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Sample records for pseudosciaena crocea electronic

  1. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides of Pseudosciaena crocea Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Ningning Zhang; Chong Zhang; Yuanyuan Chen; Baodong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Two peptides with antioxidant activity were isolated from Pseudosciaena crocea proteins. Pseudosciaena crocea muscle was hydrolyzed with neutral protease to obtain Pseudosciaena crocea protein hydrolysates (PCPH). After ultrafiltration through molecular weight cut-off membranes of 10, 5 and 3 kDa and assessment of free radical scavenging ability, the fraction (PCPH-IV) with the highest antioxidant activity was obtained. Several purification steps, i.e., ion exchange chromatography, gel filtra...

  2. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides of Pseudosciaena crocea Protein Hydrolysates

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    Ningning Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two peptides with antioxidant activity were isolated from Pseudosciaena crocea proteins. Pseudosciaena crocea muscle was hydrolyzed with neutral protease to obtain Pseudosciaena crocea protein hydrolysates (PCPH. After ultrafiltration through molecular weight cut-off membranes of 10, 5 and 3 kDa and assessment of free radical scavenging ability, the fraction (PCPH-IV with the highest antioxidant activity was obtained. Several purification steps, i.e., ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, were applied to further purify PCPH-IV. Two antioxidant peptides with the amino acid sequences Ser-Arg-Cys-His-Val and Pro-Glu-His-Trp were finally identified by LC-MS/MS.

  3. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides of Pseudosciaena crocea Protein Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Zhang, Chong; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-12-30

    Two peptides with antioxidant activity were isolated from Pseudosciaena crocea proteins. Pseudosciaena crocea muscle was hydrolyzed with neutral protease to obtain Pseudosciaena crocea protein hydrolysates (PCPH). After ultrafiltration through molecular weight cut-off membranes of 10, 5 and 3 kDa and assessment of free radical scavenging ability, the fraction (PCPH-IV) with the highest antioxidant activity was obtained. Several purification steps, i.e., ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, were applied to further purify PCPH-IV. Two antioxidant peptides with the amino acid sequences Ser-Arg-Cys-His-Val and Pro-Glu-His-Trp were finally identified by LC-MS/MS.

  4. Effects of chitosan combined with nisin treatment on storage quality of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Guohua; Liu, Wei; Feng, Hailin; Li, Jian; Gao, Yuanyuan

    2016-07-15

    Effects of chitosan combined with different concentrations of nisin on quality enhancement of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) stored at 4 °C were evaluated for 8 days. Changes in sensory score and volatile spoilage products, total viable counts (TVC), and physiochemical indexes including weight loss, colour, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and K-value were examined. Results demonstrated that nisin-treated samples presented better quality preservation effects than chitosan alone. 1% chitosan combined with 0.6% nisin presented optimal quality enhancement effects, such as moisture loss control, volatile spoilage inhibition, TVB-N reduction, TVC growth control, and colour and sensory acceptability maintenance. Therefore, chitosan combined with nisin is promising in large yellow croaker shelf life extension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pseudosciaena crocea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinental rivers (Trewavas 1962). In the past decades, Sci- aenids in the West China Sea have been nearly exhausted due to overfishing and heavy marine pollution (Seikai National. Fisheries Research Institute 2001). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship and diversity among species related to ...

  6. Dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson, 1846)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyan; He, Zhigang

    2010-12-01

    Dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson 1846 (initial body weight 6.0 g ± 0.1 g) was determined using dose-response method. Six isonitogenous (crude protein 43%) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1) practical diets containing six levels of leucine (Diets 1-6) ranging from 1.23% to 4.80% (dry matter) were made at about 0.7% increment of leucine. Equal amino acid nitrogen was maintained by replacing leucine with glutamic acid. Triplicate groups of 60 individuals were fed to apparent satiation by hand twice daily (05:00 and 17:30). The water temperature was 26-32°C, salinity 26-30 and dissolved oxygen approximately 7 mg L-1 during the experimental period. Final weight (FW) of large yellow croaker initially increased with increasing level of dietary leucine but then decreased at further higher level of leucine. The highest FW was obtained in fish fed diet with 3.30% Leucine (Diet 4). FW of fish fed the diet with 4.80% Leucine (Diet 6) was significantly lower than those fed Diet 4. However, no significant differences were observed between the other dietary treatments. Feed efficiency (FE) and whole body composition were independent of dietary leucine contents ( P > 0.05). The results indicated that leucine was essential for growth of juvenile large yellow croaker. On the basis of FW, the optimum dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker was estimated to be 2.92% of dry matter (6.79% of dietary protein).

  7. Characterization of a novel piscidin-like antimicrobial peptide from Pseudosciaena crocea and its immune response to Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Su-Fang; Jin, Yuan; Xu, Xin; Qiao, Ying; Wu, Yang; Mao, Yong; Su, Yong-Quan; Wang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Piscidins, important components of the innate (nonspecific) immunity system in fish, have potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. In this study, we reported a novel antimicrobial cationic peptide from Pseudosciaena crocea. Although this peptide exhibited a genomic (3 exons and 2 introns) and propeptide (signal peptide, mature peptide and prodomain) organization, conserved signal peptide (22 amino acids) and consensus motif I-X5-H-X4-I-H identical to the reported fish piscidins, Pc-pis showed a relatively low overall conservation with other known piscidins, which was obviously embodied in the amino acid composition of the peptide. Pc-pis is strikingly rich in glycine residues (27.3%), which disrupted the amphipathic structure of the peptide. Relative quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Pc-pis is a typically gill-expressed peptide. The sequence analysis, structural features and tissue distribution suggested that Pc-pis was genetically related to the piscidins family and might be a novel piscidin-like antimicrobial peptide. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression of Pc-pis in the spleen, head-kidney, liver, intestine, skin and gill could be regulated during Cryptocaryon irritans infection and post C. irritans falling off, implicating a role for Pc-pis in immune defense against C. irritans and secondary bacterial infections. Synthetic Pc-pis exhibited broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi and C. irritans in parasitic stages. These results provided the first evidence of piscidins antiparasitic activity against marine fish ectoparasites C. irritants trophonts and further indicated that Pc-pis might be an important component of the P. crocea innate immune system against C. irritans and secondary bacterial infections. Thus, these data provided new insights into P. crocea innate immunity against external protozoan parasite and microbial infections and facilitate the evaluation of Pc-pis as a therapeutic agent against

  8. Stress, antioxidant defence and mucosal immune responses of the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea challenged with Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Hui; Ke, Qiaozhen; Li, Anxing

    2015-11-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the stress, antioxidant and mucosal immune response of the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea, this study utilized C. irritans at dose of 12,000 (group I); 24,000 (group II); and 36,000 (group III) theronts/fish to infect large yellow croaker weighing 100 ± 10 g. The food intake, survival and relative infection intensity (RII); levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin C (VC), activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver; variation patterns of lysozyme (LZM), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), complement component 3 (C3) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels in the body surface mucus at different time points after infection were compared. These results showed that with the increase of the infection dose and the passage of time, the food intake and survival of the fish gradually decreased. The final survival of the control group (0 theronts/fish), group I, group II, and group III was 100, 100, 96.67 ± 5.77, and 48.33 ± 7.64. Group I, II, and III stopped feeding respectively on the third, third and second days after infection. RII increased significantly with increased infection dose. The RII of the control group, group I, group II, and group III was 0, 0.73 ± 0.06, 1.30 ± 0.26, and 1.84 ± 0.02. With the infection dose increased, ROS contents showed an overall upward trend; MDA contents of the group I, group II and group III did not show significant changes at any timepoint compared with the control group; Activities of SOD and CAT and the overall VC levels in the liver of P. crocea dropped; LZM activity showed an overall upward trend; AKP activity increased first then dropped at each timepoint with its highest level appearing at group II; Complement C3 and IgM levels in body surface mucus were significantly increased. In conclusion, P. crocea has a strong ability to resist oxidative stress caused by the infection of C. irritans. The body surface

  9. Preservation of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) by Coagulin L1208, a novel bacteriocin produced by Bacillus coagulans L1208.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linglin; Wang, Chong; Ruan, Xinming; Li, Gang; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Yanbo

    2018-02-02

    Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is a cultivated fish of great economic importance and abundant nutritional value. However, due to its high protein and water contents, it is susceptible to decomposition, leading to considerable economic loss and adverse effects on consumer health. Here, we assessed the function of the bacterial strain Bacillus coagulans L1208 (Bcoa) in preserving large yellow croaker during storage at 4°C and found that Bcoa elongates the shelf-life significantly. Further investigations showed that Bcoa prolongs the storage time mainly by suppressing the growth of spoilage bacteria. Moreover, a novel bacteriocin, designated as Coagulin L1208 and produced by Bcoa, was purified and identified by N-terminal sequencing. Finally, the activity of Coagulin L1208 for suppressing spoilage bacteria during the preservation of large yellow croaker was assessed. Our results reveal the mechanism by which Bcoa aids the preservation of large yellow croaker and identify Coagulin L1208 as a potential novel antiseptic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Abrupt salinity stress induces oxidative stress via the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway in large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Ai, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-She; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of abrupt salinity stress (12, 26 (control), and 40) on lipid peroxidation, activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR), and gene expression of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling molecules at different times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h) in the liver of large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. The results showed that lipid peroxidation was sharply reduced at 6 h and increased at 12 h before returning to control levels in the hypo-salinity group. Similarly, lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased at 6 h followed by a sharp increase towards the end of the exposure in the hyper-salinity group. Negative relationships between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities and positive relationships between activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were observed, suggesting that the changes at molecular levels and enzyme activity levels may provide protective roles against damage from salinity stress. Obtained results also showed a coordinated transcriptional regulation of antioxidant genes, suggesting that Nrf2 is required for regulating these genes. Furthermore, there was a positive relationship between the mRNA levels of Nrf2 and Keap1, indicating that Keap1 plays an important role in switching off the Nrf2 response. In conclusion, this is the first study to elucidate effects of salinity stress on antioxidant responses in large yellow croaker through the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway.

  11. The effect of an adding histidine on biological activity and stability of Pc-pis from Pseudosciaena crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Niu, Sufang; Xu, Xin; Wang, Jun; Su, Yongquan; Wu, Yang; Zhong, Shengping

    2013-01-01

    Pc-pis is a novel piscidin-like antimicrobial polypeptide that was identified in Pseudosciaena crocea. Although active against most bacteria tested, Pc-pis was inactive against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Pc-pis analogue Pc-pis-His was designed by adding a histidine residue at the carboxyl terminal. Pc-pis-His demonstrated a more broad-spectrum and stronger antimicrobial activity against a representative set of microorganisms and more potent antiparasitic activity against Cryptocaryon irritans trophonts than Pc-pis. The stability assay revealed that Pc-pis-His was active against Staphylococcus aureus not only in acidic (pH 5.5-7.3) and relatively low concentration monovalent cation (0-160 mM NaCl) environments but also in alkaline (pH 7.5-9.5), divalent cation (1.25-160 mM MgCl2 and 1.25-40 mM CaCl2) and high concentration monovalent cation (320-2560 mM NaCl) environments, which indicates that the added histidine residue conferred better salt-, acid- and alkali-tolerance to Pc-pis-His. Pc-pis-His also possessed the desired heat-tolerance, which was reflected by the antimicrobial activity of the peptide after being boiled for 10-60 minutes. Hemolytic activity analysis revealed that Pc-pis-His at concentrations up to 6 µM exhibited no hemolysis against human erythrocytes, with 6 µM being a concentration that is highly active against most of the microorganisms tested, although the hemolytic activity of Pc-pis-His was enhanced compared to Pc-pis. These results provide a unique, reasonable basis for designing novel piscidins with potent, broad-spectrum and stable antimicrobial activity and new insight into the future development of piscidins as potential therapeutic agents against microbial and external protozoan parasite infections.

  12. The effect of an adding histidine on biological activity and stability of Pc-pis from Pseudosciaena crocea.

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    Yong Mao

    Full Text Available Pc-pis is a novel piscidin-like antimicrobial polypeptide that was identified in Pseudosciaena crocea. Although active against most bacteria tested, Pc-pis was inactive against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Pc-pis analogue Pc-pis-His was designed by adding a histidine residue at the carboxyl terminal. Pc-pis-His demonstrated a more broad-spectrum and stronger antimicrobial activity against a representative set of microorganisms and more potent antiparasitic activity against Cryptocaryon irritans trophonts than Pc-pis. The stability assay revealed that Pc-pis-His was active against Staphylococcus aureus not only in acidic (pH 5.5-7.3 and relatively low concentration monovalent cation (0-160 mM NaCl environments but also in alkaline (pH 7.5-9.5, divalent cation (1.25-160 mM MgCl2 and 1.25-40 mM CaCl2 and high concentration monovalent cation (320-2560 mM NaCl environments, which indicates that the added histidine residue conferred better salt-, acid- and alkali-tolerance to Pc-pis-His. Pc-pis-His also possessed the desired heat-tolerance, which was reflected by the antimicrobial activity of the peptide after being boiled for 10-60 minutes. Hemolytic activity analysis revealed that Pc-pis-His at concentrations up to 6 µM exhibited no hemolysis against human erythrocytes, with 6 µM being a concentration that is highly active against most of the microorganisms tested, although the hemolytic activity of Pc-pis-His was enhanced compared to Pc-pis. These results provide a unique, reasonable basis for designing novel piscidins with potent, broad-spectrum and stable antimicrobial activity and new insight into the future development of piscidins as potential therapeutic agents against microbial and external protozoan parasite infections.

  13. Effect of dietary olaquindox on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the distribution of its residues in fish tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huitao; Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Lu

    2014-10-01

    Olaquindox (OLA), one of quinoxaline-N, N-dioxides, has been put under ban. However it was used as a medicinal feed additive early; it promotes the growth of livestock and prevents them from dysentery and bacterial enteritis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary OLA on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the histological distribution of OLA and its metabolite 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in fish tissues. Four diets containing 0 (control), 42.5, 89.5 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA, respectively, were formulated and tested, 3 cages (1.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.5 m) each diet and 100 juveniles (9.75 ± 0.35 g) each cage. The fish were fed to satiation twice a day at 05:00 am and 17:00 pm for 8 weeks. The survival rate of fish fed the diet containing 42.5 and 89.5 mg kg-1 OLA was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet containing 0 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA ( P muscle (0.24 and 0.06 mg kg-1, respectively). In average, fish fed the diet containing OLA had the highest content of OLA and MQCA in liver which was followed by skin and muscle ( P human health.

  14. De novo characterization of the spleen transcriptome of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea and analysis of the immune relevant genes and pathways involved in the antiviral response.

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    Yinnan Mu

    Full Text Available The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C, a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker.

  15. De novo characterization of the spleen transcriptome of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and analysis of the immune relevant genes and pathways involved in the antiviral response

    KAUST Repository

    Mu, Yinnan

    2014-05-12

    The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C) induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C), a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C) challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker. © 2014 Mu et al.

  16. Characterization of the BPI-like gene from a subtracted cDNA library of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and induced expression by formalin-inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus and Nocardia seriolae vaccine challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqing; Lou, Huifang; Wu, Xinzhong; Chen, Yanxia

    2008-12-01

    One expressed sequence tag (EST 64LF004 clone), which is from the subtracted cDNA library of the head kidney of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) stimulated with peptidoglycan (PG) by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, was cloned using RACE-PCR. The full length cDNA, which possesses typical structural features of a signal peptide, a conserved LPS binding domain and two bactericidal permeability-increasing (BPI) motifs as in higher vertebrates, was identified as a novel homologue, namely of the large yellow croaker BPI-like molecule (Pc-BPI-L). Phylogenetic analysis showed this Pc-BPI-L of large yellow croaker as the most ancestral branch in bony fish clade. The recombinant Pc-BPI-L protein expressed in the Tn-5B1-4 insect cells was successfully produced and confirmed to have the predicted size of 52 kDa by Western blot analysis. At the message level, Pc-BPI-L mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined. Following formalin-inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus and Nocardia seriolae treatment, Pc-BPI-L message was differentially up-regulated in primary immune organs. These results indicate that Pc-BPI-L might be involved in the immune response to bacterial infection.

  17. The effect of insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of preadipocytes isolated from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena Crocea R..

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    Xinxia Wang

    Full Text Available Fish final product can be affected by excessive lipid accumulation. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to control obesity in cultivated fish to strengthen the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. As in mammals, the development of adiposity in fish depends on hormonal, cytokine and dietary factors. In this study, we investigated the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes isolated from the large yellow croaker and examined the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes. Preadipocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, after which their proliferation was evaluated. The differentiation process was optimized by assaying glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH activity. Oil red O staining and electron microscopy were performed to visualize the accumulated triacylglycerol. Gene transcript levels were measured using SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR. Insulin promoted preadipocytes proliferation, stimulated cell differentiation and decreased lipolysis of mature adipocytes. TNFα and DHA inhibited cell proliferation and differentiation. While TNFα stimulated mature adipocyte lipolysis, DHA showed no lipolytic effect on adipocytes. The expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, fatty acid synthase (FAS, lipoprotein lipase (LPL and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, γ (PPARα, PPARγ were quantified during preadipocytes differentiation and adipocytes lipolysis to partly explain the regulation mechanisms. In summary, the results of this study indicated that although preadipocytes proliferation and the differentiation process in large yellow croaker are similar to these processes in mammals, the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on fish adipocytes development are not exactly the same. Our findings fill in the gaps in the basic data regarding the effects of critical factors on adiposity

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Antioxidant Collagen Peptides from Scales of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea

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    Bin Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid soluble collagen (ASC from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis, and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin, and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1, GPAGPAG (ACH-P2, and GFPSG (ACH-P3. ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively, DPPH radical (IC50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively, superoxide radical (IC50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively, and ABTS radical (IC50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively. ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage.

  19. Cloning and expression analysis of interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase gene in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenbiao; Chen, Xinhua

    2006-05-01

    In mammals, interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been demonstrated to play a key role in the processing and presentation of MHC class II-restricted antigen (Ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction, thus unfolding native protein Ag and facilitating subsequent cleavage by proteases. Here, we reported the cloning of a GILT gene homologue from the spleen of large yellow croaker, a marine fish (LycGILT). The full-length cDNA of LycGILT gene is 1033 nucleotides (nt) encoding a protein of 256 amino acids (aa), with a putative molecular weight of 28.9 kDa. The deduced protein is highly homologous to that of mammalian and zebrafish GILTs and shares 54.1% sequence identity to that of zebrafish and 43.2-39.2% sequence identity to that of various mammals. The deduced LycGILT possesses the typical structural feature of mammalian GILT, including an active-site CXXC motif, a GILT signature sequence CQHGX2ECX2NX4C, and other six cysteines responsible for the formation of disulfide bonds in the C-terminus. Genomic analysis revealed that LycGILT gene, spanning a 3159nt fragment, contained seven exons interrupted by six introns and exhibited a similar exon-intron organization to human and mouse GILT genes except for a slightly more compact intron arrangement. The LycGILT expression is obviously up-regulated in spleen and kidney after immunization with inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine consisting of Vibrio alginolyticus, V. paraphaemolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila although it also is constitutively expressed in liver, gills, brain, and heart, suggesting that LycGILT may be involved in the immune response to bacterial challenge in large yellow croaker. A search of NCBI sequence data with LycGILT cDNA identified a pufferfish (fugu rubrides) GILT homologue cDNA and its genomic DNA sequence, where two putative interferon-gamma activation sites (GAS) were found within the promoter region. This provided evidence that a fish GILT homologue like mammalian GILT, may also be regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) through the JAK-STAT signal pathway. These results indicate that the bony fish GILT is a functional homologue of mammalian GILT.

  20. Biodiversity of prokaryotic communities associated with the ectoderm of Ectopleura crocea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa.

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    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available The surface of many marine organisms is colonized by complex communities of microbes, yet our understanding of the diversity and role of host-associated microbes is still limited. We investigated the association between Ectopleura crocea (a colonial hydroid distributed worldwide in temperate waters and prokaryotic assemblages colonizing the hydranth surface. We used, for the first time on a marine hydroid, a combination of electron and epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to investigate the associated prokaryotic diversity. Dense assemblages of prokaryotes were associated with the hydrant surface. Two microbial morphotypes were observed: one horseshoe-shaped and one fusiform, worm-like. These prokaryotes were observed on the hydrozoan epidermis, but not in the portions covered by the perisarcal exoskeleton, and their abundance was higher in March while decreased in late spring. Molecular analyses showed that assemblages were dominated by Bacteria rather than Archaea. Bacterial assemblages were highly diversified, with up to 113 genera and 570 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs, many of which were rare and contributed to <0.4%. The two most abundant OTUs, likely corresponding to the two morphotypes present on the epidermis, were distantly related to Comamonadaceae (genus Delftia and to Flavobacteriaceae (genus Polaribacter. Epibiontic bacteria were found on E. crocea from different geographic areas but not in other hydroid species in the same areas, suggesting that the host-microbe association is species-specific. This is the first detailed report of bacteria living on the hydrozoan epidermis, and indeed the first study reporting bacteria associated with the epithelium of E. crocea. Our results provide a starting point for future studies aiming at clarifying the role of this peculiar hydrozoan-bacterial association.

  1. Biodiversity of prokaryotic communities associated with the ectoderm of Ectopleura crocea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Luna, Gian Marco; Bo, Marzia; Giordano, Giuseppe; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The surface of many marine organisms is colonized by complex communities of microbes, yet our understanding of the diversity and role of host-associated microbes is still limited. We investigated the association between Ectopleura crocea (a colonial hydroid distributed worldwide in temperate waters) and prokaryotic assemblages colonizing the hydranth surface. We used, for the first time on a marine hydroid, a combination of electron and epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to investigate the associated prokaryotic diversity. Dense assemblages of prokaryotes were associated with the hydrant surface. Two microbial morphotypes were observed: one horseshoe-shaped and one fusiform, worm-like. These prokaryotes were observed on the hydrozoan epidermis, but not in the portions covered by the perisarcal exoskeleton, and their abundance was higher in March while decreased in late spring. Molecular analyses showed that assemblages were dominated by Bacteria rather than Archaea. Bacterial assemblages were highly diversified, with up to 113 genera and 570 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), many of which were rare and contributed to microbe association is species-specific. This is the first detailed report of bacteria living on the hydrozoan epidermis, and indeed the first study reporting bacteria associated with the epithelium of E. crocea. Our results provide a starting point for future studies aiming at clarifying the role of this peculiar hydrozoan-bacterial association.

  2. Resistance gene identification from Larimichthys crocea with machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yinyin; Liao, Zhijun; Ju, Ying; Liu, Juan; Mao, Yong; Liu, Xiangrong

    2016-12-01

    The research on resistance genes (R-gene) plays a vital role in bioinformatics as it has the capability of coping with adverse changes in the external environment, which can form the corresponding resistance protein by transcription and translation. It is meaningful to identify and predict R-gene of Larimichthys crocea (L.Crocea). It is friendly for breeding and the marine environment as well. Large amounts of L.Crocea’s immune mechanisms have been explored by biological methods. However, much about them is still unclear. In order to break the limited understanding of the L.Crocea’s immune mechanisms and to detect new R-gene and R-gene-like genes, this paper came up with a more useful combination prediction method, which is to extract and classify the feature of available genomic data by machine learning. The effectiveness of feature extraction and classification methods to identify potential novel R-gene was evaluated, and different statistical analyzes were utilized to explore the reliability of prediction method, which can help us further understand the immune mechanisms of L.Crocea against pathogens. In this paper, a webserver called LCRG-Pred is available at http://server.malab.cn/rg_lc/.

  3. Intraspecific competition in Tridacna crocea, a burrowing bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, W M

    1978-01-01

    Intraspecific competition for space and light occurred when Tridacna crocea burrowed into coralline substratum of boulders on leeward coral reefs in the central Great Barrier Reef near Townsville, Australia. Intensity of competition was linearly related to clam density. Above about 200 clams/m 2 , all clams physically contacted one another and all shells sustained damage. Mortality in isolated populations due to intraspecific competition was estimated at 40%. Principles of intraspecific competition in plants were tested for applicability to T. crocea populations. Juvenile mortality due to competitive stress was density dependent. Aggregated distributions of one year old clams changed to random or regular distribution of adults. Normal size-frequency distribution for juveniles became skewed for older groups. A bimodal size-frequency distribution of the population was related to selective mortality in 1-3 year old clams. Adult mortality due to crowding was less severe but significant. Growth rates were inhibited by competition. Deformations in morphology resulted from crowding. Intraspecific competition for space and light by adults inhibited recruitment of young. Animal adaptations to reduce mortality under crowded conditions were also important. Larvae aggregated on settling and oriented with posterior ends pointed away from nearest neighbors. Positional alignment within the substratum was selectively advantageous. Burrowing posteriorly was preferential, but anterior and sideways burrowing as well as twisting within the burrow were also observed. Movement within substratum served to reduce local damage to the shell. Proteinaceous deposits secreted through perforations in the shell reduced subsequent damage. T. crocea populations exhibited many animal adaptations that reduced mortality during the first years of life, but as cohorts matured, plant-like patterns of competitive interaction became more significant.

  4. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuxing; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Wang, Yueqi; Yang, Xianqing; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) was evaluated during processing with commonly used analytical indices, such as the peroxide value (POV), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and oxidative-relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Additionally, fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both POV and TBARS increased significantly ( P lipid oxidation. C18:0, C16:1n7, C19:0, and C22:6n3 showed clear changes in principle component one of a principle components analysis. These fatty acids are potential markers for evaluating lipid oxidation in fish muscle because there was a significant correlation between these markers and TBARS and LOX activity ( P 0.931.

  5. Genome sequencing of the perciform fish Larimichthys crocea provides insights into molecular and genetic mechanisms of stress adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Jingqun; Mu, Yinnan; Xiang, Li-Xin; Fan, DingDing; Feng, MingJi; Zhang, Shicui; Shi, Qiong; Zhu, Lv-Yun; Li, Ting; Ding, Yang; Nie, Li; Li, Qiuhua; Dong, Wei-Ren; Jiang, Liang; Sun, Bing; Zhang, XinHui; Li, Mingyu; Zhang, Hai-Qi; Xie, ShangBo; Zhu, YaBing; Jiang, XuanTing; Wang, Xianhui; Mu, Pengfei; Chen, Wei; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) is one of the most economically important marine fish in China and East Asian countries. It also exhibits peculiar behavioral and physiological characteristics, especially sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as hypoxia and air exposure. These traits may render L. crocea a good model for investigating the response mechanisms to environmental stress. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation and response of L. crocea to environmental stress, we sequenced and assembled the genome of L. crocea using a bacterial artificial chromosome and whole-genome shotgun hierarchical strategy. The final genome assembly was 679 Mb, with a contig N50 of 63.11 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.03 Mb, containing 25,401 protein-coding genes. Gene families underlying adaptive behaviours, such as vision-related crystallins, olfactory receptors, and auditory sense-related genes, were significantly expanded in the genome of L. crocea relative to those of other vertebrates. Transcriptome analyses of the hypoxia-exposed L. crocea brain revealed new aspects of neuro-endocrine-immune/metabolism regulatory networks that may help the fish to avoid cerebral inflammatory injury and maintain energy balance under hypoxia. Proteomics data demonstrate that skin mucus of the air-exposed L. crocea had a complex composition, with an unexpectedly high number of proteins (3,209), suggesting its multiple protective mechanisms involved in antioxidant functions, oxygen transport, immune defence, and osmotic and ionic regulation. Our results reveal the molecular and genetic basis of fish adaptation and response to hypoxia and air exposure. The data generated by this study will provide valuable resources for the genetic improvement of stress resistance and yield potential in L. crocea.

  6. Genome Sequencing of the Perciform Fish Larimichthys crocea Provides Insights into Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Stress Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiong; Zhu, Lv-Yun; Li, Ting; Ding, Yang; Nie, Li; Li, Qiuhua; Dong, Wei-ren; Jiang, Liang; Sun, Bing; Zhang, XinHui; Li, Mingyu; Zhang, Hai-Qi; Xie, ShangBo; Zhu, YaBing; Jiang, XuanTing; Wang, Xianhui; Mu, Pengfei; Chen, Wei; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) is one of the most economically important marine fish in China and East Asian countries. It also exhibits peculiar behavioral and physiological characteristics, especially sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as hypoxia and air exposure. These traits may render L. crocea a good model for investigating the response mechanisms to environmental stress. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation and response of L. crocea to environmental stress, we sequenced and assembled the genome of L. crocea using a bacterial artificial chromosome and whole-genome shotgun hierarchical strategy. The final genome assembly was 679 Mb, with a contig N50 of 63.11 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.03 Mb, containing 25,401 protein-coding genes. Gene families underlying adaptive behaviours, such as vision-related crystallins, olfactory receptors, and auditory sense-related genes, were significantly expanded in the genome of L. crocea relative to those of other vertebrates. Transcriptome analyses of the hypoxia-exposed L. crocea brain revealed new aspects of neuro-endocrine-immune/metabolism regulatory networks that may help the fish to avoid cerebral inflammatory injury and maintain energy balance under hypoxia. Proteomics data demonstrate that skin mucus of the air-exposed L. crocea had a complex composition, with an unexpectedly high number of proteins (3,209), suggesting its multiple protective mechanisms involved in antioxidant functions, oxygen transport, immune defence, and osmotic and ionic regulation. Our results reveal the molecular and genetic basis of fish adaptation and response to hypoxia and air exposure. The data generated by this study will provide valuable resources for the genetic improvement of stress resistance and yield potential in L. crocea. PMID:25835551

  7. Nocardiosis in large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea (Richardson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G-L; Yuan, S-P; Jin, S

    2005-06-01

    An epizootic in seawater-cage reared large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, in China was caused by a Nocardia sp. from August to October 2003. The cumulative mortality rate was 15% and the diseased fish were 16 months old with individual length varying from 25 to 30 cm. Multiple, white nodules, 0.1-0.2 cm in diameter, were scattered on the heart, spleen and kidney. The morphology of isolated bacteria from Lowenstein-Jensen medium and tryptic soy agar was bead-like or long, slender, filamentous rods. Experimental infection indicated that the isolated bacterium was the pathogen responsible for the mortalities. A partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of the organism and the type strain of Nocardia seriolae JCM 3360T (Z36925) formed a monophyletic clade with a high sequence similarity of 99.9%. Based on the morphological, physiological, biological properties and the phylogenetic analysis, the pathogenic organism was identified as N. seriolae. This is the first report on N. seriolae-infected large yellow croaker in aquaculture.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the Larimichthys crocea liver in response to Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panpan; Wang, Jun; Su, Yong-Quan; Mao, Yong; Zhang, Jian-She; Wu, Chang-Wen; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Han, Kun-Huang; Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Nen-di

    2016-01-01

    The large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) is an economically important marine fish cultured in China and East Asian countries and is facing a serious threat from Cryptocaryon irritans, which is a protozoan ectoparasite that infects most reared marine fish species. To understand the molecular immune mechanisms underlying the response to C. irritans, we first performed a comparative gene transcription analysis using livers from C. irritans-immunized L. croceas and from a control group through RNA-Seq technology. After the removal of low-quality sequences and assembly, 51360 contigs were obtained, with an average length of 1066.93 bp. Further, a blast analysis indicates that 30747 contigs can be annotated based on homology with matches in the NT, NR, gene, and string databases. A gene ontology analysis was used to classify 21598 genes according to three major functional categories: molecular function, cellular component, and biological process. Moreover, 14470 genes were found in 303 KEGG pathways. We used RSEM and EdgeR to determine that 3841 genes were significantly differentially expressed (FDR irritans-immunized L. croceas for the first time and not only sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the host-C. irritans interaction but also facilitates future studies on L. croceas gene expression and functional genomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Family structure and phylogenetic analysis of odorant receptor genes in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Peng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemosensory receptors, which are all G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, come in four types: odorant receptors (ORs, vomeronasal receptors, trace-amine associated receptors and formyl peptide receptor-like proteins. The ORs are the most important receptors for detecting a wide range of environmental chemicals in daily life. Most fish OR genes have been identified from genome databases following the completion of the genome sequencing projects of many fishes. However, it remains unclear whether these OR genes from the genome databases are actually expressed in the fish olfactory epithelium. Thus, it is necessary to clone the OR mRNAs directly from the olfactory epithelium and to examine their expression status. Results Eighty-nine full-length and 22 partial OR cDNA sequences were isolated from the olfactory epithelium of the large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis classified the vertebrate OR genes into two types, with several clades within each type, and showed that the L. crocea OR genes of each type are more closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback than they are to those of medaka, zebrafish and frog. The reconciled tree showed 178 duplications and 129 losses. The evolutionary relationships among OR genes in these fishes accords with their evolutionary history. The fish OR genes have experienced functional divergence, and the different clades of OR genes have evolved different functions. The result of real-time PCR shows that different clades of ORs have distinct expression levels. Conclusion We have shown about 100 OR genes to be expressed in the olfactory epithelial tissues of L. crocea. The OR genes of modern fishes duplicated from their common ancestor, and were expanded over evolutionary time. The OR genes of L. crocea are closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback, which is consistent with its evolutionary position. The different expression

  10. De novo characterization of Larimichthys crocea transcriptome for growth-/immune-related gene identification and massive microsatellite (SSR) marker development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaofang; Xiao, Shijun; Liu, Xiande; Liu, Yang; Li, Jiakai; Xie, Yangjie; Wang, Zhiyong

    2017-03-01

    The large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea is an important marine fish in China with a high economic value. In the last decade, the stock conservation and aquaculture industry of this species have been facing severe challenges because of wild population collapse and degeneration of important economic traits. However, genes contributing to growth and immunity in L. crocea have not been thoroughly analyzed, and available molecular markers are still not sufficient for genetic resource management and molecular selection. In this work, we sequenced the transcriptome in L. crocea liver tissue with a Roche 454 sequencing platform and assembled the transcriptome into 93 801 transcripts. Of them, 38 856 transcripts were successfully annotated in nt, nr, Swiss-Prot, InterPro, COG, GO and KEGG databases. Based on the annotation information, 3 165 unigenes related to growth and immunity were identified. Additionally, a total of 6 391 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the transcriptome, among which 4 498 SSRs had enough flanking regions to design primers for polymerase chain reactions (PCR). To access the polymorphism of these markers, 30 primer pairs were randomly selected for PCR amplification and validation in 30 individuals, and 12 primer pairs (40.0%) exhibited obvious length polymorphisms. This work applied RNA-Seq to assemble and analyze a live transcriptome in L. crocea. With gene annotation and sequence information, genes related to growth and immunity were identified and massive SSR markers were developed, providing valuable genetic resources for future gene functional analysis and selective breeding of L. crocea.

  11. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  12. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça,Luciana B.; Luiz dos Anjos

    2006-01-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs...

  13. Excavating differentially expressed antimicrobial peptides from transcriptome of Larimichthys crocea liver in response to Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Bing; Mao, Yong; Wang, Jun; Chen, Ruan-Ni; Su, Yong-Quan; Hong, Yue-Qun; Hong, Yu-Jian; Hong, Yu-Cong

    2018-02-01

    Larimichthys crocea, the special marine economy fish, owns the largest annual yield for a single species in China. One of the most significant factors affecting large yellow croaker culture is the diseases, especially the threat of marine white spot disease which caused by a protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been demonstrated to be active against bacterium, fungi and parasites, showing their potential usefulness in aquaculture as substitutes for antibiotics. Many researches have been carried out about the AMPs concentrating on the activity resist on C. irritans, and piscidin-like of L. crocea owning widely antibacterial spectrum and strong activity against C. irritans was screened in our team. In the paper, taking advantage of the large yellow croaker hepatic comparison transcriptome in response to C. irritans at 3d post infection, seven kinds of AMPs have been excavated from the differently expressed genes, including LEAP2 like, LEAP-2A, hepcidin, hepcidin-like, piscidin-5-like, piscidin-5-like type 4 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI). Hepcidin, hepcidin-like, piscidin-5-like, piscidin-5-like type4 and BPI were up-regulated to protect large yellow croaker from being damaged by C. irritans infection; while LEAP2 like and LEAP-2A were down-regulated, they might be as a negative-feedback regulation factor or some other regulatory mechanisms to adjust the immune response in the process of C. irritans infection. The differential expression changes were verified with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to illustrate the reliability of the sequenced data. Hearteningly, piscidin-5-like type 4 was a novel type which was high similar to other piscidin-5-like types. Interestingly, the infection may well cause alternative splicing of LEAP-2A mRNA, which was a surprised phenomenon and finding after C. irritans infection, but more further study was needed to be conducted. Therefore, the data showed that these AMPs were

  14. Larimichthys crocea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    farming industry (Guo et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2012). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are nucleotide variations in the DNA sequence of individuals. As the ... 4.0) with a pairwise tagging approach. The genotypes of all the SNPs were determined by the MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay, San Diego,. USA).

  15. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Luciana B; Anjos, Luiz dos

    2006-03-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flower was relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5 J) and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30 kJ) would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura), the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis), and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris). The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.

  16. Characterization and expression analysis of BCA2 gene in large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Ling; Yu, Da Hui; Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-10-01

    BCA2, as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an important anti-virus immune factor in mammals. Up to date, there are not any related reports on BCA2 protein in fishes yet. In the present investigation, BCA2 in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (named as LcBCA2) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcBCA2 was 1571 bp, including an ORF of 888 bp encoding a polypeptide of 295 amino acids. The putative LcBCA2 protein contained a RING-H2 motif at C terminal. The LcBCA2 transcripts were broadly distributed in all detected tissues, with high expression in muscle, moderate in blood, skin, heart, liver and spleen, weak in other tissue as indicated by qPCR analysis. Significant increases were observed in skin, gill and spleen after infection of Cryptocaryon irritans, and in spleen and head-kidney after inactivated Vibrio. parahaemolyticus, LPS and Poly I:C stimulations. Tissue localization by in-situ hybridization showed that LcBCA2 mainly expressed in the spleen of the fish in the test group. Our findings showed that LcBCA2 inclined to sharply increase in immune organs, especially in head-kidney after bacterial and viral stimulations, while in locations (skin and gill) of parasites infections, suggesting that BCA2 may play an important role in fish defense against bacteria, virus and parasites infections, but the immune mechanisms is are different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of interferon-gamma in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruan-Ni; Su, Yong-Quan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Qiao, Ying; Mao, Yong; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Han, Kun-Huang; Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-She; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2015-10-01

    The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea is an important mariculture fish species in China, and the bacterium Vibrio harveyi (V. harveyi) and the ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans (C. irritans) are the two major pathogens in its aquaculture sector. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) plays important roles in regulating both innate and cell mediated immune responses as an inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we obtained the nucleotide sequence of IFN-γ from the large yellow croaker (LcIFN-γ). The phylogenetic relationship tree of 18 available IFN-γ genes was constructed based on their sequences. Expression analyses in 10 various tissues were conducted after the croaker challenged with V. harveyi and C. irritans, respectively. Real time PCR analysis showed that the expression of LcIFN-γ was observed broadly in health individuals. After injected with V. harveyi, the 10 tissues had a higher expression of IFN-γ at the first day (1 d); only spleen, muscle, intestine, heart and skin had higher expressions after infected with C. irritans at 1 d. Major immune tissues (skin, gill, head kidney and spleen) and detoxification tissue (liver) were sampled at 0 h, 6 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d and 7 d to understand the expression trends of LcIFN-γ after challenged with C. irritans. The expressions of LcIFN-γ in skin and gill (the primary immune organs) showed a clear correlative relationship with the life cycle of C. irritans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver Transcriptome Analysis of the Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) during Fasting by Using RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Baoying; Xue, Liangyi; Huang, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    The large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) is an economically important fish species in Chinese mariculture industry. To understand the molecular basis underlying the response to fasting, Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 was used to analyze the liver transcriptome of fasting large yellow croakers. A total of 54,933,550 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 110,364 contigs. Annotation to the NCBI database identified a total of 38,728 unigenes, of which 19,654 were classified into Gene Ontology and 22,683 were found in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Comparative analysis of the expression profiles between fasting fish and normal-feeding fish identified a total of 7,623 differentially expressed genes (P fasting as well as identified areas that require further investigation. PMID:26967898

  19. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana B. Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flowerwas relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5J and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30kJ would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura, the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis, and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris. The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.Investigamos a morfologia floral, as características do néctar e a visita de beija-flores a Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, uma espécie ornitófila arbustiva comumente encontrada no sub-bosque da vegetação ripária na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As flores são distílicas, sendo o dimorfismo estilete-estames acompanhado por outras variações morfológicas no comprimento da corola, altura das anteras, comprimento das anteras e comprimento e forma das papilas estigmáticas. Não foi observada reciprocidade estrita na posição dos estigmas e

  20. Transcriptome and analysis on the complement and coagulation cascades pathway of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) to ciliate ectoparasite Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Gao, Quanxin; Tang, Baojun; Sun, Peng; Han, Kunhuang; Huang, Weiqing

    2016-03-01

    Large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) is one of the most valuable marine fish in southern China. Given to the rapid development of aquaculture industry, the L. crocea was subjected to ciliate ectoparasite Cryptocaryon irritans. It therefore is indispensable and urgent to understand the mechanism of L. crocea host defense against C. irritans infection. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for Cryptocaryoniasis in L. crocea was carried out. These results showed that 15,826,911, 16,462,921, and 15,625,433 paired-end clean reads were obtained from three cDNA libraries (A: 0 theronts/fish, B: 12,000 theronts/fish, and C: 24,000 theronts/fish) of the L. crocea immune-related tissues by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Totally, 30,509 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 1715 bp. In B/A, C/A, and C/B pairwise comparison, 972, 900, and 1126 genes showed differential expression respectively. Differently expressed immune-related genes (DEIGs) were scrutinized, in B/A pairwise comparison, 48 genes showed differential expression, including 26 up-regulated genes and 22 down-regulated genes in B; in C/A pairwise comparison, there were 39 DEIGs, including 7 up-regulated genes and 32 down-regulated genes in C; in C/B pairwise comparison, 40 genes showed differential expression, including 11 up-regulated genes and 29 down-regulated genes in C. There were 16 DEIGs enriched KEGG pathways, in which the complement and coagulation cascades pathway was the top most DEIGs enriched pathway (B:A = 42; C:A = 28; C:B = 42). The coagulation and fibrinolytic system was in a highly active state after infected by C. irritans with non-lethal concentration; the alternative complement pathway may play an important role in the early stages of C. irritans infection. These results demonstrated that low-concentration infection can significantly induce the immunological response in fishes, however, when fishes

  1. Characterization and functional analysis of a tandem-repeat galectin-9 in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

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    Zhang, Dong Ling; Lv, Chang Huan; Yu, Da Hui; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2016-05-01

    Galectins are a family of endogenous lectins with β-galactosides affinity, playing significant roles in the innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this report, a new galectin-9 cDNA was identified and characterized in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (designated as LcGal-9). The complete cDNA sequence of LcGal-9 was 1795 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1032 bp encoding 343 amino acids. The putative LcGal-9 protein contained two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) connected by a linker peptide, with each carrying two conserved β-galactoside binding motifs H-NPR and WG-EE-, and it possessed neither a signal peptide nor a transmembrane domain. LcGal-9 protein shared 43-74% identity with galectin-9 sequences from other species. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that LcGal-9 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, predominately expressed in liver, spleen, gill, kidney, head-kidney and intestine. Western blot analysis showed that LcGal-9 protein was highly expressed in liver, spleen, intestine, kidney, head-kidney, skin, gill, and heart, but not detected in muscle and plasma. LcGal-9 mRNA transcripts were induced by poly I:C in the liver (from 6 h to 48 h), spleen (at 12 h) and head-kidney (at 12 h and 24 h). In contrast, Vibrio parahaemolyticus caused a significant down-regulation in these three tissues, except for in spleen of 48 h and head-kidney of 3 h. Post-infection with Cryptocaryon irritans, the transcripts were dramatically up-regulated in gill, skin, spleen and head-kidney during initial infection period, while significant down-regulation afterward was also observed both in spleen and head-kidney. The recombinant LcGal-9 (named as rLcGal-9) purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) demonstrated hemagglutination against human, rabbit and L. crocea in a Ca(2+)-independent manner, which was inhibited by α-Lactose and LPS. The results of bacterial agglutination assays showed that rLcGal-9 was able to agglutinate

  2. Construction of the High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Chromosome Map of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

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    Jingqun Ao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic maps are essential for genome assembly, comparative genomic analysis and fine mapping of complex traits. In this study, 31,191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs evenly distributed across the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea genome were identified using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Among them, 10,150 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The total length of the genetic linkage map was 5451.3 cM with an average distance of 0.54 cM between loci. This represents the densest genetic map currently reported for large yellow croaker. Using 2889 SNPs to target specific scaffolds, we assigned 533 scaffolds, comprising 421.44 Mb (62.04% of the large yellow croaker assembled sequence, to the 24 linkage groups. The mapped assembly scaffolds in large yellow croaker were used for genome synteny analyses against the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and medaka (Oryzias latipes. Greater synteny was observed between large yellow croaker and stickleback. This supports the hypothesis that large yellow croaker is more closely related to stickleback than to medaka. Moreover, 1274 immunity-related genes and 195 hypoxia-related genes were mapped to the 24 chromosomes of large yellow croaker. The integration of the high-resolution genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in large yellow croaker.

  3. Expression profiles and interaction suggest TBK1 can be regulated by Nrdp1 in response to immune stimulation in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

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    Zhang, Dong Ling; Yu, Da Hui; Chen, Jian; Fan, Sigang; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-10-01

    TBK1 has been extensively studied in mammals because of its important roles as a molecular bridge, linking the TLRs (TLR3 and TLR4) and RLRs signals to activate transcriptional factors IRF3 and IRF7 for IFN-I production. However, the information on molecular and functional characteristics of TBK1 in teleosts is limited. In this study, the molecular characterization and immune response of TBK1 in Larimichthys crocea (named as LcTBK1) as well as its interaction with Nrdp1 were investigated. Sequence analysis demonstrated that LcTBK1 included four functional motifs, the N-terminal protein kinase domain and ATP-binding site, middle ULD and C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The tissue expression profiles indicated that LcTBK1 gene was constitutively expressed in the twelve tissues examined, with high expression in brain. Temporal expression analysis showed that LcTBK1 mRNA was obviously increased in the liver after injection of LPS, Poly I:C and inactive Vibrio parahaemolyticus, however, declined at some time points in spleen and head-kidney. Furthermore, we found that LcTBK1 can interact with LcNrdp1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that involved in immune response to Cryptocaryon irritans infection in L. crocea. The qPCR showed that LcNrdp1 was also significantly up-regulated in liver, down-regualted at some time points in spleen and head-kidney after LPS, Poly I:C and inactive V. parahaemolyticus injection, although the expression patterns of the two genes after the three treatments were different in change magnitude and up-regulation timespan. These results suggested that LcTBK1 was involved in L. crocea defense against the pathogen infection and can be regulated by Nrdp1 in PPRs signaling pathway of fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification, expression and antibacterial activities of an antimicrobial peptide NK-lysin from a marine fish Larimichthys crocea.

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    Zhou, Qi-Jia; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Qiao, Ying; Hong, Wan-Shu; Su, Yong-Quan; Han, Kun-Huang; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Zheng, Wei-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    As fundamental immunologic mechanism, the innate immunity system is more important than the specific immunity system in teleost fishes during pathogens infection. Antimicrobial peptides are integral parts of the innate immune system, and play significant roles against pathogens infection. NK-lysin, the compounds of the natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, are potent and effective antimicrobial peptides widely distributed in animals. In this study, we reported the sequence characteristics, expression profiles and antibacterial activities of a NK-lysin gene (Lc-NK-lysin) from a commercially important marine fish, the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The open reading frame of Lc-NK-lysin cDNA sequence was 447 bp in length, coding 148 amino acids. The genomic DNA of Lc-NK-lysin has the common features of NK-lysin family, consisting of five exons and four introns, and in its deduced mature peptide, there are six well-conserved cysteine residues and a Saposin B domain. Lc-NK-lysin was expressed in all tested tissues (skin, muscle, gill, brain, head kidney, heart, liver, spleen, stomach and intestine) with different expression patterns. In pathogens infection the expression profiles of Lc-NK-lysin varied significantly in gill, head kidney, spleen and liver, indicating its role in immune response. Two peptides (Lc-NK-lysin-1 and Lc-NK-lysin-2) divided from the core region of the Lc-NK-lysin mature polypeptide were chemically synthesized and their antibacterial activities were examined; the potential function on the inhibition of bacteria propagation was revealed. Our results suggested that Lc-NK-lysin is a typical member of the NK-lysin family and as an immune-related gene it involves in the immune response when pathogens invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Characterization and Biological Effects of a C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

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    Jingqun Ao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs play important roles in innate immunity as one type of pattern recognition receptors. Here, we cloned and characterized a C-type lectin-like receptor (LycCTLR from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The full-length cDNA of LycCTLR is 880 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 215 amino acids. The deduced LycCTLR contains a C-terminal C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD, an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and a transmembrane region. The CTLD of LycCTLR possesses six highly conserved cysteine residues (C1–C6, a conserved WI/MGL motif, and two sugar binding motifs, EPD (Glu-Pro-Asp and WYD (Trp-Tyr-Asp. Ca2+ binding site 1 and 2 were also found in the CTLD. The LycCTLR gene consists of five exons and four introns, showing the same genomic organization as tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and guppy (Poecilia retitculata CTLRs. LycCTLR was constitutively expressed in various tissues tested, and its transcripts significantly increased in the head kidney and spleen after stimulation with inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine. Recombinant LycCTLR (rLycCTLR protein produced in Escherichia coli BL21 exhibited not only the hemagglutinating activity and a preference for galactose, but also the agglutinating activity against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria E. coli and Bacillus cereus in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results indicate that LycCTLR is a potential galactose-binding C-type lectin that may play a role in the antibacterial immunity in fish.

  6. A novel C-type lectin, Nattectin-like protein, with a wide range of bacterial agglutination activity in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

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    Lv, Changhuan; Zhang, Dongling; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are generally recognized as a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins, which serve as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immunity of vertebrates. In this study, the molecular characterization and immune roles of a novel CTL from Larimichthys crocea (designated as LcNTC) were investigated. LcNTC is a novel protein that shared 33%-49% homology with other teleosts CTLs. The full-length cDNA of LcNTC was composed of 859 bp with a 465 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 154 residues. LcNTC contained a single CRD with four conserved disulfide-bonded cysteine residues (Cys(57)-Cys(148), Cys(126)-Cys(140)) and EPN/AND motifs instead of invariant EPN/WND motifs required for carbohydrate-binding specificity and constructing Ca(2+)-binding sites. LcNTC mRNA was detected in all examined tissues with the most abundant in the gill. After challenged with poly I:C and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the temporal expression of LcNTC was significantly up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head-kidney. LcNTC transcripts were also induced in the gill, skin, spleen and head-kidney post-infection with Cryptocaryon irritans. The recombinant LcNTC (rLcNTC) purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) exhibited strong agglutination activity against erythrocytes from human, rabbit and large yellow croaker in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and the agglutination could be inhibited by D-Mannose, D-Glucose, D-Fructose, α-Lactose, D-Maltose and LPS. Positive microbial agglutination activities of rLcNTC were observed against all tested bacteria in the presence of Ca(2+), including Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus lysoleikticus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila). These findings collectively indicated that LcNTC might be involved in the innate immunity of L. crocea as a PRR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Characterization of E3 ubiquitin ligase neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and its immune responses to Cryptocaryon irritans.

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    Zhang, Dong Ling; Han, Fang; Yu, Da Hui; Xiao, Shi Jun; Li, Ming Yun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-02-10

    Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) was recently identified in humans as an important immune factor responding to the challenge of virus, LPS or cytokine. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity have not been proven yet. In this report, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Nrdp1 in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (LcNrdp1) were identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcNrdp1 was 1248bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 32bp, a 3' UTR of 259bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 937bp, encoding a polypeptide of 318 amino acid residues. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of LcNrdp1 was composed of 2635 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. The putative LcNrdp1 protein had no signal peptide sequence and contained a characteristic Nrdp1 consensus motif C3HC3D ring finger and a Coiled-coil domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Nrdp1 in fish was closer with that in other vertebrates (79%-90% amino acid identity) than in invertebrates and bacteria (27%-65%). In fishes, Nrdp1 in large yellow croaker was closer with that in Takifugu rubripes. The expression profile showed that LcNrdp1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, especially highly expressed in brain, muscle and kidney. Post-infection (PI) with Cryptocaryon irritans, an increased expression of LcNrdp1 was induced in infection sites (skin and gill), whereas in immune organs, the expression of LcNrdp1 was up-regulated in spleen (except the 1st d and 10th d PI) but suppressed in head kidney. These results suggested that LcNrdp1 might play an important immune role in the finfish L. crocea in the defense against the parasite C. irritans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs

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    Yang Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup, and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and PKR than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms.

  9. Vegetable oil induced inflammatory response by altering TLR-NF-κB signalling, macrophages infiltration and polarization in adipose tissue of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Dong, Xiaojing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    High level of vegetable oil (VO) in diets could induce strong inflammatory response, and thus decrease nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in most marine fish species. The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary VO could exert these anti-immunological effects by altering TLR-NF-κB signalling, macrophages infiltration and polarization in adipose tissue of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipid diets with 0% (FO, fish oil, the control), 50% (FV, fish oil and vegetable oil mixed) and 100% (VO, vegetable oil) vegetable oil were fed to fish with three replicates for ten weeks. The results showed that activities of respiratory burst (RB) and alternative complement pathway (ACP), as well as disease resistance after immune challenge were significantly decreased in large yellow croaker fed VO diets compared to FO diets. Inflammatory response of experimental fish was markedly elevated by VO reflected by increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β and TNFα) and decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokine (arginase I and IL10) genes expression. TLR-related genes expression, nucleus p65 protein, IKKα/β and IκBα phosphorylation were all significantly increased in the AT of large yellow croaker fed VO diets. Moreover, the expression of macrophage infiltration marker proteins (cluster of differentiation 68 [CD68] and colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor [CSF1R]) was significantly increased while the expression of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization marker proteins (macrophage mannose receptor 1 [MRC1] and cluster of differentiation 209 [CD209]) was significantly decreased in the AT of large yellow croaker fed VO diets. In conclusion, VO could induce inflammatory responses by activating TLR-NF-κB signalling, increasing macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and polarization of macrophage in large yellow croaker. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Co-expression of march5b and tlr7 in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea in response to Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D L; Yu, D H; Chen, J; Chen, C; Wang, Z Y

    2015-08-01

    In this study, molecular characteristics of march5b and co-expression of march5b and tlr7 in response to the infection of Cryptocaryon irritans in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea were investigated. The full-length complementary (c)DNA of march5b was 1314 bp, including an open reading frame of 846 bp encoding a polypeptide of 281 amino acids, and the full-length genomic sequence was composed of 23,577 nucleotides, including six exons and five introns. The putative March5b protein contained a RINGv motif and four transmembrane domains. The march5b transcripts were broadly distributed in all detected tissues, with a strong expression in blood, brain and gills, and a weak expression in kidney by quantitative PCR analysis. The expression of march5b and tlr7 in the skin, gills, spleen and head kidney changed in the same manner at most time points post-primary infection with C. irritans. Significant increase was observed in the skin with march5b at days 2 and 3 by 26.10 and 6.88 fold, respectively, and with tlr7 at day 3 by 57.68 fold, when compared with the control. Their expressions, however, were decreased in the gills, especially at day 3 (march5b by 8.9%, tlr7 by 22.06%). In the spleen and head kidney, march5b and tlr7 transcripts were up-regulated early, then noticeably declined at day 3. These results suggested that march5b and tlr7 are co-expressed in response to parasite infection and March5b probably catalyses ubiquitination of some proteins of TLR7 signalling pathway. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Expression profile of immune-associated genes in the kidney of cultured large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea in the East China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shujiang; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Yinghua; Lv, Baoqiang; Wu, Xiongfei; Liu, Huihui; Zhu, Aiyi; Wu, Changwen

    2016-08-01

    To explore the effect of environment conditions on immune activity of fish, eight immune-associated genes responsible for innate immunity were selected from the GenBank, i.e. Pgrn-a, Ifit2, P-hepcidin, Lect2, β2m, Irf1, Il25 and Hsp96, and the mRNA expressions of them in the kidney of cultured large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea in different sea areas in the East China Sea were examined with qPCR techniques. In the contrasts of immune-associated gene expression between areas and populations, significant differences were found, expression levels of these immune-associated genes were lower in the clear water area than in the poor water quantity area, and lower in May than in October. MY was more sensitive to environmental factors than DQ, which was coincident with the water quality in the culturing areas. Differential analyses of the expression levels of these immune-associated genes showed that significant up-regulation could be triggered by poor environmental factors. The expression patterns indicated that the expression levels of these genes were sensitive to ecological changes, thereby the immune-associated genes, especially Pgrn-a, Ifit2, β2m, Il25 and Hsp96, might serve as immediate and sensitive indicators of population immunologic vigor and ecosystem health. But the expression of immunity-associated genes at the level of gene transcription is highly influenced by multiple factors, and the exact causes or influencing factors of the up-regulation or down-regulation of these genes still need further thorough investigation.

  12. A novel stimulator of interferon gene (STING) from Larimichthys crocea and their involvement in immune response to ectoparasite Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Bing; Wang, Jun; Mao, Yong; Chen, Ruan-Ni; Su, Yong-Quan; Chen, Jia; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Zheng, Wei-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    The marine white spot disease caused by protozoan ectoparasite Cryptocaryon irritans is a severe problem to the large yellow croaker farming industry. To understand the molecular immune mechanisms and improve its immune capacity are particular important. STING, one of the important second messengers in innate immune response process, plays pivotal roles in defensing against different pathogenic microorganisms. Many reports have pointed that STING could not only combine the uncovered dsDNA, ssDNA directly in the cytoplasm from the pathogens or biology itself, but it also could recognize cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP). Based on the STING sequence, a variant of the L. crocea STING (termed LcSTING2) was found by accident. RACE was used to clone the full-length cDNA of LcSTING2 which contained a 5'- UTR of 154 bp, a 3'-UTR of 592 bp and an ORF of 1227 bp encoding 408 amino acids. The predicted protein molecular weight (Mw) was 45.83 KDa and the estimated theoretical isoelectric point (pI) was 6.24. The deduced protein of LcSTING2 contains no signal peptide. One transmembrane motif (TM) in the N-terminal region, a TMEM173 domain and five putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins were also conserved. According to the partial genomic sequence, the unknown sequences were amplified, it contained 6 exons and 5 introns, and all the exon-intron boundaries were in accordance with classical GT-AG rule (GT/intron/AG). The similarity shared with fishes was higher than other high vertebrates. qRT-PCR results showed that LcSTING (two variants) distributed in all examined tissues, and it was the most abundant in gill. After challenged by C. irritans, LcSTING mRNA only appeared instantaneous up-regulation during the infective stage of theronts in the head kidney and was also up-regulated during the whole infectious cycle of C. irritans in the liver, which implied LcSTING gene was likely to be

  13. The Rab5A gene of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and its response to the infection of Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Dongling; Liu, Lanping; Tsai, Huai Jen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras superfamily, encode monomeric G-proteins. Rab proteins regulate key steps in membrane traffic transport and endocytic pathway of host immune responses. Rab5A is involved in immune regulation, particularly in T cell migration and macrophage endocytosis in higher vertebrates. However, little is known of the molecular structure of Rab5A gene in marine teleost fish species and its expression profile during the parasite infection. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Rab5A gene of the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (LycRab5A), one of the most economical marine fishes, were identified and characterized. The LycRab5A protein, containing the ATPase/GTPase binding motifs and the effector molecules binding motifs, was highly homologous to that of other animals. The expression plasmid containing LycRab5A cDNA fused with GST was engineered and transformed into Escherichia coli to produce recombinant protein GST-LycRab5A, which was purified to prepare a polyclonal antibody specifically against LycRab5A. Subcellular localization revealed that LycRab5A expressed in the membrane and cytoplasm. Based on real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, we found that both mRNA and protein of LycRab5A were expressed in all tissues we examined; especially it was highly expressed in blood and gill. Interestingly, both mRNA and protein of LycRab5A were substantially up-regulated when parasitic ciliate protozoan (Cryptocaryon irritans) was infected. The expression of LycRab5A was reached to the maximal level at 24 h after infection. The line of evidence suggested that LycRab5A might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against parasite infection. Moreover, on the basis of protein interaction, it was found that the LycRab5A interacted with myosin light chain (designated as LycMLC), a crucial protein in the process of phagocytosis. This discovery might contribute better understanding to the molecular

  14. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

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    Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO, soybean oil (SO, linseed oil (LO, rapeseed oil (RO and peanut oil (PO, respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m. Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of

  15. The interaction of TAK1 and TAB1 enhances LPS-induced cytokine release via modulating NF-κB activation (Larimichthys crocea).

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    Bao, Shi-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Xue; Yao, Cui-Luan

    2018-01-08

    Transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1) is triggered by foreign pathogenic infection and involves in proinflammatory response through the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is specifically regulated by TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1). However, the expression and regulatory characterizations of TAK1 and TAB1 in fish immune response remain largely unknown. In the present study, the cDNA sequences of TAK1 (LcTAK1) and TAB1 (LcTAB1) were identified from large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. The open reading frame (ORF) of LcTAK1 was 1725 bp in length, encoding 574 amino acids. The putative LcTAK1 protein contained a protein kinase domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil region. The ORF of LcTAB1 was 1518 bp encoding 505 amino acids. And a typical PP2Cc domain and a conserved sequence motif (PYVDFSQFYLLWGSDH) at C-terminal were identified in the predicted LcTAB1 protein. Multiple alignments showed that LcTAK1 shared 74.0-97.9% and LcTAB1 shared 37.4-95.8% sequence identities with TAK1 and TAB1 proteins from other species, respectively. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that both LcTAK1 and LcTAB1 were broadly expressed in all examined tissues, with the most predominant expression in brain and the weakest expression in muscle, respectively. Subcellular localization revealed that both LcTAK1 and LcTAB1 expressed in the cytoplasm. In addition, LcTAK1 transcripts increased significantly in LCK cells after flagellin, LPS and poly I:C stimulation while LcTAB1 enhanced greatly after LPS and poly I:C challenge. Furthermore, the roles of them in NF-κB activation were investigated by overexpression of LcTAK1 and LcTAB1 in HEK293T cells. Our results revealed that NF-κB luciferase promoter expression could not be induced by overexpression of LcTAK1 or LcTAB1 alone, however, it could be induced by co-expression of LcTAK1 and LcTAB1 together. Moreover, the roles of LcTAK1 and LcTAB1 in immune response analysis showed that NF-κB activation enhanced

  16. Differential expression of three estrogen receptors mRNAs in tissues, growth development, embryogenesis and gametogenesis from large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shihai; Pu, Lulu; Xie, Fangjing; Zou, Zhihua; Jiang, Yonghua; Han, Kunhuang; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2015-05-15

    The biological activity of estrogens in target organs is mainly mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs). Herein, we addressed the isolation and expression analysis of three nuclear estrogen receptors, namely LcERα, LcERβ1, and LcERβ2 from Larimichthys crocea by means of SMART-RACE, qRT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. Results in different tissues showed that both LcERα and LcERβ2 had the highest expression levels in female liver, followed by testis, but LcERβ1 expression level was significantly higher in testis and ovary than in other tissues. Expression of LcERα and LcERβ2 was significantly higher than LcERβ1 in female liver, and LcERβ2 was significantly higher than LcERα and LcERβ1 in male liver. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of LcERs in gonad and liver at three different growth stages during the same breeding season. Significant up-regulated expression of LcERα and LcERβ2 were found in female liver at 1000dph compared with at 270dph. The expression of LcERβ2 was prominently higher in male liver than LcERα, LcERβ1 and LcAR, while LcERβ1 was lower than other receptors in male and female liver at all the three stages. In ovary, LcERα at 270dph was lower than at 635dph and 1000dph, but had no significant change in testis. The two LcERβ subtypes and LcAR highly expressed in the early testis, and gradually decrease with the development of testis. In embryogenesis, a significant increase in the expression of LcERα and LcERβ2 were observed after appearance of optic vesicles phase (11.8hpf). LcERβ1 gradually decrease with the embryogenesis but increased dramatically at 1dph. Results of in situ hybridization showed that signals of LcERα and LcERβ1 mRNA were mainly detected in Stage I-Stage IV oocytes, as well as in follicle cells around the Stage II-Stage IV and degenerated oocytes. Signals of LcERβ2 were detected in the cytoplasm of Stage I and Stage II oocytes but not in the follicle cells of all oocytes stages. In parallel, LcERα and Lc

  17. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Rantao; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Xu, Houguo; Liufu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yanjiao

    2012-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans). Six isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated with graded levels of n-3 HUFA ranging from 0.15% to 2.25% of the dry weight and the DHA/EPA was approximately fixed at 2.0. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in floating sea cages (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 m), and each cage was stocked with 60 fish (initial average weight 9.79 ± 0.6 g). Fish were fed twice daily (05:00 and 17:00) to apparent satiation for 58 days. Results showed that moderate n-3 HUFA level (0.98%) significantly enhanced growth compared with the control group (0.15% HUFA) (P  0.05). Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) positive leucocytes percentage of head kidney and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing n-3 HUFA from 0.15% to 0.60%, and decreased with further increase of n-3 HUFA from 0.60% to 2.25% (P  0.05). There were no significant differences in phagocytosis index (PI) of head kidney leucocytes among dietary treatments (P > 0.05). The hepatic mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) and Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was significantly up-regulated in fish fed the diets with low or moderate levels, while in kidney this increment was only found at specific sampling time during the natural infestation of parasites. The 13 d cumulative mortality rate following natural infestation of parasites decreased with n-3 HUFA increased from 0.15% to 0.60% (P < 0.05), and significantly increased with n-3 HUFA from 0.60% to 2.25% (P < 0.05). Results of this study suggested that fish fed low or moderate dietary n-3 HUFA had higher growth, nonspecific immune responses, expression levels of some immune

  18. Ammonia stimulates growth and nitrite-oxidizing activity of Nitrobacter winogradskyi

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shouguang; Zhang, Demin; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Yinong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium with high nitrite oxidation activity for controlling nitrite levels. A nitrite-oxidizing bacterium, ZS-1, was isolated from the water of a coastal Pseudosciaena crocea-rearing pond. The strain was identified as Nitrobacter winogradskyi based on the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene and nxrA sequence of ZS-1. Under aerobic condition, the nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1 did not change considerabl...

  19. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  20. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  1. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  2. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  3. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  4. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  5. Vacuum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Eichmeier, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

  6. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  7. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically associated with other data and which is intended by the user to serve as a signature;. The suggested new definition for an electronic signature reads as follows: 'electronic signature' means a sound, symbol or process that is (i) uniquely linked to the ...

  8. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    (a) facilitate ecommerce;2. (b) remove and prevent barriers to electronic communications in South Africa;3. (c) ensure that electronic transactions in the Republic conform to the highest international standards;4. (d) promote the development of electronic transactions services which are responsive to the needs of users and ...

  9. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  10. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  11. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  12. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  13. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  14. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  15. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  16. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  17. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  18. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  19. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  20. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  1. Electronic Cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentrup, Julie R.; Phillips, Donald B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes activities that use Froot Loops breakfast cereal to help students master the concepts of valence electrons and chemical bonding and the implications of the duet and octet rules. Involves students working in groups to create electron dot structures for various compounds. (JRH)

  2. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  3. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  4. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  5. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  6. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  7. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  8. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  9. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Infogallery Be Tobacco Free Search betobaccofree.gov Menu Search ABOUT TOBACCO Tobacco Facts and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction ...

  11. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  12. Electronic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants' "circuitry" has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

  13. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  14. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  15. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  16. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  17. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  18. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  19. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  20. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  1. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  2. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  3. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  4. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF...... transistors (Part 2). The synthetic protocols rely on stepwise Sonogashira coupling reactions. Conductivity studies on various OPE-based molecular wires reveal that mere OPE compounds have a higher electrical resistance compared to the cruciform based wires (up to 9 times higher). The most spectacular result...... be potential candidates for future molecular electronics Synthesis of a new donor-acceptor chromophore based on a benzoquinone- TTF motif (QuinoneDTF) is also described herein (Part 2). Reaction of this molecule with acid induces a colour change from purple to orange. The purple colour can be restored...

  5. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  6. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e......-government/e-governance and provide guidance for research, development and application of this emerging field. The papers are arranged in topical sections on challenges, performance, strategy, knowledge, and technology....

  7. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  8. Electronic discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Locher, Miriam A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter deals with electronic discourse by discussing the pragmatics of language use in computer-mediated settings. In many so-called first world countries, accessing the Internet by means of a computer or a smartphone, etc. has become an everyday activity for many people. In only little more than twenty years of publicly accessible Internet access, the use of computer-mediated forms of communication has developed from primarily information websites and email exchanges to highly interact...

  9. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of DHA-Phospholipids from Large Yellow Croaker Roe on Hyperlipidemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Zhang, Min; Cheng, Wenjian; Lin, Wenxiong; Chen, Lijiao

    2017-06-28

    Previously, we found that phospholipids derived from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roe had a higher level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-PL), which had beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism by which DHA-PL from P. crocea roe exerts these effects has not yet been illuminated. Herein, we investigated the underlying molecular action of DHA-PL by examining changes in liver protein expression in control, hyperlipidemic, and DHA-PL-treated mice. A total of 16 proteins, 9 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated, were identified and classified into several metabolic pathways, such as fat digestion and absorption, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling, and antigen processing and presentation; the largest functional class found was that of fat digestion and absorption. We revealed Apoa1 to be a biomarker of DHA-PL effects on hyperlipidemic mice by DHA-PL diet. These results not only improve our current understanding of hyperlipidemic regulation by DHA-PL, but also suggest that DHA-PL should be applied as a beneficial food additive.

  11. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; Henderson, R

    2007-10-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) in the structural analysis of large biological molecules and macro-molecular complexes and the need for simple, rapid and efficient readout, there is a persuasive need for improved detectors. Commercial detectors, based on phosphor/fibre optics-coupled CCDs, provide adequate performance for many applications, including electron diffraction. However, due to intrinsic light scattering within the phosphor, spatial resolution is limited. Careful measurements suggest that CCDs have superior performance at lower resolution while all agree that film is still superior at higher resolution. Consequently, new detectors are needed based on more direct detection, thus avoiding the intermediate light conversion step required for CCDs. Two types of direct detectors are discussed in this review. First, there are detectors based on hybrid technology employing a separate pixellated sensor and readout electronics connected with bump bonds-hybrid pixel detectors (HPDs). Second, there are detectors, which are monolithic in that sensor and readout are all in one plane (monolithic active pixel sensor, MAPS). Our discussion is centred on the main parameters of interest to cryoEM users, viz. detective quantum efficiency (DQE), resolution or modulation transfer function (MTF), robustness against radiation damage, speed of readout, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of independent pixels available for a given detector.

  12. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  13. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  14. Direct electron detection in transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Since the first prototype of a transmission electron microscope was built in 1931 by Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has proved to be an essential imaging tool for physicists, material scientists, and biologists. To record the TEM images for analysis, electron microscopists have used specialized electron micrograph film for a long time, until the new developments in TEM, such as electron tomography and cryo- electron microscopy, pushed for the needs of digita...

  15. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is an urgent demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that the power capacity has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...

  16. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  17. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  18. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  19. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  20. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  1. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  2. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  3. Electronic Design Automation Using Object Oriented Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Walid M. Aly; Mohamed S. Abuelnasr

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Electronic design automation is the usage of computer technology and software tools for designing integrated electronic system and creating electrical schematics. Approach: An approach is presented for modeling of various electronic and electric devices using object oriented design, aiming on building a library of devices (classes) which can be used for electronic design automation. Results: The presented library was implemented using Java programming language to form an El...

  4. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  5. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  6. Concepts in spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the future electronics.

  7. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  8. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  9. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  10. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Atomicity in Electronic Commerce J. D. Tygar January 1996 CMU-CS-96-112 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213...other research sponsor. Keywords: electronic commerce , atomicity, NetBill, IBIP, cryptography, transaction pro- cessing, ACID, franking, electronic ...goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work. Unfortunately, much of that work ignores traditional transaction

  11. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  12. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  13. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for whic...

  14. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  15. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  16. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  17. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  18. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  19. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  20. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  1. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  2. Electronic Science Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidarov P.Sh.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of electronic scientific seminar, which provides a high level of quality of the objectivity in the evaluation of scientific papers, including dissertations, is described. Conditions for the implementation of electronic scientific seminar are also considered.

  3. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  4. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-30

    Compound Semiconductors." 4 ......... I-*. Univesity of California. Berkeley Electronics Research Laboratory Joint Services Electronics Program August 15...reduction techniques [SCH-66,MCG- 73,HAM-75], for essentially i educing the proportionality constant. A significant portion of the probabilistic literature

  5. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  6. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Kozík; Jozefína Slivová

    2014-01-01

    Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of...

  7. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  8. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  9. Electronic Toll System

    OpenAIRE

    Kotěšovec, Václav

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the functioning of the electronic toll system. The first section describes the electronic fee collection, the architecture of the electronic toll collection system and the EU transport policy. The next section describes the electronic fee collection in the Czech republic and neighbouring countries. As a conclusion is a personal recommendation for a better functioning of the system in the Czech republic.

  10. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  11. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  12. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  13. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  14. Electronic recordkeeping: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deken, J.M.

    2000-01-19

    This paper begins with a brief overview of records and archival management before the advent of the electronic era; then describe the ways in which the definitions and constructs of archives and records management have been altered in the electronic environment; and outlines the various approaches to the challenges of electronic recordkeeping that are currently being investigated and applied.

  15. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  16. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for real-time charge readout and precise tuning of the tunnel barriers of the quantum dot. The second part of this thesis describes the realization of exceptionally clean Carbon Nanotube quantum dots....

  17. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  18. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  19. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  20. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  1. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronic Publishing or Electronic Information Handling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    The current dramatic evolution in information technology is bringing major modifications in the way scientists communicate. The concept of 'electronic publishing' is too restrictive and has often different, sometimes conflicting, interpretations. It is thus giving way to the broader notion of 'electronic information handling' encompassing the diverse types of information, the different media, as well as the various communication methodologies and technologies. New problems and challenges result also from this new information culture, especially on legal, ethical, and educational grounds. The procedures for validating 'published material' and for evaluating scientific activities will have to be adjusted too. 'Fluid' information is becoming a common concept. Electronic publishing cannot be conceived without link to knowledge bases nor without intelligent information retrieval tools.

  3. Colliding Electrons - Workhorses of Gaseous Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Bill

    2004-09-01

    The need for electron scattering data to explain the various observed phenomena encountered in electric discharges through gases and indeed in plasmas of all types, has provided strong motivation to collision physicists over the years to carry out the appropriate measurements and calculations. The field has been continually stimulated by new discoveries in such diverse areas as planetary atmosphere processes, low and high temperature plasma physics, lasers and radiation chemistry. In addition, electron collisions undergird the efficient operation of a multitude of practical devices and industrial processes. This talk will seek to give a flavor of what has been happening in this field, particularly over the past half-century.

  4. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  5. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  6. Electrons in silicon microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R E; Jackel, L D; Mankiewich, P M; Skocpol, W J

    1986-01-24

    Silicon microstructures only a few hundred atoms wide can be fabricated and used to study electron transport in narrow channels. Spatially localized voltage probes as close together as 0.1 micrometer can be used to investigate a variety of physical phenomena, including velocity saturation due to phonon emission, the local potentials caused by scattering from a single trapped electron, and quantum tunneling or hopping among very few electron states.

  7. Green and biodegradable electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai; Głowacki, Eric. D.; Voss, Gundula; Bauer, Siegfried; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials sugg...

  8. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  9. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  10. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  11. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  12. Nonadiabatic electron heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Miguel; Strass, Michael; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Sols, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a mechanism for extracting heat from metallic conductors based on the energy-selective transmission of electrons through a spatially asymmetric resonant structure subject to ac driving. This quantum refrigerator can operate at zero net electronic current as it replaces hot by cold electrons through two energetically symmetric inelastic channels. We present numerical results for a specific heterostructure and discuss general trends. We also explore the conditions under which the...

  13. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  14. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  15. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  16. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  17. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  18. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  19. Electronics pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, E A

    1981-01-01

    Electronics Pocket Book, Fourth Edition is a nonmathematical presentation of the many varied topics covered by electronics. The book tackles electron physics, electronic components (i.e. resistors, capacitors, and conductors), integrated circuits, and the principles of a.c. and d.c. amplifiers. The text also discusses oscillators, digital circuits, digital computers, and optoelectronics (i.e., sensors, emitters, and devices that utilize light). Communications (such as line and radio communications, transmitters, receivers, and digital techniques); the principles and examples of servosystems; a

  20. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  1. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  2. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  3. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  4. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electron caustic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kennedy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist–coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

  6. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  7. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  8. NanoElectronics and BioElectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Carbon Nanotube electronics in the bioelectronics. Included is a brief review of the carbon nanotube manufacturing, the use of carbon nanotubes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Computational Nanotechnology, that allows designers to understand nanotube characteristics and serves as a design tool.

  9. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entire liquid or solid. The variety of electronic behaviour which ... sity of electronic behaviour in condensed matter, ego ferro- ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find applications, this time in magnetic recording.

  10. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  11. Free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Schmüser, P

    2006-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation of relativistic electrons in undulator magnets and the low-gain Free-Electron Laser (FEL) are discussed in some detail. The highgain FEL based on the principle of Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission is treated on a qualitative level.

  12. Single particle electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Folea, Mihaela; Kouril, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) in combination with image analysis is a powerful technique to study protein structures at low, medium, and high resolution. Since electron micrographs of biological objects are very noisy, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by image processing is an integral part of

  13. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  14. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON WAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  15. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  16. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  17. ELECTRONIC FILE MONITORING SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GBUBEMI

    2014-11-06

    Nov 6, 2014 ... integrated seamlessly in a global electronic business environment that includes centralized storage of all documents and related content, with the flexibility to distribute any document in the system electronically or to print, fax, or mail it as a hard copy. Things to be considered for this upgrade are Document ...

  18. Basic Electronics I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  19. Electrons in Molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    “What are electrons doing in molecules?” This is a deceptively simple question that scientists have been trying to answer for more than eighty years. With the advent of quantum mechanics in 1926, it became clear that we must understand the dynamics of electronic motion in atoms, molecules and solids in order to explain ...

  20. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  1. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  2. Practical electronics for inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Scherz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Spark your creativity and gain the electronics skills required to transform your innovative ideas into functioning gadgets. This hands-on, updated guide outlines electrical principles and provides thorough, easy-to-follow instructions, schematics, and illustrations. Findout how to select components, safely assemble circuits, perform error tests, and build plug-and-play prototypes. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Third Edition, features all-new chapters on sensors, microcontrollers, modular electronics, and the latest software tools. Coverage includes: Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers Diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits Optoelectronics, solar cells, and phototransistors Sensors, GPS modules, and touch screens Op amps, regulators, and power supplies Digital electronics, LCD displays, and logic gates Microcontrollers and prototyping platforms, including Arduino DC motors, RC servos, and stepper motors Microphones, audio amps, and speakers Modular electronics and prototyping.

  3. Silicon Carbide Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    The status of emerging silicon carbide (SiC) widebandgap semiconductor electronics technology is briefly surveyed. SiC-based electronic devices and circuits are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which conventional semiconductors cannot function. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are briefly illustrated for several applications. However, most of these operational benefits of SiC have yet to be realized in actual systems, primarily owing to the fact that the growth techniques of SiC crystals are relatively immature and device fabrication technologies are not yet sufficiently developed to the degree required for widespread, reliable commercial use. Key crystal growth and device fabrication issues that limit the performance and capability of high-temperature and/or high-power SiC electronics are identified. The electrical and material quality differences between emerging SiC and mature silicon electronics technology are highlighted.

  4. Electronic crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Kanoda, K.

    2017-09-01

    Interacting atoms or molecules condense into liquid, and, when cooled further, they form a crystal. The time evolution of the atomic or molecular ordering has been widely studied as a nonequilibrium emergence of order from a supercooled liquid or a glass. Interacting electrons in a variety of correlated electron systems also form crystals, but observing the time evolution of electronic crystallization has been experimentally challenging. Here, working with an organic conductor exhibiting a supercooled charge liquid or charge glass as a metastable state, we observed electronic crystal growth through resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The temperature profile of the crystal growth is similar to those observed in classical systems and reveals two distinct regimes for the mechanism of electronic crystallization.

  5. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...... in the possibilities o®ered by the quantum mechanical behavior of electrons when it comes to informa- tion processing. This branch of research is also concerned with fundamental questions in physics. Besides an introduction to the above-mentioned subjects, the thesis con- tains a number of contributions to the ¯elds...... of coherent electron manip- ulation and the statistical description of electron transport through nano- devices. The physics of the electrons are described with a combination of numerical methods, developed and applied in the thesis, and more analytical approaches, which are also discussed. The thesis...

  6. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.; AHRENS,L.; BRENNAN,M.; HARRISON,M.; KEWISCH,J.; MACKAY,W.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  7. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  8. Developing electronic textbooks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadoks, R.I. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Ratner, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to the development of engineering education materials. The ``Electronic Textbook`` represents the logical progression of the printed textbook in the Electronic Age. The concept behind this approach is simple; to place all of the information contained in a textbook in electronic form. Currently, paper texts exist on the market with electronic supplements, however, this Electronic Textbook would include supplements fully integrated in the whole text. The computer hardware and software needed to make this advance possible have existed for nearly ten years, and they have been readily available to engineering educators and students for over three years. Computer based ``tools`` in engineering textbooks as are prevalent today range from computer styled algorithms and code snippets, to fully developed software applications with graphical user interfaces on floppy disks attached to the back covers of books. The next logical step in publishing is to dispense with the paper book entirely, by distributing textbooks via electronic media such as CD-ROM. Electronic Textbooks use the full range of multi-media technologies in the learning and teaching process including video clips, computer animations and fully functional numerical engines as integral parts of the textbook material. This is very appealing since interactive media provide teaching tools that appeal to divergent learning styles. The advantages of Electronic Textbooks lead to several challenges. Special attention must be paid to the development of user interfaces; navigation is of particular importance when non- linear exploration is encouraged. These issues are being addressed at the Sandia National Laboratories by an electronic documentation development team. This team includes experts in engineering, in human factors, and in computer hardware and software development. Guidelines for the development of electronic textbooks based on the experiences of this team are provided.

  9. Electronic Collection Management and Electronic Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    TITLE: Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations [La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP] To order the complete...and information centers As a key institutional structure for providing information "collection" and "services" to users, the library or information...including the specialized staff, to select, structure , offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the

  10. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  11. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  12. Introduction to electron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovmoeller, S.; Zou, Xiaodong [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University and Berzeeli Center Exselent 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    Everything in Nature, macroscopic or microscopic, inorganic, organic or biological, has its specific properties. Most properties of matter depend on the atomic structures, and many techniques have been developed over the centuries for structure analysis. The greatest of them all, structure analysis of single crystals by X-ray diffraction, X-ray crystallography, was founded in 1912, and remains the most important technique for studying structures of periodically ordered objects at atomic resolution. Electron diffraction of single crystals was discovered fifteen years later by Thomson, Davisson and Germer. The wave property of electrons was exploited in the invention of the electron microscope by Knoll and Ruska in 1932. Since then, electron microscopes have been used in many fields as a tool for exploring and visualising the microscopic world in all its beauty. Between the first blurred images and today's sharp atomic resolution lies seventy years of untiring engineering. More recently, the unprecedented power of computers has made it possible to analyse quantitatively, and even further improve, these images. The amalgamation of electron diffraction and atomic resolution electron microscopy with crystallographic image processing has created a new powerful tool for structure analysis - electron crystallography. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  14. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t

  15. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  16. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  17. Power Electronics for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid renewable system that uses distributed renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and energy storage systems (ESSs) to supply power to local loads. The system is ordinarily based on power electronics, with interface converters allowing...... a continuous supply of power in the presence of variable RES production. This chapter describes some specific features of DC MGs in terms of power architecture, control, and protection. It also reviews several uncommon power electronic interfaces. Regarding control, operation without critical communication...... are explained in this chapter. The chapter concludes with a review of power electronic intensive protection solutions for DC MGs....

  18. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  19. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  20. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  1. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Al'tshuler, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an

  3. Socorro Electronic Structure Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-08-03

    Socorro can be used to compute the ground-state electron density for a periodically repeated simulation cell in which the external potential is obtained from norm-conserving pseudopotentials or projector-augmented-wave functions. The ground-state electron density is computed by summation over one-electron orbitals which are obtained using the Kohn-Sham formulation of density-functional theory and which are expanded in a plane-wave basis. Various quantities can be computed from the ground-state solution, including atomic forces which can be used to optimize atom positions in the simulation cell and to perform molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  5. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  6. Electronics Modernization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current electronic packaging designs used in our most recent spacecraft are comprised of technologies from the 1980’s and 1990’s. The current approach...

  7. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  8. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  9. Sheet electron beam tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  10. Electronics for guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2014-01-01

    Electronics for Guitarists focuses on analog circuitry, and is written for the guitarist interested in transistor and vacuum tube-based amplifiers. Topics include discrete transistors and diodes, classical filter circuits, and vacuum tube-based amplifiers.

  11. Single molecule electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunwook; Reed, Mark A; Lee, Takhee

    2011-04-12

    Single molecule electronic devices in which individual molecules are utilized as active electronic components constitute a promising approach for the ultimate miniaturization and integration of electronic devices in nanotechnology through the bottom-up strategy. Thus, the ability to understand, control, and exploit charge transport at the level of single molecules has become a long-standing desire of scientists and engineers from different disciplines for various potential device applications. Indeed, a study on charge transport through single molecules attached to metallic electrodes is a very challenging task, but rapid advances have been made in recent years. This review article focuses on experimental aspects of electronic devices made with single molecules, with a primary focus on the characterization and manipulation of charge transport in this regime. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  13. Advanced Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.

    2005-02-14

    The research into advanced acceleration concepts for electron linear accelerators being pursued at SLAC is reviewed. This research includes experiments in laser acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, and mmwavelength RF driven accelerators.

  14. Maps for electron clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Iriso

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The electron cloud effect has been studied by means of detailed simulation codes that typically track the particles' evolution under the influence of the corresponding electromagnetic forces and fields. In this paper we show that, for the RHIC case, the electron cloud can be treated from an abstract point of view as a bunch to bunch evolution using simple maps. Secondly, we show how this treatment yields a useful conclusion, which is otherwise difficult to obtain: for a fixed number of bunches and total beam current in RHIC, it is possible to determine the best way to distribute the bunch pattern around the ring to minimize the electron cloud formation. This application is an example of how maps become a useful tool for exploring the electron cloud evolution in parameter space.

  15. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  16. Lasers in Electronic Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manke, Gerald C.

    2014-10-01

    The use of lasers for Electronic Warfare applications will be discussed and reviewed. Specific examples of deployed EW systems which include lasers will be presented along with a discussion of their most salient features.

  17. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  18. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.

  19. Electronics 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A; May, A J C

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 3 Checkbook provides a concise coverage of the theories and definitions of concepts in electronics. The book provides problems and worked examples to supplement fuller textbooks of the same subject. The coverage of the text includes decibel measurement, operational amplifiers, DA and AD converters, controlled rectifiers, triggering devices, optoelectronic devices, fiber optics, and power amplifiers. The text will be of great use to electrical engineering students who wish to enhance their understanding of the basics of mechanical and electrical science.

  20. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  1. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  2. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  3. Electronic discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Peter D; Keselman, Alla; Rappaport, Daniel; Van Vleck, Tielman; Cooper, Mary; Boyer, Aurelia; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    Timely completion of Discharge Summaries is a requirement of high quality care. We developed a system for writing electronic Discharge Summaries. DSUM Writer has generated 2464 of 7349 total summaries (34%) and has paid for itself during its first 8 weeks in production. DSUM Writer is a component of a suite of tools (eNote) for electronic physician documentation used to support clinical care, billing and narrative analysis research.

  4. Electron Beam Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    2012-06-01

    In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

  5. Mathematics for electronic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Howson, D P

    1975-01-01

    Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma

  6. Newnes electronics toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Toolkit brings together fundamental facts, concepts, and applications of electronic components and circuits, and presents them in a clear, concise, and unambiguous format, to provide a reference book for engineers. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the following concepts: resistors, capacitors, inductors, semiconductors, circuit concepts, electromagnetic compatibility, sound, light, heat, and connections. The engineer's job does not end when the circuit diagram is completed; the design for the manufacturing process is just as important if volume production is to be

  7. Electronic Portfolios for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Dahn, I.; Christmann, A

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.

  8. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  9. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  10. Relativistic Electron Vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M

    2017-03-17

    The desire to push recent experiments on electron vortices to higher energies leads to some theoretical difficulties. In particular the simple and very successful picture of phase vortices of vortex charge ℓ associated with ℓℏ units of orbital angular momentum per electron is challenged by the facts that (i) the spin and orbital angular momentum are not separately conserved for a Dirac electron, which suggests that the existence of a spin-orbit coupling will complicate matters, and (ii) that the velocity of a Dirac electron is not simply the gradient of a phase as it is in the Schrödinger theory suggesting that, perhaps, electron vortices might not exist at a fundamental level. We resolve these difficulties by showing that electron vortices do indeed exist in the relativistic theory and show that the charge of such a vortex is simply related to a conserved orbital part of the total angular momentum, closely related to the familiar situation for the orbital angular momentum of a photon.

  11. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  12. Runaway electrons and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2017-05-01

    The potential for damage, the magnitude of the extrapolation, and the importance of the atypical—incidents that occur once in a thousand shots—make theory and simulation essential for ensuring that relativistic runaway electrons will not prevent ITER from achieving its mission. Most of the theoretical literature on electron runaway assumes magnetic surfaces exist. ITER planning for the avoidance of halo and runaway currents is focused on massive-gas or shattered-pellet injection of impurities. In simulations of experiments, such injections lead to a rapid large-scale magnetic-surface breakup. Surface breakup, which is a magnetic reconnection, can occur on a quasi-ideal Alfvénic time scale when the resistance is sufficiently small. Nevertheless, the removal of the bulk of the poloidal flux, as in halo-current mitigation, is on a resistive time scale. The acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies requires the confinement of some tubes of magnetic flux within the plasma and a resistive time scale. The interpretation of experiments on existing tokamaks and their extrapolation to ITER should carefully distinguish confined versus unconfined magnetic field lines and quasi-ideal versus resistive evolution. The separation of quasi-ideal from resistive evolution is extremely challenging numerically, but is greatly simplified by constraints of Maxwell’s equations, and in particular those associated with magnetic helicity. The physics of electron runaway along confined magnetic field lines is clarified by relations among the poloidal flux change required for an e-fold in the number of electrons, the energy distribution of the relativistic electrons, and the number of relativistic electron strikes that can be expected in a single disruption event.

  13. Occurrence and Biological Fate of Persistent Organic Contaminants in Yellow Sea Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, namely, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlors, mirex and chlordane compounds were investigated in muscle and liver tissues of Yellow Sea croakers (Collichthys niveatus and Pseudosciaena crocea from 16 stations on the off shore waters of South Korea within the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME. The sum concentration (minimum-maximum - ng/g lipid wt. was: PCBs: non-detectable to 21; Pesticides non-detectable to 63. Among the 26 individual pesticide compounds measured in fishes, except 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TCBZ, all the other compounds were determined in almost in all samples. The levels in Yellow Sea croakers were similar to levels reported in the Baltic fish. The differential ratios of isomers/congeners in biota in comparison to the original commercial mixtures suggest possible metabolism by cytochrome P450 isozymes. The induction of such drug metabolizing enzymes suggests an ecotoxicological stress. Principle Component Analysis identifies ‘hot spots’ within the sampled area including the Korean off shore sewage dumpsite.

  14. Ammonia stimulates growth and nitrite-oxidizing activity of Nitrobacter winogradskyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shouguang; Zhang, Demin; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Yinong

    2014-01-02

    The aim of this study was to obtain a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium with high nitrite oxidation activity for controlling nitrite levels. A nitrite-oxidizing bacterium, ZS-1, was isolated from the water of a coastal Pseudosciaena crocea-rearing pond. The strain was identified as Nitrobacter winogradskyi based on the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene and nxrA sequence of ZS-1. Under aerobic condition, the nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1 did not change considerably in the range of pH 7-9, but was strongly inhibited by lower (pH = 6) and higher (pH = 10) pH values. The optimum temperature range is 25-32 °C. Lower temperature made the adaptive phase of ZS-1 longer but did not affect its maximum nitrite oxidization rate. The nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1 started to be inhibited by ammonia and nitrate when the concentrations of ammonia and nitrate reached 25 mg L(-1) and 100 mg L(-1), respectively. The inhibition was stronger with higher concentration of ammonia or nitrate. The nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1, however, was not inhibited by high concentration of nitrite (500 mg L(-1)). The nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1 was increased by low ammonia concentration (1 mg L(-1) to 10 mg L(-1)).

  15. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.L.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, J.C.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Connell, D.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Public Health, Griffith University, Logan Campus, University Drive, Meadowbrook, QLD 4131 (Australia); Lam, M.H.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholson, S. [Meinhardt Mouchel Limited, 12/F, MLC Tower, 248 Queen' s Road East, Wanchai, Hong Kong (China); Richardson, B.J. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-11-15

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins.

  16. Cloning, expressing, and hemolysis of tdh, trh and tlh genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

    2011-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) is one of the pathogenic vibrios endangering net-cage cultured Pseudosciaena crocea, Fennerpenaeus chinensis, and shellfish in coastal areas of China. Several types of hemolysins produced by Vp have been characterized as major virulence factors. They are thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) and thermolabile hemolysin (TLH). In this study, we cloned tdh, trh, and tlh genes from the genome DNA of VP by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We ligated the three genes into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+), and transformed the recombinant plasmids into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of recombinant proteins was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalacto-pyranoside (IPTG). The recombinant proteins were expressed in a form of inclusion bodies and thus purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Western blotting results showed that recombinant proteins, TDH, TRH and TLH, could be recognized by rabbit anti-VP serum. The three purified proteins were renatured by gradient dialysis. The renatured proteins exhibited hemolytic activity except for TLH in the presence of phosphatidylcholine. These results not only are helpful for better understanding these genes' functions under a single factor level, but also provide evidence for VP vaccine engineering.

  17. Electron-electron attraction in an engineered electromechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András; Droth, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Two electrons in a quantum dot repel each other: their interaction can be characterized by a positive interaction energy. From the theory of superconductivity, we also know that mechanical vibrations of the crystal lattice can make the electron-electron interaction attractive. Analogously, if a quantum dot interacts with a mechanical degree of freedom, the effective interaction energy can be negative; that is, the electron-electron interaction might be attractive. In this work, we propose and theoretically study an engineered electromechanical system that exhibits electron-electron attraction: a quantum dot suspended on a nonlinear mechanical resonator, tuned by a bottom and a top gate electrode. We focus on the example of a dot embedded in a suspended graphene ribbon, for which we identify conditions for electron-electron attraction. Our results suggest the possibility of electronic transport via tunneling of packets of multiple electrons in such devices, similar to that in superconducting nanostructures, but without the use of any superconducting elements.

  18. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  19. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A238 831 " ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND COMPETITIVE PROCUREMENT Report PL006R1 June 1991 DTIC AJUL 2 9 1991"M Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci Prepared...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement C MDA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel J. Drake and... electronic commerce techniques ( electronic Jata interchange (EDI). electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards and facsimile] to competitive

  20. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  1. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  2. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  3. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  4. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  5. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  6. Phasor power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of power electronics, focusing on the switched transformer concept and phasor transformation techniques as employed in the analysis and design of power electronic circuits. Phasor transformations, as introduced in this book, make the time-varying nature of a switching converter simple and easy to handle, transforming it into an equivalent time-invariant circuit. The book starts with an introduction to the philosophy and fundamental principles of power electronics. The switched transformer concept, which is applicable to any switching converter, is introduced, and it is shown how DC-DC converters analyses are then so straightforward that very little equational manipulation is needed. Then the phasor transformation techniques are comprehensively explained over three parts. Single phase and multi-phase AC systems are dealt with through the single phase phasor transformation and circuit DQ transformation, respectively. A general unified phasor tran...

  7. Understanding the Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    Well over a century after the discovery of the electron, we are still faced with serious conceptual issues regarding precisely what an electron is. Since the development of particle physics and the Standard Model, we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge about the relationships among various subatomic particles. However, this knowledge has not significantly aided in our understanding of the fundamental nature of any particular elementary subatomic particle. The fact that many particle properties, such as position, time, speed, energy, momentum, and component of spin, are observer-dependent suggests that these relevant variables do not represent properties per se, but rather the relationship between the observer and the observed. That is, they reflect details about how the electron influences the observer, and vice versa. Here we attempt to understand this by considering a simple model where particles influence one another in a discrete and direct fashion. The resulting framework, referred to as Influence...

  8. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  9. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  10. Determination of electron temperature and electron density in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electron temperatures and electron densities of air and argon have been measured at various pds (pressure times distance). The electron temperatures have been computed using the Johnson-Malter double-probe method. The electron densities have been computed using the total positive ion current and the ...

  11. Electron kinetics in capacitively coupled plasmas modulated by electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Peng, Yanli; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hong-yu; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    The controlling effect of an electron injection on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and on the energetic electron flux, in a capacitive radio-frequency argon plasma, is studied using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions model. The input power of the electron beam is as small as several tens of Watts with laboratory achievable emission currents and energies. With the electron injection, the electron temperature decreases but with a significant high energy tail. The electron density, electron temperature in the sheath, and electron heating rate increase with the increasing emission energy. This is attributed to the extra heating of the energetic electrons in the EEDF tail. The non-equilibrium EEDF is obtained for strong non-local distributions of the electric field, electron heating rate, excitation, and ionization rate, indicating the discharge has transited from a volume heating (α-mode dominated) into a sheath heating (γ-mode dominated) type. In addition, the electron injection not only modifies the self-bias voltage, but also enhances the electron flux that can reach the electrodes. Moreover, the relative population of energetic electrons significantly increases with the electron injection compared to that without the electron injection, relevant for modifying the gas and surface chemistry reactions.

  12. Electron-electron correlations in liquid s-p metals

    CERN Document Server

    Leys, F E

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations for the valence electron-electron structure factor in liquid Mg near freezing, assuming knowledge of the jellium result. On the basis of this, we predict significant corrections to jellium short-range correlations in liquid s-p metals and in particular an increase in the electron-electron contact probability.

  13. Electronics 2 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 2 Checkbook is an 11-chapter text that presents problems and worked examples to establish and exemplify the theory contained in technical syllabuses, with a particular emphasis on electronics.The introductory chapters review the elementary theory of semiconductors and the p-n junction diode. The subsequent chapters deal with the applications of diode, the characteristics of bipolar transistors, and the mode of operation of small signal amplifiers. These topics are followed by discussions of the function of the field-effect transistor and power supplies. The concluding chapters expl

  14. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  15. Stretchability of encapsulated electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Liu, Z. J.; Song, J.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, K.-C.; Zhang, Y. W.; Rogers, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    Stretchable and flexible electronics offer the performance of conventional wafer-based systems but can be stretched like a rubber band, twisted like a rope, and bent over a pencil. Such a technology offers new application opportunities, in areas of surgical and diagnostic implements that naturally integrate with the human body to provide advanced capabilities, to curvilinear devices such as hemispherical "eyeball" cameras. In practice, stretchable and flexible electronic systems require encapsulation layers to provide mechanical and environmental protection. This paper establishes a simple, analytical model for the optimal design of encapsulation.

  16. Corrosion in Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Gudla, Helene Virginie Conseil; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2017-01-01

    and high density packing combined with the use of several materials, which can undergo electrochemical corrosion in the presence of water film formed due to humidity exposure and bias conditions on the PCBA surface. This article provides a short review of the corrosion reliability issues of electronics due...... to the use of electronics under varying humidity conditions. Important PCBA aspects, which are fundamental to the corrosion cell formation under humid conditions, are discussed. Effect of hygroscopic residues from the process and service and their role in assisting water film build up and corrosion...... is presented. Various failure modes resulting from the corrosion and influence factors are discussed including humid and gaseous conditions....

  17. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  18. An electronic quantum eraser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, E; Choi, H K; Sivan, I; Heiblum, M; Gefen, Y; Mahalu, D; Umansky, V

    2014-06-20

    The quantum eraser is a device that illustrates the quantum principle of complementarity and shows how a dephased system can regain its lost quantum behavior by erasing the "which-path" information already obtained about it. Thus far, quantum erasers were constructed predominantly in optical systems. Here, we present a realization of a quantum eraser in a mesoscopic electronic device. The use of interacting electrons, instead of noninteracting photons, allows control over the extracted information and a smooth variation of the degree of quantum erasure. The demonstrated system can serve as a first step toward a variety of more complex setups. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, P W

    2013-01-01

    Electronics for Technicians covers the basic fundamentals of electronics, including the operation of devices and circuits. The book is meant to help the technician to obtain numerical answers to actual circuit problems. This volume consists of seven chapters, the first of which introduces the reader to the basic rules for circuits containing resistive and reactive elements. Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor is discussed, along with charge and discharge of an inductance through a resistance, application of sinusoidal voltages to simple networks, and series and parallel LCR

  20. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi

  1. Basic Electron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, B. J.; Morgan, G. J.; Howson, M. A.

    This chapter will take you through a simple introduction to transport theory covering the Boltzmann equation, the Fuchs-Sondheimer model for thin films, the normal magnetoresistance and quantum interference effects in metals with strong electron scattering. At the end of the chapter we will also introduce you to a number of the basic techniques involved in electron transport measurements. All of this is by way of introduction to basic transport properties common to all metals. In later chapters these ideas will be developed and applied to systems in which spin dependent transport is important.

  2. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  3. The Electron Enters Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, George

    1997-04-01

    The electron occupies a crucial intersection of science, technology, business, and government. It is not at all surprising that it became an object of value in all four realms. It is more surprising that it escaped capture by the institutions dominating the realms. This paper will show the electron in its first half century demonstrating its value in such areas as telephony, radio, X-ray tubes, industrial control, fluorescent lamps, television and radar. In the process, it appeared to fall under the control of a few giant institutions. However, its protean nature, which had attracted the giants, turned out to be its means for escaping them.

  4. Electronic health record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross border...... and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increases the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  5. Innovations in electronic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Działanie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.

  6. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  7. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    1988-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Second Edition covers information useful in electronics, with focus on mathematical conventions. The handbook discusses the passive (resistors, capacitors, band coding, and inductors) and active discrete (diodes, transistors and negative feedback) components; discrete component circuits; and transferring digital data. Linear I.C.s, which are the single-chip arrangements of amplifier circuits that are intended to be biased and operated in a linear way, and digital I.C.s, which process signals and consist of two significant voltage levels, are also considered. T

  8. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  9. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Electrons in Condensed Matter. T V Ramakrishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 17-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0017-0032 ...

  10. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  11. Educating for Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    While mission statements for various libraries and information centers necessarily vary, all librarians face "two very pressing charges: make voluminous numbers of electronic resources as visible as possible in a landscape of multiple access points and simultaneously manage all the technology, tasks, and data necessary to facilitate such…

  12. ALICE physics with electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE potential for measurements of dielectron decays of quarkonia J/psi and of the Upsilon-family is discussed. The electron trigger capability of the ALICE transition radiation detector (TRD) is reviewed, and the anticipated pion rejection power is given. Furthermore, the invariant mass resolution achieved for quarkonia states is given and the signal to background ratio is presented.

  13. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  14. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  15. Quantum Hall Electron Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Allan

    In 2D electron systems hosted by crystals with hexagonal symmetry, electron nematic phases with spontaneously broken C3 symmetry are expected to occur in the quantum Hall regime when triplets of Landau levels associated with three different Fermi surface pockets are partially filled. The broken symmetry state is driven by intravalley Coulombic exchange interactions that favor spontaneously polarized valley occupations. I will discuss three different examples of 2D electron systems in which this type of broken symmetry state is expected to occur: i) the SnTe (111) surface, ii) the Bi (111) surface. and iii) unbalanced bilayer graphene. This type of quantum Hall electron nematic state has so far been confirmed only in the Bi (111) case, in which the anisotropic quasiparticle wavefunctions of the broken symmetry state were directly imaged. In the SnTe case the nematic state phase boundary is controlled by a competition between intravalley Coulomb interactions and intervalley scattering processes that increase in relative strength with magnetic field. An in-plane Zeeman field alters the phase diagram by lifting the three-fold Landau level degeneracy, yielding a ground state energy with 2 π/3 periodicity as a function of Zeeman-field orientation angle. I will comment on the possibility of observing similar states in the absence of a magnetic field. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.

  16. and transmission electron microscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    immune-electron microscopy (IEM) from patients' feces. They reported this virus particle as the causative agent of winter vomiting outbreaks in Norwalk (Kapikian et al.,. 1972). This is the remarkable landmark study of non- bacterial gastroenteritis viruses, especially for small round structured viruses (SRSVs). After that, many.

  17. Inventing the Electronic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is confronting a fundamental change. The transition from print on paper to digital and electronic technologies is transforming instruction, scholarly communication, and the storage and preservation of knowledge. What is required is not the automation of old systems, but the restructuring of institutions. The drive for autonomy,…

  18. Readily Made Solvated Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Guerra-Millan, Francisco J.; Hugerat, Muhamad; Vazquez-Olavarrieta, Jorge L.; Basheer, Ahmad; Abu-Much, Riam

    2011-01-01

    The existence of solvated electrons has been known for a long time. Key methods for their production (i.e., photoionization of reducing ions, water radiolysis, and the reaction between H[middle dot] and OH[superscript -]) are unsuitable for most school laboratories. We describe a simple experiment to produce liquid ammonia and solvated electrons…

  19. The electronic neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project. The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban...... regeneration project in Copenhagen....

  20. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  1. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    34 Int. J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 2, pp. 883-904, 1981. 2. H. Shichijo, K. Hess and B.G. Streetman, "Real-Space Electron Transfer by...Huachuca, AZ 85613 Dr. Rudolf G. Buser Night Vision & Electro-Optics LabsU.S. Army Research, Development ATTN: DELNL-L and Standardization Group - CA Fort

  2. Quantitative Electron Nanodiffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, John [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-30

    This Final report summarizes progress under this award for the final reporting period 2002 - 2013 in our development of quantitive electron nanodiffraction to materials problems, especially devoted to atomistic processes in semiconductors and electronic oxides such as the new artificial oxide multilayers, where our microdiffraction is complemented with energy-loss spectroscopy (ELNES) and aberration-corrected STEM imaging (9). The method has also been used to map out the chemical bonds in the important GaN semiconductor (1) used for solid state lighting, and to understand the effects of stacking sequence variations and interfaces in digital oxide superlattices (8). Other projects include the development of a laser-beam Zernike phase plate for cryo-electron microscopy (5) (based on the Kapitza-Dirac effect), work on reconstruction of molecular images using the scattering from many identical molecules lying in random orientations (4), a review article on space-group determination for the International Tables on Crystallography (10), the observation of energy-loss spectra with millivolt energy resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution from individual point defects in an alkali halide, a review article for the Centenary of X-ray Diffration (17) and the development of a new method of electron-beam lithography (12). We briefly summarize here the work on GaN, on oxide superlattice ELNES, and on lithography by STEM.

  3. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectros- copy has emerged as a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules such as proteins, protein aggregates, RNA and DNA. It is used in combination with molecular modelling to study complex systems such as soluble proteins ...

  5. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Biological Applications. B G Hegde. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1017-1032. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging. 2. Radiofrequency FT-EPR Imaging. Sankaran Subramanian and Murali C Krishna. Keywords. FT-EPR, Hahn-echo, acquisition delay, single-point imaging (SPI), gradient-echo, k-space, echo-SPI, carbogen, oxygen relaxivity, T2*. T2- and T1-based oximetry, co- registration ...

  7. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers...

  8. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twentieth century bore witness to remarkable scientists whohave advanced our understanding of the brain. Among them,EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) imaging is particularlyuseful in monitoring hypoxic zones in tumors which arehighly resistant to radiation and chemotherapeutic treatment.This first part of the ...

  9. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    appear to be best suited for electronic-cooling applications are the silicons, fluorinated organics, and the ethylene - glycnl-water solution. The...with power dissipa- tion of 30 watts frui each transistor. The SMximsi allowable Junction teaperature of the transistors is given as tj - 135*C

  10. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  11. Non-diffracting multi-electron vortex beams balancing their electron-electron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzafi, Maor; Kaminer, Ido; Harari, Gal; Segev, Mordechai

    2017-09-21

    The wave-like nature of electrons has been known for almost a century, but only in recent years has the ability to shape the wavefunction of EBeams (Electron-Beams) become experimentally accessible. Various EBeam wavefunctions have been demonstrated, such as vortex, self-accelerating, Bessel EBeams etc. However, none has attempted to manipulate multi-electron beams, because the repulsion between electrons rapidly alters the beam shape. Here, we show how interference effects of the quantum wavefunction describing multiple electrons can be used to exactly balance both the repulsion and diffraction-broadening. We propose non-diffracting wavepackets of multiple electrons, which can also carry orbital angular momentum. Such wavefunction shaping facilitates the use of multi-electron beams in electron microscopy with higher current without compromising on spatial resolution. Simulating the quantum evolution in three-dimensions and time, we show that imprinting such wavefunctions on electron pulses leads to shape-preserving multi-electrons ultrashort pulses. Our scheme applies to any beams of charged particles, such as protons and ion beams.Vortex electron beams are generated using single electrons but their low beam-density is a limitation in electron microscopy. Here the authors propose a scheme for the realization of non-diffracting electron beams by shaping wavepackets of multiple electrons and including electron-electron interactions.

  12. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  13. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  14. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli [El Cerrito, CA; Fabbri, Jason D [San Francisco, CA; Melosh, Nicholas A [Menlo Park, CA; Hussain, Zahid [Orinda, CA; Shen, Zhi-Xun [Stanford, CA

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  15. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  16. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-11-23

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications. While there exist bulk material reduction methods to flex them, such thinned CMOS electronics are fragile and vulnerable to handling for high throughput manufacturing. Here, we show a fusion of a CMOS technology compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics, with inkjet and conductive cellulose based interconnects, followed by additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing based packaging) and finally roll-to-roll printing of packaged decal electronics (thin film transistors based circuit components and sensors) focusing on printed high performance flexible electronic systems. This work provides the most pragmatic route for packaged flexible electronic systems for wide ranging applications.

  17. Electron Structure of Francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufos, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    This talk presents the first calculations of the electronic structure of francium for the bcc, fcc and hcp structures, using the Augmented Plane Wave (APW) method in its muffin-tin and linearized general potential forms. Both the Local Density Approximation (LDA) and Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), were used to calculate the electronic structure and total energy of francium (Fr). The GGA and LDA both found the total energy of the hcp structure slightly below that of the fcc and bcc structure, respectively. This is in agreement with similar results for the other alkali metals using the same methodology. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and superconductivity parameters were calculated. We found that under pressures, in the range of 1-5 GPa, Fr could be a superconductor at a critical temperature of about 4K.

  18. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service.......In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e...

  19. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  20. Engineering limitations with electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gröbner, Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The vacuum required for electron machines is determined by the beam lifetime and must be in the ultrahigh vacuum range. Since the emission of intense synchrotron radiation by the electron beam produces strong dynamic outgassing from the vacuum chamber, this gas load must be removed by a powerful, distributed pumping system. To achieve good beam lifetimes an extended in-situ cleaning (beam conditioning) by synchrotron radiation must be applied. High pumping speeds can be obtained using a distributed pumping system, e.g. based on linear, non-evaporable getter pumps. The absorption of the synchrotron radiation power, either by the vacuum chamber directly or on local aborbers,is closely linked to the design of the global system and to the choice of the vacuum chamber material.

  1. Electronics for Satellite Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Robert P.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-05-16

    The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA. Similarly, most of the electronics in the LAT as a whole were designed and built by staff at a particle physics lab. This paper reports on many of the challenges and lessons learned in the experience of designing and building the tracking detector and general LAT electronics for use in the NASA GLAST mission.

  2. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  3. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  4. High Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sameer

    High Power Electronics Future Trends: New process, circuit and packaging technologies over the last 5 years have led to significant innovation and technological developments in high power electronics. In this topic, the trends and performance improvements achieved in the industry will be discussed with focus on gallium-nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC). Both GaN and SiC technologies have been around for many years but have seen limited adoption and proliferation in high power systems. With the improved transistor performance, power conversion efficiencies and densities previously unrealizable are now available leading to new applications and new system. Trends in these technologies will also be reviewed and remaining challenges to overcome before true mass market adoption can be expected.

  5. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Electronic health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross......-border and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increase the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  7. PAMELA and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocchiutti, E., E-mail: Emiliano.Mocchiutti@ts.infn.i [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Adriani, O. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G.C. [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Department of Physics, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospekt 53, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E.A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Borisov, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, RU-11540 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bruno, A. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-21

    The 15th of June 2006, the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome and it has been collecting data since July 2006. The apparatus comprises a time-of-flight system, a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anticoincidence system, a shower tail counter scintillator and a neutron detector. The combination of these devices allows precision studies of the charged cosmic radiation to be conducted over a wide energy range (100 MeV-100's GeV) with high statistics. The measurement of the positron to electron fraction and of the electron energy spectrum in order to search for exotic sources, such as dark matter particle annihilations, are within the PAMELA primary scientific goal.

  8. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... of recycling in the modern quest for a sustainable global society is performed, clearly showing that without intensified focus on recycling, the global community cannot hope to reach even the most modest goals for sustainability in resource use. A general method for finding new recycling alternatives...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  9. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  10. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  11. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  12. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide.

  13. Electronic Braille Document Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Shahab; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into developing a portable Braille device which would allow visually impaired individuals to read electronic documents by actuating Braille text on a finger. Braille books tend to be bulky in size due to the minimum size requirements for each Braille cell. E-books can be read in Braille using refreshable Braille displays connected to a computer. However, the refreshable Braille displays are expensive, bulky and are not portable. These factors restrict blin...

  14. FRAUD IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin-Stelian Badescu

    2013-01-01

    Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.). This component informational ...

  15. Electronics Technician 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    grade of of a strong, pliable wood strip and securing sandpaper (No. 00) may be used. Sandpapering the canvas with rivets, as shown in figure is also...and use properly personnel. insulated tools; cover the deck with an approved All electronics personnel must become thor- insulating material; and make...not struction, the worker must be insulated from be broken except when absolutely necessary and accidental grounding by the use of approved authorized

  16. Electronic Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Mounir M; Jones, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have made dramatic changes in our lives. Healthcare communities also made use of these technologies. Using computerized medical knowledge, electronic patients’ information and telecommunications a lot of applications are now established throughout the world. These include better ways of information management, remote education, telemedicine and public services. Yet, a lot of people don't know about these technologies and their applications. Understan...

  17. Chemistry of fast electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximoff, Sergey N.; Head-Gordon, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    A chemicurrent is a flux of fast (kinetic energy ≳ 0.5−1.3 eV) metal electrons caused by moderately exothermic (1−3 eV) chemical reactions over high work function (4−6 eV) metal surfaces. In this report, the relation between chemicurrent and surface chemistry is elucidated with a combination of top-down phenomenology and bottom-up atomic-scale modeling. Examination of catalytic CO oxidation, an example which exhibits a chemicurrent, reveals 3 constituents of this relation: The localization of some conduction electrons to the surface via a reduction reaction, 0.5 O2 + δe− → Oδ− (Red); the delocalization of some surface electrons into a conduction band in an oxidation reaction, Oδ− + CO → CO2δ− → CO2 + δe− (Ox); and relaxation without charge transfer (Rel). Juxtaposition of Red, Ox, and Rel produces a daunting variety of metal electronic excitations, but only those that originate from CO2 reactive desorption are long-range and fast enough to dominate the chemicurrent. The chemicurrent yield depends on the universality class of the desorption process and the distribution of the desorption thresholds. This analysis implies a power-law relation with exponent 2.66 between the chemicurrent and the heat of adsorption, which is consistent with experimental findings for a range of systems. This picture also applies to other oxidation-reduction reactions over high work function metal surfaces. PMID:19561296

  18. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  19. Electronic Collaboration Logbook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    At FNAL, we developed an Electronic Collaboration Logbook (ECL) application which is used by about 20 different collaborations, experiments and groups at FNAL. ECL is the latest iteration of the project formerly known as Control Room Logbook (CRL). We have been working on mobile (IOS and Android) clients for ECL. We will present history, current status and future plans of the project, as well as design, implementation and support solutions made by the project.

  20. Dealing with electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Drosg, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    By using a holistic approach in the understanding of the various circuits and by taking ample advantage of the duality between the electrical quantities voltage and current the understanding of the properties of electronic circuits is made easier. This approach reduces the amount of mathematics needed for a deeper understanding. This graduate textbook aims at completeness regarding the construction of possible circuits and their classification.

  1. Plasmonic-Electronic Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    output continue to rely on bulky free space optics and inefficient couplers such as prisms . The objective of this project was to study direct electronic...output continue to rely on bulky free space optics and inefficient couplers such as prisms . The objective of this project was to study direct...JOSA B 27, 730 (2010). 3. “Long-wave infrared surface plasmon grating coupler ,” J. W. Cleary, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, and W. R. Buchwald, Appl. Optics

  2. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  3. Electronic Noses and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine LUMBRERAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses are customized devices employed to detect and to identify gaseous mixtures, even to give the concentration of the atmosphere components. Nowadays, the research in this domain is more and more growing, in Europe and other countries in the world, for many applications, such as environmental protection, food industries, perfumery, public safety, medicine, and pharmacy. Electronic noses allow to detect many organic volatile compounds, for which there is no specific detector. They constitute an alternative to complex, long, and too expensive existing methods, unable to ensure continuous monitoring. Their conception deals with many related areas (metrology, chemistry, physics, electronics, informatics, statistics, modelisation as well as areas related to the molecules to be detected. The system training is a primary step: during a measurement under a gaseous atmosphere, we must record the sensor time-responses in a treatment system, while specifying the name of the concerned odor. This process must be repeated many times for each studied atmosphere, and for all the chosen atmospheres. So a learning data base can be created, made from representative parameters of all the realized measures. After this training stage, clustering software will classify the data analysis in “concentration” or “nature” groups. Using the group separation rules given by this supervised classification, the system will be able to find itself the name of an odor or a concentration.

  4. Graphene Electronic Tattoo Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri Ameri, Shideh; Ho, Rebecca; Jang, Hongwoo; Tao, Li; Wang, Youhua; Wang, Liu; Schnyer, David M; Akinwande, Deji; Lu, Nanshu

    2017-08-22

    Tattoo-like epidermal sensors are an emerging class of truly wearable electronics, owing to their thinness and softness. While most of them are based on thin metal films, a silicon membrane, or nanoparticle-based printable inks, we report sub-micrometer thick, multimodal electronic tattoo sensors that are made of graphene. The graphene electronic tattoo (GET) is designed as filamentary serpentines and fabricated by a cost- and time-effective "wet transfer, dry patterning" method. It has a total thickness of 463 ± 30 nm, an optical transparency of ∼85%, and a stretchability of more than 40%. The GET can be directly laminated on human skin just like a temporary tattoo and can fully conform to the microscopic morphology of the surface of skin via just van der Waals forces. The open-mesh structure of the GET makes it breathable and its stiffness negligible. A bare GET is able to stay attached to skin for several hours without fracture or delamination. With liquid bandage coverage, a GET may stay functional on the skin for up to several days. As a dry electrode, GET-skin interface impedance is on par with medically used silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) gel electrodes, while offering superior comfort, mobility, and reliability. GET has been successfully applied to measure electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), skin temperature, and skin hydration.

  5. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P. P. [Molecular Physics Research, 6547 Kristina Ursula Court, Falls Church, Virginia 22044 (United States)

    2013-03-28

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

  7. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  8. Transformational silicon electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-02-25

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications.

  9. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  10. Electrons in Flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Allan

    2007-04-01

    Like the classical squares and triangles in Edwin Abbott's 19th century social satire and science fiction novel Flatland, electrons and other quantum particles behave differently when confined to a two-dimensional world. Condensed matter physicists have been intrigued and regularly suprised by two-dimensional electron systems since they were first studied in semiconductor field-effect-transistor devices over forty years ago. I will discuss some important milestones in the study of two-dimensional electrn systems, from the discoveries of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects in the 1980's to recent quantum Hall effect work on quasiparticles with non-Abelian quantum statistics. Special attention will be given to a new electronic Flatland that has risen to prominence recently, graphene, which consists of a single sheet of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice arrangement. Graphene provides a realization of two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions which interact via nearly instantaneous Coulomb interactions. Early research on graphene has demonstrated yet again that Flatland exceeds expectations.

  11. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    The ability to put cutting edge technology on paper—not in words but in a working physical form—has been attracting an increasing number of researchers over the past decade. Paper has many advantages that make it attractive for flexible electronics: it is relatively environmentally benign; it is renewable; it can be recycled; it is light weight; production processes for paper are well advanced; and it is inexpensive. This special issue, with guest editors Ronald Österbacka from Åbo Akademi University in Finland and Jin-Woo Han from the NASA AMES Research Center, features some of the latest in paper electronics research, including developments towards applications in displays, sensing and alternative energy sources, as well as fundamental studies to further our understanding of how paper can be most effectively used in electronics. As Andrew Steckl and colleagues in the US point out, 'Cellulose-based paper substrates were implemented as an electronic substrate as early as 1969, with most advancement occurring in the past decade largely due to technology improvements in thin film deposition and organic materials' [1, 2]. They report a detailed comparison between paper, standard liquid crystal display rigid glass and flexible glass for hosting pentacene organic thin film transistors, and obtain promising results for future paper-based devices. As most meaningful electronic devices rely on transistors to function, transistors feature quite prominently in this special issue. Rodrigo Martins and colleagues in France and Portugal study the effect of fibre type, structure and dimension on paper-based transistors and reveal further insights into how paper properties affect device performance [3]. Qing Wan and colleagues in China bring the state of the art in transistor technology to paper substrates [4], fabricating indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)-based protonic/electronic hybrid thin film transistors on paper and showing that they can be used as artificial synapses. Like the

  12. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  13. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhang [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  14. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  15. Understand electrical and electronics maths

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    1993-01-01

    Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math

  16. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  17. Contribution of backscattered electrons to the total electron yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown experimentally that under energetic electron bombardment the backscattered electrons from solid targets contribute significantly (∼ 80%) to the observed total electron yield, even for targets of high backscattering coefficients. It is further found that for tungsten ( = 74) with a backscattering coefficient of about 0.50 ...

  18. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  19. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophorou, L.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Holography and transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, G.; Pozzi, G.; Tonomura, A.

    1993-01-01

    The basic principles and methods of off-axis electron holography are presented and illustrated by means of three examples related to its application in high resolution electron microscopy and the investigation of electric and magnetic fields in thin specimens.

  1. Workflow Management in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Spaccapietra, S.; March, S.T.; Kambayashi, Y.

    In electronic commerce scenarios, effectiveness and efficiency of business process execution are of paramount importance for business success. Even more than in traditional commerce scenarios, they determine the chances of survival of organizations in fast moving, highly competitive electronic

  2. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  3. Getting started with electronic projects

    CERN Document Server

    Pretty, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at hobbyists with basic knowledge of electronics circuits. Whether you are a novice electronics project builder, a ham radio enthusiast, or a BeagleBone tinkerer, you will love this book.

  4. Electron avalanches in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, J

    2002-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the cumulant generating function describing the propagation of electron avalanches in inhomogeneous media. The results have applications in the theory of particle counting devices which rely on signal amplification by electron multiplication.

  5. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  6. EMC in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tihanyi, Laszlo

    1995-01-01

    Electronics professionals will find this book invaluable when designing power equipment, because it describes in detail how to cope with the problem of electromagnetic interference. The author shows how to meet the exacting US and European EMC standards for conducted emissions.The book includes a wide range of EMI analysis techniques. An important focus is on the energy content of interference transient signals (traditional analysis concentrates on amplitude and frequency). This provides a more accurate picture of the EMI situation. For those who do not want or need detailed analysis technique

  7. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  8. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV

    1992-01-01

    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  9. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Dr. W. Paul Dr. P. Crouch Dr. P.S. Pershan Dr. H. Ehrenreich Dr. B. von Roedern Dr. P.N. Habbal Dr. B. Sandler Dr. 0. Hijab Dr. W.J. Skocpol Dr. Y.C...ELECTRONICS Personnel * Prof. H. Ehrenreich Mr. D.W. Abraham Prof. W. Paul Mr. J. Aponte Prof. P.S. Pershan Mr. G.E. Blonder Assoc. Prof. W.J. Skocpol ...Reference 1. W.J. Skocpol , M.R. Beasley, and M. Tinkham, "Phase-Slip Centers and Nonequilibrium Processes in Superconducting Tin Microbridges," J. Low Temp

  10. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  11. Joint Services Electronics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    quality I-V data, showing the "Coulomb blockade," the "Coulomb staircase," and "single-electron transistor action" in a double junction configuration. We...asymmetries in the I-V curves, and which also controls the " transistor action" by modulating the small signal conductance of the device from zero to a...consists of a 5 by 5 array of photodetectors. The photodetectors are implemented by using the parasitic bipolar junction transis- tors ( BJT ) available in

  12. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  13. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    HgCdTe and Related No)ii-\\1:i m I HgZnTe, CdZnTe , K.C. Hass 5. Chemical Trends in Diluted Magnetic Sernicoridiitr- 11. I’lir, I Larson, and K.C. Hass...34 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 2, 367 (1985). 1.4 Electronic Structure of HgCdTe and Related Non-Magnetic I-VI Alloys: HgZnTe, CdZnTe . K.C. Hass, Contract

  14. High Availability Electronics standards

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  15. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  16. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  17. Electronics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics I covers fundamentals of semiconductor devices, junction diodes, bipolar junction transistors, power supplies, multitransistor circuits, small signals, low-frequency anal

  18. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  19. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  20. The uniform electron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    The uniform electron gas or UEG (also known as jellium) is one of the most fundamental models in condensed-matter physics and the cornerstone of the most popular approximation --- the local-density approximation --- within density-functional theory. In this article, we provide a detailed review on the energetics of the UEG at high, intermediate and low densities, and in one, two and three dimensions. We also report the best quantum Monte Carlo and symmetry-broken Hartree-Fock calculations available in the literature for the UEG and discuss the phase diagrams of jellium.

  1. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  2. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  3. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  4. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital c...

  5. Electronic kits in physics education

    OpenAIRE

    Hnyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Title: Electronic kits in physics education Author: Michal Hnyk Department: Department of physics education Supervisor: RNDr. Peter Žilavý, Ph.D., Department of physics education Abstract: This diploma thesis named Electronic kits in physics education contains five main parts. It deals with the use of electronic kits in the physics education and references a research of literature discussing this problem in the first part. Thesis offers a brief overview of types of electronic kits, which are ...

  6. New trend in electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Harada, Ken; Murakami, Yasukazu; Niitsu, Kodai; Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sugawara, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    Electron holography using a coherent electron wave is a promising technique for high-resolution visualization of electromagnetic fields in and around objects. The capability of electron holography has been enhanced by the development of new technologies and has thus become an even more powerful tool for exploring scientific frontiers. This review introduces these technologies including split-illumination electron holography and vector-field electron tomography. Split-illumination electron holography, which uses separated coherent waves, overcomes the limits imposed by the lateral coherence requirement for electron waves in electron holography. Areas that are difficult to observe using conventional electron holography are now observable. Exemplified applications include observing a singular magnetic domain wall in electrical steel sheets, local magnetizations at anti-phase boundaries, and electrostatic potentials in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Vector-field electron tomography can be used to visualize magnetic vectors in three dimensions. Two components of the vectors are reconstructed using dual-axis tomography, and the remaining one is calculated using div B   =  0. A high-voltage electron microscope can be used to achieve precise magnetic reconstruction. For example, magnetic vortices have been visualized using a 1 MV holography electron microscope.

  7. New methods for electron tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziese, Ulrike

    2002-01-01

    Electron tomography is a method for obtaining three-dimensional structural information from electron micrographs. It can be applied to a wide range of samples that can be prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)—may they be of biological origin like e.g. cryo or thin plastic sections of

  8. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  9. Electronic Books for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the definition, purposes, and advantages and disadvantages of electronic books. Notes the types of embedded resources present in them, offers an example of an electronic book, and suggests three steps to evaluate and select electronic books for the curriculum. (SR)

  10. Electron attachment to boron trichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tav, Cumali; Datskos, Panos G.; Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

    1998-11-01

    Low-energy electron attachment to BCl3 was measured using an electron swarm technique. The parent negative ion, BCl3-, was observed within a narrow electron range close to thermal energy. Previous negative ion measurements in BCl3 discharges, which yielded seemingly inconsistent results, can be shown to be self-consistent based on the present observations.

  11. Freeform electronics for advanced healthcare

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-02-16

    Freeform (physically flexible, stretchable and reconfigurable) electronics can be critical enabler for advanced personalized healthcare. With increased global population and extended average lifetime of mankind, it is more important than ever to integrate advanced electronics into our daily life for advanced personalized healthcare. In this paper, we discuss some critical criteria to design such electronics with enabling applications.

  12. Characterization and expression analysis of Lc-Sox4 in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghua; Han, Kunhuang; Chen, Shihai; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    The characterization and expression of Sox4 in large yellow croaker (Lc-Sox4) were studied in this paper. Lc-Sox4 contains a protein of 371 amino acids with a conserved high mobility group box. Quantitative real-time PCR displayed that the expression of Lc-Sox4 had tissue and gender specificity existing in brain, gonad, heart, intestine, and head kidney with male>female, in eye with female>male. During embryogenesis, Lc-Sox4 was expressed highest in one-day-post-hatching stage, next in formation-of-eye-lens stage. The expression pattern of Lc-Sox4 was different from that of Lc-Sox11a. The expression of Lc-Sox4 was significantly lower than that of Lc-Sox11a in the all tested tissues and embryonic stages except in heart, spleen, mutiple-cell, formation-of-eye-lens, and one-day-post-hatching stages (with Lc-Sox4 higher than Lc-Sox11a). There was overlapping expression between Lc-Sox4 and Lc-Sox11a in brain, gill, female eye, testis, formation-of-eye-lens stage and one-day post hatching stage. The whole mount in situ hybridization results indicated that Lc-Sox4 was expressed at all embryonic stages except 2-cell stage. The positive signals were mainly distributed in the central nervous system and notochord at one-day-post-hatching stage. In short, we first identified and analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Lc-Sox4 to elucidate its important influence on the development of nervous system, visual system and heart. We also detected the overlapping expression between Lc-Sox4 and Lc-Sox11a which may reveal the functional redundancy of them. These data would shed light on the molecular mechanism of development in large yellow croaker. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Artificial fertilization and generating families for a selective breeding programme of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xinxiu Yu; Changwen Wu; Hans Magnus Gjøen

    2017-01-01

    Large yellow croaker is an important marine aquaculture species in China. The aim was to determine an appropriate protocol of artificial fertilization for family construction in the breeding programme based on two trials...

  14. Artificial fertilization and generating families for a selective breeding programme of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxiu Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large yellow croaker is an important marine aquaculture species in China. The aim was to determine an appropriate protocol of artificial fertilization for family construction in the breeding programme based on two trials. In trial 1, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone A3 (LHRHA3 was injected once, with a dosage of 2 μg/kg for females and 1 μg/kg for males. The latency time was in the range of 30–34 h. The maturation stage was checked by extracting a few eggs with a Pasteur pipette. The fertilization rate and hatching rate were 27 and 52%, respectively. The percentage of females with spawning difficulties was 30%. In trial 2, the females were injected LHRHA3 twice: with a first dose of 0.8 μg/kg and a second dose of 2 μg/kg, at an interval of 10 h, whereas the males were still injected once. The latency time was in the range of 29.5–35 h, determined by only observing courtship behaviour of males. The females with spawning difficulties decreased to 10%, and the fertilization rate and hatching rate also improved to 41 and 62%, respectively.

  15. Electron microscopy of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy is widely used in virology because viruses are generally too small for a direct inspection by light microscopy. Analysis of virus morphology is necessary in many circumstances, e.g., for the diagnosis of a virus in particular clinical situations or the analysis of virus entry and assembly. Moreover, quality control of virus particle integrity is required if a virus is propagated in cell culture, particularly if the virus genome has changed. In most cases already the basic methodology for transmission electron microscopy, i.e., negative staining and ultrathin sectioning, is sufficient to give relevant information on virus ultrastructure. This chapter gives detailed information on the principles of these basic methodologies and provides simple but reliable protocols for a quick start. Moreover, the description of standard protocols for negative staining and ultrathin sectioning are supplemented by protocols on immuno-negative staining and rapid ultrathin sectioning. Finally, principles of methods for an extended ultrastructural research using more elaborate techniques, such as cryotechniques or methods to reveal the three-dimensional virus architecture, are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-10-24

    Electronic system components have thousands of individual field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected executing dedicated functions. Assembly yield of >80% will guarantee system failure since a single interconnect failure will result in undesired performance. Hence, a paradigm shift is needed in the self-assembly or integration of state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for a physically compliant system. Traditionally, most ICs share same geometry with only variations in dimensions and packaging. Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance throughput. Various geometries at the backside of the silicon die and on the destination site having the same geometry with relaxed dimension (up to 50 µm extra) allow targeted site binding like DNA assembly. Different geometries, angles, and heights for different modules provide a unique identity to each of the ICs. A two-level geometric combination presented here helps in maintaining the uniqueness of individual module to assemble at exact matching site like a perfect lock-and-key model. The assembled ICs offer uncompromised electrical performance, higher yield, and fabrication ease. In future, this method can further be expanded for fluidic assisted self-assembly.

  17. The ALICE trigger electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krivda, M; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Králik, I; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Scott, H; Sándor, L; Tapia Takaki, D; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE trigger system (TRG) consists of a Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and up to 24 Local Trigger Units (LTU) for each sub-detector. The CTP receives and processes trigger signals from trigger detectors and the outputs from the CTP are 3 levels of hardware triggers: L0, L1 and L2. The 24 sub-detectors are dynamically partitioned in up to 6 independent clusters. The trigger information is propagated through the LTUs to the Front-end electronics (FEE) of each sub-detector via LVDS cables and optical fibres. The trigger information sent from LTU to FEE can be monitored online for possible errors using the newly developed TTCit board. After testing and commissioning of the trigger system itself on the surface, the ALICE trigger electronics has been installed and tested in the experimental cavern with appropriate ALICE experimental software. Testing the Alice trigger system with detectors on the surface and in the experimental cavern in parallel is progressing very well. Currently one setup is used for testi...

  18. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Electron spectroscopy of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nemoshkalenko, V V

    1979-01-01

    This book is conceived as a monograph, and represents an up-to-date collection of information concerning the use of the method of X-ray photoelectron spec­ troscopy in the study of the electron structure of crystals, as well as a personal interpretation of the subject by the authors. In a natural way, the book starts in Chapter 1 with a recapitulation of the fundamentals of the method, basic relations, principles of operation, and a com­ parative presentation of the characteristics and performances of the most com­ monly used ESCA instruments (from the classical ones-Varian, McPherson, Hewlett Packard, and IEEE-up to the latest model developed by Professor Siegbahn in Uppsala), and continues with a discussion of some of the difficult problems the experimentalist must face such as calibration of spectra, prepara­ tion of samples, and evaluation of the escape depth of electrons. The second chapter is devoted to the theory of photoemission from crystal­ line solids. A discussion of the methods of Hartree-Fo...

  20. Flexible electronic eardrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gu; Xuewen Wang; Wen Gu; Yongjin Wu; Tie Li; Ting Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Flexible mechanosensors with a high sensitivity and fast response speed may advance the wearable and implantable applications of healthcare devices,such as real-time heart rate,pulse,and respiration monitoring.In this paper,we introduce a novel flexible electronic eardrum (EE) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,polyethylene,and polydimethylsiloxane with micro-structured pyramid arrays.The EE device shows a high sensitivity,high signal-to-noise ratio (approximately 55 dB),and fast response time (76.9 μs) in detecting and recording sound within a frequency domain of 20-13,000 Hz.The mechanism for sound detection is investigated and the sensitivity is determined using the micro-structure,thickness,and strain state.We also demonstrated that the device is able to distinguish human voices.This unprecedented performance of the flexible electronic eardrum has implications for many applications such as implantable acoustical bioelectronics and personal voice recognition.

  1. Electronics via waveform analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Edwin C

    1993-01-01

    The author believes that a good basic understanding of electronics can be achieved by detailed visual analyses of the actual voltage waveforms present in selected circuits. The voltage waveforms included in this text were photographed using a 35-rrun camera in an attempt to make the book more attractive. This book is intended for the use of students with a variety of backgrounds. For this reason considerable material has been placed in the Appendix for those students who find it useful. The Appendix includes many basic electricity and electronic concepts as well as mathematical derivations that are not vital to the understanding of the circuit being discussed in the text at that time. Also some derivations might be so long that, if included in the text, it could affect the concentration of the student on the circuit being studied. The author has tried to make the book comprehensive enough so that a student could use it as a self-study course, providing one has access to adequate laboratory equipment.

  2. Magnetic electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as I am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in­ formation about the theory and practical design of these lenses, is surprising, for their introduction some fifty years ago has created an entirely new family of commercial instruments, ranging from the now traditional transmission electron microscope, through the reflection and transmission scanning microscopes, to co­ lumns for micromachining and microlithography, not to mention the host of experi­ mental devices not available commercially. It therefore seemed useful to prepare an account of the various aspects of mag­ netic lens studies. These divide naturally into the five chapters of this book: the theoretical background, in which the optical behaviour is described and formu­ lae given for the various aberration coefficients; numerical methods for calculat­ ing...

  3. The ALICE Electronic Logbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altini, V.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Makhlyueva, I.; Roukoutakis, F.; Schossmaier, K.; Soòs, C.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Von Haller, B.; ALICE Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    All major experiments need tools that provide a way to keep a record of the events and activities, both during commissioning and operations. In ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at CERN, this task is performed by the Alice Electronic Logbook (eLogbook), a custom-made application developed and maintained by the Data-Acquisition group (DAQ). Started as a statistics repository, the eLogbook has evolved to become not only a fully functional electronic logbook, but also a massive information repository used to store the conditions and statistics of the several online systems. It's currently used by more than 600 users in 30 different countries and it plays an important role in the daily ALICE collaboration activities. This paper will describe the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) based architecture of the eLogbook, the database schema and the relevance of the information stored in the eLogbook to the different ALICE actors, not only for near real time procedures but also for long term data-mining and analysis. It will also present the web interface, including the different used technologies, the implemented security measures and the current main features. Finally it will present the roadmap for the future, including a migration to the web 2.0 paradigm, the handling of the database ever-increasing data volume and the deployment of data-mining tools.

  4. Effective electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, G. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Di Castro, C. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail marco.grilli@roma1.infn.it; Lorenzana, J. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2006-06-12

    We investigate the interplay between the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction in the Hubbard-Holstein model. We implement the flow-equation method to investigate within this model the effect of correlation on the electron-phonon effective coupling and, conversely, the effect of phonons in the effective electron-electron interaction. Using this technique we obtain analytical momentum-dependent expressions for the effective couplings and we study their behavior for different physical regimes. In agreement with other works on this subject, we find that the electron-electron attraction mediated by phonons in the presence of Hubbard repulsion is peaked at low transferred momenta. The role of the characteristic energies involved is also analyzed.

  5. The art of linear electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hood, John Linsley

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato

  6. Power electronics and motor drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2011-01-01

    Universities throughout the world typically provide an excellent education in the various aspects of electronics, however their focus is normally on traditional low power electronics. In contrast, in the industrial environment, there is a need for high power electronics that is used to control electromechanical systems in addition to the low power electronics typically employed for analog and digital systems. To address this need, Section 1 of this volume in The Industrial Electronics Handbook, Second Edition, is focused on special high power semiconductor devices. Section 2 not only describes

  7. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  8. Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of ≲5 keV electrons at rates 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L ˜ 5-8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics.

  9. FRAUD IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin – Stelian Bădescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.. This component informational increasingly involves broader and more complex, with the technological advancement of computer science and globalization of human society, special measures to ensure the security of information. Cyber-crime is an illegal act committed by using a computer network (especially Internet. Cyber-crime is a subset of cybercrime.

  10. Electronic cigarette: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal addictive component of tobacco smoke is nicotine. The mechanisms of nicotine addiction are highly complex and are responsible for maintenance of smoking behaviour. Use of electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine containing vapor has increased rapidly across the world. They are marketed as a "healthier alternatives" to conventional cigarettes. There is extensive debate over long-term safety and efficacy of these devices on public health. Studies show that the vapor generated from the E-cigarettes has a variable amount of nicotine and potential harmful toxins. Until robust research demonstrates the safety of E-cigarettes and efficacy in the treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as safe smoking cessation tool is unclear. This review highlights the recent data regarding E-cigarettes toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation.

  11. de electrones localizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Hoyos Quintero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La refrigeración magnética es una de las tecnologías con mayor potencial comercial. Reduce el consumo de energía en los sistemas de refrigeración y el impacto ambiental provocado por los gases de invernadero. En este artículo se presentan los aspectos fundamentales del efecto magnetocalórico. También se analiza la aplicación real del modelo de electrones localizados a la refrigeración magnética. En la vecindad de la temperatura de transformación magnética, el modelo sólo sirve para describir el comportamiento cualitativo del efecto magnetocalórico.

  12. Electronics for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    This book provides semester-length coverage of electronics for embedded systems, covering most common analog and digital circuit-related issues encountered while designing embedded system hardware. It is written for students and young professionals who have basic circuit theory background and want to learn more about passive circuits, diode and bipolar transistor circuits, the state-of-the-art CMOS logic family and its interface with older logic families such as TTL, sensors and sensor physics, operational amplifier circuits to condition sensor signals, data converters and various circuits used in electro-mechanical device control in embedded systems. The book also provides numerous hardware design examples by integrating the topics learned in earlier chapters. The last chapter extensively reviews the combinational and sequential logic design principles to be able to design the digital part of embedded system hardware.

  13. MDT DCS Electronics System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Gazis, Evangelos; Tsipolitis, Georgios

    This note has the aim to present the Detector Control System for the Monitor- ing of the electronics values of MDT chambers in ATLAS experiment in CERN. This system is decided to be called in short ELTX. The principal task of DCS is to enable and ensure the coherent and safe oper- ation of the detector. The interaction of detector expers, users or shifters to the detector hardware is also done via DCS. This is the responsible system of moni- toring the operational parameters and the overall state of the detector, the alarm generation and handling, the connection of hardware values to databases and the interaction with the DAQ system. Through this thesis, one can see what ELTX system has to offer as a Detector Control System and in detail, what is the hardware to be controlled and monitored. Moreover it is presented the mainstream of central Atlas DCS concerning the active interfaces.ELTX is a system following these standards.

  14. Optical Rewritable Electronic Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravsky, Alexander; Murauski, Anatoli; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    We developed new principle of electronic paper that is one side (for 2D image) or double side (for stereoscopic 3D image) light printable rewritable matter with polarization dependent gray scale. It consists of one or two liquid crystal displays based on Optical Rewritable (ORW) technology, which is the development of rotation azo-dye photoalignment. Each ORW display uses bare plastic or polarizers as substrates. The conductor is not required, as the image is formed by rewritable states of azimuthal direction, which results in 2D pattern of the liquid crystal twist angle. Continuous grey image maintains proper performance even when the device is bent. Simple construction provides durability and low cost, thin substrates minimize parallax for 3D image. Fluorescent dye dopant of liquid crystal partly absorbs light in blue and re-emit in green specter range improving photopic reflection and enhancing color of the ORW e-paper.

  15. Joint services electronics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leon, Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The transfer of the compact range and target identification technology initiated under JSEP support for time domain studies continues to make large advances. Using other sources of support, design for a mini-chamber has now been generated and has been constructed. This range is designed to study smaller targets at higher frequencies. The research has proven to be of intense interest to DoD and the aerospace industry and our compact range consortium represents a major cross section of the aerospace and electronic industries, including additional major support from several DoD agencies. In fact, the total support in these experimental studies substantially exceeds our JSEP support. This research is truly guiding a major portion of this technology in the USA and has been extremely important for stealth technology advances.

  16. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  17. Electronics for Guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2013-01-01

    In the second edition of Electronics for Guitarists author Denton Dailey teaches the basic theory of operation and design principles of analog guitar signal processing circuits and amplifiers. The design and operation of common effects circuits such as tone controls, preamps, phasers, flangers, envelope followers, distortion and overdrives are covered, as are both solid-state amplifiers and power supplies. Written primarily for the guitarist, this book balances coverage of theoretical analysis and design while providing many examples of practical experimental circuits. The main thrust of the material is analog circuitry, focusing on fundamental principles of transistors, integrated circuit and vacuum tube-based amplifier operation and theory, and operation of typical guitar signal processing effects circuits. Updated to the new edition include: • New coverage of tone control circuits, MOSFETS and their applications as small-signal amplifiers, rail splitters and charge pumps, amplifiers using germanium trans...

  18. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  19. Creep in electronic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routbort, J. L.; Goretta, K. C.; Arellano-Lopez, A. R.

    2000-04-27

    High-temperature creep measurements combined with microstructural investigations can be used to elucidate deformation mechanisms that can be related to the diffusion kinetics and defect chemistry of the minority species. This paper will review the theoretical basis for this correlation and illustrate it with examples from some important electronic ceramics having a perovskite structure. Recent results on BaTiO{sub 3}, (La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr){sub 1{minus}y}MnO{sub 3+{delta}}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Sr(Fe,Co){sub 1.5}O{sub x} will be presented.

  20. Electron microprobe petrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael; Jercinovic, Michael; Mahan, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Petrochronology involves the incorporation of chronometer phases into the petrologic (and tectonic) evolution of their host rocks, such that direct age constraints can be placed on petrologic and structural processes. The electron microprobe has a central and critical role to play in establishing the linkage between chronometer phases and their host assemblage. In addition to characterizing the composition of the major silicate phases, the probe can be used to locate and map compositional zonation in accessory phases including chronometers such as monazite, xenotime, zircon, titanite, etc. One particularly effective technique for integrating petrology and geochronology is to combine high-resolution images of chronometer phases with large-scale images of polished sections. Chronometers can be evaluated in the context of their local compositional environment. This has proven to be useful for placing the chronometer domains within the reaction history of the host rock. Key chronometer domains, once selected, can be dated by the most appropriate tool, or by multiple techniques. For relatively old or small domains in monazite or xenotime, EPMA can provide precise age constraints. However, the analysis strategy must be designed as a trace element analysis from the beginning. Unlike major element analysis, background analysis is both critical and challenging, and new methodology is required, currently either wavelength scanning or multipoint analysis. Errors on the order of 2% are possible with standard instruments, and errors of 1% or better can be achieved with optimized instruments. Future improvements in electron microprobe hardware, software, and procedures will further enhance EPMA characterization of chronometer phases and petrochronological relationships. New thermodynamic modeling and experimental data will increasingly allow accessory chronometer phases to be integrated in petrological calculations and render petrochronology a routine part of petrologic analysis.

  1. Nanoelectromechanical Heat Engine Based on Electron-Electron Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikström, A; Eriksson, A M; Kulinich, S I; Gorelik, L Y

    2016-12-09

    We theoretically show that a nanoelectromechanical system can be mechanically actuated by a heat flow through it via an electron-electron interaction. In contrast to most known actuation mechanisms in similar systems, this new mechanism does not involve an electronic current nor external ac fields. Instead, the mechanism relies on deflection-dependent tunneling rates and a heat flow which is mediated by an electron-electron interaction while an electronic current through the device is prohibited by, for instance, a spin-valve effect. Therefore, the system resembles a nanoelectromechanical heat engine. We derive a criterion for the mechanical instability and estimate the amplitude of the resulting self-sustained oscillations. Estimations show that the suggested phenomenon can be studied using available experimental techniques.

  2. Impact of electron irradiation on electron holographic potentiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. B.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Berger, D. [Technische Universität Berlin, Zentraleinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Strae des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Knauer, A.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Koslow, I.; Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    While electron holography in the transmission electron microscope offers the possibility to measure maps of the electrostatic potential of semiconductors down to nanometer dimensions, these measurements are known to underestimate the absolute value of the potential, especially in GaN. We have varied the dose rates of electron irradiation over several orders of magnitude and observed strong variations of the holographically detected voltages. Overall, the results indicate that the electron beam generates electrical currents within the specimens primarily by the photovoltaic effect and due to secondary electron emission. These currents have to be considered for a quantitative interpretation of electron holographic measurements, as their negligence contributes to large parts in the observed discrepancy between the measured and expected potential values in GaN.

  3. Electron and ion induced electron emission from metals and insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbatz, M

    2001-01-01

    gradually exposed to oxygen as an experimental probe. The experimental data are fitted with an analytical model, that is able to describe the observed kinetics. The fit parameters give absolute values of sticking probabilities and of surface reaction rates. During oxidation of aluminum and magnesium also spontaneous emission of electrons (exoelectrons) is observed. This effect is quantitatively studied for different oxygen partial pressures. The experimental data also indicate a significant influence of the surface morphology on the exoemission process. An important consequence of atomic collisions in solids is ionization leading to electron ejection from the target atoms with subsequent migration through the solid. A certain fraction of these electrons finally reaches the surface and is ejected into vacuum. A standard measurement of this phenomenon is the observation of the particle (electron, ion) induced electron emission yield g, defined as the average number of ejected electrons per incoming projectile. ...

  4. Femtosecond gas phase electron diffraction with MeV electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Guehr, Markus; Vecchione, Theodore; Robinson, Matthew S; Li, Renkai; Hartmann, Nick; Shen, Xiaozhe; Coffee, Ryan; Corbett, Jeff; Fry, Alan; Gaffney, Kelly; Gorkhover, Tais; Hast, Carsten; Jobe, Keith; Makasyuk, Igor; Reid, Alexander; Robinson, Joseph; Vetter, Sharon; Wang, Fenglin; Weathersby, Stephen; Yoneda, Charles; Wang, Xijie; Centurion, Martin

    2016-12-16

    We present results on ultrafast gas electron diffraction (UGED) experiments with femtosecond resolution using the MeV electron gun at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. UGED is a promising method to investigate molecular dynamics in the gas phase because electron pulses can probe the structure with a high spatial resolution. Until recently, however, it was not possible for UGED to reach the relevant timescale for the motion of the nuclei during a molecular reaction. Using MeV electron pulses has allowed us to overcome the main challenges in reaching femtosecond resolution, namely delivering short electron pulses on a gas target, overcoming the effect of velocity mismatch between pump laser pulses and the probe electron pulses, and maintaining a low timing jitter. At electron kinetic energies above 3 MeV, the velocity mismatch between laser and electron pulses becomes negligible. The relativistic electrons are also less susceptible to temporal broadening due to the Coulomb force. One of the challenges of diffraction with relativistic electrons is that the small de Broglie wavelength results in very small diffraction angles. In this paper we describe the new setup and its characterization, including capturing static diffraction patterns of molecules in the gas phase, finding time-zero with sub-picosecond accuracy and first time-resolved diffraction experiments. The new device can achieve a temporal resolution of 100 fs root-mean-square, and sub-angstrom spatial resolution. The collimation of the beam is sufficient to measure the diffraction pattern, and the transverse coherence is on the order of 2 nm. Currently, the temporal resolution is limited both by the pulse duration of the electron pulse on target and by the timing jitter, while the spatial resolution is limited by the average electron beam current and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection system. We also discuss plans for improving both the temporal resolution and the spatial resolution.

  5. The experimental study of neutralized electron beams for electron cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; MacCaferri, R; Molinari, G; Tranquille, G; Varenne, F; Korotaev, Yu V; Meshkov, I N; Polyakov, V A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present the latest experimental results on electron beam neutralization. These experiments have been made at LEAR and on the JINR test bench. The main difficulty in obtaining neutralized beams resides in an instability which is dependent on the electron beam current. A number of methods have been developed in order to overcome this instability and have enabled us to further investigate the possibility of generating intense low energy electron beams for the cooling of Pb ions.

  6. Radiation damage in electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay A; Rubinstein, John L

    2010-01-01

    In an electron microscope, the electron beam used to determine the structures of biological tissues, cells, and molecules destroys the specimen as the image is acquired. This destruction occurs before a statistically well-defined image can be obtained and is consequently the fundamental limit to resolution in biological electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Damage from the destructive interaction of electrons with frozen-hydrated specimens occurs in three stages: primary damage, as electrons ionize the sample, break bonds, and produce secondary electrons and free radicals; secondary damage, as the secondary electrons and free radicals migrate through the specimen and cause further chemical reactions; and tertiary damage, as hydrogen gas is evolved within the sample, causing gross morphological changes to the specimen. The deleterious effects of radiation are minimized in cryo-EM by limiting the exposure of the specimen to incident electrons and cooling the sample to reduce secondary damage. This review emphasizes practical considerations for minimizing radiation damage, including measurement of electron exposure, estimation of absorbed doses of energy, selection of microscope voltage and specimen temperature, and selection of electron exposure to optimize images. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. Quantum tomography of an electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, T.; Roulleau, P.; Roche, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Glattli, D. C.

    2014-10-01

    The complete knowledge of a quantum state allows the prediction of the probability of all possible measurement outcomes, a crucial step in quantum mechanics. It can be provided by tomographic methods which have been applied to atomic, molecular, spin and photonic states. For optical or microwave photons, standard tomography is obtained by mixing the unknown state with a large-amplitude coherent photon field. However, for fermions such as electrons in condensed matter, this approach is not applicable because fermionic fields are limited to small amplitudes (at most one particle per state), and so far no determination of an electron wavefunction has been made. Recent proposals involving quantum conductors suggest that the wavefunction can be obtained by measuring the time-dependent current of electronic wave interferometers or the current noise of electronic Hanbury-Brown/Twiss interferometers. Here we show that such measurements are possible despite the extreme noise sensitivity required, and present the reconstructed wavefunction quasi-probability, or Wigner distribution function, of single electrons injected into a ballistic conductor. Many identical electrons are prepared in well-controlled quantum states called levitons by repeatedly applying Lorentzian voltage pulses to a contact on the conductor. After passing through an electron beam splitter, the levitons are mixed with a weak-amplitude fermionic field formed by a coherent superposition of electron-hole pairs generated by a small alternating current with a frequency that is a multiple of the voltage pulse frequency. Antibunching of the electrons and holes with the levitons at the beam splitter changes the leviton partition statistics, and the noise variations provide the energy density matrix elements of the levitons. This demonstration of quantum tomography makes the developing field of electron quantum optics with ballistic conductors a new test-bed for quantum information with fermions. These results may

  9. Wettability study using transmitted electrons in environmental scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkay, Z.

    2010-05-01

    A method for quantitative wettability study at nanoscale is presented. It is based on measuring transmitted electrons through nanodroplets using wet scanning transmission electron microscope (wet-STEM) detector in environmental scanning electron microscope. The quantitative information of the nanodroplet shape and contact angle is obtained by fitting Monte Carlo simulation results for transmitted electrons through spherical cap geometry with the experimental wet-STEM results. The characterization is demonstrated for particles and for initial stages of water droplet condensation over a nonhomogeneous holey carbon grid. The method is suggested for application in thin polymer and biological films.

  10. ELECTRON COOLING SIMULATION FOR ARBITRARY DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIDORIN,A.; SMIRNOV, A.; FEDOTOV, A.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KAYRAN, D.

    2007-09-10

    Typically, several approximations are being used in simulation of electron cooling process, for example, density distribution of electrons is calculated using an analytical expression and distribution in the velocity space is assumed to be Maxwellian in all degrees of freedom. However, in many applications, accurate description of the cooling process based on realistic distribution of electrons is very useful. This is especially true for a high-energy electron cooling system which requires bunched electron beam produced by an Energy Recovery Linac (Em). Such systems are proposed, for instance, for RHIC and electron - ion collider. To address unique features of the RHIC-I1 cooler, new algorithms were introduced in BETACOOL code which allow us to take into account local properties of electron distribution as well as calculate friction force for an arbitrary velocity distribution. Here, we describe these new numerical models. Results based on these numerical models are compared with typical approximations using electron distribution produced by simulations of electron bunch through ERL of RHIC-II cooler.

  11. Imaging Electrons in Few-Electron Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, P.; Hanson, M.

    2005-03-01

    Single-electron quantum dots are important candidates for quantum information processing. We have developed a new technique to image electrons inside a single-electron quantum dot in the Coulomb blockade regime, using a scanning probe microscope (SPM) at liquid He temperatures (1). A single-electron quantum dot was formed in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) inside a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure by surface gates. Spatial images of an electron inside the dot were obtained by fixing the tip voltage and recording the dot conductance while scanning the SPM tip above the quantum dot. The images show a ring of increased conductance about the center of the dot, where the dot conductance is on the Coulomb blockade conductance peak between 0 and 1 electrons. Simulations show that this technique can be used to extract the wavefunction of electrons inside the dot if the tip perturbation is narrower than the wave function (2). A charged SPM tip promised to be a useful tool for manipulating electrons in quantum dot circuits. 1) P. Fallahi, A.C. Bleszynski, et al submitted to Nanoletters. 2) P. Fallahi, et al Proc. 27 Int. Conf. on Physics and Semiconductors (ICPS27), Flagstaff, July 26-30, 2004, in press. *This work was supported at Harvard University by DARPA DAAD19-01-1-0659 and by the NSEC, NSF PHY-01-17795, and at UCSB by QUEST NSF Science and Technology Center.

  12. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  13. Femtosecond single-electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahme, S; Kealhofer, C; Krausz, F; Baum, P

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction allows the tracking of atomic motion in real time, but space charge effects within dense electron packets are a problem for temporal resolution. Here, we report on time-resolved pump-probe diffraction using femtosecond single-electron pulses that are free from intra-pulse Coulomb interactions over the entire trajectory from the source to the detector. Sufficient average electron current is achieved at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz. Thermal load on the sample is avoided by minimizing the pump-probe area and by maximizing heat diffusion. Time-resolved diffraction from fibrous graphite polycrystals reveals coherent acoustic phonons in a nanometer-thick grain ensemble with a signal-to-noise level comparable to conventional multi-electron experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility of pump-probe diffraction in the single-electron regime, where simulations indicate compressibility of the pulses down to few-femtosecond and attosecond duration.

  14. Femtosecond single-electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lahme

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast electron diffraction allows the tracking of atomic motion in real time, but space charge effects within dense electron packets are a problem for temporal resolution. Here, we report on time-resolved pump-probe diffraction using femtosecond single-electron pulses that are free from intra-pulse Coulomb interactions over the entire trajectory from the source to the detector. Sufficient average electron current is achieved at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz. Thermal load on the sample is avoided by minimizing the pump-probe area and by maximizing heat diffusion. Time-resolved diffraction from fibrous graphite polycrystals reveals coherent acoustic phonons in a nanometer-thick grain ensemble with a signal-to-noise level comparable to conventional multi-electron experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility of pump-probe diffraction in the single-electron regime, where simulations indicate compressibility of the pulses down to few-femtosecond and attosecond duration.

  15. Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes to synthesize the conjugate and characterized its electrical properties. Negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed

  16. Electronic Commerce on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    electronic commerce , where companies transact business spontaneously over the Internet. In restructuring its procurement processes, The Federal Government has a unique opportunity to exploit this electronic marketplace, and to influence its development in ways that benefit us all. This report describes a vision of the electronic marketplace, the requirements it must satisfy, an architecture for addressing those requirements, and a graceful migration path to the marketplace from current EDI technology and practice. It identifies five key concepts for government

  17. Organizational Models of Electronic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the popularity of Internet, electronic information is getting more and more important. To find efficient organization methods of electronic information is the main issue for information retrieval. Many solutions have been proposed.The aim of this article is to discuss the existing organizational models of electronic information. We explain their backgrounds of developments, their environments of applications and some related issues.[Article content in Chinese

  18. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  19. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  20. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad

    2017-07-20

    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors are provided. A method of producing a paper based sensor can include the steps of: a) providing a conventional paper product to serve as a substrate for the sensor or as an active material for the sensor or both, the paper product not further treated or functionalized; and b) applying a sensing element to the paper substrate, the sensing element selected from the group consisting of a conductive material, the conductive material providing contacts and interconnects, sensitive material film that exhibits sensitivity to pH levels, a compressible and/or porous material disposed between a pair of opposed conductive elements, or a combination of two of more said sensing elements. The method of sensing can further include measuring, using the sensing element, a change in resistance, a change in voltage, a change in current, a change in capacitance, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  1. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  2. Electronic Theses: Swiss Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Niederer

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available To offer theses electronically to its users is something that has been discussed in Swiss university libraries for some time now. There are two main reasons that it has not yet been realized anywhere in Switzerland: On the one hand, the two large university library networks have had big library system migrations to cope with (first the „Réseau Romand” in the French speaking part moved to VTLS, then, in the last two years, the „Informationsverbund Deutschschweiz, IDS” in the German speaking part switched to Aleph by Ex Libris. These migrations used up all available personnel resources. On the other hand, the federalist organization of all things politic in Switzerland, including the university system, means that there are hardly any national programmes to further and finance projects on a national level (or cantonal, for that matter - in contrast to most other European countries where such programmes have proved to be a very strong incentive for developing various aspects of the digital library.

  3. UNSOLICITED ELECTRONIC MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Judy RICHARDS

    1999-01-01

    Since November 1997 we have been actively trying to reduce the amount of unsolicited electronic mail, commonly known as SPAM mail that arrives in CERN mailboxes. Unfortunately this is not an easy job since the spammers are constantly finding new ways of breaking our defences! Today spammers are 'forging' addresses in the headers and envelopes of mail in such a way that it is difficult to distinguish between legitimate mail and spams. An additional problem, that does not directly affect most CERN users but does use CERN resources and affects the reputation of CERN, is caused by the spammers who try to make mail look as if it comes from a CERN machine.They either try to route the mail via a CERN machine or simply forge the mail headers to a CERN address so it will have less chance of being blocked by the recipient's anti-spam defences.Although some anti-spam measures can be automated, for many someone has to look at the system logs and spam reports from users and make a human judgement as to what should be bloc...

  4. The Electronic Structure of Calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J.-P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    .149 Ryd, respectively, relative to the s band, give the best possible agreement. Under increasing pressure the s and p electrons are found to transfer into the d band, and Ca undergoes metal-semimetal-metal electronic transitions. Calculations of the bandstructure and the electronic pressure, including......The electronic structure of calcium under pressure is re-examined by means of self-consistent energy band calculations based on the local density approximation and using the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method with corrections to the atomic sphere approximation included. At zero pressure...

  5. Portable electron beam weld chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. R.; Dimino, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Development and characteristics of portable vacuum chamber for skate type electron beam welding are discussed. Construction and operational details of equipment are presented. Illustrations of equipment are provided.

  6. Recent development of transient electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient electronics are an emerging class of electronics with the unique characteristic to completely dissolve within a programmed period of time. Since no harmful byproducts are released, these electronics can be used in the human body as a diagnostic tool, for instance, or they can be used as environmentally friendly alternatives to existing electronics which disintegrate when exposed to water. Thus, the most crucial aspect of transient electronics is their ability to disintegrate in a practical manner and a review of the literature on this topic is essential for understanding the current capabilities of transient electronics and areas of future research. In the past, only partial dissolution of transient electronics was possible, however, total dissolution has been achieved with a recent discovery that silicon nanomembrane undergoes hydrolysis. The use of single- and multi-layered structures has also been explored as a way to extend the lifetime of the electronics. Analytical models have been developed to study the dissolution of various functional materials as well as the devices constructed from this set of functional materials and these models prove to be useful in the design of the transient electronics.

  7. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  8. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-09-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential.

  9. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the SMM Electronics Challenge encourage electronic manufacturers to strive to send 100 percent of the used electronics they collect from the public and retailers to certified electronics refurbishers and recyclers.

  10. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical characteristics of the single-electron transistor were observed to be consistent with the expected behavior of electron transport through gated quantum dots, up to 150 K. The dependence of the electrical characteristics on the dot size reveals that the d oscillation follows from the Coulomb blockade by poly-Si ...

  11. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  12. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  13. A high brightness electron beam for Free Electron Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oerle, Bartholomeus Mathias; van Oerle, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a free electron laser, coherent radiation is generated by letting an electron beam propagate through an alternating magnetic field. The magnetic field is created by a linear array of magnets, which is called an undulator or a wiggler. The wavelength of the laser radiation depends on the amplitude

  14. Studying electron-PAG interactions using electron-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Amrit; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Ostrander, Jonathan; Schad, Jonathon; Rebeyev, Eliran; Neisser, Mark; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Denbeaux, Gregory; Brainard, Robert L.

    2016-03-01

    In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, 92 eV photons are used to expose photoresists. Typical EUV resists are organic-based and chemically amplified using photoacid generators (PAGs). Upon exposure, PAGs produce acids which catalyze reactions that result in changes in solubility. In EUV lithography, photo- and secondary electrons (energies of 10- 80 eV) play a large role in PAG acid-production. Several mechanisms for electron-PAG interactions (e.g. electron trapping, and hole-initiated chemistry) have been proposed. The aim of this study is to explore another mechanism - internal excitation - in which a bound PAG electron can be excited by receiving energy from another energetic electron, causing a reaction that produces acid. This paper explores the mechanism of internal excitation through the analogous process of electron-induced fluorescence, in which an electron loses energy by transferring that energy to a molecule and that molecule emits a photon rather than decomposing. We will show and quantify electron-induced fluorescence of several fluorophores in polymer films to mimic resist materials, and use this information to refine our proposed mechanism. Relationships between the molecular structure of fluorophores and fluorescent quantum yield may aid in the development of novel PAGs for EUV lithography.

  15. Electron Emission from Ultra-Large Area MOS Electron Emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2009-01-01

    Ultralarge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an active oxide area of 1 cm2 have been fabricated for use as electron emitters. The MOS structures consist of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier (~5 nm), a Ti wetting layer (3–10 Å), and a Au top layer (5–60 nm). Electron emission from...

  16. ECE imaging of electron temperature and electron temperature fluctuations (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Brower, D.L.; Cima, G.; Donne, A. J. H.; Oyevaar, T.; van de Pol, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE imaging or ECEI) is a novel plasma diagnostic technique for the study of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations in magnetic fusion plasma devices. Instead of a single receiver located in the tokamak midplane as in conventional ECE radiometers, ECEI

  17. Influence of electron injection on electron cyclotron resonance plasma properties and reflected mode electrons (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikov, V. P.; Ullmann, F.; Zschornack, G.

    2000-02-01

    The injection of an additional strong focused electron beam from a special designed electron gun into a magnetic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) confinement field is studied. The electron gun uses a cathode with a long lifetime and resistiveness providing high emission current densities with electron currents up to 50 mA and voltages up to 4 keV. A sequence of aluminum foils is used to investigate the trajectories of the electrons in the magnetic field without plasma. The high density electron beam passes through the foils, welds them, and prints its image into the foils. Details of this technique are described in Ref. 1. Using this technique we see that before the electrons enter the sextupole region the beam moves along the magnetic straight lines preserving its structure. Only a central beam passes through the sextupole region, thereby changing its form due to the interaction with radial components of the magnetic field. A new operation method at our 14.5 GHz ECR ion source is based on so-called reflection mode electrons (RMEs) analogous to a known electron beam ion source operation regime.2 The basic idea is that electrons, which traveling from the cathode in a strong axial field, meet an anticathode potential, are reflected from it, move back to the cathode, and will be reflected again and so on. It can be supposed that the electrons will make reflections up to the moment when the anode aperture of the gun is fulfilled and the electrons will be collected on the anode electrode. Investigations are performed extracting nitrogen ions using the RME beam. As a result we got a clear increase in the beam current of the extracted ions (e.g., at 10 mA electron injection an increase of the current of N5+ ions up to 400%) and a shift of the measured ion charge state distribution to higher mean ionization stages. Measured x-ray spectra from a neon loaded plasma show for the case of RME operation increasing energy shifts to the high energy side of the spectra, i.e., the

  18. Ab initio electron propagators in molecules with strong electron-phonon interaction: II. Electron Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahnovsky, Yuri

    2007-07-07

    Ab initio electron propagator methods are developed to study electronic properties of molecular systems with strong electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. For the calculation of electron Green's functions we apply a canonical small polaron transformation that intrinsically contains strong electron-phonon effects. In the transformed Hamiltonian, the energy levels for the noninteracting particles are shifted down by the relaxation (solvation) energies. The Coulomb integrals are also renormalized by the electron-phonon interaction. For certain values of the electron-phonon coupling constants, the renormalized Coulomb integrals can be negative which implies the attraction between two electrons. Within the small polaron transformation we develop a diagrammatic technique for the calculation of electron Green's function in which the electron-phonon interaction is already included into the multiple phonon correlation functions. Since the decoupling of the phonon correlation functions is impossible, and therefore, a Wick's theorem for such correlation functions is invalid, there is no Dyson equation for the electron Green's function. To find the electron Green's function, we use different approximations. One of them is a link-cluster approximation that includes diagonal transitions for the renormalized zeroth Green's function. In the linked-cluster approach the Dyson equation is derived in the most general case, where the self-energy operator is an arbitrary functional (not only in the Hartree-Fock approximation). It is shown that even a Hartree-Fock electron (hole) is not a particle any longer. It is a quasiparticle with a finite lifetime that depends on energy of particle and hole states in different ways. As a consequence of this, a standard description of a Hartree-Fock approximation in terms of wave functions becomes inappropriate in this problem. To challenge the linked-cluster approximation we develop a different approach: a sequential propagation

  19. Momentum spectrometer for electron-electron coincidence studies on superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallauer, Robert; Voss, Stefan; Bauer, Tobias; Schneider, Deborah; Titze, Jasmin; Ulrich, Birte; Kreidi, Katharina; Neumann, Nadine; Havermeier, Tilo; Schoeffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Czasch, Achim; Schmidt, Lothar; Schmidt-Boecking, Horst; Doerner, Reinhard [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Foucar, Lutz [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kanigel, Amit [Technion, Technion City, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Campuzano, Juan Carlos [University of Illinois at Chicago, 601 S. Morgan St., Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Jeschke, Harald; Valenti, Roser [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); and others

    2012-10-15

    We present a new experimental setup to study electron-electron coincidences from superconducting surfaces. In our approach, electrons emitted from a surface are projected onto a time- and position-sensitive microchannel plate detector with delayline position readout. Electrons that are emitted within 2 {pi} solid angle with respect to the surface are detected in coincidence. The detector used is a hexagonal delayline detector with enhanced multiple hit capabilities. It is read out with a Flash analog-to-digital converter. The three-dimensional momentum vector is obtained for each electron. The intrinsic dead time of the detector has been greatly reduced by implementing a new algorithm for pulse analysis. The sample holder has been matched to fit the spectrometer while being capable of cooling down the sample to 4.5 K during the measurement and heating it up to 420 K for the cleaning procedure.

  20. Electron-trapping polycrystalline materials with negative electron affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Keith P; Shluger, Alexander L

    2008-11-01

    The trapping of electrons by grain boundaries in semiconducting and insulating materials is important for a wide range of physical problems, for example, relating to: electroceramic materials with applications as sensors, varistors and fuel cells, reliability issues for solar cell and semiconductor technologies and electromagnetic seismic phenomena in the Earth's crust. Surprisingly, considering their relevance for applications and abundance in the environment, there have been few experimental or theoretical studies of the electron trapping properties of grain boundaries in highly ionic materials such as the alkaline earth metal oxides and alkali halides. Here we demonstrate, by first-principles calculations on MgO, LiF and NaCl, a qualitatively new type of electron trapping at grain boundaries. This trapping is associated with the negative electron affinity of these materials and is unusual as the electron is confined in the empty space inside the dislocation cores.

  1. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the linker'' subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  2. Advanced computing in electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Earl J

    2010-01-01

    This book features numerical computation of electron microscopy images as well as multislice methods High resolution CTEM and STEM image interpretation are included in the text This newly updated second edition will bring the reader up to date on new developments in the field since the 1990's The only book that specifically addresses computer simulation methods in electron microscopy

  3. Electronic Emergency-Department Whiteboards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Many emergency departments (EDs) are in a process of transitioning from dry-erase to electronic whiteboards. This study investigates differences in ED clinicians’ perception and assessment of their electronic whiteboards across departments and staff groups and at two points in time. Method...

  4. The Nature of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-01-01

    Winston Churchill once said of Russia that it was a riddle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma. Were the British Bulldog a physicist, he might have been talking of something other than our Slavic comrades. He might have been talking about an electron. This article covers the more modern representations of the electron. A brief reminder of the…

  5. Electronic Learning of Business English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Danica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with one approach to organising electronic learning of a Business English language course. The paper will explain the basic structure of electronic learning, explore its principles and focus on the effects of this type of learning, trying to make English language teachers aware of the possibilities that this system has to offer to its users.

  6. CERN workshop studies electron clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, F; Zimmermann, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Clouds of electrons triggered by synchrotron radiation or by seed electrons created by ionization of residual gas are likely to set performance limits on high-intensity particle storage rings like the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider. A recent workshop hosted by CERN examined the phenomenon.

  7. Electronic Paper Turns the Page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that, rather than the electronic book, the technology that is most likely to transform reading and writing will be electronic paper (e-paper). Traces the evolution of e-paper from its prototype created by Xerox PARC's Nick Sheridon in 1975 to the E Ink/Lucent e-paper made from e-ink and plastic transistors. Highlights future…

  8. Nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research and development in nanostructured materials is one of the most intensely studied areas in science. As a result of concerted R & D efforts, nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials have achieved commercial success. Specific examples of novel industrially important nanostructured electronic and magnetic ...

  9. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...

  10. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision ... Electron scattering of highly unstable nuclei is not easy because it is difficult to produce ... both ends form a mirror potential to keep the ions longitudinally inside the SCRIT device, and the ...

  11. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  12. Electronic Communication and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M. S.; Sarbaugh-Thompson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic communication can either facilitate or sabotage decision-making contexts. This article formulates recommendations about when and how to use electronic communication to enhance decision making and describes various decision contexts. Solutions to communication problems such as groupthink, social deadlock, bureaucratic isolation from…

  13. Business Mododelling of Electronic Brokerage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1998-01-01

    The central task of Business Modelling is to develop a theoretical techno-economic reference model for analyses of the value chain in the production of brokerage services in electronic networks......The central task of Business Modelling is to develop a theoretical techno-economic reference model for analyses of the value chain in the production of brokerage services in electronic networks...

  14. Electron beam micromachining of plastics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, 5-6 (2014), s. 310-314 ISSN 0861-4717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : micromachining of plastics * Electron beam Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  15. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  16. Electron Cloud: an Analytic View

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    1998-01-01

    Electron cloud activity has been observed in some positron storage rings but not in others. It is a major concern for the LHC. In this paper the electron cloud problematics is treated purely analytica lly. The equilibrium electron cloud density is derived from the standard photon production rate, taking into account the photo-electric yield and the process of secondary emission. A fundamental ingre dient in the derivation is the Kollath{2] energy spectrum of the secondary emission. The phenomenon of space charge is discussed as well. The transverse acceleration of the electrons by the bunches is used to introduce the concept of closely and sparsely bunched beams. There is a fundamental difference between them, especially from the point of view of power deposition. Expressions for an equivalen t transverse impedance and imaginary tune shift are derived. Finally the analysis is confronted with electron cloud observations in existing positron machines (DAPHINE, PF, BEPC) before it is applied to the LHC. It comes...

  17. ELEC-2002: ELECTRONICS IN HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Davide.Vite@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    ELEC-2002 is a 15-session modern electronic course, given by CERN physicists and engineers, in a new format within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. This course is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2002 will composed of two terms: sessions will take place on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 14h00 to 16h30, in the Training Centre Auditorium, bldg. 593. Winter term: Readout and system electronics for physics (January-February 2002) Introduction: the basics of electronics (Philippe Farthouat, 15 January) Analogue signal processing (Francis Anghinolfi, 17 January) Analogue to digital conversions and data transmission (Philippe Farthouat, 22 January) Digital design with Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (Erik van der Bij, 24 January) Modular el...

  18. ELEC-2002: Electronics in HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    ELEC-2002 is a 15-session modern electronic course, given by CERN physicists and engineers, in a new format within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. This course is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2002 will composed of two terms: sessions will take place on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 14h00 to 16h30, in the Training Centre Auditorium, bldg. 593.   Winter term: Readout and system electronics for physics (January-February 2002) Introduction: the basics of electronics. Review of electrical circuits: Laplace transforms, transfer functions, RC-CR networks. Transistors, operational amplifiers and applications, transmission lines. (Philippe Farthouat, 15 January) Analogue signal processing. Preamplifiers and shapers; noise in ele...

  19. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  20. High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M; Titkova, I

    2000-01-01

    The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 mu A/V sup 3 sup / sup 2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual).

  1. Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

    2014-12-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

  2. Peptide π-Electron Conjugates: Organic Electronics for Biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoña, Herdeline Ann M; Tovar, John D

    2015-12-16

    Highly ordered arrays of π-conjugated molecules are often viewed as a prerequisite for effective charge-transporting materials. Studies involving these materials have traditionally focused on organic electronic devices, with more recent emphasis on biological systems. In order to facilitate the transition to biological environments, biomolecules that can promote hierarchical ordering and water solubility are often covalently appended to the π-electron unit. This review highlights recent work on π-conjugated systems bound to peptide moieties that exhibit self-assembly and aims to provide an overview on the development and emerging applications of peptide-based supramolecular π-electron systems.

  3. Electron-electron Interactions in ABC-stacked Multilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; MacDonald, Allan

    2010-03-01

    The electronic band structures of ABC-stacked multilayer graphene systems are obtained by the tight-binding calculation and the density function theory. We predict that the electron- electron interactions drive the neutral graphene multilayer systems to pseudospin magnets in which the charge density contribution spontaneously shifts to either the top or the bottom layers, based on the HF and PRG calculations. We show that the spin and valley degrees of freedom enhance the instabilities. We investigate the influence on the broken symmetry phase by the trigonal warping, the external electric field and the number of coupled graphene layers.

  4. Composition quantification of electron-transparent samples by backscattered electron imaging in scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, E., E-mail: erich.mueller@kit.edu; Gerthsen, D.

    2017-02-15

    The contrast of backscattered electron (BSE) images in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depends on material parameters which can be exploited for composition quantification if some information on the material system is available. As an example, the In-concentration in thin In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As layers embedded in a GaAs matrix is analyzed in this work. The spatial resolution of the technique is improved by using thin electron-transparent specimens instead of bulk samples. Although the BSEs are detected in a comparably small angular range by an annular semiconductor detector, the image intensity can be evaluated to determine the composition and local thickness of the specimen. The measured intensities are calibrated within one single image to eliminate the influence of the detection and amplification system. Quantification is performed by comparison of experimental and calculated data. Instead of using time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations, an analytical model is applied for BSE-intensity calculations which considers single electron scattering and electron diffusion. - Highlights: • Sample thickness and composition are quantified by backscattered electron imaging. • A thin sample is used to achieve spatial resolution of few nanometers. • Calculations are carried out with a time-saving electron diffusion model. • Small differences in atomic number and density detected at low electron energies.

  5. Electronic processes in organic electronics bridging nanostructure, electronic states and device properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The book covers a variety of studies of organic semiconductors, from fundamental electronic states to device applications, including theoretical studies. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques, e.g., ultrahigh sensitivity photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and a material processing method with optical-vortex and polarization-vortex lasers, are introduced. As this book is intended to serve as a textbook for a graduate level course or as reference material for researchers in organic electronics and nanoscience from electronic states, fundamental science that is necessary to understand the research is described. It does not duplicate the books already written on organic electronics, but focuses mainly on electronic properties that arise from the nature of organic semiconductors (molecular solids). The new experimental methods introduced in this book are applicable to various materials (e.g., metals, inorganic and organic mater...

  6. Secondary Electrons in EUV Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Justin; Re, Ryan Del; Herbol, Henry; Das, Sanjana; Bocharova, Irina; Paolucci, Angela; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Ventrice Jr., Carl; Lifshin, Eric; Denbeaux, Greg; Brainard, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary electrons play critical roles in several imaging technologies, including extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. At longer wavelengths of light (e.g. 193 and 248 nm), the photons are directly involved in the photochemistry occurring during photolysis. EUV light (13.5 nm, 92 eV), however, first creates a photoelectron, and this electron, or its subsequent daughter electrons create most of the chemical changes that occur during exposure. Despite the importance of these electrons, the details surrounding the chemical events leading to acid production remain poorly understood. Previously reported experimental results using high PAG-loaded resists have demonstrated that up to five or six photoacids can be generated per incident photon. Until recently, only electron recombination events were thought to play a role in acid generation, requiring that at least as many secondary electrons are produced to yield a given number of acid molecules. However, the initial results we have obtained using a Monte Carlo-based modeling program, LESiS, demonstrate that only two to three secondary electrons are made per absorbed EUV photon. A more comprehensive understanding of EUV-induced acid generation is therefore needed for the development of higher performance resists

  7. Disabling CNT Electronic Devices by Use of Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    Bombardment with tightly focused electron beams has been suggested as a means of electrically disabling selected individual carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) in electronic devices. Evidence in support of the suggestion was obtained in an experiment in which a CNT field-effect transistor was disabled (see figure) by focusing a 1-keV electron beam on a CNT that served as the active channel of a field-effect transistor (FET). Such bombardment could be useful in the manufacture of nonvolatile-memory circuits containing CNT FETs. Ultimately, in order to obtain the best electronic performances in CNT FETs and other electronic devices, it will be necessary to fabricate the devices such that each one contains only a single CNT as an active element. At present, this is difficult because there is no way to grow a single CNT at a specific location and with a specific orientation. Instead, the common practice is to build CNTs into electronic devices by relying on spatial distribution to bridge contacts. This practice results in some devices containing no CNTs and some devices containing more than one CNT. Thus, CNT FETs have statistically distributed electronic characteristics (including switching voltages, gains, and mixtures of metallic and semiconducting CNTs). According to the suggestion, by using a 1-keV electron beam (e.g., a beam from a scanning electron microscope), a particular nanotube could be rendered electrically dysfunctional. This procedure could be repeated as many times as necessary on different CNTs in a device until all of the excess CNTs in the device had been disabled, leaving only one CNT as an active element (e.g., as FET channel). The physical mechanism through which a CNT becomes electrically disabled is not yet understood. On one hand, data in the literature show that electron kinetic energy >86 keV is needed to cause displacement damage in a CNT. On the other hand, inasmuch as a 1-keV beam focused on a small spot (typically a few tens of nanometers wide

  8. Defining Electron Bifurcation in the Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Costas, Amaya M; Poudel, Saroj; Miller, Anne-Frances; Schut, Gerrit J; Ledbetter, Rhesa N; Fixen, Kathryn R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Adams, Michael W W; Harwood, Caroline S; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W

    2017-11-01

    Electron bifurcation is the coupling of exergonic and endergonic redox reactions to simultaneously generate (or utilize) low- and high-potential electrons. It is the third recognized form of energy conservation in biology and was recently described for select electron-transferring flavoproteins (Etfs). Etfs are flavin-containing heterodimers best known for donating electrons derived from fatty acid and amino acid oxidation to an electron transfer respiratory chain via Etf-quinone oxidoreductase. Canonical examples contain a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that is involved in electron transfer, as well as a non-redox-active AMP. However, Etfs demonstrated to bifurcate electrons contain a second FAD in place of the AMP. To expand our understanding of the functional variety and metabolic significance of Etfs and to identify amino acid sequence motifs that potentially enable electron bifurcation, we compiled 1,314 Etf protein sequences from genome sequence databases and subjected them to informatic and structural analyses. Etfs were identified in diverse archaea and bacteria, and they clustered into five distinct well-supported groups, based on their amino acid sequences. Gene neighborhood analyses indicated that these Etf group designations largely correspond to putative differences in functionality. Etfs with the demonstrated ability to bifurcate were found to form one group, suggesting that distinct conserved amino acid sequence motifs enable this capability. Indeed, structural modeling and sequence alignments revealed that identifying residues occur in the NADH- and FAD-binding regions of bifurcating Etfs. Collectively, a new classification scheme for Etf proteins that delineates putative bifurcating versus nonbifurcating members is presented and suggests that Etf-mediated bifurcation is associated with surprisingly diverse enzymes.IMPORTANCE Electron bifurcation has recently been recognized as an electron transfer mechanism used by microorganisms to maximize

  9. Electron transfer in pnicogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Liangyu; Mo, Yirong

    2014-10-02

    As a new type of noncovalent interactions, pnicogen bond between a VA group element (N, P, and As) and an electron donor (Lewis base) has grabbed attention in recent several years. Here we employ the block-localized wave function (BLW) based energy decomposition scheme to probe the bonding nature in a series of substituted phosphines X(n)PH(3-n) complexed with ammonia. As the BLW method can derive the optimal monomer orbitals in a complex with the electron transfer among monomers quenched, we can effectively examine the HOMO-LUMO interaction in these pnicogen bonding systems. Among various energy components, electron transfer energy together with the polarization energy dominates the pnicogen bonding energy. Although usually it is assumed that the electron transfer from ammonia to substituted phosphines occurs in the form of n → σ*(XP) hyperconjugative interaction, we identify a kind of new pathway when X = NO2 and CN, i.e., n → dπ*, which results from the interaction between the π orbital of cyano or nitro substituent and d orbitals on P. But still this picture of electron transfer using a single pair of orbitals is greatly simplified, as the electron density difference (EDD) maps corresponding to the overall electron transfer processes show the accumulation of electron density on the P side opposite to the X-P bond, with insignificant or even negligible gain of electron density on the substituent group side. Thus, the EDD maps tend to support the concept of σ-hole in pnicogen bonds.

  10. Optimising electron microscopy experiment through electron optics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Y. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse France (France); Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, 882, Ichige, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Gatel, C.; Snoeck, E. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse France (France); Houdellier, F., E-mail: florent.houdellier@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse France (France)

    2017-04-15

    We developed a new type of electron trajectories simulation inside a complete model of a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM). Our model incorporates the precise and real design of each element constituting a TEM, i.e. the field emission (FE) cathode, the extraction optic and acceleration stages of a 300 kV cold field emission gun, the illumination lenses, the objective lens, the intermediate and projection lenses. Full trajectories can be computed using magnetically saturated or non-saturated round lenses, magnetic deflectors and even non-cylindrical symmetry elements like electrostatic biprism. This multi-scale model gathers nanometer size components (FE tip) with parts of meter length (illumination and projection systems). We demonstrate that non-trivial TEM experiments requiring specific and complex optical configurations can be simulated and optimized prior to any experiment using such model. We show that all the currents set in all optical elements of the simulated column can be implemented in the real column (I2TEM in CEMES) and used as starting alignment for the requested experiment. We argue that the combination of such complete electron trajectory simulations in the whole TEM column with automatic optimization of the microscope parameters for optimal experimental data (images, diffraction, spectra) allows drastically simplifying the implementation of complex experiments in TEM and will facilitate the development of advanced use of the electron microscope in the near future. - Highlights: • Using dedicated electron optics software, we calculate full electrons trajectories inside a modern transmission electron microscope. • We have determined how to deal with multi-scale electron optics elements like high voltage cold field emission source. • W • e have succeed to model both weak and strong magnetic lenses whether in saturated or unsaturated conditions as well as electrostatic biprism and magnetic deflectors. • We have applied this model

  11. Contribution of backscattered electrons to the total electron yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a better fit to the experiment compared to the power-law. Keywords. ... beam of electrons was generated from a custom-built electron gun (M/s P.Staib. GmbH, Germany) and was focused onto a 3 mm spot size on the target (20 mm. × 14 mm × 0.5 mm) situated at about 500 mm away from the gun. The accuracy of positioning ...

  12. POTENTIAL RISKS OF ELECTRONIC NICOTINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS: ELECTRONIC-CIGARETTES

    OpenAIRE

    PERK, Başak Özlem; YILMAZ SARIALTIN, Sezen

    2017-01-01

    Cigarettesmoking effects all organs of the body harmfully and causes various diseasesincluding respiratory system cancers such as larynx, esophagus, lung; chronicdiseases such as cataract, coronary heart diseas, diabetes, tuberculosis etc.Nicotine gums, nasal sprays, patchs, lozenges and electronic-cigarettes havebeen used for a while to avoid the toxic effects of cigarette and quitsmoking.  E-ciga are nicotine deliverysystems electronically. An e-cigarette, which looks similar to tr...

  13. 27 CFR 73.32 - May I electronically sign forms I submit electronically to TTB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Filing of Documents with TTB § 73.32 May I electronically sign forms I submit electronically to TTB? You may electronically sign the electronic form you...

  14. Polymer electronics a flexible technology

    CERN Document Server

    Technology, Rapra

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide market for polymer electronic products has been estimated to be worth up to £15 billion by 2015 and the opportunity for new markets could be as high as £125 billion by 2025.'The rapid development of polymer electronics has revealed the possibility for transforming the electronics market by offering lighter, flexible and more cost effective alternatives to conventional materials and products. With applications ranging from printed, flexible conductors and novel semiconductor components to intelligent labels and large area displays and solar panels, products that were previously un

  15. Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques

  16. Polymers for electronic & photonic application

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C P

    2013-01-01

    The most recent advances in the use of polymeric materials by the electronic industry can be found in Polymers for Electronic and Photonic Applications. This bookprovides in-depth coverage of photoresis for micro-lithography, microelectronic encapsulants and packaging, insulators, dielectrics for multichip packaging,electronic and photonic applications of polymeric materials, among many other topics. Intended for engineers and scientists who design, process, and manufacturemicroelectronic components, this book will also prove useful for hybrid and systems packaging managers who want to be info

  17. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  18. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  19. Conductive nanomaterials for printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyshny, Alexander; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-09-10

    This is a review on recent developments in the field of conductive nanomaterials and their application in printed electronics, with particular emphasis on inkjet printing of ink formulations based on metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene sheets. The review describes the basic properties of conductive nanomaterials suitable for printed electronics (metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene), their stabilization in dispersions, formulations of conductive inks, and obtaining conductive patterns by using various sintering methods. Applications of conductive nanomaterials for electronic devices (transparent electrodes, metallization of solar cells, RFID antennas, TFTs, and light emitting devices) are also briefly reviewed.

  20. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1995-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 4 presents the reaction mechanisms involving the movement of single electrons. This book discusses the electron transfer reactions in organic, biochemical, organometallic, and excited state systems. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photochemical behavior of two classes of sulfonium salt derivatives. This text then examines the parameters that control the efficiencies for radical ion pair formation. Other chapters consider the progress in the development of parameters that control the dynamics and reaction p