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Sample records for pseudomonas screening assay

  1. Performance of the CLSI Carba NP and the Rosco Carb Screen Assays Using North American Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Lauren C; Roundtree, Sylvester S; Lancaster, Diana P; Rudin, Susan D; Bard, Jennifer Dien; Roberts, Amity L; Marshall, Steven H; Bonomo, Robert A; Sullivan, Kaede V

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the performance of the Carba NP assay, published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen kit. Carba NP had superior sensitivity, but both assays required an increased inoculum to detect carbapenemase production in isolates with blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaOXA-48. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Final screening assessment for Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 31483, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 31800, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 700369

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    "Pursuant to paragraph 74(b) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA), the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health have conducted a screening assessment on four strains of Pseudomonas putida...

  3. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S using a yeast phenotypic screen.

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Arnoldo; Jasna Curak; Saranya Kittanakom; Igor Chevelev; Vincent T Lee; Mehdi Sahebol-Amri; Becky Koscik; Lana Ljuma; Peter J Roy; Antonio Bedalov; Guri Giaever; Corey Nislow; A Rod Merrill; Stephen Lory; Igor Stagljar

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is a key factor in the mortality of cystic fibrosis patients, and infection represents an increased threat for human health worldwide. Because resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing, new inhibitors of pharmacologically validated targets of this bacterium are needed. Here we demonstrate that a cell-based yeast phenotypic assay, combined with a large-scale inhibitor screen, identified small molecule inhibi...

  4. Virulence Attributes and Host Response Assays for Determining Pathogenic Potential of Pseudomonas Strains Used in Biotechnology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam F Tayabali

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas species are opportunistically pathogenic to humans, yet closely related species are used in biotechnology applications. In order to screen for the pathogenic potential of strains considered for biotechnology applications, several Pseudomonas strains (P.aeruginosa (Pa, P.fluorescens (Pf, P.putida (Pp, P.stutzeri (Ps were compared using functional virulence and toxicity assays. Most Pa strains and Ps grew at temperatures between 28°C and 42°C. However, Pf and Pp strains were the most antibiotic resistant, with ciprofloxacin and colistin being the most effective of those tested. No strain was haemolytic on sheep blood agar. Almost all Pa, but not other test strains, produced a pyocyanin-like chromophore, and caused cytotoxicity towards cultured human HT29 cells. Murine endotracheal exposures indicated that the laboratory reference strain, PAO1, was most persistent in the lungs. Only Pa strains induced pro-inflammatory and inflammatory responses, as measured by elevated cytokines and pulmonary Gr-1 -positive cells. Serum amyloid A was elevated at ≥ 48 h post-exposure by only some Pa strains. No relationship was observed between strains and levels of peripheral leukocytes. The species designation or isolation source may not accurately reflect pathogenic potential, since the clinical strain Pa10752 was relatively nonvirulent, but the industrial strain Pa31480 showed comparable virulence to PAO1. Functional assays involving microbial growth, cytotoxicity and murine immunological responses may be most useful for identifying problematic Pseudomonas strains being considered for biotechnology applications.

  5. A real-time PCR quantitative detection assay for Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. nerii in Nerium oleander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan chemistry was developed for the detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pathovars that cause bacterial knot disease on different plant species. Primers and probe sequences were based on the iaaL gene coding for (indole-3-acetyl-L-lysine synthetase and previously used in conventional PCR tests. Assay specificity was tested with an extended range of strains of P. savastanoi from eight hosts, with 13 other Pseudomonas spp., and with other microorganisms naturally occurring on or in oleander plants. A pure culture cell suspension was quantifi ed over a seven log concentration range (108 to 102 cfu ml-1 . Different protocols were developed for the detection and quantifi cation of P. savastanoi pv. nerii from symptomatic and asymptomatic oleander plants. A 24-h bacterial enrichment step either on PVF-1 or OKA-M broth improved the sensitivity of the assay, making it suitable to screen planting material for latent infections.

  6. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S using a yeast phenotypic screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arnoldo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is a key factor in the mortality of cystic fibrosis patients, and infection represents an increased threat for human health worldwide. Because resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing, new inhibitors of pharmacologically validated targets of this bacterium are needed. Here we demonstrate that a cell-based yeast phenotypic assay, combined with a large-scale inhibitor screen, identified small molecule inhibitors that can suppress the toxicity caused by heterologous expression of selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa ORFs. We identified the first small molecule inhibitor of Exoenzyme S (ExoS, a toxin involved in Type III secretion. We show that this inhibitor, exosin, modulates ExoS ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in vitro, suggesting the inhibition is direct. Moreover, exosin and two of its analogues display a significant protective effect against Pseudomonas infection in vivo. Furthermore, because the assay was performed in yeast, we were able to demonstrate that several yeast homologues of the known human ExoS targets are likely ADP-ribosylated by the toxin. For example, using an in vitro enzymatic assay, we demonstrate that yeast Ras2p is directly modified by ExoS. Lastly, by surveying a collection of yeast deletion mutants, we identified Bmh1p, a yeast homologue of the human FAS, as an ExoS cofactor, revealing that portions of the bacterial toxin mode of action are conserved from yeast to human. Taken together, our integrated cell-based, chemical-genetic approach demonstrates that such screens can augment traditional drug screening approaches and facilitate the discovery of new compounds against a broad range of human pathogens.

  7. Screening of plants with antimicrobial activity against enterobacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girondi, Camila Miorelli; de Oliveira, Analu Barros; Prado, Jackeline Alves; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Borges, Aline Chiodi; Botazzo Delbem, Alberto Carlos; Alves Pereira, Daniel Freitas; Salvador, Marcos José; Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção

    2017-06-01

    This study screened plants for antibacterial properties against bacteria of medical importance. 60 extracts were obtained from the leaves of ten plants (Jatropha weddelliana, Attalea phalerata, Buchenavia tomentosa, Croton doctoris, Mouriri elliptica, Mascagnia benthamiana, Senna aculeata, Unonopis guatterioides, Allagoptera leucocalyx and Bactris glaucescens) using different extraction methods: A) Ethanol 70°C/72 h; B) Water/5 min/100°C; C) Water/1 h/55°C; D) Water/72 h; E) Hexane/72 h and F) Ethanol 99°C/72 h. Enterobacteria/Pseudomonas and staphylococci reference strains and 201 clinical isolates were used. Primary screening was done using agar well-diffusion assay. MIC/minimum bactericidal concentration and chemical characterization were determined. Extracts 5F and 3A showed the best MIC/minimum bactericidal concentration against clinical isolates and showed the presence of phenols. The present study demonstrated that Mouriri elliptica and Buchenavia tomentosa were the most active plants against the studied bacteria.

  8. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay for cytotoxicity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichai, Vanicha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim

    2006-01-01

    The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay is used for cell density determination, based on the measurement of cellular protein content. The method described here has been optimized for the toxicity screening of compounds to adherent cells in a 96-well format. After an incubation period, cell monolayers are fixed with 10% (wt/vol) trichloroacetic acid and stained for 30 min, after which the excess dye is removed by washing repeatedly with 1% (vol/vol) acetic acid. The protein-bound dye is dissolved in 10 mM Tris base solution for OD determination at 510 nm using a microplate reader. The results are linear over a 20-fold range of cell numbers and the sensitivity is comparable to those of fluorometric methods. The method not only allows a large number of samples to be tested within a few days, but also requires only simple equipment and inexpensive reagents. The SRB assay is therefore an efficient and highly cost-effective method for screening.

  9. Screening of fullerene toxicity by hemolysis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramer, Federica; Da Ros, Tatiana; Passamonti, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Fullerene is a compound formed during carbon burst that has been produced synthetically starting from the 1990s. The spherical shape and the characteristic carbon bonds of this allotrope (C(60)) have made it a suitable molecule for many applications. During the last decade, the low aqueous solubility of this molecule has been improved by chemical functionalization allowing the use of fullerene derivatives in biological fluids. The characterization of the toxicity potential of fullerenes is therefore of growing interest for any biomedical application. Intravenous injection is one of the possible routes of their administrations and therefore red blood cells are among the first targets of fullerene cytotoxicity. Human red blood cells are easily available and separated from plasma. Membrane disruption by toxic compounds is easily detected in red blood cells as release of hemoglobin in the cell medium, which can be assayed spectrophotometrically at λ = 415 nm. Due to the high molar extinction coefficient of hemoglobin, the assay can be performed on a small amount of both red blood cells and the test compounds, which might be available only in small quantities. So, the hemolysis assay is a simple screening test, whose results can guide further investigations on cytotoxicity in more complex experimental models.

  10. Spectrophotometric Enzyme Assays for High-Throughput Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Reymond

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews high-throughput screening enzyme assays developed in our laboratory over the last ten years. These enzyme assays were initially developed for the purpose of discovering catalytic antibodies by screening cell culture supernatants, but have proved generally useful for testing enzyme activities. Examples include TLC-based screening using acridone-labeled substrates, fluorogenic assays based on the β-elimination of umbelliferone or nitrophenol, and indirect assays such as the back-titration method with adrenaline and the copper-calcein fluorescence assay for aminoacids.

  11. Screening of thermophilic neutral lipase-producing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From oil-contaminated soil, three lipase-producing microorganisms were selected as good lipase producers using rhodamine B-olive oil plate agar and they were identified as from Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Klebsiella genera by morphology, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the ...

  12. An assay to screen bacterial adhesion to mucus biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, A; Da Silva, L; Hearne, J; Parveen, S; Waguespack, Y

    2013-01-01

    To develop an assay for rapid screening of bacterial adhesion to various groups of biomolecules present in fish mucus. A novel assay was developed for investigation of bacterial adhesion to various groups of mucus biomolecules from fish. Lipid-, protein-, carbohydrate- and nucleic acid-rich constituents of mucus were separated using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation techniques. Separated mucus fractions were assayed for bacterial adhesion using a blotting apparatus. The assay was validated using Vibrio vulnificus and skin mucus from hybrid tilapia. A novel assay was developed for the screening of bacterial adhesion to major groups of mucus biomolecules. Adhesion of V. vulnificus MLT403 positively correlated with lipid- and protein-rich mucus constituents and negatively correlated with carbohydrate-rich mucus constituents. The assay can be used as an initial approach in a systematic identification of mucus constituent(s) exhibiting the most favourable adhesion properties for bacteria. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Colorimetric micro-assay for accelerated screening of mould inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2013-01-01

    Since current standard laboratory methods are time-consuming macro-assays that rely on subjective visual ratings of mould growth, rapid and quantitative laboratory methods are needed to screen potential mould inhibitors for use in and on cellulose-based products. A colorimetric micro-assay has been developed that uses XTT tetrazolium salt to enzymatically assess...

  14. Mass spectrometry-based biochemical assays for enzymeinhibitor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A.R.; Lingeman, H.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    Screening for inhibitors of pharmacologically-relevant enzymes is in many cases an important starting point in drug discovery. While fluorescence-based detection techniques play an important role in high-throughput screening, mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays have gained in importance in recent

  15. A High-Throughput Screening Assay to Detect ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of the Endocrine Disruption Screening Program (EDSP21), the US EPA ToxCast program is developing assays to enable screening for chemicals that may disrupt thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is critical for TH synthesis and is a known target of thyroid-disrupting chemicals that adversely impact neurodevelopment. The AUR-TPO assay was recently developed to screen >1,900 ToxCast chemicals for potential TPO inhibition activity. Parallel assays were used to determine which AUR-TPO actives were more selective for TPO inhibition. Additionally, the TPO inhibition activities of 150 chemicals were compared between the AUR-TPO assay and an orthogonal peroxidase oxidation assay using guaiacol as substrate to confirm putative TPO inhibition profiles. Bioactivity results from the AUR-TPO assay were used to identify chemical substructures associated with in vitro TPO inhibition. Substructure profiles were generated for each chemical in the ToxCast test set using the publicly-available ToxPrint 2.0 chemotypes. Chemotypes enriched among the putative TPO inhibitors were identified using a cumulative hypergeometric probability (p assay:

  16. Comparison of Elecsys Anti-HCV II Assay With Other HCV Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Siyuan; Wang, Tingting; An, Jingna; Wang, Lanlan; Tao, Chuanmin

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important step in preventing progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Serologic assays for anti-HCV antibody are valuable first-line tests in the screening and diagnosis of HCV infection. This study's aim was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Elecsys Anti-HCV II assay for HCV screening. A total of 1,044 routine sera, 20 known HCV-positive samples, plus 54 preselected weakly positive samples were tested for anti-HCV with Elecsys Anti-HCV II assay, Elecsys Anti-HCV assays, InTec HCV enzymoimmunoassay (EIA), and Livzon Anti-HCV EIA. Interference test was assessed with additional 423 specimens without clinical evidence of HCV infection: preselected HCV weak reactive samples; dialysis samples; anti-HBc (antibody to HBV core antigen) (+), anti-Treponema pallidum (+), and anti-HIV (+) sera; and samples form autoimmune/alcoholic hepatitis or systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE). Discrepant results were evaluated with recombinant immunoblot assay. The seroconversion panels were evaluated to assess how early each assay could detect HCV infection. The specificity (99.81%) of the Elecsys Anti-HCV II assay was less than that with the two EIA comparison methods. However, false-negative results were easily seen in the EIA assays. When serial bleeds of HCV panels were compared with the above-mentioned methods, the assay detected acute HCV infection only 3.5 days after a positive HCV-RNA nucleic acid test and earlier than the comparator assays. Sensitivities and specificities of the anti-HCV assays were sufficiently high for use in this study. The Elecsys Anti-HCV II assay is suitable for screening and reliable early detection of HCV infection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fluorescent and Lanthanide Labeling for Ligand Screens, Assays, and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josan, Jatinder S.; De Silva, Channa R.; Yoo, Byunghee; Lynch, Ronald M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Vagner, Josef; Hruby, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorescent (or luminescent) and metal contrast agents in high-throughput screens, in vitro assays, and molecular imaging procedures has rapidly expanded in recent years. Here we describe the development and utility of high-affinity ligands for cancer theranostics and other in vitro screening studies. In this context, we also illustrate the syntheses and use of heteromultivalent ligands as targeted imaging agents. PMID:21318902

  18. Accelerated Colorimetric Micro-assay for Screening Mold Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rapid quantitative laboratory test methods are needed to screen potential antifungal agents. Existing laboratory test methods are relatively time consuming, may require specialized test equipment and rely on subjective visual ratings. A quantitative, colorimetric micro-assay has been developed that uses XTT tetrazolium salt to metabolically assess mold spore...

  19. A greenhouse screening assay for Botrytis tulipae resistance in tulips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, T.P.; Mes, J.J.; Eikelboom, W.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2002-01-01

    As a leaf pathogen, Botrytis tulipae severely affects tulip bulb production. Chemical control is not desired for environmental reasons. Thus, resistant cultivars can play an important role in the control of this disease. To select genotypes resistant to B. tulipae, a reliable screening assay is

  20. A simple and rapid plate assay for screening of inulindegrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, a simple and rapid agar plate assay was established for screening of halophilic, inulindegrading microorganisms. Two strains considered inulinolytic with this method were chosen and the inulinolytic activities in their culture supernatant were measured with the Somogyi-Nelson method, while their hydrolysis ...

  1. Virtual screening of AmpC/??lactamase as target for antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Rohit; Gautam, Budhayash; Singh, Satendra; Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Jain, Prashant Ankur

    2010-01-01

    AmpC is a group I, class C ?lactamase present in most Enterobacteriaceae and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. The ??lactam class of antibiotics is one of the most important structural classes of antibacterial compounds and act by inhibiting the bacterial D ,D - transpeptidases that are responsible for the final step of peptidoglycan cross-linking. Our main aim in the study is to screen possible inhibitors against AmpC / ? ? lactamase (an enzyme responsi...

  2. ASSAY FOR RAPID SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Saurav; Indranil Mukherjee; Ashoke Ranjan Thakur; Shaon Ray Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to develop a rapid method for antibiotic sensitivity detection and screening of natural products for antimicrobial activity. The dimension of WBC in blood film was found to get altered when seeded with bacteria and monitored under light microscope. The shrinkage was prevented in response to antibiotic treatment and validated using statistical analysis (two sample one tailed Z test). Thus here is a prompt (4 h) assay system for detection of blood infection, antibiotic se...

  3. A diagnostic PCR assay for the detection of an Australian epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung infection with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF and is associated with worsening lung function, increased hospitalisation and reduced life expectancy. A virulent clonal strain of P. aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain I; AES-I has been found to be widespread in CF patients in eastern Australia. Methods Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH was employed to identify genetic sequences that are present in the AES-I strain but absent from the sequenced reference strain PAO1. We used PCR to evaluate the distribution of several of the AES-I loci amongst a collection of 188 P. aeruginosa isolates which was comprised of 35 AES-I isolates (as determined by PFGE, 78 non-AES-I CF isolates including other epidemic CF strains as well as 69 P. aeruginosa isolates from other clinical and environmental sources. Results We have identified a unique AES-I genetic locus that is present in all 35 AES-I isolates tested and not present in any of the other 153 P. aeruginosa strains examined. We have used this unique AES-I locus to develop a diagnostic PCR and a real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa and AES-I in patient sputum samples. Conclusions We have developed diagnostic PCR assays that are 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the P. aeruginosa strain AES-I. We have also shown that Whatman FTA® Elute cards may be used with PCR-based assays to rapidly detect the presence of P. aeruginosa strains in CF sputum.

  4. Single-step colony assay for screening antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mieko; Hanyu, Yoshiro

    2017-08-10

    We describe a method, single-step colony assay, for simple and rapid screening of single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) libraries. Colonies of Escherichia coli expressing the scFv library are formed on a hydrophilic filter that is positioned in contact with a membrane coated with an antigen. scFv expression is triggered upon treatment of colonies with an induction reagent, following which scFvs are secreted from the cells and diffused to the antigen-coated membrane. scFvs that exhibit binding affinity for the antigen are captured by the membrane-immobilized antigen. Lastly, detection of scFv binding of the antigen on the membrane allows identification of the clones on the filter that express antigen-specific scFvs. We tested this methodology by using an anti-rabbit IgG scFv, scFv(A10B), and a rat immune scFv library. Experiments conducted using scFv(A10B) revealed that this method improves scFv expression during the colony assay. By using our method to screen an immune library of 3×10 3 scFv clones, we established several clones exhibiting affinity for the antigen. Moreover, we tested 7 other antigens, including peptides, and successfully identified positive clones. We believe that this simple procedure and controlled scFv expression of the single-step colony assay could make the antibody screening both rapid and reliable and lead to successful isolation of positive clones from antibody libraries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  6. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  7. Genome-wide screen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies new virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat eZrieq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human opportunistic pathogen that causes mortality in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. While many virulence factors of this pathogen have already been identified, several remain to be discovered. In this respect we set an unprecedented genome-wide screen of a P. aeruginosa expression library based on a yeast growth phenotype. 51 candidates were selected in a three-round screening process. The robustness of the screen was validated by the selection of three well known secreted proteins including one demonstrated virulence factor, the protease LepA. Further in silico sorting of the 51 candidates highlighted three potential new Pseudomonas effector candidates (Pec. By testing the cytotoxicity of wild type P. aeruginosa vs pec mutants towards macrophages and the virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model, we demonstrated that the three selected Pecs are novel virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Additional cellular localization experiments in the host revealed specific localization for Pec1 and Pec2 that could inform about their respective functions.

  8. Virtual screening of AmpC/β-lactamase as target for antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rohit; Gautam, Budhayash; Singh, Satendra; Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Jain, Prashant Ankur

    2010-01-17

    AmpC is a group I, class C -lactamase present in most Enterobacteriaceae and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. The β-lactam class of antibiotics is one of the most important structural classes of antibacterial compounds and act by inhibiting the bacterial D ,D - transpeptidases that are responsible for the final step of peptidoglycan cross-linking. Our main aim in the study is to screen possible inhibitors against AmpC / β - lactamase (an enzyme responsible for antimicrobial activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa), through virtual screening of 1364 NCI (National Cancer Institute) diversity set II compounds. Homology Model of AmpC / β - lactamase was constructed using MODELLER and the Model was validated using PROCHECK and Verify 3D programs to obtain a stable structure, which was further used for virtual screening of NCI (National Cancer Institute) diversity set II compounds through molecular Docking studies using Autodock. The amino acid sequence of the β - lactamase was also subjected to ScanProsite web server to find any pattern present in the sequence. After the prediction of 3-dimensional model of AmpC/ β-lactamase, the possible Active sites ofβ - lactamase were determined using LIGSITE(csc) and CastP web servers simultaneously. The Docked complexes were validated and Enumerated based on the Autodock Scoring function to pick out the best inhibitor based on Autodock energy score. Thus from the entire 1364 NCI diversity set II compounds which were Docked, the best four docking solutions were selected (ZINC12670903, ZINC17465965, ZINC11681166 and ZINC13099024). Further the Complexes were analyzed through LIGPLOT for their interaction for the 4 best docked NCI diversity set II compounds. Thus from the Complex scoring and binding ability it is deciphered that these NCI diversity set II compounds could be promising inhibitors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa using AmpC /β - lactamase as Drug target yet pharmacological studies have

  9. Hepatitis C virus: Screening, diagnosis, and interpretation of laboratory assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 3% of the world population is infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route. The major modes of transmission of the virus include injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, blood transfusion etc. HCV causes chronic hepatitis in about 80% of those infected by it. The mainstay in diagnosing infection with HCV is to initially screen high risk groups for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV. The inclusion of serum to cut-off ratio (S/CO in recent guidelines is helpful in deciding the supplemental assay to be used to confirm initially reactive screening results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT are used as confirmatory tools, and also to determine viral load prior to initiating treatment. Quantitative NAT has replaced qualitative assays. Genotyping is an important tool in clinical management to predict the likelihood of response and determine the optimal duration of therapy. The impact of this infection has begun to emerge in India. The problem of professional blood donation despite an existing law against it, and flourishing unsafe injection practices, are potential sources for the spread of hepatitis C in our country. All health care practitioners need to understand how to establish or exclude a diagnosis of HCV infection and to interpret the tests correctly. In the absence of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine, and also of post-exposure prophylaxis against the virus, it is imperative to diagnose infection by HCV so as to prevent hepatic insult and the ensuing complications that follow, including primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This review aims to help blood bank staff regarding options for diagnosis and management of donors positive for HCV.

  10. [Simultaneous screening method for Bordetella species by conventional PCR assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yumi; Saito, Etsuko; Enomoto, Miki; Tsuji, Hidetaka; Chikahira, Masatsugu; Yoshida, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    A simultaneous screening method using conventional PCR was developed for the detection and discrimination of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella holmesii. A formulated multiprex method employing 4 kinds of paired primers on amplification of 4 corresponding different insertion sequences (IS481, IS1001, IS1002 and hIS1001) enabled rapid screening and identification. The detection limits of each DNA extracted from 3 kinds of Bordetella species were 5fg/microL for each. Obscure existences of B. pertussis and B. holmesii at low levels were confirmed with the LAMP method. This multiplex assay was applied to the clinical specimens obtained from patients with pertussis-like symptoms at sentinel clinics under the epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases of Hyogo prefecture in FY2012. Among 42 nasopharyngeal swabs, B. pertussis was detected from 12 samples including 8 samples collected at outbreak in nursery school. The use of this method for the surveillance of infectious agents enabled us to search for 3 kinds of Bordetella species at once with low costs.

  11. Simple screening tests for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL production in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheda Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no standard methods for the detection of metallo-b-lactamase (MBL production in gram negative organism in routine microbiology practice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the screening tests like double disk synergy test (DDST and disk potentiation test (DPT using ceftazidime (CAZ and imipenem (IPM disks with chelating agents like EDTA, 2-mercaptopropionic acid (2-MPA. A total of 132 Pseudomonas and 76 Acinetobacter isolates were obtained from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU and Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM hospitals of Dhaka city. A total of 53 and 29 IPM resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates were selected. EDTA-IPM microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (EDTA-IPM MIC method detected MBL in 44 (83% IPM resistant Pseudomonas and 19 (65.5% Acinetobacter isolates. DDST with CAZ-0.1M EDTA and CAZ-2-MPA detected MBL in 73.6% and 67.9% of IPM resistant Pseudomonas and 55.2% and 48.3% of Acinetobacter isolates respectively. The detection rate was 67.9% and 66.1% in Pseudomonas and 51.7% and 44.8% in Acinetobacter isolates by EDTA-IPM and IPM-2-MPA methods respectively. In comparison to DDST, DPT with CAZ-0.1M EDTA showed higher sensitivity (89.7% and specificity (100% for detection of MBL in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The results showed that simple screening tests like DPT with 0.1M EDTA was able to detect MBL producing Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(1: 26-30

  12. Construction of an efficient biologically contained Pseudomonas putida strain and its survival in outdoor assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Lazaro; Rodriguez, Cayo Juan Ramos; Ronchel, Maria C.

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems consist of two components, a killing element designed to induce cell death and a control element which modulates the expression of the killing function. We constructed a mini-Tn5 transposon bearing a fusion of the P(lac) promoter to the gef killing gene...... and a fusion of the Pm promoter to the lad gene plus the positive regulator of the Pm promoter, the xylS gene. This mini-Tn5 transposon was transferred to the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida CMC4, and in culture this strain survived in the presence of 3-methylbenzoate (an XylS effector) and committed suicide...

  13. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2018-01-01

    (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and three authors extracted data from included studies. For each inter...

  14. Detection and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in soil and manure assessed by an ecfX qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinon, C; Deredjian, A; Hien, E; Brothier, E; Bouziri, L; Cournoyer, B; Hartman, A; Henry, S; Jolivet, C; Ranjard, L; Nazaret, S

    2013-06-01

    To develop a qPCR approach for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in soil and manure and explore its efficacy and limitations compared with that of a classical culture-dependent approach. A Ps. aeruginosa ecfX qPCR assay was developed. This assay was optimized for soils of contrasting physico-chemical properties and evidenced a three-log dynamic range of detection [5 × 10(4)  - 5 × 10(6) cells (g drywt soil)(-1) ] in inoculated microcosms. Sensitivity was determined to be around 5 × 10(4)  cells (g drywt soil)(-1) . In parallel, the minimum detection limit was estimated in the range of 10-100 CFU (g drywt soil)(-1) using a culture-dependent approach based on the use of a selective medium (cetrimide agar base medium supplemented with nalidixic acid), coupled to ecfX gene amplification to confirm isolate identity. These soil samples led to the growth of abundant non-Ps. aeruginosa colonies mainly belonging to other Pseudomonas species but also some beta-Proteobacteria. These bacteria strongly impacted the detection threshold of this approach. Efficacy of these approaches was compared for Ps. aeruginosa enumeration among manure and agricultural soil samples from various sites in France, Tunisia and Burkina Faso. The developed qPCR assay enabled a specific detection of Ps. aeruginosa in soil and manure samples. The culture-based approach was usually found more sensitive than the qPCR assay. However, abundance of non-Ps. aeruginosa species among the indigenous communities able to grow on the selective medium affected the sensitivity of this latter approach. This study describes the first specific and sensitive qPCR assay for the detection and enumeration of Ps. aeruginosa in soil and manure and shows its complementarity with a culture-based approach. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. ToxCast Workflow: High-throughput screening assay data processing, analysis and management (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA’s ToxCast program is generating data in high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays for thousands of environmental chemicals, for use in developing predictive toxicity models. Currently the ToxCast screening program includes over 1800 unique c...

  16. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for genotyping of Type III Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Chen, Z; Kan, J

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known environmental bacterium capable of causing a variety of life-threatening human infections, with a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) as the most significant virulence determinant. P. aeruginosa strains exhibit unique T3SS virulence genotypes defined by the presence of either exoS or exoU. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection of exoS and exoU in P. aeruginosa have been developed and evaluated. Set of four primers were designed for LAMP-based amplification of exoS and exoU respectively. The LAMP reactions were performed at 63°C for 40 min, with detection limits of 100 fg purified DNA. In 107 river water isolates, exoS and exoU were detected in 10 (9%) and 89 (83%) isolates, respectively, and in 38 soil isolates, they were detected in 7 (18%) and 31 (82%) cases respectively. In conclusion, the LAMP assays are rapid, simple and cost-effective tools for detection of the exoU- and exoS-types of P. aeruginosa strains. This method can be used for the rapid, sensitive and low-cost detection of genes (exoS and exoU) encoding proteins that are part of Type III Secretion System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It can serve as an efficient method in outbreak situations or in routine surveillance studies to judge virulence potential and to investigate pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. A novel assay for the detection of bioactive volatiles evaluated by screening of lichen-associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav eCernava

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs produced by microorganisms are known both for their effect on pathogens and their role as mediators in various interactions and communications. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of VOCs for ecosystem functioning as well as their biotechnological potential, but screening for bioactive volatiles remained difficult. We have developed an efficient testing assay that is based on two multi-well plates, separated by a sealing silicone membrane, two tightening clamps, and variable growth media, or indicators. The experiment design as presented here is a novel and robust technique to identify positive as well as negative VOC effects on the growth of a target organism and to test for specific substances e.g. hydrogen cyanide which can be detected with a suitable indicator. While the first pre-screening assay is primarily based on indicator color change and visible growth diameter reduction, we also introduce an advanced and quantitatively precise experiment design. This adaptation involves qPCR-based quantification of viable target cells after concluding the treatment with VOCs. Therefore, we chose preselected active isolates and compared the partial 16S rRNA gene copy number of headspace-exposed E. coli with non-treated controls. Separately obtained headspace SPME and GC/MS-based profiles of selected bacterial isolates revealed the presence of specific and unique signatures which suggests divergent modes of action. The assay was evaluated by screening 100 isolates of lung lichen-associated bacteria. Approximately one quarter of the isolates showed VOC-based antibacterial and/or antifungal activity; mainly Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas species were identified as producers of bioactive volatiles.

  18. Formalization, annotation and analysis of diverse drug and probe screening assay datasets using the BioAssay Ontology (BAO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma D Vempati

    Full Text Available Huge amounts of high-throughput screening (HTS data for probe and drug development projects are being generated in the pharmaceutical industry and more recently in the public sector. The resulting experimental datasets are increasingly being disseminated via publically accessible repositories. However, existing repositories lack sufficient metadata to describe the experiments and are often difficult to navigate by non-experts. The lack of standardized descriptions and semantics of biological assays and screening results hinder targeted data retrieval, integration, aggregation, and analyses across different HTS datasets, for example to infer mechanisms of action of small molecule perturbagens. To address these limitations, we created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO. BAO has been developed with a focus on data integration and analysis enabling the classification of assays and screening results by concepts that relate to format, assay design, technology, target, and endpoint. Previously, we reported on the higher-level design of BAO and on the semantic querying capabilities offered by the ontology-indexed triple store of HTS data. Here, we report on our detailed design, annotation pipeline, substantially enlarged annotation knowledgebase, and analysis results. We used BAO to annotate assays from the largest public HTS data repository, PubChem, and demonstrate its utility to categorize and analyze diverse HTS results from numerous experiments. BAO is publically available from the NCBO BioPortal at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1533. BAO provides controlled terminology and uniform scope to report probe and drug discovery screening assays and results. BAO leverages description logic to formalize the domain knowledge and facilitate the semantic integration with diverse other resources. As a consequence, BAO offers the potential to infer new knowledge from a corpus of assay results, for example molecular mechanisms of action of perturbagens.

  19. A colorimetric assay of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) based on ninhydrin reaction for rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Chang, S; Lin, L; Li, Y; An, Q

    2011-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity is an efficient marker for bacteria to promote plant growth by lowering ethylene levels in plants. We aim to develop a method for rapidly screening bacteria containing ACC deaminase, based on a colorimetric ninhydrin assay of ACC. A reliable colorimetric ninhydrin assay was developed to quantify ACC using heat-resistant polypropylene chimney-top 96-well PCR plates, having the wells evenly heated in boiling water, preventing accidental contamination from boiling water and limiting evaporation. With this method to measure bacterial consumption of ACC, 44 ACC-utilizing bacterial isolates were rapidly screened out from 311 bacterial isolates that were able to grow on minimal media containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The 44 ACC-utilizing bacterial isolates showed ACC deaminase activities and belonged to the genus Burkholderia, Pseudomonas or Herbaspirillum. Determination of bacterial ACC consumption by the PCR-plate ninhydrin-ACC assay is a rapid and efficient method for screening bacteria containing ACC deaminase from a large number of bacterial isolates. The PCR-plate ninhydrin-ACC assay extends the utility of the ninhydrin reaction and enables a rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase from large numbers of bacterial isolates. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Lot release testing of serological infectious disease assays used for donor and donation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of the ongoing performance of infectious disease screening assays is a critical part of any donation screening programme. Although assay sensitivity is formally evaluated prior to implementation, it is essential that this level of performance is maintained from lot-to-lot. In 2002, National Health Service Blood and Transplant developed and implemented a formal system for the lot release testing of serology infectious disease screening assays. Lot release panels were prepared for each of the serological screening markers. They each comprise 10-15 members and include both genuine low-titre and diluted high-titre materials. For each panel member, a minimum reactivity is expected, based upon the formal sensitivity evaluation of each assay. All new lots of the screening assays used are assessed prior to supply of the lot to the organization. Since 2002, a total of 887 different lots of the serology screening assays used have been supplied. Of these, 876 (98.8%) passed lot release and were authorized for supply to the organization. Eleven lots (1.2%) were failed because the lots did not meet the release criteria or were unsuitable for some other reason. The lot release system has proved to be effective in objectively assessing assay performance to ensure that there is no significant lot-to-lot variation such that the performance of the assay may fall below that originally determined at evaluation. The few assays that have failed lot release did have proven performance issues that were subsequently accepted by the manufacturers. CONTENTS SUMMARY: Description of the Lot Release Testing system for serology infectious disease screening assays in use within NHSBT with a critical analysis and review of the data generated in the 7 years that the system has been in use.

  1. The Architect Syphilis assay for antibodies to Treponema pallidum: an automated screening assay with high sensitivity in primary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H; Pryde, J; Duncan, L; Dave, J

    2009-02-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Architect Syphilis Chemiluminescence Assay (CLIA): a new highly automated screening test for syphilis. To establish the sensitivity of the Architect Syphilis assay we tested 129 stored sera from serologically characterised cases of untreated syphilis. The sera were selected to contain a disproportionately high number of primary infections. There were 79 primary infections, 29 secondary infections, 9 early latent infections and 12 latent syphilis of unknown duration. To establish the specificity of the assay we tested 1107 sera that had been submitted for routine syphilis serology. The Architect CLIA and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test (TPPA) were in total agreement for all untreated infection with sensitivity of 98.4%. This was significantly higher than the sensitivity of the Murex immune capture enzyme (ICE) immunoassay (86%, pArchitect and ICE assays was entirely due to primary stage syphilis (97.5% vs 77.2%, pArchitect CLIA was very high (99.1%, 1049/1059) it was significantly lower (p = 0.016) than that of the Murex ICE assay (99.9%). The Architect CLIA is significantly more sensitive than the Murex ICE screening assay in detecting primary syphilis but it is significantly less specific. Given the relatively high levels of early syphilis, we consider a small increase in the number of confirmatory tests required to exclude false-positive results is worthwhile to increase the detection of primary syphilis by 20%.

  2. Cell-based screening assay for anti-inflammatory activity of bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Kees; Vonk, Roel J.; Priebe, Marion G.; Roelofsen, Han

    2015-01-01

    Excess dietary intake may induce metabolic inflammation which is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence indicates that dietary bioactive compounds may diminish metabolic inflammation. To identify anti-inflammatory bioactives, we developed a screening assay

  3. Referral population studies underestimate differences between human papillomavirus assays in primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied how representative cytologically abnormal women ("referral populations") are with respect to uncovering differences between human papillomavirus (HPV) assays in the primary screening where most women are cytologically normal. METHODS: A total of 4997 women were tested...

  4. DRABAL: novel method to mine large high-throughput screening assays using Bayesian active learning

    OpenAIRE

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) techniq...

  5. Cholesterol oxidase with high catalytic activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Screening, molecular genetic analysis, expression and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukyu, Noriyuki; Nihei, Shyou

    2015-07-01

    An extracellular cholesterol oxidase producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA157, was isolated by a screening method to detect 6β-hydroperoxycholest-4-en-3-one-forming cholesterol oxidase. On the basis of a putative cholesterol oxidase gene sequence in the genome sequence data of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, the cholesterol oxidase gene from strain PA157 was cloned. The mature form of the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The overexpressed enzyme formed inclusion bodies in recombinant E. coli cells grown at 20 °C and 30 °C. A soluble and active PA157 enzyme was obtained when the recombinant cells were grown at 10 °C. The purified enzyme was stable at pH 5.5 to 10 and was most active at pH 7.5-8.0, showing optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 70 °C. The enzyme retained about 90% of its activity after incubation for 30 min at 70 °C. The enzyme oxidized 3β-hydroxysteroids such as cholesterol, β-cholestanol, and β-sitosterol at high rates. The Km value and Vmax value for the cholesterol were 92.6 μM and 15.9 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. The Vmax value of the enzyme was higher than those of commercially available cholesterol oxidases. This is the first report to characterize a cholesterol oxidase from P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Yeast Protein–Protein Interaction Assays and Screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folter, de S.; Immink, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Most transcription factors fulfill their role in protein complexes. As a consequence, information about their interaction capacity sheds light on a protein’s function and the molecular mechanism underlying this activity. The yeast two-hybrid GAL4 (Y2H) assay is a powerful method to unravel and

  7. Fluorimetric screening assay for protein carbonyl evaluation in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, P; Ricquebourg, E; Vidal, N; Villard, C; Lafitte, D; Sellami, L; Pietri, S

    2015-08-01

    Many assays are available for the detection of protein carbonyls (PCs). Currently, the measurement of PC groups after their derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenol hydrazine (DNPH) is widely used for measuring protein oxidation in biological samples. However, this method includes several washing steps. In this context, we have developed a rapid, sensitive, and accurate fluorimetric method adapted to 96-well microplates for the convenient assessment of protein carbonyl level in biological samples. The method reported here is based on the reaction of carbonyl content in proteins with 7-hydrazino-4-nitrobenzo-2,1,3-oxadiazole (NBDH) to form highly fluorescent derivatives via hydrazone formation. PCs were determined using the DNPH and NBDH assays in fully reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and plasma and liver homogenates obtained from healthy control rats up the addition of various amounts of HOCl-oxidized BSA (OxBSA). Using the NBDH assay, PC concentrations as low as 0.2 nmol/mg were detected with precision as low as 5%. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy was used to successfully identify the formation of the NBDH adducts after derivatization with standard oxidized peptides. Finally, the two methods were further used for PC determination in plasma and liver samples from diabetic and normal rats, showing that the NBDH assay can be reliably used in biological experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional characterisation of human glycine receptors in a fluorescence-based high throughput screening assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.

    2005-01-01

    receptors in this assay were found to be in good agreement with those from electrophysiology studies of the receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cell lines. Hence, this high throughput screening assay will be of great use in future pharmacological studies of glycine receptors, particular...

  9. 20170913 - Retrofit Strategies for Incorporating Xenobiotic Metabolism into High Throughput Screening Assays (EMGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s ToxCast program is designed to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints using a variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. However, existing HTS assays have limited or no xenobiotic metabolism which could lead to a mischaracteri...

  10. Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluores...

  11. Highly Promiscuous Small Molecules from Biological Screening Assays Include Many Pan-Assay Interference Compounds but Also Candidates for Polypharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Erik; Jasial, Swarit; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-11-23

    In PubChem screening assays, 466 highly promiscuous compounds were identified that were examined for known pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) and aggregators using publicly available filters. These filters detected 210 PAINS and 67 aggregators. Compounds passing the filters included additional PAINS that were not detected, mostly due to tautomerism, and a variety of other potentially reactive compounds currently not encoded as PAINS. For a subset of compounds passing the filters, there was no evidence of potential artifacts. These compounds are considered candidates for further exploring multitarget activities and the molecular basis of polypharmacology.

  12. Identification of siderophore producing and cynogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas and a simple confrontation assay to identify potential bio-control agent for collar rot of chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasthane, Anil S; Agrawal, Toshy; Zaidi, Najam Waris; Singh, U S

    2017-06-01

    In soil, plant roots coexist with bacteria and fungi that produce siderophores capable of sequestering the available iron. Microbial cyanogenesis has been demonstrated in many species of fungi and in a few species of bacteria (e.g., Chromobacterium and Pseudomonas). Fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates P29, P59, P144, P166, P174, P187, P191 and P192 were cyanogenic and produced siderophores in the presence of a strong chelater 8-Hydroxyquinoline (50 mg/l). A simple confrontation assay for identifying potential antagonists was developed. Fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates P66, P141, P144, P166 and P174 were antagonistic against both Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Vigorous plant growth was observed following seed bacterization with P141, P200 and P240. In field experiments, seed bacterization with selected bacterial isolates resulted in reduced collar rot (S. rolfsii) incidence.

  13. Rapid 2,2'-bicinchoninic-based xylanase assay compatible with high throughput screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Kenealy; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    High-throughput screening requires simple assays that give reliable quantitative results. A microplate assay was developed for reducing sugar analysis that uses a 2,2'-bicinchoninic-based protein reagent. Endo-1,4-â-D-xylanase activity against oat spelt xylan was detected at activities of 0.002 to 0.011 IU ml−1. The assay is linear for sugar...

  14. A Direct Quantitative Agar-Plate Based Assay for Analysis of Pseudomonas protegens PF-5 Degradation of Polyurethane Films (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    activity in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. Mol. Plant - Microbe . Interact . 25, 1440e1449. Yang, X., Wang, S., Zhou, L., 2012. Effect of carbon source, C... Interactions between the Pf-5 colonies and thin polyurethane (PU) coatings on ZnSe coupons were evaluated for degradation using infrared spectroscopy...Small (1 mm diameter) colonies of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (formerly Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5) were used for this work. Interactions between

  15. Identification of natural compound inhibitors for multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using in silico high-throughput virtual screening and in vitro validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, Vasudevan; Dineshkumar, Kesavan; Mohanalakshmi, Narasumani; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Hopper, Waheeta

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are resistant to wide range of antibiotics rendering the treatment of infections very difficult. A main mechanism attributed to the resistance is the function of efflux pumps. MexAB-OprM and AcrAB-TolC are the tripartite efflux pump assemblies, responsible for multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Substrates that are more susceptible for efflux are predicted to have a common pharmacophore feature map. In this study, a new criterion of excluding compounds with efflux substrate-like features was used, thereby refining the selection process and enriching the inhibitor identification process. An in-house database of phytochemicals was created and screened using high-throughput virtual screening against AcrB and MexB proteins and filtered by matching with the common pharmacophore models (AADHR, ADHNR, AAHNR, AADHN, AADNR, AAADN, AAADR, AAANR, AAAHN, AAADD and AAADH) generated using known efflux substrates. Phytochemical hits that matched with any one or more of the efflux substrate models were excluded from the study. Hits that do not have features similar to the efflux substrate models were docked using XP docking against the AcrB and MexB proteins. The best hits of the XP docking were validated by checkerboard synergy assay and ethidium bromide accumulation assay for their efflux inhibition potency. Lanatoside C and diadzein were filtered based on the synergistic potential and validated for their efflux inhibition potency using ethidium bromide accumulation study. These compounds exhibited the ability to increase the accumulation of ethidium bromide inside the bacterial cell as evidenced by these increase in fluorescence in the presence of the compounds. With this good correlation between in silico screening and positive efflux inhibitory activity in vitro, the two compounds, lanatoside C and diadzein could be promising efflux pump inhibitors and effective to use in combination therapy against drug

  16. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120. Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests. Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  17. [Pain of high-throughput screening--pan assay interference compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Du, Guan-hua

    2015-08-01

    High-throughput screening is a regular approach available for identitying new lead compounds for the growing validated drug targets in drug screening. However, it has also introduced a large number of peculiar molecules which interfere drug screening. Pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) interfere with the progress of drug screening in various ways, such as interfering with a biochemical assay, modifying the protein, aggregate-based inhibitors and so on. So it is of vital significance to remove them. This paper has consulted the concept, category of PAINS and reviewed the way of PAINS interfering and the countermeasures to cope with them to direct the approach of high through screening and improve the hits percent.

  18. A new method to address verification bias in studies of clinical screening tests: cervical cancer screening assays as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaonan; Kim, Mimi Y; Castle, Philip E; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-01

    Studies to evaluate clinical screening tests often face the problem that the "gold standard" diagnostic approach is costly and/or invasive. It is therefore common to verify only a subset of negative screening tests using the gold standard method. However, undersampling the screen negatives can lead to substantial overestimation of the sensitivity and underestimation of the specificity of the diagnostic test. Our objective was to develop a simple and accurate statistical method to address this "verification bias." We developed a weighted generalized estimating equation approach to estimate, in a single model, the accuracy (eg, sensitivity/specificity) of multiple assays and simultaneously compare results between assays while addressing verification bias. This approach can be implemented using standard statistical software. Simulations were conducted to assess the proposed method. An example is provided using a cervical cancer screening trial that compared the accuracy of human papillomavirus and Pap tests, with histologic data as the gold standard. The proposed approach performed well in estimating and comparing the accuracy of multiple assays in the presence of verification bias. The proposed approach is an easy to apply and accurate method for addressing verification bias in studies of multiple screening methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Peptide Binding to HLA Class I Molecules: Homogenous, High-Throughput Screening, and Affinity Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Lamberth, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    present a homogenous, proximity-based assay for detection of peptide binding to HLA class I molecules. It uses a conformation-dependent anti-HLA class I antibody, W6/32, as one tag and a biotinylated recombinant HLA class I molecule as the other tag, and a proximity-based signal is generated through...... the luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassay technology (abbreviated LOCI and commercialized as AlphaScreen (TM)). Compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based peptide-HLA class I binding assay, the LOCI assay yields virtually identical affinity measurements, although having a broader dynamic range...

  20. The use of cold plasma technology to reduce carryover in screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaq, Mohammed; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Sattikar, Afrah; Kent, Toby C

    2013-08-01

    The accurate transfer of biological reagents represents a fundamental step in the drug screening process, and the elimination of carryover is critical for the generation of accurate measurements of biological activity. The introduction of automated liquid robotics into screening laboratories has transformed the drug screening process, enabling accurate and reproducible transfer of liquids to become a high-throughput activity, but has also introduced a new challenge for drug discoverers: to establish screening workflows that limit analyte carryover for the generation of high-quality screening data. The widespread use of pipetting tips on automated liquid handlers often necessitates the use of optimized wash protocols for removing contaminants and frequently requires the use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents. Furthermore, many chemical and biological reagents are recalcitrant to removal from pipetting tips by treatment with organic solvents. The use of cold atmospheric plasma technology provides an alternative approach for removal of contaminants and offers many advantages over traditional decontamination protocols commonly used during biological screening. This report describes the evaluation of a cold plasma tip-cleaning system for reducing carryover in a range of biological screening assays requiring the transfer of low molecular weight compound, nucleic acid, and bacterial liquid transfers. The validation of this technology for biological screening assays is presented, and the impact of this technology for screening workflows is discussed.

  1. GMO detection in food and feed through screening by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    Isothermal DNA/RNA amplification techniques are the primary methodology for developing on-spot rapid nucleic acid amplification assays, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been developed and applied in the detection of foodborne pathogens, plant/animal viruses, and genetically modified (GM) food/feed contents. In this study, one set of LAMP assays targeting on eight frequently used universal elements, marker genes, and exogenous target genes, such as CaMV35S promoter, FMV35S promoter, NOS, bar, cry1Ac, CP4 epsps, pat, and NptII, were developed for visual screening of GM contents in plant-derived food samples with high efficiency and accuracy. For these eight LAMP assays, their specificity was evaluated by testing commercial GM plant events and their limits of detection were also determined, which are 10 haploid genome equivalents (HGE) for FMV35S promoter, cry1Ac, and pat assays, as well as five HGE for CaMV35S promoter, bar, NOS terminator, CP4 epsps, and NptII assays. The screening applicability of these LAMP assays was further validated successfully using practical canola, soybean, and maize samples. The results suggested that the established visual LAMP assays are applicable and cost-effective for GM screening in plant-derived food samples.

  2. Screening of a Brassica napus bacterial artificial chromosome library using highly parallel single nucleotide polymorphism assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficient screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers is feasible provided that a multidimensional pooling strategy is implemented. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be screened in multiplexed format, therefore this marker type lends itself particularly well for medium- to high-throughput applications. Combining the power of multiplex-PCR assays with a multidimensional pooling system may prove to be especially challenging in a polyploid genome. In polyploid genomes two classes of SNPs need to be distinguished, polymorphisms between accessions (intragenomic SNPs) and those differentiating between homoeologous genomes (intergenomic SNPs). We have assessed whether the highly parallel Illumina GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay is suitable for the screening of a BAC library of the polyploid Brassica napus genome. Results A multidimensional screening platform was developed for a Brassica napus BAC library which is composed of almost 83,000 clones. Intragenomic and intergenomic SNPs were included in Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay and both SNP classes were used successfully for screening of the multidimensional BAC pools of the Brassica napus library. An optimized scoring method is proposed which is especially valuable for SNP calling of intergenomic SNPs. Validation of the genotyping results by independent methods revealed a success of approximately 80% for the multiplex PCR-based screening regardless of whether intra- or intergenomic SNPs were evaluated. Conclusions Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay can be efficiently used for screening of multidimensional Brassica napus BAC pools. SNP calling was specifically tailored for the evaluation of BAC pool screening data. The developed scoring method can be implemented independently of plant reference samples. It is demonstrated that intergenomic SNPs represent a powerful tool for BAC library screening of a polyploid genome

  3. An in vitro screening assay for dental stain cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changxiang; Lucas, Robert; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2017-01-09

    The present study aimed to develop an in vitro model for stain removal from natural enamel for the assessment and comparison of oral hygiene products. Bovine teeth (n = 8 per group) were ground/polished to provide flat enamel specimens and ferric-tannate deposits were precipitated onto the enamel surfaces. The ferric-tannate stained enamel specimens were brushed using an in vitro tooth-brushing simulator with slurries containing commercially available toothpaste products, dental abrasive particles, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) solutions of different concentrations. The colour of the enamel surfaces was measured using a spectrophotometer before and after stain application as well as after the brushing treatments. Differences in stain removal efficacy were found between the toothpastes categorised as whitening and non-whitening comprising of different types of dental abrasives (hydrated silica and alumina). A mean value of 27% for stain removal was detected for the three non-whitening toothpastes and 59% of stain removal was detected for the three whitening toothpastes after 1000 strokes. Compared with the slurry with Zeodent 113 abrasive alone, the addition of STP provided better performance for stain removal under the same brushing conditions (mean value of 62% for Zeodent 113 abrasive alone and 72% with the addition of 5% (w/w) STP after 1000 strokes). No difference was evident between the STP concentration of 5% (w/w) and 10% (w/w). The ferric-tannate/bovine enamel model reported here provides good stain retention, is rapidly and easily prepared, and is shown to be progressively and reproducibly sensitive to toothbrushing using different toothpastes and surfactant/chelating agent solutions. Importantly, it provides good discrimination between various oral hygiene products. The stain removal assay reported here has considerable potential to enable comparative assessments of different toothpaste types in terms of their cleaning capabilities.

  4. Neuraminidase activity provides a practical read-out for a high throughput influenza antiviral screening assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Meng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of influenza strains that are resistant to commonly used antivirals has highlighted the need to develop new compounds that target viral gene products or host mechanisms that are essential for effective virus replication. Existing assays to identify potential antiviral compounds often use high throughput screening assays that target specific viral replication steps. To broaden the search for antivirals, cell-based replication assays can be performed, but these are often labor intensive and have limited throughput. Results We have adapted a traditional virus neutralization assay to develop a practical, cell-based, high throughput screening assay. This assay uses viral neuraminidase (NA as a read-out to quantify influenza replication, thereby offering an assay that is both rapid and sensitive. In addition to identification of inhibitors that target either viral or host factors, the assay allows simultaneous evaluation of drug toxicity. Antiviral activity was demonstrated for a number of known influenza inhibitors including amantadine that targets the M2 ion channel, zanamivir that targets NA, ribavirin that targets IMP dehydrogenase, and bis-indolyl maleimide that targets protein kinase A/C. Amantadine-resistant strains were identified by comparing IC50 with that of the wild-type virus. Conclusion Antivirals with specificity for a broad range of targets are easily identified in an accelerated viral inhibition assay that uses NA as a read-out of replication. This assay is suitable for high throughput screening to identify potential antivirals or can be used to identify drug-resistant influenza strains.

  5. Assay development and high-throughput screening of caspases in microfluidic format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ge; Irvine, Jennifer; Luft, Chris; Pressley, David; Hodge, C Nicholas; Janzen, Bill

    2003-06-01

    Caspase proteases are familiar targets in drug discovery. A common format for screening to identify caspase inhibitors employs fluorogenic or colorimetric tetra-peptide substrates in 96, 384, or 1536 -well microtiter plates. The primary motivation for increasing the number of wells per plate is to reduce the reagent cost per test and increase the throughput of HTS operations. There are significant challenges, however, to moving into or beyond the 1536-well format, such as submicroliter liquid handling, liquid evaporation, increased surface area-to-volume ratios, and the potential for artifacts and interference from small air-borne particles such as lint. Therefore, HTS scientists remain keenly interested in technologies that offer alternatives to the ever-shrinking microtiter plate well. Microfluidic assay technology represents an attractive option that, in theory, consumes only subnanoliter volumes of reagents per test. We have successfully employed a microfluidic assay technology in fluorogenic screening assays for several caspase isoforms utilizing the Caliper Technologies Labchip platform. Caspase-3 is used as a representative case to describe microfluidic assay development and initial high-throughput screening results. In addition, microfluidic screening and plate-based screening are compared in terms of reagent consumption, data quality, and ease of operation.

  6. Development of a single-tube polymerase chain reaction assay for the simultaneous detection of Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus spp. directly in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirogianni, Athanasia; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Karagianni, Eleni; Markoulatos, Panayiotis; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny

    2009-02-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a multiplex single-tube polymerase chain reaction assay for the simultaneous detection of Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus spp. used as target species-specific or genus-specific genes. The assay enables the detection of 5 to 50 pg of bacterial DNA. The sensitivity of the assay was evaluated as 100% for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and Streptococcus spp., and 94.3% for H. influenzae; the specificity was 100% for all 4 microorganisms (positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 98.2%). The assay permits rapid and accurate detection of these 4 microorganisms in a wide range of clinical samples such as whole blood, cerebrospinal, ear, pleural and ophthalmic fluids, as well as bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial secretions.

  7. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay for radiation susceptibility using automated cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, Jasmina; Dingjan, Ilse; Maas, Mariëlle Jp; van der Meulen-Muileman, Ida H; de Menezes, Renee X; Heukelom, Stan; Verheij, Marcel; Gerritsen, Winald R; Geldof, Albert A; van Triest, Baukelien; van Beusechem, Victor W

    2015-02-27

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainstays in the treatment for cancer, but its success can be limited due to inherent or acquired resistance. Mechanisms underlying radioresistance in various cancers are poorly understood and available radiosensitizers have shown only modest clinical benefit. There is thus a need to identify new targets and drugs for more effective sensitization of cancer cells to irradiation. Compound and RNA interference high-throughput screening technologies allow comprehensive enterprises to identify new agents and targets for radiosensitization. However, the gold standard assay to investigate radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, the colony formation assay (CFA), is unsuitable for high-throughput screening. We developed a new high-throughput screening method for determining radiation susceptibility. Fast and uniform irradiation of batches up to 30 microplates was achieved using a Perspex container and a clinically employed linear accelerator. The readout was done by automated counting of fluorescently stained nuclei using the Acumen eX3 laser scanning cytometer. Assay performance was compared to that of the CFA and the CellTiter-Blue homogeneous uniform-well cell viability assay. The assay was validated in a whole-genome siRNA library screening setting using PC-3 prostate cancer cells. On 4 different cancer cell lines, the automated cell counting assay produced radiation dose response curves that followed a linear-quadratic equation and that exhibited a better correlation to the results of the CFA than did the cell viability assay. Moreover, the cell counting assay could be used to detect radiosensitization by silencing DNA-PKcs or by adding caffeine. In a high-throughput screening setting, using 4 Gy irradiated and control PC-3 cells, the effects of DNA-PKcs siRNA and non-targeting control siRNA could be clearly discriminated. We developed a simple assay for radiation susceptibility that can be used for high-throughput screening. This will

  8. Performance of the Xpert HPV assay in women attending for cervical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Cuzick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the Xpert HPV Assay in women attending screening in general practice by comparing Xpert with two established HPV tests, cytology and histology. Methods: A prospective study in women aged 20–60 years attending screening in Bristol, Edinburgh and London using residual Preservcyt cytology samples. Sample order was randomised between Roche cobas4800 and Cepheid Xpert assays with Qiagen hc2 third. Results: 3408 cases were included in the primary analysis. Positivity for Xpert was 19.6%, cobas 19.2% and hc2 19.9% with high concordance (kappa=86.8% vs cobas, 81.55 vs hc2. Xpert, cobas and hc2 showed similar sensitivity (98.7%, 97.5%, 98.7% for CIN2+. All pairwise comparisons had high concordance (Kappa ≥0.78 with any abnormal cytology. Xpert and hc2 were positive for all cases of ≥moderate dyskaryosis (N=63, cobas was negative in two. Histology was available for 172 participants. 79 reported CIN2+, 47 CIN3+. All CIN3+ was positive on Xpert and hc2 and one case negative for cobas. One case of CIN2 was negative for all assays. Conclusions: The performance of Xpert HPV Assay in a general screening population is comparable to established HPV tests. It offers simplicity of testing, flexibility with non-batching of individual samples and rapid turnaround time. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Xpert, Cervical screening, HPV testing

  9. Application of Titration-Based Screening for the Rapid Pilot Testing of High-Throughput Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Hu; Kang, Zhao B; Ardayfio, Ophelia; Ho, Pei-i; Smith, Thomas; Wallace, Iain; Bowes, Scott; Hill, W Adam; Auld, Douglas S

    2014-06-01

    Pilot testing of an assay intended for high-throughput screening (HTS) with small compound sets is a necessary but often time-consuming step in the validation of an assay protocol. When the initial testing concentration is less than optimal, this can involve iterative testing at different concentrations to further evaluate the pilot outcome, which can be even more time-consuming. Quantitative HTS (qHTS) enables flexible and rapid collection of assay performance statistics, hits at different concentrations, and concentration-response curves in a single experiment. Here we describe the qHTS process for pilot testing in which eight-point concentration-response curves are produced using an interplate asymmetric dilution protocol in which the first four concentrations are used to represent the range of typical HTS screening concentrations and the last four concentrations are added for robust curve fitting to determine potency/efficacy values. We also describe how these data can be analyzed to predict the frequency of false-positives, false-negatives, hit rates, and confirmation rates for the HTS process as a function of screening concentration. By taking into account the compound pharmacology, this pilot-testing paradigm enables rapid assessment of the assay performance and choosing the optimal concentration for the large-scale HTS in one experiment. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput s...

  11. Feasibility evaluation of 3 automated cellular drug screening assays on a robotic workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soikkeli, Anne; Sempio, Cristina; Kaukonen, Ann Marie; Urtti, Arto; Hirvonen, Jouni; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the implementation and optimization of 3 cell-based assays on a TECAN Genesis workstation-the Caspase-Glo 3/7 and sulforhodamine B (SRB) screening assays and the mechanistic Caco-2 permeability protocol-and evaluates their feasibility for automation. During implementation, the dispensing speed to add drug solutions and fixative trichloroacetic acid and the aspiration speed to remove the supernatant immediately after fixation were optimized. Decontamination steps for cleaning the tips and pipetting tubing were also added. The automated Caspase-Glo 3/7 screen was successfully optimized with Caco-2 cells (Z' 0.7, signal-to-base ratio [S/B] 1.7) but not with DU-145 cells. In contrast, the automated SRB screen was successfully optimized with the DU-145 cells (Z' 0.8, S/B 2.4) but not with the Caco-2 cells (Z' -0.8, S/B 1.4). The automated bidirectional Caco-2 permeability experiments separated successfully low- and high-permeability compounds (Z' 0.8, S/B 84.2) and passive drug permeation from efflux-mediated transport (Z' 0.5, S/B 8.6). Of the assays, the homogeneous Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay benefits the most from automation, but also the heterogeneous SRB assay and Caco-2 permeability experiments gain advantages from automation.

  12. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for High-Throughput Screening of ADAMTS1 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motifs-1 (ADAMTS1 plays a crucial role in inflammatory joint diseases and its inhibitors are potential candidates for anti-arthritis drugs. For the purposes of drug discovery, we reported the development and validation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assay for high-throughput screening (HTS of the ADAMTS1 inhibitors. A FRET substrate was designed for a quantitative assay of ADAMTS1 activity and enzyme kinetics studies. The assay was developed into a 50-µL, 384-well assay format for high throughput screening of ADAMTS1 inhibitors with an overall Z’ factor of 0.89. ADAMTS1 inhibitors were screened against a diverse library of 40,960 total compounds with the established HTS system. Four structurally related hits, naturally occurring compounds, kuwanon P, kuwanon X, albafuran C and mulberrofuran J, extracted from the Chinese herb Morus alba L., were identified for further investigation. The results suggest that this FRET assay is an excellent tool, not only for measurement of ADAMTS1 activity but also for discovery of novel ADAMTS1 inhibitors with HTS.

  13. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after......Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study...... biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR.The two in vitro metabolizing systems...

  14. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... will continue to be valuable discovery tools, the most exciting developments in the field involve cell-based assays for GPCR function. Some cell-based discovery strategies, such as the use of beta-arrestin as a surrogate marker for GPCR function, have already been reduced to practice, and have been used...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...

  15. Screening assay of residual antibiotics in livestock samples by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takayuki; Sasamoto, Takeo; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kanda, Maki; Takeba, Kazue; Kanai, Setsuko; Kusano, Tomoko; Matsushima, Yoko; Takano, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    A LC-MS/MS screening assay of multi-class antibiotics was developed for 19 residual antibiotics in livestock samples. Sample preparation employed the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach using 0.5% formic acid in acetonitrile-methanol (8 : 2), with salting-out using magnesium sulfate, trisodium citrate and sodium chloride. Recovery values from 5 different livestock samples ranged from 45.5 to 121.6%, and the RSDs were under 18% at two concentration levels. The limit of quantification values of 19 analytes were under 10 µg/kg in all livestock samples, and the procedure can detect almost all analytes under the MRL. Screening capability was confirmed by employing spiked samples. This new screening assay for residual antibiotics in livestock samples is expected to be useful for routine laboratory tests.

  16. A high-throughput colorimetric assay for screening halohydrin dehalogenase saturation mutagenesis libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lixia; Li, Yang; Wang, Xiong

    2010-06-01

    Here we have reported a high throughput pH indicator-based assay to measure the activity of halohydrin dehalogenases (HheC). The assay relies upon the absorbance change at 560nm and the visual color change of phenol red in a weakly buffered system, due to the release of protons from the enzyme-catalyzed ring-closure reactions. The assay can be performed in a microplate format using whole cells, making the assay simple and robust. Thus, it is suitable for library screening. The assay has been further validated using two previously studied HheC variants, D80N and W249F, which exhibit 200-fold lower and 2-fold higher k(cat) values, respectively, toward 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol than the wild-type HheC. In addition, a saturation mutagenesis library of HheC was screened using the developed assay for its ability to efficiently catalyze the conversion of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol. After screening of 500 colonies, one mutant W139C was identified and was further purified and characterized. Kinetic analysis indicates that the resulting mutant shows 2- and 5-fold improvement in k(cat) value toward 1,3-DCP and (R,S)-p-nitro-2-bromo-1-phenylethanol, respectively, although it exhibits higher K(m) values than the wild-type enzyme. The method described herein represents a useful tool given the need for the high throughput screening of halohydrin dehalogenase mutants. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Routine screening for α-thalassaemia using an immunochromatographic strip assay for haemoglobin Bart's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayalaw, Patcharawadee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate an immunochromatographic (IC) strip assay for Hb Bart's as a routine screening test for α-thalassaemia in area with a high prevalence of thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathies. A total of 300 adult screen positive blood specimens were collected at an ongoing thalassaemia screening programme in northeast Thailand. Routine screening was done using red blood cell indices, osmotic fragility, and dichlorophenolindophenol tests. The IC strip assay for haemoglobin Bart's was performed on all samples. The result was evaluated against thalassaemia genotypes determined using standard haemoglobin and DNA analyses. Of 300 subjects investigated, Hb and DNA analyses identified 32 with normal genotype. The remaining subjects carried thalassaemia with as many as 16 different genotypes. Hb Bart's was detected in all cases, with several α(0)-thalassaemia (SEA type) related disorders. Of cases with α(+)-thalassaemia, 86.1% showed a positive result; 100 out of 103 Hb E carriers, all homozygous Hb E and β-thalassaemia trait were negative. Nine out of 17 cases with β-thalassaemia/Hb E disease, and one case of double heterozygote for Hb Q-Thailand and Hb E returned positive results. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the IC strip assay for detecting α(0)-thalassaemia were 100% and 73.1%, respectively. The results showed a high sensitivity for screening for α(0)-thalassaemia using IC strip assay for Hb Bart's. This simple method, used in combination with conventional screening protocols, should lead to a significant reduction in the number of referral cases for DNA analysis. Cost effectiveness in each population should be taken into consideration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. A fluorescence-based assay for monoacylglycerol lipase compatible with inhibitor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuren; Chanda, Pranab; Jones, Philip G; Kennedy, Jeffrey D

    2008-06-01

    A novel fluorescence-based assay of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) activity that is simple, sensitive, and amenable to the screening of small molecule inhibitors is described. Purified recombinant human MAGL protein and 7-hydroxycoumarinyl-arachidonate (7-HCA), a fluorogenic substrate for MAGL, were employed in the assay. MAGL protein catalyzes the hydrolysis of 7-HCA to generate arachidonic acid and the highly fluorescent 7-hydroxyl coumarin (7-HC). Release of 7-HC was measured using a fluorometer. MAGL protein catalyzed the hydrolysis of 7-HCA with an apparent K(m) of 9.8 microM and V(max) of 1.7 mmol/min/mg of protein. The assay is specific for MAGL as assay buffer alone or heat-denatured MAGL protein had no significant activity against 7-HCA. Furthermore, MAGL activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the specific inhibitor URB602 as well as N-arachidonyl maleimide with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 3.1 microM and 155 nM, respectively. The assay was further optimized under different conditions, including pH range and bovine serum albumin protein and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations. The assay was found to be reproducible, having Z' values ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and is therefore suitable for high-throughput screening.

  19. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency-A History of the TREC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Bausch-Jurken

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants born with T cell lymphopenias, especially severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID are at risk for serious, often fatal infections without intervention within the first year or two of life. The majority of these disorders can be detected through the use of the T cell recombination excision circle assay (TREC assay. The TREC assay detects the presence of non-replicating, episomal DNA that is formed during T cell development. This assay initially developed to measure thymic output during aging and HIV infection, has undergone modifications for the purpose of newborn screening (NBS for SCID. To meet the requirements for inclusion on NBS panels, the assay needed to utilize blood from dried blood spots on NBS cards, and be both sensitive and specific, avoiding the costs of false positives. Currently, the assay relies upon real time, quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR to detect TRECs in punches taken from dried blood spots. This review seeks to highlight some of the early work leading up to the initial implementation of the TREC assay for SCID detection, and the subsequent revisions made to optimize the assay.

  20. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  1. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  2. DRABAL: novel method to mine large high-throughput screening assays using Bayesian active learning

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2016-11-10

    Background Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) technique for modeling correlations between several HTS assays, meaning that a single prediction represents a subset of assigned correlated labels instead of one label. Thus, the devised method provides an increased probability for more accurate predictions of compounds that were not tested in particular assays. Results Here we present DRABAL, a novel MLC solution that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays. In this study, DRABAL was used to process more than 1.4 million interactions of over 400,000 compounds and analyze the existing relationships between five large HTS assays from the PubChem BioAssay Database. Compared to different MLC methods, DRABAL significantly improves the F1Score by about 22%, on average. We further illustrated usefulness and utility of DRABAL through screening FDA approved drugs and reported ones that have a high probability to interact with several targets, thus enabling drug-multi-target repositioning. Specifically DRABAL suggests the Thiabendazole drug as a common activator of the NCP1 and Rab-9A proteins, both of which are designed to identify treatment modalities for the Niemann–Pick type C disease. Conclusion We developed a novel MLC solution based on a Bayesian active learning framework to overcome the challenge of lacking fully labeled training data and exploit actual dependencies between the HTS assays. The solution is motivated by the need to model dependencies between existing

  3. DRABAL: novel method to mine large high-throughput screening assays using Bayesian active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2016-01-01

    Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) technique for modeling correlations between several HTS assays, meaning that a single prediction represents a subset of assigned correlated labels instead of one label. Thus, the devised method provides an increased probability for more accurate predictions of compounds that were not tested in particular assays. Here we present DRABAL, a novel MLC solution that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays. In this study, DRABAL was used to process more than 1.4 million interactions of over 400,000 compounds and analyze the existing relationships between five large HTS assays from the PubChem BioAssay Database. Compared to different MLC methods, DRABAL significantly improves the F1Score by about 22%, on average. We further illustrated usefulness and utility of DRABAL through screening FDA approved drugs and reported ones that have a high probability to interact with several targets, thus enabling drug-multi-target repositioning. Specifically DRABAL suggests the Thiabendazole drug as a common activator of the NCP1 and Rab-9A proteins, both of which are designed to identify treatment modalities for the Niemann-Pick type C disease. We developed a novel MLC solution based on a Bayesian active learning framework to overcome the challenge of lacking fully labeled training data and exploit actual dependencies between the HTS assays. The solution is motivated by the need to model dependencies between existing experimental confirmatory HTS

  4. The loss-of-allele assay for ES cell screening and mouse genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frendewey, David; Chernomorsky, Rostislav; Esau, Lakeisha; Om, Jinsop; Xue, Yingzi; Murphy, Andrew J; Yancopoulos, George D; Valenzuela, David M

    2010-01-01

    Targeting vectors used to create directed mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells consist, in their simplest form, of a gene for drug selection flanked by mouse genomic sequences, the so-called homology arms that promote site-directed homologous recombination between the vector and the target gene. The VelociGene method for the creation of targeted mutations in ES cells employs targeting vectors, called BACVecs, that are based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. Compared with conventional short targeting vectors, BacVecs provide two major advantages: (1) their much larger homology arms promote high targeting efficiencies without the need for isogenicity or negative selection strategies; and (2) they enable deletions and insertions of up to 100kb in a single targeting event, making possible gene-ablating definitive null alleles and other large-scale genomic modifications. Because of their large arm sizes, however, BACVecs do not permit screening by conventional assays, such as long-range PCR or Southern blotting, that link the inserted targeting vector to the targeted locus. To exploit the advantages of BACVecs for gene targeting, we inverted the conventional screening logic in developing the loss-of-allele (LOA) assay, which quantifies the number of copies of the native locus to which the mutation was directed. In a correctly targeted ES cell clone, the LOA assay detects one of the two native alleles (for genes not on the X or Y chromosome), the other allele being disrupted by the targeted modification. We apply the same principle in reverse as a gain-of-allele assay to quantify the copy number of the inserted targeting vector. The LOA assay reveals a correctly targeted clone as having lost one copy of the native target gene and gained one copy of the drug resistance gene or other inserted marker. The combination of these quantitative assays makes LOA genotyping unequivocal and amenable to automated scoring. We use the quantitative polymerase chain reaction

  5. A modified MS2 bacteriophage plaque reduction assay for the rapid screening of antiviral plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Ian; Kalt, F R

    2010-07-01

    Traditional methods of screening plant extracts and purified components for antiviral activity require up to a week to perform, prompting the need to develop more rapid quantitative methods to measure the ability of plant based preparations to block viral replication. We describe an adaption of an MS2 plaque reduction assay for use in S. aureus. MS2 bacteriophage was capable of infecting and replicating in B. cereus, S. aureus and F + E. coli but not F- E. coli. Indeed, both B. cereus and S. aureus were more sensitive to MS2 induced lysis than F+ E. coli. When MS2 bacteriophage was mixed with Camellia sinensis extract (1 mg/ml), Scaevola spinescens extract (1 mg/ml) or Aloe barbadensis juice and the mixtures inoculated into S. aureus, the formation of plaques was reduced to 8.9 ± 3.8%, 5.4 ± 2.4% and 72.7 ± 20.9% of the untreated MS2 control values respectively. The ability of the MS2 plaque reduction assay to detect antiviral activity in these known antiviral plant preparations indicates its suitability as an antiviral screening tool. An advantage of this assay compared with traditionally used cytopathic effect reduction assays and replicon based assays is the more rapid acquisition of results. Antiviral activity was detected within 24 h of the start of testing. The MS2 assay is also inexpensive and non-pathogenic to humans making it ideal for initial screening studies or as a simulant for pathogenic viruses.

  6. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Syphilis detection: evaluation of serological screening and pilot reverse confirmatory assay algorithm in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, Linda; Paolillo, Rossella; Sabia, Chiara; Costa, Dario; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Iannone, Carmela; Esposito, Antonella; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Serological assays are still considered the most useful tests in the diagnosis of syphilis. Since no single serological assay is able to provide a satisfactory result, in our laboratory we have evaluated the usefulness of a commercially-available immunoblot to diagnose syphilis infection among blood donors. From October 2012 to June 2013, 4572 blood donors were screened for syphilis with an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). To confirm the presence of treponemal antibodies, CMIA-reactive sera were tested by standard Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). In addition, an alternative confirmatory test - the immunoblot INNO-LIA assay was introduced in our laboratory. Since two additional positives among CMIA-reactive-TPHA-negative samples were found, we concluded that the INNO-LIA immunoblot allowed a better detection of syphilis compared to TPHA. A confirmatory strategy based on the use of two treponemal assays could meet the screening requirements for blood donors as well as in our centre. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Multicenter evaluation of a new 4th generation HIV screening assay Elecsys HIV combi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B; Orazi, B; Raineri, A; Thorstensson, R; Bürgisser, P; Mühlbacher, A; Areal, C; Eiras, A; Villaescusa, R; Camacho, R; Diogo, I; Roth, H J; Zahn, I; Bartel, J; Bossi, V; Piro, F; Atamasirikul, K; Permpikul, P; Webber, L; Singh, S

    2006-01-01

    Fourth-generation screening assays which permit a simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen and antibody reduce the diagnostic window on average by four days in comparison to third-generation antibody assays. Recently, the new automated Elecsys HIV combi was compared in a multicenter study to alternative fourth- and third-generation assays, p24 antigen test and HIV-1 RNA RT-PCR. A total of 104 serocon-version panels, samples of the acute phase of infection after seroconversion (n = 33), anti-HIV-1 positive specimens (n = 572) from patients in different stages of the disease, 535 subtyped samples from different geographical locations, including group M (subtypes A-J) and group O, anti-HIV-2 positive sera (n = 364), dilutions of cell culture supernatants (n = 60) infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, selected performance panels, 8406 unselected samples from blood donors originating from different blood transfusion centers, 3810 unselected sera from daily routine and from hospitalized patients, 9927 unselected samples from South Africa and 1943 potentially interfering samples were tested with the Elecsys HIV combi. Elecsys HIV combi showed a comparable sensitivity to HIV-1 Ag stand-alone assays for early detection of HIV infection in seroconversion panels. The mean time delay of Elecsys HIV combi (last negative sample + 1 day) in comparison to HIV-1 RT-PCR for 92 panels tested with both methods was 3.23 days. The diagnostic window was reduced with Elecsys HIV combi between 1.56 and 5.32 days in comparison to third-generation assays. The specificity of Elecsys HIV combi in blood donors was 99.80% after repeated testing. Our results show that a fourth-generation assay with improved specificity and sensitivity like the Elecsys HIV combi is suitable for blood donor screening due to its low number of false positives and since it detects HIV p24 antigen with a comparable sensitivity to single antigen assays.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  10. Development of screening assays to test novel integrin antagonists in allergic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Spartà, Antonino Maria

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the research: to develop a prototype of homogeneous high-throughput screening (HTS) for identification of novel integrin antagonists for the treatment of ocular allergy and to better understand the mechanisms of action of integrin-mediated levocabastine antiallergic action. Results: This thesis provides evidence that adopting scintillation proximity assay (SPA) levocabastine (IC50=406 mM), but not the first-generation antihistamine chlorpheniramine, displaces [125I]fibronectin (F...

  11. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharani Manoharan

    Full Text Available The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant's natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction.

  12. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  13. Fluorescent Parkin Cell-Based Assay Development for the Screening of Drugs against Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacé, Patricia; Mella, Rosa M; Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Valcárcel, María; Salado, Clarisa; Castilla, Amaia; Kortazar, Danel

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, causing tremor and motor impairment. Parkin protein, whose mutants are the cause of Parkinson disease type 2 (PARK2), has been mechanistically linked to the regulation of apoptosis and the turnover of damaged mitochondria. Several studies have implicated aberrant mitochondria as a key contributor to the development of PD. In the attempt to discover new drugs, high-content cell-based assays are becoming more important to mimic the nature of biological processes and their diversifications in diseases and will be essential for lead identification and the optimization of therapeutic candidates. We have developed a novel fluorescence cell-based assay for high-content screening to find compounds that can promote the mitochondrial localization of Parkin without severe mitochondrial damage induction. In this work, this model was used to screen a library of 1280 compounds. After the screening campaign, the positive compounds were chosen for further testing, based on the strength of the initial response and lack of cytotoxicity. These results indicated that this Parkin cell-based assay is a robust (Z' > 0.5) and valid strategy to test potential candidates for preclinical studies.

  14. Validation of a modified fluorimetric assay for the screening of trichomonacidal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ibáñez Escribano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A fluorimetric microassay that uses a redox dye to determine the viability of the flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis has been optimised to provide a more sensitive method to evaluate potential trichomonacidal compounds. Resazurin has been used in recent years to test drugs against different parasites, including trichomonadid protozoa; however, the reproducibility of these resazurin-based methods in our laboratory has been limited because the flagellate culture medium spontaneously reduces the resazurin. The objective of this work was to refine the fluorimetric microassay method previously developed by other research groups to reduce the fluorescence background generated by the media and increase the sensitivity of the screening assay. The experimental conditions, time of incubation, resazurin concentration and media used in the microtitre plates were adjusted. Different drug sensitivity studies against T. vaginalis were developed using the 5-nitroimidazole reference drugs, new 5-nitroindazolinones and 5-nitroindazole synthetic derivatives. Haemocytometer count results were compared with the resazurin assay using a 10% solution of 3 mM resazurin dissolved in phosphate buffered saline with glucose (1 mg/mL. The fluorimetric assay and the haemocytometer counts resulted in similar percentages of trichomonacidal activity in all the experiments, demonstrating that the fluorimetric microtitre assay has the necessary accuracy for high-throughput screening of new drugs against T. vaginalis.

  15. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO 4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO 4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can......Campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In order to comply with the demands of consumers for food free of bacterial pathogens, a mass screening program for Campylobacter in Danish broilers has been carried out based on conventional bacterial...

  17. Reduction of diagnostic window by new fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B; Fall, E H; Berger, A; Doerr, H W

    1998-08-01

    In order to reduce the diagnostic window between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis, new screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) which permit the simultaneous detection of HIV antigen and antibody have been developed. Two fourth-generation assays, HIV DUO (Biomérieux) and HIV Combi (Boehringer Mannheim), for the combined detection of HIV antigen and antibody, were compared with a third-generation assay (HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus enzyme immunoassay [EIA]; Abbott) and a p24 antigen test (HIV-1 Ag monoclonal; Abbott). A total of 17 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 255 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested. Ten seroconversions were detected an average of 8.1 days earlier with HIV DUO and 7.5 days earlier with HIV Combi than with the third-generation ELISA. Overall, in the 17 seroconversion panels tested, HIV DUO detected HIV-1 infection an average of 4.8 days and HIV Combi detected infection an average of 4.4 days earlier than HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus EIA. HIV antigen was detected with HIV DUO and HIV Combi in all of the 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, including subtype O. With fourth-generation assays, considerably fewer false-positive results (n = 4 to 6) were obtained, in comparison with the third-generation EIA (n = 18). Fourth-generation assays permit an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third-generation antibody screening assays through the detection of p24 antigen, which may be present in serum samples from individuals with recent HIV infection prior to seroconversion.

  18. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Sarah J; Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72 h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z' = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3 h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47 h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples.

  19. Performances of four fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus-1 screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Young; Hur, Mina; Roh, Eun Youn; Park, Myoung Hee; Moon, Hee-Won; Yun, Yeo Min

    2012-12-01

    Fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) screening assays have improved sensitivity, but vary in performance characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four different fourth-generation HIV-1 assays. These assays included the AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab Combo (Abbott diagnostics, Delkenheim, Germany), ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo (Abbott), Elecsys 2010 HIV Combi (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), and Elecsys HIV Combi PT (Roche). A total of 1,306 samples that included 1,225 clinical samples and 81 samples consisting of seroconversion panels, an HIV-1 p24 antigen sensitivity panel, and dilution series of HIV-1 lysates and HIV-1 antibodies were tested. All of the assays had sensitivities of 100% on clinical samples. The specificities of the AxSYM, ARCHITECT, Elecsys 2010 HIV Combi, and Elecsys HIV Combi PT were 99.6, 99.6, 99.0, and 99.5%, respectively. Of the 81 samples with different levels of HIV antigen or antibody and/or subtypes, Elecsys HIV Combi PT and ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo showed better analytical sensitivities than the other two assays. In summary, the performance characteristics of AxSYM, ARCHITECT, and Elecsys HIV Combi PT were comparable and satisfactory for clinical samples. ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo and Elecsys HIV Combi PT have the higher analytical sensitivities, and would be preferable for reducing the window period. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. MICROSPHERE-BASED FLOW CYTOMETRY PROTEASE ASSAYS FOR USE IN PROTEASE ACTIVITY DETECTION AND HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Matthew J.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Zhu, Jingshu; Sklar, Larry A.; Graves, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes microsphere-based protease assays for use in flow cytometry and high-throughput screening. This platform measures a loss of fluorescence from the surface of a microsphere due to the cleavage of an attached fluorescent protease substrate by a suitable protease enzyme. The assay format can be adapted to any site or protein specific protease of interest and results can be measured in both real time and as end point fluorescence assays on a flow cytometer. End point assays are easily adapted to microplate format for flow cytometry high-throughput analysis and inhibitor screening. PMID:20938917

  1. The trade-off between accuracy and accessibility of syphilis screening assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W Smit

    Full Text Available The availability of rapid and sensitive methods to diagnose syphilis facilitates screening of pregnant women, which is one of the most cost-effective health interventions available. We have evaluated two screening methods in Tanzania: an enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and a point-of-care test (POCT. We evaluated the performance of each test against the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA as the reference method, and the accessibility of testing in a rural district of Tanzania. The POCT was performed in the clinic on whole blood, while the other assays were performed on plasma in the laboratory. Samples were also tested by the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR test. With TPPA as reference assay, the sensitivity and specificity of EIA were 95.3% and 97.8%, and of the POCT were 59.6% and 99.4% respectively. The sensitivity of the POCT and EIA for active syphilis cases (TPPA positive and RPR titer ≥ 1/8 were 82% and 100% respectively. Only 15% of antenatal clinic attenders in this district visited a health facility with a laboratory capable of performing the EIA. Although it is less sensitive than EIA, its greater accessibility, and the fact that treatment can be given on the same day, means that the use of POCT would result in a higher proportion of women with syphilis receiving treatment than with the EIA in this district of Tanzania.

  2. SCREENING ASSAYS TO FIND OUT LATE LATENT SYPHILIS CASES - WHICH IS THE BEST ONE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dzintars Ozoliņš

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The serological methods for diagnosis of syphilis are classified into non-specific (non-treponemal such as Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR, and specific (treponemal such as Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG, IgM (ELISA IgG, IgM tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of RPR, TPHA and Syphilis ELISA IgG, IgM. The study was conducted on 18 799 clinically healthy persons who had visited the Outpatient clinic of Ministry of the Interior Clinical Centre, Latvia during 2 years period from August 2006 to November 2007. Patients were screened to find out possible late latent syphilis cases by using RPR, TPHA and ELISA IgG, IgM assays. The results showed the highest sensitivity indices of ELISA IgG, IgM and TPHA methods, and the lowest for the RPR test. Highest specificity indices were observed by using ELISA IgG, IgM method followed by TPHA method with lower values and RPR method showing the lowest specificity. To conclude, ELISA IgG, IgM and TPHA methods should be used for screening late latent syphilis cases and ELISA IgG, IgM for diagnosis confirmation. RPR is not recommended for screening purposes.

  3. Validation of diagnostic assays to screen broodstock for Flavobacterium psychrophilum infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A; Polinski, M P; Call, D R; Cain, K D

    2012-06-01

    It is hypothesized that the frequency of bacterial coldwater disease outbreaks can be reduced through the detection of the aetiologic agent, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, in broodstock followed by culling of eggs from heavily infected broodstock. Before a culling programme can be instituted, however, it is necessary to determine the sensitivity and specificity of existing assays for the detection of F. psychrophilum. In this study, tissue and ovarian fluid samples were collected from 224 fish at five hatcheries and screened using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), bacteriological culture and nested PCR. Latent class analysis was used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of kidney culture, kidney ELISA, nested PCR and MF-FAT. Analytical sensitivity of the ELISA varied but was greatest when bacteria were cultured under iron-limiting conditions. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates ranged from 0.02 (kidney culture) to 0.97 (kidney ELISA). Specificity estimates ranged from 0.02 (MF-FAT) to 0.98 (kidney ELISA). In a separate challenge experiment, the ELISA confirmed the presence of F. psychrophilum in sub-clinically infected fish. Results from this study demonstrate that the ELISA is an appropriate tool to screen broodstock and provides an indication of infection severity, which is crucial for implementation of a screening/culling programme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A Genetic Screen Reveals Novel Targets to Render Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sensitive to Lysozyme and Cell Wall-Targeting Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Lee, Keehoon; Go, Junhyeok; Park, In Ho; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Jik; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of establishing airway infections. Human airway mucus contains a large amount of lysozyme, which hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls. P. aeruginosa, however, is known to be resistant to lysozyme. Here, we performed a genetic screen using a mutant library of PAO1, a prototype P. aeruginosa strain, and identified two mutants (ΔbamB and ΔfabY) that exhibited decrease in survival after lysozyme treatment. The bamB and fabY genes encode an outer membrane assembly protein and a fatty acid synthesis enzyme, respectively. These two mutants displayed retarded growth in the airway mucus secretion (AMS). In addition, these mutants exhibited reduced virulence and compromised survival fitness in two different in vivo infection models. The mutants also showed susceptibility to several antibiotics. Especially, ΔbamB mutant was very sensitive to vancomycin, ampicillin, and ceftazidime that target cell wall synthesis. The ΔfabY displayed compromised membrane integrity. In conclusion, this study uncovered a common aspect of two different P. aeruginosa mutants with pleiotropic phenotypes, and suggests that BamB and FabY could be novel potential drug targets for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection.

  5. Construction of a glucose sensor based on a screen-printed electrode and a novel mediator pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, Kunihiko; Sato, Naruhide; Hamada-Sato, Naoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Okuma, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2004-05-15

    Pyocyanin is the blue phenazine pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pyocyanin production using immobilized cells was investigated. The maximum production of pyocyanin was obtained using cells immobilized in kappa-carrageenan. Moreover, 0.01% PO4(3-), 0.2% Mg(2+), 0.001% Fe(2+), 1% glycerine, 0.8% leucine and 0.8% dl-alanine were also essential for pyocyanin production. Pyocyanin was purified by chloroform extraction and silica gel column chromatography. An amperometric biosensor system using a screen-printed electrode and pyocyanin as mediator were also developed for a more accurate determination of glucose concentration. Pyocyanin, which exists in the oxidated form, was reduced by the reaction between glucose oxidase and glucose. The reduced form was then converted back to the oxidized form by an oxidative reaction on the electrode. There was a linear relation ship between sensor output currents and glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 20mM under the following conditions: -200 mV of the applied potential, pH 5.0, and 10 U of the immobilized enzyme. The coefficient of variation was below 3% (n = 5) for the glucose sensor.

  6. Sulfonylureas and Glinides as New PPARγ Agonists:. Virtual Screening and Biological Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsi, Marco; Podvinec, Michael; Roth, Adrian; Hug, Hubert; Kersten, Sander; Albrecht, Hugo; Schwede, Torsten; Meyer, Urs A.; Rücker, Christoph

    2007-12-01

    This work combines the predictive power of computational drug discovery with experimental validation by means of biological assays. In this way, a new mode of action for type 2 diabetes drugs has been unvealed. Most drugs currently employed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes either target the sulfonylurea receptor stimulating insulin release (sulfonylureas, glinides), or target PPARγ improving insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones). Our work shows that sulfonylureas and glinides bind to PPARγ and exhibit PPARγ agonistic activity. This result was predicted in silico by virtual screening and confirmed in vitro by three biological assays. This dual mode of action of sulfonylureas and glinides may open new perspectives for the molecular pharmacology of antidiabetic drugs, since it provides evidence that drugs can be designed which target both the sulfonylurea receptor and PPARγ. Targeting both receptors could in principle allow to increase pancreatic insulin secretion, as well as to improve insulin resistance.

  7. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell-Based Assay Design for High-Content Screening of Drug Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierode, Gregory; Kwon, Paul S; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kwon, Seok-Joon

    2016-02-01

    To reduce attrition in drug development, it is crucial to consider the development and implementation of translational phenotypic assays as well as decipher diverse molecular mechanisms of action for new molecular entities. High-throughput fluorescence and confocal microscopes with advanced analysis software have simplified the simultaneous identification and quantification of various cellular processes through what is now referred to as highcontent screening (HCS). HCS permits automated identification of modifiers of accessible and biologically relevant targets and can thus be used to detect gene interactions or identify toxic pathways of drug candidates to improve drug discovery and development processes. In this review, we summarize several HCS-compatible, biochemical, and molecular biology-driven assays, including immunohistochemistry, RNAi, reporter gene assay, CRISPR-Cas9 system, and protein-protein interactions to assess a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, morphological changes, protein expression, localization, post-translational modifications, and protein-protein interactions. These cell-based assay methods can be applied to not only 2D cell culture but also 3D cell culture systems in a high-throughput manner.

  9. Genus-specific PCR assay for screening Arcobacter spp. in chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isabel; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2014-04-01

    The number of emerging pathogenic species described within the genus Arcobacter has increased rapidly during the last few years. In this work a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of the species of Arcobacter most commonly associated with foods. The assay uses primers designed to amplify an 85 bp DNA fragment on the 16S rRNA gene and was applied to the detection of Arcobacter spp. in retail chicken meat. Primer specificity was tested against a panel of Arcobacter spp., related Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. and other food bacteria. Arcobacter primers consistently and selectively amplified the expected DNA fragment in all tested Arcobacter spp. Bacterial control primers confirmed the presence of amplifiable DNA in the samples. The applicability of the PCR assay to food was validated through screening of fresh retail chicken samples for the presence of Arcobacter spp., with a result of 45% (23 out of 51) positive samples. The genus-specific PCR assay developed has the potential to be used as a quick and sensitive alternative method for the survey of Arcobacter contamination in meats. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A recombinant fusion protein-based, fluorescent protease assay for high throughput-compatible substrate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóki, Beáta; Gazda, Lívia; Tóth, Ferenc; Miczi, Márió; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2018-01-01

    In connection with the intensive investigation of proteases, several methods have been developed for analysis of the substrate specificity. Due to the great number of proteases and the expected target molecules to be analyzed, time- and cost-efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are preferred. Here we describe the development and application of a separation-based HTS-compatible fluorescent protease assay, which is based on the use of recombinant fusion proteins as substrates of proteases. The protein substrates used in this assay consists of N-terminal (hexahistidine and maltose binding protein) fusion tags, cleavage sequences of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) and HIV-1 proteases, and a C-terminal fluorescent protein (mApple or mTurquoise2). The assay is based on the fluorimetric detection of the fluorescent proteins, which are released from the magnetic bead-attached substrates by the proteolytic cleavage. The protease assay has been applied for activity measurements of TEV and HIV-1 proteases to test the suitability of the system for enzyme kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, and determination of pH optimum. We also found that denatured fluorescent proteins can be renatured after SDS-PAGE of denaturing conditions, but showed differences in their renaturation abilities. After in-gel renaturation both substrates and cleavage products can be identified by in-gel UV detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Mos1 transposase in vivo assay to screen new HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Mariana; Loreto, Elgion L S

    2018-01-19

    The integrase and transposase enzymes of retrovirus and transposons, respectively, share the catalytic DDE domain. In vitro assays showed that inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase generally inhibit the mariner Mos1 transposase. Using a Drosophila strain in which the mobilisation of the mariner element can be quantified by mosaic eyes, we showed that flies maintained in medium containing 210 µM to 4 mM of raltegravir, or 1 or 2 mM of dolutegravir, which are HIV-1 integrase inhibitor used in AIDS treatment, have 23-33% less somatic mobilisation in mosaic eyes when treated with raltegravir and 28-32% when treated with dolutegravir. The gene expression of the mariner transposase gene, estimated by qPCR, is similar among treated and control flies. The results suggest that in vivo assays using Drosophila can be used as a primary screening of inhibitory drugs for transposase and retroviral integrase. The advantages of this assay are that it is easy, quick, cheap and is an in vivo test, meaning that the tested substance has to have been taken in by cells and has arrived at the target site, which is not the case when in vitro assays are applied.

  12. Colorimetric deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization assay for rapid screening of Salmonella in foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, M S; Klatt, M J; Mozola, M A

    1990-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed in 11 laboratories to validate a colorimetric DNA hybridization (DNAH) method for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods. The method was compared to the standard culture method for detection of Salmonella in nonfat dry milk, milk chocolate, soy isolate, dried whole egg, ground black pepper, and raw ground turkey. Samples inoculated with high (0.4-2 cells/g) and low (0.04-0.2 cells/g) levels of Salmonella and uninoculated control samples were included in each food group analyzed. There was no significant difference in the proportion of samples positive by DNAH and culture procedure for any of the 6 foods. The colorimetric DNA hybridization assay screening method has been adopted official first action as a rapid screening method for detection of Salmonella in all foods.

  13. A Cellular Screening Assay Using Analysis of Metal-Modified Fluorescence Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Nicholas I.; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Archibald, Stephen J.; Ng, Tony; Richards, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current methods for screening cell receptor internalization often require complex image analysis with limited sensitivity. Here we describe a novel bioassay based on detection of changes in global fluorescence lifetime above a gold substrate, with superresolution axial sensitivity and no need for image analysis. We show that the lifetime of enhanced green fluorescent protein expressed in a cellular membrane is greatly reduced in close proximity to the gold, resulting in a distance-dependent lifetime distribution throughout the cell. We demonstrate the application of this phenomenon in a screening assay by comparing the efficacies of two small molecule inhibitors interfering with the internalization process of a G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:20513420

  14. Tuberculosis progression rates in U.S. Immigrants following screening with interferon-gamma release assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Blount

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon-gamma release assays may be used as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test for detection of M. tuberculosis infection. However, the risk of active tuberculosis disease following screening using interferon-gamma release assays in immigrants is not well defined. To address these uncertainties, we determined the incidence rates of active tuberculosis disease in a cohort of high-risk immigrants with Class B TB screened with interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs upon arrival in the United States. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design, we enrolled recent U.S. immigrants with Class B TB who were screened with an IGRA (QuantiFERON ® Gold or Gold In-Tube Assay at the San Francisco Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Clinic from January 2005 through December 2010. We reviewed records from the Tuberculosis Control Patient Management Database and from the California Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Case Registry to determine incident cases of active tuberculosis disease through February 2015. Results Of 1233 eligible immigrants with IGRA screening at baseline, 81 (6.6 % were diagnosed with active tuberculosis disease as a result of their initial evaluation. Of the remaining 1152 participants without active tuberculosis disease at baseline, 513 tested IGRA-positive and 639 tested IGRA-negative. Seven participants developed incident active tuberculosis disease over 7730 person-years of follow-up, for an incidence rate of 91 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 43–190. Five IGRA-positive and two IGRA-negative participants developed active tuberculosis disease (incidence rates 139 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 58–335 and 48 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 12–193, respectively for an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 2.9 (95 % CI 0.5–30, p = 0.21. IGRA test results had a negative predictive value of 99.7 % but a positive predictive value of only 0.97 %. Conclusions Among high

  15. Yeast Estrogen Screen Assay as a Tool for Detecting Estrogenic Activity in Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bistan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water has become a major concern worldwide, since they negatively affect wildlife and humans. Therefore, these substances should be effectively removed from effluents before they are discharged into surface water to prevent pollution of groundwater, which can be a source of drinking water. Furthermore, an efficient control of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater based on biological and analytical techniques is required. In this study, a yeast estrogen screen (YES bioassay has been introduced and optimized with the aim to assess potential estrogenic activity of waters. First, assay duration, concentration of added substrate to the assay medium and wavelength used to measure the absorbance of the substrate were estimated. Several compounds, such as 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, genisteine, hydrocortisone, dieldrin, atrazine, methoxychlor, testosterone and progesterone were used to verify its specificity and sensitivity. The optimized YES assay was sensitive and responded specifically to the selected estrogenic and nonestrogenic compounds in aqueous samples. Potential estrogenicity of influent and effluent samples of two wastewater treatment plants was assessed after the samples had been concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure using Oasis® HLB cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Up to 90 % of relative estrogenic activity was detected in concentrated samples of influents to wastewater treatment plants and estrogenic activity was still present in the concentrated effluent samples. We found that the introduced YES assay is a suitable screening tool for monitoring the potential estrogenicity of effluents that are discharged into surface water.

  16. Utilizing high throughput screening data for predictive toxicology models: protocols and application to MLSCN assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Rajarshi; Schürer, Stephan C.

    2008-06-01

    Computational toxicology is emerging as an encouraging alternative to experimental testing. The Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network (MLSCN) as part of the NIH Molecular Libraries Roadmap has recently started generating large and diverse screening datasets, which are publicly available in PubChem. In this report, we investigate various aspects of developing computational models to predict cell toxicity based on cell proliferation screening data generated in the MLSCN. By capturing feature-based information in those datasets, such predictive models would be useful in evaluating cell-based screening results in general (for example from reporter assays) and could be used as an aid to identify and eliminate potentially undesired compounds. Specifically we present the results of random forest ensemble models developed using different cell proliferation datasets and highlight protocols to take into account their extremely imbalanced nature. Depending on the nature of the datasets and the descriptors employed we were able to achieve percentage correct classification rates between 70% and 85% on the prediction set, though the accuracy rate dropped significantly when the models were applied to in vivo data. In this context we also compare the MLSCN cell proliferation results with animal acute toxicity data to investigate to what extent animal toxicity can be correlated and potentially predicted by proliferation results. Finally, we present a visualization technique that allows one to compare a new dataset to the training set of the models to decide whether the new dataset may be reliably predicted.

  17. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Grover

    Full Text Available The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery

  18. Screening for Proteolytic Activities in Snake Venom by Means of a Multiplexing ESI-MS Assay Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesener, A.; Perchuc, Anna-Maria; Schöni, Reto; Wilmer, Marianne; Karst, U.

    2005-01-01

    A multiplexed mass spectrometry based assay scheme for the simultaneous determination of five different substrate/product pairs was developed as a tool for screening of proteolytic activities in snake venom fractions from Bothrops moojeni. The assay scheme was employed in the functional

  19. Newborn Congenital Cytomegalovirus Screening Based on Clinical Manifestations and Evaluation of DNA-based Assays for In Vitro Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomoyuki; Oka, Akira; Morioka, Ichiro; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Shin; Yamada, Hideto; Saito, Shigeru; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Tsuchida, Shinya; Inoue, Naoki

    2017-10-01

    To establish a strategy for congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) screening and to establish confirmatory assays approved as in vitro diagnostics by the regulatory authorities, we evaluated the clinical risks and performance of diagnostic assays developed by commercial companies, since cCMV infection has significant clinical consequences. Newborns with clinical manifestations considered to be consequences of cCMV infection (n = 575) were screened for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in urine specimens collected onto filter paper placed in their diapers using the polymerase chain reaction-based assay reported previously. Liquid urine specimens were obtained from all of 20 CMV-positive newborns and 107 of the CMV-negative newborns identified in the screening. We used these 127 specimens, as well as 12 from cCMV cases identified in a previous study and 41 from healthy newborns, to compare the performance of 2 commercial assays and 1 in-house assay. The risk-based screening allowed the identification of cCMV cases at least 10-fold more efficiently than our previous universal screening, although there appears to be a limit to the identification of asymptomatically infected newborns. Although CMV-specific IgM during pregnancy was found frequently in mothers of cCMV newborns, CMV-IgM alone is not an effective diagnostic marker. The urine-filter-based assay and the 3 diagnostic assays yielded identical results. Although risk-based and universal newborn screening strategies for cCMV infection each have their respective advantages and disadvantages, urine-filter-based assay followed by confirmatory in vitro diagnostics assays is able to identify cCMV cases efficiently.

  20. Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asther Marcel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol, it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the

  1. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  2. Screening of molecular cell targets for carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines by using CALUX® reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Pablo; Behnisch, Peter A; Besselink, Harrie; Brouwer, Abraham A

    2017-06-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are compounds formed when meat or fish are cooked at high temperatures for a long time or over an open fire. To determine which pathways of toxicity are activated by HCAs, nine out of the ten HCAs known to be carcinogenic in rodents (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2)) were tested in the estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Nrf2, and p53 CALUX® reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1 was the only HCA that led to a positive response in the ERα, PPARγ2, and Nrf2 CALUX® assays. In the PAH CALUX® assay, Trp-P-2, MeAαC, and AαC induced luciferase activity to a greater extent than MeIQ and PhIP. In the p53 CALUX® assay without a coupled metabolic activation, only Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 enhanced luciferase expression; when a metabolic activation step was coupled to the p53 CALUX® assay, Trp-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP induced a positive response. No HCA was positive in the AR and GR CALUX® assays. Taken together, the results obtained show that the battery of CALUX® assays performed in the present study can successfully be used to screen for molecular cell targets of carcinogenic compounds such as HCAs.

  3. A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30% in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics.

  4. Characterization analysis for leaves of Leucaena leucocephala by using phytochemical screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarina, Z.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Petai Belalang) is a medium plant which belong in group of tropical breed that can survived in hot, dried and warm environment. In Malaysia, the plant is available abundantly. As there are still no commercial used, and no serious intention in finding the benefits of L. Leucocephala, this work come out with the idea to analyze the antioxidants contains in leaves of the plant by undergoes different extraction and chemical testing method. The phytochemical screening assay involved in this study are antioxidant activity by using free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, total phenolic content by using Folin-Ciocalteu method, total flavonoid content by using colorimetric assay with ascorbic acid and quercetin were used as reference standards while for phosphorus analysis, a molybdenum blue method or also known as ascorbic acid method was used. For antioxidant activity by using free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 8247.0 mg/L, for total phenolic content higher concentration was recorded by extraction using deionized water (dried sample) which is 4276.0 mg/L, for total flavonoid content by using colorimetric assay higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 4439.0 mg/L, and for for phosphorus analysis higher concentration was recorded by extraction using methanol (dried sample) which is 71.057 mg/L.

  5. Clinical application evaluation of two fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening assays in West China Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongming; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Yan, Kening; Zhu, Siyuan; Yang, Tingfu; Luo, Lan; Tao, Chuanmin

    2015-03-01

    Fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening assays have been used in many laboratories. The Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay is a new kind of fourth-generation HIV screening assay developed to allow earlier detection of seroconversion. A total of 271,845 routine specimens were detected using the Elecsys® HIV combi assay and Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay from September 2010 to December 2012 in a large university hospital. Repeatedly, reactive screening samples were confirmed according to recommended confirmatory algorithms. The false-positive rate and positive predictive value (PPV) of two assays are 0.08 and 78.35%, respectively, for the Elecsys® HIV combi assay and 0.07 and 82.21% for the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay. Ninety-four percent cases with cutoff index ratio false-positive. When we set the specificity as 95.0 and 99.0%, PPV could increase to 98.7, 99.6, 98.8, and 99.7%, and sensitivity reduced to 99.2, 98.4, 98.5, and 96.8% for the Elecsys® HIV combi assay and the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay, respectively. The Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay shows a better performance in specificity than the Elecsys® HIV combi assay. Most weakly reactive results were false-positive, this means it still need to be improved and it will need laboratory personnel to communicate with the clinical doctor and patients more properly about the result of the assay. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for cellular transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Asaf; Janzer, Andreas; Izar, Benjamin; Ji, Zhe; Doench, John G.; Garraway, Levi A.; Struhl, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Colony formation in soft agar is the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation in vitro, but it is unsuited for high-throughput screening. Here, we describe an assay for cellular transformation that involves growth in low attachment (GILA) conditions and is strongly correlated with the soft-agar assay. Using GILA, we describe high-throughput screens for drugs and genes that selectively inhibit or increase transformation, but not proliferation. Such molecules are unlikely to be found through conventional drug screening, and they include kinase inhibitors and drugs for noncancer diseases. In addition to known oncogenes, the genetic screen identifies genes that contribute to cellular transformation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of Food and Drug Administration-approved noncancer drugs to selectively kill ovarian cancer cells derived from patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease, suggesting this approach may provide useful information for personalized cancer treatment. PMID:25902495

  7. Screening procedures for clenbuterol residue determination in raw swine livers using lateral-flow assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei H; Fung, Daniel Y C; Xu, Yang; Xiong, Yong H

    2008-04-01

    Clenbuterol, which may cause symptoms of increased heart rate, muscular tremors, headache, nausea, and muscular cramps in patients, has been prohibited for consumption in many countries including the European Union, the United States, and China. A rapid lateral-flow strip assay was developed in our laboratory, and results obtained with this assay were compared with those obtained with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the screening of clenbuterol in raw swine liver. A total of 128 swine livers were acquired from five local markets and prepared for analysis by the lateral-flow strip assay and ELISA. Analysis was completed in 10 min with the lateral-flow strip assay and in 90 min with the ELISA. In parallel with the ELISA, the rapid detection strip produced no false-negative results but had a false-positive rate of 6.3%. Cross-reactivity of the strip was assessed and was negative after tests with clenbuterol analogues such as terbutaline, salbutamol, ractopamine, ritodrine, and fenoterol. These data suggest that a lateral-flow strip assay can be used safely as a screening method as part of a clenbuterol residue surveillance program and should be a valuable tool in the food safety field, especially in developing countries.

  8. Lot-to-lot variability in HLA antibody screening using a multiplexed bead-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Manish J; Carrick, Danielle M; Jenkins, Sarah; De Goey, Steven; Ploeger, Nancy A; Wilson, Gregory A; Lee, Jar How; Winters, Jeffrey L; Stubbs, James R; Toy, Pearl; Norris, Philip J

    2013-09-01

    Identifying antibodies to HLA (anti-HLA) by solid-phase assays is used to screen blood donors to mitigate transfusion-related acute lung injury risk. Various cutoffs for detection assays have been proposed in the literature; however, these do not take into consideration lot-to-lot variability of commercially available assays. Samples from 93 nontransfused males were tested using five different lots of a multiplex bead-based anti-HLA detection kit. A subset of 17 samples was tested on 5 days using a single lot. An additional 96 samples from donations with varied anti-HLA levels were tested using kits from two different lots. Results were reported as a normalized background (NBG) ratio. For the 93 nontransfused donors, NBG values generated using the reference lot were significantly higher than those obtained with three of the four comparator lots. However, for the 96 samples with low-, moderate-, and higher-level anti-HLA, Class I (CL-I) values were 1.4 times lower and Class II (CL-II) values were 1.2 times lower using the reference versus comparator lot. For CL-I antibodies the between-lot standard deviation (SD) was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.60), while the between-day SD was 1.27 (95% CI, 1.08-1.52). Similarly, for CL-II antibodies the between-lot SD was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.95), while the between-day SD was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.43-0.60). There is interlot variability in the tested HLA detection assay as well as significant bias between lots. It may be reasonable to develop a new cutoff when a new lot is obtained. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Lot-to-Lot Variability in HLA Antibody Screening Using a Multiplexed Bead Based Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Manish J.; Carrick, Danielle M.; Jenkins, Sarah; De Goey, Steven; Ploeger, Nancy A; Wilson, Gregory A.; Lee, Jar How; Winters, Jeffrey L.; Stubbs, James R.; Toy, Pearl; Norris, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying antibodies to HLA (HLA-Abs) by solid phase assays is used to screen blood donors to mitigate TRALI risk. Various cutoffs for detection assays have been proposed in the literature, however, these do not take into consideration lot-to-lot variability of commercially available assays. Methods Samples from 93 non-transfused males were tested using five different lots of a multiplex bead-based HLA-Ab detection kit. A subset of 17 samples was tested on five days using a single lot. An additional 96 samples from donations with varied HLA-Ab levels were tested using kits from two different lots. Results were reported as an NBG (normalized background) ratio. Results For the 93 non-transfused donors, NBG values generated using the reference lot were significantly higher than those obtained with three of the four comparator lots. However, for the 96 samples with low, moderate, and higher level HLA-Abs, Class-I values were 1.4 times lower and Class-II values were 1.2 times lower using the reference versus comparator lot. For class-I antibodies the between lot SD was 1.36 (CI:1.19–1.60), while the between day SD was 1.27 (CI:1.08–1.52). Similarly, for class II antibodies the between lot SD was 0.81 (CI:0.70–0.95), while the between day SD was 0.50 (CI:0.43–0.60). Conclusions There is inter-lot variability in the tested HLA detection assay as well as significant bias between lots. It may be reasonable to develop a new cutoff when a new lot is obtained. PMID:23305156

  10. Screening for antiviral inhibitors of the HIV integrase-LEDGF/p75 interaction using the AlphaScreen luminescent proximity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan; McGuinness, Debra E; Prongay, Andrew J; Feld, Boris; Ingravallo, Paul; Ogert, Robert A; Lunn, Charles A; Howe, John A

    2008-06-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of HIV integrase (HIV IN) have emerged as a promising new class of antivirals for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The compounds currently approved or in clinical development specifically target HIV DNA integration and were identified using strand-transfer assays targeting the HIV IN/viral DNA complex. The authors have developed a second biochemical assay for identification of HIV integrase inhibitors, targeting the interaction between HIV IN and the cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75. They developed a luminescent proximity assay (AlphaScreen) designed to measure the association of the 80-amino-acid integrase binding domain of LEDGF/p75 with the 163-amino-acid catalytic core domain of HIV IN. This assay proved to be quite robust (with a Z' factor of 0.84 in screening libraries arrayed as orthogonal mixtures) and successfully identified several compounds specific for this protein-protein interaction.

  11. Potent Human Telomerase Inhibitors: Molecular Dynamic Simulations, Multiple Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening, and Biochemical Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgahi Talari, Faezeh; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Golestanian, Sahand; Jarstfer, Michael; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-12-28

    Telomere maintenance is a universal cancer hallmark, and small molecules that disrupt telomere maintenance generally have anticancer properties. Since the vast majority of cancer cells utilize telomerase activity for telomere maintenance, the enzyme has been considered as an anticancer drug target. Recently, rational design of telomerase inhibitors was made possible by the determination of high resolution structures of the catalytic telomerase subunit from a beetle and subsequent molecular modeling of the human telomerase complex. A hybrid strategy including docking, pharmacophore-based virtual screening, and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were used to identify new human telomerase inhibitors. Docking methodology was applied to investigate the ssDNA telomeric sequence and two well-known human telomerase inhibitors' (BIBR1532 and MST-312) modes of interactions with hTERT TEN domain. Subsequently molecular dynamic simulations were performed to monitor and compare hTERT TEN domain, TEN-ssDNA, TEN-BIBR1532, TEN-MST-312, and TEN-ssDNA-BIBR1532 behavior in a dynamic environment. Pharmacophore models were generated considering the inhibitors manner in the TEN domain anchor site. These exploratory studies identified several new potent inhibitors whose IC50 values were generated experimentally in a low micromolar range with the aid of biochemical assays, including both the direct telomerase and the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assays. The results suggest that the current models of human telomerase are useful templates for rational inhibitor design.

  12. Simple assay for screening phytoestrogenic compounds using the oestrogen receptor immobilised magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busayapongchai, Pimchanok; Siri, Sineenat

    2017-06-01

    With increasing interests of phytoestrogens for their potential applications, a rapid and simple tool for screening these phytochemicals is still required. In this study, a simple assay to detect phytoestrogens was developed based on the competition binding between the tested samples and the fluorescently labelled oestrogen (E2) to the human ligand binding domain of oestrogen receptor (LBD-ER) that was immobilised on the magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs). The 40-kDa LBD-ER peptide was produced in an Escherichia coli system. The synthesised 68.7-nm MNPs were silanised and subsequently covalently linked to the C-terminus of LBD-ER peptide. The LBD-ER immobilised MNPs demonstrated the specific binding for the standard E2 with the equilibrium dissociation constant of 9.56 nM and the binding capacity of 0.08 pmol/1 mg of the MNPs. The LBD-ER immobilised MNPs could evaluate oestrogenic activity of the extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Curcuma comosa , the reported phytoestrogenic plants, but not progesterone (P4) and Raphanus sativus extract, the negative controls. The results of this work clearly demonstrated a potential assay for detecting phytoestrogens of crude plant extracts, which is simple and easily adapted to a high throughput format.

  13. Microfluidic-based G-quadruplex ligand displacement assay for alkaloid anticancer drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haihui; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Huiyan; Sun, Yue; Wu, Qiwang; Shen, Hong; Liu, Yingchun

    2017-02-05

    Some natural heterocyclic alkaloids containing planar group show potential to complex with specific promoter region of protooncogene for stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure which nowadays promises to be a target in anticancer drug design. However, in view of the polymorphic characteristics and structural complexity of heterocyclic alkaloids, it is desirable to develop high-throughput and low-consumption approach for anticancer drug screening. In this paper, an intensive study on alkaloid ligand/G4 DNA interaction has been conducted, demonstrating that the end-stacking interaction is the favorable binding mode between the oncogene-related Pu22 G4 DNA and the heterocyclic alkaloid ligand. Based on structural feasibility and energy minimization, a ligand displacement assay for screening alkaloid ligand in stabilizing the oncogene target G4 has been developed, which also helps to facilitate the assessment of drug specificity. Coupled with microfluidic-based DNAzyme-catalytic chemiluminescence detection, the approach showed the advantages of high sensitivity, high throughput with low sample and reagent consumptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The DNA 'comet assay' as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, H; Delincée, H; Haine, H; Rupp, H

    1997-04-29

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded.

  15. The DNA `comet assay` as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda, H. [Department of Radioecology, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Delincee, H. [Institute of Nutritional Physiology, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haine, H. [Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Rupp, H. [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Section of Food Chemistry, Berne (Switzerland)

    1997-04-29

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded.

  16. Novel screening assay for in vivo selection of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes promoting gastrointestinal colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a key step in the development of infections; yet the specific factors important for K. pneumoniae to colonize and reside in the GI tract of the host are largely unknown. To identify K. pneumoniae genes promoting GI colonisation, a novel genomic-library-based approach was employed. Results Screening of a K. pneumoniae C3091 genomic library, expressed in E. coli strain EPI100, in a mouse model of GI colonisation led to the positive selection of five clones containing genes promoting persistent colonisation of the mouse GI tract. These included genes encoding the global response regulator ArcA; GalET of the galactose operon; and a cluster of two putative membrane-associated proteins of unknown function. Both ArcA and GalET are known to be involved in metabolic pathways in Klebsiella but may have additional biological actions beneficial to the pathogen. In support of this, GalET was found to confer decreased bile salt sensitivity to EPI100. Conclusions The present work establishes the use of genomic-library-based in vivo screening assays as a valuable tool for identification and characterization of virulence factors in K. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:22967317

  17. A sensitive quantitative test strip based point-of-care albuminuria screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decavele, An-Sofie C; Fiers, Tom; Penders, Joris; Delanghe, Joris R

    2012-01-06

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health problem and the global guidelines require screening of albuminuria. Therefore, affordable and sensitive albuminuria screening tests are needed. We explored the potential of urine strips, generally reported in the ordinal scale, measured on an automatic strip reader for reporting quantitative and sensitive albumin results. We compared reflectance data of Combur-Test® strips obtained from the Cobas U411 reader (Roche) with albuminuria data from a nephelometer BNII (Siemens) and with protein concentrations from the pyrogallol red method (Modular P, Roche) for 389/328 non-pathologic and pathologic urine samples, respectively. Imprecision of the reflectance signal of the Cobas U411 was measured with commercial control material (Bio-Rad). Inter-run coefficients of variations (CVs) for reflectance for levels 1 and 2 were 1.7%/4.9%, respectively, and intra-run CVs were 1.8%/4.2%, respectively. Good agreement was obtained between the albumin concentration of the BNII and the protein strip reflectance data (n=389): Y (10,000/protein reflectance, 1/%)=160+0.132·X (albuminuria BNII, mg/L)-0.0000111·X2 (albuminuria BNII, mg/L); r2=0.921. Lower agreement was found between the protein assay (n=328) and the reflectance (r2=0.831). A calibration curve was made between 11.5 mg/L and 121.5 mg/L. The limit of blank (LOB) was 44.7 mg/L. The present study demonstrates that reflectance data generated by a test strip reader allows for quantitative analysis of albumin. Although the lower limit of the microalbumin range (30 mg/L) cannot be achieved with the dye-binding method, the results are satisfactory for screening purposes.

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans semi-automated liquid screen reveals a specialized role for the chemotaxis gene cheB2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Garvis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes infections in a variety of animal and plant hosts. Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model with which one can identify bacterial virulence genes. Previous studies with C. elegans have shown that depending on the growth medium, P. aeruginosa provokes different pathologies: slow or fast killing, lethal paralysis and red death. In this study, we developed a high-throughput semi-automated liquid-based assay such that an entire genome can readily be scanned for virulence genes in a short time period. We screened a 2,200-member STM mutant library generated in a cystic fibrosis airway P. aeruginosa isolate, TBCF10839. Twelve mutants were isolated each showing at least 70% attenuation in C. elegans killing. The selected mutants had insertions in regulatory genes, such as a histidine kinase sensor of two-component systems and a member of the AraC family, or in genes involved in adherence or chemotaxis. One mutant had an insertion in a cheB gene homologue, encoding a methylesterase involved in chemotaxis (CheB2. The cheB2 mutant was tested in a murine lung infection model and found to have a highly attenuated virulence. The cheB2 gene is part of the chemotactic gene cluster II, which was shown to be required for an optimal mobility in vitro. In P. aeruginosa, the main player in chemotaxis and mobility is the chemotactic gene cluster I, including cheB1. We show that, in contrast to the cheB2 mutant, a cheB1 mutant is not attenuated for virulence in C. elegans whereas in vitro motility and chemotaxis are severely impaired. We conclude that the virulence defect of the cheB2 mutant is not linked with a global motility defect but that instead the cheB2 gene is involved in a specific chemotactic response, which takes place during infection and is required for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity.

  19. A genetic screen reveals Arabidopsis stomatal and/or apoplastic defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zeng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of plants often begins with colonization of the plant surface, followed by entry into the plant through wounds and natural openings (such as stomata, multiplication in the intercellular space (apoplast of the infected tissues, and dissemination of bacteria to other plants. Historically, most studies assess bacterial infection based on final outcomes of disease and/or pathogen growth using whole infected tissues; few studies have genetically distinguished the contribution of different host cell types in response to an infection. The phytotoxin coronatine (COR is produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. COR-deficient mutants of P. s. tomato (Pst DC3000 are severely compromised in virulence, especially when inoculated onto the plant surface. We report here a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants that could rescue the virulence of COR-deficient mutant bacteria. Among the susceptible to coronatine-deficient Pst DC3000 (scord mutants were two that were defective in stomatal closure response, two that were defective in apoplast defense, and four that were defective in both stomatal and apoplast defense. Isolation of these three classes of mutants suggests that stomatal and apoplastic defenses are integrated in plants, but are genetically separable, and that COR is important for Pst DC3000 to overcome both stomatal guard cell- and apoplastic mesophyll cell-based defenses. Of the six mutants defective in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure, three are defective in salicylic acid (SA-induced stomatal closure, but exhibit normal stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA, and scord7 is compromised in both SA- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. We have cloned SCORD3, which is required for salicylic acid (SA biosynthesis, and SCORD5, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein, AtGCN20/AtABCF3, predicted to be involved in stress-associated protein translation control. Identification of SCORD5 begins to

  20. Development of a Plate-Based Screening Assay to Investigate the Substrate Specificity of the PRMT Family of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hao C; Wang, Min; Salsburg, Andrew; Knuckley, Bryan

    2015-09-14

    There are nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs 1-9) expressed in humans that vary in both subcellular localization and substrate specificity. The variation in substrate specificity between isozymes leads to competing effects that result in either activation or repression of tumor suppressor genes. Current methods used to study substrate specificity for these enzymes utilize radioisotopic labeling of substrates, mass spectrometry analysis of complex samples, or coupled assays that monitor cofactor degradation. Herein, we report the development of a rapid, nonradioactive, and sensitive method for screening multiple peptides in parallel to gain insight into the substrate specificity of PRMT enzymes. Our assay provides a major advantage over other high-throughput screening assays (e.g., ELISA, AlphaScreen chemiluminescence) by eliminating the need for purification of individual peptides and provides a timesaving, cost-effective alternative to the traditional PRMT assays. A one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide library was synthesized and subsequently screened against PRMT1 in a 96-well plate. This screen resulted in identification of a novel PRMT1 substrate with kinetic parameters similar to histone H4-21 (e.g., the best-known PRMT1 peptide substrate).

  1. Key learnings from performance of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Coady, Katie K; O'Connor, John C; Nabb, Diane L; Markell, Lauren K; Snajdr, Suzanne; Sue Marty, M

    2014-02-01

    Tier 1 of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program comprises 11 studies: five in vitro assays, four in vivo mammalian assays, and two in vivo nonmammalian assays. The battery is designed to detect compounds with the potential to interact with the estrogen, androgen, or thyroid signaling pathways. This article examines the procedures, results, and data interpretation for the five Tier 1 in vitro assays: estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor binding assays, an ER transactivation assay, an aromatase assay, and a steroidogenesis assay. Data are presented from two laboratories that have evaluated approximately 11 compounds in the Tier 1 in vitro assays. Generally, the ER and androgen receptor binding assays and the aromatase assay showed good specificity and reproducibility. As described in the guideline for the ER transactivation assay, a result is considered positive when the test compound induces a reporter gene signal that reaches 10% of the response seen with 1 nM 17β-estradiol (positive control). In the experience of these laboratories, this cutoff criterion may result in false-positive responses. For the steroidogenesis assay, there is variability in the basal and stimulated production of testosterone and estradiol by the H295R cells. This variability in responsiveness, coupled with potential cell stress at high concentrations of test compound, may make it difficult to discern whether hormone alterations are specific steroidogenesis alterations (i.e., endocrine active). Lastly, both laboratories had difficulty meeting some recommended performance criteria for each Tier 1 in vitro assay. Data with only minor deviations were deemed valid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of PCR and TaqMan PCR Assays to Detect Pseudomonas coronafaciens, a Causal Agent of Halo Blight of Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hye An

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas coronafaciens causes halo blight on oats and is a plant quarantine bacterium in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. Using of the certificated seed is important for control of the disease. Since effective detection method of P. coronafaciens is not available yet, PCR and TaqMan PCR assays for specific detection of P. coronafaciens were developed in this study. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence of P. coronafaciens LMG 5060 which was obtained by the next-generation sequencing in this study. The PCR primer set Pc-12-F/Pc-12-R specifically amplified 498 bp from the 13 strains of P. coronafaciens isolated in the seven different countries (Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Germany, and New Zealand and the nested primer set Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R specifically amplified 298 bp from those strains. The target-size PCR product was not amplified from the non-target bacteria with the PCR and nested primer sets. TaqMan PCR with Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R and a TaqMan probe, Pc-taqman, which were designed inside of the nested PCR amplicon, generated Ct values which in a dose-dependent manner to the amount of the target DNA and the Ct values of all the P. coronafaciens strains were above the threshold Ct value for positive detection. The TaqMan PCR generated positive Ct values from the seed extracts of the artificially inoculated oat seeds above 10 cfu/ml inoculation level. PCR and TaqMan PCR assays developed in this study will be useful tools to detect and identify the plant quarantine pathogen, P. coronafaciens.

  3. Whole blood interferon-gamma assay for baseline tuberculosis screening among Japanese healthcare students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Hotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON-TB-2G; QFT has not been fully evaluated as a baseline tuberculosis screening test in Japanese healthcare students commencing clinical contact. The aim of this study was to compare the results from the QFT with those from the tuberculin skin test (TST in a population deemed to be at a low risk for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Healthcare students recruited at Okayama University received both the TST and the QFT to assess the level of agreement between these two tests. The interleukin-10 levels before and after exposure to M tuberculosis-specific antigens (early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein [ESAT-6] and culture filtrate protein 10 [CFP-10] were also measured. Of the 536 healthcare students, most of whom had been vaccinated with bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG, 207 (56% were enrolled in this study. The agreement between the QFT and the TST results was poor, with positive result rates of 1.4% vs. 27.5%, respectively. A multivariate analysis also revealed that the induration diameter of the TST was not affected by the interferon-gamma concentration after exposure to either of the antigens but was influenced by the number of BCG needle scars (p = 0.046. The whole blood interleukin-10 assay revealed that after antigen exposure, the median increases in interleukin-10 concentration was higher in the subgroup with the small increase in interferon-gamma concentration than in the subgroup with the large increase in interferon-gamma concentration (0.3 vs. 0 pg/mL; p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As a baseline screening test for low-risk Japanese healthcare students at their course entry, QFT yielded quite discordant results, compared with the TST, probably because of the low specificity of the TST results in the BCG-vaccinated population. We also found, for the first time, that the change in the interleukin-10 level after exposure to

  4. Performance characteristics of an ELISA screening assay for urinary synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Eliani; Barnes, Allan J; Young, Sheena; Castaneto, Marisol S; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are marketed as legal alternatives to cannabis, as routine urine cannabinoid immunoassays do not detect synthetic cannabinoids. Laboratories are challenged to identify these new designer drugs that are widely available and represent a major public health and safety problem. Immunoassay testing offers rapid separation of presumptive positive and negative specimens, prior to more costly and time-consuming chromatographic confirmation. The Neogen SPICE ELISA kit targets JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid as a marker for urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Assay performance was evaluated by analyzing 2469 authentic urine samples with the Neogen immunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two immunoassay cut-off concentrations, 5 and 10 µg/L, classified samples as presumptive positive or negative, followed by qualitative LC-MS/MS confirmation for 29 synthetic cannabinoids markers with limits of detection of 0.5-10 µg/L to determine the assay's sensitivity, specificity and efficacy. Challenges at ±25% of each cut-off also were investigated to determine performance around the cut-off and intra- and inter-plate imprecision. The immunoassay was linear from 1 to 250 µg/L (r(2)  = 0.992) with intra- and inter-plate imprecision of ≤5.3% and cannabinoids markers evaluated. Good sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency, lack of sample preparation requirements, and rapid semi-automation documented that the Neogen SPICE ELISA kit is a viable method for screening synthetic cannabinoids in urine targeting JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [Impact of colorectal cancer screening using an immunological assay in a basic urban health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M A; Cubillo-Durán, E; Moreno-Camelo, S; Mata-Román, L; Muñoz-Moreno, M F; Cáceres-Pereira, A

    2013-01-01

    To describe the results of implementing a pilot screening program, in the Castilla y León, for colorectal cancer (CRC) with the faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) using a quantitative immunological latex agglutination assay. The study population included 4930 persons between 50-69 years from the Basic Health Area of Medina del Campo. Colonoscopy was performed on those who had a positive iFOBT. The rates of participation were calculated, positivity, acceptance of colonoscopy, detection of lesions, percentages and predictive positive value (PPV) of the test. A total of 2241 (46.33%) people took part. There were 138 (6.15%) positive iFOBT. The rate acceptance of the colonoscopy was 99.27%. CRC was detected in 12 patients (91.66% in early stages), a high risk adenoma (HRA) in 42, and a low risk adenoma (LRA) in 34. The rates of detection were for CRCwas 5.35‰, 18.74‰ for HRA, 15.17‰ for LRA, and 39.26‰ for all kinds of adenoma. The PPV was 8.69% for CCR, 30.43% for HRA and 24.63% for LRA. The CRC screening program is feasible in our context. The iFOBT indicators are superior to those of other studies performed using the classic test. The high rates of detection of CRC, and all kinds of adenoma would be enough to justify the study. These together with the diagnosis of CRC in the early stages could lead to a reduction of the mortality. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Development, validation and quantitative assessment of an enzymatic assay suitable for small molecule screening and profiling: A case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sancenon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful discovery and subsequent development of small molecule inhibitors of drug targets relies on the establishment of robust, cost-effective, quantitative, and physiologically relevant in vitro assays that can support prolonged screening and optimization campaigns. The current study illustrates the process of developing and validating an enzymatic assay for the discovery of small molecule inhibitors using alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestine as model target. The assay development workflow includes an initial phase of optimization of assay materials, reagents, and conditions, continues with a process of miniaturization and automation, and concludes with validation by quantitative measurement of assay performance and signal variability. The assay is further evaluated for dose–response and mechanism-of-action studies required to support structure–activity-relationship studies. Emphasis is placed on the most critical aspects of assay optimization and other relevant considerations, including the technology, assay materials, buffer constituents, reaction conditions, liquid handling equipment, analytical instrumentation, and quantitative assessments. Examples of bottlenecks encountered during assay development and strategies to address them are provided.

  7. Comparison of the Carba NP test with the Rapid CARB Screen Kit for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, E; Van Der Meeren, S; Schallier, A; Piérard, D

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the performance and cost of the Carba NP test with the Rapid CARB Screen Kit in detecting the presence of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ninety-two Enterobacteriaceae and 19 P. aeruginosa strains were used in this study. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine whether these microorganisms harboured bla VIM, bla IMP, bla NDM, bla KPC and bla OXA-48. The Carba NP test and Rapid CARB Screen Kit were used on the strains according to the standardised protocols. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the tests were calculated. The cost of performing one test was also calculated. Forty-five Enterobacteriaceae and six P. aeruginosa were found to harbour carbapenemase-encoding genes. The Carba NP test had sensitivities of 91.1 % and 100 % for Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The Rapid CARB Screen Kit had sensitivities of 73.3 % and 66.7 % for Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The specificity of both tests was 100 %. The approximated price for performing one Carba NP test was 0.31 Euros and for CARB Screen Kit, it was 1.25 Euros. The Carba NP test performed better than the Rapid CARB Screen Kit in detecting carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. The cost to perform both tests is reasonable.

  8. A fluorescence polarization based screening assay for identification of small molecule inhibitors of the PICK1 PDZ domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor S; Madsen, Kenneth L; Dyhring, Tino

    2011-01-01

    PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology) domains represent putative targets in several diseases including cancer, stroke, addiction and neuropathic pain. Here we describe the application of a simple and fast screening assay based on fluorescence polarization (FP) to identify inhibitors of the PDZ...

  9. Sensitivity of neuroprogenitor cells to chemical-induced apoptosis using a multiplexed assay suitable for high-throughput screening*

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractHigh-throughput methods are useful for rapidly screening large numbers of chemicals for biological activity, including the perturbation of pathways that may lead to adverse cellular effects. In vitro assays for the key events of neurodevelopment, including apoptosis, may ...

  10. Paired image- and FACS-based toxicity assays for high content screening of spheroid-type tumor cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpi, Kari; Egan, David A.; Vellinga, Thomas T.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Kranenburg, Onno

    2015-01-01

    Novel spheroid-type tumor cell cultures directly isolated from patients' tumors preserve tumor characteristics better than traditionally grown cell lines. However, such cultures are not generally used for high-throughput toxicity drug screens. In addition, the assays that are commonly used to assess

  11. A microfluidic-based enzymatic assay for bioactivity screening combined with capillary liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A.R.; Bruyneel, B.; Krabbe, J.G.; Lingeman, H.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    The design and implementation of a continuous-flow microfluidic assay for the screening of (complex) mixtures for bioactive compounds is described. The microfluidic chip featured two microreactors (1.6 and 2.4 μL) in which an enzyme inhibition and a substrate conversion reaction were performed,

  12. Unique Nanoparticle Optical Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Screening and Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are novel materials having at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique physicochemical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been placed on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to characterize and rank the toxiciti...

  13. Cheburator software for automatically calculating drug inhibitory concentrations from in vitro screening assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Nevozhay

    Full Text Available In the process of new cancer drug development, as the first step of their assessment, their activities are usually studied in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines. The results of these in vitro drug screening assays are commonly expressed as inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50: the concentration of the tested agent that inhibits the proliferation of the cancer cell population to 50% of the theoretically possible effect (absolute IC50 or maximum effect practically achieved by the drug (relative IC50. The currently available software for calculating IC50 values requires manual data entry, is time consuming, and is prone to calculation errors. Thus, we have developed open source, free, easy-to-use software for performing standardized data evaluations and automatically calculating the IC50. This software eliminates the laborious and error-prone manual entry of data, substantially reduces the amount of time spent for data analysis. It has been extensively used in our department as the main tool for in vitro data processing during the past several years and can be useful for other research groups working in the area of anticancer drug discovery, either alone or combined with other software packages. The current version of our program, Cheburator, together with sample data, source code, and documentation, is freely available at the following URL: http://www.cheburator.nevozhay.com (it is free for academic use, but a license is required for commercial use.

  14. Real-time PCR TaqMan assay for rapid screening of bloodstream infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity. The rapid detection of pathogens in blood of septic patients is essential for adequate antimicrobial therapy and better prognosis. This study aimed to accelerate the detection and discrimination of Gram-positive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN) bacteria and Candida species in blood culture samples by molecular methods. Methods The Real-GP®, -GN®, and -CAN® real-time PCR kit (M&D, Wonju, Republic of Korea) assays use the TaqMan probes for detecting pan-GP, pan-GN, and pan-Candida species, respectively. The diagnostic performances of the real-time PCR kits were evaluated with 115 clinical isolates, 256 positive and 200 negative blood culture bottle samples, and the data were compared to results obtained from conventional blood culture. Results Eighty-seven reference strains and 115 clinical isolates were correctly identified with specific probes corresponding to GP-bacteria, GN-bacteria and Candida, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR kit with blood culture samples were 99.6% and 89.5%, respectively. Conclusions The Real-GP®, -GN®, and -CAN® real-time PCR kits could be useful tools for the rapid and accurate screening of bloodstream infections (BSIs). PMID:24393579

  15. Chemical library screening using a SPR-based inhibition in solution assay: simulations and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulier, Laurence; Nominé, Yves; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Charbonnier, Sebastian; Didier, Bruno; Jung, Marie-Louise; Altschuh, Danièle

    2013-09-17

    We have developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition in solution assay (ISA) to search for inhibitors of the medium affinity (KD = 0.8 μM) interaction between an E6-derived peptide (E6peptide) immobilized on the sensor and a PDZ domain (MAGI-1 PDZ1) in the mobile phase. DZ domains are widespread protein-protein interaction modules that recognize the C-terminus of various partners. Simulations indicated that relatively low compound concentrations (10 μM) and limited peptide densities (Rmax Library® (1120 compounds), identified 36 compounds that inhibited the interaction by more than 5%. Concentration-dependent ISA, carried out on a subset of 19 potential inhibitors, indicated that 13 of these indeed affected the interaction between MAGI-1 PDZ1 and the E6peptide. No effect was observed for 84 compounds randomly chosen among noninhibitors. One of the four best inhibitors was a peptide binder, and three were PDZ binders with KD in the 10-50 μM range. We propose that a medium (μM) affinity between the target and surface-bound partner is optimal for SPR-based ISA screening.

  16. Development of specific dengue virus 2'-O- and N7-methyltransferase assays for antiviral drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, K; Sallamand, C; Petzold, C; Coutard, B; Collet, A; Thillier, Y; Zimmermann, J; Vasseur, J-J; Canard, B; Rohayem, J; Debart, F; Decroly, E

    2013-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 carries two mRNA cap methyltransferase (MTase) activities involved in the synthesis of a cap structure, (7Me)GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA, at the 5'-end of the viral mRNA. The methylation of the cap guanine at its N7-position (N7-MTase, (7Me)GpppA-RNA) is essential for viral replication. The development of high throughput methods to identify specific inhibitors of N7-MTase is hampered by technical limitations in the large scale synthesis of long capped RNAs. In this work, we describe an efficient method to generate such capped RNA, GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA₇₄, by ligation of two RNA fragments. Then, we use GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA₇₄ as a substrate to assess DENV N7-MTase activity and to develop a robust and specific activity assay. We applied the same ligation procedure to generate (7Me)GpppA-RNA₇₄ in order to characterize the DENV 2'-O-MTase activity specifically on long capped RNA. We next compared the N7- and 2'-O-MTase inhibition effect of 18 molecules, previously proposed to affect MTase activities. These experiments allow the validation of a rapid and sensitive method easily adaptable for high-throughput inhibitor screening in anti-flaviviral drug development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella O. Chuke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs as part of tuberculosis (TB screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G, was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US; factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB.

  18. Identification of Salvia haenkei as gerosuppressant agent by using an integrated senescence-screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Ivana; Revandkar, Ajinkya; Chen, Jingjing; Bisio, Angela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Cocetta, Veronica; Brun, Paola; Mancino, Giorgio; Milanese, Martina; Mattei, Maurizio; Montopoli, Monica; Alimonti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that is the causative process of aging. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is implicated in the control of cellular senescence and inhibitors of this pathway have been successfully used for life span prolongation experiments in mammals. PTEN is the major regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and loss of PTEN promotes a senescence response termed PICS. Here we report a novel-screening assay, for the identification of compounds that block different types of senescence response. By testing a library of more than 3000 natural and chemical compounds in PTEN deficient cells we have found that an extract from Salvia haenkei (SH), a native plant of Bolivia is a potent inhibitor of PICS. SH also decreases replicative and UV-mediated senescence in human primary fibroblasts and in a model of in vitro reconstructed human epidermis. Mechanistically, SH treatment affects senescence driven by UV by interfering with IL1-ɑ signalling. Pre-clinical and clinical testing of this extract by performing toxicity and irritability evaluation in vitro also demonstrate the safety of SH extract for clinical use as anti-aging skin treatment. PMID:27922821

  19. Identification of Salvia haenkei as gerosuppressant agent by using an integrated senescence-screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Ivana; Revandkar, Ajinkya; Chen, Jingjing; Bisio, Angela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Cocetta, Veronica; Brun, Paola; Mancino, Giorgio; Milanese, Martina; Mattei, Maurizio; Montopoli, Monica; Alimonti, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that is the causative process of aging. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is implicated in the control of cellular senescence and inhibitors of this pathway have been successfully used for life span prolongation experiments in mammals. PTEN is the major regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and loss of PTEN promotes a senescence response termed PICS. Here we report a novel-screening assay, for the identification of compounds that block different types of senescence response. By testing a library of more than 3000 natural and chemical compounds in PTEN deficient cells we have found that an extract from Salvia haenkei (SH), a native plant of Bolivia is a potent inhibitor of PICS. SH also decreases replicative and UV-mediated senescence in human primary fibroblasts and in a model of in vitro reconstructed human epidermis. Mechanistically, SH treatment affects senescence driven by UV by interfering with IL1-α signalling. Pre-clinical and clinical testing of this extract by performing toxicity and irritability evaluation in vitro also demonstrate the safety of SH extract for clinical use as anti-aging skin treatment.

  20. A high-throughput method for membrane protein solubility screening: the ultracentrifugation dispersity sedimentation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Daniel A P; Mizohata, Eiichi; Newstead, Simon; Ferrandon, Sebastian; Postis, Vincent; Xia, Xiaobing; Henderson, Peter J F; van Veen, Hendrik W; Byrne, Bernadette

    2007-07-01

    One key to successful crystallization of membrane proteins is the identification of detergents that maintain the protein in a soluble, monodispersed state. Because of their hydrophobic nature, membrane proteins are particularly prone to forming insoluble aggregates over time. This nonspecific aggregation of the molecules reduces the likelihood of the regular association of the protein molecules essential for crystal lattice formation. Critical buffer components affecting the aggregation of membrane proteins include detergent choice, salt concentration, and presence of glycerol. The optimization of these parameters is often a time- and protein-consuming process. Here we describe a novel ultracentrifugation dispersity sedimentation (UDS) assay in which ultracentrifugation of very small (5 microL) volumes of purified, soluble membrane protein is combined with SDS-PAGE analysis to rapidly assess the degree of protein aggregation. The results from the UDS method correlate very well with established methods like size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while consuming considerably less protein. In addition, the UDS method allows rapid screening of detergents for membrane protein crystallization in a fraction of the time required by SEC. Here we use the UDS method in the identification of suitable detergents and buffer compositions for the crystallization of three recombinant prokaryotic membrane proteins. The implications of our results for membrane protein crystallization prescreening are discussed.

  1. Prospective assessment of early fetal loss using an immunoenzymometric screening assay for detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Overstreet, J W; Samuels, S J; Boyers, S P; Canfield, R E; O'Connor, J F; Hanson, F W; Lasley, B L

    1992-06-01

    To develop an economical, nonradiometric immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in studies of early fetal loss. To be effective, the IEMA must have a sensitivity equal to the standard immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and sufficient specificity to eliminate the need for screening most nonconceptive cycles with the expensive and labor-intensive IRMA. Two different assays were used to measure hCG in daily early morning urine samples from potential conceptive cycles. Women undergoing donor artificial insemination (AI) were evaluated in a prospective study. Ninety-two women volunteers were selected on the basis of apparent normal reproductive health. Artificial insemination with nonfrozen donor semen was performed by cervical cup twice each menstrual cycle at 48-hour intervals, and daily urine samples were self-collected throughout the menstrual cycle. An IEMA was developed to detect urinary hCG using the same antibodies as in the standard IRMA; a study was designed to determine whether this nonradiometric assay could successfully detect the early fetal loss that was detected by the IRMA. Of 224 menstrual cycles analyzed by both assays, a total of six early fetal losses were detected by the IRMA. When the tentative screening rule was set to allow all six of these losses and 95% of future losses to be detected by the IEMA, an additional 34 false-positive results were detected by the IEMA. The specificity of the IEMA with this rule was calculated to be 84%. An IEMA based on the same antibodies used for the standard IRMA can serve as an efficient screening assay for the detection of early fetal loss. When the IEMA is used in this manner, nearly 80% of screened menstrual cycles can be eliminated without further testing by the IRMA.

  2. Comparison of three quantification methods for the TZM-bl pseudovirus assay for screening of anti-HIV-1 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liying; Wang, Shunyi; Hu, Qin; Li, Jingtao; Zeng, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The TZM-bl pseudovirus assay is commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies and small molecular inhibitors in HIV-1 research. Here, to determine the optimal measurement method for screening anti-HIV-1 inhibitors, we compared three measurement methods based on firefly luciferase and β-galactosidase activities. The 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of the pseudoviruses were determined using the luciferase, β-galactosidase colorimetric, and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) staining assays. Three commercial reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (azidothymidine, nevirapine, and lamivudine) were tested as reference drugs to compare the reproducibility, linear correlation, and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values determined using these methods. In the TCID50 assay, the sensitivity of β-galactosidase colorimetric assay was almost 562 times lower than that of the other two methods. Reproducible dose-response curves were obtained for the inhibitors with all methods; the IC50 values of the inhibitors were not significantly different. Linear regression analysis showed linear correlation between methods. Compared to the β-galactosidase colorimetric assay, the other two methods have the advantage of high sensitivity and are less affected by interference. In conclusion, the luciferase and X-gal staining assays, which can be applied either alone or combined, are recommended for anti-HIV-1 inhibitor screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-throughput micro-plate HCI-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Thomas J; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Perumal, Ramasamy; Bean, Scott R; Wilson, Jeff D

    2014-08-01

    The HCI-vanillin assay is a well-accepted method for determining tannin content in sorghum but is limited to small sample sets due to the time-consuming nature of the method. The objective was to develop an accurate and repeatable high-throughput 96-well plate assay for breeders to screen large sample sets of sorghum for tannin content. Validation of the high-throughput assay was tested on 25 sorghums suspected to contain tannin. Approximately 30 measurements per day were completed using the conventional assay compared to 224 measurements using the 96-well platform. The correlation between the two tannin assays was 0.98. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.54% and 3.21% for the 96-well and conventional method, respectively. The 96-well assay exhibited good repeatability, with the inter-plate CV between 2.77% and 4.85%. The high-throughput 96-well HCI-vanillin assay exhibited an eightfold increase in the number of measurements completed and was as accurate as the conventional HCI-vanillin assay. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Directed evolution of an esterase: screening of enzyme libraries based on pH-indicators and a growth assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornscheuer, U T; Altenbuchner, J; Meyer, H H

    1999-10-01

    In order to resolve a sterically hindered 3-hydroxy ethyl ester, which was not accepted as substrate by 20 wild-type hydrolases, a directed evolution of an esterase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (PFE) was performed. Mutations were introduced using the mutator strain Epicurian coli XL1-Red. Enzyme libraries derived from seven mutation cycles were assayed on minimal media agar plates supplemented with pH indicators (neutral red and crystal violet), thus allowing the identification of active esterase variants by the formation of a red color caused by a pH decrease due to the released acid. A further selection criteria was introduced by using the corresponding glycerol estar, because release of the carbon source glycerol facilitates growth on minimal media. By this strategy, one double mutant (A209D and L181V) of PFE was identified, which hydrolyzed the 3-hydroxy ethyl ester in a stereoselective manner (25% ee for the remaining ester, E approximate to 5).

  5. One-Step Seeding of Neural Stem Cells with Vitronectin-Supplemented Medium for High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Li, Rong; Long, Yan; Titus, Steve; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Human neuronal cells differentiated from induced pluripotent cells have emerged as a new model system for the study of disease pathophysiology and evaluation of drug efficacy. Differentiated neuronal cells are more similar in genetics and biological content to human brain cells than other animal disease models. However, culture of neuronal cells in assay plates requires a labor-intensive procedure of plate precoating, hampering its applications in high-throughput screening (HTS). We developed a simplified method with one-step seeding of neural stem cells in assay plates by supplementing the medium with a recombinant human vitronectin (VTN), thus avoiding plate precoating. Robust results were obtained from cell viability, calcium response, and neurite outgrowth assays using this new method. Our data demonstrate that this approach greatly simplifies high-throughput assays using neuronal cells differentiated from human stem cells for translational research.

  6. Protein stability regulators screening assay (Pro-SRSA): protein degradation meets the CRISPR-Cas9 library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanzhong; Kang, Tiebang

    2016-06-29

    The regulation of protein stability is a fundamental issue for biophysical processes, but there has not previously been a convenient and unbiased method of identifying regulators of protein stability. However, as reported in the article entitled "A genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening method for protein stability reveals novel regulators of Cdc25A," recently published in Cell Discovery, our team developed a protein stability regulators screening assay (Pro-SRSA) by combining the whole-genome clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) library with a dual-fluorescence-based protein stability reporter and high-throughput sequencing to screen for regulators of protein stability. Based on our findings, we are confident that this efficient and unbiased screening method at the genome scale will be used by researchers worldwide to identify regulators of protein stability.

  7. PubChem BioAssay: A Decade's Development toward Open High-Throughput Screening Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Cheng, Tiejun; Bryant, Stephen H

    2017-07-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is now routinely conducted for drug discovery by both pharmaceutical companies and screening centers at academic institutions and universities. Rapid advance in assay development, robot automation, and computer technology has led to the generation of terabytes of data in screening laboratories. Despite the technology development toward HTS productivity, fewer efforts were devoted to HTS data integration and sharing. As a result, the huge amount of HTS data was rarely made available to the public. To fill this gap, the PubChem BioAssay database ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pcassay/ ) was set up in 2004 to provide open access to the screening results tested on chemicals and RNAi reagents. With more than 10 years' development and contributions from the community, PubChem has now become the largest public repository for chemical structures and biological data, which provides an information platform to worldwide researchers supporting drug development, medicinal chemistry study, and chemical biology research. This work presents a review of the HTS data content in the PubChem BioAssay database and the progress of data deposition to stimulate knowledge discovery and data sharing. It also provides a description of the database's data standard and basic utilities facilitating information access and use for new users.

  8. Development and validation of a real-time TaqMan assay for the detection and enumeration of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 used as a challenge organism in testing of food equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ratul; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Donofrio, Robert S

    2012-02-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 is used as the challenge organism to evaluate the efficacy of the clean-in-place (CIP) process of food equipment (automatic ice-maker) as per NSF/ANSI Standard 12. Traditional culturing methodology is presently used to determine the concentration of the challenge organism, which takes 48 h to confirm the cell density. Storage of the challenge preparation in the refrigerator might alter the cell density as P. fluorescens is capable of growing at 4 °C. Also, background organism can grow on the Pseudomonas F agar (PFA) used for the recovery of P. fluorescens thus affecting the results of the test. Real-time TaqMan assay targeting the cpn60 gene was developed for the enumeration and the identification of P. fluorescens because of its specificity, accuracy, and shorter turnaround time. The TaqMan primer-probe pair developed using the Allele ID® 7.0 probe design software was highly specific and sensitive for the target organism. The sensitivity of the assay was 10 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. The assay was also successful in determining the concentration of the challenge preparation within 2 h. Based on these observations, TaqMan assay targeting the cpn60 gene can be efficiently used for strain level identification and enumeration of bacteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 is used as a challenge organism in the efficacy testing of clean-in-place process of food equipments. Currently, culturing technique is used for its identification and estimation, which is not only time-consuming but also prone to error. Real-time TaqMan assay is more specific, sensitive, and accurate along with a shorter turnaround time compared to culturing techniques, thereby increasing the overall quality of the testing methodology to evaluate the clean-in-place process critical for the food industry to protect public health and safety. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Toward the identification of viral cap-methyltransferase inhibitors by fluorescence screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Wahiba; Eydoux, Cécilia; Coutard, Bruno; Martin, Baptiste; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean Jacques; Contreras, Jean Marie; Morice, Christophe; Quérat, Gilles; Jung, Marie-Louise; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Decroly, Etienne

    2017-08-01

    Two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with severe respiratory syndromes emerged since the beginning of the century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-coronavirus (CoV) spread first in southern China in 2003 with about 8000 infected cases in few months. Then in 2012, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) emerged from the Arabian Peninsula giving a still on-going epidemic associated to a high fatality rate. CoVs are thus considered a major health threat. This is especially true as no vaccine nor specific therapeutic are available against either SARS- or MERS-CoV. Therefore, new drugs need to be identified in order to develop antiviral treatments limiting CoV replication. In this study, we focus on the nsp14 protein, which plays a key role in virus replication as it methylates the RNA cap structure at the N7 position of the guanine. We developed a high-throughput N7-MTase assay based on Homogenous Time Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF ® ) and screened chemical libraries (2000 compounds) on the SARS-CoV nsp14. 20 compounds inhibiting the SARS-CoV nsp14 were further evaluated by IC 50 determination and their specificity was assessed toward flavivirus- and human cap N7-MTases. Our results reveal three classes of compounds: 1) molecules inhibiting several MTases as well as the dengue virus polymerase activity unspecifically, 2) pan MTases inhibitors targeting both viral and cellular MTases, and 3) inhibitors targeting one viral MTase more specifically showing however activity against the human cap N7-MTase. These compounds provide a first basis towards the development of more specific inhibitors of viral methyltransferases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Detectability of designer benzodiazepines in CEDIA, EMIT II Plus, HEIA, and KIMS II immunochemical screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson Bergstrand, Madeleine; Helander, Anders; Hansson, Therese; Beck, Olof

    2017-04-01

    The emerging new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use have recently started to include designer benzodiazepines. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing for benzodiazepines may become less effective, due to an increased occurrence of 'false negative' and 'false positive' results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge of analytical cross-reactivity of 13 designer benzodiazepines in the CEDIA, EMIT II Plus, HEIA, and KIMS II immunoassays. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with clonazolam, deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, estazolam, etizolam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam, flutazolam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, meclonazepam, nifoxipam, phenazepam, and pyrazolam. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also investigated. For the spiked standard samples, the 13 designer benzodiazepines generally showed a high cross-reactivity in all assays. This was further confirmed when investigating their detectability in authentic urine samples from cases of drug intake. The test responses also indicated additional reactivity from metabolites. The lowest detectability in spiked samples was observed for flutazolam, which shows the most divergent chemical structure compared with the other benzodiazepines. Overall, the KIMS II and CEDIA immunoassays, which both include enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated forms, showed the highest, and EMIT II Plus the lowest degree of reactivity, for spiked parent substances and authentic urine specimens. The results of this study demonstrated that designer benzodiazepines can be detected in standard urine immunoassay drug screening and this should be taken into consideration when performing confirmation analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Supplementary Material for: DRABAL: novel method to mine large high-throughput screening assays using Bayesian active learning

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) technique for modeling correlations between several HTS assays, meaning that a single prediction represents a subset of assigned correlated labels instead of one label. Thus, the devised method provides an increased probability for more accurate predictions of compounds that were not tested in particular assays. Results Here we present DRABAL, a novel MLC solution that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays. In this study, DRABAL was used to process more than 1.4 million interactions of over 400,000 compounds and analyze the existing relationships between five large HTS assays from the PubChem BioAssay Database. Compared to different MLC methods, DRABAL significantly improves the F1Score by about 22%, on average. We further illustrated usefulness and utility of DRABAL through screening FDA approved drugs and reported ones that have a high probability to interact with several targets, thus enabling drug-multi-target repositioning. Specifically DRABAL suggests the Thiabendazole drug as a common activator of the NCP1 and Rab-9A proteins, both of which are designed to identify treatment modalities for the Niemannâ Pick type C disease. Conclusion We developed a novel MLC solution based on a Bayesian active learning framework to overcome the challenge of lacking fully labeled training data and exploit actual dependencies between the HTS assays. The solution is motivated by the need to model dependencies between

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of a new point-of-care screening assay for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkebil, Faiza; Combescure, Christophe; Anghel, Silvia I; Besson Duvanel, Cécile; Schäppi, Michela G

    2013-08-21

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a new point-of-care assay detecting anti-deamidated gliadin peptides in celiac disease (CD) patients. One-hundred-and-twelve patients (age range: 1.8-79.2 years old) with clinical symptoms suggestive of CD and/or first-degree relatives (FDR) of CD patients (n = 66), and confirmed CD on a gluten-free diet (GFD) (n = 46), were prospectively enrolled in the study at Gastroenterology outpatient clinics for adult patients and from the Gastroenterology Consultation Ward at the Pediatric Department of the University Hospital of Geneva. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects enrolled. The study received approval from the local ethics committee. The original CD diagnosis had been based on serum-positive IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (QuantaLite™, Inova Diagnostics, San Diego, CA, United States) and on biopsy results. Serum samples from all study participants were tested by the new CD lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (CD-LFIA) device, Simtomax® Blood Drop (Augurix SA, BioArk, Monthey, Switzerland) to detect immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides. The diagnostic performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves with 95%CIs. A cut-off of 2 on the Rann colorimetric scale was used to calculate the device's sensitivity and specificity. CD-LFIA was highly accurate in detecting untreated celiac patients. In the group of patients with CD symptoms and/or FDR, eight new cases of CD were detected by ELISA and biopsy. All of these new cases were also correctly identified by CD-LFIA. The test yielded four false positive and four false negative results. The false positive results were all within the groups with clinical symptoms suggestive of CD and/or FDR, whereas the false negative results were all within the GFD group. The test yeld a sensitivity of 78.9% (95%CI: 54.4-93.9) and specificity of 95.7% (95%CI: 89

  13. Analysis of 75 marketed pharmaceuticals using the GADD45a-GFP 'GreenScreen HC' genotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Paul W; Webster, Thomas W; Tate, Matthew; Billinton, Nicholas; Lynch, Anthony M; Harvey, James S; Rees, Robert W; Walmsley, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    The GADD45a-GFP (GreenScreen HC) reporter assay detects genotoxic damage in the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line and gives positive results for all classes of genotoxin, including mutagens, aneugens and clastogens. In this study, a collection of 75 marketed pharmaceuticals were tested in the assay. Compounds in the collection represent a broad range of chemical structures, pharmacologies and therapeutic indications, including neoplasia and viral infection where positive genotoxicity results are often associated with the pharmacological activity. Based on the results of this study, two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the GreenScreen HC is more predictive of in vivo genotoxicity (88%) and genotoxic carcinogenicity (93%) data than the any of the other regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assay and (ii) no compounds were uniquely positive in the GADD45a-GFP assay. This analysis therefore provides additional evidence to support the use of the GADD45a-GFP assay as an effective tool either in early genotoxic liability identification or non-clinical safety assessment of candidate pharmaceuticals during development.

  14. Factors screening to statistical experimental design of racemic atenolol kinetic resolution via transesterification reaction in organic solvent using free Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustian, Joni; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-07-01

    As the (R)-enantiomer of racemic atenolol has no β-blocking activity and no lack of side effects, switching from the racemate to the (S)-atenolol is more favorable. Transesterification of racemic atenolol using free enzymes investigated as a resource to resolve the racemate via this method is limited. Screenings of enzyme, medium, and acetyl donor were conducted first to give Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase, tetrahydrofuran, and vinyl acetate. A statistical design of the experiment was then developed using Central Composite Design on some operational factors, which resulted in the conversions of 11.70-61.91% and substrate enantiomeric excess (ee) of 7.31-100%. The quadratic models are acceptable with R 2 of 95.13% (conversion) and 89.63% (ee). The predicted values match the observed values reasonably well. Temperature, agitation speed, and substrate molar ratio factor have low effects on conversion and ee, but enzyme loading affects the responses highly. The interaction of temperature-agitation speed and temperature-substrate molar ratio show significant effects on conversion, while temperature-agitation speed, temperature-substrate molar ratio, and agitation speed-substrate molar ratio affect ee highly. Optimum conditions for the use of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase, tetrahydrofuran, and vinyl acetate were found at 45°C, 175 rpm, 2000 U, and 1:3.6 substrate molar ratio. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Phospholipid Vesicle-Based Drug Permeability Assay: 5. Development Toward an Automated Procedure for High-Throughput Permeability Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Flaten, Gøril Eide; Awoyemi, Opeyemi Linda Ronke; Luthman, Kristina; Brandl, Martin; Massing, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jala.2008.04.002 In-vitro screening for oral absorption has become an essential part of drug discovery and development. Recently, a new phospholipid vesicle-based permeation assay was developed which has shown to satisfyingly predict passive absorption of drugs in humans. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the assay may be further developed into a high-th...

  16. New substructure filters for removal of pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) from screening libraries and for their exclusion in bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baell, Jonathan B; Holloway, Georgina A

    2010-04-08

    This report describes a number of substructural features which can help to identify compounds that appear as frequent hitters (promiscuous compounds) in many biochemical high throughput screens. The compounds identified by such substructural features are not recognized by filters commonly used to identify reactive compounds. Even though these substructural features were identified using only one assay detection technology, such compounds have been reported to be active from many different assays. In fact, these compounds are increasingly prevalent in the literature as potential starting points for further exploration, whereas they may not be.

  17. Comparison of the technical and clinical performance of the Elecsys HBsAg II assay with the Architect, AxSym, and Advia Centaur HBsAg screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisirirotchanakul, S; Khupulsup, K; Akraekthalin, S; Chan, K P; Saw, S; Aw, T C; Cho, D-H; Shin, M-G; Lim, J

    2010-05-01

    South East Asia has some of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (>or=8%) in the world, and the emergence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutant strains is a growing problem. Assays with the highest levels of sensitivity, including mutant detection, should be used for routine HBsAg screening. In this large multicenter study, the clinical and technical performance of the fully automated Elecsys HBsAg II assay was compared with the Architect, AxSYM, and Advia Centaur HBsAg assays for HBsAg screening. Nine laboratories (three each from Thailand, Korea, and Singapore) compared the Elecsys HBsAg II assay with their routine HBsAg screening assay against a range of stored and routine clinical samples, including recombinant mutants. The Elecsys HBsAg II assay demonstrated equivalent sensitivity and specificity to the Architect HBsAg assay. However, the Elecsys HBsAg II assay recognized a native mutant sample (L94S, L97V, L98V, T123A) that the Architect HBsAg assay failed to detect. The AxSYM and Advia Centaur HBsAg assays appeared less sensitive for the detection of early HBV infection and also failed to detect some of the recombinant mutant strains. There was almost complete agreement between the Elecsys HBsAg II assay and comparator assays with respect to routine serum samples. The results of this study demonstrate that the Elecsys HBsAg II assay is a highly sensitive and specific screening assay for HBsAg and detects reliably the most important and clinically relevant HBV mutants and genotypes. It is suitable for routine HBsAg screening in Asia. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A multi-assay screening approach for assessment of endocrine-active contaminants in wastewater effluent samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris D., E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.ca [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Kleywegt, Sonya [Standards Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 40 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto, ON, M4V 1M2 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J. [Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Topp, Edward [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, London, ON, N5V 7T3 (Canada); Wagh, Purva; Trudeau, Vance L.; Moon, Thomas W. [Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    Environmental agencies must monitor an ever increasing range of contaminants of emerging concern, including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). An alternative to using ultra-trace chemical analysis of samples for EDCs is to test for biological activity using in vitro screening assays, then use these assay results to direct analytical chemistry approaches. In this study, we used both analytical approaches and in vitro bioassays to characterize the EDCs present in treated wastewater from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ontario, Canada. Estrogen-mediated activity was assessed using a yeast estrogenicity screening (YES) assay. An in vitro competitive binding assay was used to assess capacity to interfere with binding of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4) to the recombinant human thyroid hormone transport protein, transthyretin (i.e. hTTR). An in vitro binding assay with a rat peroxisome proliferator responsive element transfected into a rainbow trout gill cell line was used to evaluate binding and subsequent gene expression via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR). Analyses of a suite of contaminants known to be EDCs in extracts from treated wastewater were conducted using either gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Estrogenic activity was detected in the YES assay only in those extracts that contained detectable amounts of estradiol (E2). There was a positive relationship between the degree of response in the T4-hTTR assay and the amounts of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99, triclosan and the PBDE metabolite, 4-OH-BDE17. Several wastewater extracts gave a positive response in the PPAR assay, but these responses were not correlated with the amounts of any of the EDCs analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Overall, these data indicate that a step-wise approach is feasible using a combination of in vitro testing and instrumental analysis to monitor for

  19. Development of a movement-based in vitro screening assay for the identification of new anti-cestodal compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Ritler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal cestodes are infecting millions of people and livestock worldwide, but treatment is mainly based on one drug: praziquantel. The identification of new anti-cestodal compounds is hampered by the lack of suitable screening assays. It is difficult, or even impossible, to evaluate drugs against adult cestodes in vitro due to the fact that these parasites cannot be cultured in microwell plates, and adult and larval stages in most cases represent different organisms in terms of size, morphology, and metabolic requirements. We here present an in vitro-drug screening assay based on Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces, which represent precursors of the scolex (hence the anterior part of the adult tapeworm. This movement-based assay can serve as a model for an adult cestode screen. Protoscoleces are produced in large numbers in Mongolian gerbils and mice, their movement is measured and quantified by image analysis, and active compounds are directly assessed in terms of morphological effects. The use of the 384-well format minimizes the amount of parasites and compounds needed and allows rapid screening of a large number of chemicals. Standard drugs showed the expected dose-dependent effect on movement and morphology of the protoscoleces. Interestingly, praziquantel inhibited movement only partially within 12 h of treatment (at concentrations as high as 100 ppm and did thus not act parasiticidal, which was also confirmed by trypan blue staining. Enantiomers of praziquantel showed a clear difference in their minimal inhibitory concentration in the motility assay and (R-(--praziquantel was 185 times more active than (S-(--praziquantel. One compound named MMV665807, which was obtained from the open access MMV (Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria box, strongly impaired motility and viability of protoscoleces. Corresponding morphological alterations were visualized by scanning electron microscopy, and demonstrated that this compound exhibits a

  20. Cell-based cytotoxicity assays for engineered nanomaterials safety screening: exposure of adipose derived stromal cells to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Hadjiargyrou, M; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana

    2017-07-11

    Increasing production of nanomaterials requires fast and proper assessment of its potential toxicity. Therefore, there is a need to develop new assays that can be performed in vitro, be cost effective, and allow faster screening of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Herein, we report that titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) can induce damage to adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) at concentrations which are rated as safe by standard assays such as measuring proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Specifically, we demonstrated that low concentrations of TiO2 NPs, at which cellular LDH, ROS, or proliferation profiles were not affected, induced changes in the ADSCs secretory function and differentiation capability. These two functions are essential for ADSCs in wound healing, energy expenditure, and metabolism with serious health implications in vivo. We demonstrated that cytotoxicity assays based on specialized cell functions exhibit greater sensitivity and reveal damage induced by ENMs that was not otherwise detected by traditional ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays. For proper toxicological assessment of ENMs standard ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays should be combined with assays that investigate cellular functions relevant to the specific cell type.

  1. Automated reporter quantification in vivo: high-throughput screening method for reporter-based assays in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven L; Ariga, Junko; Mathias, Jonathan R; Coothankandaswamy, Veena; Xie, Xiayang; Distel, Martin; Köster, Reinhard W; Parsons, Michael J; Bhalla, Kapil N; Saxena, Meera T; Mumm, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Reporter-based assays underlie many high-throughput screening (HTS) platforms, but most are limited to in vitro applications. Here, we report a simple whole-organism HTS method for quantifying changes in reporter intensity in individual zebrafish over time termed, Automated Reporter Quantification in vivo (ARQiv). ARQiv differs from current "high-content" (e.g., confocal imaging-based) whole-organism screening technologies by providing a purely quantitative data acquisition approach that affords marked improvements in throughput. ARQiv uses a fluorescence microplate reader with specific detection functionalities necessary for robust quantification of reporter signals in vivo. This approach is: 1) Rapid; achieving true HTS capacities (i.e., >50,000 units per day), 2) Reproducible; attaining HTS-compatible assay quality (i.e., Z'-factors of ≥0.5), and 3) Flexible; amenable to nearly any reporter-based assay in zebrafish embryos, larvae, or juveniles. ARQiv is used here to quantify changes in: 1) Cell number; loss and regeneration of two different fluorescently tagged cell types (pancreatic beta cells and rod photoreceptors), 2) Cell signaling; relative activity of a transgenic Notch-signaling reporter, and 3) Cell metabolism; accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In summary, ARQiv is a versatile and readily accessible approach facilitating evaluation of genetic and/or chemical manipulations in living zebrafish that complements current "high-content" whole-organism screening methods by providing a first-tier in vivo HTS drug discovery platform.

  2. Development and implementation of a high-throughput compound screening assay for targeting disrupted ER calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Honarnejad

    Full Text Available Disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis is believed to occur early in the cascade of events leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Particularly familial AD mutations linked to Presenilins result in exaggerated agonist-evoked calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here we report the development of a fully automated high-throughput calcium imaging assay utilizing a genetically-encoded FRET-based calcium indicator at single cell resolution for compound screening. The established high-throughput screening assay offers several advantages over conventional high-throughput calcium imaging technologies. We employed this assay for drug discovery in AD by screening compound libraries consisting of over 20,000 small molecules followed by structure-activity-relationship analysis. This led to the identification of Bepridil, a calcium channel antagonist drug in addition to four further lead structures capable of normalizing the potentiated FAD-PS1-induced calcium release from ER. Interestingly, it has recently been reported that Bepridil can reduce Aβ production by lowering BACE1 activity. Indeed, we also detected lowered Aβ, increased sAPPα and decreased sAPPβ fragment levels upon Bepridil treatment. The latter findings suggest that Bepridil may provide a multifactorial therapeutic modality for AD by simultaneously addressing multiple aspects of the disease.

  3. Pharmacological screening using an FXN-EGFP cellular genomic reporter assay for the therapy of Friedreich ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Li

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy. The presence of a GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of the FXN gene results in the inhibition of gene expression and an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. There is a correlation between expansion length, the amount of residual frataxin and the severity of disease. As the coding sequence is unaltered, pharmacological up-regulation of FXN expression may restore frataxin to therapeutic levels. To facilitate screening of compounds that modulate FXN expression in a physiologically relevant manner, we established a cellular genomic reporter assay consisting of a stable human cell line containing an FXN-EGFP fusion construct, in which the EGFP gene is fused in-frame with the entire normal human FXN gene present on a BAC clone. The cell line was used to establish a fluorometric cellular assay for use in high throughput screening (HTS procedures. A small chemical library containing FDA-approved compounds and natural extracts was screened and analyzed. Compound hits identified by HTS were further evaluated by flow cytometry in the cellular genomic reporter assay. The effects on FXN mRNA and frataxin protein levels were measured in lymphoblast and fibroblast cell lines derived from individuals with FRDA and in a humanized GAA repeat expansion mouse model of FRDA. Compounds that were established to increase FXN gene expression and frataxin levels included several anti-cancer agents, the iron-chelator deferiprone and the phytoalexin resveratrol.

  4. Immune cell-based screening assay for response to anticancer agents: applications in pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frick A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amber Frick,1 Yuri Fedoriw,2 Kristy Richards,3,4 Blossom Damania,3,5 Bethany Parks,6 Oscar Suzuki,1 Cristina S Benton,1 Emmanuel Chan,1 Russell S Thomas,7 Tim Wiltshire1,3 1Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 3Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, 4Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 7Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: Interpatient variability in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely due to complex genetic differences and is difficult to ascertain in humans. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at examining interstrain differences in viability on normal, noncancerous immune cells following chemotherapeutic cytotoxic insult. Drug effects were investigated by comparing selective chemotherapeutic agents, such as BEZ-235 and selumetinib, against conventional cytotoxic agents targeting multiple pathways, including doxorubicin and idarubicin. Methods: Splenocytes were isolated from 36 isogenic strains of mice using standard procedures. Of note, the splenocytes were not stimulated to avoid attributing responses to pathways involved with cellular stimulation rather than toxicity. Cells were incubated with compounds on a nine-point logarithmic dosing scale ranging from 15 nM to 100 µM (37°C, 5% CO2. At 4 hours posttreatment, cells were labeled with antibodies and physiological indicator dyes and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cellular phenotypes (eg, viability were collected and analyzed using flow cytometry. Dose-response curves with response normalized to the zero dose as a function of log concentration

  5. HIV serological screening in a population of pregnant women in the Republic of Congo: suitability of different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Bianca; Bisio, Francesca; Ventura, Agostina; Nigro, Nicola; Miguel, Landry M; Mayinda Mboungou, Franck A; Nzagou, Abdon C; Mayembo, Patrice; Uberti, Filippo; De Maria, Andrea; Icardi, Giancarlo; Viscoli, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    Different strategies can be applied for the screening of HIV infection, depending on the local seroprevalence. Within a WHO type III strategy, we compared the results of two different second-line methods for HIV screening of a population of pregnant women in the Republic of Congo. Sera from 3614 consecutive pregnant women were tested for HIV with Genescreen Plus Ag/Ab EIA assay; positive specimens were retested with two different second-line methods. (Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test and Vironostika HIV Ag/Ab specific EIA assay). Discordant samples were tested with HIV-1/2 Western Blot and, if necessary, HIV RNA molecular assay. Of the 3614 sera, 221 were positive with Genscreen. Among them, 21 and 10 tested negative with Vironostika and Determine, respectively. A 100% correspondence with 3rd line confirmation test results was found in Genscreen positive/Vironostika negative samples, whereas a 5.5% overestimation of HIV seroprevalence was observed when Determine, instead of Vironostika, was used as second-line test. The choice of appropriate assays in adequate sequence, within the correct WHO strategy, is pivotal to minimize the risk of overtreatment of HIV infection.

  6. Indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus Western blot profiles in ethiopians with discordant screening-assay results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meles, Hailu; Wolday, Dawit; Fontanet, Arnaud; Tsegaye, Aster; Tilahun, Tesfaye; Aklilu, Mathias; Sanders, Eduard; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2002-01-01

    The Western blot (WB) assay is the most widely accepted confirmatory assay for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, indeterminate WB reactivity to HIV-1 proteins may occur in individuals who do not appear to be infected with HIV. The profiles of WB

  7. Development and evaluation of a multiplex screening assay for Plasmodium falciparum exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Micha Phill Grønholm; Röser, Dennis; Christiansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    performance of a multiplex assay for detection of antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum in donor blood using IFAT as a comparator. A multiplex assay (MPA) containing the antigens GLURP-R0, GLURP-R2, MSP3, MSP1 hybrid and AMA1 was constructed using xMAP® technology. A discrimination index for exposure to P...

  8. The BD Onclarity HPV assay on SurePath collected samples meets the International Guidelines for Human Papillomavirus Test Requirements for Cervical Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte; Bottari, Fabio; Pedersen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a validation of the BD Onclarity HPV (Onclarity) assay using the international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening of women 30 years and above using Danish SurePath screening samples. The clinical specificity (0.90, 95% CI: 0.......93). The inter laboratory agreement was 97% with lower confidence bound of 95% (kappa value: 0.92). The BD Onclarity HPV assay fulfills all the international guidelines for a new HPV test to be used in primarily screening. This is the first clinical validation of a new HPV assay using SurePath screening samples...... and thus the Onclarity HPV assay is the first HPV assay to hold an international validation for both SurePath and ThinPrep....

  9. Usefulness of the hepatitis C virus core antigen assay for screening of a population undergoing routine medical checkup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudy, Catherine; Thevenas, Catherine; Tichet, Jean; Mariotte, Nicole; Goudeau, Alain; Dubois, Frédéric

    2005-04-01

    We studied the usefulness of the recently designed Trak-C assay for the detection and quantification of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (Ag) for the screening of HCV infection in 4,201 subjects selected from 74,150 consecutive volunteers undergoing routine medical checkups. Subjects were selected for screening because they had risk factors (group II, n = 321) and/or elevated alanine transaminase activity (group I, n = 3847). Initially, the anti-HCV antibody assay and the Trak-C assay were performed on each patient. Subsequently, the Trak-C assay was performed only when the anti-HCV enzyme immune assay (EIA) was positive. Positive samples were further evaluated for anti-HCV antibodies by a third-generation strip immunoblot assay and for HCV RNA. Four samples (1.2%) from group II and 113 (2.9%) from group I were anti-HCV EIA positive. We also tested 33 subjects who previously tested positive for anti-HCV in our medical center. Among the 150 anti-HCV EIA-positive samples, the HCV core Ag result was in accord with the HCV RNA result in 146 cases (97.3%). When the EIA result was positive, the HCV core Ag concentration and the HCV RNA load were correlated (r(2) = 0.78; P < 0.001). Four samples with low viral loads were Trak-C negative but HCV RNA positive. Among the 2,395 anti-HCV EIA-negative serum samples collected during the first part of the study, 17 (0.7%) were found to contain very low levels of HCV core Ag (<8.5 pg/ml, the cutoff value being 1.5 pg/ml). All these samples were HCV RNA negative and considered to be false positives. This was confirmed by HCV core Ag neutralization analysis. The HCV core Ag assay is a useful method in the screening strategy of HCV infection and provides a reliable means of distinguishing between current and cleared HCV infections that is well correlated with HCV RNA testing.

  10. Optimisation of the microplate resazurin assay for screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of phytochemical extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Taryn E; Li, Haoxin; Colquhoun, Caitlyn D; Johnson, John A; Webster, Duncan; Gray, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Because of increased resistance to current drugs, there is an urgent need to discover new anti-mycobacterial compounds for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs. The microplate resazurin assay (MRA) is commonly used to evaluate natural products and synthetic compounds for anti-mycobacterial activity. However, the assay can be problematic and unreliable when screening methanolic phytochemical extracts. To optimise the MRA for the screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of phytochemical extracts using Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. The effects of varying assay duration, resazurin solution composition, solvent (dimethyl sulphoxide - DMSO) concentration and type of microtitre plate used on the results and reliability of the MRA were investigated. The optimal bioassay protocol was applied to methanolic extracts of medicinal plants that have been reported to possess anti-mycobacterial activity. The variables investigated were found to have significant effects on the results obtained with the MRA. A standardised procedure that can reliably quantify anti-mycobacterial activity of phytochemical extracts in as little as 48 h was identified. The optimised MRA uses 2% aqueous DMSO, with an indicator solution of 62.5 µg/mL resazurin in 5% aqueous Tween 80 over 96 h incubation. The study has identified an optimal procedure for the MRA when used with M. tuberculosis H37Ra that gives rapid, reliable and consistent results. The assay procedure has been used successfully for the screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of anti-mycobacterial compounds from methanol extracts of Canadian medicinal plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community-based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Montgomery, E; Yu, L; Michels, A; Gianani, R; Pugliese, A; Nierras, C; Kaddis, J S; Schatz, D A; Bonifacio, E; Atkinson, M A

    2016-07-01

    The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)-positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes-specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb-positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98-100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64-82% (GADA), 60-64% (IA-2A) and 62-68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow-up studies (14 GADA+, two IA-2A(+) , four multiple AAb-positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes-associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non-diabetic, high-risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  12. HBsAg blood screening and diagnosis: performance evaluation of the ARCHITECT HBsAg qualitative and ARCHITECT HBsAg qualitative confirmatory assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Christian; Krams, Doris; Beckert, Christian; Buenning, Carsten; Queirós, Lucinda; Piro, Loredana; Luciani, Marina; Roebbecke, Markus; Kapprell, Hans-Peter

    2011-08-01

    A low initial reactive rate for screening assays is important for time- and cost-effective infectious disease testing. Therefore, the new ARCHITECT HBsAg Qualitative screening assay, in conjunction with the new ARCHITECT HBsAg Qualitative Confirmatory assay, was introduced. As the role of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as surrogate marker for HBV resolution and the monitoring of drug effectiveness are becoming increasingly important, the established ARCHITECT HBsAg Quantitative assay remains available on the market. Precision, sensitivity, and specificity of the newly developed screening assay were in the range of established HBsAg assays. Seroconversion sensitivity was slightly superior compared to other commercially available assays. An initial reactive rate of 0.2% (without HBsAg-confirmed positive samples of 0.17%) for the ARCHITECT HBsAg Qualitative assay was observed. As the new screening assay is a 1-step assay format, the "high-dose hook effect" was investigated to assess the risk of false-negative results, but even very high positive HBsAg samples obtained signals clearly above the cutoff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular surveillance of true nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an evaluation of PCR screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Michael J; Temple, Beth; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Wiertsema, Selma P; Dunne, Eileen M; Richmond, Peter C; Marsh, Robyn L; Leach, Amanda J; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2012-01-01

    Unambiguous identification of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is not possible by conventional microbiology. Molecular characterisation of phenotypically defined NTHi isolates suggests that up to 40% are Haemophilus haemolyticus (Hh); however, the genetic similarity of NTHi and Hh limits the power of simple molecular techniques such as PCR for species discrimination. Here we assess the ability of previously published and novel PCR-based assays to identify true NTHi. Sixty phenotypic NTHi isolates, classified by a dual 16S rRNA gene PCR algorithm as NTHi (n = 22), Hh (n = 27) or equivocal (n = 11), were further characterised by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and recA genes then interrogated by PCR-based assays targeting the omp P2, omp P6, lgtC, hpd, 16S rRNA, fucK and iga genes. The sequencing data and PCR results were used to define NTHi for this study. Two hpd real time PCR assays (hpd#1 and hpd#3) and the conventional iga PCR assay were equally efficient at differentiating study-defined NTHi from Hh, each with a receiver operator characteristic curve area of 0.90 [0.83; 0.98]. The hpd#1 and hpd#3 assays were completely specific against a panel of common respiratory bacteria, unlike the iga PCR, and the hpd#3 assay was able to detect below 10 copies per reaction. Our data suggest an evolutionary continuum between NTHi and Hh and therefore no single gene target could completely differentiate NTHi from Hh. The hpd#3 real time PCR assay proved to be the superior method for discrimination of NTHi from closely related Haemophilus species with the added potential for quantification of H. influenzae directly from specimens. We suggest the hpd#3 assay would be suitable for routine NTHi surveillance and to assess the impact of antibiotics and vaccines, on H. influenzae carriage rates, carriage density, and disease.

  14. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J

    2014-12-01

    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.

  15. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay for Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Iván; Lafuente, María José; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Cid, Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a mitochondrial membrane-associated flavoenzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. DHODH is a validated target for malaria, and DSM265, a potent inhibitor, is currently in clinical trials. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate using flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactor in the first half of the reaction. Reoxidation of FMN to regenerate the active enzyme is mediated by ubiquinone (CoQD), which is the physiological final electron acceptor and second substrate of the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence-based high-throughput enzymatic assay to find DHODH inhibitors. In this assay, the CoQD has been replaced by a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye, resazurin, which changes to a fluorescent state on reduction to resorufin. Remarkably, the assay sensitivity to find competitive inhibitors of the second substrate is higher than that reported for the standard colorimetric assay. It is amenable to 1536-well plates with Z' values close to 0.8. The fact that the human enzyme can also be assayed in the same format opens additional applications of this assay to the discovery of inhibitors to treat cancer, transplant rejection, autoimmune diseases, and other diseases mediated by rapid cellular growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel E; Patel, Zubin H; Lu, Xiaoming; Lynch, Arthur T; Weirauch, Matthew T; Kottyan, Leah C

    2016-08-21

    Population and family-based genetic studies typically result in the identification of genetic variants that are statistically associated with a clinical disease or phenotype. For many diseases and traits, most variants are non-coding, and are thus likely to act by impacting subtle, comparatively hard to predict mechanisms controlling gene expression. Here, we describe a general strategic approach to prioritize non-coding variants, and screen them for their function. This approach involves computational prioritization using functional genomic databases followed by experimental analysis of differential binding of transcription factors (TFs) to risk and non-risk alleles. For both electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNA affinity precipitation assay (DAPA) analysis of genetic variants, a synthetic DNA oligonucleotide (oligo) is used to identify factors in the nuclear lysate of disease or phenotype-relevant cells. For EMSA, the oligonucleotides with or without bound nuclear factors (often TFs) are analyzed by non-denaturing electrophoresis on a tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) polyacrylamide gel. For DAPA, the oligonucleotides are bound to a magnetic column and the nuclear factors that specifically bind the DNA sequence are eluted and analyzed through mass spectrometry or with a reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blot analysis. This general approach can be widely used to study the function of non-coding genetic variants associated with any disease, trait, or phenotype.

  17. DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based colorimetric assay to assess helicase activity: a novel route to screen potential helicase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Jashmini; Mojumdar, Aditya; Parisse, Pietro; Onesti, Silvia; Casalis, Loredana

    2017-03-01

    Helicase are essential enzymes which are widespread in all life-forms. Due to their central role in nucleic acid metabolism, they are emerging as important targets for anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs. The development of easy, cheap, fast and robust biochemical assays to measure helicase activity, overcoming the limitations of the current methods, is a pre-requisite for the discovery of helicase inhibitors through high-throughput screenings. We have developed a method which exploits the optical properties of DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and meets the required criteria. The method was tested with the catalytic domain of the human RecQ4 helicase and compared with a conventional FRET-based assay. The AuNP-based assay produced similar results but is simpler, more robust and cheaper than FRET. Therefore, our nanotechnology-based platform shows the potential to provide a useful alternative to the existing conventional methods for following helicase activity and to screen small-molecule libraries as potential helicase inhibitors.

  18. Screening of Dengue virus antiviral activity of marine seaweeds by an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    Full Text Available Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

  19. Screening of Dengue Virus Antiviral Activity of Marine Seaweeds by an In Situ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization. PMID:23227238

  20. Screening of Dengue virus antiviral activity of marine seaweeds by an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

  1. An improved high-throughput screening assay for tunicamycin sensitivity in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie E McCormack

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tunicamycin sensitivity assays are a useful method for studies of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in eukaryotic cells. While tunicamycin sensitivity and tunicamycin recovery assays have been previously described, these existing methods are time-consuming, labor intensive and subjected to mechanical wounding. This study shows an improved method of testing tunicamycin sensitivity in Arabidopsis using liquid Murashige and Skoog medium versus the traditional solid agar plates. Liquid medium bypasses the physical manipulation of seedlings, thereby eliminating the risk of potential mechanical damage and additional unwanted stress to seedlings. Seedlings were subjected to comparative treatments with various concentrations of tunicamycin on both solid and liquid media and allowed to recover. Determination of fresh weight, chlorophyll contents analysis and qRT-PCR results confirm the efficacy of using liquid medium to perform quantitative tunicamycin stress assays.

  2. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular surveillance of true nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an evaluation of PCR screening assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Binks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unambiguous identification of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is not possible by conventional microbiology. Molecular characterisation of phenotypically defined NTHi isolates suggests that up to 40% are Haemophilus haemolyticus (Hh; however, the genetic similarity of NTHi and Hh limits the power of simple molecular techniques such as PCR for species discrimination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we assess the ability of previously published and novel PCR-based assays to identify true NTHi. Sixty phenotypic NTHi isolates, classified by a dual 16S rRNA gene PCR algorithm as NTHi (n = 22, Hh (n = 27 or equivocal (n = 11, were further characterised by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and recA genes then interrogated by PCR-based assays targeting the omp P2, omp P6, lgtC, hpd, 16S rRNA, fucK and iga genes. The sequencing data and PCR results were used to define NTHi for this study. Two hpd real time PCR assays (hpd#1 and hpd#3 and the conventional iga PCR assay were equally efficient at differentiating study-defined NTHi from Hh, each with a receiver operator characteristic curve area of 0.90 [0.83; 0.98]. The hpd#1 and hpd#3 assays were completely specific against a panel of common respiratory bacteria, unlike the iga PCR, and the hpd#3 assay was able to detect below 10 copies per reaction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest an evolutionary continuum between NTHi and Hh and therefore no single gene target could completely differentiate NTHi from Hh. The hpd#3 real time PCR assay proved to be the superior method for discrimination of NTHi from closely related Haemophilus species with the added potential for quantification of H. influenzae directly from specimens. We suggest the hpd#3 assay would be suitable for routine NTHi surveillance and to assess the impact of antibiotics and vaccines, on H. influenzae carriage rates, carriage density, and disease.

  4. High-throughput clone screening followed by protein expression cross-check: A visual assay platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Partha Pratim; Kumar, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    In high-throughput biotechnology and structural biology, molecular cloning is an essential prerequisite for attaining high yields of recombinant protein. However, a rapid, cost-effective, easy clone screening protocol is still required to identify colonies with desired insert along with a cross check method to certify the expression of the desired protein as the end product. We report an easy, fast, sensitive and cheap visual clone screening and protein expression cross check protocol employing gold nanoparticle based plasmonic detection phenomenon. This is a non-gel, non-PCR based visual detection technique, which can be used as simultaneous high throughput clone screening followed by the determination of expression of desired protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A whole-cell assay for the high throughput screening of calmodulin antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Emre; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia

    2008-04-01

    Cell-based screening systems for pharmaceuticals are desired over molecular biosensing systems because of the information they provide on toxicity and bioavailability. However, the majority of sensing systems developed are molecular biosensing type screening systems and cannot be easily adapted to cell-based screening. In this study, we demonstrate that protein-based molecular sensing systems that employ a fluorescent protein as a signal transducer are amenable to cell-based sensing by expressing the protein molecular sensing system in the cell and employing these cells for screening of desired molecules. To achieve this, we expressed a molecular sensing system based on the fusion protein of calmodulin (CaM) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in bacterial cells, and utilized these cells for the screening of CaM antagonists. In the presence of Ca(2+), CaM undergoes a conformational change exposing a hydrophobic pocket that interacts with CaM-binding proteins, peptides, and drugs. This conformational change induced in CaM leads to a change in the microenvironment of EGFP, resulting in a change in its fluorescence intensity. The observed change in fluorescence intensity of EGFP can be correlated to the concentration of the analyte present in the sample. Dose-response curves for various tricyclic antidepressants were generated using cells containing CaM-EGFP fusion protein. Additionally, we demonstrate the versatility of our system for studying protein-protein interactions by using cells to study the binding of a peptide to CaM. The study showed that the CaM-EGFP fusion protein within the intact cells responds similarly to that of the isolated fusion protein, hence eliminating the need for any isolation and purification steps. We have demonstrated that this system can be used for the rapid screening of various CaM antagonists that are potential antipsychotic drugs.

  6. Sensitive fluorimetric assays for α-glucosidase activity and inhibitor screening based on β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yao; Wang, Huan; He, Tian; Qi, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2016-02-01

    A fluorescence method was established for a α-glucosidase activity assay and inhibitor screening based on β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots. p-Nitrophenol, the hydrolysis product of the α-glucosidase reaction, could quench the fluorescence of β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots via an electron transfer process, leading to fluorescence turn-off, whereas the fluorescence of the system turned on in the presence of α-glucosidase inhibitors. Taking advantage of the excellent properties of quantum dots, this method provided a very simple, rapid and sensitive screening method for α-glucosidase inhibitors. Two α-glucosidase inhibitors, 2,4,6-tribromophenol and acarbose, were used to evaluate the feasibility of this screening model, and IC50 values of 24 μM and 0.55 mM were obtained respectively, which were lower than those previously reported. The method may have potential application in screening α-glucosidase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Screening assays to find out late latent syphilis cases – which is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    non-treponemal) such as Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR), and specific (treponemal) such as Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG, IgM (ELISA IgG, IgM) tests. The aim of this ...

  8. Validation of the performance of a GMO multiplex screening assay based on microarray detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimanis, S.; Hamels, S.; Naze, F.; Mbongolo, G.; Sneyers, M.; Hochegger, R.; Broll, H.; Roth, L.; Dallmann, K.; Micsinai, A.; Dijk, van J.P.; Kok, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new screening method for the detection and identification of GMO, based on the use of multiplex PCR followed by microarray, has been developed and is presented. The technology is based on the identification of quite ubiquitous GMO genetic target elements first amplified by PCR, followed by direct

  9. A combination of new screening assays for prioritization of transmission-blocking antimalarials reveals distinct dynamics of marketed and experimental drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolscher, J.M.; Koolen, K.M.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Bousema, T.; Leroy, D.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Dechering, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The development of drugs to reduce malaria transmission is an important part of malaria eradication plans. We set out to develop and validate a combination of new screening assays for prioritization of transmission-blocking molecules. METHODS: We developed high-throughput assays for

  10. Clinical Validation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Assay According to the Guidelines for Human Papillomavirus DNA Test Requirements for Cervical Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, A. T.; Meijer, C J L M; Poljak, M.; Berkhof, J; van Kemenade, F. J.; van der Salm, M. L.; Bogaarts, M.; Snijders, P J F; Heideman, D. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study showed that the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay fulfilled cross-sectional clinical equivalence and reproducibility criteria of international consensus guidelines, which indicates that this assay can be considered clinically validated for cervical cancer screening purposes.

  11. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Forbes

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb.

  12. The Effectiveness of Screening with Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in a University Health Care Setting with a Diverse Global Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samantha J.; Golbeck, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This analysis examined the effectiveness of utilizing interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) technology in a TB (TB) screening program at a university. Participants: Participants were 2299 students at a Montana university who had presented to the university health center for TB screening during 2012 and 2013. Methods: A retrospective…

  13. Development of assay platforms for in vitro screening of Treg modulating potential of pharmacological compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Holmstrøm, Kim; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    sorting (FACS) sorted CD4 + CD25(high)CD127(dim/-)CD45RA+ naïve Treg cells followed by in vitro expansion. We report on the use of these cells in a short-term assay based on Treg mediated inhibition of the early effector T cell activation markers CD69 and CD154. Additionally, we investigate the use...

  14. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Undetectable pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in antenatal serum Down's syndrome screening: a case of assay interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Hambridge, K; Petchey, M; Martin, J A; Spencer, K

    2015-09-01

    Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is measured in Down's syndrome screening, routinely offered to women in pregnancy. We present the case of an undetectable pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A concentration on the PerkinElmer AutoDELFIA system where immunoassay interference was suspected. Investigations performed, including dilution and recovery studies and antibody-blocking tube incubations, all yielded serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A concentrations of <25 mU/L. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A was also undetectable on two alternative pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assays. An experimental manual Delfia procedure suggested the site of interference was between the secondary antibody and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A molecule. This case of negative interference in the PerkinElmer pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assay produced a falsely high Down's syndrome risk that might have led to an unnecessary invasive procedure with the potential for fetal loss. This highlights the need for Down's syndrome screening laboratories to be vigilant to immunoassay interference due to the significant impact of the results on patient decision outcome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shimada

    Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  17. Simultaneous screening of multiple mutations by invader assay improves molecular diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss: a multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Usami

    Full Text Available Although etiological studies have shown genetic disorders to be a common cause of congenital/early-onset sensorineural hearing loss, there have been no detailed multicenter studies based on genetic testing. In the present report, 264 Japanese patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss from 33 ENT departments nationwide participated. For these patients, we first applied the Invader assay for screening 47 known mutations of 13 known deafness genes, followed by direct sequencing as necessary. A total of 78 (29.5% subjects had at least one deafness gene mutation. Mutations were more frequently found in the patients with congenital or early-onset hearing loss, i.e., in those with an awareness age of 0-6 years, mutations were significantly higher (41.8% than in patients with an older age of awareness (16.0%. Among the 13 genes, mutations in GJB2 and SLC26A4 were mainly found in congenital or early-onset patients, in contrast with mitochondrial mutations (12S rRNA m.1555A>G, tRNA(Leu(UUR m.3243A>G, which were predominantly found in older-onset patients. The present method of simultaneous screening of multiple deafness mutations by Invader assay followed by direct sequencing will enable us to detect deafness mutations in an efficient and practical manner for clinical use.

  18. Development of a plant viral-vector-based gene expression assay for the screening of yeast cytochrome p450 monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kathleen; Nguyen, Long V; Khan, Faizah; Pogue, Gregory P; Vojdani, Fakhrieh; Panda, Sanjay; Pinot, Franck; Oriedo, Vincent B; Rasochova, Lada; Subramanian, Mani; Miller, Barbara; White, Earl L

    2003-02-01

    Development of a gene discovery tool for heterologously expressed cytochrome P450 monooxygenases has been inherently difficult. The activity assays are labor-intensive and not amenable to parallel screening. Additionally, biochemical confirmation requires coexpression of a homologous P450 reductase or complementary heterologous activity. Plant virus gene expression systems have been utilized for a diverse group of organisms. In this study we describe a method using an RNA vector expression system to phenotypically screen for cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acid omega-hydroxylase activity. Yarrowia lipolytica CYP52 gene family members involved in n-alkane assimilation were amplified from genomic DNA, cloned into a plant virus gene expression vector, and used as a model system for determining heterologous expression. Plants infected with virus vectors expressing the yeast CYP52 genes (YlALK1-YlALK7) showed a distinct necrotic lesion phenotype on inoculated plant leaves. No phenotype was detected on negative control constructs. YlALK3-, YlALK5-, and YlALK7-inoculated plants all catalyzed the terminal hydroxylation of lauric acid as confirmed using thin-layer and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods. The plant-based cytochrome P450 phenotypic screen was tested on an n-alkane-induced Yarrowia lipolytica plant virus expression library. A subset of 1,025 random library clones, including YlALK1-YlALK7 constructs, were tested on plants. All YlALK gene constructs scored positive in the randomized screen. Following nucleotide sequencing of the clones that scored positive using a phenotypic screen, approximately 5% were deemed appropriate for further biochemical analysis. This report illustrates the utility of a plant-based system for expression of heterologous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and for the assignment of gene function.

  19. Successful newborn screening for Gaucher disease using fluorometric assay in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lulu; Zhan, Xia; Gu, Xuefan; Zhang, Huiwen

    2017-08-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an inherited metabolic disorder that involves accumulation of glycolipid glucocerebroside in monocyte-macrophage cells, which can result in multiple organ damage. Enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapies have improved the potential for early diagnosis and treatment. Determining the true incidence of this rare disease is critical for relevant policy establishment. Newborn screening allows for early diagnosis and an comparatively accurate incidence of GD. A fluorometric method to detect acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) activity on a dried blood spot punch was developed. Validity and feasibility of the fluorometric method was demonstrated by examining 116 healthy controls, 19 confirmed GD patients and 19 obligate carriers. GBA activity was measured on dried blood spots of 80 855 newborns. Samples from positively screened newborns were reanalyzed by a leukocyte GBA activity test and GBA gene analysis. Plasma glucosylsphingosine level was determined as a biomarker of the pathophysiology of GD. GD patients were distinguished from healthy controls and obligate carriers using the fluorometric method. Mean GBA activity in newborn screening specimens was 145.69±44.76 μmol l-1 h-1 (n=80 844). Three children had low GBA activity, of which one child had low GBA activity on the second dried blood spot specimen. Leukocyte, genetic and biomarker analysis confirmed the diagnosis and indicated that this child was in the early stages of GD. In conclusion, the incidence of GD in Shanghai of China is approximately 1 in 80 855. Screening for GD by fluorometric analysis of GBA activity is an efficient and feasible technology in newborns.

  20. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based endothelial cell apoptosis assay and its application for screening vascular disrupting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Afu [Division of Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Luo, Kathy Qian, E-mail: kluo@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An endothelial cell apoptosis assay using FRET-based biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue during apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was developed into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This assay was applied to screen vascular disrupting agents. -- Abstract: In this study, we developed a high-throughput endothelial cell apoptosis assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor. After exposure to apoptotic inducer UV-irradiation or anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, the fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue. We developed this method into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates by measuring the emission ratio of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to monitor the activation of a key protease, caspase-3, during apoptosis. The Z Prime factor for this assay was above 0.5 which indicates that this assay is suitable for a high-throughput analysis. Finally, we applied this functional high-throughput assay for screening vascular disrupting agents (VDA) which could induce endothelial cell apoptosis from our in-house compounds library and dioscin was identified as a hit. As this assay allows real time and sensitive detection of cell apoptosis, it will be a useful tool for monitoring endothelial cell apoptosis in living cell situation and for identifying new VDA candidates via a high-throughput screening.

  1. High throughput screening (HTS) for phototoxicity hazard using the in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P A; King, A V

    2003-01-01

    Testing for phototoxic hazard is usually carried out for product ingredients intended for use on skin, which may be exposed to sunlight. Unilever currently uses the validated in vitro 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake phototoxicity test (NRU PT). This protocol involves 2-3 experiments, each taking 3 days to perform. One person can test up to seven test materials plus positive control at any one time, requiring approximately 0.5 g test material. Higher throughput is required where libraries of potential actives are being generated and screening for potential phototoxicants is required. A proposed HTS protocol would use the NRU PT, but only one concentration (10 microg/ml) in a single experiment. The validity of the HTS protocol was investigated by a retrospective examination of data from 86 materials previously tested. Phototoxic hazard predictions made using the conventional NRU PT were compared with those obtained if only data at 10 microg/ml were considered. A majority of 73 materials (84.9%) gave agreement in predictions between the two protocols; for 13 materials (15.1%) the assessments did not agree. There were no false positives; however, there were some false negatives, i.e., predicted as phototoxic from the conventional assay, but non-phototoxic at 10 microg/ml. As this protocol is intended for screening purposes only it is considered that this would be acceptable at this stage in material selection. One person could screen 128 test materials in 3 days, requiring selected for further development and inclusion in a formulation may require further confirmatory testing, e.g. using a human skin model assay for phototoxicity.

  2. Validation of FRET Assay for the Screening of Growth Inhibitors of Escherichia coli Reveals Elongasome Assembly Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van der Ploeg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria demands the development of new antibiotics against preferably new targets. The common approach is to test compounds for their ability to kill bacteria or to design molecules that inhibit essential protein activities in vitro. In the first case, the mode of action of the drug is unknown and in the second case, it is not known whether the compound will pass the impermeable barrier of the bacterial envelope. We developed an assay that detects the target of a compound, as well as its ability to pass the membrane(s simultaneously. The Escherichia coli cytoskeletal protein MreB recruits protein complexes (elongasomes that are essential for cell envelope growth. An in cell Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET assay was developed to detect the interaction between MreB molecules and between MreB and the elongasome proteins RodZ, RodA and PBP2. Inhibition of the polymerization of MreB by S-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl isothiourea (A22 or of the activity of PBP2 by mecilinam resulted in loss or reduction of all measured interactions. This suggests that the interactions between the elongasome proteins are governed by a combination of weak affinities and substrate availability. This validated in cell FRET assay can be used to screen for cell envelope growth inhibitors.

  3. Simple Screening of Listeria monocytogenes Based on a Fluorescence Assay via a Laminated Lab-On-Paper Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisamayarom, Kankanit; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Chaumpluk, Piyasak

    2017-11-28

    Monitoring food safety is essential for protecting the health and safety of consumers. Conventional methods used are time consuming and laborious, requiring anywhere from three to seven days to obtain results. Thus, better monitoring methods are required. In this study, a laminated lab-on-paper chip was developed, and its use for the screening of ready-to-eat seafood was demonstrated. The assay on a chip was based on loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes and fluorescence signal detection via SYBR Gold TM . Overall assay processes were completed in 4.5 h., (including 3.5 h. incubation for the bacteria enrichment, direct DNA amplification with no DNA extraction, and signal detection), without relying on standard laboratory facilities. Only positive samples induced fluorescence signals on chip upon illumination with UV light (λ = 460). The method has a limit of detection of 100 copies of L. monocytogenes DNA per 50 g of sample. No cross-reactivity was observed in samples contaminated with other bacteria. On-site monitoring of the seafood products using this chip revealed that one of 30 products from low sanitation vendors (3.33%) were contaminated, and these agreed with the results of PCR. The results demonstrated a benefit of this chip assay for practical on-site monitoring.

  4. Simple Screening of Listeria monocytogenes Based on a Fluorescence Assay via a Laminated Lab-On-Paper Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankanit Pisamayarom

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring food safety is essential for protecting the health and safety of consumers. Conventional methods used are time consuming and laborious, requiring anywhere from three to seven days to obtain results. Thus, better monitoring methods are required. In this study, a laminated lab-on-paper chip was developed, and its use for the screening of ready-to-eat seafood was demonstrated. The assay on a chip was based on loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes and fluorescence signal detection via SYBR GoldTM. Overall assay processes were completed in 4.5 h., (including 3.5 h. incubation for the bacteria enrichment, direct DNA amplification with no DNA extraction, and signal detection, without relying on standard laboratory facilities. Only positive samples induced fluorescence signals on chip upon illumination with UV light (λ = 460. The method has a limit of detection of 100 copies of L. monocytogenes DNA per 50 g of sample. No cross-reactivity was observed in samples contaminated with other bacteria. On-site monitoring of the seafood products using this chip revealed that one of 30 products from low sanitation vendors (3.33% were contaminated, and these agreed with the results of PCR. The results demonstrated a benefit of this chip assay for practical on-site monitoring.

  5. Identification of inhibitors of yeast-to-hyphae transition in Candida albicans by a reporter screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Eickhoff, Holger; Hohn, Erwin; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2013-03-10

    Candida albicans is one of the most common opportunistic fungal pathogens, causing life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. As it is not primarily a pathogen, but can exist in a commensal state, we aimed at the identification of new anti-infective compounds which do not eradicate the fungus, but primarily disable a virulence determinant. The yeast–hyphae-dimorphism of C. albicans is considered a major contributor to fungal disease, as mutants locked into either yeast or hyphal state have been shown to be less virulent in the mouse-model. We devised a high-throughput screening procedure which allows us to find inhibitors of the induction of hyphae. Hyphae-formation was induced by nitrogen starvation at 37 °C and neutral pH in a reporter strain, which couples promoter activity of the hyphae-specific HWP1 to β-galactosidase expression. In a pilot screening of 720 novel synthetic compounds, we identified substances which inhibited the outgrowth of germ tubes. They belonged to chemical classes not yet known for antimycotic properties, namely methyl aryl-oxazoline carboxylates, dihydrobenzo[d]isoxazolones and thiazolo[4,5-e]benzoisoxazoles. In conclusion we developed a novel screening assay, which addresses the morphological switch from the yeast form of C. albicans to its hyphal form and identified novel chemical structures with activity against C. albicans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a global screening assay for the investigation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, J E; Cooper, P C; Brookfield, C J; Preston, F E; Makris, M

    2000-12-01

    We have evaluated a global screening test for the protein C pathway, the 'ProC Global' (Dade Behring Ltd, Milton Keynes, UK). Patient groups tested included inherited protein C or S deficient and inherited/acquired activated protein C resistance. Results showed that protein C deficiencies and activated protein C resistance could be successfully detected with this test whereas deficiencies of protein S were less readily distinguished from the normal population. The ProC Global was unreliable in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, raised plasma factor VIII:C and in those receiving oral anticoagulant therapy.

  7. A high-throughput colorimetric screening assay for terpene synthase activity based on substrate consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Furubayashi

    Full Text Available Terpene synthases catalyze the formation of a variety of terpene chemical structures. Systematic mutagenesis studies have been effective in providing insights into the characteristic and complex mechanisms of C-C bond formations and in exploring the enzymatic potential for inventing new chemical structures. In addition, there is growing demand to increase terpene synthase activity in heterologous hosts, given the maturation of metabolic engineering and host breeding for terpenoid synthesis. We have developed a simple screening method for the cellular activities of terpene synthases by scoring their substrate consumption based on the color loss of the cell harboring carotenoid pathways. We demonstrate that this method can be used to detect activities of various terpene synthase or prenyltransferase genes in a high-throughput manner, irrespective of the product type, enabling the mutation analysis and directed evolution of terpene synthases. We also report the possibility for substrate-specific screening system of terpene synthases by taking advantage of the substrate-size specificity of C30 and C40 carotenoid pathways.

  8. Identification of novel EZH2 inhibitors through pharmacophore-based virtual screening and biological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunlong; Hu, Junchi; Ding, Hong; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Rongfeng; Xu, Pan; Du, Daohai; Lu, Wenchao; Liu, Jingqiu; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yu-Chih; Lu, Junyan; Zhang, Jin; Yao, Zhiyi; Luo, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) acts as a primary writer for di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. This protein plays an essential role in silencing gene expression. Enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of PRC2, is considered as a promising therapeutic target for cancer. GSK126, a specific inhibitor of EZH2, is undergoing phase I trials for hypermethylation-related cancers. In addition, many derivatives of GSK126 are also commonly used in laboratory investigations. However, studies on the mechanism and drug development of EZH2 are limited by the absence of structural diversity of these inhibitors because they share similar SAM-like scaffolds. In this study, we generated a pharmacophore model based on reported EZH2 inhibitors and performed in silico screenings. Experimental validations led to the identification of two novel EZH2 inhibitors, DCE_42 and DCE_254, with IC50 values of 23 and 11μM, respectively. They also displayed significant anti-proliferation activity against lymphoma cell lines. Thus, we discovered potent EZH2 inhibitors with novel scaffold using combined in silico screening and experimental study. Results from this study can also guide further development of novel specific EZH2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Microscopy-based Assays for High-throughput Screening of Host Factors Involved in Brucella Infection of Hela Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Alain; Low, Shyan H; Emmenlauer, Mario; Conde-Alvarez, Raquel; Salcedo, Suzana P; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

    2016-08-05

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular pathogens that infect animals as their natural hosts. Transmission to humans is most commonly caused by direct contact with infected animals or by ingestion of contaminated food and can lead to severe chronic infections. Brucella can invade professional and non-professional phagocytic cells and replicates within endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuoles. The host factors required for Brucella entry into host cells, avoidance of lysosomal degradation, and replication in the ER-like compartment remain largely unknown. Here we describe two assays to identify host factors involved in Brucella entry and replication in HeLa cells. The protocols describe the use of RNA interference, while alternative screening methods could be applied. The assays are based on the detection of fluorescently labeled bacteria in fluorescently labeled host cells using automated wide-field microscopy. The fluorescent images are analyzed using a standardized image analysis pipeline in CellProfiler which allows single cell-based infection scoring. In the endpoint assay, intracellular replication is measured two days after infection. This allows bacteria to traffic to their replicative niche where proliferation is initiated around 12 hr after bacterial entry. Brucella which have successfully established an intracellular niche will thus have strongly proliferated inside host cells. Since intracellular bacteria will greatly outnumber individual extracellular or intracellular non-replicative bacteria, a strain constitutively expressing GFP can be used. The strong GFP signal is then used to identify infected cells. In contrast, for the entry assay it is essential to differentiate between intracellular and extracellular bacteria. Here, a strain encoding for a tetracycline-inducible GFP is used. Induction of GFP with simultaneous inactivation of extracellular bacteria by gentamicin enables the differentiation between intracellular and extracellular

  10. Reduction of the diagnostic window with a new combined p24 antigen and human immunodeficiency virus antibody screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, L; Mühlbacher, A; Michl, U; Hofmann, H; Paggi, G G; Bossi, V; Thorstensson, R; G-Villaescusa, R; Eiras, A; Hernandez, J M; Melchior, W; Donie, F; Weber, B

    1998-11-01

    In order to reduce the window phase between time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis, new fourth generation screening assays which permit a simultaneous detection of HIV antigen and antibody have been developed. In a multicenter study, a new automated fourth generation assay, Enzymun-Test HIV Combi (Boehringer Mannheim GmbH) was compared to third generation assay, p24 antigen tests and Western blot. A total of 37 seroconversion panels, samples of the early infection (n = 42), HIV-1 antibody positive sera, including subtypes A E, and O (n = 1118), HIV-2 positive samples (n = 252) and cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-2 (n = 50), blood donors (n = 6649), hospitalized patients (n = 475), HIV neg. sera with indeterminate Western blot (n = 32), potentially cross reactive serum samples (n = 435) and HIV negative specimens from Cameroon (n = 68) were tested. A total of 16 of 29 seroconversions were detected on average 8.5 days earlier with Enzymun-Test HIV Combi than HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation EIA (Abbott Laboratories). Overall, in the 29 panels investigated comparatively with the two assays, the mean time delay between Enzymun-Test HIV Combi and HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation EIA was 4.7 days. HIV antigen was detected in three out of 35 seroconversions one bleed earlier with HIV-1 Ag Monoclonal than with Enzymun-Test HIV Combi. Enzymun-Test HIV Combi showed a sensitivity of 100% for HIV antibody detection for HIV-1 group M and O and HIV-2 positive specimens. While p24 antigen of different HIV-1 subtypes was detected with Enzymun-Test HIV Combi in all the 49 cell culture supernatants, HIV Ag was not detected in an HIV-2 virus lysate. A total of 66 false positive results out of 7659 HIV negative samples were obtained with the Enzymun-Test HIV Combi. The specificity for unselected blood donors was 99.6%. The Enzymun-Test HIV Combi permits an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third generation

  11. An interferon-gamma release assay test performs well in routine screening for tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Danielsen, Allan; Fløe, Andreas; Lillebæk, Troels

    2014-01-01

    and sensitivity. Material and methods: Data from T-SPOT.TB testing together with age and test indications (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) candidate, contact investigation or suspicion of tuberculosis (TB)) were combined with mycobac­teria culture results. Results: A total of 1,809 patients were tested......, 41 of 43 culture-verified M. tuberculosis infections tested positive with one false negative. Conclusion: During routine testing, inconclusive tests were rare, but more frequent during autumn/winter periods and for patients 75 years of age. The T-SPOT.TB showed a high sensitivity in culture......Introduction: A positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is regarded as proof of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We conducted an evaluation of the IGRA test “T-SPOT.TB” to test its performance during clinical routine use by analysing the positivity rate and odds, effect of season...

  12. A tool for mass-screening of paragonimiasis: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xu Guang; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nawa, Yukifumi; Itoh, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is one of the foodborn trematodiases and number of the patients was estimated to be about 23 million around the world. To obtain good compliance of people for the surveillance of paragonimiasis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis with unconcentrated urine samples was developed. Paragonimus westermani antigen specific IgG and IgG4 were detected in urine samples from paragonimiasis patients and the levels correlated well with those detected in the paired serum samples. Cross-reactions observed among other trematodiasis and a tuberculosis patient with the antigen specific IgG were much reduced by detecting the antigen specific IgG4; 9.2 % to 2.3 %. The ELISA with urine samples, which are collected safely and easily, will be a useful tool for a mass-screening of paragonimiasis.

  13. Identification of Novel Inhibitors against Coactivator Associated Arginine Methyltransferase 1 Based on Virtual Screening and Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of coactivator associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1, a protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT family enzyme, is associated with various diseases including cancers. Consequently, the development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PRMTs has significant value for both research and therapeutic purposes. In this study, together with structure-based virtual screening with biochemical assays, two compounds DC_C11 and DC_C66 were identified as novel inhibitors of CARM1. Cellular studies revealed that the two inhibitors are cell membrane permeable and effectively blocked proliferation of cancer cells including HELA, K562, and MCF7. We further predicted the binding mode of these inhibitors through molecular docking analysis, which indicated that the inhibitors competitively occupied the binding site of the substrate and destroyed the protein-protein interactions between CARM1 and its substrates. Overall, this study has shed light on the development of small-molecule CARM1 inhibitors with novel scaffolds.

  14. Screening of antibiotic residues in ewes' milk destined to cheese by a commercial microbiological inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, M; Berruga, M I; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P; Molina, A

    2006-07-01

    Bulk ewes' milk from Spanish dairy farms in the Castilla-La Mancha region and destined for production of protected denomination of origin (PDO) Manchego cheese were analysed each month for antimicrobial residues during the course of 1 year. A microbiological assay specific for ewes' milk (Eclipse '100ov') was used. The number of positive samples by the Eclipse '100ov' test was 2.6%. A second examination of positives following heat treatment at 82 degrees C for 10 min showed a reduction of up to 0.9% (i.e. 63% of the samples detected corresponded to 'false-positives'). Of the confirmed positives, 25% were identified as beta-lactams by a penicillinase solution; the remainder corresponded to antimicrobial compounds that could not be identified. The month of collection was related to the probability of positive results, but to no other factors such as somatic cell counts, bacteriology or composition (fat and protein). The highest rates of positives were observed in September and October. Finally, the results were compared with those obtained by the Delvotest SP method, which showed the detection of a higher number of positive samples compared with the Eclipse '100ov' method.

  15. Toxicity screening of produced water extracts in a zebrafish embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, G; Norrgren, L; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    Produced water is the largest effluent discharge from oil and gas/condensate production facilities in the North Sea. There is concern that contaminants originating from the reservoir and chemicals used in the production process may affect marine organisms. Developmental toxicity of extractable organic compounds in produced water effluents from oil and gas/condensate production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was assessed in a temporal and spatial manner using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Large-scale solid-phase extraction (SPE) and on-column fractionation of water-soluble fraction (WSF) and an oil/particulate fraction was used in a rapid screening bioassay for embryotoxicity. Exposure to produced water extracts increased rate of mortality and reduced pigmentation and heart rate, as well as delaying time to hatch. The oil/particulate fraction was 10-fold less toxic than WSF, indicating that toxicity was predominantly produced by moderately polar and bioavailable compounds. Large spatial and temporal variation in produced water toxicity was observed, displaying considerable variability in the reservoir, oil well, and effluent composition over time. The noted toxicity did not correlate well with either reported produced water composition or parameters such as total hydrocarbons, thus challenging chemical measurements as a reliable source of information for predicting complex effects. Although embryotoxicity was observed following exposure to the extracts, dilution and transformation of produced water in the recipient are expected to rapidly reduce the concentrations of compounds in the effluents to levels below the thresholds of observed effects.

  16. Fungal degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and a semiquantitative assay for screening their degradation by terrestrial fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matavulj, M; Molitoris, H P

    1992-12-01

    The current problems with decreasing fossile resources and increasing environmental pollution by petrochemical-based plastics have stimulated investigations to find biosynthetic materials which are also biodegradable. Bacterial reserve materials such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been discovered to possess thermoplastic properties and can be synthesized from renewable resources. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) is at present the most promising PHA; and BIOPOL, its copolymer with poly-beta-hydroxy-valerate (PHV), is already industrially produced (ICI, UK), and used as packaging material (WELLA, FRG). According to the literature, PHA degradation has so far mainly been observed in bacteria; only under certain environmental conditions has fungal degradation of PHAs been indicated. Since fungi constitute an important part of microbial populations participating in degradation processes, a simple screening method for fungal degradation of BIOPOL, a PHA-based plastic, was developed. Several media with about 150 fungal strains from different terrestrial environments and belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were used. PHA depolymerization was tested on three PHB-based media, each with 0.1% BIOPOL or PHB homopolymer causing turbidity of the medium. The media contained either a comparatively low or high content of organic carbon (beside PHA) or were based on mineral medium with PHA as the principal source of carbon. The degradation activity was detectable due to formation of a clear halo around the colony (Petri plates) or a clear zone under the colony (test tubes).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Gerson S; Pereira, Jessica A S; Costa, Samara G; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Eloi S; Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Genta, Fernando A

    2017-01-01

    Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae). Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus anterior midgut

  18. Standardization of a Continuous Assay for Glycosidases and Its Use for Screening Insect Gut Samples at Individual and Populational Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson S. Profeta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae. Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus

  19. Cytotoxicity screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials using a test matrix of ten cell lines and three different assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göbbert Christian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered nanomaterials display unique properties that may have impact on human health, and thus require a reliable evaluation of their potential toxicity. Here, we performed a standardized in vitro screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials. We thoroughly characterized the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials and adapted three classical in vitro toxicity assays to eliminate nanomaterial interference. Nanomaterial toxicity was assessed in ten representative cell lines. Results Six nanomaterials induced oxidative cell stress while only a single nanomaterial reduced cellular metabolic activity and none of the particles affected cell viability. Results from heterogeneous and chemically identical particles suggested that surface chemistry, surface coating and chemical composition are likely determinants of nanomaterial toxicity. Individual cell lines differed significantly in their response, dependent on the particle type and the toxicity endpoint measured. Conclusion In vitro toxicity of the analyzed engineered nanomaterials cannot be attributed to a defined physicochemical property. Therefore, the accurate identification of nanomaterial cytotoxicity requires a matrix based on a set of sensitive cell lines and in vitro assays measuring different cytotoxicity endpoints.

  20. Tackling heterogeneity: a leaf disc-based assay for the high-throughput screening of transient gene expression in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Piotrzkowski

    Full Text Available Transient Agrobacterium-mediated gene expression assays for Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum are frequently used because they facilitate the comparison of multiple expression constructs regarding their capacity for maximum recombinant protein production. However, for three model proteins, we found that recombinant protein accumulation (rpa was significantly influenced by leaf age and leaf position effects. The ratio between the highest and lowest amount of protein accumulation (max/min ratio was found to be as high as 11. Therefore, construct-based impacts on the rpa level that are less than 11-fold will be masked by background noise. To address this problem, we developed a leaf disc-based screening assay and infiltration device that allows the rpa level in a whole tobacco plant to be reliably and reproducibly determined. The prototype of the leaf disc infiltration device allows 14 Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration events to be conducted in parallel. As shown for three model proteins, the average max/min rpa ratio was reduced to 1.4 using this method, which allows for a sensitive comparison of different genetic elements affecting recombinant protein expression.

  1. Electrostatic Spray Ionization from 384-Well Microtiter Plates for Mass Spectrometry Analysis-Based Enzyme Assay and Drug Metabolism Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Zhong, Xiaoqin; Belghith, Emna; Deng, Yan; Lin, Tzu-En; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

    2017-06-06

    We have realized the direct ionization of samples from wells of microtiter plates under atmospheric conditions for mass spectrometry analysis without any liquid delivery system or any additional interface. The microtiter plate is a commercially available 384-well plate without any modification, working as a container and an emitter for electrostatic spray ionization of analytes. The approach provides high throughput for the large batches of reactions and both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a single compound or mixture. The limits of detection in small drug molecules, peptides, and proteins are similar in comparison with standard direct infusion electrospray ionization. The analysis time per well is only seconds. These analytical merits benefit many microtiter plate-based studies, such as combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening in enzyme assay or drug metabolism. Herein, we illustrate the application in enzyme assay using tyrosine oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in the presence or absence of inhibitors. The potential application in drug development is also demonstrated with cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolic reactions of two drugs in microtiter plates followed with direct ESTASI-MS/MS-based characterization of the metabolism products.

  2. Tackling heterogeneity: a leaf disc-based assay for the high-throughput screening of transient gene expression in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrzkowski, Natalia; Schillberg, Stefan; Rasche, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Transient Agrobacterium-mediated gene expression assays for Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) are frequently used because they facilitate the comparison of multiple expression constructs regarding their capacity for maximum recombinant protein production. However, for three model proteins, we found that recombinant protein accumulation (rpa) was significantly influenced by leaf age and leaf position effects. The ratio between the highest and lowest amount of protein accumulation (max/min ratio) was found to be as high as 11. Therefore, construct-based impacts on the rpa level that are less than 11-fold will be masked by background noise. To address this problem, we developed a leaf disc-based screening assay and infiltration device that allows the rpa level in a whole tobacco plant to be reliably and reproducibly determined. The prototype of the leaf disc infiltration device allows 14 Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration events to be conducted in parallel. As shown for three model proteins, the average max/min rpa ratio was reduced to 1.4 using this method, which allows for a sensitive comparison of different genetic elements affecting recombinant protein expression.

  3. Performance of a Fourth-Generation HIV Screening Assay and an Alternative HIV Diagnostic Testing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Wesolowski, Laura G.; Meyer, William A.; Owen, S. Michele; Masciotra, Silvina; Vorwald, Craig; Becker, William J.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the performance of the GS fourth-generation antigen/antibody assay and compared CDC’s proposed alternative algorithm (repeatedly reactive [RR] fourth-generation immunoassay [IA] followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation IA and, if needed, nucleic acid testing [NAT]) with the current algorithm (RR third-generation IA followed by HIV-1 Western blot [WB]). Design A convenience sample of the following four specimen sets was acquired: 10,014 from insurance applicants, 493 known WB-positive, 20 known WB-indeterminate specimens, and 230 specimens from 26 HIV-1 seroconverters. Methods Specimens were tested with the GS third- and fourth-generation IAs, the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation IA, NAT, and WB. We applied the two algorithms using these results. Results Among insurance specimens, 13 (0.13%) specimens were IA RR: 2 were HIV-positive (RR by third- and fourth-generation IAs, and WB and Multispot positive); 2 third-generation RR and 9 fourth-generation RR specimens were false-positive. Third- and fourth-generation specificities were 99.98% (95%CI: 99.93%–100%) and 99.91% (95%CI: 99.84%–99.96%) respectively. All HIV-1 WB-positive specimens were RR by third- and fourth-generation IAs. By Multispot, 491 (99.6%) were HIV-1 positive and 2 (0.4%) were HIV-2 positive. Only eight (40%) WB-indeterminate specimens were fourth-generation RR: 6 were Multispot and NAT negative and 2 were Multispot HIV-1 positive but NAT negative. The alternative algorithm correctly classified as positive 102 seroconverter specimens with the third-generation IA and 130 with the fourth-generation IA compared with 56 using the WB with either IA. Conclusions The alternative testing algorithm improved early infection sensitivity and identified HIV-2 infections. Two potential false-positive algorithm results occurred with WB-indeterminate specimens. PMID:23135170

  4. Performance of a fourth-generation HIV screening assay and an alternative HIV diagnostic testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Wesolowski, Laura G; Meyer, William A; Owen, S Michele; Masciotra, Silvina; Vorwald, Craig; Becker, William J; Branson, Bernard M

    2013-03-13

    We evaluated the performance of the GS fourth-generation antigen/antibody assay and compared Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) proposed alternative algorithm [repeatedly reactive fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation immunoassay and, if needed, nucleic acid test (NAT)] with the current algorithm (repeatedly reactive third-generation immunoassay followed by HIV-1 western blot). A convenience sample of the following four specimen sets was acquired: 10 014 from insurance applicants, 493 known western blot-positive, 20 known western blot-indeterminate specimens, and 230 specimens from 26 HIV-1 seroconverters. Specimens were tested with the GS third-generation and fourth-generation immunoassays, the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation immunoassay, NAT, and western blot. We applied the two algorithms using these results. Among insurance specimens, 13 (0.13%) specimens were immunoassay repeatedly reactive: two were HIV-positive (repeatedly reactive by third-generation and fourth-generation immunoassays, and western blot and Multispot positive); two third-generation repeatedly reactive and nine fourth-generation repeatedly reactive specimens were false-positive. Third-generation and fourth-generation specificities were 99.98% [95% confidence interval (CI) 99.93-100%] and 99.91% (95% CI 99.84-99.96%), respectively.All HIV-1 western blot-positive specimens were repeatedly reactive by third-generation and fourth-generation immunoassays. By Multispot, 491 (99.6%) were HIV-1-positive and two (0.4%) were HIV-2-positive.Only eight (40%) western blot-indeterminate specimens were fourth-generation repeatedly reactive: six were Multispot and NAT-negative and two were Multispot HIV-1-positive but NAT-negative.The alternative algorithm correctly classified as positive 102 seroconverter specimens with the third-generation immunoassay and 130 with the fourth-generation immunoassay compared with 56 using the western blot with

  5. Comparison of Russell viper venom-based and activated partial thromboplastin time-based screening assays for resistance to activated protein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Adrianna Z; Lemire, Susan J; Longtine, Janina; Dorfman, David M

    2008-11-01

    Thrombotic disease is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity, with an estimated lifetime risk of greater than 10% in Western populations. One of the most common hereditary thrombophilias is the factor V Leiden mutation, which is identified with a screening assay for activated protein C (APC) resistance and confirmed by DNA analysis. In this study, we compared the commercially available Pefakit (Pentapharm, Basel, Switzerland) and Cryocheck (Precision BioLogic, Dartmouth, Canada) assays, 2 recently developed Russell viper venom (RVV)-based screening tests, with the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)-based screening test currently used in our hospital's clinical laboratory. We found that the aPTT-based assay for resistance to APC had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 70%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 70%, whereas both of the RVV-based assays exhibited high sensitivity, specificity, and PPV at 100%. In addition, we found that these new functional assays are more cost-effective relative to the screening algorithm previously used in our clinical laboratory and could potentially eliminate the need for DNA analysis, although further study is required.

  6. Development and validation of a chemiluminescent immunodetection assay amenable to high throughput screening of antiviral drugs for Nipah and Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljofan, Mohamad; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne; Mungall, Bruce A

    2008-04-01

    There are currently no antiviral drugs approved for the highly lethal Biosafety Level 4 pathogens Nipah and Hendra virus. A number of researchers are developing surrogate assays amenable to Biosafety Level 2 biocontainment but ultimately, the development of a high throughput screening method for directly quantifying these viruses in a Biosafety Level 4 environment will be critical for final evaluation of antiviral drugs identified in surrogate assays, in addition to reducing the time required for effective antiviral drug development. By adapting an existing immunoplaque assay and using enzyme linked immunodetection in a microtitre plate format, the current experiments describe a simple two step assay protocol involving an overnight virus inoculation of Vero cell monolayers (with or without antiviral drug treatment) at Biosafety Level 4, followed by cell fixation and virus inactivation enabling removal of plates from the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory and a subsequent immunodetection assay using a chemiluminescent horse radish peroxidase substrate to be performed at Biosafety Level 2. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection) of this assay is 100 tissue culture infectious dose50/ml of either Nipah or Hendra virus. In addition this assay enables linear quantitation of virus over three orders of magnitude and is unaffected by dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations of 1% or less. Intra-assay coefficients of variation are acceptable (less than 20%) when detecting a minimum of 1000 tissue culture infectious dose50/ml of either virus although inter-assay variation is considerably greater. By an assessment of efficacies of the broad spectrum antiviral Ribavirin and an experimental fusion inhibitory peptide, this assay reveals a good correlation with previously published fluorescent immunodetection assays. The current experiments describe for the first time, a high throughput screening method amenable for direct assessment of live henipavirus antiviral drug activity.

  7. Development of 11-Plex MOL-PCR Assay for the Rapid Screening of Samples for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis A Woods

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are a serious threat to the public health, with approximately half of the STEC related food-borne illnesses attributable to contaminated beef. We developed an assay that was able to screen samples for several important STEC associated serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157 and three major virulence factors (eae, stx1, stx2 in a rapid and multiplexed format using the Multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR assay chemistry. This assay detected unique STEC DNA signatures and was meant to be used on samples from various sources related to beef production, providing a multiplex and high-throughput complement to the multiplex PCR assays currently in use. Multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR is a nucleic acid-based assay chemistry that relies on flow cytometry/image cytometry and multiplex microsphere arrays for the detection of nucleic acid-based signatures present in target agents. The STEC MOL-PCR assay provided greater than 90% analytical specificity across all sequence markers designed when tested against panels of DNA samples that represent different STEC serogroups and toxin gene profiles. This paper describes the development of the 11-plex assay and the results of its validation. This highly multiplexed, but more importantly dynamic and adaptable screening assay allows inclusion of additional signatures as they are identified in relation to public health. As the impact of STEC associated illness on public health is explored additional information on classification will be needed on single samples; thus, this assay can serve as the backbone for a complex screening system.

  8. A draft genome sequence and functional screen reveals the repertoire of type III secreted proteins of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci 11528

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangl Jeffery L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial pathogen that causes disease on a broad range of economically important plant species. Pathogenicity of P. syringae strains is dependent on the type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of up to about thirty virulence 'effector' proteins into the host cytoplasm where they subvert the eukaryotic cell physiology and disrupt host defences. P. syringae pathovar tabaci naturally causes disease on wild tobacco, the model member of the Solanaceae, a family that includes many crop species as well as on soybean. Results We used the 'next-generation' Illumina sequencing platform and the Velvet short-read assembly program to generate a 145X deep 6,077,921 nucleotide draft genome sequence for P. syringae pathovar tabaci strain 11528. From our draft assembly, we predicted 5,300 potential genes encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids long, of which 303 (5.72% had no significant sequence similarity to those encoded by the three previously fully sequenced P. syringae genomes. Of the core set of Hrp Outer Proteins that are conserved in three previously fully sequenced P. syringae strains, most were also conserved in strain 11528, including AvrE1, HopAH2, HopAJ2, HopAK1, HopAN1, HopI, HopJ1, HopX1, HrpK1 and HrpW1. However, the hrpZ1 gene is partially deleted and hopAF1 is completely absent in 11528. The draft genome of strain 11528 also encodes close homologues of HopO1, HopT1, HopAH1, HopR1, HopV1, HopAG1, HopAS1, HopAE1, HopAR1, HopF1, and HopW1 and a degenerate HopM1'. Using a functional screen, we confirmed that hopO1, hopT1, hopAH1, hopM1', hopAE1, hopAR1, and hopAI1' are part of the virulence-associated HrpL regulon, though the hopAI1' and hopM1' sequences were degenerate with premature stop codons. We also discovered two additional HrpL-regulated effector candidates and an HrpL-regulated distant homologue of avrPto1. Conclusion The draft genome sequence facilitates the

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 pathogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirienko, Natalia V; Cezairliyan, Brent O; Ausubel, Frederick M; Powell, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model host for studying the interaction between bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metazoan innate immune system. Powerful genetic and molecular tools in both C. elegans and P. aeruginosa facilitate the identification and analysis of bacterial virulence factors as well as host defense factors. Here we describe three different assays that use the C. elegans-P. aeruginosa strain PA14 host-pathogen system. Fast Killing is a toxin-mediated death that depends on a diffusible toxin produced by PA14 but not on live bacteria. Slow Killing is due to an active infection in which bacteria colonize the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Liquid Killing is designed for high-throughput screening of chemical libraries for anti-infective compounds. Each assay has unique features and, interestingly, the PA14 virulence factors involved in killing are different in each assay.

  10. Screening for latent TB in patients with rheumatic disorders prior to biologic agents in a 'high-risk' TB population: comparison of two interferon gamma release assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melath, Sunil; Ismajli, Mediola; Smith, Robin; Patel, Ishita; Steuer, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic disorders treated with TNF inhibitors are at increased risk of developing TB. There is no 'gold-standard' for the diagnosis of latent TB prior to initiation of biologic agents. We report our own experience of comparing two interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in screening for latent TB in a 'high-risk' TB area in patients with rheumatic disorders. The study demonstrated good concordance between the two tests. We believe the additional cost of these assays is justified in high-risk populations prior to biologic agents, with 16% of the current study population with at least one positive IGRA assay.

  11. Development of a high-throughput cell-based reporter assay for screening of JAK3 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chang-Hong; Bach, Erika A; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2011-04-01

    JAK3 is an ideal target for the treatment of immune-related diseases and the prevention of organ allograft rejection. Several JAK3 inhibitors have been identified by biochemical enzymatic assays, but the majority display significant off-target effects on JAK2. Therefore, there is a need to develop new experimental approaches to identify compounds that specifically inhibit JAK3. Here, we show that in 32D/IL-2Rβ cells, STAT5 becomes phosphorylated by an IL-3/JAK2- or IL-2/JAK3-dependent pathway. Importantly, the selective JAK3 inhibitor CP-690,550 blocked the phosphorylation and the nuclear translocation of STAT5 following treatment of cells with IL-2 but not with IL-3. In an attempt to use the cells for large-scale chemical screens to identify JAK3 inhibitors, we established a cell line, 32D/IL-2Rβ/6xSTAT5, stably expressing a STAT5 reporter gene. Treatment of this cell line with IL-2 or IL-3 dramatically increased the reporter activity in a high-throughput format. As expected, CP-690,550 selectively inhibited the activity of the 6xSTAT5 reporter following treatment with IL-2. By contrast, the pan-JAK inhibitor curcumin inhibited the activity of this reporter following treatment with either IL-2 or IL-3. Thus, this study indicates that the STAT5 reporter cell line can be used as an efficacious cellular model for chemical screens to identify selective JAK3 inhibitors.

  12. Validation of the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay for screening and reliable early detection of HIV-1 infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chuan Min; Cho, Yunjung; Ng, Kee Peng; Han, Xiaoxu; Oh, Eun-Jee; Zainah, Saat; Rozainanee, Mohd Zain; Wang, Lan Lan

    2013-09-01

    The Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay was developed to allow earlier detection of HIV infection with increased sensitivity and specificity. To validate the assay for screening and reliable early detection of HIV-1 infection in Asia. Samples tested reflected those routinely screened in Asia and comprised: HIV-1 antigen lysate (25 samples) and antibody (20 samples) dilutions; seven HIV-1 seroconversion panels (46 samples); 39 patient samples from early infection; 183 known-positive sera; HIV-1 p24 antigen sensitivity panel (seven samples); >500 routine clinical samples per center. The Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay was compared with fourth- (ADVIA Centaur® HIV combo, ARCHITECT® HIV combo, Elecsys® HIV combi) and third-generation (VIRONOSTIKA® HIV Uni-Form II Plus O, Zhuhai Livzon Anti-HIV EIA, Serodia® Particle Agglutination) assays commonly used in the region. Overall, the Elecsys® HIV combi PT showed superior or similar sensitivity to the comparators for detecting all subtypes. The assay correctly identified all positive samples, including those taken soon after infection, and detected seroconversion at a similar or shorter time interval than the comparators. The analytical sensitivity of Elecsys® HIV combi PT for HIV-1 p24 antigen was 0.90 IU/mL, which was lower than reported previously. The assay showed good specificity (99.86%) that was superior or equivalent to the other fourth-generation assays tested. These robust data demonstrate the good subtype inclusivity of the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay and its suitability for screening and reliable early detection of HIV infection in Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Dual Readout Assay Based on Fluorescence Polarization and Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer to Screen for RSK1 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun-mi; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Byung Ho; Oh, Kwang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A dual readout assay based on fluorescence polarization (FP) and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) exhibits many advantages over single assay technology in terms of screening quality and efficiency. In this study, we developed a dual readout assay combining FP and TR-FRET to identify ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) inhibitors. This dual readout assay can monitor both FP and TR-FRET signals from a single RSK1 kinase reaction by using the immobilized metal affinity for phosphochemical (IMAP)-based assay. The Z' value and signal to background (S/B) ratio were 0.85 and 4.0 using FP, and 0.79 and 10.6 using TR-FRET, which led to performance of a pilot library screening against the drug repositioning set consisting of 2320 compounds with a reasonable reproducibility. From this screening, we identified 16 compounds showing greater than 50% inhibition against RSK1 for both FP and TR-FRET; 6 compounds with greater than 50% inhibition only for FP; and 4 compounds with greater than 50% inhibition only for TR-FRET. In a cell-based functional assay to validate the hit compounds, 10 compounds identified only in a single assay had little effect on the RSK-mediated phosphorylation of liver kinase B1, whereas 5 compounds showing greater than 80% inhibition for both FP and TR-FRET reduced the phosphorylation of liver kinase B1. These results demonstrate that the dual readout assay can be used to identify hit compounds by subsequently monitoring both FP and TR-FRET signals from one RSK1 reaction.

  14. In Vitro Screening of 1877 Industrial and Consumer Chemicals, Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals in up to 782 Assays: ToxCast Phase I and II (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Phase II of the ToxCast program, the U.S. EPA and Tox21 partners screened 1,877 chemicals, including pesticides; food, cosmetics and personal care ingredients; pharmaceuticals; and industrial chemicals. Testing used a 782 in vitro assays across 7 technologies and multiple bi...

  15. A Panel of High Resolution Melting (HRM Technology-Based Assays with Direct Sequencing Possibility for Effective Mutation Screening of EGFR and K-ras Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. M. Heideman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing data from clinical trials support EGFR and K-ras mutation status as predictive markers of tumour response to EGFR-targeted therapies. Consequently, rapid and reliable mutation screening assays are demanded to guide rational use of EGFR-targeted therapies.

  16. Role of the QuantiFERON (R)-TB Gold In-Tube assay in screening new immigrants for tuberculosis infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Christiaan; van Deutekom, Henk; Huisman, Erik M.; Toumanian, Sophie; Koster, Ben F. P. J.; Meijer-Veldman, Wieneke; van Loenhout-Rooyackers, Joke H.; Appel, Milo; Arend, Sandra M.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB) within 2 yrs after entry in newly arriving immigrants who were screened with the QuantiFERONI (R)-TB Gold In-Tube assay (OFT-GIT; Cellestis, Carnegie, Australia). In a case-base design, we determined the prevalence

  17. A rapid, accurate and robust particle-based assay for the simultaneous screening of plasma samples for the presence of five different anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Larsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish and validate a rapid, cost-effective and accurate screening assay for the simultaneous testing of human naturally occurring anti-cytokine autoantibodies (c-aAb) targeting interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  18. Development and validation of duplex, triplex, and pentaplex real-time PCR screening assays for the detection of genetically modified organisms in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ingrid; Block, Annette; Sebah, Daniela; Debode, Frédéric; Morisset, Dany; Grohmann, Lutz; Berben, Gilbert; Stebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Zel, Jana; Busch, Ulrich

    2013-10-30

    Worldwide, qualitative methods based on PCR are most commonly used as screening tools for genetically modified material in food and feed. However, the increasing number and diversity of genetically modified organisms (GMO) require effective methods for simultaneously detecting several genetic elements marking the presence of transgenic events. Herein we describe the development and validation of a pentaplex, as well as complementary triplex and duplex real-time PCR assays, for the detection of the most common screening elements found in commercialized GMOs: P-35S, T-nos, ctp2-cp4-epsps, bar, and pat. The use of these screening assays allows the coverage of many GMO events globally approved for commercialization. Each multiplex real-time PCR assay shows high specificity and sensitivity with an absolute limit of detection below 20 copies for the targeted sequences. We demonstrate by intra- and interlaboratory tests that the assays are robust as well as cost- and time-effective for GMO screening if applied in routine GMO analysis.

  19. The effectiveness of using interferon-gamma release assays in screening immigration employees for latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Perio, Marie A; Niemeier, R Todd; Groenewold, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in immigration employees and compared two of the screening methods. Using a cross-sectional study design, we administered questionnaires regarding demographics, work, medical history, and tuberculosis risk factors to employees at two immigration facilities. Participants underwent tuberculin skin test (TST) placement and blood collection for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay. Fifty-four employees underwent QFT-GIT and TST placement. All QFT-GIT results were negative, and three employees tested TST positive. Twenty-three (49%) of 47 employees requiring two-step TST testing underwent second TST placement. Return rates for first and second TST reading were 76% and 74%, respectively. The QFT-GIT completion rate was higher than that for TST (100% vs. 39%, P employees had low return rates for their TST reading and second TST placement. Performing the one-visit QFT-GIT has administrative and logistical advantages in this occupational group.

  20. Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Nigella sativa L. Seeds Using Brine Shrimp Toxicity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sharififar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since cytotoxicity screening is the first step necessary for any new drug development, this study was designed to find out and compare the cytotoxicity effects of the essential oil and various extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay. Materials and Methods: Essential oils and various extracts of N. sativa were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical package version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, 250 USA. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. Results: All of the tested fractions demonstrated more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of N. sativa showed the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 7 and 21 μg/ml respectively; while aqueous and ethanolic had no significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the GC/MS analysis of the essential oil of N. sativa showed the p-cymene (48.1%, α-thujone (14.38% and dihydro carveol (9.11% as the main compounds. Conclusion: These results suggest some limitation for using this spice in diet. Furthermore, this plant could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which should be studied in details.

  1. [Application of multiplex nested RT- PCR assay for screening the fusion genes in acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Gao, Li; Sun, Junzhong; Ding, Yi; Xu, Yihan; Lyu, Chao; Liu, Wenwen; Wang, Nan; Wang, Lili; Yu, Li

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical value of multiplex nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-nPCR) in screening acute myeloid leukemia(AML)fusion genes. A novel multiplex RT-nPCR assay was developed to detect 16 AML-related fusion genes (AML1-EVI1, AML1-ETO, AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, MLL-AF9, MLL-AF6, MLL-AF10, MLL-ENL, MLL-MLL, PML-RARα, PLZFRARα, NPM1-RARα, CBFB-MYH11, DEK-CAN, SET-CAN and TLS-ERG) according to 2008 WHO classification of AML. The chromosome reciprocal translocations of 356 AML cases were detected by multiplex RT-nPCR and karyotyping. The positive samples were further confirmed by split- out PCR and FISH. The fusion genes were detected in 172 patients with the positive detection rate of 48.31%(172/356), which was higher than that of karyotyping (31.46%) (χ²=70.314, Pfusion genes in AML patients, which can provide important evidence for assessing diagnosis and treatment, and also provide necessary information for minimal residual disease (MRD) and prognosis.

  2. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axon, Andrew; May, Felicity E B; Gaughan, Luke E; Williams, Faith M; Blain, Peter G; Wright, Matthew C

    2012-08-16

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that occurs most frequently in post-menopausal women. Since the female sex hormone oestrogen can be cholestatic, we hypothesised that PBC may be triggered in part by chronic exposure to xenoestrogens (which may be more active on a background of low endogenous oestrogen levels seen in post-menopausal women). A reporter gene construct employing a synthetic oestrogen response element predicted to specifically interact with oestrogen receptors (ER) was constructed. Co-transfection of this reporter into an ER null cell line with a variety of nuclear receptor expression constructs indicated that the reporter gene was trans-activated by ERα and ERβ, but not by the androgen, thyroid, progesterone, glucocorticoid or vitamin D receptors. Chemicals linked to PBC were then screened for xenoestrogen activity in the human ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Using this assay, the coal-derived food and cosmetic colourings--sunset yellow and tartrazine--were identified as novel human ERα activators, activating the human ER with an EC(50%) concentration of 220 and 160 nM, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of estrogenic and androgenic activity of phthalates by the XenoScreen YES/YAS in vitro assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernych, Radosław; Chraniuk, Milena; Zagożdżon, Paweł; Wolska, Lidia

    2017-07-01

    The presented study investigates and compares the estrogenic and androgenic activities of commonly used diesters of phthalic acid (phthalates) using the XenoScreen YES/YAS assay. Phthalates are commonly used plasticizers in polymers dedicated for i.e. food and drug containers. Since phthalates are not chemically bonded to the polymer, they can leach or migrate from the polymer. Therefore, phthalates are identified as contaminants in a variety of consumer products. Investigation of estrogenic and androgenic activities of phthalates (DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DINP) showed no significant effect of tested substances either on hERα or hAR receptors. Phthalates exhibited strong anti-estrogenic (IC50 for BBP=8.66μM, IC50 for DEHP=3.61μM and IC50 for DINP=0.065μM) and anti-androgenic (IC50 for BBP=5.30μM, IC50 for DEHP=2.87μM and IC50 for DINP=0.068μM) activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Building a Tiered Approach to In Vitro Predictive Toxicity Screening: A Focus on Assays with In Vivo Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, James M

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry today is the failure of promising new drug candidates due to unanticipated adverse effects discovered during preclinical animal safety studies and clinical trials. Late stage attrition increases the time required to bring a new drug to market, inflates development costs, and represents a major source of inefficiency in the drug discovery/development process. It is generally recognized that early evaluation of new drug candidates is necessary to improve the process. Building in vitro data sets that can accurately predict adverse effects in vivo would allow compounds with high risk profiles to be deprioritized, while those that possess the requisite drug attributes and a lower risk profile are brought forward. In vitro cytotoxicity assays have been used for decades as a tool to understand hypotheses driven questions regarding mechanisms of toxicity. However, when used in a prospective manner, they have not been highly predictive of in vivo toxicity. Therefore, the issue may not be how to collect in vitro toxicity data, but rather how to translate in vitro toxicity data into meaningful in vivo effects. This review will focus on the development of an in vitro toxicity screening strategy that is based on a tiered approach to data collection combined with data interpretation. PMID:20053163

  5. Pharmacological Profile of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Splice Variant Translation Using a Novel Drug Screening Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghi, Valentina; Polacchini, Alessio; Baj, Gabriele; Pinheiro, Vera L. M.; Vicario, Annalisa; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity. BDNF is a major pharmaceutical target in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological modulation of this neurotrophin is challenging because BDNF is generated by multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts with different 5′- and 3′UTRs. Each BDNF mRNA variant is transcribed independently, but translation regulation is unknown. To evaluate the translatability of BDNF transcripts, we developed an in vitro luciferase assay in human neuroblastoma cells. In unstimulated cells, each BDNF 5′- and 3′UTR determined a different basal translation level of the luciferase reporter gene. However, constructs with either a 5′UTR or a 3′UTR alone showed poor translation modulation by BDNF, KCl, dihydroxyphenylglycine, AMPA, NMDA, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. Constructs consisting of the luciferase reporter gene flanked by the 5′UTR of one of the most abundant BDNF transcripts in the brain (exons 1, 2c, 4, and 6) and the long 3′UTR responded selectively to stimulation with the different receptor agonists, and only transcripts 2c and 6 were increased by the antidepressants desipramine and mirtazapine. We propose that BDNF mRNA variants represent “a quantitative code” for regulated expression of the protein. Thus, to discriminate the efficacy of drugs in stimulating BDNF synthesis, it is appropriate to use variant-specific in vitro screening tests. PMID:25074925

  6. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinases are important targets for drug development because many proteins in the PI3 kinase signaling pathway are mutated, hyperactivated, or overexpressed in human cancers. Here, the authors coexpressed the human class Ia PI3 kinase p110alpha catalytic domain with an N...... was optimized by testing different lipids as substrates, as well as various kinase and lipid concentrations. Furthermore, they analyzed autophosphorylation of p110alpha/p85alpha and determined the IC50 for wortmannin, a known PI3 kinase inhibitor. The IC50 for wortmannin was determined to be 7 nM. From....... In parallel, a second assay format using the AlphaScreen technology was optimized to measure PI3 kinase activity. Both assay formats used should be suitable for high-throughput screening for the identification of PI3 kinase inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening XXXX:xx-xx)....

  7. Antiprotozoan lead discovery by aligning dry and wet screening: prediction, synthesis, and biological assay of novel quinoxalinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Alho, Miriam A; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Barigye, Stephen J; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; Machado Tugores, Yanetsy; Montero-Torres, Alina; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Nogal, Juan J; García-Sánchez, Rory N; Vega, María Celeste; Rolón, Miriam; Martínez-Fernández, Antonio R; Escario, José A; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo; Garcia-Domenech, Ramón; Rivera, Norma; Mondragón, Ricardo; Mondragón, Mónica; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Lopez-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martín-Navarro, Carmen; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, Maria Gabriela; Piñero, Jose; Tytgat, Jan; Chicharro, Roberto; Arán, Vicente J

    2014-03-01

    which the individual QSAR outputs are the inputs of the aforementioned fusion approach. Finally, the fusion model was used for the identification of a novel generation of lead-like antiprotozoan compounds by using ligand-based virtual screening of 'available' small molecules (with synthetic feasibility) in our 'in-house' library. A new molecular subsystem (quinoxalinones) was then theoretically selected as a promising lead series, and its derivatives subsequently synthesized, structurally characterized, and experimentally assayed by using in vitro screening that took into consideration a battery of five parasite-based assays. The chemicals 11(12) and 16 are the most active (hits) against apicomplexa (sporozoa) and mastigophora (flagellata) subphylum parasites, respectively. Both compounds depicted good activity in every protozoan in vitro panel and they did not show unspecific cytotoxicity on the host cells. The described technical framework seems to be a promising QSAR-classifier tool for the molecular discovery and development of novel classes of broad-antiprotozoan-spectrum drugs, which may meet the dual challenges posed by drug-resistant parasites and the rapid progression of protozoan illnesses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Losi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration.

  9. Locating sweet spots for screening hits and evaluating pan-assay interference filters from the performance analysis of two lead-like libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, N Yi; Maxe, Sara; Brenk, Ruth

    2013-03-25

    The efficiency of automated compound screening is heavily influenced by the design and the quality of the screening libraries used. We recently reported on the assembly of one diverse and one target-focused lead-like screening library. Using data from 15 enzyme-based screenings conducted using these libraries, their performance was investigated. Both libraries delivered screening hits across a range of targets, with the hits distributed across the entire chemical space represented by both libraries. On closer inspection, however, hit distribution was uneven across the chemical space, with enrichments observed in octants characterized by compounds at the higher end of the molecular weight and lipophilicity spectrum for lead-like compounds, while polar and sp(3)-carbon atom rich compounds were underrepresented among the screening hits. Based on these observations, we propose that screening libraries should not be evenly distributed in lead-like chemical space but be enriched in polar, aliphatic compounds. In conjunction with variable concentration screening, this could lead to more balanced hit rates across the chemical space and screening hits of higher ligand efficiency will be captured. Apart from chemical diversity, both screening libraries were shown to be clean from any pan-assay interference (PAINS) behavior. Even though some compounds were flagged to contain PAINS structural motifs, some of these motifs were demonstrated to be less problematic than previously suggested. To maximize the diversity of the chemical space sampled in a screening campaign, we therefore consider it justifiable to retain compounds containing PAINS structural motifs that were apparently clean in this analysis when assembling screening libraries.

  10. A Two-Tiered-Testing Decision Tree for Assays in the USEPA-EDSP Screening Battery: Using 15 years of experience to improve screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outline of the presentationEDCs – from 1991 to 1996 – Wingspread and Our Stolen Future 1996 – FQPA and SDWA mandates endocrine screening 1996-1998 – EDSTAC (the assays, debates over modes of action included) The final battery – EAT in vivo and in vit...

  11. Screening of WT1 mutations in exon 8 and 9 in children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome from a single centre and establishment of a rapid screening assay using high-resolution melting analysis in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siji, Annes; Pardeshi, Varsha Chhotusing; Ravindran, Shilpa; Vasudevan, Ambily; Vasudevan, Anil

    2017-01-10

    Mutations in Wilm's tumor 1 (WT1) gene is one of the commonly reported genetic mutations in children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). We report the results of direct sequencing of exons 8 and 9 of WT1 gene in 100 children with SRNS from a single centre. We standardized and validated High Resolution Melt (HRM) as a rapid and cost effective screening step to identify individuals with normal sequence and distinguish it from those with a potential mutation. Since only mutation positive samples identified by HRM will be further processed for sequencing it will help in reducing the sequencing burden and speed up the screening process. One hundred SRNS children were screened for WT1 mutations in Exon 8 and 9 using Sanger sequencing. HRM assay was standardized and validated by performing analysis for exon 8 and 9 on 3 healthy control and 5 abnormal variants created by site directed mutagenesis and verified by sequencing. To further test the clinical applicability of the assay, we screened additional 91 samples for HRM testing and performed a blinded assessment. WT1 mutations were not observed in the cohort of children with SRNS. The results of HRM analysis were concordant with the sequencing results. The WT1 gene mutations were not observed in the SRNS cohort indicating it has a low prevalence. We propose applying this simple, rapid and cost effective assay using HRM technique as the first step for screening the WT1 gene hot spot region in a clinical setting.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide mutant screen for sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a biocontrol antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) is an antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens that plays a key role in the ability of the bacterium to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. 2,4-DAPG has broad antibiotic activity, affecting organisms ranging from bacteria to higher plants. The biosynthesis and...

  13. Screening non-classical 21-hydroxylase gene deficiency from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome by gene assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie HU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To screen non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC-21OHD from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS by gene assay. Methods  Ninety-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled according to 2003 Rotterdam criteria from Department of Endocrinology, Tangdu Hospital of Fourth Military Medical University, and they were divided into three groups according to the modified Ferriman-Gallway (mF-G score as follows: group A with score 0-2; group B with score 3-5, and group C with score ≥6. Meanwhile, 30 healthy subjects from the Medical Center of the Hospital were recruited as control group. Peripheral blood of all subjects were collected for extracting DNA, the CYP21A2 gene were amplified by 5 pairs of specific primers, and then the PCR products were sequenced by Shanghai Sangon Co. The subjects would accept test for serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH at 8:00am if their CYP21A2 was proved to be abnormal. Results  Thirty subjects of control group had no any defects in CYP21A2, but 5 of 98 patients with PCOS were proved to be deficient in CYP21A2, and the genotypes were V281L/920-921insT (P1, V281L/I230M (P2, V281L/Normal (P3, P4, P5, respectively, and all of them were heterozygous mutations. The incidences of NC-21OHD in group C and B were 28.6% and 3.3%, respectively. Genotype P1 had been identified to belong to NC-21OHD, which was consistent with its clinical phenotype. All genotypes P3, P4 and P5 belonged to carriers. But for P2, since I230M hadn't been reported in literature, the patient with V281L/I230M couldn't be classified now. Serum biochemical results showed that only in P1 the cortisol was close to the normal lower level, and ACTH was close to the normal upper limit of the reported level in the literature, and the remainders were all normal. Conclusions  Although PCOS and NC-21OHD are very similar in clinical manifestations, they are different completely in the pathogenesis and treatment. So it

  14. The NanoString-based multigene assay as a novel platform to screen EGFR, HER2, and MET in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S T; Do, I-G; Lee, J; Sohn, I; Kim, K-M; Kang, W K

    2015-06-01

    Molecular targets are emerging rapidly and the development of clinical tests that simultaneously screen for multiple targets has become especially important. We assessed the gene expression levels of three known targets in advanced gastric cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), and N-methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine human osteosarcoma transforming gene (MET), using the nCounter® assay (NanoString Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA) and compared these results with protein overexpression, detected by immunohistochemistry, to evaluate the performance of this new technology. We investigated 42 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from patients with gastric cancer. A NanoString-based assay containing a 522 kinase gene panel was investigated. We analyzed the correlations between immunohistochemical findings and kinase gene expression levels of EGFR, HER2 and MET to validate this assay. EGFR, HER2, and MET overexpression were observed in 7 (16.6 %), 5 (11.9 %), and 3 (7.1 %) cases, respectively. For EGFR, HER2, and MET, the concordance rates between the NanoString-based assay results and the immunohistochemistry methods were 83.3, 97.6, and 100 %, respectively. Relative to immunohistochemistry findings, the NanoString-based assay sensitivities and specificities were 85.7 and 82.8 % for EGFR, 100 and 97.2 % for HER2, and 100 and 100 % for MET, respectively. We found a high concordance between immunohistochemistry- and nCounter-based assessments of EGFR, HER2, and MET in advanced gastric cancer. Judged against immunohistochemistry results, the NanoString assay had high sensitivities and high specificities. These results suggest that the nCounter assay provides a reliable, high-throughput assay to simultaneously screen for the overexpression of several target proteins.

  15. [Usefulness of a rapid intrapartum real-time PCR assay in comparison with the group B Streptococcus culture screening at the end of pregnancy in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defez, M; Khizar, F; Maurin, M; Biot, F; Pons, J-C; Sergent, F

    2016-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid real-time PCR assay at the onset of labor with those of the current antenatal culture-based test at 34-38 weeks gestation for group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening. A prospective study including all pregnant women admitted for delivery after a 34-week gestation period was conducted in October 2012 at the Grenoble University Hospital Centre. A first culture-based GBS screening test was performed between 34 and 38 weeks of gestation followed by a second screening test at the onset of labor, using a real-time PCR Assay and a culture-based method (gold standard) in order to calculate the diagnostic accuracy. One hundred an fifty-seven patients were enrolled. The sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI, 72.7-99.9%) with intrapartum PCR assay and 50% (95% CI, 26-74%) with antepartum culture. Prevalence of GBS colonization was 7.6% with the antepartum culture method, 11.5% with intrapartum culture and 16.6% by using PCR-test. Intrapartum PCR shows a much higher sensitivity compared to the antepartum culture-based screening mainly due to variations in GBS colonization and could allow us to target patients requiring intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis more effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  17. A Rapid and High-Throughput Screening Approach for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Based on the Combination of Two Different Real-Time PCR Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Noortje M.; van Hannen, Erik J.; van Zwet, Anton A.; Mascini, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen that has been responsible for major nosocomial epidemics worldwide. For infection control programs, rapid and adequate detection of MRSA is of great importance. We developed a rapid and high-throughput molecular screening approach that consists of an overnight selective broth enrichment, followed by mecA, mecC, and S. aureus-specific (SA442 gene) real-time PCR assays, with subsequent confirmation using a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)-orfX-based real-time PCR assay (GeneOhm MRSA assay) and culture. Here, the results of the screening approach over a 2-year period are presented. During this period, a total of 13,387 samples were analyzed for the presence of MRSA, 2.6% of which were reported as MRSA positive. No MRSA isolates carrying the mecC gene were detected during this study. Based on the results of the real-time PCR assays only, 95.2% of the samples could be reported as negative within 24 h. Furthermore, the performance of these real-time PCR assays was evaluated using a set of 104 assorted MRSA isolates, which demonstrated high sensitivity for both the combination of mecA and mecC with SA442 and the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay (98.1% and 97.1%, respectively). This molecular screening approach proved to be an accurate method for obtaining reliable negative results within 24 h after arrival at the laboratory and contributes to improvement of infection control programs, especially in areas with a low MRSA prevalence. PMID:24871220

  18. EVALUATION OF A RAPID SCREENING ASSAY FOR BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION (DOT-ELISA IN FECAL SAMPLES FROM CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvina BOCCATTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of standardizing a Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA to detect antigens of fecal bacterial enteropathogens, 250 children, aged under 36 months and of both sexes, were studied; of which 162 had acute gastroenteritis. The efficacy of a rapid screening assay for bacterial enteropathogens (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli "EPEC", enteroinvasive Escherichia coli "EIEC", Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was evaluated. The fecal samples were also submitted to a traditional method of stool culture for comparison. The concordance index between the two techniques, calculated using the Kappa (k index for the above mentioned bacterial strains was 0.8859, 0.9055, 0.7932 and 0.7829 respectively. These values express an almost perfect degree of concordance for the first two and substantial concordance for the latter two, thus enabling this technique to be applied in the early diagnosis of diarrhea in infants. With a view to increasing the sensitivity and specificity of this immunological test, a study was made of the antigenic preparations obtained from two types of treatment: 1 deproteinization by heating; 2 precipitation and concentration of the lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS using an ethanol-acetone solution, which was then heated in the presence of sodium EDTACom o objetivo de padronizar um Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA para a detecção de antígenos de enteropatógenos bacterianos fecais, estudaram-se 250 crianças, abaixo de 36 meses de idade, de ambos os sexos, 162 portadoras de gastroenterite aguda. Avaliou-se a eficácia de um teste rápido para bactérias enteropatógenas (Escherichia coli enteropatogênica "EPEC", Escherichia coli enteroinvasora" EIEC", Salmonella spp. e Shigella spp.. As amostras fecais foram também submetidas à metodologia tradicional de coprocultura para comparação. Os índices de concordância entre as 2 técnicas, calculado através do índice Kappa (k para as cepas

  19. Gastric Cancer Screening by Combined Assay for Serum Anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG Antibody and Serum Pepsinogen Levels--The ABC Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuharu; Nagata, Yasuhiko; Hiratsuka, Ryuuta; Kawase, Yoshihiko; Tominaga, Tatsurou; Takeuchi, Shunji; Sakagami, Shinya; Ishida, Shusei

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and gastric atrophy are both risk factors for gastric cancer. Recently it has been found that X-ray examination for gastric cancer screening does not have much effect on the detection rate for gastric cancer in Japan. A candidate for a new mass screening for gastric cancer, the ABC method, using the combination assay of Hp and serum pepsinogen, was useful for identifying the development of gastric cancer in high-risk and low-risk populations. People with higher cancer risk are recommended to receive endoscopy. The ABC method was carried out as a gastric cancer mass-screening on the initiative of Nishitokyo Medical Association in Nishitokyo city from 2011. This paper reviewed the present status of gastric cancer screening using the ABC method, including the latest results of our ongoing screening. We report results for 36,627 individuals from 2011 to 2013. Among them, 16,965 received blood examination for the ABC method. Of those, 8,083 planned to undergo endoscopic examination according to stratification of the risk for the development of gastric cancer. In fact, a total of 2,911 individuals underwent endoscopic examination. Gastric cancer was detected in 65 patients, including 52 (80%) diagnosed with early gastric cancer. The ABC method was not organized screening but opportunistic screening. X-ray examination was the organized screening that was ongoing during the same period. Detection cost for 1 gastric cancer case using the ABC method was cheaper than the conventional X-ray screening method (¥1,267,452 vs. ¥2,807,763). Although further large epidemiological studies are required, the ABC method might be positioned as an effective mass screening for gastric cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Pseudomonas granadensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2015-02-01

    During the course of screening bacterial isolates as sources of as-yet unknown bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical applications, a chemo-organotrophic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a soil sample taken from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain. Strain F-278,770(T) was oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, with a respiratory type of metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, non-spore-forming and motile by one polar flagellum, although some cells had two polar flagella. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that strain F-278,770(T) belongs to the Pseudomonas koreensis subgroup (Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage), with Pseudomonas moraviensis, P. koreensis, P. baetica and P. helmanticensis as its closest relatives. Chemotaxonomic traits such as polar lipid and fatty acid compositions and G+C content of genomic DNA corroborated the placement of strain F-278,770(T) in the genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic traits confirmed that this strain represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas granadensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F-278,770(T) ( = DSM 28040(T) = LMG 27940(T)). © 2015 Fundacion MEDINA, Centro de Excelencia en Investigacion de Medicamentos Innovadores en Andalucia.

  1. Performance of three automated fourth-generation combined HIV antigen/antibody assays in large-scale screening of blood donors and clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, K; von Sydow, M; Andersson, S

    2009-04-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s, HIV testing has gradually improved both in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The so-called fourth generation of tests, combined HIV antigen/antibody assays, has now been introduced. This study compares three automated combined assays with older third-generation antibody assays in large-scale screening. Serum samples from routine screening of blood and plasma donors and clinical samples were investigated for specificity evaluation. Three fourth-generation combination assays from one manufacturer were compared with three older third-generation antibody assays from the same manufacturer. More than 40 000 samples per assay were included. For sensitivity, selected panels of confirmed HIV-1- and HIV-2-positive samples as well as seroconversion samples (HIV-1) from commercial panels and also from patients who appeared during the evaluation were used. The specificities of the fourth-generation tests were 99.91% (AxSYM), 99.95% (ARCHITECT) and 99.97% (PRISM) after repeated testing. Some specificity variation between reagent batches was observed. All HIV-1-positive samples were reactive by the three fourth-generation systems. HIV-1 seroconversion samples and panels were reactive earlier than by antibody-only tests. As for HIV-2 samples, AxSYM failed to detect one (n = 40), whereas PRISM and ARCHITECT detected all (n = 16 for PRISM and n = 52 for ARCHITECT). The new HIV antigen/antibody combination assay systems were found to have high sensitivity and specificity. The instruments provided a rational and easy way of testing at large scale.

  2. Synthetic-peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening human serum or plasma for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, L; Boyle, R W; M. Zhang; Castillo, J; Whittier, S; Della-Latta, P; Clarke, L M; George, J R; Fang, X; Wang, J G; Hosein, B; C. Y. Wang

    1997-01-01

    A synthetic-peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) capable of screening for antibodies to both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 has been developed for use in blood banks and diagnostic laboratories. Microtiter wells are coated with two synthetic peptides, one corresponding to the highly conserved envelope region of HIV-1 and another corresponding to the conserved envelope region of HIV-2. Overall, sensitivity was 100% in 303 individuals diagnosed with AIDS ...

  3. Comparison of Clinical Performance of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Test with That of Hybrid Capture 2 Assay in a Screening Setting▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carozzi, F. M.; Burroni, E.; Bisanzi, S.; Puliti, D; Confortini, M.; Giorgi Rossi, P; Sani, C; Scalisi, A.; Chini, F.

    2011-01-01

    Randomized trials have produced sound evidence about the efficacy of screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. We evaluated the clinical performance and reproducibility of the Abbott RealTime High Risk (HR) HPV test compared with that of the HR hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay as assessed by a noninferiority score test. A random sample of 998 cervical specimens (914 specimens of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia less severe than grad...

  4. Combining Taipan snake venom time/Ecarin time screening with the mixing studies of conventional assays increases detection rates of lupus anticoagulants in orally anticoagulated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Gary W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral anticoagulation compromises conventional lupus anticoagulant (LA screening assays. Mixing studies can counteract the oral anticoagulant effect but the dilution reduces sensitivity and can generate false negative results. A firm diagnosis can be made from mixing studies when an elevated screen ratio is accompanied by a confirm ratio that generates significant correction to demonstrate phospholipid dependence, but also returns into the reference range, indicating complete normalisation of the oral anticoagulant effect. Taipan snake venom time (TSVT with Ecarin time (ET as a confirmatory test comprises an oral anticoagulant insensitive LA detection system and this study investigates the potential impact on detection rates when coupled with mixing studies on standard assays. Methods Eighty patients known to have LA who were receiving oral anticoagulation were tested with TSVT/ET and 1:1 mixing studies with normal plasma by dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT and dilute activated partial thromboplastin time (DAPTT to assess detection rates by single and multiple assays. Results Thirty three of the 80 samples from known LA positive patients were positive in all three assays and 15 were positive in combinations of DRVVT, DAPTT or TSVT/ET. The remainder were positive in only one assay; 12 by DRVVT, 4 by DAPTT and 16 by TSVT/ET. Although all DRVVT and DAPTT positive mixing studies generated significant correction of the screen ratio by the confirm ratio, not all confirm ratios corrected back into the reference range. This was the case for 87.5% of the DRVVT results, 44.7% of the DAPTT results and 13.3% of the TSVT/ET positive mixing tests. Conclusion Addition of TSVT/ET screening for LA in orally anticoagulated patients could increase diagnostic efficacy either by detecting antibodies diluted in the mixing tests of conventional assays or those that do not react in DRVVT or DAPTT. Additionally, TSVT/ET can affirm the presence

  5. Newborn screening for galactosemia by a second-tier multiplex enzyme assay using UPLC-MS/MS in dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Jun, Sun-Hee; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jin Q; Song, Junghan

    2011-04-01

    Galactosemia is one of the most important inherited metabolic disorders detected by newborn screening tests. Abnormal results during screening should be confirmed by enzyme activity assays. Recently, we developed a multiplex enzyme assay for galactosemia in erythrocytes using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). In this study, we proposed a second-tier multiplex enzyme assay for galactosemia that can be directly applied to dried blood spots (DBSs). Supernatants from two rehydrated-punched 3.2-mm DBSs were incubated with a reaction mixture containing [¹³C6]galactose, [¹³C2]galactose-1-phosphate, and UDP-glucose as substrates for three galactose-metabolizing enzymes. After a 4-hour incubation, the end products from the combined reaction mixture, [¹³C6]galactose-1-phosphate, UDP-[¹³C2]galactose, and UDP-galactose, were simultaneously measured using UPLC-MS/MS. Substrates, products, and internal standards from the mixture of the three enzyme reactions were clearly separated in the UPLC-MS/MS system, with an injection cycle time of 10 min. Intra- and inter-assay imprecisions of the UPLC-MS/MS were 8.4-14.8% and 13.2-15.7% CV, respectively. Enzyme activities in DBSs from 37 normal individuals and 10 patients with enzyme deficiencies were analyzed. DBSs from galactosemia patients showed consistently lower enzyme activities as compared to those of normal individuals. In conclusion, multiplex enzyme assays using UPLC-MS/MS can be successfully applied to DBS analysis. This method allows a fast and effective second-tier test for newborns showing abnormal screening results.

  6. Comparison of Procleix Ultrio Elite and Procleix Ultrio NAT Assays for Screening of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors in India

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    Rahul Chaurasia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT has helped in decreasing window period donations, resulting in increased safety of blood supplies. NAT combines the advantages of direct and highly sequence-specific detection of viral genomes. We analysed the performance of newer Procleix Ultrio Elite (PUE and Procleix Ultrio assay (PUA for the screening of the viral markers in our donor population. Material and Methods. 10,015 donor samples were screened by routine immunoassays and both versions of NAT. NAT yields detected were subjected to viral load estimation and to other serological markers. Results. A total of 21 NAT yields were detected; three were positive by both NAT systems, whereas 18 samples were reactive by PUE only. NAT yields include 18 HBV and 3 HCV yields, of which 17 HBV yields were occult infections and 1 was window period (WP infection. All 3 HCV yields were WP infections. No HIV-1/HIV-2 yield was found. Conclusion. Efficient target capture chemistry in the new TMA assay version significantly improved sensitivity. NAT is superior to serological immunoassays for screening of the viral markers; and the efficient target capture system in the newer TMA assay, namely, the PUE system, has significantly improved sensitivity over the earlier versions.

  7. Extraction and Bioactivity Analysis of Major Flavones Compounds from Scutellaria baicalensis Using In Vitro Assay and Online Screening HPLC-ABTS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Jin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction efficiency of a number of solvent compositions for the improvement of bioactive compounds yield from S. baicalensis has been investigated. Also, free radical scavengers in the glycoside baicalin (BG, wogonoside (WG, aglycon baicalein (B, and wogonin (W compounds of S. baicalensis were screened, identified, and quantified using coupled offline ABTS and online screening HPLC-ABTS assay. Increasing ethanol content fractions resulted in decreased extract yield of bioactive compounds. In this case, the best yield of 37.01 mg/g in BG, WG, B, and W compounds was obtained by a dipping method with an extraction time of 4 h. In addition, the yield (43.05% and IC50 (34.04 μg/mL determined through ABTS assay of the 60% aqueous ethanol extract were the most satisfactory of all solvent solutions tested. This result shows that an online screening HPLC-ABTS assay can be a powerful technique for the rapid characterization of bioactivity compounds in plant extracts. Moreover, their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via analyzed inhibitory effect on NO and inflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, WG and W exhibited the strong inhibitory effects on inflammatory mediator production including NO, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  8. Development of a high-throughput screening for nerve agent detoxifying materials using a fully-automated robot-assisted biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2010-04-01

    Developing improved medical countermeasures against chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) is urgently needed but time-consuming and costly. Here we introduce a robot-assisted liquid handling system with warming, cooling and incubating facilities to screen the detoxifying properties of biological and chemical materials against nerve agents. Two biological tests were established and plasma from various species, DFPase and three cyclodextrins were used as test materials. In test 1, plasma was mixed with sarin or VX and the inhibitory potency of the incubate was determined with human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at 0, 30 and 60 min. In test 2, test materials and nerve agents were mixed and incubated. Between 0 and 40 min samples were taken and incubated for 3 min with AChE and the residual AChE inhibition was determined to enable the semi-quantitative evaluation of the detoxification kinetics. The automated assays proved to be highly reproducible. It was possible to pre-select detoxifying reagents with test 1 and to determine more detailed detoxifying kinetics with test 2. In conclusion, the automated assay may be considered as a versatile tool for the high-throughput screening of potential detoxifying materials against different nerve agents. With this two-step assay it is possible to screen effectively for detoxifying materials in a high-throughput system. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative RT-PCR assay for high-throughput screening (HTS of drugs against the growth of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haili eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has previously developed a qRT-PCR assay to assess drug efficacy on the growth of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro by detecting the levels of parasite 18S rRNA. This approach displayed up to four orders of magnitude of linear dynamic range and was much less labor-intensive than the traditional microscopic methods. However, conventional qRT-PCR protocol is not very amendable to high-throughput analysis when total RNA needs to be purified by lengthy, multi-step procedures. Recently, several commercial reagents are available for preparing cell lysates that could be directly used in downstream qRT-PCR analysis (e.g., Ambion Cell-to-cDNA kit and Bio-Rad iScript sample preparation reagent. Using these reagents, we are able to adapt the qRT-PCR assay into high-throughput screening of drugs in vitro (i.e., 96-well and 384-well formats for the cultivation of parasites and qRT-PCR detection, respectively. This qRT-PCR protocol is able to give a >150-fold linear dynamic range using samples isolated from cells infected with various numbers of parasites. The new assay is also validated by the NIH-recommended intra-plate, inter-plate and inter-day uniformity tests. The robustness and effectiveness of the assay are also confirmed by evaluating the anti-cryptosporidial efficacy of paromomycin and by a small scale screening of compounds.

  10. A Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte (hiPSC-CM) Multielectrode Array Assay for Preclinical Cardiac Electrophysiology Safety Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kate

    2015-12-08

    Cardiotoxicity is a leading cause of compound attrition during drug development. Preclinical models used to assess the risk for compound-induced effects on cardiac electrophysiology largely rely on animals that can differ in terms of sensitivity and specificity to the targeted clinical response. There is currently no in vitro human cardiomyocyte model for routine preclinical compound screening, as adult human cardiac tissue is unsuitable for such screening. The commercial availability of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) makes possible the development of assays for assessing compound-induced effects on cardiac function in a human cardiomyocyte-like model. Using multielectrode array (MEA) technology with hiPSC-CMs provides a facile screen for compound-induced effects on cardiac electrophysiology. The MEA data generated from hiPSC-CMs correlate well with the results of conventional preclinical assays and clinical findings. Described in this unit is a technique for measuring extracellular field potentials from hiPSC-CMs using MEA technology to screen for compound-induced effects on cardiac electrophysiology. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. In-Cell Western Assays to Evaluate Hantaan Virus Replication as a Novel Approach to Screen Antiviral Molecules and Detect Neutralizing Antibody Titers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses encompass rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality rates in humans. Detection of infectious virus titer lays a solid foundation for virology and immunology researches. Canonical methods to assess viral titers rely on visible cytopathic effects (CPE, but Hantaan virus (HTNV, the prototype hantavirus maintains a relatively sluggish life cycle and does not produce CPE in cell culture. Here, an in-cell Western (ICW assay was utilized to rapidly measure the expression of viral proteins in infected cells and to establish a novel approach to detect viral titers. Compared with classical approaches, the ICW assay is accurate and time- and cost-effective. Furthermore, the ICW assay provided a high-throughput platform to screen and identify antiviral molecules. Potential antiviral roles of several DExD/H box helicase family members were investigated using the ICW assay, and the results indicated that DDX21 and DDX60 reinforced IFN responses and exerted anti-hantaviral effects, whereas DDX50 probably promoted HTNV replication. Additionally, the ICW assay was also applied to assess NAb titers in patients and vaccine recipients. Patients with prompt production of NAbs tended to have favorable disease outcomes. Modest NAb titers were found in vaccinees, indicating that current vaccines still require improvements as they cannot prime host humoral immunity with high efficiency. Taken together, our results indicate that the use of the ICW assay to evaluate non-CPE Hantaan virus titer demonstrates a significant improvement over current infectivity approaches and a novel technique to screen antiviral molecules and detect NAb efficacies.

  12. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nasib

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a multiplexed setting on an integrated plasmid-based robotic workcell for high-throughput screening of mutants of cellulase F, an endoglucanase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2. This allowed us to identify plasmids containing optimized clones expressing mutants with improved activity at lower pH. A plasmid library of mutagenized clones of the celF gene with targeted variations in the last four codons was constructed by site-directed PCR mutagenesis and transformed into Escherichia coli. A robotic picker integrated into the workcell was used to inoculate medium in a 96-well deep well plate, combining the transformants into a multiplexed set in each well, and the plate was incubated on the workcell. Plasmids were prepared from the multiplexed culture on the liquid handler component of the workcell and used for in vitro transcription/translation. The multiplexed expressed recombinant proteins were screened for improved activity and stability in an azo-carboxymethylcellulose plate assay. The multiplexed wells containing mutants with improved activity were identified and linked back to the corresponding multiplexed cultures stored in glycerol. Spread plates were prepared from the glycerol stocks and the workcell was used to pick single colonies from the spread plates, prepare plasmid, produce recombinant protein, and assay for activity. The screening assay and subsequent deconvolution of the multiplexed wells resulted in identification of improved Cel

  13. Evaluation of an in silico cardiac safety assay: using ion channel screening data to predict QT interval changes in the rabbit ventricular wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kylie A; Luscombe, Chris; Williams, Geoff; Munoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Gavaghan, David J; Cui, Yi; Mirams, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Drugs that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram present a major safety concern for pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies. Despite a range of assays performed to assess compound effects on the QT interval, QT prolongation remains a major cause of attrition during compound development. In silico assays could alleviate such problems. In this study we evaluated an in silico method of predicting the results of a rabbit left-ventricular wedge assay. Concentration-effect data were acquired from either: the high-throughput IonWorks/FLIPR; the medium-throughput PatchXpress ion channel assays; or QSAR, a statistical IC50 value prediction model, for hERG, fast sodium, L-type calcium and KCNQ1/minK channels. Drug block of channels was incorporated into a mathematical differential equation model of rabbit ventricular myocyte electrophysiology through modification of the maximal conductance of each channel by a factor dependent on the IC50 value, Hill coefficient and concentration of each compound tested. Simulations were performed and agreement with experimental results, based upon input data from the different assays, was evaluated. The assay was found to be 78% accurate, 72% sensitive and 81% specific when predicting QT prolongation (>10%) using PatchXpress assay data (77 compounds). Similar levels of predictivity were demonstrated using IonWorks/FLIPR data (121 compounds) with 78% accuracy, 73% sensitivity and 80% specificity. QT shortening (<-10%) was predicted with 77% accuracy, 33% sensitivity and 90% specificity using PatchXpress data and 71% accuracy, 42% sensitivity and 81% specificity using IonWorks/FLIPR data. Strong quantitative agreement between simulation and experimental results was also evident. The in silico action potential assay demonstrates good predictive ability, and is suitable for very high-throughput use in early drug development. Adoption of such an assay into cardiovascular safety assessment, integrating ion channel data from

  14. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and screening for non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoguang; Liu, Huanli; Wang, Weimin

    2017-11-09

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E. coli O157:H7 and screen for non-O157 STEC by targeting Z3276 and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Also, an internal amplification control (IAC) was incorporated into the assay to monitor the amplification efficiency. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed using the Life Technology ABI 7500 System platform and the standard chemistry. The optimal amplification mixture of the assay contains 12.5 μl of 2 × Universal Master Mix (Life Technology), 200 nM forward and reverse primers, appropriate concentrations of four probes [(Z3276 (80 nM), stx1 (80 nM), stx2 (20 nM), and IAC (40 nM)], 2 μl of template DNA, and water (to make up to 25 μl in total volume). The amplification conditions of the assay were set as follows: activation of TaqMan at 95 °C for 10 min, then 40 cycles of denaturation at 95 °C for 10 s and annealing/extension at 60 °C for 60 s. The multiplex assay was optimized for amplification conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) for the multiplex assay was determined to be 200 fg of bacterial DNA, which is equivalent to 40 CFU per reaction which is similar to the LOD generated in single targeted PCRs. Inclusivity and exclusivity determinants were performed with 196 bacterial strains. All E. coli O157:H7 (n = 135) were detected as positive and all STEC strains (n = 33) were positive for stx1, or stx2, or stx1 and stx2 (Table 1). No cross reactivity was detected with Salmonella

  15. Phytochemical and In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay of the Leaf Extract of Newbouldia Laevis

    OpenAIRE

    H. Usman; Osuji, J C

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antimicrobial tests. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, steroidal and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed by the agar plate disc diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques. Test microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp. an...

  16. Validation of a Multiparametric, High-Content-Screening Assay for Predictive/Investigative Cytotoxicity: Evidence from Technology Transfer Studies and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter James; Edvardsson, Anna

    2017-03-20

    A multiparametric, live-cell, high-content-screening (HCS) cytotoxicity assay was first demonstrated in 2006 ( Arch. Toxicol. 2006 , 80 , 580 - 604 ) to be highly concordant with human hepatotoxicity, including idiosyncratic hepatotoxicities and other target organ toxicities in contrast to historical assays. The success of the assay was attributed to its simultaneous measurement of multiple appropriate "cytobiomarkers": use of human cells with xenometabolic competence for toxicities mediated by metabolites, 72 h exposure to enable expression of slower-acting toxicants, exposure to a wide-range of concentrations from 30- to 100-fold the efficacious concentration, and normalizing the in vitro cytotoxic concentration to an estimate of the in vivo concentration of exposure. An overwhelming volume of evidence has accumulated over the last 10 years to support this approach as necessary in predictive toxicology. Equivalent assays have now been successfully applied in ∼50 studies across a wide variety of toxicants, toxicities, cell types, and disciplines. Review herein of the wider literature on cytotoxicity since the first assay was reported 100 years ago supports the selection of key cytobiomarkers along a final common pathway of cell injury, including cell proliferation, mitochondrial activity, apoptosis, lysosomal mass, oxidative stress, and cell membrane permeability. HCS studies without inclusion of such key cytobiomarkers or without testing to sufficiently high concentration have not been as successful. Furthermore, a subset of the original toxicants has been reanalyzed herein using the original HCS assay and has confirmed their high sensitivities and specificities across locations, HCS technologies, staff, laboratories, and time. A protocol is demonstrated for operational validation of the assay within laboratories to demonstrate proficiency and quality management.

  17. Use of a highly-sensitive cardiac troponin I assay in a screening population for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a case-referent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorrian, Catherine M; Lyster, Sarah; Roy, Andrew; Tarrant, Heloise; Codd, Mary; Doran, Peter; Fitzgibbon, Maria; Galvin, Joseph; Mahon, Niall G

    2013-09-11

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic condition, and relatives of affected persons may be at risk. Cardiac troponin biomarkers have previously been shown to be elevated in HCM. This study examines the new highly-sensitive cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) assay in a HCM screening population. Nested case-control study of consecutive HCM sufferers and their relatives recruited from May 2010 to September 2011. After informed consent, participants provided venous blood samples and clinical and echocardiographic features were recorded. Associations between the natural log (ln) of the contemporary troponin I (cTnI) and hsTnI assays and markers of cardiac hypertrophy were examined. Multiple regression models were fitted to examine the predictive ability of hsTnI for borderline or definite HCM. Of 107 patients, 24 had borderline and 19 had definite changes of HCM. Both TnI assays showed significant, positive correlations with measures of cardiac muscle mass. After age and sex adjustment, the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve for the outcome of HCM was 0.78, 95% CI [0.65, 0.90], for ln(hsTnI), and 0.66, 95% CI [0.51, 0.82], for ln(cTnI) (p=0.11). Including the hsTnI assay in a multiple-adjusted "screening" model for HCM resulted in a non-significant improvement in both the AUROC and integrated discrimination index. Both cTnI and hsTnI show a graded, positive association with measures of cardiac muscle mass in persons at risk of HCM. Further studies will be required to evaluate the utility of these assays in ECG- and symptom-based identification of HCM in at-risk families.

  18. A technical and clinical evaluation of a new assay for inhibin A and its use in second trimester Down syndrome screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Georgina; Liitti, Päivi; Pölönen, Tuukka; Sairanen, Mikko; Spencer, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to compare a new AutoDELFIA® Inhibin A kit (B064-102) with the Access Inhibin A kit (A36097) using clinical specimens and to evaluate the AutoDELFIA® Inhibin A assay performance in screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy. Using clinical samples, we performed a method comparison between new and existing inhibin A kits and assessed AutoDELFIA® Inhibin A kit precision performance. Normal median values for the second trimester of pregnancy were also determined. Finally, we evaluated the screening performance of the AutoDELFIA® Inhibin A kit together with other second trimester biomarkers for the detection of Down syndrome. The two methods showed a high degree of correlation (r=0.99, Pearson and Spearman correlation), and the average relative level difference between the methods at a concentration range of 41.7-1925 pg/mL was 19.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) from 17.6% to 21.5%]. The acceptable precision of the AutoDELFIA® Inhibin A kit was demonstrated: the within-lot CV% varied from 1.9% to 3.9%. The screening performance results show that AutoDELFIA® Inhibin A when added to a combination of other second trimester serum markers [human alpha foetoprotein (hAFP), free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (free hCGβ) and unconjugated estriol (uE3) or hAFP and free hCGβ] improves the detection rate of screening in both combinations. The performance of the AutoDELFIA® Inhibin A assay is highly acceptable for routine laboratory use for screening Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  19. Toward Discovery of Novel Microtubule Targeting Agents: A SNAP-tag-Based High-Content Screening Assay for the Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics and Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Nina; Arens, Katharina; Kreusch, Verena; Fischer, Rainer; Di Fiore, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) are used for the treatment of cancer. Novel MTAs could provide additional and beneficial therapeutic options. To improve the sensitivity and throughput of standard immunofluorescence assays for the characterization of MTAs, we used SNAP-tag technology to produce recombinant tubulin monomers. To visualize microtubule filaments, A549 cells transfected with SNAP-tubulin were stained with a membrane-permeable, SNAP-reactive dye. The treatment of SNAP-tubulin cells with stabilizing MTAs such as paclitaxel resulted in the formation of coarsely structured microtubule filaments, whereas depolymerizing MTAs such as nocodazole resulted in diffuse staining patterns in which the tubulin filaments were no longer distinguishable. By combining these components with automated microscopy and image analysis algorithms, we established a robust high-content screening assay for MTAs with a Z' factor of 0.7. Proof of principle was achieved by testing a panel of 10 substances, allowing us to identify MTAs and to distinguish between stabilizing and destabilizing modes of action. By extending the treatment of the cells from 2 to 20 h, our assay also detected abnormalities in cell cycle progression and in the formation of microtubule spindles, providing additional readouts for the discovery of new MTAs and facilitating their early identification during drug-screening campaigns.

  20. Miniaturizing 3D assay for high-throughput drug and genetic screens for small patient-derived tumor samples (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Asaf; Garraway, Levi; Su, Mei-Ju; Basu, Anindita; Regev, Aviv; Struhl, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional growth conditions reflect the natural environment of cancer cells and are crucial to be performed at drug screens. We developed a 3D assay for cellular transformation that involves growth in low attachment (GILA) conditions and is strongly correlated with the 50-year old benchmark assay-soft agar. Using GILA, we performed high-throughput screens for drugs and genes that selectively inhibit or increase transformation, but not proliferation. This phenotypic approach is complementary to our genetic approach that utilizes single-cell RNA-sequencing of a patient sample to identify putative oncogenes that confer sensitivity to drugs designed to specifically inhibit the identified oncoprotein. Currently, we are dealing with a big challenge in our field- the limited number of cells that might be extracted from a biopsy. Small patient-derived samples are hard to test in the traditional multiwell plate and it will be helpful to minimize the culture area and the experimental system. We managed to design a suitable microfluidic device for limited number of cells and perform the assay using image analysis. We aim to test drugs on tumor cells, outside of the patient body- and recommend on the ideal treatment that is tailored to the individual. This device will help to minimize biopsy-sampling volumes and minimize interventions in the patient's tumor.

  1. Validation of a newly developed hexaplex real-time PCR assay for screening for presence of GMOs in food, feed and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrdt, C; Krech, A B; Wurz, A; Wulff, D

    2010-03-01

    For years, an increasing number and diversity of genetically modified plants has been grown on a commercial scale. The need for detection and identification of these genetically modified organisms (GMOs) calls for broad and at the same time flexible high throughput testing methods. Here we describe the development and validation of a hexaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening assay covering more than 100 approved GMOs containing at least one of the GMO targets of the assay. The assay comprises detection systems for Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens NOS terminator, Figwort Mosaic Virus 34S promoter and two construct-specific sequences present in novel genetically modified soybean and maize that lack common screening elements. Additionally a detection system for an internal positive control (IPC) indicating the presence or absence of PCR inhibiting substances was included. The six real-time PCR systems were allocated to five detection channels showing no significant crosstalk between the detection channels. As part of an extensive validation, a limit of detection (LOD(abs)) GMOs in processed and unprocessed food, feed and seed samples with high efficiency.

  2. Community-based evaluation of immigrant tuberculosis screening using interferon γ release assays and tuberculin skin testing: observational study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Manish; Bond, Marion; Shorey, Jennifer; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Guy, Margaret; White, Peter; Lalvani, Ajit; Kon, Onn Min

    2013-03-01

    UK tuberculosis (TB) notifications are rising due to disease in the immigrant population. National screening guidelines have been revised but cost-effectiveness analyses are hampered by the lack of data on the comparative performance of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) in immigrants. Three-way evaluation of TSTs and two IGRAs (QuantiFERON Gold in-tube (QFN-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB) in immigrants aged ≥16 years to quantify test positivity, concordance and factors associated with positivity. Yields were computed at different incidence thresholds and the relative cost-effectiveness of screening was estimated using different latent TB infection (LTBI) screening modalities at varying incidence thresholds with or without port-of-arrival chest x-ray (CXR). 231 immigrants were included; median age 29 (IQR 24-37). TSTs were accepted by 80.9%, read in 93.5% and 30.3% were positive - QFN-GIT and T-SPOT.TB positive in 16.6% and 22.5% respectively. Positive TSTs, QFN-GIT and T-SPOT.TB were independently associated with increasing TB incidence in immigrants' countries of origin (p=0.007, 0.007, 0.037 respectively). Implementing current guidance (threshold 40/100 000 per year) would identify 98-100% of LTBIs (depending on test) but entail testing 97-99% of the cohort; screening at 150/100 000 per year would identify 49-71% of LTBIs but only entail screening half the cohort. The two most cost-effective screening strategies were no port-of-entry chest radiography and screen with single-step QFN-GIT at 250/100 000 per year (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)) £21 565.3/case averted); and no port-of-entry CXR and screen with single-step QFN-GIT at 150/100 000 per year (averted additional 7.8 TB cases; ICER £31 867.1/case averted). UK immigrant screening could cost-effectively and safely eliminate mandatory CXR on arrival by emphasising systematic screening for LTBI with single-step IGRA. Intermediate incidence thresholds balance

  3. Microtiter dish biofilm formation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, George A

    2011-01-30

    Biofilms are communities of microbes attached to surfaces, which can be found in medical, industrial and natural settings. In fact, life in a biofilm probably represents the predominate mode of growth for microbes in most environments. Mature biofilms have a few distinct characteristics. Biofilm microbes are typically surrounded by an extracellular matrix that provides structure and protection to the community. Microbes growing in a biofilm also have a characteristic architecture generally comprised of macrocolonies (containing thousands of cells) surrounded by fluid-filled channels. Biofilm-grown microbes are also notorious for their resistance to a range of antimicrobial agents including clinically relevant antibiotics. The microtiter dish assay is an important tool for the study of the early stages in biofilm formation, and has been applied primarily for the study of bacterial biofilms, although this assay has also been used to study fungal biofilm formation. Because this assay uses static, batch-growth conditions, it does not allow for the formation of the mature biofilms typically associated with flow cell systems. However, the assay has been effective at identifying many factors required for initiation of biofilm formation (i.e, flagella, pili, adhesins, enzymes involved in cyclic-di-GMP binding and metabolism) and well as genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide production. Furthermore, published work indicates that biofilms grown in microtiter dishes do develop some properties of mature biofilms, such a antibiotic tolerance and resistance to immune system effectors. This simple microtiter dish assay allows for the formation of a biofilm on the wall and/or bottom of a microtiter dish. The high throughput nature of the assay makes it useful for genetic screens, as well as testing biofilm formation by multiple strains under various growth conditions. Variants of this assay have been used to assess early biofilm formation for a wide variety of microbes

  4. AlphaScreen-based homogeneous assay using a pair of 25-residue artificial proteins for high-throughput analysis of non-native IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Yukako; Imamura, Hiroshi; Miyafusa, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Hideki; Honda, Shinya

    2017-09-29

    Therapeutic IgG becomes unstable under various stresses in the manufacturing process. The resulting non-native IgG molecules tend to associate with each other and form aggregates. Because such aggregates not only decrease the pharmacological effect but also become a potential risk factor for immunogenicity, rapid analysis of aggregation is required for quality control of therapeutic IgG. In this study, we developed a homogeneous assay using AlphaScreen and AF.2A1. AF.2A1 is a 25-residue artificial protein that binds specifically to non-native IgG generated under chemical and physical stresses. This assay is performed in a short period of time. Our results show that AF.2A1-AlphaScreen may be used to evaluate the various types of IgG, as AF.2A1 recognizes the non-native structure in the constant region (Fc region) of IgG. The assay was effective for detection of non-native IgG, with particle size up to ca. 500 nm, generated under acid, heat, and stirring conditions. In addition, this technique is suitable for analyzing non-native IgG in CHO cell culture supernatant and mixed with large amounts of native IgG. These results indicate the potential of AF.2A1-AlphaScreen to be used as a high-throughput evaluation method for process monitoring as well as quality testing in the manufacturing of therapeutic IgG.

  5. Yeast-based assays for the high-throughput screening of inhibitors of coronavirus RNA cap guanine-N7-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Wang, Zidao; Tao, Jiali; Wang, Yi; Wu, Andong; Yang, Ziwen; Wang, Kaimei; Shi, Liqiao; Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin

    2014-04-01

    The 5'-cap structure is a distinct feature of eukaryotic mRNAs and is important for RNA stability and protein translation by providing a molecular signature for the distinction of self or non-self mRNA. Eukaryotic viruses generally modify the 5'-end of their RNAs to mimic the cellular mRNA structure, thereby facilitating viral replication in host cells. However, the molecular organization and biochemical mechanisms of the viral capping apparatus typically differ from its cellular counterpart, which makes viral capping enzymes attractive targets for drug discovery. Our previous work showed that SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) non-structural protein 14 represents a structurally novel and unique guanine-N7-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) that is able to functionally complement yeast cellular N7-MTase. In the present study, we developed a yeast-based system for identifying and screening inhibitors against coronavirus N7-MTase using both 96-well and 384-well microtiter plates. The MTase inhibitors previously identified by in vitro biochemical assays were tested, and some, such as sinefungin, effectively suppressed N7-MTase in the yeast system. However, other compounds, such as ATA and AdoHcy, did not exert an inhibitory effect within a cellular context. These results validated the yeast assay system for inhibitor screening yet also demonstrated the difference between cell-based and in vitro biochemical assays. The yeast system was applied to the screening of 3000 natural product extracts, and three were observed to more potently inhibit the activity of coronavirus than human N7-MTase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Mutagenesis Assay for Reporter Gene Screening Using Partially Degenerate Oligonucleotides of the Tandems NNT and NNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifen Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Not all proteins are tolerable to mutations. Whether a specific protein can be a mutable target is of importance in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. This study reported a novel mutagenesis assay using tandem NNT and NNC oligonucleotides to test the mutability of a candidate gene. These two tandem oligonucleotides avoid the risk of forming nonsense mutations and render flexibility of truncating or expanding the insertion size. As a reporter gene, ZeoR (zeocin resistance gene was confirmed to have a high tolerance for mutagenesis by this new assay.

  7. A cAMP Biosensor-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of Gs-Coupled GPCR Ligands and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is an important second messenger, and quantification of intracellular cAMP levels is essential in studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The intracellular cAMP levels are regulated by the adenylate cyclase (AC) upon activation of either Gs- or Gi......-coupled GPCRs, which leads to increased or decreased cAMP levels, respectively. Here we describe a real-time Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for identification and characterization of Gs-coupled GPCR ligands and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors...... also observed for the other representative Gs-coupled GPCRs tested, GLP-1R and GlucagonR. The FRET-based cAMP biosensor assay is robust, reproducible, and inexpensive with good Z factors and is highly applicable for HTS....

  8. High-throughput screening assay used in pharmacognosy: Selection, optimization and validation of methods of enzymatic inhibition by UV-visible spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Granados-Guzmán

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In research laboratories of both organic synthesis and extraction of natural products, every day a lot of products that can potentially introduce some biological activity are obtained. Therefore it is necessary to have in vitro assays, which provide reliable information for further evaluation in in vivo systems. From this point of view, in recent years has intensified the use of high-throughput screening assays. Such trials should be optimized and validated for accurate and precise results, i.e. reliable. The present review addresses the steps needed to develop and validate bioanalytical methods, emphasizing UV-Visible spectrophotometry as detection system. Particularly focuses on the selection of the method, the optimization to determine the best experimental conditions, validation, implementation of optimized and validated method to real samples, and finally maintenance and possible transfer it to a new laboratory.

  9. Fluorescence polarization-based assay using N-glycan-conjugated quantum dots for screening in hemagglutinin blockers for influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Feng, Fei; Ohyanagi, Tatsuya; Nagahori, Noriko; Someya, Kazuhiko; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Miura, Nobuaki; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Attachment of influenza virus to susceptible cells is mediated by viral protein hemagglutinin (HA), which recognizes cell surface glycoconjugates that terminate in α-sialosides. To develop anti-influenza drugs based on inhibition of HA-mediated infection, novel fluorescent nanoparticles displaying multiple biantennary N-glycan chains with α-sialosides (A2-PC-QDs) that have high affinity for the HA were designed and constructed. The A2-PC-QDs enabled an easy and efficient fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for detection of interaction with the HA and competitive inhibition even by small molecule compounds against A2-PC-QDs-HA binding. The quantum dot (QD)-based FP assay established in the present study is a useful tool for high-throughput screening and to accelerate the development of novel and more effective blockers of the viral attachment of influenza virus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative evaluation of post-column free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays for screening of antioxidants in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Raudone, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2012-04-13

    ABTS and FRAP post-column techniques evaluate the antioxidant characteristics of HPLC separated compounds with specific reagents. ABTS characterize their ability to scavenge free radicals by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in the absorbance decrease of the chromophoric radical. FRAP - is based on the reduction of Fe(III)-tripyridyltriazine complex to Fe(II)-tripyridyltriazine at low pH by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in an absorbance increase. Both post-column assays were evaluated and compared according to the following validation parameters: specificity, precision, limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ) and linearity. ABTS and FRAP post-column assays were specific, repeatable and sensitive and thus can be used for the evaluation of antioxidant active compounds. Antioxidant active compounds were quantified according to TEAC for each assay and ABTS/FRAP ratio was derived. No previous records of antioxidative activity of leaves and fruits of strawberries (Fragaria viridis, Fragaria moschata) research have been found. The research results confirm the reliability of ABTS and FRAP post-column assays for screening of antioxidants in complex mixtures and the determination of radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability by their TEAC values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3′-end processing (3′P of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN, and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3′ end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3′ end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3′P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sepsis Sharps Safety - CDC Transplant Safety Vaccine Safety Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... aeruginosa . Pseudomonas aeruginosa What types of infections does Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause? Serious Pseudomonas infections usually occur in people ...

  13. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae.

  14. Using a non-image-based medium-throughput assay for screening compounds targeting N-myristoylation in intracellular Leishmania amastigotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paape

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have refined a medium-throughput assay to screen hit compounds for activity against N-myristoylation in intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. Using clinically-relevant stages of wild type parasites and an Alamar blue-based detection method, parasite survival following drug treatment of infected macrophages is monitored after macrophage lysis and transformation of freed amastigotes into replicative extracellular promastigotes. The latter transformation step is essential to amplify the signal for determination of parasite burden, a factor dependent on equivalent proliferation rate between samples. Validation of the assay has been achieved using the anti-leishmanial gold standard drugs, amphotericin B and miltefosine, with EC50 values correlating well with published values. This assay has been used, in parallel with enzyme activity data and direct assay on isolated extracellular amastigotes, to test lead-like and hit-like inhibitors of Leishmania N-myristoyl transferase (NMT. These were derived both from validated in vivo inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei NMT and a recent high-throughput screen against L. donovani NMT. Despite being a potent inhibitor of L. donovani NMT, the activity of the lead T. brucei NMT inhibitor (DDD85646 against L. donovani amastigotes is relatively poor. Encouragingly, analogues of DDD85646 show improved translation of enzyme to cellular activity. In testing the high-throughput L. donovani hits, we observed macrophage cytotoxicity with compounds from two of the four NMT-selective series identified, while all four series displayed low enzyme to cellular translation, also seen here with the T. brucei NMT inhibitors. Improvements in potency and physicochemical properties will be required to deliver attractive lead-like Leishmania NMT inhibitors.

  15. Identification of Candidate Agents Active against N. ceranae Infection in Honey Bees: Establishment of a Medium Throughput Screening Assay Based on N. ceranae Infected Cultured Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  16. An Aptamer Bio-barCode (ABC) assay using SPR, RNase H, and probes with RNA and gold-nanorods for anti-cancer drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jacky Fong-Chuen; Yang, Chengbin; Tsang, Hing Lun; Lau, Pui Man; Yong, Ken-Tye; Ho, Ho Pui; Kong, Siu Kai

    2017-10-07

    With modifications to an ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed a next generation aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) assay to detect cytochrome-c (Cyto-c), a cell death marker released from cancer cells, for anti-cancer drug screening. An aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library that is capable of binding to its target with high affinity and specificity based on its unique DNA sequence and 3D structure after folding. Similar to the BBC assay, Cyto-c is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Ab) and an aptamer specifically against Cyto-c to form sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab]-[Cyto-c]-[Aptamer]). After washing and melting, our aptamers, acting as a DNA bio-barcode, are released from the sandwiches and hybridized with the probes specially designed for RNase H for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. In an aptamer-probe duplex, RNase H digests the RNA in the probe and releases the intact aptamer for another round of hybridization and digestion. With signal enhancement effects from gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on probes for SPR sensing, the detection limit was found to be 1 nM for the aptamer and 80 pM for Cyto-c. Without the time-consuming DNA amplification steps by PCR, the detection process of this new ABC assay can be completed within three hours. As a proof-of-concept, phenylarsine oxide was found to be a potent agent to kill liver cancer cells with multi-drug resistance at the nano-molar level. This approach thus provides a fast, sensitive and robust tool for anti-cancer drug screening.

  17. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    Full Text Available Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin or presumed (surfactin or no (paromomycin activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae.

  18. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay of Leukocyte Acid α-Glucosidase for Post-Newborn Screening Evaluation of Pompe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Huang, Jingyu; Violante, Sara; Orsini, Joseph J.; Caggana, Michele; Hughes, Erin E.; Stevens, Colleen; DiAntonio, Lisa; Liao, Hsuan Chieh; Hong, Xinying; Ghomashchi, Farideh; Kumar, Arun Babu; Zhou, Hui; Kornreich, Ruth; Wasserstein, Melissa; Gelb, Michael H.; Yu, Chunli

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pompe disease (PD) is the first lysosomal storage disorder to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborn screening. This condition has a broad phenotypic spectrum, ranging from an infantile form (IOPD), with severe morbidity and mortality in infancy, to a late-onset form (LOPD) with variable onset and progressive weakness and respiratory failure. Because the prognosis and treatment options are different for IOPD and LOPD, it is important to accurately determine an individual’s phenotype. To date, no enzyme assay of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) has been described that can differentiate IOPD vs LOPD using blood samples. METHODS We incubated 10 μL leukocyte lysate and 25 μL GAA substrate and internal standard (IS) assay cocktail for 1 h. The reaction was purified by a liquid–liquid extraction. The extracts were evaporated and reconstituted in 200 μL methanol and analyzed by LC-MS/MS for GAA activity. RESULTS A 700-fold higher analytical range was observed with the LC-MS/MS assay compared to the fluorometric method. When GAA-null and GAA-containing fibroblast lysates were mixed, GAA activity could be measured accurately even in the range of 0%–1% of normal. The leukocyte GAA activity in IOPD (n = 4) and LOPD (n = 19) was 0.44–1.75 nmol · h−1 · mg−1 and 2.0–6.5 nmol · h−1 · mg−1, respectively, with no overlap. The GAA activity of pseudodeficiency patients ranged from 3.0–28.1 nmol · h−1 · mg−1, showing substantial but incomplete separation from the LOPD group. CONCLUSIONS This assay allows determination of low residual GAA activity in leukocytes. IOPD, LOPD, and pseudodeficiency patients can be partially differentiated by measuring GAA using blood samples. PMID:28196920

  19. Immuno disc assay for screening duck hepatitis B surface antigen in serum, liver tissue and cultured hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. de Wilde (G.); R.A. Heijtink

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn immuno disc assay (IDA) for semi-quantitative analysis of the surface antigen (DHBsAg) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is described. Unpurified antigen preparations were adsorbed onto punched-out nitrocellulose membrane discs. Rabbit antiserum raised against serum-derived

  20. Antifungal Activity of Selected Indigenous Pseudomonas and Bacillus from the Soybean Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Yaryura, P. M.; Montecchia, M. S.; Hernández, A. I.; Correa, O. S.; Pucheu, N. L.; Kerber, N. L.; García, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants. PMID:20016811

  1. A Microplate Growth Inhibition Assay for Screening Bacteriocins against Listeria monocytogenes to Differentiate Their Mode-of-Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Paul Priyesh; Muriana, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have historically been used in food fermentations to preserve foods and are generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) by the FDA for use as food ingredients. In addition to lactic acid; some strains also produce bacteriocins that have been proposed for use as food preservatives. In this study we examined the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 by neutralized and non-neutralized bacteriocin preparations (Bac+ preps) produced by Lactobacillus curvatus FS47; Lb. curvatus Beef3; Pediococcus acidilactici Bac3; Lactococcus lactis FLS1; Enterococcus faecium FS56-1; and Enterococcus thailandicus FS92. Activity differences between non-neutralized and neutralized Bac+ preps in agar spot assays could not readily be attributed to acid because a bacteriocin-negative control strain was not inhibitory to Listeria in these assays. When neutralized and non-neutralized Bac+ preps were used in microplate growth inhibition assays against L. monocytogenes 39-2 we observed some differences attributed to acid inhibition. A microplate growth inhibition assay was used to compare inhibitory reactions of wild-type and bacteriocin-resistant variants of L. monocytogenes to differentiate bacteriocins with different modes-of-action (MOA) whereby curvaticins FS47 and Beef3, and pediocin Bac3 were categorized to be in MOA1; enterocins FS92 and FS56-1 in MOA2; and lacticin FLS1 in MOA3. The microplate bacteriocin MOA assay establishes a platform to evaluate the best combination of bacteriocin preparations for use in food applications as biopreservatives against L. monocytogenes. PMID:26111195

  2. A Microplate Growth Inhibition Assay for Screening Bacteriocins against Listeria monocytogenes to Differentiate Their Mode-of-Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Priyesh Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have historically been used in food fermentations to preserve foods and are generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS by the FDA for use as food ingredients. In addition to lactic acid; some strains also produce bacteriocins that have been proposed for use as food preservatives. In this study we examined the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 by neutralized and non-neutralized bacteriocin preparations (Bac+ preps produced by Lactobacillus curvatus FS47; Lb. curvatus Beef3; Pediococcus acidilactici Bac3; Lactococcus lactis FLS1; Enterococcus faecium FS56-1; and Enterococcus thailandicus FS92. Activity differences between non-neutralized and neutralized Bac+ preps in agar spot assays could not readily be attributed to acid because a bacteriocin-negative control strain was not inhibitory to Listeria in these assays. When neutralized and non-neutralized Bac+ preps were used in microplate growth inhibition assays against L. monocytogenes 39-2 we observed some differences attributed to acid inhibition. A microplate growth inhibition assay was used to compare inhibitory reactions of wild-type and bacteriocin-resistant variants of L. monocytogenes to differentiate bacteriocins with different modes-of-action (MOA whereby curvaticins FS47 and Beef3, and pediocin Bac3 were categorized to be in MOA1; enterocins FS92 and FS56-1 in MOA2; and lacticin FLS1 in MOA3. The microplate bacteriocin MOA assay establishes a platform to evaluate the best combination of bacteriocin preparations for use in food applications as biopreservatives against L. monocytogenes.

  3. Assay development and high-throughput screening for small molecule inhibitors of a Vibrio cholerae stress response pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanbery L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Laura Stanbery, Jyl S Matson Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Life Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA Abstract: Antibiotics are important adjuncts to oral rehydration therapy in cholera disease management. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistance to the antibiotics used to treat cholera, therapeutic options are becoming limited. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop additional therapeutics to aid in the treatment of cholera. Previous studies showed that the extracytoplasmic stress response (σE pathway of Vibrio cholerae is required for full virulence of the organism. The pathway is also required for bacterial growth in the presence of ethanol. Therefore, we exploited this ethanol sensitivity phenotype in order to develop a screen for inhibitors of the pathway, with the aim of also inhibiting virulence of the pathogen. Here we describe the optimization and implementation of our high-throughput screening strategy. From a primary screen of over 100,000 compounds, we have identified seven compounds that validated the growth phenotypes from the primary and counterscreens. These compounds have the potential to be developed into therapeutic agents for cholera and will also be valuable probes for uncovering basic molecular mechanisms of an important cause of diarrheal disease. Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, stress response, σE, high-throughput screening

  4. Contribution of two molecular assays as compared to selective culture for MRSA screening in a low MRSA prevalence population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulens, E; Descheemaeker, P; Deurenberg, R H; Stobberingh, E E; Gordts, B

    BACKGROUND: As the prompt detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers upon admission is fundamental in the MRSA prevention strategy of our hospital, the infection control team is eagerly seeking the most sensitive and rapid screening method. The aim of this study was to

  5. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-01-01

    .... Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential...

  6. Improvements and Variants of the Multiple Antigen Blot Assay-MABA: An Immunoenzymatic Technique for Simultaneous Antigen and Antibody Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Oscar; Losada, Sandra; Toledo, Marilyan; Gauna, Adriana; Lorenzo, María Angelita; Bermúdez, Henry; de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón

    2015-01-01

    This simple, versatile, reliable, reproducible, multipurpose, and inexpensive technique is based on the adhesion of different antigens to a single nitrocellulose strip using, as template, an acrylic device containing 28 parallel channels. The inclusion of channels containing normal human serum improves the quality control of this assay. Antigen-sensitized nitrocellulose strips are cut perpendicularly to the antigen-rows, exposed to immune sera followed by the appropriate conjugate. Positive signals are recorded using chemiluminescent or precipitable colorimetric substrates. This assay allows the simultaneous qualitative demonstration of antigenicity and immunogenicity of antigens obtained as synthetic peptides, recombinant molecules, or crude preparations, with high sensitivity and specificity. Its major value is based on the rapid and simultaneous comparative evaluation of various antigenic preparations allowing the diagnosis of a variety of infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. It can in general be used to detect any type of antibody or circulating antigen. Some improvements and variants of the original technique are included.

  7. Screening of cytoprotectors against methotrexate-induced cytogenotoxicity from bioactive phytochemicals, by umu test combined with micronucleus Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shaobin; Wu, Ying; Yang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    To develop new cytoprotectors to reduce the risk of second cancers caused by methotrexate-induced cytogenotoxicity, cytoprotective effects of ten kinds of phytochemicals and their combinations were evaluated by umu test combined with micronucleus assay. It is demonstrated that allicin, proanthocyanidins, polyphenols, eleutherosides and isoflavones owned higher antimutagenic activities than other phytochemicals. At the highest dose tested, the MTX genetoxicity was inhibited by 34.03%~67.12%. O...

  8. Sediment toxicity in the Duluth-Superior Harbor: Use of Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} as screening assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.; Hubbard, C. [Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul, MN (United States); Schubauer-Berigan, J. [Univ. of South Carolina, Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Marine Inst.; Tesser, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted in the Duluth-Superior Harbor at 40 sites as part of an integrated sediment assessment during the fall of 1993. Two rapid assays conducted with Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign}) were compared with three standard US EPA sediment toxicity tests: Hyalella azteca (acute tests) and Chironomus tentans (acute and sub-lethal tests). The response in the two microbial assays was also evaluated for sensitivity to various contaminants analyzed simultaneously in the Duluth-Superior Harbor sediments. Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} were found to be sensitive to approximately one-third and one-half the sediments, respectively; Chironomus tentans was sensitive to 15% of the sediments (either acutely or sub-lethally), while Hyalella azteca was not sensitive to any of the sediments. In almost all cases, Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} correctly identified samples that were toxic to the chironomid, making it useful as a screening tool for toxicity, to reduce the number of sites to be tested with the benthic organisms. The subsequent application of Microtox{reg_sign} as a screen for sediment toxicity in an EMAP survey in the St. Louis River (MN) estuary will be discussed. Correlation of Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} toxicity to environmental contaminants found in the sediments will be presented.

  9. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Marcellino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  10. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K C; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  11. Comparison of interferon {gamma} release assays and conventional screening tests before tumour necrosis factor {alpha} blockade in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of two interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) and conventional screening tests in patients with inflammatory arthritis undergoing screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) compounds. METHODS: Successive patients were subjected to conventional LTBI screening, including a tuberculin skin test (TST). The T-SPOT.TB test was performed on all patients and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test was performed on a large subset. The results of the IGRAs were compared with the results of conventional screening tests. RESULTS: A total 150 patients were evaluated. The majority (57.9%) had rheumatoid arthritis. Previous vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guerin was confirmed in 82% of patients. No patient had received prior anti-TB treatment. A total of 57 patients (38.0%) had at least one positive conventional risk factor. In contrast, an unequivocally positive T-SPOT.TB test was seen in only 14\\/143 (9.8%). There was 98.2% agreement between the two IGRAs. Statistically significant associations were found between each of the IGRAs and both TST and risk history, but not chest x-ray (CXR). A positive IGRA result was significantly associated with increased age. TB was not reactivated in any patient during the follow-up period. Interpretation: This study suggests that IGRAs may be useful when screening for LTBI before anti-TNFalpha therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The observations reported here also highlight the inadequate performance of CXR as a marker of LTBI.

  12. Application of an ELISA-type screen printed electrode-based potentiometric assay to the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczka, Olivier; Skillman, Lucy; Ditcham, William G; Hamdorf, Brenton; Wong, Danny K Y; Bergquist, Peter; Sunna, Anwar

    2013-11-01

    We report a novel electrochemical method for the rapid detection of the parasitic protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum. An antibody-based capture format was transferred onto screen-printed electrodes and the presence of horseradish peroxidase-labelled antibodies binding to the oocysts was potentiometrically detected. This method allowed the detection of 5 × 10(2)Cryptosporidium oocysts per mL in 60 min. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.schiliro@unito.it [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Porfido, Arianna [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino (Italy); Gilli, Giorgio [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17{beta}-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 {+-} 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 {+-} 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 {+-} 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 {+-} 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 {+-} 26% and 52 {+-} 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans reveals novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utari, Putri Dwi; Quax, Wim J.

    The susceptibility of Caenorhabditis elegans to different virulent phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa makes the worms an excellent model for studying host-pathogen interactions. Including the recently described liquid killing, five different killing assays are now available offering superb

  15. School based screening for tuberculosis infection in Norway: comparison of positive tuberculin skin test with interferon-gamma release assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harstad Ingunn

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Norway, screening for tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test (TST has been offered for several decades to all children in 9th grade of school, prior to BCG-vaccination. The incidence of tuberculosis in Norway is low and infection with M. tuberculosis is considered rare. QuantiFERON®TB Gold (QFT is a new and specific blood test for tuberculosis infection. So far, there have been few reports of QFT used in screening of predominantly unexposed, healthy, TST-positive children, including first and second generation immigrants. In order to evaluate the current TST screening and BCG-vaccination programme we aimed to (1 measure the prevalence of QFT positivity among TST positive children identified in the school based screening, and (2 measure the association between demographic and clinical risk factors for tuberculosis infection and QFT positivity. Methods This cross-sectional multi-centre study was conducted during the school year 2005–6 and the TST positive children were recruited from seven public hospitals covering rural and urban areas in Norway. Participation included a QFT test and a questionnaire regarding demographic and clinical risk factors for latent infection. All positive QFT results were confirmed by re-analysis of the same plasma sample. If the confirmatory test was negative the result was reported as non-conclusive and the participant was offered a new test. Results Among 511 TST positive children only 9% (44 had a confirmed positive QFT result. QFT positivity was associated with larger TST induration, origin outside Western countries and known exposure to tuberculosis. Most children (79% had TST reactions in the range of 6–14 mm; 5% of these were QFT positive. Discrepant results between the tests were common even for TST reactions above 15 mm, as only 22 % had a positive QFT. Conclusion The results support the assumption that factors other than tuberculosis infection are widely contributing to

  16. Brush and Spray: A High-Throughput Systemic Acquired Resistance Assay Suitable for Large-Scale Genetic Screening1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Beibei; Xu, Shaohua; Xu, Mo; Li, Yan; Li, Shuxin; Ding, Jinmei; Zhang, Yuelin

    2011-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a defense mechanism induced in the distal parts of plants after primary infection. It confers long-lasting protection against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens. Lack of high-throughput assays has hampered the forward genetic analysis of SAR. Here, we report the development of an easy and efficient assay for SAR and its application in a forward genetic screen for SAR-deficient mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using the new assay for SAR, we identified six flavin-dependent monooxygenase1, four AGD2-like defense response protein1, three salicylic acid induction-deficient2, one phytoalexin deficient4, and one avrPphB-susceptible3 alleles as well as a gain-of-function mutant of CALMODULIN-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR3 designated camta3-3D. Like transgenic plants overexpressing CAMTA3, camta3-3D mutant plants exhibit compromised SAR and enhanced susceptibility to virulent pathogens, suggesting that CAMTA3 is a critical regulator of both basal resistance and SAR. PMID:21900483

  17. Development of a Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) Based, High Throughput Screening Feasible Method for the Identification of PDE12 Activity Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Samuel; Bucher, Hannes; Nickolaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technology has been widely used to establish high throughput screens (HTS) for a range of targets in the pharmaceutical industry. PDE12 (aka. 2'- phosphodiesterase) has been published to participate in the degradation of oligoadenylates that are involved in the establishment of an antiviral state via the activation of ribonuclease L (RNAse-L). Degradation of oligoadenylates by PDE12 terminates these antiviral activities, leading to decreased resistance of cells for a variety of viral pathogens. Therefore inhibitors of PDE12 are discussed as antiviral therapy. Here we describe the use of the yttrium silicate SPA bead technology to assess inhibitory activity of compounds against PDE12 in a homogeneous, robust HTS feasible assay using tritiated adenosine-P-adenylate ([3H]ApA) as substrate. We found that the used [3H]ApA educt, was not able to bind to SPA beads, whereas the product [3H]AMP, as known before, was able to bind to SPA beads. This enables the measurement of PDE12 activity on [3H]ApA as a substrate using a wallac microbeta counter. This method describes a robust and high throughput capable format in terms of specificity, commonly used compound solvents, ease of detection and assay matrices. The method could facilitate the search for PDE12 inhibitors as antiviral compounds.

  18. Development of a Medium-Throughput Targeted LCMS Assay to Detect Endogenous Cellular Levels of Malonyl-CoA to Screen Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Philip J; Fisher, David I

    2016-02-01

    The fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzyme in mammalian cells is a large multidomain protein responsible for de novo synthesis of fatty acids. The steps catalyzed by FAS involve the condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA moieties in the presence of NADPH until palmitate is formed. Inhibition of FAS causes an accumulation of intracellular malonyl-CoA, as this metabolite is essentially committed to fatty acid synthesis once formed. Detection of intracellular metabolites for screening can be problematic due to a lack of appropriate tools, but here we describe a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LCMS) method to directly measure endogenous levels of malonyl-CoA to drive a drug development structure-activity relationship (SAR) screening cascade. Our process involves preparation of samples at 96-well scale, normalization postpermeabilization via use of a whole-well imaging platform, and the LCMS detection methodology. The assay is amenable to multiplexing cellular endpoints, has a typical Z' of >0.6, and has high reproducibility of EC50 values. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Tuberculosis screening using a T-cell interferon-γ release assay in Japanese medical students and non-Japanese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Takayuki; Kimura, Takao; Tokue, Yutaka; Watanabe, Rumi; Nara, Makoto; Obuchi, Toshiko; Yaegashi, Akiko; Yomoda, Sachie; Ohshima, Kihachi; Murakami, Masami

    2013-06-01

    Screening of medical students and international students for tuberculosis (TB) at the time of admission is a key strategy to control and prevent the spread of infection on university campus and teaching hospitals because of the high risk of exposure to TB patients. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific T-cell interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are specific latent tuberculosis detection methods used in such groups. Currently, in Japan, there are no guidelines and no baseline data on IGRAs to evaluate the risk of TB in these high-risk groups. In order to evaluate TB risk at the time of admission in university campus and medical schools in Japan, a retrospective study was conducted. A total of 969 students (585 Japanese students and 384 international students) were screened for TB using the IGRAs at the time of admission. Eight Japanese students (0.9%) were positive for IGRAs, but none were diagnosed with active TB at the follow-up. In contrast, 30 international students (7.8%) were positive for IGRAs, including two students diagnosed with active TB during follow up. Positive ratio of IGRAs in international students was significantly higher than that of medical students at the time of admission. Here we propose a standard approach for TB screening with IGRAs at the time of admission for medical students and international students in Japan.

  20. In vitro soft agar assay by use of multiple for screening of tumor sensitivity to anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, H; Sakoh, T; Kondo, T

    1983-11-01

    For use in routine clinical studies, modifications in Hamburger's stem cell assay were made. A multiple with 24 wells made feasible, handling of a large number of samples. The addition of anticancer drugs to the bottom layer of agar led to avoidance of exposure to drugs before cell plating and evaluation of the effect of long-acting drugs such as 5-fluorouracil. Storage of the test plate including anticancer drugs in a freezer at -70 degrees C showed no loss of the colony forming activity. This method is simple, reliable and readily facilitated.

  1. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon

    2015-01-01

    relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions...... with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry...

  2. [Evaluation of a new screening assay kit for the combined detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibody--comparison of the performance of the new kit and HIV antibody assay kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Watanabe, S; Kondo, M; Saito, T; Imai, M

    1999-07-01

    DUO is an automated HIV infection screening test kit based on the combined detection of p24 Ag and anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 IgG in human sera or plasma using the ELFA technique (Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay). The performance of DUO was compared with that of HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation EIA plus and particle agglutination (PA) test. A total of 141 seropositive sera, 3 seroconversion panels, 300 seronegative sera and 387 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested. One hundred and forty one seropositive sera in Japan and Cameroon were all positive with DUO. Three seroconversion panels (panel Q, Z, AE) were tested to evaluate sensitivity. In Panel Q, infecution was detected seven days earlier with DUO than with the 3rd generation EIA plus and PA. In Panel AE, infection was detected four days earlier with DUO than with the single antibody assays. Three hundred seronegative sera from Kanagawa prefectural public health centers were all negative with DUO as well as PA test. Three hundred and eighty seven potentially cross-reacting samples were tested to challenge the specificity of the assay. These included samples from pregnant women and hepatitis patients. In four of the 204 samples from pregnant women, false-positive results were observed with DUO. In three of the 183 samples from hepatitis patients, false-positive results were also obtained with DUO. All samples of 7 DUO positive results were negative with western blot test. Five of them were negative with RT-PCR and 2 of them were not tested because there were not enough samples. Thirty cross-reacting (false-positive) samples by PA test from blood donors were tested by DUO, and all of these were negative by DUO.

  3. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Klima, Stefanie; Sureshkumar, Perumal Srinivasan; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Waldmann, Tanja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-06-17

    Efficient protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to various tissues in combination with -omics technologies opened up new horizons for in vitro toxicity testing of potential drugs. To provide a solid scientific basis for such assays, it will be important to gain quantitative information on the time course of development and on the underlying regulatory mechanisms by systems biology approaches. Two assays have therefore been tuned here for these requirements. In the UKK test system, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) (or other pluripotent cells) are left to spontaneously differentiate for 14 days in embryoid bodies, to allow generation of cells of all three germ layers. This system recapitulates key steps of early human embryonic development, and it can predict human-specific early embryonic toxicity/teratogenicity, if cells are exposed to chemicals during differentiation. The UKN1 test system is based on hESC differentiating to a population of neuroectodermal progenitor (NEP) cells for 6 days. This system recapitulates early neural development and predicts early developmental neurotoxicity and epigenetic changes triggered by chemicals. Both systems, in combination with transcriptome microarray studies, are suitable for identifying toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, they may be used in combination to generate input data for systems biology analysis. These test systems have advantages over the traditional toxicological studies requiring large amounts of animals. The test systems may contribute to a reduction of the costs for drug development and chemical safety evaluation. Their combination sheds light especially on compounds that may influence neurodevelopment specifically.

  4. An on-chip cardiomyocyte cell network assay for stable drug screening regarding community effect of cell network size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Kojima, Kensuke; Yasuda, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    We investigate the effect of haloperidol on a four-cell and nine-cell cardiomyocyte network on an agarose microchamber array chip to evaluate a cell-based model for drug screening. Using a network of cardiomyocytes whose beating intervals were stable and relatively uniform (they only fluctuated 10% from the mean beating interval), we easily observed the effect of haloperidol on the cell network beating interval 5 min after administering it. We also observed the beating interval returned to its original state 10 min after the haloperidol was washed out of the chip. Although the four-cell network showed the unstable recovery of its beating rhythm after washout of haloperidol, the nine-cell network recovered completely to the stable original beating rhythm even after a second administration of haloperidol. The results indicate the importance of the community size in cell networks used in the stable cell-based screening model. Moreover, they indicate the advantage of using direct cell-based measurements in which the amount of drug administered and the time course over which it is administered are strictly controlled for evaluating the quantitative chemical effects of drugs on cells.

  5. High-Content Assay Multiplexing for Vascular Toxicity Screening in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yasuhiro; Klaren, William D; Lebakken, Connie S; Grimm, Fabian A; Rusyn, Ivan

    Endothelial cells (ECs) play a major role in blood vessel formation and function. While there is longstanding evidence for the potential of chemical exposures to adversely affect EC function and vascular development, the hazard potential of chemicals with respect to vascular effects is not routinely evaluated in safety assessments. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived ECs promise to provide a physiologically relevant, organotypic culture model that is amenable for high-throughput (HT) EC toxicant screening and may represent a viable alternative to traditional in vitro models, including human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). To evaluate the utility of iPSC-ECs for multidimensional HT toxicity profiling of chemicals, both iPSC-ECs and HUVECs were exposed to selected positive (angiogenesis inhibitors, cytotoxic agents) and negative compounds in concentration response for either 16 or 24 h in a 384-well plate format. Furthermore, chemical effects on vascularization were quantified using EC angiogenesis on biological (Geltrex™) and synthetic (SP-105 angiogenesis hydrogel) extracellular matrices. Cellular toxicity was assessed using high-content live cell imaging and the CellTiter-Glo® assay. Assay performance indicated good to excellent assay sensitivity and reproducibility for both cell types investigated. Both iPSC-derived ECs and HUVECs formed tube-like structures on Geltrex™ and hydrogel, an effect that was inhibited by angiogenesis inhibitors and cytotoxic agents in a concentration-dependent manner. The quality of HT assays in HUVECs was generally higher than that in iPSC-ECs. Altogether, this study demonstrates the capability of ECs for comprehensive assessment of the biological effects of chemicals on vasculature in a HT compatible format.

  6. A cell-based assay for screening of antidotes to, and antivenom against Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2009-01-01

    Chironex fleckeri is a large box jellyfish that has been labelled the 'most venomous animal' in the world. We have recently shown that the primary effect of C. fleckeri venom in vivo is cardiovascular collapse. This study utilised a cell-based assay to examine the effects of C. fleckeri venom on the proliferation of a rat aortic smooth muscle cell line. In addition, the ability of CSL box jellyfish antivenom and/or various potential treatment strategies to neutralise the effects of the venom was examined. A7r5 cells were cultured in media containing venom. The effect of CSL box jellyfish antivenom (5 U/mL), CSL polyvalent snake antivenom (5 U/mL), lanthanum (5 microM), MgSO(4) (50 mM), verapamil (5 microM) or felodipine (5 microM) was examined. Cell viability was determined using a Cell titer 96 AQueous One Solution cell proliferation assay. Incubation of A7r5 cells with serially diluted venom (2-0.004 microg/mL) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation with an IC(50) value of 0.056 microg/mL. This response was not affected by the absence of calcium or the presence of lanthanum in the media. Box jellyfish antivenom (5 U/mL) prevented the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by the venom. Verapamil (5 microM) had no significant effect on the inhibition. In contrast, felodipine (5 microM) or MgSO(4) (50 mM) potentiated the effects of the venom and partially negated the protective effect of the antivenom. This study displayed the ability to utilise a cell-based assay to determine the effects of C. fleckeri venom on vascular cell viability. It showed that CSL box jellyfish can neutralise the effects of the venom but only if added prior to the venom. In addition, potential adjunct therapies verapamil, felodipine and MgSO(4) were found to be ineffective, with felodipine and MgSO(4) potentiating the detrimental effects of the venom.

  7. Multicenter evaluation of a new automated fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus screening assay with a sensitive antigen detection module and high specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernard; Gürtler, Lutz; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Michl, Ulrike; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Bürgisser, Philippe; Villaescusa, Roberto; Eiras, Adolfo; Gabriel, Christian; Stekel, Herbert; Tanprasert, Srivilai; Oota, Sinenaart; Silvestre, Maria-Jose; Marques, Cristina; Ladeira, Maria; Rabenau, Holger; Berger, Annemarie; Schmitt, Urban; Melchior, Walter

    2002-06-01

    -generation assay with improved specificity such as Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA is suitable for blood donor screening because of its low number of false positives and because it detects HIV p24 antigen with a sensitivity comparable to that of single-antigen assays.

  8. Identification of novel human dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors of natural origin (part I: virtual screening and activity assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been great interest in determining whether natural products show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is DPP-IV whose most important substrates are incretins that, among other beneficial effects, stimulates insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Incretins have very short half-lives because of their rapid degradation by DPP-IV and, therefore, inhibiting this enzyme improves glucose homeostasis. As a result, DPP-IV inhibitors are of considerable interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The main goals of this study were (a to develop a virtual screening process to identify potential DPP-IV inhibitors of natural origin; (b to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits; and (c to use the most active hit for predicting derivatives with higher binding affinities for the DPP-IV binding site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We predicted that 446 out of the 89,165 molecules present in the natural products subset of the ZINC database would inhibit DPP-IV with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 446 molecules were merged with 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors and the resulting set was classified into 50 clusters according to chemical similarity, there were 12 clusters that contained only natural products for which no DPP-IV inhibitory activity has been previously reported. Nine molecules from 7 of these 12 clusters were then selected for in vitro activity testing and 7 out of the 9 molecules were shown to inhibit DPP-IV (where the remaining two molecules could not be solubilized, preventing the evaluation of their DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Then, the hit with the highest activity was used as a lead compound in the prediction of more potent derivatives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying novel

  9. Development of screening assays for nanoparticle toxicity assessment in human blood: preliminary studies with charged Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Thompson, John W; Haynes, Christy L

    2012-09-01

    As nanoparticles have found increased use in both consumer and medical applications, corresponding increases in possible exposure to humans necessitate studies examining the impacts of these nanomaterials in biological systems. This article examines the effects of approximately 30-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles, with positively and negatively charged surface coatings in human blood. Here, we study the exposure effects, with up to 72 h of exposure to 5, 15, 25 and 50 µg/ml nanoparticles on hemolysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and platelet aggregation in subsets of cells from human blood. Assessing viability with hemolysis, results show significant changes in a concentration-dependent fashion. Rates of ROS generation were investigated using the dichlorofluorscein diacetate-based assay as ROS generation is a commonly suspected mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity; herein, ROS was not a significant factor. Optical monitoring of platelet aggregation revealed that none of the examined nanoparticles induced aggregation upon short-term exposure.

  10. Evaluation of a covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for screening of Salmonella antibodies in pig serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, E.Y.W.; Wu, J.T.Y.; Jauho, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    in 5 laboratories from Europe and North America. Comparison with culture results showed that 88.5% of 26 culture-positive animals were ELISA positive, as were 55% of 60 animals from 2 culture-positive pig herds. Of 90 animals from 2 high health farms with no clinical symptoms of salmonellosis, 98......In this study, a commercial Salmonella covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological detection of Salmonella infection in swine was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional fecal culture method and inter-laboratory proficiency testing, using a panel of sera tested.......9% tested negative. The interlaboratory comparison study found a kappa value of 0.9 between our laboratory (using an automated system) and the manufacturer laboratory (using the manual method). Comparison of ELISA results from all 5 participating laboratories showed very good to excellent agreement, between...

  11. Elevated-temperature, colorimetric, monoclonal, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid screening of Salmonella in foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, K F; Dustman, W A; Curiale, M S; Flowers, R S; Robison, B J

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed by 30 laboratories in 3 sets of trials to validate a modified colorimetric monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for Salmonella detection. The modifications to the current methodology included incubation of enrichments and post-enrichments at an elevated temperature, addition of novobiocin to the M-broth post-enrichment, and elimination of the centrifugation and agitation steps. Five artificially contaminated foods (nonfat dry milk, milk chocolate, dried egg, ground black pepper, and soy flour) and 1 naturally contaminated food (raw ground turkey) were analyzed. The artificially contaminated foods were inoculated with individual Salmonella serotypes at a high (10-50 cells/25 g) and low (1-5 cells/25 g) contamination level. Results from the modified ELISA method were compared to the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)/AOAC culture method. In 2 of the food products, milk chocolate and pepper, a number of laboratories isolated Salmonella from un-inoculated control samples, thus invalidating their data. As a result, there were too few laboratories remaining with valid data, and these foods were repeated. In the completed study, there were 11 false negative results obtained by the modified ELISA method, while there were 28 false negatives produced by the BAM/AOAC procedure. There were 11 ELISA positive assays which could not be confirmed by culture methods. Statistically, there were no differences between the modified, colorimetric, monoclonal ELISA and the reference culture method in all foods except raw turkey, where the ELISA method was more productive. The colorimetric monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (Salmonella-Tek) method for detecting Salmonella in all foods has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  12. Performance of PCR-REBA assay for screening and identifying pathogens directly in whole blood of patients with suspected sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Kim, J; Kim, S; Park, S D; Kim, H Y; Choi, H K; Uh, Y; Lee, H

    2015-11-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of a broad range of bacterial and fungal pathogens is the key to successful management of patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of PCR-REBA Sepsis-ID test for the detection of BSIs pathogens. EDTA anticoagulated blood for REBA Sepsis-ID assay and blood culture samples from 882 patients with suspected sepsis were simultaneously collected from January 2014 to December 2014. Of 115 patients with positive blood culture, 64 (55·7%) were Gram-positive bacteria, 35 (30·4%) were Gram-negative bacteria, 1 (0·9%) was Candida albicans and 15 (13·0%) were polymicrobial infections. The concordance rate of blood culture system and PCR-REBA Sepsis ID test was 83·0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 79·8-84·8, P detection (P = 0·002). The results of this study suggested that PCR-REBA may be helpful when added to blood culture in the diagnosis and management of sepsis. PCR-REBA Sepsis-ID test is a useful tool for the rapid identification of pathogenic isolates in whole blood to ensure adequate treatment for the causative agents of BSIs. Although the cost of molecular diagnostic assays is higher than the cost of conventional methods, clinical and economic cost-benefit analysis is still needed. PCR-REBA may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to ensure effective treatment with antibiotics in the acute phase of pathogen infection. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. ENZYME-LINKED-IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY FOR SCREENING OF MILK SAMPLES FOR SALMONELLA-TYPHIMURIUM IN DAIRY HERDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the ability of an antibody-specific, O antigen-based ELISA to document Salmonella typhimurium herd infections by screening of milk samples. Three cattle populations, 20 herds with no history of salmonellosis, 8 herds with history of S typhimurium epsiodes within the previous 7...... months, and 220 herds of unknown disease status, were tested. A herd was considered ELISA positive if at least 5% of the cows had OD values > 0.3. Among the 20 herds without history of salmonellosis, only 2 herds were ELISA positive, whereas all 8 herds with a known history of salmonellosis were ELISA...... positive (herd specificity, 0.9 and herd sensitivity, 1.0). A sig nificant correlation (P salmonellosis. It was concluded that ELISA testing of individual milk sam ples can be used for surveillance...

  14. HIV-1 serologic test results for one million newborn dried-blood specimens: assay performance and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, M; Redus, M A; Granade, T C; Hannon, W H; George, J R

    1992-01-01

    In a population-based national survey conducted in 1988-90, more than one million neonatal dried-blood specimens were tested for maternal antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and Western blot tests were performed in 20 state laboratories following standardized procedures. The observed predictive value of a repeatedly reactive EIA results closely coincided with that expected on the basis of manufacturer's estimates of test sensitivity and specificity for dried-blood specimens. Of the 2,845 EIA-reactive specimens tested by Western blot, 1,323 (47%) were positive, 1,270 (45%) were negative, and 252 (9%) were indeterminate. False-positive EIA and indeterminate Western blot results occurred at rates independent of seroprevalence. These data help characterize the results to be expected from screening of similar low-seroprevalence populations and constitute a base line for the detection of systematic testing errors.

  15. Identification of several high-risk HPV inhibitors and drug targets with a novel high-throughput screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Männik, Andres; Mumm, Karl; Tämm, Kaido; Tamm, Tarmo; Ustav, Mart

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are oncogenic viruses that cause numerous different cancers as well as benign lesions in the epithelia. To date, there is no effective cure for an ongoing HPV infection. Here, we describe the generation process of a platform for the development of anti-HPV drugs. This system consists of engineered full-length HPV genomes that express reporter genes for evaluation of the viral copy number in all three HPV replication stages. We demonstrate the usefulness of this system by conducting high-throughput screens to identify novel high-risk HPV-specific inhibitors. At least five of the inhibitors block the function of Tdp1 and PARP1, which have been identified as essential cellular proteins for HPV replication and promising candidates for the development of antivirals against HPV and possibly against HPV-related cancers. PMID:28182794

  16. In silico modeling of the type 2 IDI enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus for virtual screening of potential inhibitors of this therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torktaz, Ibrahim; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2013-02-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase is an essential enzyme in those living organisms such as pathogenic strains of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus genera which rely on the Mevalonate pathway for the production of isoprenoids. The pathogens contain type 2 IDI in contrast to human that contains type 1 IDI. Therefore, the type 2 IDI may be a potential target for the therapy of some infectious diseases. In the current study, a virtual screening by docking was performed among 2000 chemicals from CoCoCo library to find a specific inhibitor for type 2 IDIs. To this end, the structures of the type 2 IDIs of Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were molded using comparative modeling and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based prediction. The predicted models were evaluated based on Q-mean and Prosa score. Molegro Virtual Docker with MolDock scoring function was used for measuring the binding affinity of the found inhibitor to the active site of the models. Also the inhibition effect of the compound was virtually tested on the crystallography-solved structures of the Sulfolobus shibatae and Thermus thermophilus type 2 IDIs as well as the Escherichia coli type 1 IDI. Finally, the inhibition effect of the found inhibitor was virtually tested on the human type 1 IDI. Interestingly, the results suggest that the inhibitor efficiently binds to and inhibits the bacterial IDIs especially the type 2 IDIs of pathogens while it is not inhibiting the human IDI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. On-chip cellomics: Single-cell-based constructive cell-network assay for quasi-in vivo screening of cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We have developed methods and systems of analyzing epigenetic information in cells, as well as that of genetic information, to expand our understanding of how living systems are determined. A system of analyzing epigenetic information was developed starting from the twin complementary viewpoints of cell regulation as an 'algebraic' system (emphasis on temporal aspects) and as a 'geometric' system (emphasis on spatial aspects). As an example of the 'geometric' system, we have developed an quasi-in vivo hiPS cardiomyocyte network assay and confirmed that it can predict the risk of lethal arrythmia correctly in 22 compounds. The knowlege acquired from this study may lead to the use of cells that fully control practical applications like cell-based drug screening and the regeneration of organs.

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotube modified screen-printed electrodes for the detection of p-aminophenol: Optimisation and application in alkaline phosphatase-based assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Queipo, Paula [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Costa-Garcia, Agustin [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)], E-mail: costa@fq.uniovi.es

    2008-05-12

    Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) were used to modify the working electrode surface of different screen-printed electrodes. The effect of this modification on the electrodic characteristics (double layer capacitance, electroactive area and heterogeneous rate constants for the electron transfer) was evaluated and optimized for the cyclic voltammetric determination of p-aminophenol. The enzymatic hydrolysis of p-aminophenylphosphate was employed for the quantification of alkaline phosphatase, one of the most important label enzymes in immunoassays. Finally, ELISA assays were carried out to quantify pneumolysin using this enzymatic system. Results obtained indicated that low superficial densities of MWCNT-COOH (0.03-0.06 {mu}g mm{sup -2}) yielded the same electrodic improvements but with better analytical properties.

  19. Screening for resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in rice-FOX Arabidopsis lines identified a putative receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase gene that confers resistance to major bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubouzet, Joseph G; Maeda, Satoru; Sugano, Shoji; Ohtake, Miki; Hayashi, Nagao; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kondou, Youichi; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Horii, Yoko; Matsui, Minami; Oda, Kenji; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Mori, Masaki

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 20,000 of the rice-FOX Arabidopsis transgenic lines, which overexpress 13,000 rice full-length cDNAs at random in Arabidopsis, were screened for bacterial disease resistance by dip inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The identities of the overexpressed genes were determined in 72 lines that showed consistent resistance after three independent screens. Pst DC3000 resistance was verified for 19 genes by characterizing other independent Arabidopsis lines for the same genes in the original rice-FOX hunting population or obtained by reintroducing the genes into ecotype Columbia by floral dip transformation. Thirteen lines of these 72 selections were also resistant to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Eight genes that conferred resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis have been introduced into rice for overexpression, and transformants were evaluated for resistance to the rice bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. One of the transgenic rice lines was highly resistant to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Interestingly, this line also showed remarkably high resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, which is the most devastating rice disease in many countries. The causal rice gene, encoding a putative receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, was therefore designated as BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1. Our results demonstrate the utility of the rice-FOX Arabidopsis lines as a tool for the identification of genes involved in plant defence and suggest the presence of a defence mechanism common between monocots and dicots. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Multiplexing spheroid volume, resazurin and acid phosphatase viability assays for high-throughput screening of tumour spheroids and stem cell neurospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyan P Ivanov

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money.

  1. Multiplexing Spheroid Volume, Resazurin and Acid Phosphatase Viability Assays for High-Throughput Screening of Tumour Spheroids and Stem Cell Neurospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Delyan P.; Parker, Terry L.; Walker, David A.; Alexander, Cameron; Ashford, Marianne B.; Gellert, Paul R.; Garnett, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity) were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money. PMID:25119185

  2. Screening survey of deoxynivalenol in beer from the European market by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou-Bouraoui, A; Vrabcheva, T; Valzacchi, S; Stroka, J; Anklam, E

    2004-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) was analysed in 313 beer samples collected from the European retail market using a commercially available immunoassay kit (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA). The incidence rate was about 87%, while most samples (73%) had contamination levels lower than 20 ng m(-1). The contamination ranged between 4.0 and 56.7 ng ml(-1), with an average of 13.5 ng ml(-1). A statistically significant correlation between alcohol levels and DON contamination was found, as well as a significant difference between bottom, top and spontaneous fermenting beers. Twenty-seven beer samples were compared using a second ELISA kit and a good correlation was obtained between the two kits (r = 0.93). Although when compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry the ELISA tended to overestimate the results, a good correlation (r=0.94) between the two methods was observed. Monitoring of DON in beer is important considering that DON production is dependent on the weather and that it can contribute significantly to the tolerable daily intake of DON, especially for frequent beer consumers.

  3. Tools for mass screening of G6PD deficiency: validation of the WST8/1-methoxy-PMS enzymatic assay in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of the enzymopathy glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is linked to areas of high malaria endemicity due to its association with protection from disease. G6PD deficiency is also identified as the cause of severe haemolysis following administration of the anti-malarial drug primaquine and further use of this drug will likely require identification of G6PD deficiency on a population level. Current conventional methods for G6PD screening have various disadvantages for field use. Methods The WST8/1-methoxy PMS method, recently adapted for field use, was validated using a gold standard enzymatic assay (R&D Diagnostics Ltd ®) in a study involving 235 children under five years of age, who were recruited by random selection from a cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. Blood spots were collected by finger-prick onto filter paper at routine visits, and G6PD activity was determined by both tests. Performance of the WST8/1-methoxy PMS test under various temperature, light, and storage conditions was evaluated. Results The WST8/1-methoxy PMS assay was found to have 72% sensitivity and 98% specificity when compared to the commercial enzymatic assay and the AUC was 0.904, suggesting good agreement. Misclassifications were at borderline values of G6PD activity between mild and normal levels, or related to outlier haemoglobin values (14 gHb/dl) associated with ongoing anaemia or recent haemolytic crises. Although severe G6PD deficiency was not found in the area, the test enabled identification of low G6PD activity. The assay was found to be highly robust for field use; showing less light sensitivity, good performance over a wide temperature range, and good capacity for medium-to-long term storage. Conclusions The WST8/1-methoxy PMS assay was comparable to the currently used standard enzymatic test, and offers advantages in terms of cost, storage, portability and use in resource-limited settings. Such features make this test a potential key

  4. The E-screen test and the MELN gene-reporter assay used for determination of estrogenic activity in fruits and vegetables in relation to pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Porfido, Arianna; Longo, Annalisa; Coluccia, Sara; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may lead to adverse systemic effects by interfering with normal hormone homeostasis, and diet is considered to be among the main routes of EDC exposure. The present study investigated the total estrogenic activity of fruits and vegetables by calculating the 17-β-estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ) using two in vitro tests: the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay (E-screen test) and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay. Of the 24 analyzed fruits and vegetables, 14 contained from 1 to 4 pesticide residues in concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 1.19 ppm, whereas the other 10 did not contain any pesticide residues. The EEQ values for all positive samples ranged from 0.010 to 0.616 μg/100g for the above in vitro tests. Our study demonstrates that estrogenic activity was present in fruits and vegetables and that the concentration of allowable pesticide residues and EEQ values were positively correlated; however, no correlation was found by comparing the estrogenic activity and the intrinsic content of phytoestrogens obtained from the available literature. A theoretical adult dietary intake of 0.7-0.9 ng EEQ/L/day from fruits and vegetables was calculated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimisation of a 96-well electroporation assay for postnatal rat CNS neurons suitable for cost-effective medium-throughput screening of genes that promote neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHutson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an injury, central nervous system (CNS neurons show a very limited regenerative response which results in their failure to successfully form functional connections with their original target. This is due in part to the reduced intrinsic growth state of CNS neurons, which is characterised by their failure to express key regeneration-associated genes (RAGs and by the presence of growth inhibitory molecules in CNS environment that form a molecular and physical barrier to regeneration. Here we have optimised a 96-well electroporation and neurite outgrowth assay for postnatal rat cerebellar granule neurons cultured upon an inhibitory cellular substrate expressing myelin-associated glycoprotein or a mixture of growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. Optimal electroporation parameters resulted in 25% transfection efficiency and 50% viability for postnatal rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs. The neurite outgrowth of transduced neurons was quantitatively measured using a semi-automated image capture and analysis system. The neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced by the inhibitory substrates which we demonstrated could be partially reversed using a Rho Kinase inhibitor. We are now using this assay to screen large sets of RAGs for their ability to increase neurite outgrowth on a variety of growth inhibitory and permissive substrates.

  6. Development of a simple, low cost chronoamperometric assay for fructose based on a commercial graphite-nanoparticle modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Phil; Pittson, Robin; Hart, John P

    2018-02-15

    This paper describes the development of a simple, low cost chronoamperometric assay, for the measurement of fructose, using a graphite-nanoparticle modified screen-printed electrode (SPCE-G-COOH). Cyclic voltammetry showed that the response of the SPCE-G-COOH enhanced the sensitivity and precision, towards the enzymatically generated ferrocyanide species, over a plain SPCE; therefore the former was employed in subsequent studies. Calibration studies were carried out using chronoamperometry with a 40µl mixture containing fructose, mediator and FDH, deposited onto the SPCE-G-COOH. The response was linear from 0.1mM to 1.0mM. A commercial fruit juice sample was analysed using the developed assay and the fructose concentration was calculated to be 477mM with a precision of 3.03% (n=5). Following fortification (477mM fructose) the mean recovery was found to be 97.12% with a coefficient of variation of 6.42% (n=5); consequently, the method holds promise for the analysis of commercial fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Surface Plasmon Resonance and Biolayer Interferometry for Screening of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat and Wheat Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Sanders

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A sample preparation method was developed for the screening of deoxynivalenol (DON in wheat and wheat dust. Extraction was carried out with water and was successful due to the polar character of DON. For detection, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was compared to the sensor-based techniques of surface plasmon resonance (SPR and biolayer interferometry (BLI in terms of sensitivity, affinity and matrix effect. The matrix effects from wheat and wheat dust using SPR were too high to further use this screenings method. The preferred ELISA and BLI methods were validated according to the criteria established in Commission Regulation 519/2014/EC and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. A small survey was executed on 16 wheat lots and their corresponding dust samples using the validated ELISA method. A linear correlation (r = 0.889 was found for the DON concentration in dust versus the DON concentration in wheat (LOD wheat: 233 μg/kg, LOD wheat dust: 458 μg/kg.

  8. In-house validation and quality control of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbnet assays for screening of nitrofuran metabolites in food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrieska-Stojkovic Elizabeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of nitrofuran antimicrobials at food production animals was prohibited by Commission Regulation 2003/181/EC because of their potential carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humans. Main protein-bound metabolites of nitofurans are 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidone (AMOZ, 1-aminohydantoin (AHD, semicarbazide (SEM and 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ. Since then numerous costly liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS methods have been developed for screening and confirmation of nitrofuran metabolites in line with the EU requirements for performing official controls. As an inexpensive and less time consuming alternative, enzyme-immunoassay methods were developed for screening of the respective compounds. In this study validation and evaluation of four commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has been performed. According to the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, different performance characteristics (specificity, detection capability, precision for various matrices (liver, eggs, honey have been determined for each kit. The validation study has confirmed that the methods studied possess suitable characteristics: detectionlimits between 0.126 and 0.240 μg/kg, detection capabilities ≤1.0 μg/kg and the inter-day precision in the range from 16.20% to 22.11 %. The validation study was finalized by participation in FAPAS Proficiency testing scheme in 2011, and the obtained results have confirmed the capability of applied methods for unambiguous discrimination between negative and positive sample.

  9. Application of an in vitro drug screening assay based on the release of phosphoglucose isomerase to determine the structure-activity relationship of thiazolides against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Scholl, Sabrina; Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    The disease alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, is fatal if treatment is unsuccessful. Current treatment options are, at best, parasitostatic, and involve taking benzimidazoles (albendazole, mebendazole) for the whole of a patient's life. In conjunction with the recent development of optimized procedures for E. multilocularis metacestode cultivation, we aimed to develop a rapid and reliable drug screening test, which enables efficient screening of a large number of compounds in a relatively short time frame. Metacestodes were treated in vitro with albendazole, the nitro-thiazole nitazoxanide and 29 nitazoxanide derivatives. The resulting leakage of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) activity into the medium supernatant was measured and provided an indication of compound efficacy. We show that upon in vitro culture of E. multilocularis metacestodes in the presence of active drugs such as albendazole, the nitro-thiazole nitazoxanide and 30 different nitazoxanide derivatives, the activity of PGI in culture supernatants increased. The increase in PGI activity correlated with the progressive degeneration and destruction of metacestode tissue in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, which allowed us to perform a structure-activity relationship analysis on the thiazolide compounds used in this study. The assay presented here is inexpensive, rapid, can be used in 24- and 96-well formats and will serve as an ideal tool for first-round in vitro tests on the efficacy of large numbers of antiparasitic compounds.

  10. Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Jin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Acer tegmentosum (3 kg was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EA, butyl alcohol (n-BuOH, and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24 g, five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1, avicularin (2, (+-catechin (3, (−-epicatechin (4, and 6′-O-galloyl salidroside (5. Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum.

  11. A Biosensor-Based Leaf Punch Assay for Glutamine Correlates to Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Measurements in Legumes to Permit Rapid Screening of Rhizobia Inoculants under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda S. Thilakarathna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are protein sources for billions of humans and livestock. These traits are enabled by symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF, whereby root nodule-inhabiting rhizobia bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen (N into usable N. Unfortunately, SNF rates in legume crops suffer from undiagnosed incompatible/suboptimal interactions between crop varieties and rhizobia strains. There are opportunities to test much large numbers of rhizobia strains if cost/labor-effective diagnostic tests become available which may especially benefit researchers in developing countries. Inside root nodules, fixed N from rhizobia is assimilated into amino acids including glutamine (Gln for export to shoots as the major fraction (amide-exporting legumes or as the minor fraction (ureide-exporting legumes. Here, we have developed a new leaf punch based technique to screen rhizobia inoculants for SNF activity following inoculation of both amide exporting and ureide exporting legumes. The assay is based on measuring Gln output using the GlnLux biosensor, which consists of Escherichia coli cells auxotrophic for Gln and expressing a constitutive lux operon. Subsistence farmer varieties of an amide exporter (lentil and two ureide exporters (cowpea and soybean were inoculated with different strains of rhizobia under controlled conditions, then extracts of single leaf punches were incubated with GlnLux cells, and light-output was measured using a 96-well luminometer. In the absence of external N and under controlled conditions, the results from the leaf punch assay correlated with 15N-based measurements, shoot N percentage, and shoot total fixed N in all three crops. The technology is rapid, inexpensive, high-throughput, requires minimum technical expertise and very little tissue, and hence is relatively non-destructive. We compared and contrasted the benefits and limitations of this novel diagnostic assay to methods.

  12. High-resolution melting PCR assay, applicable for diagnostics and screening studies, allowing detection and differentiation of several Babesia spp. infecting humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Masny, Aleksander; Golab, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the study was to design a single tube PCR test for detection and differentiation of Babesia species in DNA samples obtained from diverse biological materials. A multiplex, single tube PCR test was designed for amplification of approximately 400 bp region of the Babesia 18S rRNA gene. Universal primers were designed to match DNA of multiple Babesia spp. and to have low levels of similarity to DNA sequences of other intracellular protozoa and Babesia hosts. The PCR products amplified from Babesia DNA isolated from human, dog, rodent, deer, and tick samples were subjected to high-resolution melting analysis for Babesia species identification. The designed test allowed detection and differentiation of four Babesia species, three zoonotic (B. microti, B. divergens, B. venatorum) and one that is generally not considered zoonotic-Babesia canis. Both detection and identification of all four species were possible based on the HRM curves of the PCR products in samples obtained from the following: humans, dogs, rodents, and ticks. No cross-reactivity with DNA of Babesia hosts or Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii was observed. The lack of cross-reactivity with P. falciparum DNA might allow using the assay in endemic malaria areas. The designed assay is the first PCR-based test for detection and differentiation of several Babesia spp. of medical and veterinary importance, in a single tube reaction. The results of the study show that the designed assay for Babesia detection and identification could be a practical and inexpensive tool for diagnostics and screening studies of diverse biological materials.

  13. Identification of fragile X pre-mutation carriers in the Chinese obstetric population using a robust FMR1 polymerase chain reaction assay: implications for screening and prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y Ky; Lin, C Sw; Kwok, Y Ky; Chan, Y M; Lau, T K; Leung, T Y; Choy, K W

    2017-04-01

    There is significant morbidity associated with fragile X syndrome. Unfortunately, most maternal carriers are clinically silent during their reproductive years. Because of this, many experts have put forward the notion of preconception or prenatal fragile X carrier screening for females. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome pre-mutation and asymptomatic full-mutation carriers in a Chinese pregnant population, and the distribution of cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeat numbers using a robust fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) polymerase chain reaction assay. This was a cross-sectional survey in prospectively recruited pregnant women from a university hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese pregnant women without a family history of fragile X syndrome were recruited between April 2013 and May 2015. A specific FMR1 polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on peripheral blood to determine the CGG repeat number of the FMR1 gene. Prenatal counselling was offered to full-mutation and pre-mutation carriers. In 2650 Chinese pregnant women, two individuals with pre-mutation alleles (0.08%, one in 1325) and one asymptomatic woman with full-mutation (0.04%, one in 2650) alleles were identified. The overall prevalence of pre-mutation and full-mutation alleles was 0.11% (1 in 883). Furthermore, 30 (1.1%) individuals with intermediate alleles were detected. In the 2617 women with normal CGG repeats, the most common CGG repeat allele was 30. The overall prevalence of pre-mutation and asymptomatic full-mutation carriers in the Chinese pregnant population was one in 883, detected by a new FMR1 polymerase chain reaction assay.

  14. Total antioxidant potential of juices, beverages and hot drinks consumed in Egypt screened by DPPH in vitro assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan-Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant foods contain different classes and types of antioxidants and knowledge of their total antioxidant potential (TAP, which is the cumulative capacity of food components to scavenge free radicals, would be useful for epidemiological purposes.To accomplish this, a variety of fruit juices, hot drinks and beverages commonly consumed in Egypt were analyzed using in vitro DPPH assay. The order of effectiveness of fruit juices in inhibiting free radicals was as follows: red grapes juice > mango juice > guava juice > cocktail juice > pineapple juice > orange juice > cherry juice > apple juice. Among beverages and hot drinks, teas followed by coffees had the greatest TAP. These data confirm grape juice, teas and coffees as good dietary sources of antioxidants.Las plantas comestibles contienen diferentes clases y tipos de antioxidantes y el conocimiento de su potencial antioxidante total (TAP, que es la capacidad acumulativa de los componentes de los alimentos para captar radicales libres, debería ser útil en estudios epidemiológicos. De acuerdo a esto, una variedad de zumos de fruta, bebidas calientes y bebidas consumidas habitualmente en Egipto fueron analizadas usando un ensayo in vitro con DPPH. El orden de efectividad de los zumos de frutas en inhibir los radicales libres fue el siguiente: zumo de uva tinta > zumo de mango > zumo de guayaba > zumo de macedonia de frutas > zumo de piña >zumo de naranja > zumo de cereza > zumo de manzana. Entre las bebidas y bebidas calientes, el té seguido por el café son los que tuvieron mayores TAPs. Estos datos confirman que el zumo de uva, el té y el café son buenas fuentes de antioxidantes.

  15. Evaluation of the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma release assay for TB screening in French healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Benedicte; Nael, Virginie; Audrain, Marie; Chailleux, Edmond; Germaud, Patrick; Naudin, Frederique; Muller, Jean-Yves; Bourrut-Lacouture, Martine; Durand-Perdriel, Marie-Henriette; Gordeeff, Claire; Guillaumin, Guyonne; Houdebine, Marietherese; Raffi, Francois; Boutoille, David; Biron, Charlotte; Potel, Gilles; Roedlich, Claude; Geraut, Christian; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert

    2009-11-30

    Using French cut-offs for the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), results of the TST were compared with the results of an Interferon-gamma Release Assay (IGRA) in Healthcare Workers (HCW) after contact to AFB-positive TB patients. Between May 2006 and May 2007, a total of 148 HCWs of the University Hospital in Nantes, France were tested simultaneously with IGRA und TST. A TST was considered to indicate recent latent TB infection (LTBI) if an increase of >10 mm or if TST >/= 15 mm for those with no previous TST result was observed. For those with a positive TST, chest X-ray was performed and preventive chemotherapy was offered. All HCWs were BCG-vaccinated. The IGRA was positive in 18.9% and TST >/= 10 mm was observed in 65.5%. A recent LTBI was believed to be highly probable in 30.4% following TST. Agreement between IGRA and TST was low (kappa 0.041). In 10 (16.7%) out of 60 HCWs who needed chest X-ray following TST the IGRA was positive. In 9 (20%) out of 45 HCWs to whom preventive chemotherapy was offered following TST the IGRA was positive. Of those considered TST-negative following the French guidelines, 20.5% were IGRA-positive. In a two-step strategy - positive TST verified by IGRA - 18 out of 28 (64.3%) IGRA-positive HCWs would not have been detected using French guidelines for TST interpretation. The introduction of IGRA in contact tracings of BCG-vaccinated HCWs reduces X-rays and preventive chemotherapies. Increasing the cut-off for a positive TST does not seem to be helpful to overcome the effect of BCG vaccination on TST.

  16. Evaluation of the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-γ release assay for TB screening in French healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Francois

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Using French cut-offs for the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST, results of the TST were compared with the results of an Interferon-γ Release Assay (IGRA in Healthcare Workers (HCW after contact to AFB-positive TB patients. Methods Between May 2006 and May 2007, a total of 148 HCWs of the University Hospital in Nantes, France were tested simultaneously with IGRA und TST. A TST was considered to indicate recent latent TB infection (LTBI if an increase of >10 mm or if TST ≥ 15 mm for those with no previous TST result was observed. For those with a positive TST, chest X-ray was performed and preventive chemotherapy was offered. Results All HCWs were BCG-vaccinated. The IGRA was positive in 18.9% and TST ≥ 10 mm was observed in 65.5%. A recent LTBI was believed to be highly probable in 30.4% following TST. Agreement between IGRA and TST was low (kappa 0.041. In 10 (16.7% out of 60 HCWs who needed chest X-ray following TST the IGRA was positive. In 9 (20% out of 45 HCWs to whom preventive chemotherapy was offered following TST the IGRA was positive. Of those considered TST-negative following the French guidelines, 20.5% were IGRA-positive. In a two-step strategy - positive TST verified by IGRA - 18 out of 28 (64.3% IGRA-positive HCWs would not have been detected using French guidelines for TST interpretation. Conclusion The introduction of IGRA in contact tracings of BCG-vaccinated HCWs reduces X-rays and preventive chemotherapies. Increasing the cut-off for a positive TST does not seem to be helpful to overcome the effect of BCG vaccination on TST.

  17. Identification of KX2-391 as an inhibitor of HBV transcription by a recombinant HBV-based screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Keisuke; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Ujino, Saneyuki; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2017-08-01

    Antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that are currently applicable for clinical use are limited to nucleos(t)ide analogs targeting HBV polymerase activity and pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN). Towards establishing an effective therapy for HBV related diseases, it is important to develop a new anti-HBV agent that suppresses and eradicates HBV. This study used recombinant HBV encoding NanoLuc to screen anti-HBV compounds from 1827 US Food and Drug Administration approved compounds and identified several compounds that suppressed HBV infection. Among them, KX2-391, a non-ATP-competitive inhibitor of SRC kinase and tubulin polymerization, was identified as a lead candidate for an anti-HBV drug. Treatment of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) transduced-HepG2 (HepG2-NTCP) or primary human hepatocytes with KX2-391 suppressed HBV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-HBV activity of KX2-391 appeared not to depend on SRC kinase activity because siRNA for SRC mRNA did not impair the HBV infection/replication. The anti-HBV activity of KX2-391 depended on the inhibitory effect of tubulin polymerization similar to other tubulin polymerization inhibitors, some of which were shown to inhibit HBV replication. KX2-391 inhibited HBV transcription driven by a HBV precore promoter in an HBV X protein-independent manner but did not inhibit the activity of HBV-S1, -S2, -X or cytomegalovirus promoters. Treatment with KX2-391 reduced the expression of several various factors including hepatocyte nuclear factor-4a. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m(-1) under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  19. Colony to colorimetry in 6 h: ELISA detection of a surface-expressed Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor using immobilized bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawi, Azmi; Neville, Lewis F

    2012-09-01

    A rapid ELISA employing intact Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is described that allows discrimination between strains harboring flagellin type a or b. All 52 PA strains known to harbor flagellin type b were positive in this ELISA when screened with a fully human monoclonal antibody (LST-007) targeting flagellin type b. Completion of this assay in only 6 h, from picking a single bacterial colony to a colorimetric product, could easily be adapted to a clinical laboratory setting and permit the appropriate choice of therapeutic monoclonal antibody versus its homologous flagellin target in PA-infected patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sound waves effectively assist tobramycin in elimination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, H M H N; Harb, A; Kolacny, D; Martins, P; Smyth, H D C

    2014-12-01

    Microbial biofilms are highly refractory to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of low-frequency vibration therapy (20-20 kHz) on antibiotic-mediated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm eradication. In screening studies, low-frequency vibrations were applied on model biofilm compositions to identify conditions in which surface standing waves were observed. Alginate surface tension and viscosity were also measured. The effect of vibration on P. aeruginosa biofilms was studied using a standard biofilm assay. Subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of tobramycin (5 μg/ml) were added to biofilms 3 h prior, during, and immediately after vibration and quantitatively assessed by (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reduction assay (XTT) and, qualitatively, by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The standing waves occurred at frequencies sound waves together with antibiotics are a promising approach in eliminating pathogenic biofilms.

  1. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuya Yamashita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV. We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95% and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%. Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 1 and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 2, which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs.

  2. Simultaneous determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in dried blood spots: Second-tier LC-MS/MS assay for newborn screening of propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Monostori

    Full Text Available Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL. This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS as in primary screening (second-tier test. We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL.The assay was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients.Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid.A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot project for extension of the German newborn

  3. Simultaneous determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in dried blood spots: Second-tier LC-MS/MS assay for newborn screening of propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monostori, Péter; Klinke, Glynis; Richter, Sylvia; Baráth, Ákos; Fingerhut, Ralph; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Kölker, Stefan; Hoffmann, Georg F; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Okun, Jürgen G

    2017-01-01

    Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL). This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS) as in primary screening (second-tier test). We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL. The assay was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients. Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min) sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test) which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot project for extension of the German newborn screening

  4. Optimisation and validation of a high throughput screening compatible assay to identify inhibitors of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase pump--a novel therapeutic target for contraception and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tamer M A; Zakeri, Simon A; Baudoin, Florence; Wolf, Markus; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Gul, Sheraz; Neyses, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    ATPases, which constitute a major category of ion transporters in the human body, have a variety of significant biological and pathological roles. However, the lack of high throughput assays for ATPases has significantly limited drug discovery in this area. We have recently found that the genetic deletion of the ATP dependent calcium pump PMCA4 (plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin dependent ATPase, isoform 4) results in infertility in male mice due to a selective defect in sperm motility. In addition, recent discoveries in humans have indicated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PMCA4 gene determines the susceptibility towards malaria plasmodium infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop specific PMCA4 inhibitors. In the current study, we aim to optimise and validate a high throughput screening compatible assay using recombinantly expressed PMCA4 and the HTRF® Transcreener® ADP (TR-FRET) assay to screen a drug library. PMCA4 membrane microsomes were prepared from HEK293 cells overexpressing PMCA4. Western blot quantification revealed nearly nine-fold increased expression of PMCA4 compared to LacZ (control virus)-infected cells. Maximal PMCA4 microsomal activity was achieved in the TR-FRET assay with 15ng/μl microsomal concentration, 30-minute pre-incubation with compounds at 37°C, and calcium buffering with 1mM EGTA providing 1μM free-calcium. Finally a dose-response curve for carboxyeosin (a non-specific PMCA inhibitor) under optimised conditions showed significant PMCA4 inhibition. Upon confirmation that the assay was suitable for high-throughput screening, we have screened the ChemBioNet small molecule library (~21,000 compounds) against the PMCA4 assay to identify those that are its apparent inhibitors. This screening yielded 1,494 primary hits. We have optimised the HTRF® Transcreener® ADP assay for high-throughput screening to identify PMCA4 inhibitors. The output of the screening campaign has provided preliminary chemical

  5. Monocyte Profiles in Critically Ill Patients With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Pseudomonas Infections; Pseudomonas Septicemia; Pseudomonas; Pneumonia; Pseudomonal Bacteraemia; Pseudomonas Urinary Tract Infection; Pseudomonas Gastrointestinal Tract Infection; Sepsis; Sepsis, Severe; Critically Ill

  6. An in vitro AChE inhibition assay combined with UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS approach for screening and characterizing of AChE inhibitors from roots of Coptis chinensis Franch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hengqiang; Zhou, Siduo; Zhang, Minmin; Feng, Jinhong; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Daijie; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-20

    In this study, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay based on microplate reader combined with ultrafiltration high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass (UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) was developed for the rapid screening and identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) from roots of Coptis chinensis Franch. Incubation conditions such as enzyme concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature and co-solvent was optimized so as to get better screening results. Five alkaloids including columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, palmatine and berberine were found with AChE inhibition activity in the 80% ethanol extract of C. chinensis Franch. The screened compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF/MS compared with the reference stands and literatures. The screened results were verified by in vitro AChE inhibition assays, palmatine showed the best AChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 36.6μM among the five compounds. Results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using in vitro AChE inhibition assay and UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of AChEI from complex TCM extract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacological profile of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) splice variant translation using a novel drug screening assay: a "quantitative code".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghi, Valentina; Polacchini, Alessio; Baj, Gabriele; Pinheiro, Vera L M; Vicario, Annalisa; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2014-10-03

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity. BDNF is a major pharmaceutical target in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological modulation of this neurotrophin is challenging because BDNF is generated by multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts with different 5'- and 3'UTRs. Each BDNF mRNA variant is transcribed independently, but translation regulation is unknown. To evaluate the translatability of BDNF transcripts, we developed an in vitro luciferase assay in human neuroblastoma cells. In unstimulated cells, each BDNF 5'- and 3'UTR determined a different basal translation level of the luciferase reporter gene. However, constructs with either a 5'UTR or a 3'UTR alone showed poor translation modulation by BDNF, KCl, dihydroxyphenylglycine, AMPA, NMDA, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. Constructs consisting of the luciferase reporter gene flanked by the 5'UTR of one of the most abundant BDNF transcripts in the brain (exons 1, 2c, 4, and 6) and the long 3'UTR responded selectively to stimulation with the different receptor agonists, and only transcripts 2c and 6 were increased by the antidepressants desipramine and mirtazapine. We propose that BDNF mRNA variants represent "a quantitative code" for regulated expression of the protein. Thus, to discriminate the efficacy of drugs in stimulating BDNF synthesis, it is appropriate to use variant-specific in vitro screening tests. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Gastric cancer screening by combined assay for serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody and serum pepsinogen levels — “ABC method”

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKI, Kazumasa

    2011-01-01

    The current status of screening for gastric cancer-risk (gastritis A, B, C, D) method using combined assay for serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) IgG antibody and serum pepsinogen (PG) levels, “ABC method”, was reviewed and the latest results of our ongoing trial are reported. It was performed using the following strategy: Subjects were classified into 1 of 4 risk groups based on the results of the two serologic tests, anti-Hp IgG antibody titers and the PG I and II levels: Group A [Hp(−)PG(−)], infection-free subjects; Group B [Hp(+)PG(−)], chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) free or mild; Group C [Hp(+)PG(+)], CAG; Group D [Hp(−)PG(+)]), severe CAG with extensive intestinal metaplasia. Continuous endoscopic follow-up examinations are required to detect early stages of gastric cancer. Asymptomatic Group A, which accounts for 50–80% of all the subjects may be excluded from the secondary endoscopic examination, from the viewpoint of efficiency. Hp-infected subjects should be administered eradication treatment aimed at the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:21785258

  9. Inhibition of Cell Differentiation in Bacillus subtilis by Pseudomonas protegens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew J.; Sanabria-Valentín, Edgardo; Bowers, Albert A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interspecies interactions have been described for numerous bacterial systems, leading to the identification of chemical compounds that impact bacterial physiology and differentiation for processes such as biofilm formation. Here, we identified soil microbes that inhibit biofilm formation and sporulation in the common soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We did so by creating a reporter strain that fluoresces when the transcription of a biofilm-specific gene is repressed. Using this reporter in a coculture screen, we identified Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas protegens as bacteria that secrete compounds that inhibit biofilm gene expression in B. subtilis. The active compound produced by P. protegens was identified as the antibiotic and antifungal molecule 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). Colonies of B. subtilis grown adjacent to a DAPG-producing P. protegens strain had altered colony morphologies relative to B. subtilis colonies grown next to a DAPG-null P. protegens strain (phlD strain). Using a subinhibitory concentration of purified DAPG in a pellicle assay, we saw that biofilm-specific gene transcription was delayed relative to transcription in untreated samples. These transcriptional changes also corresponded to phenotypic alterations: both biofilm biomass and spore formation were reduced in B. subtilis liquid cultures treated with subinhibitory concentrations of DAPG. Our results add DAPG to the growing list of antibiotics that impact bacterial development and physiology at subinhibitory concentrations. These findings also demonstrate the utility of using coculture as a means to uncover chemically mediated interspecies interactions between bacteria. IMPORTANCE Biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to surfaces by an extracellular matrix; such biofilms can have important effects in both clinical and agricultural settings. To identify chemical compounds that inhibited biofilm formation, we used a fluorescent reporter to screen for bacteria that

  10. Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

  11. How Frequently Are Pan-Assay Interference Compounds Active? Large-Scale Analysis of Screening Data Reveals Diverse Activity Profiles, Low Global Hit Frequency, and Many Consistently Inactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-05-11

    Undetected pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) with false-positive activities in assays often propagate through medicinal chemistry programs and compromise their outcomes. Although a large number of PAINS have been classified, often on the basis of individual studies or chemical experience, little has been done so far to systematically assess their activity profiles. Herein we report a large-scale analysis of the behavior of PAINS in biological screening assays. More than 23 000 extensively tested compounds containing PAINS substructures were detected, and their hit rates were determined. Many consistently inactive compounds were identified. The hit frequency was low overall, with median values of two to five hits for PAINS tested in hundreds of assays. Only confined subsets of PAINS produced abundant hits. The same PAINS substructure was often found in consistently inactive and frequently active compounds, indicating that the structural context in which PAINS occur modulates their effects.

  12. Pseudomonas Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise

    Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions...... in biofilm formation, however, detailed studies of these roles have not yet been carried out. The overall aim of this PhD project was therefore to elucidate in more depth the roles played by Pseudomonas lipopetides in pollutant biodegradation and biofilm formation. This study investigated the effect...... of the Pseudomonas lipopeptides belonging to different structural groups on important biodegradation parameters, mainly; solubilization and emulsification of hydrophobic pollutants (alkanes and PAHs) and increase of cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial degraders. Ultimately, it was tested if these parameters led...

  13. High-throughput screening for novel anti-infectives using a C. elegans pathogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, Annie L; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Ausubel, Frederick M; Kirienko, Natalia V

    2014-03-14

    In recent history, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided a compelling platform for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. In this protocol, we present an automated, high-throughput C. elegans pathogenesis assay, which can be used to screen for anti-infective compounds that prevent nematodes from dying due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. New antibiotics identified from such screens would be promising candidates for treatment of human infections, and also can be used as probe compounds to identify novel targets in microbial pathogenesis or host immunity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Use of rapid HIV assays as supplemental tests in specimens with repeatedly reactive screening immunoassay results not confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Delaney, Kevin P; Meyer, William A; Blatt, Amy J; Bennett, Berry; Chavez, Pollyanna; Granade, Timothy C; Owen, Michele

    2013-09-01

    An alternate HIV testing algorithm has been proposed which includes a fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation supplemental test for reactive specimens and a nucleic acid test (NAT) for specimens with discordant results. To evaluate the performance of five rapid tests (Alere Clearview, Bio-Rad Multispot, OraSure OraQuick, MedMira Reveal, and Trinity Biotech Unigold) as the supplemental antibody assay in the algorithm. A total of 3273 serum and plasma specimens that were third-generation immunoassay repeatedly reactive and Western blot (WB) negative or indeterminate were tested with rapid tests and NAT. Specimens were classified by NAT: (1) HIV-1 infected (NAT-reactive; n=184, 5.6%), (2) HIV-status unknown (NAT nonreactive; n=3078, 94.2%) or by Multispot, (3) HIV-2 positive (n=5), and (4) HIV-1 and HIV-2 positive (n=6). Excluding HIV-2 positive specimens, we calculated the proportion of reactive rapid tests among specimens with reactive and nonreactive NAT. The proportion of infected specimens with reactive rapid test results and negative or indeterminate WB ranged from 30.4% (56) to 47.8% (88) depending on the rapid test. From 1% to 2% of NAT-negative specimens had reactive rapid test results. In these diagnostically challenging specimens, all rapid tests identified infections that were missed by the Western blot, but only Multispot could differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2. Regardless of which rapid test is used as a supplemental test in the alternative algorithm, false-positive algorithm results (i.e., reactive screening and rapid test in uninfected person) may occur, which will need to be resolved during the baseline medical evaluation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Antibacterial properties of Chinese herbal medicines against nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Shen; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active partition fractions ranged from 0.25 to 11.0 mg/L. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography. The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin. In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.

  16. Evaluation of a new fourth generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus, with a combined HIV p24 antigen and anti-HIV-1/2/O screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Joon-Sup; Jun, Gyo; Chang, Young; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Yoo, Seungbum; Kim, Eunkyung; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Kang, Hee-Jung; Kim, Young-A; Ahn, Sun-Young; Cha, Je-Eun; Youn, Sung-Tae; Park, Jae-Won

    2006-11-01

    The LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus, a new fourth generation diagnostic assay for HIV infection, was evaluated in comparison to the Enzygnost HIV Integral, an established fourth generation HIV assay. The LG assay showed 100% sensitivity with 109 samples with anti-HIV-1, anti-HIV-2 or anti-HIV-1 group O reactivity. It also detected correctly all 51 positives on three BBI performance panels, slightly outperforming the Enzygnost HIV Integral, which detected 50. The specificity of the LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus was 99.9% with 999 sera from healthy blood donors, which was slightly inferior to the performance of the Enzygnost HIV Integral, which had 100% specificity. The LG assay showed 100% specificity with 81 specimens with underlying diseases including hepatitis B, demonstrating a low risk of cross-reactivity with other infections. The reduction of the diagnostic window by the LG HIV Ag-Ab Plus, compared to a third generation HIV assay, was 6.3 days. The LG assay also showed sufficiently high intra-person and inter-person reproducibility. The overall performance of this new fourth generation HIV assay was adequate for screening and diagnosis of HIV infection.

  17. Complement activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E T; Kharazmi, A; Garred, P

    1993-01-01

    In chronic infections, such as the bronchopulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, bacteria persist despite an intact host immune defense and frequent antibiotic treatment. An important reason for the persistence of the bacteria is their capacity for the biofilm...... mode of growth. In this study we investigated the role of biofilms in activation of complement, a major contributor to the inflammatory process. Complement activation by P. aeruginosa was examined in a complement consumption assay, production of C3 and factor B conversion products assessed by crossed...... immuno-electrophoresis, C5a generation tested by a PMN chemotactic assay, and terminal complement complex formation measured by ELISA. Two of the four assays showed that P. aeruginosa grown in biofilm activated complement less than planktonic bacteria, and all assays showed that activation by intact...

  18. Effect of osmotic stress on plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, V; Ali, Sk Z; Venkateswarlu, B; Reddy, Gopal; Grover, Minakshi

    2010-10-01

    In this study we isolated and screened drought tolerant Pseudomonas isolates from arid and semi arid crop production systems of India. Five isolates could tolerate osmotic stress up to -0.73 MPa and possessed multiple PGP properties such as P-solubilization, production of phytohormones (IAA, GA and cytokinin), siderophores, ammonia and HCN however under osmotic stress expression of PGP traits was low compared to non-stressed conditions. The strains were identified as Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas monteilli respectively on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Osmotic stress affected growth pattern of all the isolates as indicated by increased mean generation time. An increase level of intracellular free amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars and exopolysaccharides was observed under osmotic stress suggesting bacterial response to applied stress. Further, strains GAP-P45 and GRFHYTP52 showing higher levels of EPS and osmolytes (amino acids and proline) accumulation under stress as compared to non-stress conditions, also exhibited higher expression of PGP traits under stress indicating a relationship between stress response and expression of PGP traits. We conclude that isolation and screening of indigenous, stress adaptable strains possessing PGP traits can be a method for selection of efficient stress tolerant PGPR strains.

  19. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies:

    OpenAIRE

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reactionbased assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older publ...

  20. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older

    OpenAIRE

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reactionbased assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older publ...

  1. Clinical performance of the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test to correctly differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection in screening algorithms using third and fourth generation assays and to identify cross reactivity with the HIV-1 Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eric M; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid serologic method to differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection is required since the confirmatory HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) may demonstrate cross-reactivity with HIV-2 antibodies. To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid assay as a supplemental test to correctly identify HIV-2 infection and identify HIV-1 WB cross-reactivity with HIV-2 in clinical samples tested at an academic medical center. Between August 2008 and July 2012, clinical samples were screened for HIV using either 3rd- or 4th-generation HIV-1/2 antibody or combination antibody and HIV-1 p24 antigen assays, respectively. All repeatedly reactive samples were reflexed for Multispot rapid testing. Multispot HIV-2 and HIV-1 and HIV-2-reactive samples were further tested using an HIV-2 immunoblot assay and HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA assays when possible. The HIV-1 WB was performed routinely for additional confirmation and to assess for HIV-2 antibody cross-reactivity. Of 46,061 samples screened, 890 (89.6%) of 993 repeatedly reactive samples were also Multispot-reactive: 882 for HIV-1; three for only HIV-2; and five for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. All three HIV-2-only Multispot-positives along with a single dually reactive HIV-1/2 Multispot-positive were also HIV-2 immunoblot-positive; the latter was HIV-1 RNA negative and HIV-2 RNA positive. The Multispot rapid test performed well as a supplemental test for HIV-1/2 diagnostic testing. Four new HIV-2 infections (0.45%) were identified from among 890 Multispot-reactive tests. The use of HIV-1 WB alone to confirm HIV-1/2 screening assays may underestimate the true prevalence of HIV-2 infection in the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas

  3. Development of a rapid PCR assay for screening of maternal colonization by group B streptococcus and neonatal invasive Escherichia coli during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Tejada, Begoña; Stan, Catalin M; Boulvain, Michel; Renzi, Gesuele; François, Patrice; Irion, Olivier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichiacoli(E. coli) are the leading causes of early-onset neonatal disease (EOD). Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis of GBS-colonized women decreases vertical transmission and EOD due to GBS. Nevertheless, no intervention has been developed to reduce the risk of EOD related to E. coli. Timely and accurate identification of colonized mothers is necessary to implement preventive strategies against neonatal sepsis. To screen for colonization during labor, we developed a real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of GBS and neonatal invasive strains of E. coli. Specific DNA targets for GBS are publicly available. For neonatal invasive E. coli, we analyzed candidate DNA targets by DNA hybridization on microarrays of invasive strains isolated from neonatal E. coli sepsis or meningitis (K1 and not K1 'invasive' serotypes). Specificity of DNA probes was tested against a panel of bacteria and by simulating clinical conditions (spiking vaginal samples from pregnant women). Then, the characteristics of the selected probes were evaluated in a pilot study including 200 women in labor. Prevalence of rectovaginal GBS and of vaginal and cervical E. coliserotype K1 colonization were 16.0, 3.5 and 3.5% by culture and 27, 10 and 8.5% by PCR, respectively. The prevalence of other invasive E. coli in the vagina and in the cervix, detected by PCR, was around 10%. Compared to the culture, considered as the gold standard, the sensitivities of the PCRs for the GBS and E. coli K1 were 97 and 71%, respectively. Specificities were 86 and 92%, respectively. Specificity is difficult to interpret, as a false-positive PCR result may in fact be a false-negative result of the culture. The turnaround time needed for PCR analysis was 2.5 h, compared to a minimum of 48 h for the culture. Our rapid PCR is reliable in detecting GBS in women in labor. Optimization of the PCR for invasive E. coli is needed before its implementation in clinical practice. More

  4. Rapid activity-directed screening of estrogens by parallel coupling of liquid chromatography with a functional gene reporter assay and mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, W.; Lamoree, M.H.; Houtman, C.J.; Hamers, T.; Somsen, G.W.; Kool, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we developed a new LC nanofractionation platform that combines a human cell (BG1.Luc) gene reporter assay with a high resolution mass spectrometer for the detection and identification of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic compounds in environmental waters. The selection of this assay was

  5. Development and validation of a high-content screening in vitro micronucleus assay in CHO-k1 and HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, W.M.; Schirris, T.J.J.; Horbach, G.J.; Schoonen, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study an automated image analysis assisted in vitro micronucleus assay was developed with the rodent cell line CHO-k1 and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which are both commonly used in regulatory genotoxicity assays. The HepG2 cell line was chosen because of the presence in these

  6. A Novel Antimicrobial Endolysin, LysPA26, againstPseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingquan; Feng, Chunyan; Ren, Jie; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Yongzhang; Dong, Ke; He, Ping; Guo, Xiaokui; Qin, Jinhong

    2017-01-01

    The global increase in multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has led to phage therapy being refocused upon. A novel endolysin, LysPA26, containing a lysozyme-like domain, was screened against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this study. It had activity against MDR P. aeruginosa without pretreatment with an outer-membrane permeabilizer. LysPA26 could kill up to 4 log units P. aeruginosa in 30 min. In addition, temperature and pH effect assays revealed that LysPA26 had good stability over a broad range of pH and temperatures. Moreover, LysPA26 could kill other Gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli , but not Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, LysPA26 could eliminate P. aeruginosa in biofilm formation. Our current results show that LysPA26 is a new and promising antimicrobial agent for the combat of Gram-negative pathogens.

  7. HIV-1整合酶链转移反应抑制剂的荧光筛选方法%A Fluorescent Screening Assay for HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Targeting Strand Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 刘昕; 李杉; 何红秋; 张小轶; 谭建军; 陈慰祖; 王存新

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase is an ideal target for anti-HIV-1 drug discovery. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly effective and more convenient screening assay for HIV-1 integrase inhibitors targeting strand transfer. First, the recombinant expression vector pNL-IN, which contains the HIV-1 integrase gene, was transformed into E. coli BL21 ( DE3 ) competent cells for prokaryotic expression. The recombinant integrase protein was purified by affinity chromatography. It was validated that the recombinant integrase protein was pure and active for screening assay development. Then, the biotin-labeled donor DNA and the FITC-labeled target DNA were synthesized and applied in the assay, and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads were used to capture the product DNA in the reaction system. Finally, the fluorescence signal was detected by a fluorescence microplate reader for the calculation of sample activity. Two reported integrase inhibitors, S-1360 and MK-0518 , were tested to validate the screening assay, and the results are in accordance with previous studies, which indicated that the screening assay could be used for the screening of integrase inhibitor targeting strand transfer. The screening assay for HIV-1 integrase inhibitors developed in the present study is more convenient, time-saving and cost-effective than previous screening assays.%整合酶被认为是抗HIV-1药物研究的理想靶点之一.为了建立便捷高效的整合酶链转移反应抑制剂筛选方法,首先将HIV-1整合酶原核表达载体pNL-IN转化入大肠杆菌感受态细胞BL21(DE3)进行原核表达,并用镍琼脂糖凝胶进行亲和纯化,获得了纯度和活性均较高的整合酶重组蛋白;然后设计了生物素标记的供体DNA和FITC标记的靶DNA,用链霉亲和素磁珠捕获反应体系中的DNA产物;最后用荧光分析仪检测DNA产物的荧光信号,并计算待测样品的抑制率.用已知整合酶抑制剂S-1360和MK-0518对筛选方法进行了验

  8. Double-monoclonal immunofluorometric assays for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A/proeosinophil major basic protein (PAPP-A/proMBP) complex in first-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Q P; Christiansen, M; Oxvig, C; Pettersson, K; Sottrup-Jensen, L; Koch, C; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B

    1997-12-01

    Four double-monoclonal time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TrIFMAs) have been developed for the specific determination of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A/proeosinophil major basic protein (PAPP-A/ proMBP) complex in first-trimester maternal serum samples. The assays have a functional sensitivity of working range from 4 to 1000 mIU/L. These 4 assays, together with a polyclonal sandwich TrIFMA, were compared for their ability to discriminate between normal pregnancies (n = 149) and pregnancies carrying a Down syndrome fetus (n = 36) in maternal serum screening samples from gestational weeks 4-13. In 26 Down syndrome pregnancies from gestational weeks 7-12, the median PAPP-A multiples of the median concentration in controls (MoMs) determined by monoclonal antibody combinations 234-3/234-2*, 234-4/234-2*, 234-4/234-5*, and 234-5/234-6* were 0.35, 0.37, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively, whereas the median MoM determined by the polyclonal assay was 0.56. ROC curve analysis also showed that better overall diagnostic accuracy and detection rates were achieved by the monoclonal TrIFMAs than by the polyclonal TrIFMA. This report is the first to describe assays that specifically measure PAPP-A/proMBP complex without possible interference from other proMBP-containing complexes.

  9. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Thongkum, Weeraya; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2015-01-01

    .... Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3[variant prime]P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase...

  10. Elastase Deficiency Phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Canine Otitis Externa Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Petermann, Shana R.; Doetkott, Curt; Rust, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates were assayed for elastase and total matrix protease activity. The elastase activity of canine ear isolates was much less than that of strain PAO1 and that of all other veterinary isolates (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that canine ear isolates have a distinct elastase phenotype.

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of a New Automated Fourth-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Assay with a Sensitive Antigen Detection Module and High Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Bernard; Gürtler, Lutz; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Michl, Ulrike; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Bürgisser, Philippe; Villaescusa, Roberto; Eiras, Adolfo; Gabriel, Christian; Stekel, Herbert; Tanprasert, Srivilai; Oota, Sinenaart; Silvestre, Maria-Jose; Marques, Cristina; Ladeira, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Fourth-generation assays for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen and antibody that were available on the international market until now have antigen detection modules with relatively poor sensitivity and produce a higher rate of false-positive results than third-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The new Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA with an improved sensitivity for HIV p24 antigen was compared to alternative fourth- and third-generation assays, the p24 ant...

  12. Performance and reliability of five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits in screening for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody in high-risk subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozanne, G; Fauvel, M

    1988-01-01

    Anti-human immunodeficiency virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits marketed by Electro-Nucleonics Inc. (ENI), Genetic Systems Corp. (GSC), Organon Teknika Inc. (OTI), Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc. (ODSI), and Wellcome Diagnostics (WD) were evaluated by using 289 randomly selected serum samples from a high-risk population and 53 serum samples likely to produce false-positive results. The radioimmunoprecipitation assay was used as the reference test. Sensitivities ranged from 96.51% (ODSI...

  13. Prevention of Post Transfusion Hepatitis Employing Sensitive Assay for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening(Topics in Transfusion Medicine 1990 : Autologous Transfusion and Post-Transfusion Hepatitis)

    OpenAIRE

    小島, 秀男; 大竹, 幸子; 富樫, 和枝; 石口, 重子; 山田, 恵子; 品田, 章二; Kojima, Hideo; Ohtake, Sachiko; Togashi, Kazue; Ishiguchi, Shigeko; Yamada, Keiko; Shinada, Shoji

    1990-01-01

    Post transfusion Hepatitis (PTH) is one of serious side effects and some times lead to fulminant hepatic failure in case transfused blood contain very low level (under the sensitivity of usual screening method) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Redcross blood center and blood transfusion devision of our hospital have been employed reverse passive hemmaglutination method (RPHA) for HBsAg screening. Authors employed EIA for sensitive HBsAg test system and compared with RPHA method. Of 2,255 sera from...

  14. extracts of senna siamea (lam) on pseudomonas aeruginosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2009-05-30

    May 30, 2009 ... convulsion in children (Alli – Smith, 2009). In an attempt to rationally identify which pathogen to screen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was epidemiologically identified as the hardiest bacterium that constitutes problems to researchers and clinicians. As literature showed, the hardy nature of Ps aeruginosa is ...

  15. Isolation, purification and properties of lipase from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six isolates (Ps1, Ps2, Ps3, Ps4, Ps5 and Ps6) producing lipase were screened from wastewater on a selective medium agar containing Tween 80 or olive oil as the only source of carbon. Isolate Ps5 showed the highest lipase activity which was later identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effect of media composition ...

  16. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four...... of considerable disagreement between human papillomavirus assays. This suggested that the extent of disagreement in primary screening is neither population- nor storage media-specific, leaving assay design differences as the most probable cause. The substantially different selection of women testing positive...... on the various human papillomavirus assays represents an unexpected challenge for the choice of an assay in primary cervical screening, and for follow up of in particular HPV positive/cytology normal women....

  17. Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and beyond: potential multiple mechanisms of action and importance of T-cell assays for in vitro screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmanović, Stanislav; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2017-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by repeated contact with sensitizers. The ability of a chemical to act as a sensitizer has most frequently been tested in animals. As the use of animals for these purposes is gradually and globally being phased out, there is a need for reliable in vitro surrogate assays. Currently proposed in vitro assays are designed to test four key events of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) involving covalent modification of self-proteins by sensitizers (haptenation) and presentation of new antigens (hapten/carrier complexes) to the immune system. There appears to be imperfect alignment of in vitro assays with clinical and/or animal data, suggesting possibly additional mechanisms of ACD development. Indeed, studies on allergies to small drugs, small chemical-induced HLA-peptide exchange for vaccination purposes and cosmetic ingredient-induced exposure of autoantigens suggest a possibility of DTH response promotion by hapten/carrier-independent mechanisms. Therefore, there is a need for additional appropriate in vitro assays, in order to achieve maximal concordance between clinical and/or animal data and in vitro assays. In this paper, we will review evidence supporting the idea of diverse mechanisms of ACD development. We will also discuss the impact of these multiple mechanisms, on the AOP and on the in vitro assays that should be used for allergen detection. We will propose alloreactivity-like reactions, aided by computer modeling and biochemical tests of compound-HLA binding, as additional tools for better prediction of DTH reactions, resulting from exposure to ingredients in cosmetic products. The combination of the proposed tests, along with the existing assays, should further enhance animal-free assessment of sensitizing potential of individual chemicals.

  18. Toxicity screening of soils from different mine areas—A contribution to track the sensitivity and variability of Arthrobacter globiformis assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Catarina R., E-mail: crmarques@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana L. [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Haller, Andreas [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstraße 2–14, D-65439 Flörsheim a. M. (Germany); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstraße 2–14, D-65439 Flörsheim a. M. (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • The assay gave rapid and feasible discrimination of toxic soils to A. globiformis. • Sensitive and low variability response to soils from different regions. • Soil properties may interfere with metal toxicity and fluorescence measurements. • Proposal of a toxicity threshold for the contact assay regarding soils. • A. globiformis assay should be included in the Tier I of risk assessment frameworks. - Abstract: This study used the Arthrobacter globiformis solid-contact test for assessing the quality of soils collected in areas subjected to past and present mine activities in Europe (uranium mine, Portugal) and North Africa (phosphogypsum pile, Tunisia; iron mine, Morocco). As to discriminate the influence of soils natural variability from the effect of contaminants, toxicity thresholds were derived for this test, based on the dataset of each study area. Furthermore, the test sensitivity and variability was also evaluated. As a result, soils that inhibited A. globiformis dehydrogenase activity above 45% or 50% relatively to the control, were considered to be toxic. Despite the soil metal content determined, the properties of soils seemed to influence dehydrogenase activity. Overall, the contact test provided a coherent outcome comparing to other more time-consuming and effort-demanding ecotoxicological assays. Our results strengthened the feasibility and ecological relevance of this assay, which variability was quite reduced hence suggesting its potential integration within the test battery of tier 1 of soil risk assessment schemes.

  19. Novel AroA from Pseudomonas putida Confers Tobacco Plant with High Tolerance to Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Qin; Chang, Su-Hua; Tian, Zhe-Xian; Zhang, Le; Sun, Yi-Cheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective broad-spectrum herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, also designated as AroA), a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway in microorganisms and plants. Previously, we reported that a novel AroA (PpAroA1) from Pseudomonas putida had high tolerance to glyphosate, with little homology to class I or class II glyphosate-tolerant AroA. In this study, the coding sequence of PpAroA1 was optimized for tobacco. For maturation of the enzyme in chloroplast, a chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence was fused in frame with the optimized aroA gene (PparoA1optimized) at the 5′ end. The PparoA1optimized gene was introduced into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformed explants were first screened in shoot induction medium containing kanamycin. Then glyphosate tolerance was assayed in putative transgenic plants and its T1 progeny. Our results show that the PpAroA1 from Pseudomonas putida can efficiently confer tobacco plants with high glyphosate tolerance. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing the PparoA1optimized gene exhibit high tolerance to glyphosate, which suggest that the novel PpAroA1 is a new and good candidate applied in transgenic crops with glyphosate tolerance in future. PMID:21611121

  20. Comparative evaluation of three chromogenic media combined with broth enrichment and the real-time PCR-based Xpert MRSA assay for screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungok; Park, Yeon-Joon; Park, Kang-Gyun; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Chae, Hyojin; Yoo, Jin-Kyung; Seo, Sin Won; Choi, Jung Eun; Lim, Jung Hye; Heo, Seon Mi; Seo, Ju Hee

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the performance of three chromogenic media (Brilliance agar I [Oxoid, UK], Brilliance agar II [Oxoid], and ChromID MRSA [Biomérieux, France]) combined with broth enrichment and the Xpert MRSA assay for screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We obtained 401 pairs of duplicate nasal swabs from 321 patients. One swab was suspended overnight in tryptic soy broth; 50-µL aliquots of suspension were inoculated on the three chromogenic media. Brilliance agar I and II were examined after 24 hr, and ChromID MRSA, after 24 and 48 hr. The paired swab was processed directly using real-time PCR-based Xpert MRSA assay. True positives, designated as MRSA growth in any of the culture media, were detected with the prevalence of 17% in our institution. We report the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRSA growth as follows: 92.3%, 94.0%, 75.9%, and 98.4% in Brilliance agar I (24 hr); 92.7%, 97.9%, 90.0%, and 98.5% in Brilliance agar II (24 hr); 95.6%, 95.8%, 82.3%, and 99.1% in ChromID MRSA (24 hr); 100%, 92.5%, 73.1%, and 100% in ChromID MRSA (48 hr); 92.6%, 96.7%, 85.1%, and 98.5% in Xpert MRSA assay. The agreement between the enriched culture and Xpert MRSA assay was 96.0%. Three chromogenic culture media combined with enrichment and Xpert MRSA assay demonstrated similar capabilities in MRSA detection. The Xpert MRSA assay yielded results comparable to those of culture methods, saving 48-72 hr, thus facilitating earlier detection of MRSA in healthcare settings.

  1. Low yield of screening for cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination assay on serum and cerebrospinal fluid from Danish patients with AIDS or ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, S; Stenderup, J; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due to Cryptoc......From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due...

  2. Phenol-Rich Compounds Sweet Gel: A Statistically More Effective Antibiotic than Cloxacillin Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Khan, Gazala Afreen; Kardi, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. Methods: The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F.), Momia (Shilajit), Castanea sativa, and Ephedra sinica stapf, with combination of a sweet gel medium, including honey, maple saps, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date), pomegranate extract and Azadirachta indica gum as a stabilizer. The combinations were screened by using a well-diffusion assay with cloxacillin as a control. Pseudomonas spp. was tested with our novel antimicrobial compound. The zones of inhibition in agar culture were measured for each individual component and for the compound, and the results were compared with those of the control group which had been treated with cloxacillin. Data were expressed as means ± standard deviations. Quantitative analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results: The antibiotic effect of the Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was statistically shown to be more significant than that of cloxacillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our novel approach to fighting the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas proved to be successful. The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was found to be suitable for use as an alternative medicine and bioactive dressing material, for the treatment of patients with various types of wounds, including burns, venous leg ulcers, ulcers of various etiologies, leg ulcers on the feet of diabetic, unhealed graft sampling sites, abscesses, boils, surgical wounds, necrotic process, post-operative and neonatal wound infection, and should be considered as an alternative to the usual methods of cure. PMID:27695634

  3. Phenol-Rich Compounds Sweet Gel: A Statistically More Effective Antibiotic than Cloxacillin Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Khan, Gazala Afreen; Kardi, Karima

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F.), Momia (Shilajit), Castanea sativa, and Ephedra sinica stapf, with combination of a sweet gel medium, including honey, maple saps, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date), pomegranate extract and Azadirachta indica gum as a stabilizer. The combinations were screened by using a well-diffusion assay with cloxacillin as a control. Pseudomonas spp. was tested with our novel antimicrobial compound. The zones of inhibition in agar culture were measured for each individual component and for the compound, and the results were compared with those of the control group which had been treated with cloxacillin. Data were expressed as means ± standard deviations. Quantitative analyses were performed using the paired t-test. The antibiotic effect of the Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was statistically shown to be more significant than that of cloxacillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05). Our novel approach to fighting the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas proved to be successful. The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was found to be suitable for use as an alternative medicine and bioactive dressing material, for the treatment of patients with various types of wounds, including burns, venous leg ulcers, ulcers of various etiologies, leg ulcers on the feet of diabetic, unhealed graft sampling sites, abscesses, boils, surgical wounds, necrotic process, post-operative and neonatal wound infection, and should be considered as an alternative to the usual methods of cure.

  4. Fibroblast Fatty-Acid Oxidation Flux Assays Stratify Risk in Newborns with Presumptive-Positive Results on Screening for Very-Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon E. Olpin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder with three major phenotypes: severe neonatal/infantile, milder childhood and late onset myopathic. VLCADD is genetically heterogeneous with numerous pathogenic mutations and variants of uncertain significance. VLCADD is included in many newborn screening programs but these suffer from high false positive rates, primarily due to positive screens in heterozygotes. Separating these and newborns with two low-risk “mild” variants from clinically at risk patients can be problematic, as clinical and biochemical markers are often unreliable, particularly in stable neonates. We have measured fibroblast fatty acid oxidation flux using [9,10-H3]myristic acid and [9,10-H3]oleic acid from 69 clinically presenting VLCADD patients including myopathic and infantile phenotypes and 13 positive newborn screened patients. We also measured fibroblast VLCADD enzyme activity by UV-HPLC detection of product in a sub-set of patients and compared these results to oleate FAO-flux. Fibroblast enzyme assay by UV-HPLC detection failed to clearly discriminate between some clinically presenting VLCADD patient cell lines and cell lines from some simple heterozygotes. FAO-flux clearly discriminated between clinically presenting VLCADD patients and the false positive screened patients. FAO-flux at 37 °C provides information as to the likely clinical phenotype but FAO-flux at 41 °C is the best discriminator for identifying clinically at risk patients.

  5. Functional characterisation of homomeric ionotropic glutamate receptors GluR1-GluR6 in a fluorescence-based high throughput screening assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Mette; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Jensen, Anders A.

    2006-01-01

    studies. Finally, the effects of various concentrations of Ca2+ in the assay buffer and of the allosteric modulators cyclothiazide and concanavalin A on GluR signalling were examined. This study represents the most elaborate functional characterisation of multiple AMPA and KA receptor subtypes in the same...

  6. Reexamining intra and extracellular metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Shuja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate, screen and analyze bacteria from different areas of Pakistan for the production of antimicrobial compounds, zinc solubilization and bioplastic production. Methods: Isolation and purification was proceeding with streak plate method. Antagonistic assay was completed with well diffusion and thin-layer chromatography. In vivo analysis of bioplastic was analyzed with Nile blue fluorescence under UV and Sudan staining. Results: A total of 18 bacterial strains purified from soil samples while 148 strains form stock cultures were used. Out of 166 only 94 showed antimicrobial activity against each of Grampositive and Gram-negative; cocci and rods. In case of heavy metal (ZnO and Zn3(PO42.4H2O solubilization, 54 strains solubilized ZnO and 23 strains solubilized Zn3(PO42.4H2O, while 127 strains grown on polyhydroxyalkanoate detection meedia supplemented with Nile blue medium showed bioplastic production by producing fluorescence under UV light. Four bacterial strains (coded as 100, 101, 104 and 111 were selected for further characterization. Induction time assay showed that strains 101, 104, and 111 showed inhibitory activity after 4 h of incubation while strain 100 showed after 8 h. All four strains were tolerable to the maximum concentration of ZnO. Amplified products of both 16S rRNA and PhaC gene fragments of strain 111 were sequenced and submitted to GenBank as accession numbers EU781525 and EU781526. Conclusions: Bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa-111 has potential to utilize as biofertilize and bioplastic producer.

  7. Fiscal 2000 research and development of technologies for intelligent infrastructure creation and utilization. Development of high-precision screening assay system for endocrine disrupting chemicals and construction of database; 2000 nendo chiteki kiban sose riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Naibunpi kakuran busshitsu no koseido screening shiken hoho no kaihatsu oyobi data kiban seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development is carried out for the establishment of a system for assaying endocrine disruption now presenting itself as a hazard and for the application of the assay system to important chemicals and chemicals under development for the detection of presence of endocrine disrupting action in them. In this fiscal year, for the establishment of a reporter-gene assay system, cell characteristics were clarified through the determination of the expression sequence of the produced cell, the determination of the stable conservation period of the cell, and the study of the sustenance of activity. Studies were conducted, targeted at the stable supply of cells usable for high-throughput screening. Basic data were collected for the Hershberger assay being developed by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) and for the repeated administration test method for assaying thyroid hormone action by use of pubertal rats. For the assay of impact on environmental organisms, moreover, basic data were collected for the establishment of testing methods using fishes and amphibians. (NEDO)

  8. A new tool for tuberculosis vaccine screening: Ex vivo Mycobacterial Growth Inhibition Assay indicates BCG-mediated protection in a murine model of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmer, Andrea; Tanner, Rachel; Stylianou, Elena; Damelang, Timon; Morris, Sheldon; Izzo, Angelo; Williams, Ann; Sharpe, Sally; Pepponi, Ilaria; Walker, Barry; Hokey, David A; McShane, Helen; Brennan, Michael; Fletcher, Helen

    2016-08-12

    In the absence of a validated animal model and/or an immune correlate which predict vaccine-mediated protection, large-scale clinical trials are currently the only option to prove efficacy of new tuberculosis candidate vaccines. Tools to facilitate testing of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines are therefore urgently needed. We present here an optimized ex vivo mycobacterial growth inhibition assay (MGIA) using a murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection model. This assay assesses the combined ability of host immune cells to inhibit mycobacterial growth in response to vaccination. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and growth inhibition of mycobacteria by splenocytes was assessed. Mice were also challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman, and bacterial burden was assessed in lungs and spleen. Using the growth inhibition assay, we find a reduction in BCG CFU of 0.3-0.8 log10 after co-culture with murine splenocytes from BCG vaccinated versus naïve C57BL/6 mice. BCG vaccination in our hands led to a reduction in bacterial burden after challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis of approx. 0.7 log10 CFU in lung and approx. 1 log10 CFU in spleen. This effect was also seen when using Mycobacterium smegmatis as the target of growth inhibition. An increase in mycobacterial numbers was found when splenocytes from interferon gamma-deficient mice were used, compared to wild type controls, indicating that immune mechanisms may also be investigated using this assay. We believe that the ex vivo mycobacterial growth inhibition assay could be a useful tool to help assess vaccine efficacy in future, alongside other established methods. It could also be a valuable tool for determination of underlying immune mechanisms.

  9. Autoantibodies to MUC1 glycopeptides cannot be used as a screening assay for early detection of breast, ovarian, lung or pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burford, B; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Graham, R

    2013-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been detected in sera before diagnosis of cancer leading to interest in their potential as screening/early detection biomarkers. As we have found autoantibodies to MUC1 glycopeptides to be elevated in early-stage breast cancer patients, in this study we analysed...... these autoantibodies in large population cohorts of sera taken before cancer diagnosis....

  10. Validation of the AlamarBlue® assay as a fast screening method to determine the antimicrobial activity of botanical extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Tomás-Menor, L.; Garbeva, P.V.; Barrajón-Catalán, E.; Micol, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plant compounds are a potential source of new antimicrobial molecules against a variety of infections. Plant extracts suppose complex phytochemical libraries that may be used for the first stages of the screening process for antimicrobials. However, their large variability and complexity require

  11. Population Structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz Wiehlmann; Gerd Wagner; Nina Cramer; Benny Siebert; Peter Gudowius; Gracia Morales; Thilo Köhler; Christian van Delden; Christian Weinel; Peter Slickers; Burkhard Tümmler

    2007-01-01

    The metabolically versatile Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhabits terrestrial, aquatic, animal-, human-, and plant-host-associated environments and is an important causative agent...

  12. Diagnostic Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA and HPV DNA Assays for the Detection and Screening of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Infection among Woman with Cervical Lesions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Geehyuk; Kim, Sunghyun; Han, Lin; Yubo, Ren; Li, Yingxue; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of cervical uterine cancer. Although HPV infections of the cervix do not always progress to cancer, 90% of cervical cancer cases have been found to be associated with high risk HPV (HR- HPV) infection. HPV DNA testing is widely used, along with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, to screen for cervical abnormalities. However, there are no data on the prevalence of genotype-specific HPV infections assessed by measuring HPV E6/E7 mRNA in women representative of the Chinese population across a broad age range. In the present study, we compared the results with the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HR-HPV genotypes (Alpha-9: HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58; Alpha-7: HPV 18, 39, 45, 51, 59, and 68; and Alpha-5, 6: HPV 53, 56, 66, and 69), and the REBA HPV-ID assay, which detects 32 HPV genotypes based on the reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of oncogenic HPV infection according to cytological diagnosis. We also investigated the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection with a total of 324 liquid-based cytology samples collected in western Shandong province, East China. The overall HPV prevalences determined by HPV DNA and HPV E6/E7 mRNA assays in this study were 79.9% (259/324) and 55.6% (180/324), respectively. Although the positivity of HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was significantly lower than HPV DNA positivity, the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay showed greater specificity than the HPV DNA assay (88.6% vs. 48.1%) in normal cytology samples. The prevalence of Alpha-9 (HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) HPV infection among these women accounted for up to 80.3% and 76.1% of the high-grade lesions detected in the HPV mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. The HR-HPV genotype distribution, based on HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA expression by age group in patients with cytologically confirmed lesions, was highest in women aged 40 to 49 years

  13. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  14. Development of a genotype-by-sequencing immunogenetic assay as exemplified by screening for variation in red fox with and without endemic rabies exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael E; Rico, Yessica; Hueffer, Karsten; Rando, Halie M; Kukekova, Anna V; Kyle, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Pathogens are recognized as major drivers of local adaptation in wildlife systems. By determining which gene variants are favored in local interactions among populations with and without disease, spatially explicit adaptive responses to pathogens can be elucidated. Much of our current understanding of host responses to disease comes from a small number of genes associated with an immune response. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, such as genotype-by-sequencing (GBS), facilitate expanded explorations of genomic variation among populations. Hybridization-based GBS techniques can be leveraged in systems not well characterized for specific variants associated with disease outcome to "capture" specific genes and regulatory regions known to influence expression and disease outcome. We developed a multiplexed, sequence capture assay for red foxes to simultaneously assess ~300-kbp of genomic sequence from 116 adaptive, intrinsic, and innate immunity genes of predicted adaptive significance and their putative upstream regulatory regions along with 23 neutral microsatellite regions to control for demographic effects. The assay was applied to 45 fox DNA samples from Alaska, where three arctic rabies strains are geographically restricted and endemic to coastal tundra regions, yet absent from the boreal interior. The assay provided 61.5% on-target enrichment with relatively even sequence coverage across all targeted loci and samples (mean = 50×), which allowed us to elucidate genetic variation across introns, exons, and potential regulatory regions (4,819 SNPs). Challenges remained in accurately describing microsatellite variation using this technique; however, longer-read HTS technologies should overcome these issues. We used these data to conduct preliminary analyses and detected genetic structure in a subset of red fox immune-related genes between regions with and without endemic arctic rabies. This assay provides a template to assess immunogenetic variation

  15. Single-molecule supercoil-relaxation assay as a screening tool to determine the mechanism and efficacy of human topoisomerase IB inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Zhang, Hongliang; Agama, Keli; Lorence, Nicholas; Pommier, Yves; Neuman, Keir C.

    2015-01-01

    Human nuclear type IB topoisomerase (Top1) inhibitors are widely used and powerful anti-cancer agents. In this study, we introduce and validate a single-molecule supercoil relaxation assay as a molecular pharmacology tool for characterizing therapeutically relevant Top1 inhibitors. Using this assay, we determined the effects on Top1 supercoil relaxation activity of four Top1 inhibitors; three clinically relevant: camptothecin, LMP-400, LMP-776 (both indenoisoquinoline derivatives), and one natural product in preclinical development, lamellarin-D. Our results demonstrate that Top1 inhibitors have two distinct effects on Top1 activity: a decrease in supercoil relaxation rate and an increase in religation inhibition. The type and magnitude of the inhibition mode depend both on the specific inhibitor and on the topology of the DNA substrate. In general, the efficacy of inhibition is significantly higher with supercoiled than with relaxed DNA substrates. Comparing single-molecule inhibition with cell growth inhibition (IC50) measurements showed a correlation between the binding time of the Top1 inhibitors and their cytotoxic efficacy, independent of the mode of inhibition. This study demonstrates that the single-molecule supercoil relaxation assay is a sensitive method to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of Top1 inhibitors and is relevant for the cellular efficacy of Top1 inhibitors. PMID:26351326

  16. Using IFN-gamma release assay to confirm tuberculin skin test improves the screening of latent tuberculosis infection in Italian healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Raffaela; Scarnera, Sara; Ciabattini, Annalisa; De Vuono, Giulia; Manzi, Pietro; Pozzi, Gianni; Battista, Giuseppe; Medaglini, Donata

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) represent a tuberculosis (TB) risk group for a wide range of tasks in healthcare, even in countries with low TB incidence, like Italy. Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) screening programs are an important tool for TB prevention in these setting. A retrospective study under a LTBI screening program among HCWs at the Siena University Hospital (Italy), was conducted between September 2011 and July 2015. Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) was used as a first level examination; all TST-positive cases were tested with QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test, together with a group of TST-negative subjects. Among the 2136 HCWs screened, 144 (6.7 %) were TST-positive and therefore tested with QFT-GIT, confirming a positive result in 36 cases (25 %). Agreement between two tests was poor (k = 0.092; 95 %, Confidence Interval [CI]- 0.048-0.136, p = 0.002). Among TST-positive cases, discordant results occurred more frequently in BCG vaccinated than unvaccinated HCWs (86.3 %, p < 0.001). The probability of a QFT-GIT-positive result increased according to the TST diameter (p = 0.001). No putative risk factor was associated with LTBI occurrence. The use of QFT-GIT test as a second step in TST-positive cases offers an appropriate tool for LTBI detection, especially among BCG-vaccinated HCWs.

  17. A High Content Screening Assay to Identify Compounds with Anti-Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Effects from the Chinese Herbal Medicine Tong-Mai-Yang-Xin-Wan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide health problem with growing prevalence in developing countries. Renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a critical step and key factor in the development of this condition. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a basic pathological change at the later stages of the disease. Therefore, blocking the development of EMT could be a critical factor in curing CKD. We have established a cell-based high-content screening (HCS method to identify inhibitors of EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2 cells by automatic acquisition and processing of dual-fluorescent labeled images. With the aid of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry, we achieved the rapid and reliable screening of active compounds from the Chinese herbal medicine Tong-Mai-Yang-Xin-Wan (TMYX for treating EMT. Five fractions were found to exert anti-EMT activity and were further identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Glycyrrhizic acid, glyasperin A, and licorisoflavan A were found to inhibit EMT. The proposed approach was successfully applied to screen active compounds from TMYX on TGF-β1-stimulated HK-2 cells and may offer a new means for identifying lead compounds for treating EMT from registered Chinese herbal medicines.

  18. Identification of a broad-spectrum antiviral small molecule against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses by using a novel high-throughput screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Fan, Jilao; Haddad, Christine S; Ratia, Kiira; Broder, Christopher C; Caffrey, Michael; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2014-04-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses are members of different viral families and are known causative agents of fatal viral diseases. These viruses depend on cathepsin L for entry into their target cells. The viral glycoproteins need to be primed by protease cleavage, rendering them active for fusion with the host cell membrane. In this study, we developed a novel high-throughput screening assay based on peptides, derived from the glycoproteins of the aforementioned viruses, which contain the cathepsin L cleavage site. We screened a library of 5,000 small molecules and discovered a small molecule that can inhibit the cathepsin L cleavage of all viral peptides with minimal inhibition of cleavage of a host protein-derived peptide (pro-neuropeptide Y). The small molecule inhibited the entry of all pseudotyped viruses in vitro and the cleavage of SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein in an in vitro cleavage assay. In addition, the Hendra and Nipah virus fusion glycoproteins were not cleaved in the presence of the small molecule in a cell-based cleavage assay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the small molecule is a mixed inhibitor of cathepsin L. Our broad-spectrum antiviral small molecule appears to be an ideal candidate for future optimization and development into a potent antiviral against SARS-CoV and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses. We developed a novel high-throughput screening assay to identify small molecules that can prevent cathepsin L cleavage of viral glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses that are required for their entry into the host cell. We identified a novel broad-spectrum small molecule that could block cathepsin L-mediated cleavage and thus inhibit the entry of pseudotypes bearing the glycoprotein derived from SARS-CoV or Ebola, Hendra, or Nipah virus. The small molecule can be further optimized and developed into a potent broad-spectrum antiviral drug.

  19. Characterization of CMR5c and CMR12a, novel fluorescent Pseudomonas strains from the cocoyam rhizosphere with biocontrol activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perneel, M.; Heyrman, J.; Adiobo, A.; Maeyer, de K.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Vos, de P.; Höfte, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To screen for novel antagonistic Pseudomonas strains producing both phenazines and biosurfactants that are as effective as Pseudomonas aeruginosa PNA1 in the biocontrol of cocoyam root rot caused by Pythium myriotylum. Material and Results: Forty pseudomonads were isolated from the rhizosphere

  20. Kinetic characterization of the interaction of biotinylated human interleukin 5 with an Fc chimera of its receptor alpha subunit and development of an ELISA screening assay using real-time interaction biosensor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D; Morton, T; Breen, A; Hertzberg, R; Cusimano, D; Appelbaum, E; McDonnell, P; Young, P; Matico, R; Chaiken, I

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of biotinylated human interleukin 5 ([BT]hIL5) with immobilized receptor was measured with a real-time biosensor, and these results were used as a basis for configuring an ELISA for screening antagonists of hIL5-receptor binding. The recombinant proteins used, hIL5 and shIL5R alpha-Fc (chimeric fusion receptor constructed by linking the soluble component of the hIL5 receptor alpha subunit to the constant domain (Fc) of immunoglobulin G), were produced by the expression of cloned vectors in Drosophila schneider (S2) cells. Initial attempts to develop a screening assay by direct immobilization of soluble IL5 receptor to microtiter plates proved unsatisfactory and led to use of the Fc chimera attached by oriented immobilization via protein A. Hence, shIL5R alpha-Fc was bound to protein A covalently immobilized on a carboxymethyl dextran (CM-5) biosensor chip. Specific binding was demonstrated of [BT]hIL5 to protein A/shIL5R alpha-Fc receptor complex. The binding was high affinity (Kdapp = 6 nM), reversible and saturable. The affinity of [BT]hIL5 was similar to that determined with the biosensor assay for unmodified hIL5. The observed kinetics of the interactions of Fc chimera with protein A (slow dissociation) and of [BT]hIL5 with immobilized Fc chimera (faster dissociation) were favorable for subsequently establishing a microtiter plate based ELISA assay. In the latter, Fc chimera was immobilized to the plate via protein A as in the biosensor experiment. Binding of [BT]hIL5 to immobilized Fc chimera in the ELISA was concentration dependent and was competed by both hIL5 and shIL5R alpha.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Evaluation ofmericon E. coliO157 Screen Plus andmericon E. coliSTEC O-Type Pathogen Detection Assays in Select Foods: Collaborative Study, First Action 2017.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bastin, Benjamin; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Armstrong, Marcia

    2017-10-18

    QIAGEN mericon Escherichia coli O157 Screen Plus and mericon E. coli Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O-Type Pathogen Detection Assays use Real-Time PCR technology for the rapid, accurate detection of E. coli O157 and the “big six” (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145) (non-O157 STEC) in select food types. Using a paired study design, the assays were compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook Chapter 5.09 reference method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef. Both mericon assays were evaluated using the manual and an automated DNA extraction method. Thirteen technicians from five laboratories located within the continental United States participated in the collaborative study. Three levels of contamination were evaluated. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD) statistical model. Results obtained for the low-inoculum level test portions produced a difference between laboratories POD (dLPOD) value with a 95% confidence interval of 0.00 (–0.12, 0.12) for the mericon E. coli O157 Screen Plus with manual and automated extraction and mericon E. coli STEC O-Type with manual extraction and –0.01 (–0.13, 0.10) for the mericon E. coli STEC O-Type with automated extraction. The dLPOD results indicate equivalence between the candidate methods and the reference method.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is implicated in many chronic infections and is readily isolated from chronic wounds, medical devices, and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa is believed to persist in the host organism due to its capacity to form...... biofilms, which protect the aggregated, biopolymer-embedded bacteria from the detrimental actions of antibiotic treatments and host immunity. A key component in the protection against innate immunity is rhamnolipid, which is a quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factor. QS is a cell-to-cell signaling...

  3. Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation technique: a rapid and reliable assay for studying plant-bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalapati Srinivasa R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem is one of the most widely used systems to understand the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and plant innate immunity. Several inoculation methods have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions in this model system. However, none of the methods reported to date are similar to those occurring in nature and amicable to large-scale mutant screens. Results In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable seedling flood-inoculation method based on young Arabidopsis seedlings grown on MS medium. This method has several advantages over conventional soil-grown plant inoculation assays, including a shorter growth and incubation period, ease of inoculation and handling, uniform infection and disease development, requires less growth chamber space and is suitable for high-throughput screens. In this study we demonstrated the efficacy of the Arabidopsis seedling assay to study 1 the virulence factors of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, including type III protein secretion system (TTSS and phytotoxin coronatine (COR; 2 the effector-triggered immunity; and 3 Arabidopsis mutants affected in salicylic acid (SA- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs-mediated pathways. Furthermore, we applied this technique to study nonhost resistance (NHR responses in Arabidopsis using nonhost pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. tabaci, pv. glycinea and pv. tomato T1, and confirmed the functional role of FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 in NHR. Conclusions The Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation assay provides a rapid, efficient and economical method for studying Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interactions with minimal growth chamber space and time. This assay could also provide an excellent system for investigating the virulence mechanisms of P. syringae. Using this method, we demonstrated that FLS2 plays a critical role in conferring NHR against nonhost pathovars of P. syringae, but not to

  4. Development of a lateral-flow assay for rapid screening of the performance-enhancing sympathomimetic drug clenbuterol used in animal production; food safety assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Weihua; Xu, Yang; Fung, Daniel Y C; Xiong, Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    A lateral-flow assay that could provide visual evidence of the presence of clenbuterol in swine urine was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-clenbuterol monoclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then, 210 samples were tested on these strips. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 3 ppb of clenbuterol. Parallel GC-MS data indicated that clenbuterol rapid detection strip had no false negative. The false positive rate was 4.4%. Immunochromatographic strip has great applied value in the food safety field because it possesses benefits of sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, ease of use and inexpensive.

  5. Pseudopyronine B: A Potent Antimicrobial and Anticancer Molecule Isolated from a Pseudomonas mosselii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nishanth Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our search for new bioactive compounds from soil microbes, a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain isolated from paddy field soil of Kuttanad, Kerala, India was screened for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas mosselii through 16S rDNA gene sequencing followed by BLAST analysis and the bioactive metabolites produced were purified by column chromatography (silica gel and a pure bioactive secondary metabolite was isolated. This bioactive compound was identified as Pseudopyronine B by NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Pseudopyronine B recorded significant antimicrobial activity especially against Gram-positive bacteria and agriculturally important fungi. MTT assay was used for finding cell proliferation inhibition, and Pseudopyronine B recorded significant antitumor activity against non-small cell lung cancer cell (A549, and mouse melanoma cell (B16F10. The preliminary MTT assay results revealed that Pseudopyronine B recorded both dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the growth of test cancer cell lines. Pseudopyronine B induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells as evidenced by Acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Hoechst staining, and this was further confirmed by flow cytometry analysis using Annexin V. Cell cycle analysis also supports apoptosis by inducing G2/M accumulation in both A549 and B16F10 cells. Pseudopyronine B treated cells recorded significant up-regulation of caspase 3 activity. Moreover, this compound recorded immunomodulatory activity by enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes. The production of Pseudopyronine B by P. mosselii and its anticancer activity in A549 and B16F10 cell lines is reported here for the first time. The present study has a substantial influence on the information of Pseudopyronine B from P. mosselii as potential sources of novel drug molecule for the pharmaceutical companies, especially as potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

  6. Automating a 96-well microtiter plate assay for identification of AGEs inhibitors or inducers: application to the screening of a small natural compounds library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbré, Séverine; Gatto, Julia; Pelleray, Aude; Coulon, Laurie; Séraphin, Denis; Richomme, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous affections such as diabetes and neurological diseases. AGEs are also implied in various changes in tissues and organs. Therefore, compounds able to break them or inhibit their formation may be considered as potential drugs, dietary supplements, or bioactive additives. In this study, we have developed a rapid and reliable (Z' factor calculation) anti-AGEs activity screening based on the overall fluorescence of AGEs. This method was successfully evaluated on known AGEs inhibitors and on a small library of natural compounds, yielding coherent results when compared with literature data.

  7. Feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans is an indicator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Lewenza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as an infection model for pathogenesis studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The standard virulence assays rely on the slow and fast killing or paralysis of nematodes but here we developed a behaviour assay to monitor the preferred bacterial food sources of C. elegans. We monitored the food preferences of nematodes fed the wild type PAO1 and mutants in the type III secretion (T3S system, which is a conserved mechanism to inject secreted effectors into the host cell cytosol. A ΔexsEΔpscD mutant defective for type III secretion served as a preferred food source, while an ΔexsE mutant that overexpresses the T3S effectors was avoided. Both food sources were ingested and observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Using the slow killing assay, we showed that the ΔexsEΔpscD had reduced virulence and thus confirmed that preferred food sources are less virulent than the wild type. Next we developed a high throughput feeding behaviour assay with 48 possible food colonies in order to screen a transposon mutant library and identify potential virulence genes. C. elegans identified and consumed preferred food colonies from a grid of 48 choices. The mutants identified as preferred food sources included known virulence genes, as well as novel genes not identified in previous C. elegans infection studies. Slow killing assays were performed and confirmed that several preferred food sources also showed reduced virulence. We propose that C. elegans feeding behaviour can be used as a sensitive indicator of virulence for P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  8. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tabatabaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum growth and development. An in vitro experiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA -producing Pseudomonas isolatesand exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents.

  9. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei, S.; Ehsanzadeh, P.; Etesami, H.; Alikhani, H.A.; Glick, B.R.

    2016-11-01

    The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) growth and development. An in vitroexperiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing Pseudomonas isolates and exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents. (Author)

  10. Oak (Quercus frainetto Ten. Honeydew Honey—Approach to Screening of Volatile Organic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity (DPPH and FRAP Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerković

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of oak honeydew honey were investigated. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC and GC/MS enabled identification of the most volatile organic headspace compounds being dominated by terpenes(mainly cis- and trans-linalool oxides. The volatile and less-volatile organic composition of the samples was obtained by ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE with two solvents (1:2 (v/v pentane -diethyl ether mixture and dichloromethane followed by GC and GC/MS analysis. Shikimic pathway derivatives are of particular interest with respect to the botanical origin of honey and the most abundant was phenylacetic acid (up to 16.4%. Antiradical activity (DPPH assay of the honeydew samples was 4.5 and 5.1 mmol TEAC/kg. Ultrasonic solvent extracts showed several dozen times higher antiradical capacity in comparison to the honeydew. Antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay of honeydew samples was 4.8 and 16.1 mmol Fe2+/kg, while the solvent mixture extracts showed antioxidant activity of 374.5 and 955.9 Fe2+/kg, respectively, and the dichloromethane extracts 127.3 and 101.5 mmol Fe2+/kg.

  11. Screening for estrogen and androgen receptor activities in 200 pesticides by in vitro reporter gene assays using Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Katsura, Eiji; Takeuchi, Shinji; Niiyama, Kazuhito; Kobayashi, Kunihiko

    2004-01-01

    We tested 200 pesticides, including some of their isomers and metabolites, for agonism and antagonism to two human estrogen receptor (hER) subtypes, hERalpha and hERbeta, and a human androgen receptor (hAR) by highly sensitive transactivation assays using Chinese hamster ovary cells. The test compounds were classified into nine groups: organochlorines, diphenyl ethers, organophosphorus pesticides, pyrethroids, carbamates, acid amides, triazines, ureas, and others. These pesticides were tested at concentrations methiocarb were predominantly hERbeta rather than hERalpha agonistic. Weak antagonistic effects toward hERalpha and hERbeta were shown in five and two pesticides, respectively. On the other hand, none of tested pesticides showed hAR-mediated androgenic activity, but 66 of 200 pesticides exhibited inhibitory activity against the transcriptional activity induced by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. In particular, the antiandrogenic activities of two diphenyl ether herbicides, chlornitrofen and chlomethoxyfen, were higher than those of vinclozolin and p,p -dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, known AR antagonists. The results of our ER and AR assays show that 34 pesticides possessed both estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, indicating pleiotropic effects on hER and hAR. We also discussed chemical structures related to these activities. Taken together, our findings suggest that a variety of pesticides have estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic potential via ER and/or AR, and that numerous other manmade chemicals may also possess such estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. PMID:15064155

  12. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna C. Nwinyi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2. Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94 ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R2 = 1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site.

  13. Efficient screening of potential cellulases and hemicellulases produced by Bosea sp. FBZP-16 using the combination of enzyme assays and genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfani, Aicha Asma; Větrovský, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr; Benallaoua, Said

    2017-02-01

    Identification of bacteria that produce carbohydrolytic enzymes is extremely important given the increased demand for these enzymes in many industries. Twenty lignocellulose-degrading bacterial isolates from Algerian compost and different soils were screened for their potential to produce different enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates belonged to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Differences among species were reflected both as the presence/absence of enzymes or at the level of enzyme activity. Among the most active species, Bosea sp. FBZP-16 demonstrated cellulolytic activity on both amorphous cellulose (CMC) and complex lignocellulose (wheat straw) and was selected for whole-genomic sequencing. The genome sequencing revealed the presence of a complex enzymatic machinery required for organic matter decomposition. Analysis of the enzyme-encoding genes indicated that multiple genes for endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and β-mannosidase are present in the genome with enzyme activities displayed by the bacterium, while other enzymes, such as certain cellobiohydrolases, were not detected at the genomic level. This indicates that a combination of functional screening of bacterial cultures with the use of genome-derived information is important for the prediction of potential enzyme production. These results provide insight into their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

  14. Enzyme assays

    OpenAIRE

    Bisswanger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The essential requirements for enzyme assays are described and frequently occurring errors and pitfalls as well as their avoidance are discussed. The main factors, which must be considered for assaying enzymes, are temperature, pH, ionic strength and the proper concentrations of the essential components like substrates and enzymes. Standardization of these parameters would be desirable, but the diversity of the features of different enzymes prevents unification of assay conditions. Neverthele...

  15. Identification of human IKK-2 inhibitors of natural origin (part I): modeling of the IKK-2 kinase domain, virtual screening and activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Esther; Guasch, Laura; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Mulero, Miquel; Salvadó, Maria-Josepa; Pinent, Montserrat; Zoete, Vincent; Grosdidier, Aurélien; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Michielin, Olivier; Pujadas, Gerard

    2011-02-24

    Their large scaffold diversity and properties, such as structural complexity and drug similarity, form the basis of claims that natural products are ideal starting points for drug design and development. Consequently, there has been great interest in determining whether such molecules show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is hIKK-2, a serine-threonine protein kinase belonging to the IKK complex that is the primary component responsible for activating NF-κB in response to various inflammatory stimuli. Indeed, this has led to the development of synthetic ATP-competitive inhibitors for hIKK-2. Therefore, the main goals of this study were (a) to use virtual screening to identify potential hIKK-2 inhibitors of natural origin that compete with ATP and (b) to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits. We thus predicted that 1,061 out of the 89,425 natural products present in the studied database would inhibit hIKK-2 with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 1,061 molecules were merged with the 98 synthetic hIKK-2 inhibitors used in this study and the resulting set was classified into ten clusters according to chemical similarity, there were three clusters that contained only natural products. Five molecules from these three clusters (for which no anti-inflammatory activity has been previously described) were then selected for in vitro activity testing, in which three out of the five molecules were shown to inhibit hIKK-2. We demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying lead compounds for developing new inhibitors for hIKK-2, a target of great interest in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, all the tools developed during the current study (i.e., the homology model for the hIKK-2 kinase domain and the pharmacophore) will be made available to interested readers upon

  16. Identification of human IKK-2 inhibitors of natural origin (part I: modeling of the IKK-2 kinase domain, virtual screening and activity assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Their large scaffold diversity and properties, such as structural complexity and drug similarity, form the basis of claims that natural products are ideal starting points for drug design and development. Consequently, there has been great interest in determining whether such molecules show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is hIKK-2, a serine-threonine protein kinase belonging to the IKK complex that is the primary component responsible for activating NF-κB in response to various inflammatory stimuli. Indeed, this has led to the development of synthetic ATP-competitive inhibitors for hIKK-2. Therefore, the main goals of this study were (a to use virtual screening to identify potential hIKK-2 inhibitors of natural origin that compete with ATP and (b to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus predicted that 1,061 out of the 89,425 natural products present in the studied database would inhibit hIKK-2 with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 1,061 molecules were merged with the 98 synthetic hIKK-2 inhibitors used in this study and the resulting set was classified into ten clusters according to chemical similarity, there were three clusters that contained only natural products. Five molecules from these three clusters (for which no anti-inflammatory activity has been previously described were then selected for in vitro activity testing, in which three out of the five molecules were shown to inhibit hIKK-2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying lead compounds for developing new inhibitors for hIKK-2, a target of great interest in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, all the tools developed during the current study (i.e., the homology model for the hIKK-2

  17. Assay systems for screening food and natural substances that have anti-hyperuricemic activity: uric acid production in cultured hepatocytes and purine bodies-induced hyperuricemic model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shin-Ichi; Yoshizawa, Fumiaki; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2017-06-01

    Hyperuricemia is characterized by the high uric acid (UA) level in serum (or plasma) and has been considered to be an important risk factor for gout. In the present study, we have attempted to construct an assay system for UA production in vitro employing cultured AML12 hepatocytes. UA levels in balanced salt solution (BSS) in the presence of UA precursor nucleosides, adenosine, inosine, guanosine and xanthine, at 12.5, 25, and 100 µM were significantly higher than BSS alone and their effects were dose-dependent, while all the UA precursors did not significantly increase intracellular UA levels. Hence, UA levels in BSS were thereafter adopted as an index of UA production. UA production from nucleosides was significantly higher than that from nucleotides (GMP, IMP and AMP). UA production from guanosine and inosine in combination (GI mixture) as well as nucleosides increased time-dependently and almost linearly up to 2 h. Selecting GI mixture, effects of allopurinol, a widely used anti-hyperuricemic agent, and quercetin, a well-known polyphenol in onion and strawberry, on UA production were examined. Both allopurinol and quercetin dose-dependently (0.1, 0.3 and 1 μM for allopurinol and 10, 30, and 100 μM for quercetin) and significantly reduced UA production in the hepatocytes. They also significantly reduced hyperuricemia induced by intraperitoneal injection of UA precursor purine bodies to mice at a single oral dose of 10 (allopurinol) or 200 (quercetin) mg/kg body weight. This assay system for UA production in cultured hepatocytes is considered to be useful to search for novel anti-hyperuricemic compounds in foods and natural resources with possibility to have human health benefits.

  18. The incidence of positive results in the mouse lymphoma TK assay (MLA) in pharmaceutical screening and their prediction by MultiCase MC4PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Michael D; Boyer, Scott; O'Donovan, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    There are published data indicating that the mouse lymphoma TK assay (MLA) has an unacceptably high incidence of positive results, hence it was decided to review the MLA data generated in this laboratory for potential drug candidates. Of the 355 compounds tested, only 52 (15%) gave positive results so, even if it is assumed that all of these are non-carcinogens, the incidence of 'false positive' predictions of carcinogenicity is much lower than the 61% apparent from analysis of the literature. Furthermore, only 19 compounds (5%) were positive by a mechanism that could not be associated with the compounds primary pharmacological activity or positive responses in other genotoxicity assays. It should be noted that the majority of these compounds were not bacterial mutagens so, in most cases, the positive results were an additional indicator of genotoxicity. However, data are not available to assess any risk they might present. At least for pharmaceuticals, it appears that the MLA does not generate as many positive results as is commonly believed, and it is against this incidence that the performance of other in vitro genotoxicity tests should be compared. The predictive accuracy of the program MultiCase MC4PC was also examined using these results. The sensitivity and specificity were found to be 62 and 38%, respectively; in fact, 62% of all compounds were predicted to be positive irrespective of whether they were actually positive or negative. It was concluded that, in its current state of development, M4PC cannot be considered sufficiently accurate to be used to predict the activity of pharmaceuticals in the MLA.

  19. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay and evaluation of their total phenolic content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Biradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plant-derived cytotoxic constituents and polyphenolic compounds have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. In this context, we have selected six Indian medicinal plants based on the literature claims and an attempt was made to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and total phenolic content (TPC of their methanol extracts and fractions. Materials and Methods: Six plants have been selected for the study, namely, Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae, Oroxylum indicum (Linn. Vent. (Bignoniaceae, Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb. Kunth. (Araceae, Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae, and Premna serratifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae. Authenticated plant materials were subjected to extraction with methanol by cold maceration and hot percolation methods. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out for all extracts and fractions. All extracts and their fractions were subjected to cytotoxicity screening by brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay. The plants with significant cytotoxicity were evaluated for TPC by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium and P. serratifolia and F1 fraction of M. pudica have shown significant cytotoxicity (lethal concentration (LC 50 < 100 ppm compared with other fractions. F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium show the LC 50 values 32.52, 14.27, and 24.02, respectively; F1, F2, and F3 of P. serratifolia show LC 50 values 7.61, 4.01, and 10.91 and same for F1 fraction of M. pudica was 34.82 μg/ml, respectively. TPC was found to be significantly higher (39.11 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g in P. serratifolia compared with other two plants. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity screening system confirmed the proposed anticancer plants used by traditional healers and literature claims.

  20. Disposable integrated bismuth citrate-modified screen-printed immunosensor for ultrasensitive quantum dot-based electrochemical assay of C-reactive protein in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkinos, Christos, E-mail: xkokkinos@gmail.com [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Prodromidis, Mamas [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Economou, Anastasios [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios [Immunoassay/Immunosensors Lab, Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR “Demokritos”, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece)

    2015-07-30

    A novel immunosensor based on graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with bismuth citrate was developed for the voltammetric determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human serum using quantum dots (QDs) labels. The sandwich-type immunoassay involved physisorption of CRP capture antibody on the surface of the sensor, sequential immunoreactions with CRP and biotinylated CRP reporter antibody and finally reaction with streptavidin-conjugated PbS QDs. The quantification of the target protein was performed with acidic dissolution of the PbS QDs and anodic stripping voltammetric detection of the Pb(II) released. Detection was performed at bismuth nanodomains formed on the sensor surface during the electrolytic preconcentration step, as bismuth citrate was reduced to metallic bismuth simultaneously with the deposition of Pb on the surface of the immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, the response was linear over the range 0.2–100 ng mL{sup −1} CRP and the limit of detection was 0.05 ng mL{sup −1} CRP. Since the modified SPE serves as both the biorecognition element and the QDs reader, the analytical procedure is simplified, the drawbacks of existing electroplated immunosensors are minimized while the proposed disposable sensing platform provides convenient, low-cost and ultrasensitive detection of proteins and wider scope for mass-production. - Highlights: • A bismuth citrate-modified screen-printed immunosensor was developed. • PbS quantum dots labels were used in the sandwich immunoassay for CRP determination. • A Bi film was formed at the sensor surface during the preconcentration step of Pb. • The immunosensor minimizes the limitations of electroplated metal film electrodes.

  1. Screening of WT1 mutations in exon 8 and 9 in children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome from a single centre and establishment of a rapid screening assay using high-resolution melting analysis in a clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    Siji, Annes; Pardeshi, Varsha Chhotusing; Ravindran, Shilpa; Vasudevan, Ambily; Vasudevan, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mutations in Wilm?s tumor 1 (WT1) gene is one of the commonly reported genetic mutations in children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). We report the results of direct sequencing of exons 8 and 9 of WT1 gene in 100 children with SRNS from a single centre. We standardized and validated High Resolution Melt (HRM) as a rapid and cost effective screening step to identify individuals with normal sequence and distinguish it from those with a potential mutation. Since only ...

  2. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Pseudomonas cepacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection.

  3. S100B + A1 CELISA: A Novel Potency Assay and Screening Tool for Redifferentiation Stimuli of Human Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Romero, Jose; Kürsener, Sibylle; Kohl, Sandro; Nesic, Dobrila

    2017-06-01

    During monolayer expansion, a necessary step in autologous chondrocyte implantation, human articular chondrocytes (HAC) dedifferentiate and lose their capacity to produce stable hyaline cartilage. Determining HAC potency and learning how to trigger their redifferentiation would improve cell-based cartilage regeneration therapies. We previously identified S100B and S100A1 proteins as markers of HAC redifferentiation potential. Here, we aimed to: (i) demonstrate a correlation between S100B + A1-positive HAC in monolayer culture and their neochondrogenesis capacity in pellet culture; (ii) develop an S100B + A1 cell-based ELISA, and (iii) prove that S100B + A1 induction in HAC increases their chondrogenic capacity. Expression patterns of S100A1 and S100B were investigated in HAC during dedifferentiation (monolayer) or redifferentiation (pellet or high-osmolarity/BMP4 treatment in monolayer) using qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, or immunohistochemistry. A cell-based ELISA (CELISA) was developed as a 96-well microplate multiplex assay to measure S100B + A1 (chondrogenesis), alkaline phosphatase (hypertrophy), and DNA amount (normalization), and applied to HAC, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5. The direct correlation between the percentage of S100B + A1-positive HAC in monolayer and their neochondrogenesis in pellets validates S100B + A1 as a marker of chondrogenic potency. The S100B + A1-CELISA accurately determines HAC differentiation status, allows identification of chondrogenic stimuli, and permits the simultaneous monitoring of the undesirable hypertrophic phenotype. This novel assay offers a high-throughput, comprehensive and versatile approach for measuring cell chondrogenic potency and for identifying redifferentiation factors/conditions. HAC improved neochondrogenesis in pellets-induced with high-osmolarity and BMP4 treatment in monolayer-suggests that cell instruction prior to implantation

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  5. Development and application of a multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for screening a global collection of Citrus tristeza virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Ananthakrishnan, G; Hartung, John S; Brlansky, R H

    2010-10-01

    The emerging diversity of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypes has complicated detection and diagnostic measures and prompted the search for new differentiation methods. To simplify the identification and differentiation of CTV genotypes, a multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique for the screening of CTV isolates was developed. Variable regions within the open reading frame (ORF)-1a of diverse CTV genotypes were identified to develop first a simplex (S) and then a hexaplex (H) RT-PCR. CTV isolates have been grouped previously into five genotypes (namely, T3, T30, T36, VT, and B165) based on the nucleotide sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. Nucleotide sequences from GenBank were used to design species and genotype-specific primers (GSPs). The GSPs were initially used for reliable detection of all CTV genotypes using S-RT-PCR. Furthermore, detection of all five recognized CTV genotypes was established using the H-RT-PCR. Six amplicons, one generic to all CTV isolates and one for each of the five recognized genotypes, were identified on the basis of thei