium.

  9. A comparison of stem cell-related gene expression in the progenitor-rich limbal epithelium and the differentiating central corneal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Miguel, Teresa; Calonge, Margarita; de la Mata, Ana; López-Paniagua, Marina; Galindo, Sara; de la Paz, María Fideliz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Corneal epithelium is maintained by a population of stem cells (SCs) that have not been identified by specific molecular markers. The objective of this study was to find new putative markers for these SCs and to identify associated molecular pathways. Methods Real time PCR (rt-PCR) was performed in 24 human limbal and central corneal epithelial samples to evaluate the gene expression profile of known corneal epithelial SC-associated markers. A pool of those samples was further analyzed by a rt-PCR array (RT2-PCR-A) for 84 genes related to the identification, growth, maintenance, and differentiation of SCs. Results Cells from the corneal epithelium SC niche showed significant expression of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) and cytokeratin (KRT)15,  KRT14, and KRT5 genes. RT2-PCR-A results indicated an increased or decreased expression in 21 and 24 genes, respectively, in cells from the corneal SC niche compared to cells from the central corneal epithelium. Functional analysis by proprietary software found 4 different associated pathways and a novel network with the highest upregulated genes in the corneal SC niche. This led to the identification of specific molecules,  chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), islet-1 transcription factor LIM/homeodomain (ISL1), collagen-type II alpha 1 (COL2A), neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1), aggrecan (ACAN), forkhead box A2 (FOXA2), Gap junction protein beta 1/connexin 32 (GJB1/Cnx32), and Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), that could be used to recognize putative corneal epithelial SCs grown in culture and intended for transplantation. Other molecules, NCAM1 and GJB1/Cnx32,  potentially could be used to positively purify them, and Par-6 partitioning defective 6 homolog alpha (PARD6A) to negatively purify them. Conclusions Knowledge of these gene and molecular pathways has provided a better understanding of the signaling molecular pathways associated with progenitor-rich limbal epithelium. This knowledge

  10. Hyperopic correction: clinical validation with epithelium-on and epithelium-off protocols, using variable fluence and topographically customized collagen corneal crosslinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis1 1LaserViison.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To report novel application of topographically-customized collagen crosslinking aiming to achieve hyperopic refractive changes. Two approaches were evaluated, one based on epithelium-off and one based on epithelium-on (transepithelial. Methods: A peripheral annular-shaped topographically customizable design was employed for high-fluence ultraviolet (UV-A irradiation aiming to achieve hyperopic refractive changes. A total of ten eyes were involved in this study. In group-A (five eyes, a customizable ring pattern was employed to debride the epithelium by excimer laser ablation, while in group-B (also five eyes, the epithelium remained intact. In both groups, specially formulated riboflavin solutions were applied. Visual acuity, cornea clarity, keratometry, topography, and pachymetry with a multitude of modalities, as well as endothelial cell counts were evaluated. Results: One year postoperatively, the following changes have been noted: in group-A, average uncorrected distance visual acuity changed from 20/63 to 20/40. A mean hyperopic refractive increase of +0.75 D was achieved. There was some mild reduction in the epithelial thickness. In group-B, average uncorrected distance visual acuity changed from 20/70 to 20/50. A mean hyperopic refractive increase of +0.85 D was achieved. Epithelial thickness returned to slightly reduced levels (compared to baseline in group-A, whereas to slightly increased levels in group-B. Conclusion: We introduce herein the novel application of a topographically-customizable collagen crosslinking to achieve a hyperopic refractive effect. This novel technique may be applied either with epithelial removal, offering a more stable result or with a non-ablative and non-incisional approach, offering a minimally

  11. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feron, V.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Spit, B.J.; Reuzel, P.G.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man.

  12. The global burden of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkol, Thomas; Schraufnagel, Dean

    2014-03-01

    The Forum of International Respiratory Societies has released a report entitled Respiratory Disease in the World: Realities of Today-Opportunities for Tomorrow. The report identifies five conditions that primarily contribute to the global burden of respiratory disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and lung cancer), and offers an action plan to prevent and treat those diseases. It describes the staggering magnitude of the global burden of lung disease: hundreds of millions of people suffer and four million people die prematurely from respiratory diseases each year. The situation is not hopeless, because most major respiratory illnesses are avoidable. Much of the disease burden can be mitigated by reducing exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, restraining tobacco use, and relieving urban overcrowding. Implementation of the strategies described in the Forum of International Respiratory Societies respiratory diseases report would have a profound effect on respiratory health, reduce economic costs, and enhance health equality in the world.

  13. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carian E. Boorsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas exchange against microbial threats and excessive tissue responses. Phenotypical changes of macrophages within the lung are found in many respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper will give an overview of what macrophage phenotypes have been described, what their known functions are, what is known about their presence in the different obstructive and restrictive respiratory diseases (asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis, and how they are thought to contribute to the etiology and resolution of these diseases.

  14. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory diseases and muscle dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Casadevall, Carme; Pascual, Sergi; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2012-02-01

    Many respiratory diseases lead to impaired function of skeletal muscles, influencing quality of life and patient survival. Dysfunction of both respiratory and limb muscles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been studied in depth, and seems to be caused by the complex interaction of general (inflammation, impaired gas exchange, malnutrition, comorbidity, drugs) and local factors (changes in respiratory mechanics and muscle activity, and molecular events). Some of these factors are also present in cystic fibrosis and asthma. In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, repeated exposure to hypoxia and the absence of reparative rest are believed to be the main causes of muscle dysfunction. Deconditioning appears to be crucial for the functional impairment observed in scoliosis. Finally, cachexia seems to be the main mechanism of muscle dysfunction in advanced lung cancer. A multidimensional therapeutic approach is recommended, including pulmonary rehabilitation, an adequate level of physical activity, ventilatory support and nutritional interventions.

  16. Acute Respiratory Insufficiency After Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Şen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenotonsillectomy is one of the frequently performed surgical procedures in children and the most common complications of this procedure are bleeding and respiratory insufficiency. Here, we present a 20-month-old boy who was born prematurely. He underwent adenotonsillectomy and bilateral grommet insertion due to recurrent tonsilitis, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The patient required a prolonged intensive care unit stay due to postoperative respiratory insufficiency. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the potential complications of adenotonsillectomy. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013;51:193-6

  17. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  18. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  19. The Effect of Corneal Epithelium on Corneal Curvature in Patients with Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Emine Kalkan; Uysal, Betul Seher; Sarac, Ozge; Ugurlu, Nagehan; Yulek, Fatma; Cagil, Nurullah; Aslan, Nabi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of corneal epithelium on corneal curvature in patients with keratoconus. This is a prospective, nonrandomized study. Fifty-nine eyes of 47 patients diagnosed as keratoconus and for whom corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) was recruited in this study. This study is a single-center clinical trial. Pregnancy, lactation, connective tissue disease, corneal thickness below 350 μm, severe dry eyes, or scar of corneal surgery were exclusion criteria. Before and during CXL procedure after removing the corneal epithelium, maximum values of corneal apical curvature, simulated keratometry 1 (Sim-K1), simulated keratometry 2 (Sim-K2), temporal and inferior curvature values, all of which are 1.5 mm from the corneal center, were calculated. These values before and after removal of epithelium were compared statistically. Mean age of patients was 23.30 ± 5.5 (12-38) years. Twenty-eight (59%) were male while 19 (41%) were female. Mean values measured before and after removing the corneal epithelium were: apical curvature; 59.19 ± 7.2 (47.06-82.40) diopter (D) and 61.70 ± 8.8 (49.19-92.66) D (p = 0.001), SimK1; 47.57 ± 4.3 (39.14-64.57) D and 48.23 ± 4.3 (41.89-66.70) D (p = 0.001), SimK2; 52.04 ± 5.3 (43.56-69.34) D and 53.34 ± 5.6 (43.73-70.89) D (p = 0.001), inferior curvature; 53,85 ± 5.2 (43.47-76.56) D and 55.05 ± 5.8 (44.56-81.93) D (p = 0.002), temporal curvature 49.49 ± 5.1 (41.50-71.03) D and 51.53 ± 5.4 (41.58-73.34) D (p = 0.001), respectively. In keratoconus patients during CXL treatment, after removing the corneal epithelium, more steepness is detected in the curvature of the steeper area of the cornea. When evaluating patients with keratoconus, the masking effect of corneal epithelium on values of curvature should be taken into consideration.

  20. Introduction of respiratory pattern generators into models of respiratory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardo, Guy; Evangelisti, Carlo J; Cherniack, Neil S

    2005-10-12

    We have adapted two models previously proposed as respiratory pattern generators (RPGs) into a neurochemical feed back control model of ventilation. The RPG models, non-dimensional as originally presented, consisted of oscillating circuits of either two or five interconnected neurons [Matsugu, M., Duffin, J., Poon, C.-S., 1998. Entrainment, instability, quasi-periodicity, and chaos in a compound neural oscillator. J. Comput. Neurosci. 5, 35-51; Botros, S.M., Bruce, E.N., 1990. Neural network implementation of a three-phase model of respiratory rhythm generation. Biol. Cybern. 63, 143-153]. The neurochemical model into which they were integrated [Longobardo, G., Evangelisti, C.J., Cherniack, N.S., 2002. Effects of neural drives on breathing in the awake state in humans. Respir. Physiol. 129, 317-333] included the effects of cerebral blood flow variation with CO2, vagal stretch receptors input and a multicompartment model of carbon dioxide stores. The methodology is described whereby these neuronal oscillator networks were quantified, a necessary step for their inclusion as RPGs in broader models of the overall control of respiration. Subsequent simulations of the ventilation response to carbon dioxide with either respiratory pattern generator model exhibited only a limited range in which tidal volume and frequency increased with increasing respiratory drive. With both models, frequency peaked and then declined, as did ventilation when P CO2 was greater than normal. The range of the models was extended if the respiratory pattern generators were considered to be composed of multiple neuronal oscillators or a single oscillator in which there was increasing phasic input that was gated or pacemaker driven.

  1. A Hormone-responsive 3D Culture Model of the Human Mammary Gland Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroni, Lucia; Sweeney, Michael F; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2016-02-07

    The process of mammary epithelial morphogenesis is influenced by hormones. The study of hormone action on the breast epithelium using 2D cultures is limited to cell proliferation and gene expression endpoints. However, in the organism, mammary morphogenesis occurs in a 3D environment. 3D culture systems help bridge the gap between monolayer cell culture (2D) and the complexity of the organism. Herein, we describe a 3D culture model of the human breast epithelium that is suitable to study hormone action. It uses the commercially available hormone-responsive human breast epithelial cell line, T47D, and rat tail collagen type 1 as a matrix. This 3D culture model responds to the main mammotropic hormones: estradiol, progestins and prolactin. The influence of these hormones on epithelial morphogenesis can be observed after 1- or 2-week treatment according to the endpoint. The 3D cultures can be harvested for analysis of epithelial morphogenesis, cell proliferation and gene expression.

  2. Differences in in vitro growth of epithelium from inflammatory and developmental odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, W J; Moore, J K; Main, D M

    1990-04-01

    Ninety-three odontogenic cysts, 42 of inflammatory and 51 of developmental origin, were grown in vitro from explants and/or cell suspensions. There was little difference in the success rate of culturing epithelium from explants of dentigerous cysts (N = 28) or odontogenic keratocysts (N = 23) (approximately 75% and 87%, respectively) and the dentigerous cyst grew particularly well from suspensions (N = 11) (91%) compared with the keratocyst (N = 19) (58%). Epithelium from developmental odontogenic cysts grew much better in vitro than did cysts of inflammatory origin (56 to 58% from explants and 19 to 25% from suspension). From this work there is little evidence to support previous statements that the dentigerous cyst cannot be grown from explants, or that the odontogenic keratocyst has 'aggressive' growth characteristics.

  3. The secondary tongue of Salamandra salamandra: histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the developing lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolka, A; Wistuba, J; Clemen, G

    2001-01-01

    The development of the lingual epithelium of Salamandra salamandra was investigated with emphasis on histochemical and ultrastructural aspects. The temporal and spatial occurrence and the typical appearance of various cell types; i.e. pavement cells, replacement pavement cells, basal cells, mitochondria rich cells, goblet cells and glandular cells have been analysed and documented in detail from the young larval stage up to the metamorphosed animal (2 months after metamorphosis). It is shown that anatomical re- and de novo-constructions related to the formation of the secretory tongue led to distinct changes in the cellular equipment of the epithelium of the tongue, including various histochemical properties. Finally, functional aspects of the morphological characteristics are discussed in detail and compared with respective findings in other species.

  4. Evidence for a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K H; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, R

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium and whether such a mechanism plays a role in the regulation of transepithelial Na+ transport. Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the probe...... in serosal Na+ were followed by stepwise changes in [Ca2+]i. These observations indicate the existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium. The transepithelial Na+ transport decreased from 13.2+/-1.8 to 9.2+/-1.5 microA cm-2 (n=8, P=0.049) when Na...

  5. Effects of the organophosphorous methyl parathion on the branchial epithelium of a freshwater fish Metynnis roosevelti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Marcelo Rubens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills are vital structures for fish, since they are the main site for gaseous exchange as well as partially responsible for osmorregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Chemicals in the water may alter the morphology of branchial cells of fish that are, therefore, a useful model for environmental impact and ecotoxicology studies. In order to investigate the effects of an organophosphorous compound, methyl parathion, on the gills of the fish, samples of Metynnis roosevelti were exposed to lethal (7ppm and sublethal (1ppm doses of Mentox 600 CE. Through light and scanning electron microscopy, shrinking of the branchial epithelium, followed by detachment and hyperplasia were observed. Externally, the branchial filaments presented the gradual disappearance of microridges. Even in sublethal doses, the organophosphorous reduced the health and fitness of these fish, as consequence of secondary effects derived from changes in the branchial epithelium, impairing oxygenation and ionic balance of the organism.

  6. The fine structure of the midgut epithelium in Xerobiotus pseudohufelandi (Iharos, 1966 (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Rost-Roszkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of our studies were to describe the ultrastructure of the midgut epithelial cells of the eutardigrade Xerobiotus pseudohufelandi and to determine if there are any differences in the ultrastructure of midgut epithelial cells between males and females. The analysis was performed with the use of the light and transmission electron microscopes. In X. pseudohufelandi the midgut epithelium is composed of digestive cells, but in the anterior portion of the midgut a group of cells with different ultrastructure has been observed. Histochemical staining showed the accumulation of reserve material in the cytoplasm of digestive cells. We suggest that some of them fulfil the role of regenerative cells (crescent-like cells, midgut stem cells, whereas others are differentiating cells which form new digestive cells. No differences in the ultrastructure of the midgut epithelium between males and females were distinguished except in the amount of multivesicular bodies.

  7. Apoptosis and autophagy in the midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Poprawa, Izabela; Chachulska-Zymełka, Alina

    2010-09-01

    The midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which is composed of columnar digestive cells and regenerative crypts, degenerates in two manners: necrotic and apoptotic. While necrosis was described in our previous paper, programmed cell death was the aim of the present studies. The first morphological signs of programmed cell death in midgut epithelium cells are alterations in the cytoplasm connected with shrinkage of the cells. Gradual modifications in a cell's structure cause it to be discharged into the midgut lumen, where it disintegrates. Autophagy is involved in the disintegration of organelles. The transitions of apoptotic cells are described at the ultrastructural level. Immunostaining methods were used in order to indicate the early stages of apoptosis when DNA fragmentation, which results from apoptotic signaling cascades, occurs.

  8. Chemodetection and Destruction of Host Urea Allows Helicobacter pylori to Locate the Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y.; Sweeney, Emily Goers; Sigal, Michael; Zhang, Hai C.; Remington, S. James; Cantrell, Michael A.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with the gastric mucosa to avoid the microbicidal acid in the stomach lumen. The cues H. pylori senses to locate and colonize the gastric epithelium have not been well defined. We show that metabolites emanating from human gastric organoids rapidly attract H. pylori. This response is largely controlled by the bacterial chemoreceptor TlpB, and the main attractant emanating from epithelia is urea. Our previous structural analyses show that TlpB binds urea with high affinity. Here we demonstrate that this tight binding controls highly sensitive responses, allowing detection of urea concentrations as low as 50 nanomolar. Attraction to urea requires that H. pylori urease simultaneously destroys the signal. We propose that H. pylori has evolved a sensitive urea chemodetection and destruction system that allows the bacterium to dynamically and locally modify the host environment to locate the epithelium. PMID:26269952

  9. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  10. Mechanical Properties of Respiratory Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Gary C.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Reid, Michael B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Striated respiratory muscles are necessary for lung ventilation and to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The basic structural and functional properties of respiratory muscles are similar to those of other striated muscles (both skeletal and cardiac). The sarcomere is the fundamental organizational unit of striated muscles and sarcomeric proteins underlie the passive and active mechanical properties of muscle fibers. In this respect, the functional categorization of different fiber types provides a conceptual framework to understand the physiological properties of respiratory muscles. Within the sarcomere, the interaction between the thick and thin filaments at the level of cross-bridges provides the elementary unit of force generation and contraction. Key to an understanding of the unique functional differences across muscle fiber types are differences in cross-bridge recruitment and cycling that relate to the expression of different myosin heavy chain isoforms in the thick filament. The active mechanical properties of muscle fibers are characterized by the relationship between myoplasmic Ca2+ and cross-bridge recruitment, force generation and sarcomere length (also cross-bridge recruitment), external load and shortening velocity (cross-bridge cycling rate), and cross-bridge cycling rate and ATP consumption. Passive mechanical properties are also important reflecting viscoelastic elements within sarcomeres as well as the extracellular matrix. Conditions that affect respiratory muscle performance may have a range of underlying pathophysiological causes, but their manifestations will depend on their impact on these basic elemental structures. PMID:24265238

  11. Climate change and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Daniel A; Kellerman, Roy A

    2014-10-01

    To discuss the nature of climate change and both its immediate and long-term effects on human respiratory health. This review is based on information from a presentation of the American College of Chest Physicians course on Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease held in Toronto, Canada, June 2013. It is supplemented by a PubMed search for climate change, global warming, respiratory tract diseases, and respiratory health. It is also supplemented by a search of Web sites including the Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, World Meteorological Association, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, and the World Health Organization. Health effects of climate change include an increase in the prevalence of certain respiratory diseases, exacerbations of chronic lung disease, premature mortality, allergic responses, and declines in lung function. Climate change, mediated by greenhouse gases, causes adverse health effects to the most vulnerable patient populations-the elderly, children, and those in distressed socioeconomic strata.

  12. Respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, J W; Shapiro, B M

    1989-02-01

    Partially reduced oxygen species are toxic, yet sea urchin eggs synthesize H2O2 in a "respiratory burst" at fertilization, as an extracellular oxidant to crosslink their protective surface envelopes. To study the biochemical mechanism for H2O2 production, we have isolated an NADPH-specific oxidase fraction from homogenates of unfertilized Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs that produces H2O2 when stimulated with Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Concentrations of free Ca2+ previously implicated in regulation of egg activation modulate the activity of the oxidase. Inhibitors were used to test the relevance of this oxidase to the respiratory burst of fertilization. Procaine, two phenothiazines, and N-ethylmaleimide (but not iodoacetamide) inhibited H2O2 production by the oxidase fraction and oxygen consumption by activated eggs. The ATP requirement suggested that protein kinase activity might regulate the respiratory burst of fertilization; consonant with this hypothesis, H-7 and staurosporine were inhibitory. The respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization is an NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase that appears to be regulated by a protein kinase; although it bears a remarkable resemblance to the neutrophil oxidase, unlike the latter it does not form O2- as its initial product.

  13. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e...

  14. Vitamin D and respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa Del Fiol, Fernando; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; de Cassia Bergamaschi, Cristiane

    2015-04-15

    Vitamin D or 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) has a well-established role in calcium homeostasis. In recent years, the discovery of vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the lungs and various cells of the immune system has led to numerous studies conducted to evaluate its role in respiratory functions and, in particular, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). A PubMed literature search was done using vitamin D and respiratory infections as key words. Only clinical studies were considered. This study aimed to review recent clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in adults and children, and to evaluate the functional role of vitamin D in respiratory infections. The evaluated studies show an important immunomodulatory role of vitamin D, which reduces the incidence and risk of URTIs, both in children and in adults. Combating URTIs can be done prophylactically, associating the use of vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae with strengthening the immune system through supplementation with vitamin D. These actions can significantly contribute to reducing the number of URTIs, the use of antibiotics, and consequently, the rates of antimicrobial resistance.

  15. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boorsma, Carian E.; Draijer, Christina; Melgert, Barbro N.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas

  16. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- SARS · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Global pattern of SARS epidemic · Slide 5 · SARS – clinical features ... SARS virus · SARS – Koch´Postulates proved. SARS – virus jumps species · How infectious is SARS virus · SARS – Global Distribution- 10th July 2003.

  17. VITAMIN D EFFECTS ON LUNG IMMUNITY AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansdottir, Sif; Monick, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Our understanding of vitamin D metabolism and biological effects has grown exponentially in recent years and it has become clear that vitamin D has extensive immunomodulatory effects. The active vitamin D generating enzyme, 1α-hydroxylase, is expressed by the airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells and lymphocytes indicating that active vitamin D can be produced locally within the lungs. Vitamin D generated in tissues is responsible for many of the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D. The effects of vitamin D within the lungs include increased secretion of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, decreased chemokine production, inhibition of dendritic cell activation and alteration of T cell activation. These cellular effects are important for host responses against infection and the development of allergic lung diseases like asthma. Epidemiological studies do suggest that vitamin D deficiency predisposes to viral respiratory tract infections and mycobacterial infections and that vitamin D may play a role in the development and treatment of asthma. Randomized, placebo controlled trials are lacking but ongoing. PMID:21419273

  18. Elevated plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor correlated with inflammation and lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoou Li,1–3 Tao Wang,1,2 Ting Yang,1,2 Yongchun Shen,1,2 Jing An,1,2 Lian Liu,1,2 Jiajia Dong,1,2 Lingli Guo,1,2 Diandian Li,1,2 Xue Zhang,1,2 Lei Chen,1,2 Dan Xu,1,2 Fuqiang Wen1,2 1Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Rationale: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a 50 kD small secreting glycoprotein that participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have reported that PEDF plays an important role in inflammatory responses in several diseases. However, the role of PEDF in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains unclear.Objective: The aim of the present study is to explore the potential relationship between PEDF and COPD.Methods: We used differential proteomics – stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture – to investigate protein expression profile changes in cigarette smoke extract-treated pulmonary cells and found that the neurotrophic and antiangiogenic protein PEDF was abnormally expressed. Furthermore, Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PEDF in the lung tissue of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighty subjects between the ages of 40–90 years, including 20 healthy nonsmokers, ten smoking volunteers, and 50 COPD patients, were recruited from September 2012 until August 2013 in Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. We measured the plasma PEDF concentration and classic proinflammatory cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we performed a spirometry examination to

  19. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    Full Text Available The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  20. Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Ariza-Camacho, Enrique; Collado-Solórzano, Alberto; Flores-Sánchez, Blanca C.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A.; Fulda-Graue, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:27171918

  1. Technique of cultivating limbal derived corneal epithelium on human amniotic membrane for clinical transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The technique of transplantation of cultivated limbal epithelium rather than direct limbal tissue isa novel method of "cell therapy" involved in reconstructing the ocular surface in severe limbal stem celldeficiency [LSCD], caused by chemical burns. Aim : To describe a simple feeder-cell free technique of cultivating limbal epithelium on human amniotic membrane[HAM]. Materials and Methods : The limbal tissues (2 mm were harvested from patients with LSCD. These tissueswere proliferated in vitro on HAM supplemented by human corneal epithelial cell medium and autologousserum. Cultures covering more ?50% area of 2.5x5 cm HAM were considered adequate for clinical use. Thecultured epithelium was characterized by histopathology and immunophenotyping.Results: A total of 542 cultures out of 250 limbal tissues were cultivated in the laboratory from January 2001through July 2005. The culture explants showed that clusters of cells emerging from the edge of the explantsin one-three days formed a complete monolayer within 10-14 days. In 86% of cultures (464 of 542, thegrowth was observed within one-two days. Successful explant cultures were observed in 98.5% (534 of 542cultures with 91% explant cultures showing an area of ?6.25 cm2 (6.25 - 12.5 cm2 range. The cultivatedepithelium was terminated between 10-14 days for clinical transplantation. The problems encountered wereinadequate growth (2 of 542 and contamination (2 of 542. Conclusions : We demonstrate a simple technique of generating a sheet of corneal epithelium from a limbalbiopsy. This new technique could pave the way for a novel form of cell therapy.

  2. TGFβ signaling in lung epithelium regulates bleomycin-induced alveolar injury and fibroblast recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Amber L; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Xu, Xiaochuan C; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Jones, Brittany R; Boomershine, Chad S; Ortiz, Camila; Sherrill, Taylor P; McMahon, Frank B; Gleaves, Linda A; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E

    2011-06-01

    The response of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to lung injury plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanisms by which AECs regulate fibrotic processes are not well defined. We aimed to elucidate how transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling in lung epithelium impacts lung fibrosis in the intratracheal bleomycin model. Mice with selective deficiency of TGFβ receptor 2 (TGFβR2) in lung epithelium were generated and crossed to cell fate reporter mice that express β-galactosidase (β-gal) in cells of lung epithelial lineage. Mice were given intratracheal bleomycin (0.08 U), and the following parameters were assessed: AEC death by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling assay, inflammation by total and differential cell counts from bronchoalveolar lavage, fibrosis by scoring of trichrome-stained lung sections, and total lung collagen content. Mice with lung epithelial deficiency of TGFβR2 had improved AEC survival, despite greater lung inflammation, after bleomycin administration. At 3 wk after bleomycin administration, mice with epithelial TGFβR2 deficiency showed a significantly attenuated fibrotic response in the lungs, as determined by semiquantitatve scoring and total collagen content. The reduction in lung fibrosis in these mice was associated with a marked decrease in the lung fibroblast population, both total lung fibroblasts and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-derived (S100A4(+)/β-gal(+)) fibroblasts. Attenuation of TGFβ signaling in lung epithelium provides protection from bleomycin-induced fibrosis, indicating a critical role for the epithelium in transducing the profibrotic effects of this cytokine.

  3. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in the cervical epithelium of Mexican women: meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Rodríguez Raúl; Romero-Morelos Pablo; Villegas-Ruíz Vanessa; Mendoza-Rodríguez Mónica; Taniguchi-Ponciano Keiko; González-Yebra Beatriz; Marrero-Rodríguez Daniel; Salcedo Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical epithelium has been identified as the main etiological factor in the developing of Cervical Cancer (CC), which has recently become a public health problem in Mexico. This finding has allowed for the development of vaccines that help prevent this infection. In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and HPV type-distribution in Mexican women with CC, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), low-grade squamous ...

  4. Glycoproteins of mouse vaginal epithelium: differential expression related to estrous cyclicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvat, B; Multhaupt, H A; Damjanov, I

    1993-01-01

    in proestrus, coincident with the transformation of two superficial layers of vaginal squamous epithelium into mucinous cuboidal cells. Electron microscopic lectin histochemistry revealed the glycoproteins in the mucinous granules of surface cuboidal cells and in the lumen of the vagina. Our results illustrate...... the complexity of glycoconjugate synthesis in mouse vagina and reveal the distinct cycle-specific patterns of individual glycoprotein expression. These cyclic glycoproteins could serve as vaginal biochemical markers for the specific phases of the estrous cycle....

  5. Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Guiliang; Hu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not ...

  6. Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiliang; Hu, Bo Hua

    2012-06-19

    Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not clear. Here, we employed graded dextran-FITC, a macromolecule tracer that is impermeable to the organ of Corti under physiological conditions, to evaluate the barrier function of cell junctions in normal and noise-traumatized cochlear sensory epithelia. Exposure to an impulse noise of 155 dB (peak sound pressure level) caused a site-specific disruption in the intercellular junctions within the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. The most vulnerable sites were the junctions among the Hensen cells and between the Hensen and Deiters cells within the outer zone of the sensory epithelium. The junction clefts that formed in the reticular lamina were permeable to 40 and 500 but not 2,000 kDa dextran-FITC macromolecules. Moreover, this study showed that the interruption of junction integrity occurred in the reticular lamina and also in the basilar membrane, a site that had been considered to be resistant to acoustic injury. Finally, our study revealed a general spatial correlation between the site of sensory cell damage and the site of junction disruption. However, the two events lacked a strict one-to-one correlation, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is a contributing, but not the sole, factor for initiating acute sensory cell death. Impulse noise causes the functional disruption of intercellular junctions in the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. This disruption occurs at an early phase of cochlear damage. Understanding the role of this disruption in

  7. Efficient replication of Epstein-Barr virus in stratified epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Rachel M; Zhu, Junjia; Budgeon, Lynn; Christensen, Neil David; Meyers, Craig; Sample, Clare E

    2014-11-18

    Epstein-Barr virus is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus associated with epithelial and lymphoid tumors. EBV is transmitted between human hosts in saliva and must cross the oral mucosal epithelium before infecting B lymphocytes, where it establishes a life-long infection. The latter process is well understood because it can be studied in vitro, but our knowledge of infection of epithelial cells has been limited by the inability to infect epithelial cells readily in vitro or to generate cell lines from EBV-infected epithelial tumors. Because epithelium exists as a stratified tissue in vivo, organotypic cultures may serve as a better model of EBV in epithelium than monolayer cultures. Here, we demonstrate that EBV is able to infect organotypic cultures of epithelial cells to establish a predominantly productive infection in the suprabasal layers of stratified epithelium, similar to that seen with Kaposi's-associated herpesvirus. These cells did express latency-associated proteins in addition to productive-cycle proteins, but a population of cells that exclusively expressed latency-associated viral proteins could not be detected; however, an inability to infect the basal layer would be unlike other herpesviruses examined in organotypic cultures. Furthermore, infection did not induce cellular proliferation, as it does in B cells, but instead resulted in cytopathic effects more commonly associated with productive viral replication. These data suggest that infection of epithelial cells is an integral part of viral spread, which typically does not result in the immortalization or enhanced growth of infected epithelial cells but rather in efficient production of virus.

  8. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, Chelsea; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium has not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1 and CB2 receptor deficient (CB1−/−/CB2−/−) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1−/−/CB2−/− mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1−/−/CB2−/− mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted. PMID:26037800

  9. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Hollmann; Ingrid Miller; Karin Hummel; Sonja Sabitzer; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Qendrim Zebeli

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 sp...

  10. TREM-1 expression in rat corneal epithelium with Aspergillus fumigatus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1 in the aberrant inflammation within the corneal epithelium at early period of fungal infection. METHODS: A total of 65 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group and fungal keratitis (FK group, in which the cornea was infected by Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus. After executed randomly at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72h after experimental model being established, the severity of keratomycosis in rats was scored visually with the aid of a dissecting microscope and slit lamp. Then corneas in three groups were collected to assess the expression of TREM-1 through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunofluorescence technique and Western blot analysis. The correlation between FK inflammation and expression of TREM-1 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal inflammation scores increased with time after fungal infection (F=49.74, P=0.000. The inflammation scores in FK group were obviously higher than those in sham group on the whole (F=137.78, P=0.000. Levels of TREM-1 in the infected rat corneal epithelium had elevated at 8h and peaked at 48h (P<0.001, compared with control group. Western blot analysis also showed an obviously elevated TREM-1 level in rat corneal epithelium at 24h and 48h after fungal infection. Immunofluorescence technique showed that TREM-1 mainly existed in corneal epithelium and infected corneal stoma of rat. TREM-1 protein expression was enhanced after fungal infection. Moreover, severity of FK inflammation was significantly related to TREM-1 expression in FK (r=0.942, P=0.000. CONCLUSION: TREM-1 may contribute to amplify the inflammation in the cornea infected with A. fumigatus and play critical roles in the battle against A. fumigatus in the innate immune responses.

  11. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L; Adami, Guy R

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  12. Identification of tumor epithelium and stroma in tissue microarrays using texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess whether texture analysis is feasible for automated identification of epithelium and stroma in digitized tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Texture analysis based on local binary patterns (LBP) has previously been used successfully in applications such as face recognition and industrial machine vision. TMAs with tissue samples from 643 patients with colorectal cancer were digitized using a whole slide scanner and areas representing epithelium and stroma were annotated in the images. Well-defined images of epithelium (n = 41) and stroma (n = 39) were used for training a support vector machine (SVM) classifier with LBP texture features and a contrast measure C (LBP/C) as input. We optimized the classifier on a validation set (n = 576) and then assessed its performance on an independent test set of images (n = 720). Finally, the performance of the LBP/C classifier was evaluated against classifiers based on Haralick texture features and Gabor filtered images. Results The proposed approach using LPB/C texture features was able to correctly differentiate epithelium from stroma according to texture: the agreement between the classifier and the human observer was 97 per cent (kappa value = 0.934, P features and Gabor-filter images were 0.976 and 0.981 respectively. Conclusions The method illustrates the capability of automated segmentation of epithelial and stromal tissue in TMAs based on texture features and an SVM classifier. Applications include tissue specific assessment of gene and protein expression, as well as computerized analysis of the tumor microenvironment. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4123422336534537 PMID:22385523

  13. Molecular signature of primary retinal pigment epithelium and stem-cell-derived RPE cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Jo-Ling; Yu, Juehua; Huang, Kevin; Hu, Jane; Diemer, Tanja; Ma, Zhicheng; Dvash, Tamar; Yang, Xian-Jie; Travis, Gabriel H.; WILLIAMS, David S; Bok, Dean; Fan, Guoping

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the loss or dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and is the most common cause of vision loss among the elderly. Stem-cell-based strategies, using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), may provide an abundant donor source for generating RPE cells in cell replacement therapies. Despite a significant amount of research on deriving functional RPE cells from various stem cell source...

  14. Analysis of retinal pigment epithelium integrin expression and adhesion to aged submacular human Bruch's membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Zarbin, Marco A.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Uncultured aged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) does not resurface aged Bruch's membrane after 24 hours in organ culture. These experiments assess whether culturing alters RPE integrin expression and resurfacing of Bruch's membrane. METHODS: RNA was isolated from uncultured and cultured RPE of aged adult donor and fetal eyes. Integrin subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was studied by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and semiquantitative analysis of the a...

  15. Expression and regulation of cornified envelope proteins in human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Corrales, Rosa M; Chen, Zhuo; Villarreal, Arturo L; De Paiva, Cintia S; Beuerman, Roger; Li, De-Quan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2006-05-01

    Stratified squamous epithelial cells assemble a specialized protective barrier structure on their periphery, termed the cornified envelope. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of cornified envelope precursors in human corneal epithelium, their expression in human corneal epithelial cell cultures, and the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVB) and transglutaminase (TG) inhibition on their expression. Tissue distribution of small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) and filaggrin and involucrin was studied in human cornea sections by immunofluorescence staining. Primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) from limbal explants were used in cell culture experiments. A single dose of UVB at 20 mJ/cm2 was used to stimulate these cells, in the presence or absence of mono-dansyl cadaverine (MDC), a TG inhibitor. SPRR2 and involucrin protein levels were studied by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Gene expression of 12 proteins was investigated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In human cornea tissue, SPRR1, SPRR2, filaggrin, and involucrin protein expression were detected in the central and peripheral corneal and limbal epithelium. In HCECs, SPRR2 and involucrin proteins were detected in the cytosolic fraction, and involucrin levels increased after UVB. Both SPRR2 and involucrin levels accumulated in the presence of MDC. Nine genes including involucrin, SPRR (types 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, and 3), late envelope protein (LEP) 1 and 16, and filaggrin were expressed by HCECs. SPRR 4, loricrin, and LEP 6 transcripts were not detected. UVB downregulated SPRR (2A, 2B) and LEP 1 transcripts. Various envelope precursors are expressed in human corneal epithelium and in HCECs, acute UVB stress differentially alters their expression in HCECs. The expression of envelope precursors and their rapid modulation by UVB supports the role of these proteins in the regulation of ocular surface stress. TG function may

  16. Cellular distribution and function of ion channels involved in transport processes in rat tracheal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Anne; Faulhaber, Johannes; Srisawang, Lalita; Stortz, Andreas; Salomon, Johanna J; Mall, Marcus A; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca2+ or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca2+- dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl- secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca2+-gated Cl- channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel, the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium. The contribution of ANO1 channels to nucleotide-stimulated Cl- secretion was determined using the channel blocker Ani9 in short-circuit current recordings obtained from primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells in Ussing chambers. We found that ANO1, CFTR and AQP5 proteins were expressed in nonciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium, whereas ENaC was expressed in ciliated cells. Among nonciliated cells, ANO1 occurred together with CFTR and Muc5b and, in addition, in a different cell type without CFTR and Muc5b. Bioelectrical studies with the ANO1-blocker Ani9 indicated that ANO1 mediated the secretory response to the nucleotide uridine-5'-triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that, in rat tracheal epithelium, Cl- secretion and Na+ absorption are routed through different cell types, and that ANO1 channels form the molecular basis of Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion in this tissue. These characteristic features of Cl--dependent secretion reveal similarities and distinct differences to secretory processes in human airways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. HLA-DR expression in tumor epithelium is an independent prognostic indicator in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Margaret R; Michielsen, Adriana J; O'Sullivan, Katie E; Cathcart, Mary Clare; Feighery, Ronan; Doyle, Brendan; Watson, Jenny A; O'Farrell, Naoimh J; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Kay, Elaine; Reynolds, John V; Ryan, Elizabeth J; O'Sullivan, Jacintha

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis, and incidence is increasing rapidly in the Western world. Measurement of immune markers has been shown to have prognostic significance in a growing number of cancers, but whether this is true for EAC has yet to be evaluated. This study aimed to characterize HLA-DR expression in the esophagus across the inflammation to cancer progression sequence and to assess the prognostic significance of HLA-DR expression in EAC. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were constructed from esophageal tissue taken from patients at different stages in the cancer progression sequence; normal, esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus (BE), low- and high-grade dysplasia (LGD, HGD) and EAC. HLA-DR expression in tissue epithelium and stroma was assessed by immunohistochemistry. HLA-DR expression increased early in the inflammation to cancer progression sequence; with higher expression detected in esophagitis and BE compared to normal tissue. Patients with low (DR expression in the EAC tumor epithelium had significantly worse survival outcomes, compared to those with high expression, in both the tumor core (hazard ratio, HR = 2.178, p = 0.024, n = 70) and leading edge (HR = 2.86, p = 0.013, n = 41). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low HLA-DR expression in leading edge tumor epithelium was an independent predictor of poor survival, associated with a 2.8-fold increase in disease-associated death (p = 0.023). This study shows that HLA-DR is an independent prognostic marker in EAC tumor epithelium. This may have implications for patient stratification strategies as well as EAC tumor immunology.

  18. Type I Interferons Control Proliferation and Function of the Intestinal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Katlinskaya, Yuliya V.; Katlinski, Kanstantsin V.; Lasri, Audrey; Li, Ning; Beiting, Daniel P.; Durham, Amy C.; Yang, Ting; Pikarsky, Eli; Lengner, Christopher J.; Johnson, F. Brad; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt pathway-driven proliferation and renewal of the intestinal epithelium must be tightly controlled to prevent development of cancer and barrier dysfunction. Although type I interferons (IFN) produced in the gut under the influence of microbiota are known for their antiproliferative effects, the role of these cytokines in regulating intestinal epithelial cell renewal is largely unknown. Here we report a novel role for IFN in the context of intestinal knockout of casein kinase 1α (CK1α), whic...

  19. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Shuichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yanai, Hirotsugu [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komai, Yoshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Omachi, Taichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Nakamura, Naohiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ohsugi, Haruyuki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ueno, Hiroo, E-mail: hueno@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  20. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  1. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Print A A A ...

  2. Molecular detection of respiratory viruses: clinical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause major morbidity in infants and children. Traditionally, respiratory viruses are detected with conventional tests (viral culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF)), however nowadays viral diagnostics are being revolutionized by the increased

  3. Response of the hammerhead shark olfactory epithelium to amino acid stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricas, Timothy C; Kajiura, Stephen M; Summers, Adam P

    2009-10-01

    Sharks and rays are highly sensitive to chemical stimuli in their natural environment but several hypotheses predict that hammerhead sharks, with their expanded head and enlarged olfactory epithelium, have particularly acute olfactory systems. We used the electro-olfactogram (EOG) technique to compare the relative response of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) olfactory epithelium to 20 proteinogenic amino acids and determine the sensitivity for 6 amino acids. At micromolar concentrations, cysteine evoked the greatest EOG response which was approximately twice as large as that of alanine. The weakest response was obtained for proline followed by aspartic acid and isoleucine. The olfactory epithelium showed adaptation to sequential stimulation, and recovery was related to the inter-stimulus time period. Estimated EOG response thresholds were in the sub-nanomolar range for both alanine (9.2 x 10(-11) M) and cysteine (8.4 x 10(-10) M) and in the micromolar range for proline and serine. These thresholds from 10(-10) to 10(-6) M for the scalloped hammerhead shark are comparable or lower than those reported for other teleost and elasmobranch species. Future work should focus on binary and more complex compounds to test for competition and cross-adaptation for different classes of peripheral receptors, and their responses to molecules found in biologically relevant stimuli.

  4. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms Lined by Abundant Mucinous Epithelium Frequently Involve KRAS Mutations and Malignant Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideki; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Norose, Tomoko; Isobe, Tomohide; Suzuki, Reika; Imai, Hideyuki; Shiokawa, Akira; Aoki, Takeshi; Murakami, Masahiko; Mizukami, Hiroki; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Takimoto, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatic and hepatic mucinous cyst neoplasms (MCNs) have a malignant potential, but indolent MCNs are not uncommon. The pathological and genetic characteristics of resected MCNs (n=15) categorized by the amount of mucin of the lining epithelium were investigated. MCNs were divided into two groups: (i) a rich (r)-MCN group (n=6), in which more than half of the epithelium was lined by abundant mucinous epithelium; and (ii) a poor (p)-MCN group (n=9), which consisted of the remaining cases. Three patients in the r-MCN group showed invasive carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia, whereas all patients in the p-MCN group showed low-grade dysplasia. Mutations of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) were more frequent in the r-MCN group (83%) (p-MCN; 11%, p<0.05). Mucinous MCNs more frequently have KRAS mutations and higher risk of malignant progression. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperspectral Image Enhancement and Mixture Deep-Learning Classification of Corneal Epithelium Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Noor, Siti Salwa; Michael, Kaleena; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang

    2017-01-01

    In our preliminary study, the reflectance signatures obtained from hyperspectral imaging (HSI) of normal and abnormal corneal epithelium tissues of porcine show similar morphology with subtle differences. Here we present image enhancement algorithms that can be used to improve the interpretability of data into clinically relevant information to facilitate diagnostics. A total of 25 corneal epithelium images without the application of eye staining were used. Three image feature extraction approaches were applied for image classification: (i) image feature classification from histogram using a support vector machine with a Gaussian radial basis function (SVM-GRBF); (ii) physical image feature classification using deep-learning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) only; and (iii) the combined classification of CNNs and SVM-Linear. The performance results indicate that our chosen image features from the histogram and length-scale parameter were able to classify with up to 100% accuracy; particularly, at CNNs and CNNs-SVM, by employing 80% of the data sample for training and 20% for testing. Thus, in the assessment of corneal epithelium injuries, HSI has high potential as a method that could surpass current technologies regarding speed, objectivity, and reliability. PMID:29144388

  6. Low b-wave amplitudes in a strain of rabbits with a pigment epithelium defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, T; Karbaum, R; Flade, A; Hanitzsch, R

    2000-01-01

    When preparing isolated rabbit retinas we found in some animals fundi which were not uniformly dark but had abnormal areas of red coloration. The in situ electroretinograms (ERG) of 82 rabbits recorded after 1 h of dark adaptation were checked for abnormalities indicative of a degenerative disorder. The ERGs of eight rabbits with small dark adapted b-waves ( or = 150 microV over 2.5 years. After 1 year, however, the light adapted b-waves were similar to those of rabbits with normal dark adapted b-waves. The majority of the progeny of these rabbits also had small b-waves, which became still smaller in 2 years. Ultrastructural studies of two rabbit retinas of the first generation showed pathological changes of the pigment epithelium (Wrigstad, Hanitzsch & Nilsson, Ultrastructural and electrophysiological studies of the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium in rabbits with low b-wave amplitudes, in preparation). Evidently there is an inheritable defect in the pigment epithelium which first impairs the rod pathway.

  7. Morphologic observation of neutrophil diapedesis across bovine mammary gland epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Xia, L; Turner, J D; Zhao, X

    1995-02-01

    Neutrophils are present in milk of cows as a means of suppressing invading pathogens during mastitis. However, the manner by which neutrophils traverse the secretory epithelia is still not clear: do they diapedese between epithelial cells or do they kill epithelial cells to gain entry into milk? We investigated the process of bovine neutrophil diapedesis across bovine mammary gland epithelium in vitro. The bovine mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T, grown on collagen-coated filters, formed a confluent monolayer with characteristic tight junctions, basal-apical polarity, and functional barriers to the dye trypan blue. Neutrophils added on the apical surface of the monolayer were stimulated to diapedese across the epithelium by the addition of Staphylococcus aureus (10(7) colony-forming units/ml) to the basal compartment. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed the series of events for neutrophil transmigration: accumulation of neutrophils on the surface of epithelial monolayer; projection of pseudopods into intercellular junctions and movement of neutrophils between adjacent epithelial cells; and reapproximation of the lateral epithelial cell membranes and reformation of the apical tight junctions after neutrophils crossed the epithelium. Morphologically, epithelial cell damage caused by neutrophil diapedesis was not evident. This in vitro model provides a two-dimensional epithelial sheet by which neutrophil diapedesis can be qualitatively studied under defined conditions. Results of the study suggest a major mode by which bovine neutrophils diapedese across the alveolar epithelia into milk during mastitis.

  8. Biosensor analysis of natural and artificial sweeteners in intact taste epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2014-04-15

    Sweeteners are commonly used as food additives in our daily life, which, however, have been causing a number of undesirable diseases since the last century. Therefore, the detection and quantification of sweeteners are of great value for food safety. In this study, we used a taste biosensor to measure and analyze different sweeteners, both natural and artificial sweeteners included. Electrophysiological activities from taste epithelium were detected by the multi-channel biosensors and analyzed with spatiotemporal methods. The longtime signal result showed different temporal-frequency properties with stimulations of individual sweeteners such as glucose, sucrose, saccharin, and cyclamate, while the multi-channel results in our study revealed the spatial expression of taste epithelium to sweet stimuli. Furthermore, in the analysis of sweetener with different concentrations, the result showed obvious dose-dependent increases in signal responses of the taste epithelium, which indicated promising applications in sweetness evaluation. Besides, the mixture experiment of two natural sweeteners with a similar functional unit (glucose and sucrose) presented two signal patterns, which turned out to be similar with responses of each individual stimulus involved. The biosensor analysis of common sweeteners provided new approaches for both natural and artificial sweeteners evaluation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Assessing DNA methylation in the developing human intestinal epithelium: potential link to inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiczy, J; Nayak, K; Ross, A; Raine, T; Mak, T N; Gasparetto, M; Cario, E; Rakyan, V; Heuschkel, R; Zilbauer, M

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic mechanisms implicated in regulating cellular development and cell-type-specific gene expression. Here we performed simultaneous genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression analysis on purified intestinal epithelial cells derived from human fetal gut, healthy pediatric biopsies, and children newly diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Results were validated using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR, and immunostaining. The functional impact of DNA methylation changes on gene expression was assessed by employing in-vitro assays in intestinal cell lines. DNA methylation analyses allowed identification of 214 genes for which expression is regulated via DNA methylation, i.e. regulatory differentially methylated regions (rDMRs). Pathway and functional analysis of rDMRs suggested a critical role for DNA methylation in regulating gene expression and functional development of the human intestinal epithelium. Moreover, analysis performed on intestinal epithelium of children newly diagnosed with IBD revealed alterations in DNA methylation within genomic loci, which were found to overlap significantly with those undergoing methylation changes during intestinal development. Our study provides novel insights into the physiological role of DNA methylation in regulating functional maturation of the human intestinal epithelium. Moreover, we provide data linking developmentally acquired alterations in the DNA methylation profile to changes seen in pediatric IBD.

  10. Insect wing membrane topography is determined by the dorsal wing epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, Andrea D; Doyle, Kristy; Hogan, Justin; Neff, David; Collier, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila wing consists of a transparent wing membrane supported by a network of wing veins. Previously, we have shown that the wing membrane cuticle is not flat but is organized into ridges that are the equivalent of one wing epithelial cell in width and multiple cells in length. These cuticle ridges have an anteroposterior orientation in the anterior wing and a proximodistal orientation in the posterior wing. The precise topography of the wing membrane is remarkable because it is a fusion of two independent cuticle contributions from the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia. Here, through morphological and genetic studies, we show that it is the dorsal wing epithelium that determines wing membrane topography. Specifically, we find that wing hair location and membrane topography are coordinated on the dorsal, but not ventral, surface of the wing. In addition, we find that altering Frizzled Planar Cell Polarity (i.e., Fz PCP) signaling in the dorsal wing epithelium alone changes the membrane topography of both dorsal and ventral wing surfaces. We also examined the wing morphology of two model Hymenopterans, the honeybee Apis mellifera and the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. In both cases, wing hair location and wing membrane topography are coordinated on the dorsal, but not ventral, wing surface, suggesting that the dorsal wing epithelium also controls wing topography in these species. Because phylogenomic studies have identified the Hymenotera as basal within the Endopterygota family tree, these findings suggest that this is a primitive insect character.

  11. Identification of Lgr5-Independent Spheroid-Generating Progenitors of the Mouse Fetal Intestinal Epithelium

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    Roxana C. Mustata

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immortal spheroids were generated from fetal mouse intestine using the culture system initially developed to culture organoids from adult intestinal epithelium. Spheroid proportion progressively decreases from fetal to postnatal period, with a corresponding increase in production of organoids. Like organoids, spheroids show Wnt-dependent indefinite self-renewing properties but display a poorly differentiated phenotype reminiscent of incompletely caudalized progenitors. The spheroid transcriptome is strikingly different from that of adult intestinal stem cells, with minimal overlap of Wnt target gene expression. The receptor LGR4, but not LGR5, is essential for their growth. Trop2/Tacstd2 and Cnx43/Gja1, two markers highly enriched in spheroids, are expressed throughout the embryonic-day-14 intestinal epithelium. Comparison of in utero and neonatal lineage tracing using Cnx43-CreER and Lgr5-CreERT2 mice identified spheroid-generating cells as developmental progenitors involved in generation of the prenatal intestinal epithelium. Ex vivo, spheroid cells have the potential to differentiate into organoids, qualifying as a fetal type of intestinal stem cell.

  12. Regeneration of Corneal Epithelium With Dental Pulp Stem Cells Using a Contact Lens Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerev, Evgeny; Shawcross, Susan G; Sothirachagan, Shankari; Carley, Fiona; Brahma, Arun; Yates, Julian M; Hillarby, M Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The corneal epithelium is sloughed off surface of the eye by the action of blinking and is continually replaced by division and maturation of the limbal stem cells (LSCs). In the case of injury or disease, LSCs can be lost or damaged to a point at which the corneal epithelial layer is no longer maintained. leading to LSC deficiencies (LSCDs). When this occurs, the opaque conjunctiva overgrows the anterior surface of the eye, leading to vision impairment or loss. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are promising candidates as autologous LSC substitutes. In this study, contact lenses (CLs) are used as a novel medical device to deliver DPSCs onto corneal surface to enhance corneal epithelium regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells labeled with green fluorescent Qtracker 525 were seeded onto the pretreated CLs, allowed to adhere, then delivered to debrided human corneas. Expression of KRT3, 12, 13, and 19 was investigated by immunostaining, then standard and confocal microscopy. Dental pulp stem cells were successfully isolated, labeled, and delivered to the corneal surface using CLs. Following removal of CLs, confocal microscopy showed that the DPSCs had migrated onto the cornea. Coexpression of KRT12 and green fluorescent Qtracker 525 confirmed that the DPSCs had transdifferentiated into corneal epithelial progenitors. Delimitation of KRT 19 and green fluorescence provides evidence that Qtracker 525-labeled DPSCs establish a barrier to the invasion of the cornea by conjunctiva. In this study we show that DPSCs, delivered using CLs, can be used to enhance repair and regeneration of the human corneal epithelium.

  13. DHT deficiency perturbs the integrity of the rat seminiferous epithelium by disrupting tight and adherens junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiszniewska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In rats with a DHT deficiency induced by finasteride, morphological changes in the seminiferous epithelium were observed. The structural alterations were manifested by the premature germ cells sloughing into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. The etiology of this disorder could be connected with intercellular junctions disintegration. We showed in the immunohistochemical study the changes in expression of some proteins building tight and adherens junctions. The depression of N-cadherin, β-catenin and occludin immunoexpressions could be the reason for the release of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium. However, the observed increase of the immunohistochemical reaction intensity of vinculin, one of the cadherin/catenin complex regulators, could be insufficient to maintain the proper function of adherens junctions. The hormonal imbalance appears to influence the pattern of expression of junctional proteins in the seminiferous epithelium. It could lead to untimely germ cells sloughing, and ultimately could impair fertility. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 1, 62–71

  14. Regulation of calbindin-D(28k) expression by Msx2 in the dental epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Alba; Hotton, Dominique; Ferbus, Didier; Loiodice, Sophia; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2012-08-01

    Amelogenesis involves the coordinated expression of a set of molecules that includes enamel matrix proteins and calcium-binding proteins. Msx2 is a member of the divergent homeobox gene family and is instrumental in dental morphogenesis and biomineralization. This study focused on an EF-hand calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D(28k), which is highly expressed in dental epithelium. In vivo data showed that calbindin-D(28k) levels were higher in ameloblasts from Msx2(+/-) mice than Msx2(+/+) mice. Consistent with this finding, calbindin-D(28k) distribution was affected in transgenic mice with ectopic expression in root epithelium in rests of Malassez in Msx2(+/-) and more clearly in Msx2(-/-) mice. In accordance with these in vivo data, calbindin-D(28k) protein and mRNA levels were decreased in LS8 ameloblast-like cells by exogenous Msx2 overexpression. Furthermore, calbindin-D(28k) promoter activity (nt-1075/+34) was specifically diminished in the presence of Msx2 overexpression, showing that Msx2 behave as a transcriptional repressor for calbindin-D(28k) gene expression. In conclusion, Msx2 may control the spatiotemporally restricted frame of calbindin-D(28k) production in the dental epithelium in relation to enamel mineralization, as previously shown for amelogenin.

  15. Enzyme activities in human lens epithelium of age-related cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpoliti, M; Maraini, G; Alberti, G; Corona, R; Crateri, S

    1993-09-01

    To investigate associations between enzyme activity of glutathione reductase (GR) with and without added flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase (6PGDH) in the lens epithelium collected at surgery, and some nutritional and biochemical variables determined in the same individuals during the Italian-American Case-Control Study of age-related cataract. One hundred eighty-three epithelium capsule samples were collected from 174 patients undergoing surgery. Data on enzyme activity were obtained from 52 samples for 6-PGDH and from 53 samples for GR and for GPX. The Lens Opacity Classification System II was used to classify and grade cataracts. No correlation was found between enzyme activity in lens epithelium and the same enzymatic activity in erythrocytes (with the exception of a negative correlation between lens and erythrocyte 6PGDH activity), or the type and severity of cataract. No correlation was found between lens GPX activity and plasma selenium and between lens GR activation coefficient (GRAC) and riboflavin intake. Lens GR with added FAD and lens GRAC were significantly correlated to plasma vitamin E level. Lens GRAC was positively correlated to a nutritional vitamin index. Present data stress the difficulty in verifying the assumption that biochemical indices collected on plasma and on erythrocyte actually reflect the status of these factors in the lens itself.

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair eWalsham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC A/E lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  17. Epigenetic modification of TLE1 induce abnormal differentiation in diabetic mice intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Hao; Chen, Guang-Cheng; Huang, Can-Ze; Cheng, Di; Wu, Ting-Feng; Wang, Si-Yi; Li, Jie-Yao; Yu, Tao; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2018-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium cells (IECs) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have been proven to be abnormally differentiated. During the differentiation of IECs, epigenetic modification acts as an important regulator. In this study, we aimed to examine the epigenetic alteration of Transducin-like Enhancer of Split 1 (TLE1), a multitask transcriptional co-repressor, contributing to the differentiation homeostasis in IECs of DM mice. The IECs of type 2 diabetic mice model were isolated and collected. Methylation states of whole genomic DNA promoter regions were investigated by microarray. Methylated-specific PCR was used to detect the methylation state of TLE1 promoter in DM mice IECs. The expression of TLE1, Hes1, and differentiated cell markers were measured through real-time PCR, Western blots, and immunohistochemistry; by transfection assay, TLE1 or Hes1 was independently down-regulated in intestinal epithelium cell line, IEC-6. Subsequent modulation on TLE1, Hes1, and differentiated intestinal cell markers were detected. Global gene promoter regions in DM intestinal epithelium were less methylated comparing to normal control. The expression of TLE1 was significantly increased via hypomethylated activation in DM mice IECs. Hes1 was significantly suppressed and the terminal cell markers abnormally expressed in DM mice IECs (P self-expression in diabetic mice IECs. Subsequently, TLE1, through the transcriptional suppression on expression of Hes1, contributes to the aberrant differentiation of IECs in DM mice.

  18. Grass pollen immunotherapy inhibits seasonal increases in basophils and eosinophils in the nasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D R; Irani, A M; Walker, S M; Jacobson, M R; Mackay, I S; Schwartz, L B; Durham, S R

    2001-11-01

    Symptoms of allergic rhinitis are accompanied by infiltration of the nasal mucosa with inflammatory cells, predominantly eosinophils and metachromatic cells (basophils and mast cells). Specific immunotherapy (IT) reduces mucosal eosinophilia and numbers of metachromatic cells in the epithelium. A specific marker distinguishing basophils from mast cells was recently developed. The basophil-specific monoclonal antibody 2D7 was used to determine the influence of subcutaneous IT on numbers of nasal mucosal basophils compared with the effects of IT on neutrophils, eosinophils and mast cells. During a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of grass pollen IT in 44 adults with severe summer hay fever, nasal biopsies were taken at baseline, out of the pollen season, and at the peak of the pollen season following 2 years treatment. Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemistry for basophils (2D7+), mast cells (AA1+), eosinophils (MBP+) and neutrophils (neutrophil elastase+). In placebo-treated (PL) patients there were significant seasonal increases in basophils (P pollen immunotherapy was associated with inhibition of seasonal increases in basophils and eosinophils, but not mast cells or neutrophils within the nasal epithelium. Immunotherapy may act, at least in part, by reducing seasonal recruitment of basophils and eosinophils into the epithelium.

  19. Generation of human female reproductive tract epithelium from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified stem/progenitor cells in human and mouse uterine epithelium, which are postulated to be responsible for tissue regeneration and proliferative disorders of human endometrium. These progenitor cells are thought to be derived from Müllerian duct (MD, the primordial female reproductive tract (FRT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a model of human reproductive tract development in which inductive neonatal mouse uterine mesenchyme (nMUM is recombined with green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged human embryonic stem cells (hESCs; GFP-hESC (ENVY. We demonstrate for the first time that hESCs can be differentiated into cells with a human FRT epithelial cell phenotype. hESC derived FRT epithelial cells emerged from cultures containing MIXL1(+ mesendodermal precursors, paralleling events occurring during normal organogenesis. Following transplantation, nMUM treated embryoid bodies (EBs generated epithelial structures with a typical MD phenotype that expressed the MD markers PAX2, HOXA10. Functionally, the hESCs derived FRT epithelium responded to exogenous estrogen by proliferating and secreting uterine-specific glycodelin A (GdA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show nMUM can induce differentiation of hESC to form the FRT epithelium. This may provide a model to study early developmental events of the human FRT.

  20. PPARγ Modulates Long Chain Fatty Acid Processing in the Intestinal Epithelium

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    Kalina Duszka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor PPARγ affects lipid metabolism in several tissues, but its role in intestinal lipid metabolism has not been explored. As alterations have been observed in the plasma lipid profile of ad libitum fed intestinal epithelium-specific PPARγ knockout mice (iePPARγKO, we submitted these mice to lipid gavage challenges. Within hours after gavage with long chain unsaturated fatty acid (FA-rich canola oil, the iePPARγKO mice had higher plasma free FA levels and lower gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels than their wild-type (WT littermates, and altered expression of incretin genes and lipid metabolism-associated genes in the intestinal epithelium. Gavage with the medium chain saturated FA-rich coconut oil did not result in differences between the two genotypes. Furthermore, the iePPARγKO mice did not exhibit defective lipid uptake and stomach emptying; however, their intestinal transit was more rapid than in WT mice. When fed a canola oil-rich diet for 4.5 months, iePPARγKO mice had higher body lean mass than the WT mice. We conclude that intestinal epithelium PPARγ is activated preferentially by long chain unsaturated FAs compared to medium chain saturated FAs. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the iePPARγKO phenotype originates from altered lipid metabolism and release in epithelial cells, as well as changes in intestinal motility.

  1. Airway epithelium controls lung inflammation and injury through the NF-kappa B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong-sheng; Han, Wei; Chen, Sabrina M; Sherrill, Taylor P; Chont, Melissa; Park, Gye-Young; Sheller, James R; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Christman, John W; Yull, Fiona E; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2007-05-15

    Although airway epithelial cells provide important barrier and host defense functions, a crucial role for these cells in development of acute lung inflammation and injury has not been elucidated. We investigated whether NF-kappaB pathway signaling in airway epithelium could decisively impact inflammatory phenotypes in the lungs by using a tetracycline-inducible system to achieve selective NF-kappaB activation or inhibition in vivo. In transgenic mice that express a constitutively active form of IkappaB kinase 2 under control of the epithelial-specific CC10 promoter, treatment with doxycycline induced NF-kappaB activation with consequent production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines, high-protein pulmonary edema, and neutrophilic lung inflammation. Continued treatment with doxycycline caused progressive lung injury and hypoxemia with a high mortality rate. In contrast, inducible expression of a dominant inhibitor of NF-kappaB in airway epithelium prevented lung inflammation and injury resulting from expression of constitutively active form of IkappaB kinase 2 or Escherichia coli LPS delivered directly to the airways or systemically via an osmotic pump implanted in the peritoneal cavity. Our findings indicate that the NF-kappaB pathway in airway epithelial cells is critical for generation of lung inflammation and injury in response to local and systemic stimuli; therefore, targeting inflammatory pathways in airway epithelium could prove to be an effective therapeutic strategy for inflammatory lung diseases.

  2. Antioxidant effect of minocycline in gingival epithelium induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype B toxin

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    Ernie Maduratna Setiawati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa serotype B has been associated with aggressive periodontitis. Gingival epithelial cell is exquisitely sensitive to the toxin and may lead to the epithel protective barrier disruption. Experimental models show that minocycline is not related to it’s antimicrobial effect and protection against neuron cell apoptosis of a number experimental models of brain injury and Parkinson’s disease. Purpose: This study, examined antioxidant effect of minocycline to inhibit apoptosis of gingival epithelium induced crude toxin bacteria Aa serotype B in mice. Methods: Thirty adult mice strain Swiss Webster (balb C were divided randomly into three groups: control group (group A, toxin group (group B and toxin and minocycline group (group C. The mice were taken at 24 hours after application, and then the tissue sections of gingival epithelium were stained with tunnel assay and immunohistochemistry. Result: Treatment with these toxin induced apoptosis of gingival epithelium and was associated with DNA fragmentation and reduced gluthatione (GSH. Minocycline 100 nM significantly increased GSH and reduced apoptosis (p < 0.05. Minocycline provides antioxidant effect against citotoxicity of bacteria Aa serotipe B. Conclusion: Nanomolar concentration of minocycline potential as new therapeutic agent to prevent progressivity of aggressiveness of periodontitis.

  3. Imaging living hair cells within the cochlear epithelium of mice using two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Gao, Simon S.; Saggau, Peter; Oghalai, John S.

    2009-02-01

    Mice are an excellent model for studying mammalian hearing and transgenic mouse models of human hearing loss are commonly available for research. However, the mouse cochlea is substantially smaller than other animal models routinely used to study cochlear physiology. This makes the study of their hair cells difficult. We developed a novel methodology to optically image calcium within living hair cells left undisturbed within the excised mouse cochlea. Fresh cochleae were harvested, left intact within their otic capsule bone, and glued upright in a recording chamber. The bone overlying the region of the cochlear epithelium to be studied was opened and Reissner's membrane was incised. A fluorescent indicator was applied to the preparation to image intracellular calcium. A custom-built upright two-photon microscope was used to image the preparation using three dimensional scanning. We were able to image about 1/3 of a cochlear turn simultaneously, in either the apical or basal regions. Within one hour of animal sacrifice, we found that outer hair cells demonstrated increased fluorescence compared with surrounding supporting cells. Thus, this methodology can be used to visualize hair cell calcium changes and mechanotransduction over a region of the epithelium. Because the epithelium is left within the cochlea, dissection trauma is minimized and artifactual changes in hair cell physiology are reduced.

  4. Tissue specific DNA methylation in normal human breast epithelium and in breast cancer.

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    Ayelet Avraham

    Full Text Available Cancer is a heterogeneous and tissue-specific disease. Thus, the tissue of origin reflects on the natural history of the disease and dictates the therapeutic approach. It is suggested that tissue differentiation, mediated mostly by epigenetic modifications, could guide tissue-specific susceptibility and protective mechanisms against cancer. Here we studied breast specific methylation in purified normal epithelium and its reflection in breast cancers. We established genome wide methylation profiles of various normal epithelial tissues and identified 110 genes that were differentially methylated in normal breast epithelium. A number of these genes also showed methylation alterations in breast cancers. We elaborated on one of them, TRIM29 (ATDC, and showed that its promoter was hypo-methylated in normal breast epithelium and heavily methylated in other normal epithelial tissues. Moreover, in breast carcinomas methylation increased and expression decreased whereas the reverse was noted for multiple other carcinomas. Interestingly, TRIM29 regulation in breast tumors clustered according to the PAM50 classification. Thus, it was repressed in the estrogen receptor positive tumors, particularly in the more proliferative luminal B subtype. This goes in line with previous reports indicating tumor suppressive activity of TRIM29 in estrogen receptor positive luminal breast cells in contrast to oncogenic function in pancreatic and lung cancers. Overall, these findings emphasize the linkage between breast specific epigenetic regulation and tissue specificity of cancer.

  5. [Cytokeratins and transitional epithelium of the bladder. Particular distribution of cytokeratins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissof, F; Serres, G; Haillot, O

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the tissue distribution of certain cytokeratins in the urothelium. A series of ten cystectomy specimens containing normal tissues was investigated by immunocytochemical labeling with specific antibodies against cytokeratins 19, 18, 8, 7, 10. Monoclonal antibodies were used on frozen sections. Distribution of keratin was correlated with morphologic changes. All specimens were lined by a normal transitional epithelium. Low molecular weight cytokeratins (polypeptides 19, 18, 8, 7) were detected in all cell layers. Anticytokeratin 19 stained epithelium in a rather uniform way. Different antibodies specific for cytokeratin 18 reacted differently on the same tissue. With certain anticytokeratins 18 and 8, a higher staining intensity was found in superficial layers as compared with intermediate cell layers. So-called "umbrella" cells were strongly stained. Anticytokeratin 10 revealed very rare endocrine-like cells. This normal urothelial pattern is in agreement with previous reports. This pattern of expression of cytokeratin polypeptides differs from that of nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium. Therefore, histological differentiation of epithelia is accompanied by pronounced changes in the expression of cytokeratin polypeptides.

  6. [Topical respiratory strategies in neurocritical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, M B; Kruglyakov, N M; Semenov, M S; Zabelin, M V; Udalov, Yu D; Samoylov, A S; Popugaev, K A

    2017-01-01

    Management of the respiratory tract and maintenance of adequate gas exchange are the basic goals of critical care. Injury to the nervous system is often accompanied by development of respiratory disorders. On the other hand, changes in the gas composition of arterial blood can cause brain damage. In addition, approaches to the patient with respiratory failure, which are used in general critical care and neurocritical care, may differ. The presented literature review is devoted to modern respiratory strategies used in neurocritical care.

  7. A single amino acid in the HA of pH1N1 2009 influenza virus affects cell tropism in human airway epithelium, but not transmission in ferrets.

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    Neeltje van Doremalen

    Full Text Available The first pandemic of the 21(st century, pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 2009, emerged from a swine-origin source. Although human infections with swine-origin influenza have been reported previously, none went on to cause a pandemic or indeed any sustained human transmission. In previous pandemics, specific residues in the receptor binding site of the haemagglutinin (HA protein of influenza have been associated with the ability of the virus to transmit between humans. In the present study we investigated the effect of residue 227 in HA on cell tropism and transmission of pH1N1 2009. In pH1N1 2009 and recent seasonal H1N1 viruses this residue is glutamic acid, whereas in swine influenza it is alanine. Using human airway epithelium, we show a differential cell tropism of pH1N1 2009 compared to pH1N1 2009 E227A and swine influenza suggesting this residue may alter the sialic acid conformer binding preference of the HA. Furthermore, both pH1N1 2009 E227A and swine influenza multi-cycle viral growth was found to be attenuated in comparison to pH1N1 2009 in human airway epithelium. However this altered tropism and viral growth in human airway epithelium did not abrogate respiratory droplet transmission of pH1N1 2009 E227A in ferrets. Thus, acquisition of E at residue 227 was not solely responsible for the ability of pH1N1 2009 to transmit between humans.

  8. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency and the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarzan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory failure is a complex entity of varied etiology and physio-pathological mechanisms. It is mainly characterised by the respiratory system's difficulty in ensuring correct aeration at rest, resulting initially in insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. Treatment is adapted to each etiology and aims to compensate for respiratory failure and to ensure the oxygenation of the organism.

  9. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  11. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene Airborne...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  13. Hypersensitivity Reaction and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pyrethroid Poisoning and Role of Steroid Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisa George

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are generally of low toxicity to humans, but in suicidal poisonings which are usually associated with ingestion of high doses, they lead to severe systemic effects. Case Report: A 30-year old woman presented to emergency department with a history of intentional ingestion of about 15 mL of prallethrin around 3 days earlier. She complained of shortness of breath along with chest pain for the last 2 days. She reported no vomiting or stomach pain prior to presentation to hospital. On chest auscultation, breath sounds were mildly decreased in bilateral infrascapular areas with generalized crepitation. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray and computed tomography of thorax revealed widespread confluent areas of consolidation with interlobular septal thickening involving bilateral parahilar regions suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The patient did not respond to broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day divided 6 hourly was started and slowly tapered off during the next days. The patient discharged after 3 weeks in good health. Discussion: As pyrethroids can affect sodium channels, the osmotic gradient of alveolar epithelium probably disrupts and therefore, alveolar infiltrations gradually spread over lungs. In addition, there is a possibility of hypersensitivity reactions to pyrethroids, which can cause progressive inflammation and involve respiratory tract in severe cases. Conclusion: Pyrethroid poisoning can lead to ARDS. Steroid therapy may help such patients tide over the pulmonary crisis.

  14. An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Huntimer, Lucas; Falkenberg, Shollie; Henningson, Jamie; Lechtenberg, Kelly; Halbur, Tom

    2017-02-01

    Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought to investigate the efficacy of an inactivated IDV vaccine. Vaccinated calves seroconverted with hemagglutination inhibition titers 137-169 following two doses. Non-vaccinated calves challenged with a homologous virus exhibited signs of mild respiratory disease from days four to ten post challenge which was significantly different than negative controls at days five and nine post challenge. Peak viral shedding of approximately 5 TCID50/mL was measured in nasal and tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids four to six days post challenge. Viral titers were significantly (Prespiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates and trachea by immunohistochemistry from all unvaccinated calves but in significantly fewer vaccinates. Inflammation characterized by neutrophils was observed in the nasal turbinate and trachea but not appreciably in lungs. Together these results support an etiologic role for IDV in BRD and demonstrate that partial protection is afforded by an inactivated vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in macaques is not suppressed by intranasal sprays of pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Clément; Hourani, Marianne-Lucas; Janin, Yves L; Dauzonne, Daniel; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Paturet, Adeline; Taborik, Fabrice; Vabret, Astrid; Contamin, Hugues; Tangy, Frédéric; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    There is imperious need for efficient therapies against ubiquitous and life-threatening respiratory viruses, foremost among them being the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Several research groups who performed functional screens for broad-spectrum antivirals identified compounds targeting the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. Despite their strong antiviral activity in vitro, whether such antimetabolites are effective in vivo remains highly controversial. Here, we evaluated two potent pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors developed in our laboratory, IPPA17-A04 and GAC50, in a model of mild hRSV-infection in cynomolgus macaques. In this model, hRSV replication is restricted to the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, and is compatible with a topical treatment by intranasal sprays. The local administration of palivizumab, a neutralizing anti-hRSV antibody used in clinics, significantly reduced virus replication. In contrast, pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect on hRSV growth when delivered topically as experimented in our model. Our results should help to better define the potential applications of this class of antimetabolites in the treatment of viral infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of mouse respiratory epithelial cells and exposure to experimental cigarette smoke at air liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hilaire C; Choi, Augustine M K; Ryter, Stefan W

    2011-02-21

    Pulmonary epithelial cells can be isolated from the respiratory tract of mice and cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) as a model of differentiated respiratory epithelium. A protocol is described for isolating and exposing these cells to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS), in order to study epithelial cell responses to CS exposure. The protocol consists of three parts: the isolation of airway epithelial cells from mouse trachea, the culturing of these cells at air-liquid interface (ALI) as fully differentiated epithelial cells, and the delivery of calibrated mainstream CS to these cells in culture. The ALI culture system allows the culture of respiratory epithelia under conditions that more closely resemble their physiological setting than ordinary liquid culture systems. The study of molecular and lung cellular responses to CS exposure is a critical component of understanding the impact of environmental air pollution on human health. Research findings in this area may ultimately contribute towards understanding the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other tobacco-related diseases, which represent major global health problems.

  17. Cytophotometric analysis of reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver, heart muscle and tracheal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Vogels, I. M.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in cryostat sections of rat liver, tracheal epithelium and heart muscle were monitored by continuous measurement of formazan formation by cytophotometry at room temperature. Incubation media contained polyvinyl alcohol as tissue

  18. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scull, Margaret A; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S; Pickles, Raymond J

    2009-01-01

    .... Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C...

  19. Lectin-binding sites in the epithelium of normal human appendix vermiformis and in acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinck, U; Bosbach, R; Korabiowska, M; Schauer, A; Gabius, H J

    1995-01-01

    By using histochemical methods, the binding pattern of various lectins in the epithelium of normal human appendix vermiformis was assessed. In addition to plant and invertebrate sugar receptors with nominal monosaccharide specificity for alpha-L-Fuc (UEA-I), alpha-D-Man and alpha-D-Gluc (Con A), alpha-D-GalNAc (DBA), D-GalNAc (SBA, HPA) beta-D-Gal (RCA-I) and D-Gal (VAA), a mammalian beta-galactoside-specific lectin (MW, 14 kDa) was included in the applied panel. The apical surface of enterocytes presented binding sites for RCA-I on all cells, binding sites of UEA-I, DBA, SBA, HPA and VAA heterogeneously and no binding sites of Con A and 14 kDa. Binding sites of DBA, SBA, HPA, VAA and RCA-I within enterocytes were located primarily focally in a supranuclear position, whereas Con A and 14 kDa bound to the cytoplasm both in apical and basal cell parts. In the follicle-associated epithelium more enterocytes expressed SBA- and VAA-binding sites than in the crypt epithelium. No differences between the lectin-binding pattern of M-cells and enterocytes were found in the follicle-associated epithelium. Intraepithelial macrophages were heterogeneously positive for the full panel of applied lectins. In contrast, intraepithelial lymphatic cells expressed binding sites only for RCA-I and less prominently for Con A, VAA and 14 kDa. Goblet cell mucus contained lectin-binding sites in a heterogeneous manner: binding sites for Con A were not detected in goblet cells for DBA, SBA, VAA and 14 kDa in less than 20%, for UEA-I in 20-40%, for HPA in 40-60% and for RCA-I in 60-100% of the goblet cells. Secreted mucus differed in its lectin-binding capacity from intracellular goblet cell mucus selectively by an increase of UEA-I, SBA- and RCA-I-binding sites and a lack of 14 kDa-binding sites. Comparative study of lectin binding to goblet cell mucin in another region of the large intestine, namely the rectosigmoid, demonstrated that DBA, SBA and 14 kDa bound mainly to the distal colon

  20. Induction of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Affects the Ruminal Microbiome and Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Mccann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA negatively impacts the dairy industry by decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, profitability, and increasing culling rate and death loss. Six ruminally-cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated incomplete Latin square design to determine the effects of SARA induction on the ruminal microbiome and epithelium. Experimental periods were 10 d with d 1 - 3 for ad libitum intake of control diet, followed by 50% feed restriction on d 4, and ad libitum access on d 5 to the basal diet or the basal diet with an additional 10% of a 50:50 wheat/barley pellet. Based on subsequent ruminal pH, cows were grouped (SARA grouping; SG as Non-SARA or SARA based on time < 5.6 pH (0 and 3.4 h, respectively. Ruminal samples were collected on d 1 and 6 of each period prior to feeding and separated into liquid and solid fractions. Microbial DNA was extracted for bacterial analysis using 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform and quantitative PCR (qPCR. Ruminal epithelium biopsies were taken on d 1 and 6 before feeding. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine gene expression in rumen epithelium. Bray-Curtis similarity indicated samples within the liquid fraction separated by day and coincided with an increased relative abundance of genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus on d 6 (P < 0.06. Although Firmicutes was the predominant phyla in the solid fraction, a SG × day interaction (P < 0.01 indicated a decrease on d 6 for SARA cows. In contrast, phylum Bacteroidetes increased on d 6 (P < 0.01 for SARA cows driven by greater genera Prevotella and YRC22 (P < 0.01. Streptococcus bovis and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens populations tended to increase on d 6 but were not affected by SG. In ruminal epithelium, CLDN1 and CLDN4 expression increased on d 6 (P < 0.03 24 h after SARA induction and a tendency for a SG × day interaction (P < 0.10 was observed for CLDN4