Sample records for pseudomonas ards porcine

  1. Effect(s) of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Porcine Model (United States)


    technique is limited by the inherent time delays resulting from extensive dissection. Further, cell yields reported may not be optimal if large cell...purse string suture. A 2 cm transmural incision was made in the right ventricle proximal to the pulmonary outflow tract and a #32 french Sarns catheter

  2. A novel porcine model of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by oropharyngeal challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Rigol, Montserrat; Marti, Joan-Daniel; Saucedo, Lina; Ranzani, Otavio T; Roca, Ignasi; Cabanas, Maria; Muñoz, Laura; Giunta, Valeria; Luque, Nestor; Rinaudo, Mariano; Esperatti, Mariano; Fernandez-Barat, Laia; Ferrer, Miquel; Vila, Jordi; Ramirez, Jose; Torres, Antoni


    Animal models of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in primates, sheep, and pigs differ in the underlying pulmonary injury, etiology, bacterial inoculation methods, and time to onset. The most common ovine and porcine models do not reproduce the primary pathogenic mechanism of the disease, through the aspiration of oropharyngeal pathogens, or the most prevalent human etiology. Herein the authors characterize a novel porcine model of VAP due to aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ten healthy pigs were intubated, positioned in anti-Trendelenburg, and mechanically ventilated for 72 h. Three animals did not receive bacterial challenge, whereas in seven animals, a P. aeruginosa suspension was instilled into the oropharynx. Tracheal aspirates were cultured and respiratory mechanics were recorded. On autopsy, lobar samples were obtained to corroborate VAP through microbiological and histological studies. In animals not challenged, diverse bacterial colonization of the airways was found and monolobar VAP rarely developed. In animals with P. aeruginosa challenge, colonization of tracheal secretion increased up to 6.39 ± 0.34 log colony-forming unit (cfu)/ml (P < 0.001). VAP was confirmed in six of seven pigs, in 78% of the cases developed in the dependent lung segments (right medium and lower lobes, P = 0.032). The static respiratory system elastance worsened to 41.5 ± 5.8 cm H2O/l (P = 0.001). The authors devised a VAP model caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal P. aeruginosa, a frequent causative pathogen of human VAP. The model also overcomes the practical and legislative limitations associated with the use of primates. The authors' model could be employed to study pathophysiologic mechanisms, as well as novel diagnostic/preventive strategies.

  3. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) (United States)

    ... Topics / ARDS ARDS What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  4. Antimicrobial dressing efficacy against mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on porcine skin explants. (United States)

    Phillips, Priscilla L; Yang, Qingping; Davis, Stephen; Sampson, Edith M; Azeke, John I; Hamad, Afifa; Schultz, Gregory S


    An ex vivo porcine skin explant biofilm model that preserves key properties of biofilm attached to skin at different levels of maturity (0-3 days) was used to assess the efficacy of commercially available antimicrobial dressings and topical treatments. Assays were also performed on the subpopulation of antibiotic tolerant biofilm generated by 24 hours of pre-treatment with gentamicin (120× minimal inhibitory concentration) prior to agent exposure. Five types of antimicrobial agents (iodine, silver, polyhexamethylene biguanide, honey and ethanol) and four types of moisture dressings (cotton gauze, sodium carboxymethylcellulose fibre, calcium alginate fibre and cadexomer beads) were assessed. Time-release silver gel and cadexomer iodine dressings were the most effective in reducing mature biofilm [between 5 and 7 logarithmic (log) of 7-log total], whereas all other dressing formulations reduced biofilm between 0·3 and 2 log in 24 or 72 hours with a single exposure. Similar results were found after 24-hour exposure to silver release dressings using an in vivo pig burn wound model, demonstrating correlation between the ex vivo and in vivo models. Results of this study indicate that commonly used microbicidal wound dressings vary widely in their ability to kill mature biofilm and the efficacy is influenced by time of exposure, number of applications, moisture level and agent formulation (sustained release). © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal published by Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effect of negative pressure wound therapy with periodic instillation using antimicrobial solutions on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on porcine skin explants. (United States)

    Phillips, Priscilla L; Yang, Qingping; Schultz, Gregory S


    Negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) is increasingly used as an adjunct therapy for a wide variety of infected wounds. However, the effect of NPWTi on mature biofilm in wounds has not been determined. This study assessed the effects of NPWTi using saline or various antimicrobial solutions on mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm using an ex vivo porcine skin explant biofilm model. Treatment consisted of six cycles with 10-minute exposure to instillation solution followed by 4 hours of negative pressure at -125 mm Hg over a 24-hour period. NPWTi using saline reduced bacterial levels by 1-log (logarithmic) of 7-log total colony-forming units (CFUs). In contrast, instillation of 1% povidone iodine (2-log), L-solution (3-log), 0·05% chlorhexidine gluconate (3-log), 0·1% polyhexamethylene biguanide (4-log), 0·2% polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (4-log) and 10% povidone iodine (5-log), all significantly reduced (P porcine skin explants, these ex vivo model data suggest that NPWTi with delivery of active antimicrobial agents enhances the reduction of CFUs by increasing destruction and removal of biofilm bacteria. These results must be confirmed in human studies. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Inc.

  6. Comprehensive physiotherapy management in ARDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambrosino, N; Makhabah, D N


    .... Early physiotherapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients has recently been identified as an important therapeutical tool and has become an important evidence-based component in the management of these patients...

  7. Comprehensive physiotherapy management in ARDS. (United States)

    Ambrosino, N; Makhabah, D N


    Survival of critically ill patients is frequently associated with significant functional impairment and reduced health-related quality of life. Early physiotherapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients has recently been identified as an important therapeutical tool and has become an important evidence-based component in the management of these patients. Nevertheless, availability and quality of physiotherapy performed in intensive care units (ICUs) is often inadequate. The aim of this review is to describe recent progresses in application of physiotherapy in ARDS patients. The assessment and evidence-based treatment of these patients should include prevention and reduction of adverse consequences of immobilization and weaning failure. A variety of modalities of early physiotherapy in ICU are suggested by clinical research and should be applied according to the stage of disease, comorbidities, and patient's level of cooperation. Early ICU physiotherapy is an interdisciplinary team activity, involving physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses and medical staff.

  8. Interobserver Reliability of the Berlin ARDS Definition and Strategies to Improve the Reliability of ARDS Diagnosis. (United States)

    Sjoding, Michael W; Hofer, Timothy P; Co, Ivan; Courey, Anthony; Cooke, Colin R; Iwashyna, Theodore J


    Failure to reliably diagnose ARDS may be a major driver of negative clinical trials and underrecognition and treatment in clinical practice. We sought to examine the interobserver reliability of the Berlin ARDS definition and examine strategies for improving the reliability of ARDS diagnosis. Two hundred five patients with hypoxic respiratory failure from four ICUs were reviewed independently by three clinicians, who evaluated whether patients had ARDS, the diagnostic confidence of the reviewers, whether patients met individual ARDS criteria, and the time when criteria were met. Interobserver reliability of an ARDS diagnosis was "moderate" (kappa = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.40-0.59). Sixty-seven percent of diagnostic disagreements between clinicians reviewing the same patient was explained by differences in how chest imaging studies were interpreted, with other ARDS criteria contributing less (identification of ARDS risk factor, 15%; cardiac edema/volume overload exclusion, 7%). Combining the independent reviews of three clinicians can increase reliability to "substantial" (kappa = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.80). When a clinician diagnosed ARDS with "high confidence," all other clinicians agreed with the diagnosis in 72% of reviews. There was close agreement between clinicians about the time when a patient met all ARDS criteria if ARDS developed within the first 48 hours of hospitalization (median difference, 5 hours). The reliability of the Berlin ARDS definition is moderate, driven primarily by differences in chest imaging interpretation. Combining independent reviews by multiple clinicians or improving methods to identify bilateral infiltrates on chest imaging are important strategies for improving the reliability of ARDS diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  9. ARDS following inhalation of hydrochloric acid. (United States)

    Bansal, D P; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Radhika, P; Sharma, Manish


    The clinical spectrum of Inhalation injury can range from mild cough to a devastating ARDS. We herewith present a patient who is a goldsmith by occupation and his work consists of dissolving gold in Hydrochloric acid. He had accidentally inhaled fumes of Hydrochloric acid and presented with cough and breathlessness, later on required mechanical ventilation for ARDS and improved. This highlights the importance of not to neglect mild symptoms like cough and dyspnea in such a scenario which may have some hidden catastrophe.

  10. Surfactant Therapy of ALI and ARDS (United States)

    Raghavendran, K; Willson, D; Notter, RH


    This article examines exogenous lung surfactant replacement therapy and its utility in mitigating clinical acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Biophysical research has documented that lung surfactant dysfunction can be reversed or mitigated by increasing surfactant concentration, and multiple studies in animals with ALI/ARDS have shown that respiratory function and pulmonary mechanics in vivo can be improved by exogenous surfactant administration. Exogenous surfactant therapy is a routine intervention in neonatal intensive care, and is life-saving in preventing or treating the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) in premature infants. In applications relevant for lung injury-related respiratory failure and ALI/ARDS, surfactant therapy has been shown to be beneficial in term infants with pneumonia and meconium aspiration lung injury, and in children up to age 21 with direct pulmonary forms of ALI/ARDS. However, extension of exogenous surfactant therapy to adults with respiratory failure and clinical ALI/ARDS remains a challenge. Coverage here reviews clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients with ALI/ARDS, particularly focusing on its potential advantages in patients with direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes. Also discussed is the rationale for mechanism-based therapies utilizing exogenous surfactant in combination with agents targeting other aspects of the multifaceted pathophysiology of inflammatory lung injury. Additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactant therapy in ALI/ARDS are also described, including the difficulty of effectively delivering surfactants to injured lungs and the existence of activity differences between clinical surfactant drugs. PMID:21742216

  11. Corticosteroids and ARDS: A review of treatment and prevention evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G C Khilnani


    Full Text Available To systematically review the role of corticosteroids in prevention of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in high-risk patients, and in treatment of established ARDS. Primary articles were identified by English-language Pubmed/MEDLINE, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane systemic review database search (1960-June 2009 using the MeSH headings: ARDS, adult respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS, corticosteroids, and methylprednisolone (MP. The identified studies were reviewed and information regarding role of corticosteroids in prevention and treatment of ARDS was evaluated. Nine trials have evaluated the role of corticosteroid drugs in management of ARDS at various stages. Of the 9, 4 trials evaluated role of corticosteroids in prevention of ARDS, while other 5 trials were focused on treatment after variable periods of onset of ARDS. Trials with preventive corticosteroids, mostly using high doses of MP, showed negative results with patients in treatment arm, showing higher mortality and rate of ARDS development. While trials of corticosteroids in early ARDS showed variable results, somewhat, favoring use of these agents to reduce associated morbidities. In late stage of ARDS, these drugs have no benefits and are associated with adverse outcome. Use of corticosteroids in patients with early ARDS showed equivocal results in decreasing mortality; however, there is evidence that these drugs reduce organ dysfunction score, lung injury score, ventilator requirement, and intensive care unit stay. However, most of these trials are small, having a significant heterogeneity regarding study design, etiology of ARDS, and dosage of corticosteroids. Further research involving large-scale trials on relatively homogeneous cohort is necessary to establish the role of corticosteroids for this condition.

  12. Factors associated with oxygenation improvement in children with ARDS


    Abdul Chairy; Nurnaningsih Nurnaningsih; Endy P. Prawirohartono


    Background In pediatric patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has a high mortality rate of approximately 25%. In surviving children, ARDS may result in sequelae, such as restrictive or obstructive lung dysfunction, muscle weakness and hypotrophy, as well as psychiatric, intelligence, and memory problems. Objective To identify prognostic factors related to oxygenation improvement in children with ARDS. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in th...

  13. A prospective international observational prevalence study on prone positioning of ARDS patients: the APRONET (ARDS Prone Position Network) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guérin, C.; Beuret, P.; Constantin, J. M.; Bellani, G.; Garcia-Olivares, P.; Roca, O.; Meertens, J. H.; Maia, P. Azevedo; Becher, T.; Peterson, J.; Larsson, A.; Gurjar, M.; Hajjej, Z.; Kovari, F.; Assiri, A. H.; Mainas, E.; Hasan, M. S.; Morocho-Tutillo, D. R.; Baboi, L.; Chrétien, J. M.; François, G.; Ayzac, L.; Chen, L.; Brochard, L.; Mercat, A.; Hajjej, Zied; Sellami, Walid; Ferjani, M.; Gurjar, Mohan; Assiri, Amer; Al Bshabshe, Ali; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb; Mandourah, Yasser; Hasan, Mohd Shahnaz; Rai, Vineya; Marzida, M.; Corcoles Gonzalez, Virgilio; Sanchez Iniesta, Rafael; Garcia, Pablo; Garcia-Montesinos de La Peña, Manuel; Garcia Herrera, Adriana; Roca, Oriol; Garcia-de-Acilu, Marina; Masclans Enviz, Joan Ramon; Mancebo, Jordi; Heili, Sarah; Artigas Raventos, Antonio; Blanch Torra, Lluís; Roche-Campo, Ferran; Rialp, Gemma; Forteza, Catalina; Berrazueta, Ana; Martinez, Esther; Penuelas, Oscar; Jara-Rubio, Ruben; Mallat, Jihad; Thevenin, D.; Zogheib, Elie; Mercat, Alain; Levrat, Albrice; Porot, Veronique; Bedock, B.; Grech, Ludovic; Plantefeve, Gaetan; Badie, Julio; Besch, Guillaume; Pili-Floury, Sébastien; Guisset, Olivier; Robine, Adrien; Prat, Gwenael; Doise, Jean-Marc; Badet, Michel; Thouret, J. M.; Just, Bernard; Perbet, Sébastien; Lautrette, Alexandre; Souweine, B.; Chabanne, Russell; Danguy des Déserts, Marc; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Marchalot, Antoine; Rigaud, J. P.; Bele, Nicolas; Beague, Sébastien; Hours, Sandrine; Marque, Sophie; Durand, Michel; Payen, J. F.; Stoclin, Annabelle; Gaffinel, Alain; Winer, Arnaud; Chudeau, Nicolas; Tirot, Patrice; Thyrault, Martial; Paulet, Rémi; Thyrault, M.; Aubrun, Frederic; Guerin, Claude; Floccard, Bernard; Rimmele, T.; Argaud, Laurent; Hernu, Romain; Crozon Clauzel, Jullien; Wey, Pierre-François; Bourdin, Gael; Pommier, C.; Cueuille, Nadège; de Varax, N. N.; Marchi, Elisa; Papazian, L.; Jochmans, Sebastien; Monchi, M.; Jaber, Samir; de Jong, Audrey; Moulaire, Valerie; Capron, Matthieu; Jarrige, L.; Barberet, Guillaume; Lakhal, Karim; Rozec, B.; Dellamonica, Jean; Robert, Alexandre; Bernardin, G.; Danin, Pierre-Eric; Raucoules, M.; Runge, Isabelle; Foucrier, Arnaud; Hamada, Sophie; Tesniere, Antoine; Fromentin, Mélanie; Samama, C. M.; Mira, Jean-Paul; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Arbelot, Charlotte; Demoule, Alexandre; Roche, Anne; Similowski, T.; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Gaudry, Stéphane; Dreyfuss, D.; de Montmolin, Etienne; Da Silva, Daniel; Verdiere, B.; Ardisson, Fanny; Lemiale, Virginie; Azoulay, Elie; Bruel, Cédric; Tiercelet, Kelly; Fartoukh, Muriel; Voiriot, Guillaume; Hoffmann, Clement; Leclerc, T.; Thille, Arnaud; Robert, Réné; Beuret, Pascal; Beduneau, Gaëtan; Beuzelin, Marion; Tamion, F.; Morel, Jérôme; Tremblay, Aymeric; Molliex, S.; Amal, Jean-Michel; Meaudre, Eric; Goutorbe, Philippe; Laffon, Marc; Gros, Antoine; Nica, Alexandru; Barjon, Genevieve; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Imzi, Nadia; Gally, Josette; Real, N. N.; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Souloy, Xavier; Girbes, Armand; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Schultz, Marcus; Winters, Tineke; Mijzen, Lisa; Roekaerts, P. M. H. J.; Vermeijden, Wytze; Beishuizen, Albertus; Trof, R.; Corsten, Stijn; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Meertens, John; Dieperink, Wim; Pickers, Peter; Roovers, Noortje; Maia, Paulo; Duque, Melanie; Rua, Fernando; Pereira de Figueired, António Manuel; Ramos, Armindo; Fragoso, Elsa; Azevedo, Pilar; Gouveia, Joao; Costa E Silva, Zélia; Silva, Goncalo; Chaves, Susana; Nobrega, J. J.; Lopes, Luís; Valerio, Bernardino; Araujo, Ana Carolina; de Freitas, Paulo Telles; Bouw, Maria Jose; Melao, Maria; Granja, C.; Marcal, Paulo; Fernandes, Antero; Joao, Gonçalves Pereira; Maia, Dionísio Faria; Spadaro, Savino; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Bellani, Giacomo; Citerio, G.; Mauri, Tommaso; Alban, Laura; Pesenti, A.; Mistraletti, Giovanni; Formenti, Paolo; Tommasino, C.; Tardini, Francesca; Fumagalli, R.; Colombo, Riccardo; Fossali, Tommaso; Catena, E.; Todeschini, Manuel; Gnesin, Paolo; Cracchiolo, Andrea Neville; Palma, Daniela; Tetamo, R.; Albiero, Daniela; Costantini, Elena; Raimondi, F.; Coppadoro, Andrea; Vascotto, Ettore; Lusenti, F.; Becher, Tobias; Schädler, Dirk; Weiler, N.; Karagiannidis, Christian; Petersson, Johan; Konrad, D.; Kawati, Rafael; Wessbergh, Joanna; Valtysson, J.; Rockstroh, Matthias; Borgstrom, Sten; Larsson, Niklas; Thunberg, J.; Camsooksai, Julie; Briggs, N. N.; Kovari, Ferenc; Cuesta, J.; Anwar, Sibs; O'Brien, B.; Barberis, Luigi; Sturman, J.; Mainas, Efstratios; Karatzas, S.; Piza, Petr; Sottiaux, Thierry; Adam, J. F.; Gawda, Ryszard; Gawor, Maen; Alqdah, M.; Cohen, D.; Brochard, Laurent; Baker, A.; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio Antonio; Garcia-Guillen, Francisco Javier; Morocho Tutillo, Diego Rolando; Jibaja Vega, Manuel; Zakalik, Graciela; Pagella, Gonzalo; Marengo, J.


    While prone positioning (PP) has been shown to improve patient survival in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, the rate of application of PP in clinical practice still appears low. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of use of PP in ARDS patients (primary

  14. Construction and management of ARDS/sepsis registry with REDCap. (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoqing; Kozlowski, Natascha; Wu, Sulong; Jiang, Mei; Huang, Yongbo; Mao, Pu; Liu, Xiaoqing; He, Weiqun; Huang, Chaoyi; Li, Yimin; Zhang, Haibo


    The study aimed to construct and manage an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)/sepsis registry that can be used for data warehousing and clinical research. The workflow methodology and software solution of research electronic data capture (REDCap) was used to construct the ARDS/sepsis registry. Clinical data from ARDS and sepsis patients registered to the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital formed the registry. These data were converted to the electronic case report form (eCRF) format used in REDCap by trained medical staff. Data validation, quality control, and database management were conducted to ensure data integrity. The clinical data of 67 patients registered to the ICU between June 2013 and December 2013 were analyzed. Of the 67 patients, 45 (67.2%) were classified as sepsis, 14 (20.9%) as ARDS, and eight (11.9%) as sepsis-associated ARDS. The patients' information, comprising demographic characteristics, medical history, clinical interventions, daily assessment, clinical outcome, and follow-up data, was properly managed and safely stored in the ARDS/sepsis registry. Data efficiency was guaranteed by performing data collection and data entry twice weekly and every two weeks, respectively. The ARDS/sepsis database that we constructed and manage with REDCap in the ICU can provide a solid foundation for translational research on the clinical data of interest, and a model for development of other medical registries in the future.

  15. Acute Respiratory Distress Sundrome (ARDS): Pathogenesis and Treatment Modalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Kari


    .... Over the last century ARDS has been characterized by several names which include: shock lung, wet lung, DaNang lung, fat embolism, congestive atelectasis, oxygen toxicity, stiff lung syndrome, white lung syndrome, and pump lung, to mention a few...

  16. A Novel Porcine Model of Septic Shock Induced by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang


    Conclusions: In the present study, we developed a novel porcine model of septic shock induced by ARDS due to severe MRSA pneumonia with characteristic hyperdynamic and hypodynamic phases in 24 h, which mimicked the hemodynamic changing of septic shock in human.

  17. Argentina Arde: Art as a tool for social struggle


    Miralles, Veronika


    This study focuses on artistic representations of the Argentine crisis of 2002, as produced by the art collective Argentina Arde. The photographic, documentary video, performance works and texts produced by Argentine Arde give an indication of the ways in which the 'nation' is being envisioned by new social movements in Argentina. This study provides insight into their strategic use of nationalist discourse in organizing and mobilizing various sectors of the population. I look into the role p...

  18. Demonstration of Percent Tree Cover Mapping Using Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD and Sensitivity with Respect to Landsat ARD Processing Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Egorov


    Full Text Available The recently available Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD are provided as top of atmosphere (TOA and atmospherically corrected (surface reflectance tiled products and are designed to make the U.S. Landsat archive for the United States straightforward to use. In this study, the utility of ARD for 30 m percent tree cover mapping is demonstrated and the impact of different ARD processing levels on mapping accuracy examined. Five years of Landsat 5 and 7 ARD over 12 tiles encompassing Washington State are considered using an established bagged regression tree methodology and training data derived from Goddard LiDAR Hyperspectral & Thermal Imager (G-LiHT data. Sensitivity to the amount of training data is examined with increasing mapping accuracy observed as more training data are used. Four processing levels of ARD are considered independently and the mapped results are compared: (i TOA ARD; (ii surface ARD; (iii bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF adjusted atmospherically corrected ARD; and (iv weekly composited BRDF adjusted atmospherically corrected ARD. The atmospherically corrected ARD provide marginally the highest mapping accuracies, although accuracy differences are negligible among the four (≤0.07% RMSE when modest amounts of training data are used. The TOA ARD provide the most accurate maps compared to the other input data when only small amounts of training data are used, and the least accurate maps otherwise. The results are illustrated and the implications discussed.

  19. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in mechanically ventilated burn patients: An analysis of risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes using the Berlin ARDS definition. (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Li, Zeyu; Hanna, Steven; Spano, Stefania; Wood, Donna; Chung, Karen; Camacho, Fernando


    The Berlin definition of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) has been applied to military burns resulting from combat-related trauma, but has not been widely studied among civilian burns. This study's purpose was to use the Berlin definition to determine the incidence of ARDS, and its associated respiratory morbidity, and mortality among civilian burn patients. Retrospective study of burn patients mechanically ventilated for ≥48h at an American Burn Association-verified burn center. The Berlin criteria identified patients with mild, moderate, and severe ARDS. Logistic regression was used to identify variables predictive of moderate to severe ARDS, and mortality. The outcome measures of interest were duration of mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality. Values are shown as the median (Q1-Q3). We included 162 subjects [24% female, age 48 (35-60), % total body surface area (TBSA) burn 28 (19-40), % body surface area (BSA) full thickness (FT) burn 13 (0-30), and 62% with inhalation injury]. The incidence of ARDS was 43%. Patients with ARDS had larger %TBSA burns [30.5 (23.1-47.0) vs. 24.8 (17.1-35), p=0.007], larger FT burns [20.5(5.4-35.5) vs. 7 (0-22.1), p=0.001], but had no significant difference in the incidence of inhalation injury (p=0.216), compared to those without ARDS. The % FT burn predicted the development of moderate to severe ARDS [OR 1.034, 95%CI (1.013-1.055), p=0.001]. ARDS developed in the 1st week after burn in 86% of cases. Worsening severity of ARDS was associated with increased days of mechanical ventilation in survivors (p=0.001), a reduction in ventilator-free days/1st 30 days in all subjects (p=0.004), and a strong indication of increased mortality (0% in mild ARDS vs. 50% in severe ARDS, unadjusted p=0.02). Neither moderate ARDS nor severe ARDS were significant predictors of death. ARDS is common among mechanically ventilated civilian burn patients, and develops early after burn. The extent of full thickness burn predicted

  20. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  1. Aerosolized prostacyclins for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Bastholm Bille, Anders; Allingstrup, Mikkel


    in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of aerosolized prostacyclin in adults and children with ARDS. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 4); MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI BIOSIS Previews, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and three trials...

  2. Ventilatory strategy in ARDS focusing on pressure controlled ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kesecioglu (Jozef)


    textabstractThis thesis focuses on comparison of different modes of ventilation in animals and patients with ARDS. The aim is to determine the immediate advantages of one mode over the other in terms of gas exchange, airway pressures,' hemodynamics and ventilation inhomogeneity.

  3. A prospective international observational prevalence study on prone positioning of ARDS patients: the APRONET (ARDS Prone Position Network) study. (United States)

    Guérin, C; Beuret, P; Constantin, J M; Bellani, G; Garcia-Olivares, P; Roca, O; Meertens, J H; Maia, P Azevedo; Becher, T; Peterson, J; Larsson, A; Gurjar, M; Hajjej, Z; Kovari, F; Assiri, A H; Mainas, E; Hasan, M S; Morocho-Tutillo, D R; Baboi, L; Chrétien, J M; François, G; Ayzac, L; Chen, L; Brochard, L; Mercat, A


    While prone positioning (PP) has been shown to improve patient survival in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, the rate of application of PP in clinical practice still appears low. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of use of PP in ARDS patients (primary endpoint), the physiological effects of PP, and the reasons for not using it (secondary endpoints). The APRONET study was a prospective international 1-day prevalence study performed four times in April, July, and October 2016 and January 2017. On each study day, investigators in each ICU had to screen every patient. For patients with ARDS, use of PP, gas exchange, ventilator settings and plateau pressure (Pplat) were recorded before and at the end of the PP session. Complications of PP and reasons for not using PP were also documented. Values are presented as median (1st-3rd quartiles). Over the study period, 6723 patients were screened in 141 ICUs from 20 countries (77% of the ICUs were European), of whom 735 had ARDS and were analyzed. Overall 101 ARDS patients had at least one session of PP (13.7%), with no differences among the 4 study days. The rate of PP use was 5.9% (11/187), 10.3% (41/399) and 32.9% (49/149) in mild, moderate and severe ARDS, respectively (P = 0.0001). The duration of the first PP session was 18 (16-23) hours. Measured with the patient in the supine position before and at the end of the first PP session, PaO2/FIO2 increased from 101 (76-136) to 171 (118-220) mmHg (P = 0.0001) driving pressure decreased from 14 [11-17] to 13 [10-16] cmH2O (P = 0.001), and Pplat decreased from 26 [23-29] to 25 [23-28] cmH2O (P = 0.04). The most prevalent reason for not using PP (64.3%) was that hypoxemia was not considered sufficiently severe. Complications were reported in 12 patients (11.9%) in whom PP was used (pressure sores in five, hypoxemia in two, endotracheal tube-related in two ocular in two, and a transient increase in intracranial pressure in one

  4. Minimization of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in ARDS Patients – Part I: Complex Model of Mechanically Ventilated ARDS Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glapiński Jarosław


    Full Text Available A complex model of mechanically ventilated ARDS lungs is proposed in the paper. This analogue is based on a combination of four components that describe breathing mechanics: morphology, mechanical properties of surfactant, tissue and chest wall characteristics. Physical-mathematical formulas attained from experimental data have been translated into their electrical equivalents and implemented in MultiSim software. To examine the adequacy of the forward model to the properties and behaviour of mechanically ventilated lungs in patients with ARDS symptoms, several computer simulations have been performed and reported in the paper. Inhomogeneous characteristics observed in the physical properties of ARDS lungs were mapped in a multi-lobe model and the measured outputs were compared with the data from physiological reports. In this way clinicians and scientists can obtain the knowledge on the moment of airway zone reopening/closure expressed as a function of pressure, volume or even time. In the paper, these trends were assessed for inhomogeneous distributions (proper for ARDS of surfactant properties and airway geometry in consecutive lung lobes. The proposed model enables monitoring of temporal alveolar dynamics in successive lobes as well as those occurring at a higher level of lung structure organization, i.e. in a point P0 which can be used for collection of respiratory data during indirect management of recruitment/de-recruitment processes in ARDS lungs. The complex model and synthetic data generated for various parametrization scenarios make possible prospective studies on designing an indirect mode of alveolar zone management, i.e. with

  5. The Montreux definition of neonatal ARDS: biological and clinical background behind the description of a new entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, Daniele; van Kaam, Anton H.; Tingay, David G.; Courtney, Sherry E.; Danhaive, Olivier; Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.; Tissieres, Pierre; Brierley, Joe; Conti, Giorgio; Pillow, Jane J.; Rimensberger, Peter C.


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is undefined in neonates, despite the long-standing existing formal recognition of ARDS syndrome in later life. We describe the Neonatal ARDS Project: an international, collaborative, multicentre, and multidisciplinary project which aimed to produce an ARDS

  6. The Montreux definition of neonatal ARDS : Biological and clinical background behind the description of a new entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, Daniele; van Kaam, Anton H.; Tingay, David G.; Courtney, Sherry E.; Danhaive, Olivier; Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.; Tissieres, Pierre; Brierley, Joe; Conti, Giorgio; Pillow, Jane J.; Rimensberger, Peter C.

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is undefined in neonates, despite the long-standing existing formal recognition of ARDS syndrome in later life. We describe the Neonatal ARDS Project: an international, collaborative, multicentre, and multidisciplinary project which aimed to produce an ARDS

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): HRCT findings in survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Song, Jeong Sup; Lee, Kyo Young [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this report is to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of the lung in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Among eleven patients who survived ARDS for one year, chest radiography and HRCT revealed pulmonary fibrosis in four. Causes of ARDS included pneumonia during pregnancy, near drowning, pneumonia during liver cirrhosis, and postoperative sepsis. Thoracoscopic biopsy and histopathologic correlation were available in one patient. HRCT showed diffuse interlobular septal thickening, ground glass opacity, parenchymal distortion, and traction bronchiectasis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules were seen in two patients and one patient had multiple, large bullae in the left hemithorax. In all patients, lesions affected the upper and anterior zones of the lung more prominently. The distribution of pulmonary fibrosis was characteristic and reflected the pathogenesis of lung injury; fibrosis was largely due to hyperoxia caused by ventilator care. In one patient, histopathologic correlation showed that imaging findings were accounted for by thickening of the alveolar septum along with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells and fibrosis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules corresponded with bronchiolitis.

  8. June 2015 Phoenix critical care journal club: interventions in ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Mortality has been declining in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS (1. However, the cause of the decline in mortality is unclear. The only intervention shown to improve survival has been low tidal volume ventilation but the mortality was improving before this intervention was widely used (2. Nevertheless, it was suggested that we look at system performance regarding ARDS management from a critical appraisal standpoint. This journal club was hoped to help as a starting point in that regard. Four potential beneficial interventions were discussed: 1. Conservative fluid management; 2. Optimal PEEP as determined by esophageal pressure; 3. Prone positioning; and 4. Mechanical ventilation driving pressure. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS Clinical Trials Network, Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Hayden D, deBoisblanc B, Connors AF Jr, Hite RD, Harabin AL. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. N Engl ...

  9. Respiratory mechanics to understand ARDS and guide mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Mauri, Tommaso; Lazzeri, Marta; Bellani, Giacomo; Zanella, Alberto; Grasselli, Giacomo


    As precision medicine is becoming a standard of care in selecting tailored rather than average treatments, physiological measurements might represent the first step in applying personalized therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). A systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could represent a step in this direction, for two main reasons. Approach and Main results: On the one hand, respiratory mechanics are a powerful physiological method to understand the severity of this syndrome in each single patient. Decreased respiratory system compliance, for example, is associated with low end expiratory lung volume and more severe lung injury. On the other hand, respiratory mechanics might guide protective mechanical ventilation settings. Improved gravitationally dependent regional lung compliance could support the selection of positive end-expiratory pressure and maximize alveolar recruitment. Moreover, the association between driving airway pressure and mortality in ARDS patients potentially underlines the importance of sizing tidal volume on respiratory system compliance rather than on predicted body weight. The present review article aims to describe the main alterations of respiratory mechanics in ARDS as a potent bedside tool to understand severity and guide mechanical ventilation settings, thus representing a readily available clinical resource for ICU physicians.

  10. Rotordynamics on the PC: Transient Analysis With ARDS (United States)

    Fleming, David P.


    Personal computers can now do many jobs that formerly required a large mainframe computer. An example is NASA Lewis Research Center's program Analysis of RotorDynamic Systems (ARDS), which uses the component mode synthesis method to analyze the dynamic motion of up to five rotating shafts. As originally written in the early 1980's, this program was considered large for the mainframe computers of the time. ARDS, which was written in Fortran 77, has been successfully ported to a 486 personal computer. Plots appear on the computer monitor via calls programmed for the original CALCOMP plotter; plots can also be output on a standard laser printer. The executable code, which uses the full array sizes of the mainframe version, easily fits on a high-density floppy disk. The program runs under DOS with an extended memory manager. In addition to transient analysis of blade loss, step turns, and base acceleration, with simulation of squeeze-film dampers and rubs, ARDS calculates natural frequencies and unbalance response.

  11. Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with Lung Protection in Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS. (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo L M; Ortolan, Luana S; Sercundes, Michelle K; Debone, Daniela; Murillo, Oscar; Lima, Flávia A; Marinho, Claudio R F; Epiphanio, Sabrina


    Malaria is a serious disease, caused by the parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which was responsible for 440,000 deaths in 2015. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the main clinical complications in severe malaria. The murine model DBA/2 reproduces the clinical signs of ALI/ARDS in humans, when infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. High levels of HO-1 were reported in cases of severe malaria. Our data indicated that the HO-1 mRNA and protein expression are increased in mice that develop malaria-associated ALI/ARDS (MA-ALI/ARDS). Additionally, the hemin, a HO-1 inducing drug, prevented mice from developing MA-ALI/ARDS when administered prior to the development of MA-ALI/ARDS in this model. Also, hemin treatment showed an amelioration of respiratory parameters in mice, high VEGF levels in the sera, and a decrease in vascular permeability in the lung, which are signs of ALI/ARDS. Therefore, the induction of HO-1 before the development of MA-ALI/ARDS could be protective. However, the increased expression of HO-1 on the onset of MA-ALI/ARDS development may represent an effort to revert the phenotype of this syndrome by the host. We therefore confirm that HO-1 inducing drugs could be used for prevention of MA-ALI/ARDS in humans.


    Nguyen, Binh; Bernstein, David B.; Bates, Jason H.T.


    Purpose The current ventilatory care goal for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the only evidence-based approach for managing ARDS, is to ventilate with a tidal volume (VT) of 6 ml/kg predicted body weight (PBW). However, it is not uncommon for some caregivers to feel inclined to deviate from this strategy for one reason or another. To accommodate this inclination in a rationalized manner, we previously developed an algorithm that allows for VT to depart from 6 ml/kg PBW based on physiological criteria. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of this algorithm in a small retrospective study. Materials and Methods Current values of peak airway pressure (PAP), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) are used in a fuzzy logic algorithm to decide how much VT should differ from 6 ml/kg PBW and how much PEEP should change from its current setting. We retrospectively tested the predictions of the algorithm against 26 cases of decision making in 17 patients with ARDS. Results Differences between algorithm and physician VT decisions were within 2.5 ml/kg PBW except in 1 of 26 cases, and differences between PEEP decisions were within 2.5 cm H2O except in 3 of 26 cases. The algorithm was consistently more conservative than physicians in changing VT, but was slightly less conservative when changing PEEP. Conclusions Within the limits imposed by a small retrospective study, we conclude that our fuzzy logic algorithm makes sensible decisions while at the same time keeping practice close to the current ventilatory care goal. PMID:24721387

  13. Scrub typhus causing myocarditis and ARDS: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Lakshmikanth Bharathi


    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the so-called "tsutsugamushi triangle". There is a wide spectrum of presentation of the disease ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to life-threatening sepsis with multiorgan dysfunction. We are presenting a case of scrub typhus causing myocarditis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in an adult female with no previous comorbid illness who recovered fully with prompt treatment in spite of prolonged ventilator support, emphasizng the need for early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antirickettsial antibiotics in a patient presenting with features of scrub typhus.

  14. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for ARDS: outcome analysis of a Croatian referral center for respiratory ECMO. (United States)

    Kutleša, Marko; Novokmet, Anđa; Josipović Mraović, Renata; Baršić, Bruno


    The use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) as a rescue therapy in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has become well established; however, the affirmation of evidence on VV-ECMO application and the analysis of patient outcomes after VV-ECMO treatment for ARDS continues. The aim of the study is to identify variables that affected the outcome of patients treated with VV-ECMO for severe ARDS outside a major ECMO center. The study included adult patients with severe ARDS treated with ECMO at a tertiary care hospital in Zagreb, Croatia between October 2009 and July 2014. Patients were recruited from a prospective database. The study enrolled 40 patients, 20 of whom had H1N1-induced ARDS. The hospital mortality was 38%. The difference in mortality and long-term outcome in H1N1-induced ARDS as compared to non-H1N1-induced ARDS was not significant. Variables associated with mortality included immunosuppression, shock at time of admission, acute renal failure, occurrence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies, nosocomial sepsis and duration of ECMO. The results of our study indicate that ECMO use in severe ARDS is feasible with low mortality and identify or assert the variables associated with adverse outcomes.

  15. Combination of Extracorporeal Life Support and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Treatment of ARDS in Combat Casualties and Evacuation of Service Members with ARDS (United States)


    derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in experimental models of ARDS data suggest that administered allogeneic B-MSCs can mitigate hypoxemia and...previously published data suggest that administration of allogeneic MSCs can mitigate hypoxemia in ARDS and promote recovery. However, it is unknown how...the statistical analysis, however we anticipate that will be necessary to complete additional experiments to provide the statistical power required

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings (United States)

    ... Sepsis Sharps Safety - CDC Transplant Safety Vaccine Safety Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... aeruginosa . Pseudomonas aeruginosa What types of infections does Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause? Serious Pseudomonas infections usually occur in people ...

  17. ARD1 Stabilization of TSC2 Suppresses Tumorigenesis Through the mTOR Signaling Pathway (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Lee, Dung-Fang; Chen, Chun-Te; Liu, Mo; Chou, Chao-Kai; Lee, Hong-Jen; Du, Yi; Xie, Xiaoming; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Weihua, Zhang; Yang, Jer-Yen; Yen, Chia-Jui; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Tan, Minjia; Xing, Gang; Zhao, Yingming; Lin, Chien-Hsing; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Fidler, Isaiah J.; Hung, Mien-Chie


    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates various cellular functions, including tumorigenesis, and is inhibited by the tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1)–TSC2 complex. Here, we demonstrate that arrest-defective protein 1 (ARD1) physically interacts with, acetylates, and stabilizes TSC2, thereby repressing mTOR activity. The inhibition of mTOR by ARD1 inhibits cell proliferation and increases autophagy, thereby inhibiting tumorigenicity. Correlation between ARD1 and TSC2 abundance was apparent in multiple tumor types. Moreover, evaluation of loss of heterozygosity at Xq28 revealed allelic loss in 31% of tested breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Together, our findings suggest that ARD1 functions as an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway and that dysregulation of the ARD1-TSC2-mTOR axis may contribute to cancer development. PMID:20145209

  18. Bacterial transmission from contact lenses to porcine corneas : An ex vivo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, PBJ; van Kooten, TG; Bruinsma, GM; Hooymans, AMM; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    PURPOSE. To quantify the transmission to ex vivo porcine eyes of Staphylococcus aureus 835 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 from three types of contact lenses - one daily wear and two extended wear - differing in hydrophobicity and roughness. METHODS. One daily wear lens (etafilcon) and two

  19. Development of ARDS after Excessive Kath Consumption: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Wewalka


    Full Text Available Khat is a drug widely used in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Khat leaves contain, among other substances, the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone, which induce central nervous system stimulation leading to euphoria, hyperactivity, restlessness, and insomnia. However, it also could cause psychological adverse effects such as lethargy, sleepiness, psychoses, and depression necessitating pharmacologic treatment. Here we report the case of a 35-year-old man from Somalia who became unconscious and developed aspiration pneumonia and subsequent ARDS after excessive consumption of khat leaves. His unconsciousness was possibly caused by the sleepiness developed after khat consumption and a benzodiazepine intake by the patient himself. Thus, khat-induced adverse effects should not primarily be treated pharmacologically, but patients should be urged to quit khat consumption in order to eliminate or, at least, reduce the severity of present psychological adverse effects.

  20. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.


    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  1. [Acute respiratory insufficiency due to severe lung injury - ARDS and ALI]. (United States)

    Pfeifer, M


    As a consequence of the novel therapeutic option of mechanical ventilation in early intensive care medicine, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as a disease entity of its own representing the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Since its first description four decades ago, our knowledge about the aetiology, physiology, histology and epidemiology of this lethal pulmonary complication of severe acute diseases such as pneumonia or sepsis has been increasing steadily. The initial major therapeutic advances were due to improvements in intensive care medical procedures and monitoring. The large ARDS Network clinical trial on the magnitude of tidal volume impressively demonstrated the feasibility of targeted clinical trials in patients with ARDS that provide robust evidence in this field. This clinical trial, as well as following large-scale trials in ARDS patients, led to significant changes of ventilation therapy and therapeutic strategies that improve the outcome of this disease entity. Advances in the standardisation of care for ARDS patients involving innovative therapeutic procedures such as extracorporeal gas exchange systems will lead to a further improvement in ARDS management and outcome. Modern pulmonary medicine can play a pivotal role in this process and can contribute its rich experiences in all areas of the respiratory system. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  2. The Montreux definition of neonatal ARDS: biological and clinical background behind the description of a new entity. (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; van Kaam, Anton H; Tingay, David G; Courtney, Sherry E; Danhaive, Olivier; Carnielli, Virgilio P; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kneyber, Martin C J; Tissieres, Pierre; Brierley, Joe; Conti, Giorgio; Pillow, Jane J; Rimensberger, Peter C


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is undefined in neonates, despite the long-standing existing formal recognition of ARDS syndrome in later life. We describe the Neonatal ARDS Project: an international, collaborative, multicentre, and multidisciplinary project which aimed to produce an ARDS consensus definition for neonates that is applicable from the perinatal period. The definition was created through discussions between five expert members of the European Society for Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care; four experts of the European Society for Paediatric Research; two independent experts from the USA and two from Australia. This Position Paper provides the first consensus definition for neonatal ARDS (called the Montreux definition). We also provide expert consensus that mechanisms causing ARDS in adults and older children-namely complex surfactant dysfunction, lung tissue inflammation, loss of lung volume, increased shunt, and diffuse alveolar damage-are also present in several critical neonatal respiratory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane


    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  4. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila


    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks intr...

  5. SNAKES manipulator and ARD sluicer testing -- April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.


    Long reach arms represent one of the options available for deployment of end effectors which can be used in the retrieval of radioactive waste, from the Hanford single shell tanks. The versatility of an arm based deployment system is such that it has the potential to improve the performance of a wide range of end effectors compared with stand-alone or other deployment methods. The long term reliability and availability of the deployment system is central to the timely completion of a waste retrieval program. However, concerns have been expressed over the dynamic performance of long reach arms and it is essential that an arm based system can cope with operational dynamic loads generated by end effectors. The test program conducted set out to measure static and dynamic loads and responses from a representative arm and sluicer, with the objective of extrapolating the data to a long reach arm system, that can be used for in-tank waste retrieval. As an arm with an appropriate reach was not available, the test program was undertaken to measure dynamic characteristics of a Magnox Electric 18 ft multi-link, hydraulically actuated SNAKES manipulator. This is the longest reach unit in service, albeit only one third of the 50 ft length required for in-tank waste retrieval. In addition operational performance and loading measurements were obtained from a low pressure confined system sluicer under development by ARD Environmental, to add to the end effector data base. When subject to impulse loading, the arm was found to behave in a repeatable manner having fundamental natural frequencies in the vertical and transverse directions of 1 Hz. There were also a large number of higher natural frequencies measured up to 100 Hz.

  6. Allergic respiratory disease (ARD), setting forth the basics: proposals of an expert consensus report. (United States)

    Navarro, Ana M; Delgado, Julio; Muñoz-Cano, Rosa M; Dordal, M Teresa; Valero, Antonio; Quirce, Santiago


    The variability of symptoms observed in patients with respiratory allergy often hampers classification based on the criteria proposed in guidelines on rhinitis and asthma. We assessed specific aspects of allergic respiratory disease (ARD) that are not explicitly addressed in the guidelines in order to issue specific recommendations and thus optimize clinical practice. Using the Delphi technique, 40 Spanish allergists were surveyed to reach consensus on 71 items related to ARD. Consensus was achieved for 95.7% of the items. These included the following: the clinical manifestations of ARD are heterogeneous and individual airborne allergens can be related to specific clinical profiles; the optimal approach in patients with ARD is based on the global assessment of rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma; aeroallergens are largely responsible for the clinical features and severity of the disease; and clinical expression is associated with the period of environmental exposure to the allergen. Pharmacological treatment of ARD is often based on the intensity of symptoms recorded during previous allergen exposures and cannot always be administered following a step-up approach, as recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only option for overall treatment of respiratory symptoms using an etiological approach. AIT can modify the prognosis of ARD and should therefore be considered a valuable first-line treatment. The present study highlights gaps in current asthma and rhinitis guidelines and addresses specific aspects of ARD, such as global assessment of both asthma and rhinitis or the specific role of variable allergen exposure in the clinical expression of the disease.

  7. Monocyte Profiles in Critically Ill Patients With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sepsis (United States)


    Pseudomonas Infections; Pseudomonas Septicemia; Pseudomonas; Pneumonia; Pseudomonal Bacteraemia; Pseudomonas Urinary Tract Infection; Pseudomonas Gastrointestinal Tract Infection; Sepsis; Sepsis, Severe; Critically Ill

  8. Porcine eperythrozoonosis in China. (United States)

    Wu, Jiansan; Yu, Jianmin; Song, Cuiping; Sun, Shengjun; Wang, Zhiliang


    Eperythrozoonosis of swine (also designated as porcine mycoplasmosis) is a disease of swine under stress, expressed as a febrile condition with development of an acute ictero-anemia. It is caused by Eperythrozoon suis and usually causes a subclinical infection with a latent carrier state that persists for extended periods. In China, this disease has gradually developed as an important intercurrent disease and an emerging swine disease that, in recent years, has spread throughout all provinces except Tibet. Classical swine fever (hog cholera), porcine influenza, swine enzootic pneumonia, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (blue ear disease), streptococci, and toxoplasmosis were detected in Eperythrozoonosis-infected pig herds, and caused serious economic losses. National epidemiology surveillance in 2002 revealed that this disease caused a total morbidity of 30% and a mortality of 10-20%. Total mortality (which includes culling sick pigs) was more than 60%. The morbidity within infected herds was near 100%, has spread throughout with a total mortality rate usually over 50%. Mortality of piglets in some districts was as high as 50%. The highest infection rate on pig farms was more than 90%. The farms with higher infection rates occurred in pig-raising areas during epidemic seasons. New diagnostic tests, such as ELISA and PCR, have been developed for the detection of porcine eperythrozoonosis, but traditionally the diagnosis of the disease is still based on clinical history and optical microscopic examination of the causative agent in blood smears. Efficient preventive and control measures include the detection of carriers in pig herds and treatment of sick pigs with drugs, such as long-acting oxytetracycline, doxycycline, or aceturate of diminazene. Oxytetracyclines as feed additives have been introduced for eperythrozoonosis prevention in uninfected pig herds, and pig producers have taken measures to reduce stress and improve sanitary conditions.

  9. Variability of Tidal Volume in Patient-Triggered Mechanical Ventilation in ARDS. (United States)

    Perinel-Ragey, Sophie; Baboi, Loredana; Guérin, Claude


    Limiting tidal volume (VT) in patients with ARDS may not be achieved once patient-triggered breaths occur. Furthermore, ICU ventilators offer numerous patient-triggered modes that work differently across brands. We systematically investigated, using a bench model, the effect of patient-triggered modes on the size and variability of VT at different breathing frequencies (f), patient effort, and ARDS severity. We used a V500 Infinity ICU ventilator connected to an ASL 5000 lung model whose compliance was mimicking mild, moderate, and severe ARDS. Thirteen patient-triggered modes were tested, falling into 3 categories, namely volume control ventilation with mandatory minute ventilation; pressure control ventilation, including airway pressure release ventilation (APRV); and pressure support ventilation. Two levels of f and effort were tested for each ARDS severity in each mode. Median (first-third quartiles) VT was compared across modes using non-parametric tests. The probability of VT > 6 mL/kg ideal body weight was assessed by binomial regression and expressed as the odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. VT variability was measured from the coefficient of variation. VT distribution over all f, effort, and ARDS categories significantly differed across modes (P 6 mL/kg was significantly increased with spontaneous breaths patient-triggered by pressure support (OR 19.36, 95% CI 12.37-30.65) and significantly reduced in APRV (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.72) and pressure support with guaranteed volume mode. The risk increased with increasing effort and decreasing f. Coefficient of variation of VT was greater for low f and volume control-mandatory minute ventilation and pressure control modes. APRV had the greatest within-mode variability. Risk of VT > 6 mL/kg was significantly reduced in APRV and pressure support with guaranteed volume mode. APRV had the highest variability. Pressure support with guaranteed volume could be tested in patients with ARDS. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus

  10. Spontaneous Breathing Trials and Conservative Sedation Practices Reduce Mechanical Ventilation Duration in Subjects With ARDS. (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Zhuo, Hanjing; Yip, Vivian; Gomez, Antonio; Lipnick, Michael S


    Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) and daily sedation interruptions (DSIs) reduce both the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay (LOS). The impact of these practices in patients with ARDS has not previously been reported. We examined whether implementation of SBT/DSI protocols reduce duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU LOS in a retrospective group of subjects with ARDS at a large, urban, level-1 trauma center. All ARDS survivors from 2002 to 2016 (N = 1,053) were partitioned into 2 groups: 397 in the pre-SBT/DSI group (June 2002-December 2007) and 656 in the post-SBT/DSI group (January 2009-April 2016). Patients from 2008, during the protocol implementation period, were excluded. An additional SBT protocol database (2008-2010) was used to assess the efficacy of SBT in transitioning subjects with ARDS to unassisted breathing. Comparisons were assessed by either unpaired t tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Multiple comparisons were made using either one-way analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Linear regression modeling was used to determine variables independently associated with mechanical ventilation duration and ICU LOS; differences were considered statistically significant when P mechanical ventilation duration (14 [6-29] vs 9 [4-17] d, respectively, P mechanical ventilation duration and ICU LOS. Among subjects with ARDS in the SBT performance database, most achieved unassisted breathing with a median of 2 SBTs. Evidenced-based protocols governing weaning and sedation practices were associated with both reduced mechanical ventilation duration and ICU LOS in subjects with ARDS. However, higher respiratory system compliance in the SBT/DSI cohort also contributed to these improved outcomes. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Pseudomonas Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise

    Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions...... in biofilm formation, however, detailed studies of these roles have not yet been carried out. The overall aim of this PhD project was therefore to elucidate in more depth the roles played by Pseudomonas lipopetides in pollutant biodegradation and biofilm formation. This study investigated the effect...... of the Pseudomonas lipopeptides belonging to different structural groups on important biodegradation parameters, mainly; solubilization and emulsification of hydrophobic pollutants (alkanes and PAHs) and increase of cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial degraders. Ultimately, it was tested if these parameters led...

  12. Non-conventional mechanical ventilation in severe ARDS, illustrated by a complicated case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulleken, JE; van der Werf, TS; Ligtenberg, JJM; Zijlstra, JG


    When conventional respiratory strategies fail to maintain adequate oxygenation treatment of severe ARDS is largely empirical. Modern techniques such as inverse ratio ventilation, permissive hypercapnia, NO inhalation and lowering tidal volumes/pressures are advocated. We report on a patient with

  13. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, MJ; Kesecioglu, J

    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  14. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Marcus J.; Kesecioglu, Jozef


    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  15. Human herpesviruses respiratory infections in patients with acute respiratory distress (ARDS). (United States)

    Bonizzoli, Manuela; Arvia, Rosaria; di Valvasone, Simona; Liotta, Francesco; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Azzi, Alberta; Peris, Adriano


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is today a leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU). ARDS and pneumonia are closely related to critically ill patients; however, the etiologic agent is not always identified. The presence of human herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in respiratory samples of critically ill patients is increasingly reported even without canonical immunosuppression. The main aim of this study was to better understand the significance of herpesviruses finding in lower respiratory tract of ARDS patients hospitalized in ICU. The presence of this group of herpesviruses, in addition to the research of influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, was investigated in respiratory samples from 54 patients hospitalized in ICU, without a known microbiological causative agent. Moreover, the immunophenotype of each patient was analyzed. Herpesviruses DNA presence in the lower respiratory tract seemed not attributable to an impaired immunophenotype, whereas a significant correlation was observed between herpesviruses positivity and influenza virus infection. A higher ICU mortality was significantly related to the presence of herpesvirus infection in the lower respiratory tract as well as to impaired immunophenotype, as patients with poor outcome showed severe lymphopenia, affecting in particular T (CD3+) cells, since the first days of ICU hospitalization. In conclusion, these results indicate that herpesviruses lower respiratory tract infection, which occurs more frequently following influenza virus infection, can be a negative prognostic marker. An independent risk factor for ICU patients with ARDS is an impaired immunophenotype.

  16. Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Volutrauma and Molecular Effects (United States)

    Carrasco Loza, R; Villamizar Rodríguez, G; Medel Fernández, N


    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition secondary to a variety of insults leading to a severe acute respiratory failure and high mortality in critically ill patients. Patients with ARDS generally require mechanical ventilation, which is another important factor that may increase the ALI (acute lung injury) by a series of pathophysiological mechanisms, whose common element is the initial volutrauma in the alveolar units, and forming part of an entity known clinically as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Injured lungs can be partially protected by optimal settings and ventilation modes, using low tidal volume (VT) values and high positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). The benefits in ARDS outcomes caused by these interventions have been confirmed by several prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and are attributed to reduction in volutrauma. The purpose of this article is to present an approach to VILI pathophysiology focused on the effects of volutrauma that lead to lung injury and the ‘mechanotransduction’ mechanism. A more complete understanding about the molecular effects that physical forces could have, is essential for a better assessment of existing strategies as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the damage resulting from VILI, and thereby contribute to reducing mortality in ARDS. PMID:26312103

  17. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  18. The clinical practice guideline for the management of ARDS in Japan. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Satoru; Sanui, Masamitsu; Egi, Moritoki; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Shiotsuka, Junji; Seo, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Ryoma; Tanaka, Yu; Norisue, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Nango, Eishu


    The Japanese Society of Respiratory Care Medicine and the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine provide here a clinical practice guideline for the management of adult patients with ARDS in the ICU. The guideline was developed applying the GRADE system for performing robust systematic reviews with plausible recommendations. The guideline consists of 13 clinical questions mainly regarding ventilator settings and drug therapies (the last question includes 11 medications that are not approved for clinical use in Japan). The recommendations for adult patients with ARDS include: we suggest against early tracheostomy (GRADE 2C), we suggest using NPPV for early respiratory management (GRADE 2C), we recommend the use of low tidal volumes at 6-8 mL/kg (GRADE 1B), we suggest setting the plateau pressure at 30cmH20 or less (GRADE2B), we suggest using PEEP within the range of plateau pressures less than or equal to 30cmH2O, without compromising hemodynamics (Grade 2B), and using higher PEEP levels in patients with moderate to severe ARDS (Grade 2B), we suggest using protocolized methods for liberation from mechanical ventilation (Grade 2D), we suggest prone positioning especially in patients with moderate to severe respiratory dysfunction (GRADE 2C), we suggest against the use of high frequency oscillation (GRADE 2C), we suggest the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in patients requiring mechanical ventilation under certain circumstances (GRADE 2B), we suggest fluid restriction in the management of ARDS (GRADE 2A), we do not suggest the use of neutrophil elastase inhibitors (GRADE 2D), we suggest the administration of steroids, equivalent to methylprednisolone 1-2mg/kg/ day (GRADE 2A), and we do not recommend other medications for the treatment of adult patients with ARDS (GRADE1B; inhaled/intravenous β2 stimulants, prostaglandin E1, activated protein C, ketoconazole, and lisofylline, GRADE 1C; inhaled nitric oxide, GRADE 1D; surfactant, GRADE 2B; granulocyte

  19. Prolonged glucocorticoid treatment in ARDS: impact on intensive care unit acquired weakness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Umberto Meduri


    Full Text Available AbstractSystemic inflammation and duration of immobilization are strong independent risk factors for development of intensive care unit- acquired weakness (ICUAW. Activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB results in muscle wasting during disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy (ICU bed rest and septic shock. In addition, NF-κB-mediated signaling plays a significant role in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Older trials investigating high dose glucocorticoid treatment reported a lack of a sustained anti-inflammatory effects and an association with ICUAW. However, prolonged low-to-moderate dose glucocorticoid treatment of sepsis and ARDS is associated with a reduction in NF-κB DNA-binding, decreased transcription of inflammatory cytokines, enhanced resolution of systemic and pulmonary inflammation, leading to fewer days of mechanical ventilation, and lower mortality. Importantly, meta-analyses of a large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs investigating low-to-moderate glucocorticoid treatment in severe sepsis and ARDS found no increase in ICUAW. Furthermore, while the ARDS network trial investigating methylprednisolone treatment in persistent ARDS is frequently cited to support an association with ICUAW, a re-analysis of the data showed a similar incidence with the control group. Our review concludes that in patients with sepsis and ARDS any potential direct harmful neuromuscular effect of glucocorticoids appears outweighed by the overall clinical improvement and reduced duration of organ failure, in particular ventilator dependency and associated immobilization, which are key risk factors for ICUAW. Acknowledgements: The NHLBI ARDSnetwork graciously provided and assisted with the ARDSnet02 Dataset on the Efficacy of Corticosteroids as Rescue Therapy for the Late Phase of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (LaSRS.

  20. Revegetation of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) Producing Slope Surface Using Phosphate Microencapsulation and Artificial Soil (United States)

    Kim, Jae Gon


    Oxidation of sulfides produces acid rock drainage (ARD) upon their exposure to oxidation environment by construction and mining activities. The ARD causes the acidification and metal contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater, the damage of plant, the deterioration of landscape and the reduction of slope stability. The revegetation of slope surface is one of commonly adopted strategies to reduce erosion and to increase slope stability. However, the revegetation of the ARD producing slope surface is frequently failed due to its high acidity and toxic metal content. We developed a revegetation method consisting of microencapsualtion and artificial soil in the laboratory. The revegetation method was applied on the ARD producing slope on which the revegetation using soil coverage and seeding was failed and monitored the plant growth for one year. The phosphate solution was applied on sulfide containing rock to form stable Fe-phosphate mineral on the surface of sulfide, which worked as a physical barrier to prevent contacting oxidants such as oxygen and Fe3+ ion to the sulfide surface. After the microencapsulation, two artificial soil layers were constructed. The first layer containing organic matter, dolomite powder and soil was constructed at 2 cm thickness to neutralize the rising acidic capillary water from the subsurface and to remove the dissolved oxygen from the percolating rain water. Finally, the second layer containing seeds, organic matter, nutrients and soil was constructed at 3 cm thickness on the top. After application of the method, the pH of the soil below the artificial soil layer increased and the ARD production from the rock fragments reduced. The plant growth showed an ordinary state while the plant died two month after germination for the previous revegetation trial. No soil erosion occurred from the slope during the one year field test.

  1. Porcine prion protein amyloid. (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie


    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  2. Role of oxidant stress in the adult respiratory distress syndrome: evaluation of a novel antioxidant strategy in a porcine model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. (United States)

    Gonzalez, P K; Zhuang, J; Doctrow, S R; Malfroy, B; Benson, P F; Menconi, M J; Fink, M P


    Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Accordingly, the use of ROM scavengers, such as N-acetyl-cysteine or dimethylthiourea, as therapeutic adjuncts to prevent oxidant-mediated damage to the lung have been evaluated extensively in animal models of ARDS. Results with this approach have been quite variable among studies. Another strategy that has been examined in animal models of ARDS is the administration of various enzymes, particularly superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT), in an effort to promote the conversion of ROMs to inactive metabolites. In theory, this strategy should be more effective than the use of ROM scavengers since a single molecule of a catalytically active molecule can neutralize a large number of molecules of a reactive species, whereas most scavengers act in a stoichiometric fashion to neutralize radicals on a mole-for-mole basis. This notion is supported by studies showing that prophylactic treatment with CAT provides impressive protection against acute lung injury induced in experimental animals by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results with SOD have been more variable. Recently, we have utilized a porcine model of LPS-induced ARDS to investigate the therapeutic potential of EUK-8, a novel, synthetic, low molecular salen-manganese complex that exhibits both SOD-like and CAT-like activities in vitro. Using both pre- and post-treatment designs, we have documented that treatment with EUK-8 significantly attenuates many of the features of LPS-induced acute lung injury, including arterial hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, decreased dynamic pulmonary compliance, and pulmonary edema. These findings support the view that salen-manganese complexes warrant further evaluation as therapeutic agents for treatment or prevention of sepsis-related ARDS in humans.

  3. Langerhans cells in porcine skin. (United States)

    Nfon, Charles K; Dawson, Harry; Toka, Felix N; Golde, William T


    Langerhans cells (LCs) are resident dendritic cells (DCs) of skin and mucosal epithelium. The standard for identifying skin DCs as LCs is expression of langerin (CD207), a surface protein that mediates Birbeck granule (BG) formation upon internalization. Reports of BGs in porcine skin DC are contradictory, due to lack of langerin detection. Here, we present the sequence of porcine langerin/CD207, showing that the predicted porcine protein shares 75%/86% amino acid identity/similarity with human. Langerin mRNA was detected in porcine skin DCs by PCR and langerin protein was detected in both isolated skin DCs and skin sections by immunostaining. Approximately, 50-70% of skin DCs expressed langerin, demonstrating that the majority of porcine skin DCs are LCs. The full length sequence combined with the identification of antibodies reactive with porcine langerin, facilitates the study of LCs in swine, and advances the use of swine for studying skin diseases and infectious disease processes involving skin.

  4. Early Evaluation and Monitoring of Critical Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Using Specific Genetic Polymorphisms. (United States)

    Horhat, Florin G; Gundogdu, Fuat; David, Laurentiu V; Boia, Eugen S; Pirtea, Laurentiu; Horhat, Razvan; Cucui-Cozma, Alexandru; Ciuca, Ioana; Diaconu, Mircea; Nitu, Razvan; Licker, Monica; Horhat, Delia I; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Moise, Marius L; Tataru, Calin


    A high percentage of critical patients are found to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Several studies have reported high mortality rates in these cases which are most frequently associated with multiple organ dysfunctions syndrome. Lately, many efforts have been made to evaluate and monitor ARDS in critical patients. In this regard, the assessment of genetic polymorphisms responsible for developing ARDS present as a challenge and are considered future biomarkers. Early detection of the specific polymorphic gene responsible for ARDS in critically ill patients can prove to be a useful tool in the future, able to help decrease the mortality rates in these cases. Moreover, identifying the genetic polymorphism in these patients can help in the implementation of a personalized intensive therapy scheme for every type of patient, based on its genotype.

  5. Identification of a novel antimicrobial peptide from human hepatitis B virus core protein arginine-rich domain (ARD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Li Chen

    Full Text Available The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR pathogens causes an increasing challenge to public health. Antimicrobial peptides are considered a possible solution to this problem. HBV core protein (HBc contains an arginine-rich domain (ARD at its C-terminus, which consists of 16 arginine residues separated into four clusters (ARD I to IV. In this study, we demonstrated that the peptide containing the full-length ARD I-IV (HBc147-183 has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at micro-molar concentrations, including some MDR and colistin (polymyxin E-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Furthermore, confocal fluorescence microscopy and SYTOX Green uptake assay indicated that this peptide killed Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by membrane permeabilization or DNA binding. In addition, peptide ARD II-IV (HBc153-176 and ARD I-III (HBc147-167 were found to be necessary and sufficient for the activity against P. aeruginosa and K. peumoniae. The antimicrobial activity of HBc ARD peptides can be attenuated by the addition of LPS. HBc ARD peptide was shown to be capable of direct binding to the Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in several in vitro binding assays. Peptide ARD I-IV (HBc147-183 had no detectable cytotoxicity in various tissue culture systems and a mouse animal model. In the mouse model by intraperitoneal (i.p. inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus, timely treatment by i.p. injection with ARD peptide resulted in 100-fold reduction of bacteria load in blood, liver and spleen, as well as 100% protection of inoculated animals from death. If peptide was injected when bacterial load in the blood reached its peak, the protection rate dropped to 40%. Similar results were observed in K. peumoniae using an IVIS imaging system. The finding of anti-microbial HBc ARD is discussed in the context of commensal gut microbiota, development of intrahepatic anti-viral immunity and establishment of chronic infection with HBV. Our current results suggested that

  6. Update on the Role of Extracorporeal CO2 Removal as an Adjunct to Mechanical Ventilation in ARDS (United States)


    the only system specifically designed for CO2 removal and targeting CO2 retention syndromes, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The...Acute pulmonary hyperten- sion increases RV afterload [24,25], which individually and collectively with microvascular obstruction , the effects of...acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a devastating disease [1,2]. Mortality rates for ARDS have decreased over time but still remain

  7. Re-entry Flight Experiments Lessons Learned - The Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator ARD (United States)


    Equation including blocking factors due to pyrolysis and ablation products The inverse procedure is based on the theory of optimal command and...the pyrolyis products react with the external flow by promoting recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms of dissociated air making the contradiction with ARD aerothermal database based on enginneering methods or CFD results. However, one can notice large differences in terms of

  8. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS. (United States)

    Perel, Azriel


    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improved face validity and higher values are associated with mortality, it is infeasible to mandate on the basis of availability and the fact that it does not distinguish between hydrostatic and inflammatory pulmonary edema. However, the results of a multi-institutional study that appeared in the previous issue of Critical Care show that this latter reservation may not necessarily be true. By using extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index, both of which are derived from transpulmonary thermodilution, the authors could successfully differentiate between patients with ARDS and other patients in respiratory failure due to either cardiogenic edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis. This commentary discusses the merits and limitations of this study in view of the potential improvement that transpulmonary thermodilution may bring to the definition of ARDS.

  9. Inter-individual variability of plasma PAF-acetylhydrolase activity in ARDS patients and PAFAH genotype. (United States)

    Li, S; Stuart, L; Zhang, Y; Meduri, G U; Umberger, R; Yates, C R


    Platelet activating factor (PAF), a pro-inflammatory phospholipid, stimulates cytokine secretion from polymorphonuclear leukocytes expressing the transmembrane G-protein coupled PAF receptor. Elevated PAF levels are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis severity. The pro-inflammatory effects of PAF are terminated by PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). We sought to determine whether allelic variants in the human PAFAH gene (Arg92His, Ile198Thr, and Ala379Val) contribute to variability in PAF-AH activity in patient plasma obtained within 72 h of ARDS diagnosis. Plasma PAF-AH activity (mean +/- SD) was higher in patients homozygous for the Arg92 allele compared to His92 allele carriers (2.21 +/- 0.77 vs. 1.64 +/- 0.68 U/min; P PAF-AH activity was higher among day 7 survivors vs. day 7 non-survivors (2.05 +/- 0.75 vs. 1.27 +/- 0.63, P = 0.05). These data demonstrate an association between PAF-AH allelic variation, plasma activity, and outcome in ARDS.

  10. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Waide, J.J.


    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  11. Acute effects of intracranial hypertension and ARDS on pulmonary and neuronal damage: a randomized experimental study in pigs. (United States)

    Heuer, Jan Florian; Pelosi, Paolo; Hermann, Peter; Perske, Christina; Crozier, Thomas A; Brück, Wolfgang; Quintel, Michael


    To determine reciprocal and synergistic effects of acute intracranial hypertension and ARDS on neuronal and pulmonary damage and to define possible mechanisms. Twenty-eight mechanically ventilated pigs were randomized to four groups of seven each: control; acute intracranial hypertension (AICH); acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); acute respiratory distress syndrome in combination with acute intracranial hypertension (ARDS + AICH). AICH was induced with an intracranial balloon catheter and the inflation volume was adjusted to keep intracranial pressure (ICP) at 30-40 cmH2O. ARDS was induced by oleic acid infusion. Respiratory function, hemodynamics, extravascular lung water index (ELWI), lung and brain computed tomography (CT) scans, as well as inflammatory mediators, S100B, and neuronal serum enolase (NSE) were measured over a 4-h period. Lung and brain tissue were collected and examined at the end of the experiment. In both healthy and injured lungs, AICH caused increases in NSE and TNF-alpha plasma concentrations, extravascular lung water, and lung density in CT, the extent of poorly aerated (dystelectatic) and atelectatic lung regions, and an increase in the brain tissue water content. ARDS and AICH in combination induced damage in the hippocampus and decreased density in brain CT. AICH induces lung injury and also exacerbates pre-existing damage. Increased extravascular lung water is an early marker. ARDS has a detrimental effect on the brain and acts synergistically with intracranial hypertension to cause histological hippocampal damage.

  12. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  13. Resolution of pulmonary edema with variable mechanical ventilation in a porcine model of acute lung injury. (United States)

    Graham, M Ruth; Gulati, Harleena; Kha, Lan; Girling, Linda G; Goertzen, Andrew; Mutch, W Alan C


    Resolution of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requires clearance of pulmonary edema. Biologically variable ventilation (BVV) strategies that improve gas exchange, lung mechanics, and inflammatory mediators in ARDS may be beneficial in this regard. We used quantitative computed tomography (CT), a single indicator thermodilution system (PiCCO®) to determine extravascular lung water (EVLW), and the change in edema protein concentration over time to compare edema clearance with BVV vs conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in a porcine ARDS model. Sixteen pigs with oleic acid lung injury were randomized to four hours of ventilation with either CMV (n = 8) or BVV (n = 8) at identical low tidal volume and minute ventilation over time. Hemodynamic variables, gas exchange, lung mechanics, and PiCCO derived EVLW were determined hourly. Computed tomography images and edema fluid samples were obtained at baseline lung injury and after four hours of ventilation. Wet and dry lung weights were determined postmortem. At four hours with BVV, peak airway pressure was decreased significantly and lung compliance improved compared with CMV (P = 0.003; P lung weight and global lung density (P = 0.005; P = 0.04 respectively) with BVV. These findings were associated with a significant increase in the gas volume of normally aerated lung regions (P lung regions (P = 0.001). No change in any CT parameter occurred with CMV. The lung weights derived from computed tomography correlated well with postmortem wet weights (R(2) = 0.79; P lung water showed no correlation with postmortem wet weights and significantly underestimated lung water. Average alveolar fluid clearance rates were positive (1.4%·hr(-1) (3%)) with BVV and negative with CMV (-2.0%·hr(-1) (4%)). In a comparison between BVV and CMV, computed tomography evidence suggests that BVV facilitates enhanced clearance and/or redistribution of edema fluid with improved recruitment of atelectatic and

  14. Population Structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz Wiehlmann; Gerd Wagner; Nina Cramer; Benny Siebert; Peter Gudowius; Gracia Morales; Thilo Köhler; Christian van Delden; Christian Weinel; Peter Slickers; Burkhard Tümmler


    The metabolically versatile Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhabits terrestrial, aquatic, animal-, human-, and plant-host-associated environments and is an important causative agent...

  15. Is there still a role for the lung injury score in the era of the Berlin definition ARDS? (United States)


    Background The Lung Injury Score (LIS) remains a commonly utilized measure of lung injury severity though the additive value of LIS to predict ARDS outcomes over the recent Berlin definition of ARDS, which incorporates severity, is not known. Methods We tested the association of LIS (in which scores range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating more severe lung injury) and its four components calculated on the day of ARDS diagnosis with ARDS morbidity and mortality in a large, multi-ICU cohort of patients with Berlin-defined ARDS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to compare the predictive validity of LIS for mortality to Berlin stages of severity (mild, moderate and severe). Results In 550 ARDS patients, a one-point increase in LIS was associated with 58% increased odds of in-hospital death (95% CI 14 to 219%, P = 0.006), a 7% reduction in ventilator-free days (95% CI 2 to 13%, P = 0.01), and, among patients surviving hospitalization, a 25% increase in days of mechanical ventilation (95% CI 9 to 43%, P = 0.001) and a 16% increase (95% CI 2 to 31%, P = 0.02) in the number of ICU days. However, the mean LIS was only 0.2 points higher (95% CI 0.1 to 0.3) among those who died compared to those who lived. Berlin stages of severity were highly correlated with LIS (Spearman’s rho 0.72, P definition severity stages were associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality. However, predictive validity of both scores was marginal, and there was no additive value of LIS over Berlin. Although neither LIS nor the Berlin definition were designed to prognosticate outcomes, these findings suggest that the role of LIS in characterizing lung injury severity in the era of the Berlin definition ARDS may be limited. PMID:24533450

  16. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael


    The opportunistic gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is implicated in many chronic infections and is readily isolated from chronic wounds, medical devices, and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa is believed to persist in the host organism due to its capacity to form...... biofilms, which protect the aggregated, biopolymer-embedded bacteria from the detrimental actions of antibiotic treatments and host immunity. A key component in the protection against innate immunity is rhamnolipid, which is a quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factor. QS is a cell-to-cell signaling...

  18. Estimating dead-space fraction for secondary analyses of ARDS clinical trials (United States)

    Beitler, Jeremy R.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Matthay, Michael A.; Talmor, Daniel; Liu, Kathleen D.; Zhuo, Hanjing; Hayden, Douglas; Spragg, Roger G.; Malhotra, Atul


    Objective Pulmonary dead-space fraction is one of few lung-specific independent predictors of mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, it is not measured routinely in clinical trials and thus altogether ignored in secondary analyses that shape future research directions and clinical practice. This study sought to validate an estimate of dead-space fraction for use in secondary analyses of clinical trials. Design Analysis of patient-level data pooled from ARDS clinical trials. Four approaches to estimate dead-space fraction were evaluated: three required estimating metabolic rate; one estimated dead-space fraction directly. Setting U.S. academic teaching hospitals. Patients Data from 210 patients across three clinical trials were used to compare performance of estimating equations with measured dead-space fraction. A second cohort of 3,135 patients from six clinical trials without measured dead-space fraction was used to confirm whether estimates independently predicted mortality. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Dead-space fraction estimated using the unadjusted Harris-Benedict equation for energy expenditure was unbiased (mean ± SD Harris-Benedict 0.59 ± 0.13; measured 0.60 ± 0.12). This estimate predicted measured dead-space fraction to within ± 0.10 in 70% of patients and ± 0.20 in 95% of patients. Measured dead-space fraction independently predicted mortality (OR 1.36 per 0.05 increase in dead-space fraction, 95% CI 1.10–1.68; p dead-space fraction or its association with mortality less well. Conclusions Dead-space fraction should be measured in future ARDS clinical trials to facilitate incorporation into secondary analyses. For analyses where dead-space fraction was not measured, the Harris-Benedict estimate can be used to estimate dead-space fraction and adjust for its association with mortality. PMID:25738857

  19. An experimental study on the impacts of inspiratory and expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Du, Juan; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Rongchang


    In spite of intensive investigations, the role of spontaneous breathing (SB) activity in ARDS has not been well defined yet and little has been known about the different contribution of inspiratory or expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS. In present study, oleic acid-induced beagle dogs’ ARDS models were employed and ventilated with the same level of mean airway pressure. Respiratory mechanics, lung volume, gas exchange and inflammatory cytokines were measured during mechanical ventilation, and lung injury was determined histologically. As a result, for the comparable ventilator setting, preserved inspiratory muscles activity groups resulted in higher end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and oxygenation index. In addition, less lung damage scores and lower levels of system inflammatory cytokines were revealed after 8 h of ventilation. In comparison, preserved expiratory muscles activity groups resulted in lower EELV and oxygenation index. Moreover, higher lung injury scores and inflammatory cytokines levels were observed after 8 h of ventilation. Our findings suggest that the activity of inspiratory muscles has beneficial effects, whereas that of expiratory muscles exerts adverse effects during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model. Therefore, for mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS, the demands for deep sedation or paralysis might be replaced by the strategy of expiratory muscles paralysis through epidural anesthesia. PMID:28230150

  20. Aspirin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in human models of ARDS. (United States)

    Hamid, U; Krasnodembskaya, A; Fitzgerald, M; Shyamsundar, M; Kissenpfennig, A; Scott, C; Lefrancais, E; Looney, M R; Verghis, R; Scott, J; Simpson, A J; McNamee, J; McAuley, D F; O'Kane, C M


    Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 6 hours after inhaling 50 µg of LPS. The primary outcome measure was BAL IL-8. Secondary outcome measures included markers of alveolar inflammation (BAL neutrophils, cytokines, neutrophil proteases), alveolar epithelial cell injury, systemic inflammation (neutrophils and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) and platelet activation (thromboxane B2, TXB2). Human lungs, perfused and ventilated ex vivo (EVLP) were randomised to placebo or 24 mg aspirin and injured with LPS. BAL was carried out 4 hours later. Inflammation was assessed by BAL differential cell counts and histological changes. In the healthy volunteer (n=33) model, data for the aspirin groups were combined. Aspirin did not reduce BAL IL-8. However, aspirin reduced pulmonary neutrophilia and tissue damaging neutrophil proteases (Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-8/-9), reduced BAL concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α and reduced systemic and pulmonary TXB2. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose aspirin. In the EVLP model, aspirin reduced BAL neutrophilia and alveolar injury as measured by histological damage. These are the first prospective human data indicating that aspirin inhibits pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, at both low and high doses. Further clinical studies are indicated to assess the role of aspirin in the

  1. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn


    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...... in renal failure in the INO groups (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.16; I² statistic = 0%; high quality of evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is insufficient to support INO in any category of critically ill patients with AHRF. Inhaled nitric oxide results in a transient improvement in oxygenation but does...... not reduce mortality and may be harmful, as it seems to increase renal impairment....

  2. Association of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with thoracic irradiation (RT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byhardt, R.W.; Abrams, R.; Almagro, U.


    The authors report two cases of apparent adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following limited thoracic irradiation for lung cancer. Respiratory failure followed rapidly after irradiation with diffuse bilateral infiltrates, both in and out of the irradiated volume along with progressive hypoxemia unresponsive to oxygen management. Other potential causes of lung injury such as lymphangitic tumor, cardiac failure, and infections were excluded by both premortem and postmortem examination. Autopsy findings in both irradiated and unirradiated volumes of lung were consistent with hyaline membrane changes. The possible relationship between radiation therapy to limited lung volumes and the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome is discussed.

  3. Clinical and radiological evaluation of ARDS. Comparison of conventional X-ray procedures and computed tomography in patients from the intensive care unit. Klinische und radiologische Beurteilung des ARDS. Vergleich von konventionellen Roentgenbildern und Computertomogramm bei Intensivpatienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirt, S.W.


    Thirty patients under long-term artificial respiration being at risk of or suffering from ARDS were observed on the intensive care unit right from the beginning of treatment. In all cases, the lungs were visualised by means of computed tomography. Computed tomography of the lungs provided valuable information as to the pulmonal distribution of ARDS-related changes. In gradually developing acute respiratory insufficiency caused by parenchymal changes that start from the paravertebral regions CT scans also permitted the so-called 'silent period' to be ascertained that is always seen to escape radiological detection. Comparative evaluations confirmed the diagnostic superiority of computed tomography to conventional X-ray procedures and arterial blood gas analysis in those ARDS patients where the tissue changes begin in the dorsal sections of the lungs. (orig./MBC).

  4. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Paolone, Summer


    Despite advances in mechanical ventilation, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates ranging from 26% to 58%. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit that serves as an artificial membrane lung and blood pump to provide gas exchange and systemic perfusion for patients when their own heart and lungs are unable to function adequately. ECMO is a complex network that provides oxygenation and ventilation and allows the lungs to rest and recover from respiratory failure while minimizing iatrogenic ventilator-induced lung injury. In critical care settings, ECMO is proven to improve survival rates and outcomes in patients with severe ARDS. This review defines severe ARDS; describes the ECMO circuit; and discusses recent research, optimal use of the ECMO circuit, limitations of therapy including potential complications, economic impact, and logistical factors; and discusses future research considerations.

  5. Identification of StARD3 as a lutein-binding protein in the macula of the primate retina. (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M; Bernstein, Paul S


    Lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the macular pigment of the human retina. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of these carotenoids in the diet, serum, and macula are associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the AREDS2 study is prospectively testing this hypothesis. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms underlying the selective uptakes of lutein and zeaxanthin into the human macula may provide important insights into the physiology of the human macula in health and disease. GSTP1 is the macular zeaxanthin-binding protein, but the identity of the human macular lutein-binding protein has remained elusive. Prior identification of the silkworm lutein-binding protein (CBP) as a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) protein family and selective labeling of monkey photoreceptor inner segments with an anti-CBP antibody provided an important clue for identifying the primate retina lutein-binding protein. The homology of CBP with all 15 human StARD proteins was analyzed using database searches, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, and we here provide evidence to identify StARD3 (also known as MLN64) as a human retinal lutein-binding protein. Antibody to StARD3, N-62 StAR, localizes to all neurons of monkey macular retina and especially cone inner segments and axons, but does not colocalize with the Müller cell marker, glutamine synthetase. Further, recombinant StARD3 selectively binds lutein with high affinity (K(D) = 0.45 μM) when assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues for exploring its roles in human macular physiology and disease.

  6. Feasibility and effectiveness of prone position in morbidly obese patients with ARDS: a case-control clinical study. (United States)

    De Jong, Audrey; Molinari, Nicolas; Sebbane, Mustapha; Prades, Albert; Futier, Emmanuel; Jung, Boris; Chanques, Gérald; Jaber, Samir


    Obese patients are at risk for developing atelectasis and ARDS. Prone position (PP) may reduce atelectasis, and it improves oxygenation and outcome in severe hypoxemic patients with ARDS, but little is known about its effect in obese patients with ARDS. Morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) with ARDS (Pao₂/FIo₂ ratio ≤ 200 mm Hg) were matched to nonobese (BMI case-control clinical study. The primary end points were safety and complications of PP; the secondary end points were the effect on oxygenation (Pao₂/FIo₂ ratio at the end of PP), length of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, nosocomial infections, and mortality. Between January 2005 and December 2009, 149 patients were admitted for ARDS. Thirty-three obese patients were matched with 33 nonobese patients. Median (25th-75th percentile) PP duration was 9 h (6-11 h) in obese patients and 8 h (7-12 h) in nonobese patients (P = .28). We collected 51 complications: 25 in obese and 26 in nonobese patients. The number of patients with at least one complication was similar across groups (n = 10, 30%). Pao₂/FIo₂ ratio increased significantly more in obese patients (from 118 ± 43 mm Hg to 222 ± 84 mm Hg) than in nonobese patients (from 113 ± 43 mm Hg to 174 ± 80 mm Hg; P = .03). Length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and nosocomial infections did not differ significantly, but mortality at 90 days was significantly lower in obese patients (27% vs 48%, P < .05). PP seems safe in obese patients and may improve oxygenation more than in nonobese patients. Obese patients could be a subgroup of patients with ARDS who may benefit the most of PP.

  7. Setting mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients during VV-ECMO: where are we? (United States)

    Del Sorbo, L; Goffi, A; Goligher, E; Fan, E; Slutsky, A S


    Currently, many centers use venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) as an adjunctive means of gas exchange to mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with severe ARDS and refractory hypoxemia. One of the most interesting and controversial issues in the management of these patients is how to set the ventilatory strategy. The support provided by VV-ECMO makes the balance between risks and benefits of MV remarkably different from the conventional setting, since the need for MV to facilitate oxygenation and carbon dioxide clearance is greatly reduced or abolished during VV-ECMO. Therefore, the risks of causing ventilator-induced lung injury are of foremost importance; however, the issue of the optimum ventilatory strategy during VV-ECMO has not received sufficient consideration. This paper will describe the diverse MV strategies applied during VV-ECMO in clinical practice and will highlight specific pathophysiological considerations that are crucial in the process of defining optimal ventilation settings in patients with ARDS supported with VV-ECMO.

  8. Pulmonary histopathology in dalmatians with familial acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (United States)

    Syrjä, P; Saari, S; Rajamäki, M; Saario, E; Järvinen, A-K


    The histopathological changes in the lungs of 12 related Dalmatians with idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are described. Affected dogs had multiple foci of marked atypical hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium, patchy ongoing fibrosis with myofibroblastic metaplasia, smooth muscle hyperplasia and occasional honeycombing of alveolar walls, and hyperplasia of atypical type II pneumocytes. There was an abrupt transition between these proliferative lesions and areas of acute alveolar oedema with hyaline membranes in partially normal lung. Diseased areas were associated with moderate lymphohistiocytic interstitial inflammation. Immunohistochemical labelling for cytokeratin expression indicated that the metaplastic epithelium was of bronchiolar origin and that it extended into peribronchiolar alveolar spaces. Some of the bronchiolar lesions were pre-neoplastic and one adult dog suffered from bronchoalveolar carcinoma. These lesions are compared with the two forms of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia reported as causes of ARDS in man: acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The observed lesions in the Dalmatians are distinct from the diffuse alveolar damage that characterizes AIP, but show some histological similarities to the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) that occurs in IPF with acute exacerbation in man. UIP has not previously been described in the dog.

  9. Insilico study of the A(2A)R-D (2)R kinetics and interfacial contact surface for heteromerization. (United States)

    Prakash, Amresh; Luthra, Pratibha Mehta


    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface receptors. The dynamic property of receptor-receptor interactions in GPCRs modulates the kinetics of G-protein signaling and stability. In the present work, the structural and dynamic study of A(2A)R-D(2)R interactions was carried to acquire the understanding of the A(2A)R-D(2)R receptor activation and deactivation process, facilitating the design of novel drugs and therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. The structure-based features (Alpha, Beta, SurfAlpha, and SurfBeta; GapIndex, Leakiness and Gap Volume) and slow mode model (ENM) facilitated the prediction of kinetics (K (off), K (on), and K (d)) of A(2A)R-D(2)R interactions. The results demonstrated the correlation coefficient 0.294 for K (d) and K (on) and the correlation coefficient 0.635 for K (d) and K (off), and indicated stable interfacial contacts in the formation of heterodimer. The coulombic interaction involving the C-terminal tails of the A(2A)R and intracellular loops (ICLs) of D(2)R led to the formation of interfacial contacts between A(2A)R-D(2)R. The properties of structural dynamics, ENM and KFC server-based hot-spot analysis illustrated the stoichiometry of A(2A)R-D(2)R contact interfaces as dimer. The propensity of amino acid residues involved in A(2A)R-D(2)R interaction revealed the presence of positively (R, H and K) and negatively (E and D) charged structural motif of TMs and ICL3 of A(2A)R and D(2)R at interface of dimer contact. Essentially, in silico structural and dynamic study of A(2A)R-D(2)R interactions will provide the basic understanding of the A(2A)R-D(2)R interfacial contact surface for activation and deactivation processes, and could be used as constructive model to recognize the protein-protein interactions in receptor assimilations.

  10. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Pseudomonas cepacia]. (United States)

    Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson


    A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim


    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  12. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths. (United States)

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria


    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm.

  13. Final screening assessment for Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 31483, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 31800, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 700369

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    "Pursuant to paragraph 74(b) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA), the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health have conducted a screening assessment on four strains of Pseudomonas putida...

  14. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Meher


    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms.

  15. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann


    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  16. Relationship between Concentrations of Lutein and StARD3 among Pediatric and Geriatric Human Brain Tissue. (United States)

    Tanprasertsuk, Jirayu; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S; Vishwanathan, Rohini; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard; Johnson, Elizabeth J


    Lutein, a dietary carotenoid, selectively accumulates in human retina and brain. While many epidemiological studies show evidence of a relationship between lutein status and cognitive health, lutein's selective uptake in human brain tissue and its potential function in early neural development and cognitive health have been poorly evaluated at a molecular level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between concentrations of brain lutein and StARD3 (identified as its binding protein in retinal tissue) among three age groups: infants (1-4 months, n = 10), older adults (55-86 years, n = 8), and centenarians (98-105 years, n = 10). Brain lutein concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and StARD3 levels were analyzed by Western Blot analysis. The strong relationship in infant brains (r = 0.75, P lutein has a role in neural development. The relationship remained significant but weaker in older adults (r = 0.51, P 0.05), seven of whom had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. These exploratory findings suggest an age-related decrease or abnormality of StARD3 activity in human brain. Given that StARD3 is also involved in cholesterol transportation, a process that is aberrant in neurodegenerative diseases, the potential protective function of lutein against these diseases remains to be explored.

  17. Clinical implementation of the ARDS network protocol is associated with reduced hospital mortality compared with historical controls. (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Jasmer, Robert M; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Tang, Julin F; Campbell, Andre R; Dicker, Rochelle; Hemphill, Claude; Luce, John M


    To assess the impact of implementing a low tidal volume ventilation strategy on hospital mortality for patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Retrospective, uncontrolled study. Adult medical-surgical and trauma intensive care units at a major inner city, university-affiliated hospital. A total of 292 patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Between the years 2000 and 2003, 200 prospectively identified patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome were managed by the ARDS Network low tidal volume protocol. A historical control group of 92 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients managed by routine practice from 1998 to 1999 was used for comparison. Patients managed with the ARDS Network protocol had a lower hospital mortality compared with historical controls (32% vs. 51%, respectively; p = .004). Multivariate logistic regression estimated an odds ratio of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.17-0.59; p = .0003) for mortality risk with use of the ARDS Network protocol. Protocol-managed patients had a lower tidal volume (6.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 9.8 +/- 1.5 mL/kg; p < .0001) and plateau pressure (27.5 +/- 6.4 vs. 33.8 +/- 8.9 cm H2O; p < .0001) than historical controls. Adoption of the ARDS Network protocol for routine ventilator management of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome patients was associated with a lower mortality compared with recent historical controls.

  18. Soy Culture in Minimum Tillage and the Influence on Soil Attributes, ARDS Turda, 2005-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cheţan


    Full Text Available The system of agriculture conservative comes must halt this process of degradation and soil protection with carpets plant debris and intervention minimal on the ground shall be avoided the process of compaction erosion by increasing fertility. Excessive processing of agricultural land with mechanical equipment and primarily the work of basic-till that mobilizes soil in depth damage to a greater extent pests and diseases in the soil but it also has negative effect by losses mineralization weaker plant debris, breaking continuity capillarity and if an angry crowd on side slopes should be done after the line of the greatest slope will promote erosion. By applying minimum tillage system soil at ARDS Turda, is intended primarily to combat soil erosion, keeping the water in the soil, increasing fertility, protection of the environment.

  19. Model-based respiratory mechanics to titrate PEEP and monitor disease state for experimental ARDS subjects. (United States)

    van Drunen, Erwin J; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Chase, J Geoffrey; Lambermont, Bernard; Janssen, Nathalie; Desaive, Thomas


    Modelling the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated (MV) patients can provide useful information to guide MV therapy. Two model-based methods were evaluated based on data from three experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced piglets and validated against values available from ventilators. A single compartment lung model with integral-based parameter identification was found to be effective in capturing fundamental respiratory mechanics during inspiration. The trends matched clinical expectation and provided better resolution than clinically derived linear model metrics. An expiration time constant model also captured the same trend in respiratory elastance. However, the assumption of constant resistance and a slightly higher fitting error results in less insight than the single compartment model. Further research is required to confirm its application in titrating to optimal MV settings.

  20. H3N2 Virus as Causative Agent of ARDS Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Peris


    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1 2009 was associated with a higher risk of viral pneumonia in comparison with seasonal influenza viruses. The influenza season 2011-2012 was characterized by the prevalent circulation of influenza A(H3N2 viruses. Whereas most H3N2 patients experienced mild, self-limited influenza-like illness, some patients were at increased risk for influenza complications because of age or underlying medical conditions. Cases presented were patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of ECMO referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, Italy. Despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment (ECMO, one patient with H3N2-induced ARDS did not survive. Our experience suggests that viral aetiology is becoming more important and hospitals should be able to perform a fast differential diagnosis between bacterial and viral aetiology.

  1. Identification of StARD3 as a Lutein-binding Protein in the Macula of the Primate Retina† (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Bernstein, Paul S.


    Lutein, zeaxanthin and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the macular pigment of the human retina. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of these carotenoids in the diet, serum and macula are associated with decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the AREDS2 study is prospectively testing this hypothesis. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms underlying the selective uptakes of lutein and zeaxanthin into the human macula may provide important insights into the physiology of the human macula in health and disease. GSTP1 is the macular zeaxanthin-binding protein, but the identity of the human macular lutein-binding protein has remained elusive. Prior identification of the silkworm lutein-binding protein (CBP) as a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) protein family, and selective labeling of monkey photoreceptor inner segments by anti-CBP antibody provided an important clue toward identifying the primate retina lutein-binding protein. Homology of CBP to all 15 human StARD proteins was analyzed using database searches, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and we here provide evidence to identify StARD3 (also known as MLN64) as a human retinal lutein-binding protein. Further, recombinant StARD3 selectively binds lutein with high affinity (KD = 0.45 micromolar) when assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues to explore its roles in human macular physiology and disease. PMID:21322544

  2. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  3. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.


    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. NCM ultrafiltrates revealed the highest antibacterial activity in respect to negative control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MWantimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  4. Inheritance of porcine stress syndrome. (United States)

    Mabry, J W; Christian, L L; Kuhlers, D L


    A total of 66 litters were farrowed in a Yorkshire herd of pigs selected for porcine stress syndrome (PSS) susceptibility. These litters included all possible combinations of matings between stress-susceptible, stress-carrier, and stress-resistant animals. When the data were analyzed by within-litter chi-square analysis, the null hypothesis of recessive inheritance could not be rejected (P less than 0.05). In addition, when the data were analyzed across litters, the null hypothesis of autosomal recessive inheritance could not be rejected (P less than 0.05).

  5. Clinical efficacy of nitroglycerin in patients with septic shock with ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping LIU


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of nitroglycerin in patients with septic shock with ARDS, and explore its possible mechanism. Methods From January 2013 to January 2014, patients with septic shock with ARDS were included in the study in the department of critical care medicine in our hospital. Patients who met the criteria were randomly divided into the control group and the nitroglycerin group. The standard treatment was given in control group, and nitroglycerin 0.5-1.0mg/h was given in nitroglycerin group on basis of standard treatment. Monitoring indexes were recorded at 0, 6, 24 and 72h, including general condition, APACHE Ⅱ score, hemodynamic indexes (HR, MAP, CVP, CI, SVRI, PAWP, PAP, Lac, volume of fluid resuscitation, quantity of vasopressor drugs, ventilator condition (PH, PO2, PCO2, RR, PEEP, VT, FiO2, oxygenation index, airway resistance, lung compliance, mechanical ventilation time, ICU stay time, hospital follow-up, 28-day follow-up, immune index (CD4+/CD8+, inflammatory markers (CRP, PCT, IL-6, WBC. Results Forty-three patients were included in this study, with 21 in control group and 22 in nitroglycerin group. At 24 and 72h after the treatment, APACHEⅡ score, heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP, lactic acid and dopamine, norepinephrine, respiratory rate (RR, inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2, airway resistance, C reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, interleukin-6 (IL-6, white blood cell count (WBC significantly decreased as compared with those at 0 and 6 h, and these parameters in nitroglycerin group were lower than these in the control group at the 72h (P<0.05; at the same time, those indexes such as peripheral vascular resistance index (SVRI, pH value, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, tidal volume (VT, lung compliance, oxygenation index, CD4+/CD8+ more significantly increased in the treatment group at 24 and 72h than those at 0 and 6h, especially at 72h, and these values were

  6. Tribological evaluation of porcine skin. (United States)

    Xiao, Huaping; Ariyasinghe, Nethika; He, Xingliang; Liang, Hong


    This research studies the effects of external parameters on the friction of porcine skin. A tribometer was used to evaluate the frictional behavior of the same. The effects of DI water and body oil on porcine skin against steel and glass balls were evaluated in terms of coefficient of friction (COF). The COF dropped rapidly when DI water/body oil was introduced into the sliding system and remained stable when the volume of the liquid exceeded a certain value. The COF increased with increasing sliding speed under dry conditions and decreased in wet. Under an increasing normal force, the COF decreased regardless of the presence of liquid. The ratio of the real contact area to the nominal contact area of the skin with the steel/glass ball was found to increase with a power law as the applied force was increased. These results reveal basic tribological properties of the skin in contact with a hard slider. These properties could be used as reference for the design and development of artificial skin in prosthetic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues


    Prabha S; Verghese S


    Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endo...

  8. Initial Antibiotic Therapy of Complicated Clinical Course of ARD in Children: the Way from Medical Stereotypes to Logical Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Mityuryaeva


    Full Text Available There had been carried out large-scale survey of 325 pediatricians from 10 cities of Ukraine to assess the antibiotic prescriptions as an empirical initial treatment for ARD complications, according to national protocols and guidelines. Frequent inappropriate use of cephalosporins and macrolides in high doses instead of mean therapeutic administrations of amoxicillin is established, which contributes to the development of the growing drug resistance and antibiotic resistance among population.

  9. Silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, K.; Kristiansen, S.


    bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa...

  10. Retrospective report of contraindications to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) among adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (United States)

    Bohman, J Kyle; Vogt, Matthew N; Hyder, Joseph A


    To determine the incidence of contraindications to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) among adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and assess the impact of contraindications on the number of patients receiving ECMO (case volume). The extent to which contraindications may affect case volumes has not been described. Retrospective, observational study at an academic tertiary medical center. The records of 730 consecutive patients with ARDS were queried for respiratory ECMO eligibility and ECMO contraindications. Of the 730 patients with ARDS, 168 (23.0%) met ECMO inclusion criteria and 515 (70.5%) never met ECMO eligibility due to inadequately severe disease. Among 168 patients who met ECMO inclusion criteria, 1 or more relative contraindications were present in 144 (85.7%) patients. The three most common relative contraindications were immunocompromised state (58.3%), multiorgan dysfunction (29.2%) and contraindication to anticoagulation (16.7%). Application of relative contraindications may greatly affect ECMO case volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural analysis of the KRIT1 ankyrin repeat and FERM domains reveals a conformationally stable ARD-FERM interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Li, Xiaofeng [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Boggon, Titus J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)


    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular dysplasias that usually occur in the brain and are associated with mutations in the KRIT1/CCM1, CCM2/MGC4607/OSM/Malcavernin, and PDCD10/CCM3/ TFAR15 genes. Here we report the 2.9 Å crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and FERM domain of the protein product of KRIT1 (KRIT1; Krev interaction trapped 1). The crystal structure reveals that the KRIT1 ARD contains 4 ankyrin repeats. There is also an unusual conformation in the ANK4 repeat that is stabilized by Trp-404, and the structure reveals a solvent exposed ankyrin groove. Domain orientations of the three copies within the asymmetric unit suggest a stable interaction between KRIT1 ARD and FERM domains, indicating a globular ARD–FERM module. It resembles the additional F0 domain found N-terminal to the FERM domain of talin. Structural analysis of KRIT1 ARD–FERM highlights surface regions of high evolutionary conservation, and suggests potential sites that could mediate interaction with binding partners. The structure therefore provides a better understanding of KRIT1 at the molecular level.

  12. WozARd: A Wizard of Oz Method for Wearable Augmented Reality Interaction—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Alce


    Full Text Available Head-mounted displays and other wearable devices open up for innovative types of interaction for wearable augmented reality (AR. However, to design and evaluate these new types of AR user interfaces, it is essential to quickly simulate undeveloped components of the system and collect feedback from potential users early in the design process. One way of doing this is the wizard of Oz (WOZ method. The basic idea behind WOZ is to create the illusion of a working system by having a human operator, performing some or all of the system’s functions. WozARd is a WOZ method developed for wearable AR interaction. The presented pilot study was an initial investigation of the capability of the WozARd method to simulate an AR city tour. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 21 participants performing a simulated AR city tour. The data analysis focused on seven categories that can have an impact on how the WozARd method is perceived by participants: precision, relevance, responsiveness, technical stability, visual fidelity, general user-experience, and human-operator performance. Overall, the results indicate that the participants perceived the simulated AR city tour as a relatively realistic experience despite a certain degree of technical instability and human-operator mistakes.

  13. Cytokine Reduction in the Setting of an ARDS-Associated Inflammatory Response with Multiple Organ Failure

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    Karl Träger


    Full Text Available A 45-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with a small bowel obstruction due to torsion and was immediately scheduled for surgical intervention. At anesthesia induction, the patient aspirated and subsequently developed a severe SIRS with ARDS and multiple organ failure requiring the use of ECMO, CRRT, antibiotics, and low dose steroids. Due to a rapid deterioration in clinical status and a concurrent surge in inflammatory biomarkers, an extracorporeal cytokine adsorber (CytoSorb was added to the CRRT blood circuit. The combined treatment resulted in a rapid and significant reduction in the levels of circulating inflammatory mediators. This decrease was paralleled by marked clinical stabilization of the patient including a significant improvement in hemodynamic stability and a reduced need for norepinephrine and improved respiratory function as measured by PaO2/FIO2, ventilator parameters, lung mechanics, and indirect measures of capillary leak syndrome. The patient could be discharged to a respiratory weaning unit where successful respiratory weaning could be achieved later on. We attribute the clinical improvement to the rapid control of the hyperinflammatory response and the reduction of inflammatory mediators using a combination of CytoSorb and these other therapies. CytoSorb treatment was safe and well tolerated, with no device-related adverse effects observed.

  14. Neanderthal hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France. (United States)

    Mersey, Ben; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Brudvik, Kyle; Defleur, Alban


    The hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy cave (Ardèche, France) comprise 24 specimens of Eemian age (ca. 120 ka). The specimens include primarily complete elements, which are rare among the Moula-Guercy postcrania. The hand remains have several characteristic Neanderthal traits including a laterally facing (parasagittally oriented) second metacarpal-capitate articulation, a short styloid process, a wide proximal articular surface on the third metacarpal, and absolutely expanded apical tuberosities on the distal hand phalanges relative to modern humans. The foot remains include several incomplete elements along with an antimeric pair of naviculars, a medial cuneiform and cuboid, and a single complete element from each of the distal segments (one each: metatarsal, proximal foot phalanx, intermediate foot phalanx, distal foot phalanx). Consistent among the specimens are relatively wide diaphyses for length in the metatarsals and phalanges and large and prominent muscle attachments, both consistent with previously published Neanderthal morphology. The hand and foot collection from Moula-Guercy is an important dataset for future studies of Neanderthal functional morphology, dexterity, and behavior as it represents a previously undersampled time period for European Neanderthals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Neanderthal axial and appendicular remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France. (United States)

    Mersey, Ben; Brudvik, Kyle; Black, Michael T; Defleur, Alban


    Excavations carried out during the 1990s at Moula-Guercy cave Ardèche, France, yielded 108 hominid specimens dating to 100-120 Ka. In this paper, we describe and compare the 39 axial and appendicular specimens not including hand and foot bones. Among these remains are a large adult femur, several clavicles, a likely antimeric pair of radial heads, and a nearly complete superior pubic ramus. Analyses of this material indicate a clear affinity with Neanderthals by the presence of large and robust muscle attachments, thick long bone cortices, a long pubic ramus, and a superoinferiorly flattened clavicle shaft. The recovered remains reveal the presence of a mature male, a smaller mature individual, possibly a reproductive age female, an immature individual of age 10-12, and a second immature individual of age 4. Future analyses on the Moula-Guercy remains will illuminate ties to other known Neanderthal populations and contribute to the ongoing debate over the relative rate of Neanderthal metric growth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Porcine head response to blast. (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'


    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  17. Appraisal of the porcine kidney autotransplantation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Ivo C. J. H.; Dirkes, Marcel C.; Heger, Michal; van Loon, Johannes P. A. M.; Swildens, Bas; Huijzer, Goos M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.


    Animal models are extensively used for transplantation related research, especially kidney transplantation. Porcine autotransplantation models are considered to be favorable regarding translatability to the human setting. The key determinants for translatability of the model are discussed,

  18. Appraisal of the porcine kidney autotransplantation model. (United States)

    Post, Ivo C J H; Dirkes, Marcel C; Heger, Michal; van Loon, Johannes P A M; Swildens, Bas; Huijzer, Goos M; van Gulik, Thomas M


    Animal models are extensively used for transplantation related research, especially kidney transplantation. Porcine autotransplantation models are considered to be favorable regarding translatability to the human setting. The key determinants for translatability of the model are discussed, comprising animal age, development, anatomy, anesthesia and surgical protocols, and perioperative care. With the detailed discussion of these determinants and the pitfalls in diagnosing animal discomfort, an attempt is made to provide a uniform porcine kidney autotransplantation model with tools to improve currently used models.

  19. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  20. Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy. (United States)

    Holda, Mateusz K; Holda, Jakub; Koziej, Mateusz; Piatek, Katarzyna; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa


    The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyro-expanded black slate in sculptural art Ardósia piroexpandida em arte escultórica

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    J. C. e Costa


    Full Text Available Black slate transformed through a pyroplastic process named pyro-expansion or exfoliation has been explored in the present work in order to be used as sculptural material. Black slate is a highly fissile, fine grained and organic matter rich rock that is the product of the action of low-grade regional metamorphism on black shale (a sedimentary clay and organic matter rich, also fissile and fine grained rock. Black slate if fired at an adequate firing rate up to the temperature range 1000 ºC-1240 ºC shows great potential for the manufacture of sculptural pieces. The technical possibilities of the shaping or conformation of pyro-expanded black slate have also been studied, including the reactions that take place when two different black slate pieces are closely associated with each other, or when black slate pieces are closely associated to other materials, such as metals and ceramics. These interactions, while associating different materials that react with each other, emphasize the unique characteristics of new sculptural compositions increasing the plastic capacities of the pyro-expanded black slate. Some examples of the associations referred to will be shown, which highlight the close functional relationship between art and science; research involves the approach to new techniques and materials, looking at the development of unique plastic configurations.No presente artigo são divulgados os resultados da investigação do comportamento para fins escultóricos da ardósia (rocha de cor negra, granularidade fina e clivagem fina que resulta da acção de metamorfismo regional de baixo grau sobre rocha sedimentar, argilito laminado rico em matéria orgânica transformada piroplasticamente. O material resultante é denominado ardósia piro-expandida ou exfoliada, depois da ardósia natural ser tratada termicamente a temperaturas até 1000 °C-1240 ºC. A investigação subjacente fez uso e desenvolveu conhecimentos do domínio da geologia, mais

  2. The Reaction of some Maize Hybrids, Created at ARDS TURDA, to Fusarium spp. Infection

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    Full Text Available The most important disease of maize in Romania are stalk and ear rot, which caused yield losses in average of 20%. The resistant hibrids represent one of the most efficient solution for reducing the field loses caused by Fusarium spp. on the maize (Nagy et al., 2006. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi (Czembor et al., 2015. The purpose of this paper was to know more about the reaction of different maize hybrids to Fusarium and the evaluating the effect of ear rot on the yield ability and mycotoxins accumulation. The experiments carried out at ARDS Turda, during four years (2012-2015. The biological material was represented by 8 hybrids, from different maturity groups, tested in two infection conditions with Fusarium spp. (natural and artificial infections. The temperature and rainfalls of the four years of experiments corresponding to the vegetation of maize (april-september are influenced favourably the pathogenesis of stalk and ear rot caused by Fusarium spp. and a good discrimination of the resistance reaction of genotypes. Fusarium ear rot has significantly affected production capacity and chemical composition of corn hybrids tested. In conditions of artificial infection with Fusarium spp. was a decrease in the content of starch, fat and increased protein content compared with artificially inoculated variants. The quantity of fumonizin B1+B2 has reached to 5630 μg/kg in conditions of artificial infection. There are negative correlations between production capacity and degree of attack of fusarium ear rot; depending on the reacting genotypes tested increasing disease causes production decrease. The response of maize hybrids to Fusarium infection is influenced by infection and climatic conditions. These factors affect production both in terms of quantity and quality and accumulation of mycotoxins.

  3. Phylogenomics and systematics in Pseudomonas

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    Margarita eGomila


    Full Text Available The genus Pseudomonas currently contains 144 species, making it the genus of Gram-negative bacteria that contains the largest number of species. Currently, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA is the preferred method for establishing the phylogeny between species and genera. Four partial gene sequences of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD were obtained from 112 complete or draft genomes of strains related to the genus Pseudomonas that were available in databases. These genes were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences of 133 Pseudomonas type strains of validly published species to assess their correct phylogenetic assignations. We confirmed that 30% of the sequenced genomes of non-type strains were not correctly assigned at the species level in the accepted taxonomy of the genus and that 20% of the strains were not identified at the species level. Most of these strains had been isolated and classified several years ago, and their taxonomic status has not been updated by modern techniques. MLSA was also compared with indices based on the analysis of whole-genome sequences that have been proposed for species delineation, such as tetranucleotide usage patterns (TETRA, average nucleotide identity (ANIm, based on MUMmer and ANIb, based on BLAST and genome-to-genome distance (GGDC. TETRA was useful for discriminating Pseudomonas from other genera, whereas ANIb and GGDC clearly separated strains of different species. ANIb showed the strongest correlation with MLSA. The correct species classification is a prerequisite for most diversity and evolutionary studies. This work highlights the necessity for complete genomic sequences of type strains to build a phylogenomic taxonomy and that all new genome sequences submitted to databases should be correctly assigned to species to avoid taxonomic inconsistencies.

  4. Plasma biomarker analysis in pediatric ARDS: generating future framework from a pilot randomized control trial of methylprednisoloneA framework for identifying plasma biomarkers related to clinical outcomes in pediatric ARDS

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    Dai eKimura


    Full Text Available Objective: Lung injury activates multiple pro-inflammatory pathways, including neutrophils, epithelial and endothelial injury, and coagulation factors leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Low-dose methylprednisolone therapy (MPT improved oxygenation and ventilation in early pediatric ARDS without altering duration of mechanical ventilation or mortality. We evaluated the effects of MPT on biomarkers of endothelial (Ang-2, sICAM-1 or epithelial (sRAGE injury, neutrophil activation (MMP-8, and coagulation (PAI-1. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trialSetting: Tertiary-care Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Patients: Mechanically ventilated children (0-18 years with early ARDS.Interventions: Blood samples were collected on Days 0 (before MPT, 7, and 14 during low-dose MPT (n=17 vs. placebo (n=18 therapy. The MPT group received a 2mg/kg loading dose followed by 1mg/kg/day continuous infusions from days 1-7, tapered off over 7 days; placebo group received equivalent amounts of 0.9% saline. We analyzed plasma samples using a multiplex assay for 5 biomarkers of ARDS. Multiple regression models were constructed to predict associations between changes in biomarkers and the clinical outcomes reported earlier including: P/F ratio on days 8&9, plateau pressure on days 1&2, PaCO2 on days 2&3, racemic epinephrine following extubation, and supplemental oxygen at ICU discharge.Results: No differences occurred in biomarker concentrations between the groups on Day 0. On Day 7, reduction in MMP-8 levels (p=0.0016 occurred in the MPT group, whereas increases in sICAM-1 levels (p=0.0005 occurred in the placebo group (no increases in sICAM-1 in the MPT group. sRAGE levels decreased in both MPT and placebo groups (p<0.0001 from Day 0 to Day 7. On Day 7, sRAGE levels were positively correlated with MPT group PaO2/FiO2 ratios on Day 8 (r=0.93, p=0.024. O2 requirements at ICU transfer positively correlated with Day 7 MMP-8 (r=0.85, p=0

  5. Pseudomonas-follikulitis efter badning i spabad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients....... We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect....

  6. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

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    Prabha S


    Full Text Available Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV. Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues. Methods: Porcine tissues (both fresh and decellularised were analysed using validated assays specific for PERV: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: PERV specific GAG sequences were found in the porcine heart tissue samples using PCR for DNA and RT- PCR for RNA. All tissue samples (both fresh and treated tissues like aortic valve, pulmonary valve and heart muscle showed the presence of PERV DNA. RT PCR for PERV was positive in all fresh tissues and was found to be negative in decellularised treated tissues. Conclusions: PCR is a rapid, specific test for the detection of PERV virus in xenografts. These findings have demonstrated that the presence of proviral DNA form of PERV in porcine tissues needs to be carefully considered when the infectious disease potential of xenotransplantation is being assessed.

  7. The association between fluid balance and mortality in patients with ARDS was modified by serum potassium levels: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by pulmonary edema and may benefit from conservative fluid management. However, conflicting results exist in the literature. The study aimed to investigate the association between mean fluid balance and mortality outcome in ARDS patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation.Methods. The study was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected dataset obtained from the NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center. ARDS patients with invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible. Demographic and laboratory data were extracted from the dataset. Multivariable regression model was built by stepwise selection of covariates. A fractional polynomial approach was used to test the linearity of mean fluid balance in the model. The potential interactions of mean fluid balance with other variables were tested.Main Results. A total of 282 patients were eligible for the analysis, including 61 non-survivors with a mortality rate of 21.6%. After stepwise regression analysis, mean fluid balance remained to be an independent predictor of death (OR: 1.00057; 95% CI [1.00034–1.00080]. The two-term model obtained using fractional polynomial analysis was not superior to the linear model. There was significant interaction between mean fluid balance and serum potassium levels (p = 0.011. While the risk of death increased with increasing mean fluid balance at potassium levels of 1.9, 2.9 , 3.9 and 4.9 mmol/l, the risk decreased at potassium level of 5.9 mmol/l.Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that more positive fluid balance in the first 8 days is significantly associated with increased risk of death. However, the relationship between mean fluid balance and mortality can be modified by serum potassium levels. With hyperkalemia, more positive fluid balance is associated with reduced risk of death.

  8. Porcine model of hemophilia A. (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Yuji; Mimuro, Jun; Onishi, Akira; Iwamoto, Masaki; Madoiwa, Seiji; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Ishiwata, Akira; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yazaki, Satoko; Sakata, Yoichi


    Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  9. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  10. Outcome prediction in pneumonia induced ALI/ARDS by clinical features and peptide patterns of BALF determined by mass spectrometry.

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    Jochen Frenzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peptide patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were assumed to reflect the complex pathology of acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS better than clinical and inflammatory parameters and may be superior for outcome prediction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A training group of patients suffering from ALI/ARDS was compiled from equal numbers of survivors and nonsurvivors. Clinical history, ventilation parameters, Murray's lung injury severity score (Murray's LISS and interleukins in BALF were gathered. In addition, samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by means of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis for each clinical and cytokine parameter revealed interleukin-6>interleukin-8>diabetes mellitus>Murray's LISS as the best outcome predictors. Outcome predicted on the basis of BALF levels of interleukin-6 resulted in 79.4% accuracy, 82.7% sensitivity and 76.1% specificity (area under the ROC curve, AUC, 0.853. Both clinical parameters and cytokines as well as peptide patterns determined by MALDI-ToF MS were analyzed by classification and regression tree (CART analysis and support vector machine (SVM algorithms. CART analysis including Murray's LISS, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in combination was correct in 78.0%. MALDI-ToF MS of BALF peptides did not reveal a single identifiable biomarker for ARDS. However, classification of patients was successfully achieved based on the entire peptide pattern analyzed using SVM. This method resulted in 90% accuracy, 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity following a 10-fold cross validation (AUC = 0.953. Subsequent validation of the optimized SVM algorithm with a test group of patients with unknown prognosis yielded 87.5% accuracy, 83.3% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-ToF MS peptide patterns of BALF, evaluated by appropriate

  11. Pyocyanin inhibits both nitric oxide-dependent and -independent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries. (United States)

    Hempenstall, Allison; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Johnson, Peter J


    The effects of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin (PCN) on the contractile function of porcine coronary arteries was investigated in vitro. Artery rings (5 mm) were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs' solution for the measurement of isometric tension. The effect of PCN on resting and precontracted coronary arteries was initially investigated with various agents. Arteries were precontracted with prostaglandin (PG) F2α or potassium chloride and endothelium-dependent relaxations were induced by various agents in the presence of PCN. Pyocyanin (0.1-10 μmol/L) evoked small-amplitude, dose-dependent contractions in resting porcine coronary arteries. In addition, PCN amplified the contractile response to PGF2α , but did not alter responses to carbachol. Pyocyanin (0.1-10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations evoked by neurokinin A. Pyocyanin also inhibited relaxations evoked by diethylamine nitric oxide (a nitric oxide donor), forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator), dibuytyryl-cAMP (a cAMP analogue), 8-bromo-cGMP (a cGMP analogue) and P1075 (a KATP channel activator), but not isoprenaline (β-adrenoceceptor agonist). These results indicate that physiological concentrations of PCN interfere with multiple intracellular processes involved in vascular smooth muscle relaxation, in particular pathways downstream of nitric oxide release. Thus, PCN may alter normal vascular function in patients infected with P. aeruginosa. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan


    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  13. Study of the Behavior of Some Spring Barley Lines with Two Rows Created at A.R.D.S Turda Regarding Production Capacity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana PORUMB


    Full Text Available The spring barley is a variety of a superior quality for brewing compared with the feed barley due to several reasons. Research was conducted in the field of breeding of spring barley with two rows, within ARDS Turda, during 2013-2015. The trials were comparatively developed, and included 25 variants. The biological material was represented by four  autochthonous genotypes: Turdeana, Daciana Romaniţa (A.R.D.S. Turda, and Adina (A.R.D.S. Suceava. The spring barley lines created by the S.C.D.A. Turda, meet the requirements of the beer industry in terms of protein content, starch, M.M.B. and germination energy.

  14. Susceptibility of human liver cells to porcine endogenous retrovirus. (United States)

    Lin, Xinzi; Qi, Lin; Li, Zhiguo; Chi, Hao; Lin, Wanjun; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zesheng; Pan, Mingxin; Gao, Yi


    The risk of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection is a major barrier for pig-to-human xenotransplant. Porcine endogenous retrovirus, present in porcine cells, can infect many human and nonhuman primate cells in vitro, but there is no evidence available about in vitro infection of human liver cells. We investigated the susceptibility of different human liver cells to porcine endogenous retrovirus. The supernatant from a porcine kidney cell line was added to human liver cells, including a normal hepatocyte cell line (HL-7702 cells), primary hepatocytes (Phh cells), and a liver stellate cell line (Lx-2 cells), and to human embryonic kidney cells as a reference control. Expression of the porcine endogenous retrovirus antigen p15E in the human cells was evaluated with polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. The porcine endogenous retrovirus antigen p15E was not expressed in any human liver cells (HL-7702, Phh, or Lx-2 cells) that had been exposed to supernatants from porcine kidney cell lines. Porcine endogenous retrovirus-specific fragments were amplified in human kidney cells. Human liver cells tested were not susceptible to infection by porcine endogenous retrovirus. Therefore, not all human cells are susceptible to porcine endogenous retrovirus.

  15. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. In this study, two bacterial strains were isolated from a contaminated soil of a refinery of Arzew (Oran). The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P3) and Pseudomonas fluoresens (P4).

  16. Optimization of alkaline protease production from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 15, 2009 ... A protease producing bacteria was isolated from meat waste contaminated soil and identified as. Pseudomonas ... Key words: Alkaline protease, casein agar, meat waste contaminated soil, Pseudomonas fluorescens. INTRODUCTION ... advent of new frontiers in biotechnology, the spectrum of protease ...

  17. Automated Rotational Percussion Bed and Bronchoscopy Improves Respiratory Mechanics and Oxygenation in ARDS Patients Supported with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (United States)

    Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, S Christopher; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to provide "lung rest" through the use of low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) and ultralow tidal volume (respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low and ultralow tidal volume ventilation can result in low dynamic respiratory compliance and potentially increased retention of airway secretions. We present our experience using automated rotational percussion beds (ARPBs) and bronchoscopy in four ARDS patients to manage increased pulmonary secretions. These beds performed automated side-to-side tilt maneuver and intermittent chest wall percussion. Their use resulted in substantial reduction in peak and plateau pressures in two patients on volume control ventilation, while the driving pressures (inspiratory pressure) to attain the desired tidal volumes in patients on pressure control ventilation also decreased. In addition, mean partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio (109 pre-ARPB vs. 157 post-ARPB), positive end-expiratory pressure (10 cm H2O vs. 8 cm H2O), and FiO2 (0.88 vs. 0.52) improved after initiation of ARPB. The improvements in the respiratory mechanics and oxygenation helped us to initiate early ECMO weaning. Based on our experience, the use of chest physiotherapy, frequent body repositioning, and bronchoscopy may be helpful in the management of pulmonary secretions in patients supported with ECMO.

  18. Surfactant replacement and open lung concept – Comparison of two treatment strategies in an experimental model of neonatal ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebsen Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several concepts of treatment in neonatal ARDS have been proposed in the last years. The present study compared the effects of open lung concept positive pressure ventilation (PPVOLC with a conventional ventilation strategy combined with administration of two different surfactant preparations on lung function and surfactant homoeostasis. Methods After repeated whole-lung saline lavage, 16 newborn piglets were assigned to either PPVOLC (n = 5 or surfactant treatment under conventional PPV using a natural bovine (n = 5 or a monomeric protein B based surfactant (n = 6. Results Comprehensive monitoring showed each treatment strategy to improve gas exchange and lung function, although the effect on PaO2 and pulmonary compliance declined over the study period in the surfactant groups. The overall improvement of the ventilation efficiency index (VEI was significantly greater in the PPVOLC group. Phospholipid and protein analyses of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed significant alterations to surfactant homoeostasis in the PPVOLC group, whereas IL-10 and SP-C mRNA expression was tendentially increased in the surfactant groups. Conclusion The different treatment strategies applied could be shown to improve gas exchange and lung function in neonatal ARDS. To which extent differences in maintenance of lung function and surfactant homeostasis may lead to long-term consequences needs to be studied further.

  19. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.


    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  20. Queixas orais e verificação da fala de indivíduos com síndrome da ardência bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Gama Pastana


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar queixas referentes às funções orais relacionadas ao sintoma de ardência bucal e verificar alterações na articulação da fala MÉTODO: participaram do estudo 22 indivíduos com faixa etária entre 44 a 78 anos, diagnosticados na Clínica de Estomatologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foi realizado levantamento dos dados a partir de questionário específico e gravação audiovisual da fala utilizando fichário evocativo. RESULTADOS: foram relatados sintomas específicos de ardência por 77% dos sujeitos e em associação com dor por 23%. Sintomas associados como boca seca, alteração do paladar e olfato foram referidos por 86% dos indivíduos. A língua foi referida com sintoma de ardência em 82% dos indivíduos, representando a estrutura mais acometida. A intensidade da ardência foi referida como moderada por 64%. A forma de ocorrência do sintoma foi relatada como contínua por 64% dos indivíduos. Do total, 82% relataram fazer uso de estratégias para minimizar o sintoma da ardência. Em relação às funções orais, 27% queixaram-se de cansaço na fala, 14% de cansaço na mastigação e 9% de engasgos à deglutição, sendo que de 32% relataram aumento da intensidade da ardência na fala e 9% na mastigação. Na análise de fala, em 95% da amostra, não houve ocorrência de alteração, sendo a imprecisão articulatória identificada em 5% dos indivíduos avaliados. CONCLUSÃO: foram identificadas queixas orais como cansaço ao falar e mastigar e aumento da intensidade do sintoma de ardência nestas funções, não tendo sido evidenciadas modificações na articulação da fala nos indivíduos com Síndrome da Ardência Bucal investigados nessa pesquisa.

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  2. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis | Onawunmi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis. OA Onawunmi. Abstract. No abstract.

  3. porcine anaesthesia for advanced trauma operative management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei


    Sep 1, 2008 ... 120. PORCINE ANAESTHESIA FOR ADVANCED TRAUMA OPERATIVE. MANAGEMENT (ATOM). H. BADDOO, F. AHIAKU, E. FORDJUOR, I. WULFF, D. AKUOKU and D. KWAMI. Department of Anaesthesia, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana. Author for correspondence: Dr Henry Baddoo.

  4. Short communication Expression profiling analyses of porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (ORF) of the porcine MuRF1 gene consisting of 354 amino acids was obtained and it shared 93% and 90% identity with those of ... Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ... identified as one of the members of the E3 ubiquitin ligases and it regulates myofibrillar protein metabolism. (Bodine et ...

  5. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.


    Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  6. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314417818


    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions

  7. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael


    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  8. Soluble programmed cell death receptor-1 (sPD-1: a potential biomarker with anti-inflammatory properties in human and experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F. Monaghan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a common organ dysfunction in the critically ill patient. Mechanisms for its development have focused on immune mediated causes, aspects of our understanding are not complete, and we lack biomarkers. Design, setting, and subjects Blood and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BAL from humans (n = 10–13 with ARDS and controls (n = 5–10 as well as a murine model of ARDS (n = 5–6 with controls (n = 6–7 were studied. Methods ARDS was induced in mice by hemorrhagic shock (day 1 followed by poly-microbial sepsis (day 2. Samples were then collected on the third day after the animals were euthanized. Ex vivo experiments used splenocytes from animals with ARDS cultured with and without soluble programmed death receptor-1 (sPD-1. Results Levels of sPD-1 are increased in both the serum (11,429.3 pg/mL(SD 2133.3 vs. 8061.4(SD 4187.8, p = 0.036 and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL fluid (6,311.1 pg/mL(SD 3758.0 vs. 90.7 pg/mL(SD 202.8, p = 0.002 of humans with ARDS. Similar results are seen in the serum (9396.1 pg/mL(SD 1546.0 vs. 3464.5 pg/mL(SD 2511.8, p = 0.001 and BAL fluid (2891.7 pg/mL(SD 868.1 vs. 1385.9 pg/mL(SD 927.8, p = 0.012 of mice. sPD-1 levels in murine blood (AUC = 1(1–1, p = 0.006, murine BAL fluid (AUC = 0.905(0.717–1.093, p = 0.015, and human BAL (AUC = 1(1–1, p = 0.001 fluid predicted ARDS. To assess the importance of sPD-1 in ARDS, ex vivo experiments were undertaken. BAL fluid from mice with ARDS dampens the TNF-α production compared to cells cultured with BAL lacking sPD-1 (2.7 pg/mL(SD 3.8 vs. 52.38 pg/mL(SD 25.1, p = 0.002. Conclusions This suggests sPD-1 is elevated in critical illness and may represent a potential biomarker for ARDS. In addition, sPD-1 has an anti-inflammatory mechanism in conditions of marked stress and aids in the resolution of severe inflammation. sPD-1 could be used to not only diagnose ARDS

  9. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds]. (United States)

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E


    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  10. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail binding protein-1 (MTCBP-1) acts as an eukaryotic aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the methionine salvage pathway. (United States)

    Hirano, Wakako; Gotoh, Isamu; Uekita, Takamasa; Seiki, Motoharu


    MTCBP-1 was identified as a protein that binds the cytoplasmic tail of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Since MTCBP-1 has a putative beta-barrel structure, it is presumably a member of the recently proposed cupin superfamily that contains tremendously diverged functions of proteins in spite of their well-conserved beta-barrel structure. MTCBP-1 shows significant homology to the bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the cupin family, which is an enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle). Since it is difficult to speculate the functions of cupin proteins simply based on their sequence homology, we examined whether the eukaryotic ARD homologs surely function in the methionine metabolism. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, yeast could grow when substrate of MTA cycle was provided. Disruption of the yeast ARD homolog, YMR009w gene, abolished ability of the cells to grow in this culture condition. Re-expression of either the YMR009w or MTCBP-1 gene restored the cell growth. Mutation analysis revealed that the glutamic acid residue in the beta-barrel fold and the N-terminal extension from the beta-barrel fold were found to be important for the activity to restore the growth. Thus, MTCBP-1 isolated as a binding protein for MT1-MMP was demonstrated to function as an ARD-like enzyme in the MTA cycle in yeast.

  11. Morphological assessment of sucrose preservation for porcine heart valves.


    Drury, P J; Olsen, E G; Ross, D N


    Porcine aortic valves stored in various concentrations of sucrose (50-80%) for up to 52 weeks were examined both histologically and by electron microscopy. The valves were compared with porcine aortic valves stored in a nutrient and antibiotic medium for 12 weeks. Overall preservation was better in those porcine valves stored in sucrose solution than in nutrient and antibiotic medium, the best preservation being in 50% sucrose. Despite wide separation of collagen at that concentration seen on...

  12. Multilocus sequence typing of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen that exhibits multiple drug resistance with increasing frequency, especially to carbapenems making patient treatment difficult. Carbapenem-resistance may be caused by porin gene mutations, active drug efflux, and carbapenemase production.

  13. Dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genome Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalai Mathee; Giri Narasimhan; Camilo Valdes; Xiaoyun Qiu; Jody M. Matewish; Michael Koehrsen; Antonis Rokas; Chandri N. Yandava; Reinhard Engels; Erliang Zeng; Raquel Olavarietta; Melissa Doud; Roger S. Smith; Philip Montgomery; Jared R. White; Paul A. Godfrey; Chinnappa Kodira; Bruce Birren; James E. Galagan; Stephen Lory


    One of the hallmarks of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to thrive in diverse environments that includes humans with a variety of debilitating diseases or immune deficiencies...

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to the max

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poole, Keith


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to a variety of antimicrobials and can develop resistance during anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy both of which compromise treatment of infections caused by this organism...

  15. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (United States)

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri


    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Family Pseudomonadaceae) is an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Family Pseudomonadaceae) is an obligate aerobic, motile, gram negative bacillus.which is able to grow and survive in almost any environment and resistant to temperature extremes. It is involved in the etiology of several diseases i.

  17. Joint Intratracheal Surfactant-Antibacterial Therapy in Experimental Pseudomonas-Induced Pneumonia. (United States)

    Birkun, Alexei A; Kubyshkin, Anatoly V; Novikov, Nikolai Y; Krivorutchenko, Yuri L; Fedosov, Michael I; Postnikova, Olga N; Snitser, Anatoly A


    The application of an exogenous pulmonary surfactant as a carrier for intratracheally administered antimicrobials represents a promising therapeutic modality that is still on its way to clinical practice. Owing to its ability to decrease surface tension, exogenous surfactant may enhance delivery of antibiotics into foci of pulmonary infection, thus increasing efficiency and safety of topical antimicrobial therapy in bacterial lung diseases. To assess potential interactions between exogenous surfactant and amikacin in vitro, and to study the effects of their joint intratracheal instillation in rats with acute pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial and surface-active properties of amikacin (Amicil, Kievmedpreparat, Ukraine), porcine pulmonary surfactant (Suzacrin, Docpharm, Ukraine), and their combination were studied in vitro using standard microbiologic procedures and modified Pattle method (estimation of bubble diameter). Similar methods were utilized to study bacterial contamination of lungs and blood, and to assess the surface activity of bronchoalveolar wash (BAW) in 119 Wistar rats, including infected (intratracheal introduction of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and noninfected animals. Histopathologic findings, differential leukocyte counts, and oxygenation parameters were recorded. Antibacterial and surface-active properties of the surfactant and amikacin remained unimpaired in vitro. In rats anti-pseudomonal and anti-inflammatory effects of the surfactant-amikacin mixture were more pronounced (psurfactant-amikacin therapy of Pseudomonas-induced pneumonia may suggest further clinical trials.

  18. Interactions of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in polymicrobial wound infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Pastar

    Full Text Available Understanding the pathology resulting from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial wound infections is of great importance due to their ubiquitous nature, increasing prevalence, growing resistance to antimicrobial agents, and ability to delay healing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 is the leading cause of community-associated bacterial infections resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We utilized a well-established porcine partial thickness wound healing model to study the synergistic effects of USA300 and P. aeruginosa on wound healing. Wound re-epithelialization was significantly delayed by mixed-species biofilms through suppression of keratinocyte growth factor 1. Pseudomonas showed an inhibitory effect on USA300 growth in vitro while both species co-existed in cutaneous wounds in vivo. Polymicrobial wound infection in the presence of P. aeruginosa resulted in induced expression of USA300 virulence factors Panton-Valentine leukocidin and α-hemolysin. These results provide evidence for the interaction of bacterial species within mixed-species biofilms in vivo and for the first time, the contribution of virulence factors to the severity of polymicrobial wound infections.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood. (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi


    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Targeted Porcine Genome Engineering with TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Golas, Mariola Monika


    Genetically modified pigs are becoming an invaluable animal model for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Unlike traditional transgenesis, which is accomplished by randomly inserting an exogenous transgene cassette into the natural chromosomal context, targeted genome editing...... confers precisely editing (e.g., mutations or indels) or insertion of a functional transgenic cassette to user-designed loci. Techniques for targeted genome engineering are growing dramatically and include, e.g., zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs......, including construction of sequence-specific TALENs, delivery of TALENs into primary porcine fibroblasts, and detection of TALEN-mediated cleavage, is described. This chapter is useful for scientists who are inexperienced with TALEN engineering of porcine cells as well as of other large animals....

  1. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila


    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  2. Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea. (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Radt, B; Birngruber, R; Brinkmann, R


    New methods in refractive surgery require a considerable understanding of the material "cornea" and are often studied by theoretical modeling in order to gain insight into the procedure and an optimized approach to the technique. The quality of these models is highly dependent on the preciseness of its input parameters. Porcine cornea often is used as a model in preclinical studies because of its similarity to man and its availability. The important physical parameters for biomechanical deformation, heat conduction, and collagen denaturation kinetics have been determined for porcine cornea. Experimental methods include densitometry, calorimetry, turbidimetry, tensile tests, stress relaxation, and hydrothermal isometric tension measurements. The density of porcine cornea was measured as p = 1062+/-5 kg/m3, the heat capacity gave c = 3.74+/-0.05 J/gK. The stress-strain relation for corneal strips is represented by a third order approximation where the secant modulus yields about Esec approximately equal to 0.4 MPa for small strains less than 2%. The normalized stress relaxation is described by an exponential fit over time. The denaturation process of cornea is characterized by specific temperatures which can be related to the change of the mechanical properties. Denaturation kinetics are described according to the model of Arrhenius yielding the activation energy deltaEa = 106 kJ/mol and the phase transition entropy deltaS = 39 J/(mol x K). The established set of parameters characterizes the porcine cornea in a reliable way that creates a basis for corneal models. It furthermore gives direct hints of how to treat cornea in certain refractive techniques.

  3. Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) in Mangalitsa pigs


    Stanišić, N.; Aleksić, S.; Di, L.; Stanimirović, Z.; Zhenhua, G.; Petrović, M.; Delić, N.; Radović, Č.; Parunović, N.; Gogić, M.


    Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) is one kind of molecular genetics defect which will cause malignant hyperthermia syndrome in pigs. It was reported that mutation of pig rynodine receptor (RYR1) gene is the main reason for PSS. The aim of this study was to test the RYR1 genotype of 10 Mangalitsa pigs using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, which is a reliable and simple method for RYR1 gene t...

  4. A proteomic approach to porcine saliva. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A


    This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.

  5. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernard Taylor


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  6. Active Immunization with Lipopolysaccharide Pseudomonas Antigen for Chronic Pseudomonas Bronchopneumonia in Guinea Pigs


    Pennington, James E.; Hickey, William F.; Blackwood, Linda L.; Arnaut, M. Amin


    Chronic respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading clinical problem among patients with cystic fibrosis. Because antimicrobial agents are usually ineffective in eradicating these infections, additional therapeutic or prophylactic measures should be considered. In this study, an experimental guinea pig model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bronchopneumonia was utilized to determine whether active immunization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) P. aeruginosa antigen may favorab...

  7. Rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is associated with high in-hospital mortality. Alveolar recruitment followed by ventilation at optimal titrated PEEP may reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS, but the effects on mortality and other clinical outcomes remain unknown. This article reports the rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART. Methods/Design ART is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized (concealed, controlled trial, which aims to determine if maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with ARDS compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy. We will enroll adult patients with ARDS of less than 72 h duration. The intervention group will receive an alveolar recruitment maneuver, with stepwise increases of PEEP achieving 45 cmH2O and peak pressure of 60 cmH2O, followed by ventilation with optimal PEEP titrated according to the static compliance of the respiratory system. In the control group, mechanical ventilation will follow a conventional protocol (ARDSNet. In both groups, we will use controlled volume mode with low tidal volumes (4 to 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight and targeting plateau pressure ≤30 cmH2O. The primary outcome is 28-day survival, and the secondary outcomes are: length of ICU stay; length of hospital stay; pneumothorax requiring chest tube during first 7 days; barotrauma during first 7 days; mechanical ventilation-free days from days 1 to 28; ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month survival. ART is an event-guided trial planned to last until 520 events (deaths within 28 days are observed. These events allow detection of a hazard ratio of 0.75, with 90% power and two-tailed type I error of 5%. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If the ART strategy with maximum recruitment and PEEP titration improves

  8. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...

  9. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair


    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  10. Comparison of gene expression patterns between porcine cumulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1 Department of Gene and Cell Engineering, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,. Beijing 100094 ... quantitative RT-PCR methods, we compared the mRNA expression patterns in porcine oocytes from two ... Keywords: Differential gene expression, DD-RT-PCR, porcine oocytes, cumulus.

  11. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal

    porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or completely open latrines (p=0.035, OR 5.98, CI: 1.33- 43.02) compared to enclosed latrines, and feeding potato peels to pigs (P=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis fluctuated throughout the seasons, and confined pigs...

  12. Determination of free amino acids of porcine serum responsible for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of free amino acids of porcine serum responsible for the meat quality by 1 H NMR and HPLC analyses. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The pH24h correlated well with the water holding capacity (WHC) of porcine meat, whereas a strongly negative correlation was observed between pH24h and serum ...

  13. Comparative histology and immunohistochemistry of porcine versus human skin. (United States)

    Debeer, Sabine; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Laurent, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François; Dubois, Bertrand; Kanitakis, Jean


    Porcine skin is increasingly being employed as a model of human skin in various research fields, including pharmacology, toxicology and immunology, with particular interest in percutaneous permeation and organ transplantation. Porcine skin shows several anatomical and physiological similarities, but also some differences, with human skin, but few in depth comparative studies are so far available. To study the immunohistochemical properties of normal porcine skin in comparison with human skin. We performed a histological and immunohistochemical study on frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsies from domestic swine and normal human skin, using a panel of 93 monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies recognizing various human and porcine skin cell types or structures. We found that several antibodies used to detect normal human skin cells showed equivalent immunoreactivity on normal porcine skin. However, some antibodies commonly used to detect human skin antigens remained unreactive on porcine skin. Our findings highlight the main immunohistochemical properties of porcine skin in comparison with those of human skin and provide a morphological and immunohistochemical basis useful to researchers using porcine skin.

  14. Continuous distending pressure effects on variables contributing to oxygenation in healthy and ARDS model pigs during HFOV (United States)

    Laviola, Marianna; Hajny, Ondrej; Roubik, Karel


    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an alternative mode of mechanical ventilation. HFOV has been shown to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and may represent an effective lung-protective ventilation in patients where conventional ventilation is failing. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of continuous distending pressure (CDP) on variables that contribute to the oxygenation in healthy and ARDS lung model pigs. Methods. In order to simulate a lung disease, lung injury was induced by lavage with normal saline with detergent in three pigs. HFOV ventilation was applied before and after the lung lavage. CDP was stepwise increased by 2 cmH2O, until the maximum CDP (before the lung lavage 32 cmH2O and after the lung lavage 42 cmH2O) and then it was stepwise decreased by 2 cmH2O to the initial value. In this paper we analyzed the following parameters acquired during our experiments: partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), cardiac output (CO) and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (SvO2). In order to find how both PaO2 and CO affected SvO2 during the increase of CDP before and after lavage, a nonlinear regression fitting of the response in SvO2 on the predictors (PaO2 and CO) was implemented. Results. Before the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 remained constant, CO strongly decreased and SvO2 slightly decreased. After the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 strongly increased, CO decreased and SvO2 increased. So, development of SvO2 followed the PaO2 and CO trends. Changes in PaO2 and CO occur at decisive CDP step and it was much higher after the lung lavage compared to the healthy lungs. The implemented nonlinear model gives a good goodness of fitting in all three pigs. The values of PaO2 and CO estimated coefficients changed at the same decisive step of CDP identified by the trends. Also the algorithm identified a CDP step much higher after the lung lavage

  15. Progress, problems and prospects of porcine pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning WANG,Yangli PEI,Ning LI,Jianyong HAN


    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs, can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, suggesting that PSCs have great potential for basic developmental biology research and wide applications for clinical medicine. Genuine ESCs and iPSCs have been derived from mice and rats, but not from livestock such as the pig─an ideal animal model for studying human disease and regenerative medicine due to similarities with human physiologic processes. Efforts to derive porcine ESCs and iPSCs have not yielded high-quality PSCs that can produce chimeras with germline transmission. Thus, exploration of the unique porcine gene regulation network of preimplantation embryonic development may permit optimization of in vitro culture systems for raising porcine PSCs. Here we summarize the recent progress in porcine PSC generation as well as the problems encountered during this progress and we depict prospects for generating porcine naive PSCs.

  16. Splice variants of porcine PPHLN1 encoding periphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila


    of the periphilin-1 protein. Thus, variants Sp1 and Sp1 are the result of alternative splicing. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was mapped to chromosome 5. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was found to be differentially expressed in various porcine organs and tissues. The sequence of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA, encoding the periphilin......The periphilin-1 protein is encoded by the PPHLN1 gene. Periphilin-1 is found in the cornified cell envelope during the terminal differentiation of keratinocyte at the outer layer of epidermis. In the current study we report on the cloning and characterization of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA and two...... splice variants hereof. RT-PCR cloning using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences resulted in three PPHLN1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and two transcript variant resulting in shorter proteins. The longest encoded periphilin-1, consisting of 373 amino acids, displays a high...

  17. Synthesis of biologically active porcine secretin and [ITyr10] porcine secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans


    Porcine secretin, [Tyr10] secretin, and [Tyr13] secretin were synthesized by solid phase methodology and purified by stepwise gradient elution from a short reversed-phase column with ethanol and acetic acid as organic modifiers. [Tyr10] secretin and [Tyr13] secretin were iodinated by the chloramine-T...

  18. Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection. (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Changhee


    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that are considered emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens of pigs that pose a significant economic threat to the global pork industry. Although cholesterol is known to affect the replication of a broad range of viruses in vitro, its significance and role in porcine nidovirus infection remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether cellular or/and viral cholesterol levels play a role in porcine nidovirus infection. Our results showed that depletion of cellular cholesterol by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) dose-dependently suppressed the replication of both nidoviruses. Conversely, cholesterol depletion from the viral envelope had no inhibitory effect on porcine nidovirus production. The addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells moderately restored the infectivity of porcine nidoviruses, indicating that the presence of cholesterol in the target cell membrane is critical for viral replication. The antiviral activity of MβCD on porcine nidovirus infection was found to be predominantly exerted when used as a treatment pre-infection or prior to the viral entry process. Furthermore, pharmacological sequestration of cellular cholesterol efficiently blocked both virus attachment and internalization and, accordingly, markedly affected subsequent post-entry steps of the replication cycle, including viral RNA and protein biosynthesis and progeny virus production. Taken together, our data indicate that cell membrane cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus entry into cells, and pharmacological drugs that hamper cholesterol-dependent virus entry may have antiviral potential against porcine nidoviruses.

  19. Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C


    Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed.......Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed....

  20. Higher mini-BAL total protein concentration in early ARDS predicts faster resolution of lung injury measured by more ventilator-free days. (United States)

    Hendrickson, Carolyn M; Abbott, Jason; Zhuo, Hanjing; Liu, Kathleen D; Calfee, Carolyn S; Matthay, Michael A


    The protein concentration of alveolar edema fluid in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is dynamic. It reflects alveolar flooding during acute injury, as well as fluid and protein clearance over time. We hypothesized that among ARDS patients treated with low tidal volume ventilation, higher concentrations of protein in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) samples would predict slower resolution of lung injury and worse clinical outcomes. Total protein and IgM concentrations in day 0 mBAL samples from 79 subjects enrolled in the aerosolized albuterol (ALTA) ARDS Network Albuterol Trial were measured by colorimetric assay and ELISA, respectively. Linear regression models were used to test the association of mBAL proteins with clinical outcomes and measures of length of illness, including ventilator-free days (VFDs). Median mBAL total protein concentration was 1,740 μg/ml [interquartile range (IQR): 890-3,170]. Each 500 μg/ml increase in day 0 mBAL total protein was associated with an additional 0.8 VFDs [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-1.6, P value = 0.038]. Median mBAL IgM concentration was 410 ng/ml (IQR: 340-500). Each 50 ng/ml increase in mBAL IgM was associated with an additional 1.1 VFDs (95% CI 0.2-2.1, P value = 0.022). These associations remained significant and were not attenuated in multivariate models adjusted for age, serum protein concentration, and vasopressor use in the 24 h before enrollment. Thus, higher mBAL total protein and IgM concentrations at day 0 are associated with more VFDs in patients with ARDS and may identify patients with preserved alveolar epithelial mechanisms for net alveolar fluid clearance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Airway epithelial cell tolerance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verghese Margrith W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The respiratory tract epithelium is a critical environmental interface that regulates inflammation. In chronic infectious airway diseases, pathogens may permanently colonize normally sterile luminal environments. Host-pathogen interactions determine the intensity of inflammation and thus, rates of tissue injury. Although many cells become refractory to stimulation by pathogen products, it is unknown whether the airway epithelium becomes either tolerant or hypersensitive in the setting of chronic infection. Our goals were to characterize the response of well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to understand whether repeated exposure induced tolerance and, if so, to explore the mechanism(s. Methods The apical surface of well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures was repetitively challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture filtrates or the bacterial media control. Toxicity, cytokine production, signal transduction events and specific effects of dominant negative forms of signaling molecules were examined. Additional experiments included using IL-1β and TNFα as challenge agents, and performing comparative studies with a novel airway epithelial cell line. Results An initial challenge of the apical surface of polarized human airway epithelial cells with Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture filtrates induced phosphorylation of IRAK1, JNK, p38, and ERK, caused degradation of IκBα, generation of NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factor activity, and resulted in IL-8 secretion, consistent with activation of the Toll-like receptor signal transduction pathway. These responses were strongly attenuated following a second Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or IL-1β, but not TNFα, challenge. Tolerance was associated with decreased IRAK1 protein content and kinase activity and dominant negative IRAK1 inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa -stimulated NF-κB transcriptional

  2. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete


    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  3. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.


    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  4. Diversity of small RNAs expressed in Pseudomonas species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Lozano, Mara; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molina-Santiago, Carlos


    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation of...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... genus Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, and has been..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a chronic pneumonia. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the...

  6. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... on product spoilage and shelf-life remains poorly described. The present study used a quantitative microbial ecology approach to model and predict the effect of product characteristics and storage conditions on growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in cottage cheese. The effect of temperature (5-15˚C) and p...

  7. Miliary Tuberculosis Presenting with ARDS and Shock: A Case Report and Challenges in Current Management and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keevan Singh


    Full Text Available Miliary tuberculosis, complicated by ARDS and septic shock, is a rare and lethal presentation of this disease. Here we present a case of such a patient, following which we discuss the management of tuberculosis in the ICU and some of the challenges that may be faced. A young HIV negative female presented to us with an acute history of worsening shortness of breath on a background of weight loss, nonproductive cough, and fever. CXR and CT scan showed bilateral miliary type opacities and the patient was admitted to the hospital. Within forty-eight hours of admission she became hypoxemic and was intubated and transferred to the ICU. There she experienced worsening organ dysfunction and developed circulatory shock. Despite escalating doses of noradrenaline, she continued to decline and died before specific anti-TB treatment could be started. Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are the keys to improving outcomes in critically ill TB patients. However there are many challenges in doing so, especially in a general ICU located in a country with a low TB incidence.

  8. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  9. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells. (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin


    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  10. Melatonin regulates lipid metabolism in porcine oocytes. (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Lee, Sanghoon; Taweechaipaisankul, Anukul; Kim, Geon A; Lee, Byeong Chun


    It is being increasingly recognized that the processes of lipogenesis and lipolysis are important for providing an essential energy source during oocyte maturation and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated that melatonin has a role in lipid metabolism regulation, including lipogenesis, lipolysis, and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulated gene expression related to lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, PPARγ, and SREBF1). Oocytes treated with melatonin formed smaller LDs and abundantly expressed several genes associated with lipolysis, including ATGL, CGI-58, HSL, and PLIN2. Moreover, melatonin significantly increased the content of fatty acids, mitochondria, and ATP, as indicated by fluorescent staining. Concomitantly, melatonin treatment upregulated gene expression related to fatty acid β-oxidation (CPT1a, CPT1b, CPT2, and ACADS) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, TFAM, and PRDX2). Overall, melatonin treatment not only altered both the morphology and amount of LDs, but also increased the content of fatty acids, mitochondria, and ATP. In addition, melatonin upregulated mRNA expression levels of lipogenesis, lipolysis, β-oxidation, and mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes in porcine oocytes. These results indicated that melatonin promoted lipid metabolism and thereby provided an essential energy source for oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Observations on the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus. (United States)

    Johnson, R H; Donaldson-Wood, C; Allender, U


    Evidence presented suggests that porcine parvovirus is highly stable and infective. Introduction of virus to susceptible herds results in 100% infection rate within the following 3 months. Active immunity is associated with high persistent levels of haemagglutination-inhibitating (HI) antibody (greater than 256), piglets suckling immune sows acquiring HI titres between 10,000 and 40,000. Loss of passive immunity, measured by HI, occurs in a majority of pigs between 14 and 26 weeks of age (mean 21 weeks), whilst an average of 25% (2-47%) of pigs lose HI titres between 26 and 36 weeks of age. Susceptibility to challenge with virus does not occur until 3-5 weeks following loss of HI titres. In endemically infected herds 98-100% of adult pigs show serological evidence of active immunity. A significant proportion of gilts may not be actively immune to porcine parvovirus at the time of first service, and subsequent infection may occur while these gilts are pregnant.

  12. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin. (United States)

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L


    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of driving pressure on mortality in ARDS patients during lung protective mechanical ventilation in two randomized controlled trials. (United States)

    Guérin, Claude; Papazian, Laurent; Reignier, Jean; Ayzac, Louis; Loundou, Anderson; Forel, Jean-Marie


    Driving pressure (ΔPrs) across the respiratory system is suggested as the strongest predictor of hospital mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We wonder whether this result is related to the range of tidal volume (VT). Therefore, we investigated ΔPrs in two trials in which strict lung-protective mechanical ventilation was applied in ARDS. Our working hypothesis was that ΔPrs is a risk factor for mortality just like compliance (Crs) or plateau pressure (Pplat,rs) of the respiratory system. We performed secondary analysis of data from 787 ARDS patients enrolled in two independent randomized controlled trials evaluating distinct adjunctive techniques while they were ventilated as in the low VT arm of the ARDSnet trial. For this study, we used VT, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), Pplat,rs, Crs, ΔPrs, and respiratory rate recorded 24 hours after randomization, and compared them between survivors and nonsurvivors at day 90. Patients were followed for 90 days after inclusion. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used for mortality at day 90. If colinearity between ΔPrs, Crs, and Pplat,rs was verified, specific Cox models were used for each of them. Both trials enrolled 805 patients of whom 787 had day-1 data available, and 533 of these survived. In the univariate analysis, ΔPrs averaged 13.7 ± 3.7 and 12.8 ± 3.7 cmH2O (P = 0.002) in nonsurvivors and survivors, respectively. Colinearity between ΔPrs, Crs and Pplat,rs, which was expected as these variables are mathematically coupled, was statistically significant. Hazard ratios from the Cox models for day-90 mortality were 1.05 (1.02-1.08) (P = 0.005), 1.05 (1.01-1.08) (P = 0.008) and 0.985 (0.972-0.985) (P = 0.029) for ΔPrs, Pplat,rs and Crs, respectively. PEEP and VT were not associated with death in any model. When ventilating patients with low VT, ΔPrs is a risk factor for death in ARDS patients, as is Pplat,rs or Crs. As our data originated

  14. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn


     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved and th...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  15. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg


    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...

  16. Plant growth promotion by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, X.


    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative rod shaped bacterium that has a versatile metabolism and is widely spread in soil and water. P. fluorescens strain SBW25 (Pf.SBW25) is a well-known model strain to study bacterial evolution, plant colonization and biocontrol of plant diseases. It produces

  17. Antibiograms of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there was no bacterial growth after 48hrs incubation recorded for group one, only 5(13.9%) samples yielded growth of Staphylococcus aureus for group two with 31(86.1%) yielding no bacterial growth. All group three samples yielded profuse growth of which 11(36.7%) yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

  18. Transesterification of Jatropha oil using immobilized Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mild transesterification has become of much current interest for alternative fuel production. In the present study the ability of a commercial immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC 103 to catalyze the transesterification of Jatropha oil and methanol was investigated. The cell of P. fluorescens was easily immobilized ...

  19. Behavioral response of resistant and sensitive Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 18, 2008 ... Key words: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cadmium stress, heavy metal resistance. INTRODUCTION. The release of .... plasmids located in the bacterial strains isolated from agricultural and industrial soils ..... esteraromaticum S51 with other strains of non-flocculating sludge bacteria. IWA's Water Environ.

  20. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effect and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and influence of gamma irradiation on the development of Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of postharvest disease on apple fruit was studied. P. fluorescens was originally isolated from rhizosphere of the apple trees. Suspension of P. fluorescens and P. expansum ...

  1. Bacteriocinogenicity and production of pyocins from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptible organisms include Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Proteus spp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The results of this study have provided evidence for broadspectrum antibacterial activity of pyocins elicited by Pseudomonas species from Nigeria ...

  2. Isolation and characterization of arsenite oxidizing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 8, 2010 ... indicates its potential application in biological treatment of wastewaters contaminated with arsenic. Key words: Arsenic, wastewater, Pseudomonas lubricans, bioremediation. INTRODUCTION. Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic metal and is first on the superfund list of hazardous substances.

  3. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This work investigated the prevalence and antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wounds of patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria-Nigeria. One hundred Isolates were characterized and identified from the specimens using standard ...

  4. Characterization of drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the fact that they remain asymptomatic in many cases, they nevertheless play significant roles in the epidemiology of these pathogens through their dissemination to the public, sometimes through the food chain. Four multidrug resistant Gram negative pathogens including: 2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 2 Proteus ...

  5. Growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This involved hydrolysis of starch extracted from freshly harvested cassava tubers using enzyme-enzyme method of hydrolysis, followed by aerobic fermentation of Pseudomonas fluorescens on a mixture of the hydrolysate and nutrient media in a fermentor in batch cultures. The reducing sugar hydrolysate served as the ...

  6. Characterization of rhodanese produced by Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic remediation of polluted environment presents advantages over traditional technologies and also over microbial remediation. Extracellular rhodanese of strains of Pseudomonas aerugionosa and Bacillus brevis isolated from soil of cassava processing site were studied. Biochemical characteristics of the purified ...

  7. Production and characterization of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this present study, biosurfactant-producing microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBSC1, was isolated from mangrove ecosystem in Pichavaram (Boat house), Tamil Nadu, India. The biosurfactant production was done using a minimal salt medium (MSM) with crude oil as the hydrocarbon. The microbial growths ...

  8. Optimization of alkaline protease production from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protease producing bacteria was isolated from meat waste contaminated soil and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Optimization of the fermentation medium for maximum protease production was carried out. The culture conditions like inoculum concentration, incubation time, pH, temperature, carbon sources, ...

  9. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas) (United States)

    ... Hot Tub Rash > Remove swimsuits and shower with soap after getting out of the water. > Clean swimsuits after getting out of the water. ... in locations that have been closed because of pollution. Pseudomonas can multiply quickly when water disinfectant levels drop, so testing your pool or ...

  10. Occurrence of Fusarium Oxysporum and Ralstonia (Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microflora associated with the root-surface of five tomato cultivars commonly cultivated in Edo State Nigeria, was investigated by inoculating serially washed 5 mm tomato root segments on potato dextrose agar (PDA) incubated at room temperature (28-30oC). Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia (pseudomonas) ...

  11. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth (United States)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid


    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  12. An interdisciplinary tillage erosion experiment: establishing a new field in grassland with reconstructed ard plough of the Bronze Age - Iron Age (United States)

    Pavelka, Jan; Smetanová, Anna; Rejman, Jerzy; Kováčik, Peter


    Despite recognising the role of tillage erosion in landforms evolution, little research has documented its effects in prehistoric times. Herein, an interdisciplinary archaeological-geomorphological experiment with reconstructed tillage tools and management was conducted in order to measure tillage erosion when a new field in grasslands was established in the Bronze Age-Iron Age. Three wooden ards were reconstructed based on archaeological findings. They were tested in a cross-tillage experiment, consisting of a tillage pass perpendicular to the primary slope (6.5-9.7%), and a second tillage pass parallel to the primary slope of a convex-convex ridge with mowed grass (0.2 m high, vegetation cover >90%). The standard sole ard proved to be the most effective, with a mean tillage depth of 0.12 m, a mean tillage speed of 3.8 km h-1, and a mean distance between furrows of 0.20-0.25 m. Only 13% of the 264 tracers placed on 6 transects were displaced, and the mean tracers displacement parallel to the primary slope was 0.04 ± 0.17 m. Contour tillage perpendicular to primary slope created V or U shaped furrows with a mean depth of 0.1-0.12 m, a mean width of 0.05-0.1 m, and incision under the main root zone. Only soil in direct contact with the ard was displaced, with a mean translocation distance of 0.06 ± 0.2 m parallel and 0.06 ± 0.3 m perpendicular to the primary slope. During tillage parallel to slope, soil clods of 0.20 x 0.25 x 0.10 m were created and slightly disturbed or turned over one another. The tracers moved within the furrows and with the soil clods. Loose soil, resembling a seedbed, was not covered by soil clods. Mean displacement during the second pass was 0.03 ± 0.19 m parallel and 0.00 ± 0.15 m perpendicular to primary slope. The displacement from cross-tillage with a wooden ard in permanent grasslands was lower than many previously measured values of traditional animal-powered metal ploughs in permanent fields. No relationship between mean soil

  13. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 from Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Argentina (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan


    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A–1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A–2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population. PMID:23738099

  14. Genetic characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from pigs with porcine circovirus associated diseases in Argentina. (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan


    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A-1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A-2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population.

  15. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)


    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  16. Rapamycin-induced autophagy restricts porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infectivity in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Ko, Seongyeol; Gu, Min Jeong; Kim, Cheol Gyun; Kye, Yoon Chul; Lim, Younggap; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Byung-Chul; Chu, Hyuk; Han, Seung Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui


    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) invades porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and causes diarrhea and dehydration in pigs. In the present study, we showed a suppression of PEDV infection in porcine jejunum intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) by an increase in autophagy. Autophagy was activated by rapamycin at a dose that does not affect cell viability and tight junction permeability. The induction of autophagy was examined by LC3I/LC3II conversion. To confirm the autophagic-flux (entire autophagy pathway), autophagolysosomes were examined by an immunofluorescence assay. Pre-treatment with rapamycin significantly restricted not only a 1 h infection but also a longer infection (24 h) with PEDV, while this effect disappeared when autophagy was blocked. Co-localization of PEDV and autophagosomes suggests that PEDV could be a target of autophagy. Moreover, alleviation of PEDV-induced cell death in IPEC-J2 cells pretreated with rapamycin demonstrates a protective effect of rapamycin against PEDV-induced epithelial cell death. Collectively, the present study suggests an early prevention against PEDV infection in IPEC-J2 cells via autophagy that might be an effective strategy for the restriction of PEDV, and opens up the possibility of the use of rapamycin in vivo as an effective prophylactic and prevention treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interphase chromosome positioning in in vitro porcine cells and ex vivo porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Helen A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In interphase nuclei of a wide range of species chromosomes are organised into their own specific locations termed territories. These chromosome territories are non-randomly positioned in nuclei which is believed to be related to a spatial aspect of regulatory control over gene expression. In this study we have adopted the pig as a model in which to study interphase chromosome positioning and follows on from other studies from our group of using pig cells and tissues to study interphase genome re-positioning during differentiation. The pig is an important model organism both economically and as a closely related species to study human disease models. This is why great efforts have been made to accomplish the full genome sequence in the last decade. Results This study has positioned most of the porcine chromosomes in in vitro cultured adult and embryonic fibroblasts, early passage stromal derived mesenchymal stem cells and lymphocytes. The study is further expanded to position four chromosomes in ex vivo tissue derived from pig kidney, lung and brain. Conclusions It was concluded that porcine chromosomes are also non-randomly positioned within interphase nuclei with few major differences in chromosome position in interphase nuclei between different cell and tissue types. There were also no differences between preferred nuclear location of chromosomes in in vitro cultured cells as compared to cells in tissue sections. Using a number of analyses to ascertain by what criteria porcine chromosomes were positioned in interphase nuclei; we found a correlation with DNA content.

  18. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik


    PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible surgical technique for the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the subretinal space of porcine eyes and to analyse the resulting CNV clinically and histologically. METHODS: Two different modifications of a surgical technique previously described...

  19. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure. (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio


    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Acute Simvastatin Inhibits KATP Channels of Porcine Coronary Artery Myocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seto, Sai Wang; Au, Alice Lai Shan; Poon, Christina Chui Wa; Zhang, Qian; Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yeung, John Hok Keung; Kong, Siu Kai; Ngai, Sai Ming; Wan, Song; Ho, Ho Pui; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Kwan, Yiu Wa


    ...]o uptake measurements. Results The cromakalim (10 nM to 10 µM)- and pinacidil (10 nM to 10 µM)-induced concentration-dependent relaxation of porcine coronary artery was inhibited by simvastatin...

  1. A comparative anatomic and physiologic overview of the porcine heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos G; Xanthos, Theodoros T


    .... The porcine heart bears a close resemblance to the human heart in terms of its coronary circulation and hemodynamic similarities and offers ease of implementation of methods and devices from human healthcare facilities...

  2. Purification and characterization of acylation stimulating protein from porcine serum. (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Jacobi, Sheila K; Toombs, Candice F; Cianflone, Katherine H; Nersesian, Natalya; Sarath, Gautam; Miner, Jess L


    A method for purifying acylation stimulating protein (ASP) from porcine serum is described. The mRNA encoding ASP was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction which predicted a 76 residue peptide. Based on this sequence, we generated antisera to a C-terminal peptide (ASP(1-20)) which aided ASP purification. Identity of the purified protein was verified by N-terminal sequencing. The molecular mass of porcine ASP is 8926. Porcine ASP stimulated esterification of fatty acid into triacylglycerol in cultured human cells with potency similar to that of human ASP (twofold at 5 microM). Based on this evidence that ASP exists in porcine blood, and that it has acylation stimulating activity, we propose that ASP may play a role in regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue in the pig.

  3. Administration of intrapulmonary sodium polyacrylate to induce lung injury for the development of a porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Henderson, William R; Barnbrook, Julian; Dominelli, Paolo B; Griesdale, Donald Eg; Arndt, Tara; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen; Ackland, Gareth L; Xu, James; Ayas, Najib T; Sheel, Andrew W


    The loss of alveolar epithelial and endothelial integrity is a central component in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, experimental models investigating the mechanisms of epithelial injury are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to design and develop an experimental porcine model of ARDS by inducing lung injury with intrapulmonary administration of sodium polyacrylate (SPA). The present study was performed at the Centre for Comparative Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Human alveolar epithelial cells were cultured with several different concentrations of SPA; a bioluminescence technique was used to assess cell death associated with each concentration. In the anesthetized pig model (female Yorkshire X pigs (n = 14)), lung injury was caused in 11 animals (SPA group) by injecting sequential aliquots (5 mL) of 1% SPA gel in aqueous solution into the distal airway via a rubber catheter through an endotracheal tube. The SPA was dispersed throughout the lungs by manual bag ventilation. Three control animals (CON group) underwent all experimental procedures and measurements with the exception of SPA administration. The mean (± SD) ATP concentration after incubation of human alveolar epithelial cells with 0.1% SPA (0.92 ± 0.27 μM/well) was approximately 15% of the value found for the background control (6.30 ± 0.37 μM/well; p < 0.001). Elastance of the respiratory system (E RS) and the lung (E L) increased in SPA-treated animals after injury (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Chest wall elastance (E CW) did not change in SPA-treated animals. There were no differences in E RS, E L, or E CW in the CON group when pre- and post-injury values were compared. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a significant shift toward neutrophil predominance from before to after injury in SPA-treated animals (p < 0.001) but not in the CON group (p = 0.38). Necropsy revealed

  4. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates. (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A


    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  5. A Novel Porcine Graft for Regeneration of Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca


    Full Text Available Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 μm and 500–1000 μm in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HA/beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP over eight weeks. Surgery was performed in 20 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. During a standardized surgical procedure, four calvarial critical-size defects of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm depth were prepared. The defects were filled with HA/β-TCP, 250–500 μm or 500–1000 μm porcine graft, and control defects were not filled. The animals were grouped for sacrifice at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgery. Subsequently, sample blocks were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT scanning and histological sectioning. Similar bone formations were observed in all three treatment groups, although the 250–500 μm porcine graft performed slightly better. Rabbit calvarial bone tissue positively responded to porcine grafts and commercial HA/β-TCP, structural analyses showed similar crystallinity and porosity of the porcine and HA/β-TCP grafts, which facilitated bone formation through osteoconduction. These porcine grafts can be considered as graft substitutes, although further development is required for clinical applications.

  6. Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei. (United States)

    Ma, Shi-jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying


    In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-α mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-α protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-α, and found that induction with 0.8% lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-α. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-α in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-α inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-α has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare.

  7. Porcine bioengineered scaffolds as new frontiers in regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Park, K M; Woo, H M


    Porcine organs are attractive for xenotransplantation, if severe immunologic concerns can be overcome. Recently, reengineered organs, with heterologous cellular materials removed but preserved organ architecture and vasculature have been created using small rodents in an effort to produce customized bioengineered organs. However, few studies have been performed to generate bioengineered organs from porcine sources. The aim of this work was to produce 3-D bioengineered scaffolds from major porcine organs, preserving the native morphology and vascular structures with complete removal of cellular and nuclear materials. We decellularized porcine heart, liver, and kidney using a peristaltic pump system with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The preservation of major architecture and vasculature was confirmed by gross findings, ultrasonography, and angiography. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed no evidence of nuclear or cytoplasmic residues. Quantitative DNA analysis demonstrated a substantial reduction (0%-8%) of porcine DNA in the scaffolds. These results suggested that 3-D bioengineered scaffolds of porcine organs may have tremendous potential to produce non-immunogenic transplantable organs as well as beneficial tools for biomedical studies on organ re-engineering and repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regional variations in the histology of porcine skin. (United States)

    Turner, Neill J; Pezzone, Dominic; Badylak, Stephen F


    Porcine skin is commonly used as a model for human skin injury and as a source material for biologic scaffold materials. Although remarkable similarities between porcine and human skin exist, regional anatomic variations present in human skin are also present in porcine skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure of porcine skin from 11 different anatomic regions in the American Yorkshire crossbreed. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used, with emphasis on epidermal and dermal thickness, hair follicle density, and collagen and elastin composition and distribution. The results showed that significant regional differences in skin histology exist, particularly with regard to the thickness of the dermis and epidermis and the amount of collagen and elastin within each tissue. Differences were also seen in the distribution of type I and type III collagen within the dermis. Therefore, while porcine skin shares many similarities with human skin, distinct regional differences in composition and morphology exist. This study highlights the importance of appreciating these regional differences to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results when using porcine skin as a human analogue.

  9. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner


    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  10. Porcine circovirus diseases: a review of PMWS. (United States)

    Baekbo, P; Kristensen, C S; Larsen, L E


    This article is a review on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), the first described disease among the porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome has, since its appearance in Canada in 1991, been seen in all major pig producing countries. To diagnose PMWS at herd level typical clinical appearance consisting of wasting and increased mortality must be combined with finding at autopsy of diseased pigs, where typical microscopic findings in the lymphatic tissue must be present. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome significantly increases the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig-to-pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase or decrease the risk for a pig herd to be affected by PMWS. At the pig level, studies have shown the importance of maternal immunity as protection for subsequent development of PMWS. To control PMWS, good production management and control of other diseases are crucial. Since 2004, commercial vaccines against Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta-analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy of the vaccines in significantly reducing mortality and increasing weight gain of the pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Biodegradation Of 4-Chlorobiphenyl By Pseudomonas synxantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanjal Noorpreet Inder Kaur


    Full Text Available The stabilization and disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs from soil environment and wetland areas is of great concern for health and safety. Wetland remediation with microorganisms is an approach for treating PCBs. A bacterial strain was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil of Ropar, Punjab, able to degrade PCBs under aerobic conditions. The percentage of degradation with 100 mM/ml of 4-chlorobiphenyl was up to 90%. Degradation was monitored by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometrically, showing that 4-chlorobiphenyl was degraded almost completely. The bacterial strain was identified as Pseudomonas synxantha by 16sRNA sequencing method. This is the first report of 4-chlorobiphenyl degradation by Pseudomonas synxantha.

  12. Pseudomonas spp. convert metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin. (United States)

    Motoyama, Michiyo; Kobayashi, Miho; Sasaki, Keisuke; Nomura, Masaru; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru


    Meat 'reddening' by bacteria was observed in chilled beef. To identify the reddening bacteria, isolates were inoculated onto beef and the changes in CIE L*a*b* values monitored. As a result, two Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas fragi which is commonly observed in raw meat, were selected and identified as reddening bacteria. The reddening was coincidentally occurred with the appearance of slime, and the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was simultaneously suppressed. In myoglobin-containing nutrient broth, it is shown spectroscopically that P. fragi converted metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin. It was concluded that the meat reddening was due to the formation of deoxymyoglobin, induced by the very-low-oxygen tension brought about by Pseudomonad's oxygen consumption: This oxygen depletion simultaneously suppressed TBARS increase.

  13. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): A 6-year experience and case-control study. (United States)

    Muñoz, Javier; Santa-Teresa, Patricia; Tomey, María Jesus; Visedo, Lourdes Carmen; Keough, Elena; Barrios, Juan Camilo; Sabell, Santiago; Morales, Antonio

    To evaluate the development of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) program for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults. a) Descriptive study of 15 cases treated since the program approval from 2010 to 2016. b) Case-control study matching the 15 ECMO cases with the 52 severe ARDS treated between 2005 and 2011 in which alternative rescue treatments (prone ventilation, tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) and/or the administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)) were used. ECMO experience: Mortality 47% (7/15). Four patients died due to complications directly related to ECMO therapy. ICU stay 46.6 ± 45 days (range 4-138). Hospital stay 72.4 ± 98 days (range 4-320). Case-control: The mortality in the control group was 77% (44/52). The ECMO group practically doubled the mean days of ICU and hospital stay (p ECMO treatment. The following were also independent predictors of mortality: age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1-11), SOFA score (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.7), and the need for renal replacement therapy (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.04-1.7). Economic analysis: The hospital cost per patient in the ECMO group doubled compared to that of the control group (USD 77,099 vs USD 37,660). However, the cost per survivor was reduced by 4% (USD 144,560 vs USD 150,640, respectively). Our results endorse the use of ECMO as a rescue therapy in adults with ARDS, although there are some risks associated with a learning curve as well as an important increase in the days of patient stay. The justification for the maintenance of an ECMO program in adults should be based on future studies of efficacy and cost effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 at 1.74 Å resolution and model of a complex with lutein. (United States)

    Horvath, Martin P; George, Evan W; Tran, Quang T; Baumgardner, Kody; Zharov, Gabe; Lee, Sarah; Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Shihab, Saeed; Mattinson, Ty; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S


    A crystal structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 (StAR-related lipid-transfer protein 3; also known as MLN64) has been refined to 1.74 Å resolution. A previous structure of the same protein determined to 2.2 Å resolution highlighted homology with StARD1 and shared cholesterol-binding character. StARD3 has since been recognized as a carotenoid-binding protein in the primate retina, where its biochemical function of binding lutein with specificity appears to be well suited to recruit this photoprotective molecule. The current and previous structures correspond closely to each other (r.m.s.d. of 0.25 Å), especially in terms of the helix-grip fold constructed around a solvent-filled cavity. Regions of interest were defined with alternate conformations in the current higher-resolution structure, including Arg351 found within the cavity and Ω1, a loop of four residues found just outside the cavity entrance. Models of the complex with lutein generated by rigid-body docking indicate that one of the ionone rings must protrude outside the cavity, and this insight has implications for molecular interactions with transport proteins and enzymes that act on lutein. Interestingly, models with the ℇ-ionone ring characteristic of lutein pointing towards the bottom of the cavity were associated with fewer steric clashes, suggesting that steric complementarity and ligand asymmetry may play a role in discriminating lutein from the other ocular carotenoids zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, which only have β-ionone rings.

  15. Structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 at 1.74 Å resolution and model of a complex with lutein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Martin P., E-mail:; George, Evan W.; Tran, Quang T.; Baumgardner, Kody; Zharov, Gabe; Lee, Sarah [University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Shihab, Saeed; Mattinson, Ty; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S., E-mail: [Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)


    The structure of a START-domain protein known to bind lutein in the human retina is reported to an improved resolution limit. Rigid-body docking demonstrates that at least a portion of lutein must protrude from the large tunnel-like cavity characteristic of this helix-grip protein and suggests a mechanism for lutein binding specificity. A crystal structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 (StAR-related lipid-transfer protein 3; also known as MLN64) has been refined to 1.74 Å resolution. A previous structure of the same protein determined to 2.2 Å resolution highlighted homology with StARD1 and shared cholesterol-binding character. StARD3 has since been recognized as a carotenoid-binding protein in the primate retina, where its biochemical function of binding lutein with specificity appears to be well suited to recruit this photoprotective molecule. The current and previous structures correspond closely to each other (r.m.s.d. of 0.25 Å), especially in terms of the helix-grip fold constructed around a solvent-filled cavity. Regions of interest were defined with alternate conformations in the current higher-resolution structure, including Arg351 found within the cavity and Ω1, a loop of four residues found just outside the cavity entrance. Models of the complex with lutein generated by rigid-body docking indicate that one of the ionone rings must protrude outside the cavity, and this insight has implications for molecular interactions with transport proteins and enzymes that act on lutein. Interestingly, models with the ∊-ionone ring characteristic of lutein pointing towards the bottom of the cavity were associated with fewer steric clashes, suggesting that steric complementarity and ligand asymmetry may play a role in discriminating lutein from the other ocular carotenoids zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, which only have β-ionone rings.

  16. The immune system vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas


    Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the Nobel price in 1908. Since then, numerous studies have unraveled a multitude of mechanistically different immune responses to intruding microorganisms. However, in the vast majority of these studies, the underlying infectious agents have appeared...... the present review on the immune system vs. biofilm bacteria is focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mainly because this is the most thoroughly studied), many of the same mechanisms are also seen with biofilm infections generated by other microorganisms....

  17. Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in Pseudomonas syringae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Kristoffer; Oguiza, J.A.; Ussery, D.W.


    Genome analyses of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, pv. syringae B728a and pv. phaseolicola 1448A reveal fewer extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors than in related Pseudomonads with different lifestyles. We highlight the presence of a P. syringae-specific ECF s...... sigma factor that is an interesting target for future studies because of its potential role in the adaptation of P. syringae to its specialized phytopathogenic lifestyle....

  18. Isolation and characterization of arsenite oxidizing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bacterium, Pseudomonas lubricans, isolated from heavy metal laden industrial wastewater, has been shown to tolerate multiple heavy metals suggesting its importance in bioremediation of industrial effluents. P. lubricans tolerated As(III) up to 3 mg ml-1, Cu2+ up to 0.7 mg ml-1, Hg2+ up to 0.4 mg ml-1, Ni2+ up to 0.4 mg ...

  19. Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis. (United States)

    Mateos, I; Valencia, R; Torres, M J; Cantos, A; Conde, M; Aznar, J


    We describe an outbreak of nosocomial endophthalmitis due to a common source, which was determined to be trypan blue solution prepared in the hospital's pharmacy service. We assume that viable bacteria probably gained access to the trypan blue stock solution during cooling after autoclaving. The temporal cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis was readily perceived on the basis of clinical and microbiological findings, and an exogenous source of contamination was unequivocally identified by means of DNA fingerprinting.

  20. [Complex control of the source of infection in sepsis : Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridging concept for tracheal fistula repair in sepsis-associated ARDS]. (United States)

    Weiterer, S; Schmidt, K; Deininger, M; Ulrich, A; Tochtermann, U; Eberhardt, R; Hofer, S; Weigand, M A; Brenner, T


    Here, we present a case of a tracheal fistula due to an anastomotic insufficiency following abdominothoracic esophageal resection. Despite immediate discontinuity resection, the tracheal fistula could not be surgically closed, resulting in incomplete control of the source of infection and an alternative treatment concept in the form of interventional fistula closure using a Y-tracheal stent. However, owing to existing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with a considerable risk of peri-interventional hypoxia, a temporary bridging concept using venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was implemented successfully.

  1. Preservation of enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    PURPOSE: To design a method to preserve enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Porcine eyes were preserved using 15 methods including salt

  2. Development and characterisation of a low-concentration sodium dodecyl sulphate decellularised porcine dermis


    Helliwell, Jack A; Thomas, Daniel S; Papathanasiou, Vaia; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Desai, Amisha; Jennings, Louise M; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John N; Ingham, Eileen


    The aim of this study was to adapt a proprietary decellularisation process for human dermis for use with porcine skin. Porcine skin was subject to: sodium chloride (1?M) to detach the epidermis, trypsin paste to remove hair follicles, peracetic acid (0.1% v/v) disinfection, washed in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of proteinase inhibitors followed by nuclease treatment. Cellular porcine skin, decellularised porcine and human dermis were compared using ...

  3. Living with ARDS (United States)

    ... as a severe blow. Pancreatitis (PAN-kre-a-TI-tis). This is a condition in which the pancreas ... doctor recommends it. Rehab might include exercise training, education, and counseling. Rehab can teach you how to ...

  4. How Is ARDS Treated? (United States)

    ... as a severe blow. Pancreatitis (PAN-kre-a-TI-tis). This is a condition in which the pancreas ... doctor recommends it. Rehab might include exercise training, education, and counseling. Rehab can teach you how to ...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals...

  6. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)? (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean–François; Geneste, Jean-Michel


    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey. PMID:26745626

  7. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)? (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean-François; Geneste, Jean-Michel


    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey.

  8. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee


    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ratchetting of porcine skin under uniaxial cyclic loading. (United States)

    Kang, Guozheng; Wu, Xinfeng


    Skin soft tissue (e.g., porcine skin) was tested in vitro under uniaxial cyclic loading, and its biomechanical responses were investigated to realize some basic properties which are very significant in assessing the fatigue life of skin soft tissue. The results show that a cyclic accumulation of peak and valley strain, which can be terminologically called as ratchetting in terms of material science of metals, occurs in the porcine skin during cyclic tension-unloading, tension-tension and compression-unloading tests. Observed ratchetting of porcine skin depends on load level and loading orientation greatly and also presents remarkable rate dependence due to the viscosity of skin soft tissue. The ratchetting is much more remarkable during the test at lower loading rate than that at higher loading rate. Moreover, some basic properties of porcine skin were also investigated by monotonic tension, compression and creep tests in order to address the ratchetting more comprehensively. Finally, collagen fiber bundles in the porcine skin and their variation during monotonic and cyclic tension tests were observed microscopically in term of standard iron-hematoxylin staining method. The observations are useful to realize the micro-mechanism of ratchetting deformation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-jiang Li


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells.

  11. High quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T) type strains. (United States)

    Peña, Arantxa; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Mulet, Magdalena; Gomila, Rosa M; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; García-Valdés, Elena; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lalucat, Jorge


    Pseudomonas has the highest number of species out of any genus of Gram-negative bacteria and is phylogenetically divided into several groups. The Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch includes at least 13 species of environmental and industrial interest, plant-associated bacteria, insect pathogens, and even some members that have been found in clinical specimens. In the context of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project, we present the permanent, high-quality draft genomes of the type strains of 3 taxonomically and ecologically closely related species in the Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch: Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T). All three genomes are comparable in size (4.6-4.9 Mb), with 4,119-4,459 protein-coding genes. Average nucleotide identity based on BLAST comparisons and digital genome-to-genome distance calculations are in good agreement with experimental DNA-DNA hybridization results. The genome sequences presented here will be very helpful in elucidating the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of the Pseudomonas putida species complex.

  12. The leukocyte-stiffening property of plasma in early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) revealed by a microfluidic single-cell study: the role of cytokines and protection with antibodies. (United States)

    Preira, Pascal; Forel, Jean-Marie; Robert, Philippe; Nègre, Paulin; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Xeridat, Francois; Bongrand, Pierre; Papazian, Laurent; Theodoly, Olivier


    Leukocyte-mediated pulmonary inflammation is a key pathophysiological mechanism involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Massive sequestration of leukocytes in the pulmonary microvasculature is a major triggering event of the syndrome. We therefore investigated the potential role of leukocyte stiffness and adhesiveness in the sequestration of leukocytes in microvessels. This study was based on in vitro microfluidic assays using patient sera. Cell stiffness was assessed by measuring the entry time (ET) of a single cell into a microchannel with a 6 × 9-μm cross-section under a constant pressure drop (ΔP = 160 Pa). Primary neutrophils and monocytes, as well as the monocytic THP-1 cell line, were used. Cellular adhesiveness to human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined using the laminar flow chamber method. We compared the properties of cells incubated with the sera of healthy volunteers (n = 5), patients presenting with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE; n = 6), and patients with ARDS (n = 22), of whom 13 were classified as having moderate to severe disease and the remaining 9 as having mild disease. Rapid and strong stiffening of primary neutrophils and monocytes was induced within 30 minutes (mean ET >50 seconds) by sera from the ARDS group compared with both the healthy subjects and the ACPE groups (mean ET respiratory status (mean ET 0.82 ± 0.08 seconds for healthy subjects, 1.6 ± 1.0 seconds for ACPE groups, 10.5 ± 6.1 seconds for mild ARDS, and 20.0 ± 8.1 seconds for moderate to severe ARDS; p < 0.05). Stiffening correlated with the cytokines interleukin IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, and IL-10 but not with interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β, IL-6, or IL-17. Strong stiffening was induced by IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α but not by IL-10, and incubations with sera and blocking antibodies against IL-1β, IL-8, or TNF-α significantly diminished the stiffening effect of serum. In contrast, the measurements of

  13. Porcine sapelovirus among diarrhoeic piglets in India. (United States)

    Ray, P K; Desingu, P A; Kumari, S; John, J K; Sethi, M; Sharma, G K; Pattnaik, B; Singh, R K; Saikumar, G


    Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) A belongs to the genus Sapelovirus, family Picornaviridae. PSV infections in pigs have been reported from European countries, United States, Japan, China, Korea and Brazil. The virus has been isolated/detected from faeces of healthy pigs as well as those affected with diarrhoea, respiratory signs, encephalitis, skin lesions and fertility disorders. This study was planned to investigate whether PSV is prevalent among pigs in India and to characterize PSV encountered in the study population. The study revealed that five of 70 (7.14%) faecal samples were found positive for PSV using RT-PCR. Three viruses were successfully isolated from faecal samples using IB-RS-2 cell line. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of one Indian PSV isolate revealed highest homology (88%) with V13 strain from England. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete polyprotein nucleotide sequences of 14 strains of PSV classified the viruses into four distinct clades. This first report from India adds to our knowledge on genetic diversity of PSV detected so far among pigs in different countries. A large-scale surveillance of the virus is required to understand its genomic diversity and economic impact. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mészáros


    Full Text Available Porcine parvovirus (PPV is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology.

  15. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H


    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine...... pancreases to gel filtration and analyzed the fractions with specific radioimmunoassays for the following regions of proglucagon: PG 62-69, PG 72-81, PG 78-87, PG 98-107 amide, PG 126-134, and PG 149-158. Based on these assays and successive purifications by high performance liquid chromatography we isolated...... PG 72-158 = 9971) was isolated from human pancreas together with small amounts of a peptide corresponding to PG 72-107 amide. Thus, the pancreatic processing of the C-terminal flanking peptide in proglucagon includes the formation of equimolar (to glucagon) amounts of PG 64-69 and PG 72-158 (major...

  16. Porcine allergy and IgE. (United States)

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N


    Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.

  17. Proteomic analysis of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine circovirus type 2. (United States)

    Cheng, Shuang; Zhang, Min; Li, Wentao; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yingyu; He, Qigai


    Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging swine immunosuppressive disease. To characterize the interaction between target immune cells and PCV2, the differential proteomes of porcine alveolar macrophages, with and without PCV2 infection, were analyzed at different time points with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. Mass spectrometry identified 21 altered host-encoded protein spots (9 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated protein spots), which included cytoskeleton proteins, macromolecular biosynthesis-associated proteins, stress response proteins, signal transduction proteins, energy metabolism, and ubiquitin proteasome pathway-associated proteins. The majority of the changes occurred 48h after PCV2 infection. Moreover, 9 corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were quantified by real time RT-PCR to examine the transcriptional profiles. Western blot analysis further confirmed the differential expression of proteins, including SFN, PSME1, PRP19, HSPB1, TUBA|B, CK-19 and ACTB, in the proteomic profiles. Subcellular distribution analysis of the cytoskeletal proteins and PCV2 clearly demonstrated interactions between PCV2 and the differential protein β-tubulin. Thus, this work effectively provides useful and dynamic protein-related information to further understand the underlying pathogenesis of PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of pseudomonas exotoxin A on cytokine production in whole blood exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M. J.; Speelman, P.; Zaat, S. A.; Hack, C. E.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.


    To determine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (P-ExA) on cytokine production, we studied cytokine release induced by heat-killed P. aeruginosa (HKPA) in human whole blood in the presence or absence of P-ExA. P-ExA (0.01-1 microgram ml(-1)) caused a dose-dependent decrease in

  19. Stratified growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.


    In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... of oxygen limitation in the biofilm. Oxygen microelectrode measurements showed that oxygen only penetrated approximately 50 mum into the biofilm. P. aeruginosa was incapable of anaerobic growth in the medium used for this investigation. These results show that while mature P. aeruginosa biofilms contain...

  20. Structure and Function of a Nonruminant Gut: A Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Aminov, Rustam


    monogastric animal, and here it is represented by a pig model. In this chapter, we describe and discuss (i) microbial diversity in different parts of the porcine gut; (ii) differences between the ruminant and nonruminant gut; (iii) main events during colonization and succession of microbiota in the porcine......In many aspects, the anatomical, physiological, and microbial diversity features of the ruminant gut are different from that of the monogastric animals. Thus, the main aim of this chapter is to give a comparative overview of the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of a nonruminant...... gut; (iv) effects of various feed additives including antibiotics, phages, probiotics, and prebiotics on pigs; and (v) the use of the porcine model in translational medicine....

  1. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  2. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens (United States)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen


    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  3. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, L.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Fredholm, M.


    Background: Desmoglein I (DSGI) is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine desmoglein I (PIG)DSGI by a very specific reaction. This study investigated...... the location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine desmoglein I gene (PIG)DSGI in correlation to the cleavage site as well as if the genotype of the SNPs is correlated to susceptibility or resistance to the disease. Results: DNA from 32 affected and 32 unaffected piglets with exudative...... the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein I gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis....

  4. Pseudomonas salegens sp. nov., a halophilic member of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from a wetland. (United States)

    Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Shahinpei, Azadeh; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Makhdoumi-Kakhki, Ali; Seyedmahdi, Shima Sadat; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio


    A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-endospore-forming, non-pigmented, rod-shaped, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated GBPy5(T), was isolated from aquatic plants of the Gomishan wetland, Iran. Cells of strain GBPy5(T) were motile. Growth occurred with between 1 and 10% (w/v) NaCl and the isolate grew optimally with 3% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum pH and temperature for growth of the strain were pH 8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, while it was able to grow over a pH range of 6.5-9.0 and a temperature range of 4-35 °C. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain GBPy5(T) is a member of the genus Pseudomonas forming a monophyletic branch. The novel strain exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.4% with type strains of Pseudomonas guariconensis PCAVU11(T) and Pseudomonas sabulinigri J64(T), respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were C18:1ω7c (37.8%), C16:0 (14.9%), C16:1ω7c (12.9%), C12:0 3-OH (7.1%) and C12:0 (7.0%). The polar lipid pattern of strain GBPy5(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one phospholipid. Ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) was the predominant lipoquinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain GBPy5(T) was 59.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain GBPY5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salegens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GBPy5(T) ( = IBRC-M 10762(T) = CECT 8338(T)). IUMS.

  5. Antagonistic potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the antagonistic potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas in vitro, and its inoculation effect on growth performance of Lycopersicon esculentum in Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani infested soil. Biochemical characteristics of fluorescent Pseudomonas showed that all ten isolates were positive ...

  6. Genetic detection of Pseudomonas spp. in commercial Amazonian fish. (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva


    Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood.

  7. Novel Targets for Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infection in all parts of the human body. The bacterium is naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition to resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps, the ability to form aggregates, known as biofilm, further reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa’s...

  8. Interleukin-18 impairs the pulmonary host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Marc J.; Knapp, Sylvia; Florquin, Sandrine; Pater, Jennie; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; van der Poll, Tom


    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a potent cytokine with many different proinflammatory activities. To study the role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas pneumonia, IL-18-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type mice were intranasally inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IL-18 deficiency was

  9. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.


    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot disease of black

  10. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyclic lipopeptides in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de I.


    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence and

  11. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N


    OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...... between cystic fibrosis patients has occurred....

  12. Energetics of binary mixed culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioenergetic analysis of the growth of the binary mixed culture (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence) on phenol chemostat culture was carried out. The data were checked for consistency using carbon and available electron balances. When more than the minimum number of variables are measured, ...

  13. Energetics of binary mixed culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 20, 2010 ... Bioenergetic analysis of the growth of the binary mixed culture (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and. Pseudomonas fluorescence) on ... biological system is widely gaining recognition (Yang et al., 1984; Solomon et al., .... Thus, by application of the covariate adjustment technique. (Solomon et al., 1985, 1994) in ...

  14. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMichalska


    Full Text Available Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  15. 33 original article infections a pseudomonas aeruginosa dans un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    institution of effective resistance surveillance and infection control measures. . Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, National Hospital Abuja, Susceptibility. INFECTIONS A PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA DANS UN HOPITAL TERTIAIRE. AU NIGERIA. *Iregbu KC, Eze SO,. Département de Microbiologie Médicale and ...

  16. AMFR gene silencing inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes. (United States)

    Chen, C Z; Zhu, Y N; Chai, M L; Dai, L S; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Zhang, L J; Ding, Y; Liu, S Y; Li, Q Y; Lu, W F; Zhang, J B


    Our study clarifies the role of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) gene in porcine preadipocyte differentiation. AMFR-siRNA was transfected into porcine preadipocytes and the preadipocytes were induced to differentiation. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted to examine changes in mRNA expression of a series of genes in porcine preadipocytes, including AMFR, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP1a), SREBP2, insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), and Insig2. Expression changes in the mRNA of genes regulating adipocyte differentiation were also analyzed using qRT-PCR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Western blot analysis was conducted to examine the changes in AMFR protein expression in porcine preadipocytes. Additionally, morphological changes in differentiated porcine preadipocytes were examined by oil red O staining, and changes in optical density (OD) values were measured using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. At 24 h after transfection with AMFR-siRNA, AMFR mRNA expression significantly reduced (P SREBP1a, SREBP2, Insig1, and C/EBPα was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). After induction of preadipocyte differentiation, the number of lipid droplets decreased in the AMFR-silenced group, and the OD value markedly reduced (P < 0.05). In addition, the expression of C/EBPα mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA considerably increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, silencing of the AMFR gene inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

  17. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  18. Durability of pericardial versus porcine bioprosthetic heart valves. (United States)

    Grunkemeier, Gary L; Furnary, Anthony P; Wu, YingXing; Wang, Lian; Starr, Albert


    To compare the probability, and modes, of explantation for Carpentier-Edwards pericardial versus porcine valves. Our porcine series began in 1974 and our pericardial series in 1991, with annual prospective follow-up. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression for estimation and analysis of patient mortality, and the cumulative incidence function and competing risks regression for estimation and analysis of valve durability. Through the end of 2010, we had implanted 506 porcine and 2449 pericardial aortic valves and 181 porcine and 163 pericardial mitral valves. The corresponding total and maximum follow-up years were 3471 and 24, 11,517 and 18, 864 and 22, and 645 and 9. The corresponding probabilities (cumulative incidence function) of any valve explant were 7%, 8%, 22%, and 8%, and of explant for structural valve deterioration were 4%, 5%, 16%, and 5% at 15 years for the first 3 series and at 8 years for the fourth (pericardial mitral valve) series. Using competing risks regression for structural valve deterioration explant, with age, gender, valve size, and concomitant coronary bypass surgery as covariates, a slight (subhazard ratio, 0.79), but nonsignificant, protective effect was found for the pericardial valve in the aortic position and a greater (subhazard ratio, 0.31) and almost significant (P = .08) protective effect of the pericardial valve in the mitral position. Leaflet tear was responsible for 61% of the structural valve deterioration explants in the porcine series and 46% in the pericardial series. Using competing risks regression, the pericardial valve had a subhazard ratio for structural valve deterioration explant of less than 1 in both positions, approaching statistical significance in the mitral position. The mode of structural valve deterioration was predominantly leaflet tear for porcine valves and fibrosis/calcification for pericardial valves. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc

  19. Circovirose suína Porcine circovirosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana do Nascimento França


    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados na infecção por Circovírus Porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2 em suínos. São abordados a Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica dos Suínos Desmamados (SDMDS, o Tremor Congênito Suíno (TCS, a Síndrome da Nefropatia e Dermatite Porcina (SNDP, bem como outras enfermidades associadas ou correlatas, a Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Porcina (SRRP, a Pneumonia Necrotizante Proliferativa (PNP e as falhas reprodutivas. Uma vez que a SDMSD já foi registrada na Região Sul do Brasil e no Estado do Rio de Janeiro esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa virose para a suinocultura brasileira, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados.The literature of Porcine Circovirosis, including the main data on epidemiology and clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the infection of swine by Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV-2, is reviewed. There are various forms of infection: the [Porcine] Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS, Porcine Congenital Tremor, Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome, and other associated or correlated diseases as the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Proliferative Necrotizing Pneumonia, and reproductive disorders. As PMWS already has been reported from southern Brazil and from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the objective of this review is to draw attention to the implications of this virosis for swine production in Brazil and its economical importance.

  20. Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H.K.; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh


    BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed. OBJECTIVES......: To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search May 2008) and PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic...... fibrosis (last search May 2008). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic fibrosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors independently selected trials...

  1. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi


    Genetic studies have demonstrated profound differences between the 'porcine' genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum, versus 'human' and 'bovine' genotypes. The study analysed infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype (CPP-13 isolate) of C. parvum, and compared the results with published...... data on the 'bovine' genotype (CPB-0 isolate). This was investigated in calves and piglets from commercial herds. Piglets were mildly affected by the CPP-13 isolate, contrary to piglets infected with the CPB-0 isolate, which caused diarrhoea of a mean duration of 3.5 days. CPP-13 produced no or very...

  2. Comparison of Barbed Sutures in Porcine Flexor Tenorrhaphy


    Sull, Alan; Inceoglu, Serkan; August, Alicia; Gregorius, Stephen; Wongworawat, Montri D.


    Background: Barbed suture use has become more popular as technology and materials have advanced. Minimal data exist regarding performance of the 2 commercially available products, V-LocTM and StratafixTM in tendon repairs. The purpose of this study was to compare gap resistance and ultimate tensile strength of both suture materials and nonbarbed suture in a porcine ex vivo model. Methods: Porcine flexor tendons were harvested and divided into 3 groups of 10 of varying suture material (3-0 PDS...

  3. Biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Elham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrolinalool and terpineol are sources of fragrances that provide a unique volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity and thus are widely used in the perfumery industry, in folk medicine, and in aromatherapy. They are important chemical constituents of the essential oil of many plants. Previous studies have concerned the biotransformation of limonene by Pseudomonas putida. The objective of this research was to study biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The culture preparation was done using such variables as different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain maximum cells of P. aeruginosa for myrcene biotransformation. Results It was found that myrcene was converted to dihydrolinalool and 2,6-dimethyloctane in high percentages. The biotransformation products were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ultraviolet (UV analysis, gas chromatography (GC, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Comparison of the different incubation times showed that 3 days was more effective, the major products being 2,6-dimethyloctane (90.0% and α-terpineol (7.7% and comprising 97.7%. In contrast, the main compounds derived for an incubation time of 1.5 days were dihydrolinalool (79.5% and 2,6-dimethyloctane (9.3%, with a total yield of 88.8%.

  4. Burning mouth complaints: clinical characteristics of a Brazilian sample Queixas de ardência bucal: características clínicas de amostra brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the clinical characteristics of burning mouth complaints (BMC in a series of Brazilian patients referred to a large teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 patients with burning mouth complaints were evaluated through a standardized protocol. RESULTS: 56 women and 10 men were examined, ranging in age from 35-83 years. The primary location of the complaints was reported to be the tongue. Thirty-six patients reported a precipitating event. The mean VAS pain levels were 7.5 in women and 6.11 in men. The average estradiol levels in women were low (OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características clínicas de pacientes brasileiros com queixas de ardência buccal atendidos em um hospital escola. MÉTODO: 66 pacientes com queixas de ardência bucal foram avaliados através de exame padronizado para esse tipo de queixa. RESULTADOS: 56 mulheres e 10 homens foram examinados consecutivamente. As idades variaram de 35-83 anos. A localização das queixas foi principalmente na língua e 36 pacientes relataram algum evento precipitante. A Escala Visual Analógica (EVA a intensidade da ardência (dor foi: mulheres 7.5 (média e homens 6.11 (média. Os níveis de estradiol foram baixos (<13 pg/ml; 80% dos pacientes relataram doença crônica associada, 55% usavam dentadura; 54% relataram xerostomia subjetiva; 48% distúrbios subjetivos do sono e 66% gosto fantasma. Não houve diferença da intensidade da EVA (p=0.139 ou dor pelo questionário McGill NWC (p=0.259 and PRI (p=0.276, entre os grupos com e sem eventos precipitantes. CONCLUSÕES: A existência de doenças crônicas associadas, o auto-relato de distúrbios do sono e as alterações de paladar indicam necessidade de avaliação sistêmica cuidadosa nesses pacientes; não houve diferenças entre os grupos com e sem evento precipitante.

  5. Abdominal obesity and prolonged prone positioning increase risk of developing sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients with influenza A-associated ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weig Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary sclerosing cholangitis is a severe disease of the biliary tract. Over the last decade, several cases of sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SC-CIP were reported. Reports in the literature so far are characterized by a wide variety of underlying causes of critical illness, thereby hindering a risk-factor analysis. We report on a homogenous cohort of critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1 pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, of whom a subgroup developed sclerosing cholangitis, allowing for probing of risk factors associated with SC-CIP. Methods Twenty-one patients (5 female, 16 male, 46.3 ± 10.8 years with severe ARDS due to H1N1 pneumonia were retrospectively divided into two groups, characterized by the presence (n = 5 and absence of SC-CIP (n = 16. A large array of clinical data, laboratory parameters, and multi-detector computed tomography-derived measures were compared. Results Both patient groups showed severe pulmonary impairment. Severity of disease on admission day and during the first 14 days of treatment showed no difference. The patients developing SC-CIP had a higher body mass index (BMI (37.4 ± 6.0 kg/m2 vs. 29.3 ± 6.8 kg/m2; P = 0.029 and a higher volume of intraperitoneal fat (8273 ± 3659 cm3 vs. 5131 ± 2268 cm3; P = 0.033 and spent a longer cumulative period in the prone position during the first 14 days (165 ± 117 h vs. 78 ± 61 h; P = 0.038. Conclusion Our results suggest that obesity, intraperitoneal fat volume, and a longer cumulative duration spent in the prone position may put patients with ARDS at risk of developing SC-CIP. These results lead us to propose that the prone position should be carefully deployed, particularly in abdominally obese patients, and that frequent checks be made for early hepatic dysfunction.

  6. Glycan involvement in the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tears. (United States)

    Kautto, Liisa; Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Everest-Dass, Arun; Leong, Andrea; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P; Packer, Nicolle H; Peterson, Robyn


    The human eye is constantly bathed by tears, which protect the ocular surface via a variety of mechanisms. The O-linked glycans of tear mucins have long been considered to play a role in binding to pathogens and facilitating their removal in the tear flow. Other conjugated glycans in tears could similarly contribute to pathogen binding and removal but have received less attention. In the work presented here we assessed the contribution of glycan moieties, in particular the protein attached N-glycans, presented by the broad complement of tear proteins to the adhesion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of microbial keratitis and ulceration of the cornea. Our adhesion assay involved immobilising the macromolecular components of tears into the wells of a polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) microtitre filter plate and probing the binding of fluorescently labelled bacteria. Three P. aeruginosa strains were studied: a cytotoxic strain (6206) and an invasive strain (6294) from eye infections, and an invasive strain (320) from a urinary tract infection (UTI). The ocular isolates adhered two to three times more to human tears than to human saliva or porcine gastric mucin, suggesting ocular niche-specific adaptation. Support for the role of the N-glycans carried by human tear proteins in the binding and removal of P. aeruginosa from the eye was shown by: 1) pre-incubation of the bacteria with free component sugars, galactose, mannose, fucose and sialyl lactose (or combination thereof) inhibiting adhesion of all the P. aeruginosa strains to the immobilised tear proteins, with the greatest inhibition of binding of the ocular cytotoxic 6206 and least for the invasive 6294 strain; 2) pre-incubation of the bacteria with N-glycans released from the commercially available human milk lactoferrin, an abundant protein that carries N-linked glycans in tears, inhibiting the adhesion to tears of the ocular bacteria by up to 70%, which was significantly more

  7. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  8. Relevé 3D de gravures fines paléolithiques dans l’abri du Colombier (gorges de l’Ardèche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Azéma


    Full Text Available Figure 1Le bouquetin à pattes multiples (« en marche » de l’abri du Colombier (ArdèchePhot. Norbert Aujoulat. © Ministère de la Culture, DAPA, CNP, avec l’autorisation du propriétaire, M. Henry HellyL’exposition temporaire « Préhistoire de la bande dessinée et du dessin animé » consacrée à la vulgarisation d’une partie des travaux de Marc Azéma sur la représentation du mouvement dans l’art préhistorique a été l’occasion de réaliser une opération de relevé 3D (scan laser sur un abri gravé m...

  9. Biomechanics of the porcine triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament. (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Horaguchi, Takashi; Fu, Freddie H


    Several species of animals are used as a model to study human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In many animals, three bundles were clearly discernible during dissection in the ACL. However, there are few reports about the biomechanical role of each bundle in the porcine knee. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of each of the three bundles in the porcine knee, especially the intermediate bundle. Ten porcine knees were tested using a robotic/universal forcemoment sensor system. This system applied anterior loading of 89 N at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, and a combined 7 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial torque at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of flexion before and after each bundle was selectively cut. The in situ force (N) for each bundle of the ACL was measured. Both intermediate (IM) bundle and postero-lateral (PL) bundle had significantly lower in situ force than the antero-medial (AM) bundle in anterior loading. The IM and PL bundles carried a larger proportion of the force under the torsional loads than the anterior loads. But IM bundle had a significant lower in situ force during the combined torque at 60 degrees of knee flexion, when compared intact ACL. In summary, IM bundle has a subordinate role to the AM and PL bundles. AM bundle is more dominant than IM and PL bundles. The porcine knee is a suitable model for ACL studies, especially for AP stability.

  10. Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antibodies in commercial pig husbandry in Nigeria: a preliminary study. ... main economic resources of developing countries. In Nigeria, pig farming contributes significantly to the livestock sub-sector and accounts for about 30% of total pig production in Africa.

  11. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Vestergaard, K.


    The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I) or 25 (study II) pigs with...

  12. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome (United States)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  13. Systemic porcine salmonellosis: A potential zoonosis and cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cholerasuis are potentially zonootic pathogens that cause porcine salmonellosis; a disease associated with economic losses worldwide. Presence of this disease in pigs in Kenya is largely unknown. Two, 11-week old pig carcasses presented for necropsy to the Department of ...

  14. Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk. (United States)

    Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo


    The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0 ± 53.9 pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement. (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K


    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stockhofe, N.


    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and

  17. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin


    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases.

  18. Genomic composition factors affect codon usage in porcine genome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 28, 2015 ... The objective of the study was to determine the codon usage bias in the porcine genome and decipher its determinants. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of codon bias, the coding sequence (CDS) from the swine reference sequence (ssc10.2) was extracted using Biomart. An in house built Perl ...

  19. The practicalities of establishing a porcine isolated heart model. (United States)

    Pavey, Warren; Raisis, Anthea; Dunne, Ben; Van Laeken, Els; Jenkinson, Charles; Vincent, Viji; Baird, Peter; Prince, Stuart; Ho, Kwok M; Merry, Christopher; Gilfillan, Ian


    The isolated heart apparatus is over 100 years old, but remains a useful research tool today. While designs of many large animal systems have been described in the literature, trouble-shooting and refining such a model to yield a stable, workable system has not been previously described. This paper outlines the issues, in tabular form, that our group encountered in developing our own porcine isolated heart rig with the aim of assisting other workers in the field planning similar work. The paper also highlights some of the modern applications of the isolated heart apparatus. Methods Landrace pigs (50-80 kg) were used in a pilot project to develop the model. The model was then used in a study examining the effects of various cardioplegic solutions on function after reanimation of porcine hearts. During the two projects, non-protocol issues were documented as well as their solutions. These were aggregated in this paper. Issues faced by the group without explicit literature solutions included pig size selection, animal acclimatisation, porcine transoesophageal echocardiography, cannulation and phlebotomy for cross-clamping, cardioplegia delivery, heart suspension and rig tuning. Prior recognition of issues and possible solutions faced by workers establishing a porcine isolated heart system will speed progress towards a useable system for research. The isolated heart apparatus remains applicable in transplant, ischaemia reperfusion, heart failure and organ preservation research.

  20. Developmental features of porcine haemal nodes: a histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result demonstrated progressive changes in the structure of porcine haemal nodes. The capsule and trabeculae of piglet haemal nodes exhibited dense irregular connective tissues with reticular cells and smooth muscle cells. The cortex was more central while the medulla was peripheral with poorly defined boundaries ...

  1. Polymorphism of the porcine CGA gene and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to dissect potential genetic factors for these unstable results and validate the association or linkage relationship of CGA gene with growth and carcass traits. By resequencing all the exons and part of the introns of the porcine CGA gene, 22 polymorphisms in total were identified in this study.

  2. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia. (United States)

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R


    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  3. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among Farmed Pigs, Ukraine. (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Carr, John; Ellis, Richard J; Steinbach, Falko; Williamson, Susanna


    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in the summer of 2014 in Ukraine, severely affecting piglets <10 days of age; the mortality rate approached 100%. Full genome sequencing showed the virus to be closely related to strains reported from North America, showing a sequence identity of up to 99.8%.

  4. Dystrophin deficiency-induced changes in porcine skeletal muscle (United States)

    A novel porcine stress syndrome was detected in the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s swine research population when two sibling barrows died of apparent stress symptoms (open mouth breathing, vocalization, and refusal to move or stand) after transport at 12 weeks of age. At eight weeks of age, the...

  5. Intrauterine Idiopathic Amputation of the Head of a Porcine Foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J. S.; Garoussi, M. T.


    Contents An anencephalic full-term porcine foetus accompanied by a mummified head was submitted for examination. The neck almost entirely lacked skin and was covered by granulation tissue as were the exposed parts of the spine and spinal cord. The case represents a rare case of intrauterine...

  6. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin


    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton’s jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs) have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson’s disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  7. Pseudomonas spp.: contamination sources in bulk tanks of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.C. Vidal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study focused on isolating Pseudomonas spp. during milking process in ten dairy farms with manual and mechanical milking systems during dry and rainy seasons, and evaluating DNA homology and patterns of distribution between isolates, in order to identify main sources of milk contamination by Pseudomonas spp. A total of 167 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. were obtained from water, milkers’ hands, cows’ teats, teat cups, cooling tanks and raw milk. Bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. genus were isolated from 85 and 82 sampling points in dairy farms with manual and mechanical milking system, respectively. A significant difference (p=0.02 on Pseudomonas spp. isolation was observed among samples of surface of cows’ teats before and after pre-dipping, but no significant difference (p>0.05 was observed among milking systems or seasons. The possibility of the same Pseudomonas spp. patterns are distributed in different farms and seasons using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP technique was demonstrated. Milkers’ hands, surface of cows’ teats, teat cups and cooling tanks were associated with raw milk contamination with Pseudomonas spp. on farms with manual and mechanical milking system, showing that regardless of the type of milking system and season, proper hygiene procedures of equipment, utensils and workers’ hands are essential to avoid contamination of the milk and, therefore, improve milk quality.

  8. Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C


    BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed. This is a......BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed....... This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search 30...... March 2015). We previously searched PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic fibrosis (last search 30 May 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic...

  9. Effects of lung protective mechanical ventilation associated with permissive respiratory acidosis on regional extra-pulmonary blood flow in experimental ARDS. (United States)

    Hering, Rudolf; Kreyer, Stefan; Putensen, Christian


    Lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure has been shown to affect cardiac output in patients with ARDS. However, little is known about the impact of lung protective mechanical ventilation on regional perfusion, especially when associated with moderate permissive respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure and moderate respiratory acidosis results in an increased cardiac output but unequal distribution of blood flow to the different organs of pigs with oleic-acid induced ARDS. Twelve pigs were enrolled, 3 died during instrumentation and induction of lung injury. Thus, 9 animals received pressure controlled mechanical ventilation with a PEEP of 5 cmH2O and limited peak inspiratory pressure (17 ± 4 cmH2O) versus increased peak inspiratory pressure (23 ± 6 cmH2O) in a crossover-randomized design and were analyzed. The sequence of limited versus increased peak inspiratory pressure was randomized using sealed envelopes. Systemic and regional hemodynamics were determined by double indicator dilution technique and colored microspheres, respectively. The paired student t-test and the Wilcoxon test were used to compare normally and not normally distributed data, respectively. Mechanical ventilation with limited inspiratory pressure resulted in moderate hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 71 ± 12 vs. 46 ± 9 mmHg, and pH 7.27 ± 0.05 vs. 7.38 ± 0.04, p mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure resulting in moderate respiratory acidosis was associated with an increase in cardiac output. However, the better systemic blood flow was not uniformly directed to the different organs. This observation may be of clinical interest in patients, e.g. with cardiac, renal and cerebral pathologies.

  10. Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox MD


    Full Text Available Mark DP WillcoxSchool of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms "Pseudomonas" + "Keratitis" limit to "2007–2012", and ["Ulcerative" or "Microbial"] + "Keratitis" + "Contact lenses" limit to "2007–2012". These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin. In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (≥95% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%.Keywords: Pseudomonas, keratitis, contact lens

  11. A risk tertiles model for predicting mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: age, plateau pressure, and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) at ARDS onset can predict mortality. (United States)

    Villar, Jesús; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Basaldúa, Santiago; Blanco, Jesús; Aguilar, Gerardo; Toral, Darío; Zavala, Elizabeth; Romera, Miguel A; González-Díaz, Gumersindo; Nogal, Frutos Del; Santos-Bouza, Antonio; Ramos, Luís; Macías, Santiago; Kacmarek, Robert M


    Predicting mortality has become a necessary step for selecting patients for clinical trials and defining outcomes. We examined whether stratification by tertiles of respiratory and ventilatory variables at the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) identifies patients with different risks of death in the intensive care unit. We performed a secondary analysis of data from 220 patients included in 2 multicenter prospective independent trials of ARDS patients mechanically ventilated with a lung-protective strategy. Using demographic, pulmonary, and ventilation data collected at ARDS onset, we derived and validated a simple prediction model based on a population-based stratification of variable values into low, middle, and high tertiles. The derivation cohort included 170 patients (all from one trial) and the validation cohort included 50 patients (all from a second trial). Tertile distribution for age, plateau airway pressure (P(plat)), and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) at ARDS onset identified subgroups with different mortalities, particularly for the highest-risk tertiles: age (> 62 years), P(plat) (> 29 cm H(2)O), and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) (< 112 mm Hg). Risk was defined by the number of coexisting high-risk tertiles: patients with no high-risk tertiles had a mortality of 12%, whereas patients with 3 high-risk tertiles had 90% mortality (P < .001). A prediction model based on tertiles of patient age, P(plat), and P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) at the time the patient meets ARDS criteria identifies patients with the lowest and highest risk of intensive care unit death.

  12. The pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS balances life and death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Häussler

    Full Text Available When environmental conditions deteriorate and become inhospitable, generic survival strategies for populations of bacteria may be to enter a dormant state that slows down metabolism, to develop a general tolerance to hostile parameters that characterize the habitat, and to impose a regime to eliminate damaged members. Here, we provide evidence that the pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS mediates induction of all of these phenotypes. For individual cells, PQS, an interbacterial signaling molecule of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has both deleterious and beneficial activities: on the one hand, it acts as a pro-oxidant and sensitizes the bacteria towards oxidative and other stresses and, on the other, it efficiently induces a protective anti-oxidative stress response. We propose that this dual function fragments populations into less and more stress tolerant members which respond differentially to developing stresses in deteriorating habitats. This suggests that a little poison may be generically beneficial to populations, in promoting survival of the fittest, and in contributing to bacterial multi-cellular behavior. It further identifies PQS as an essential mediator of the shaping of the population structure of Pseudomonas and of its response to and survival in hostile environmental conditions.

  13. Pseudomonas-induced corneal ulcers associated with contaminated eye mascaras. (United States)

    Wilson, L A; Ahearn, D G


    Seven Pseudomonas-induced corneal ulcers were associated with the use of four brands of mascara contaminated with P. aeruginosa. In laboratory studies, preservative systems of three of the four brands were inadequate in comparison with a control mascara of known antimicrobial activity. If the corneal epithelium is scratched during the application of mascara, particularly if the applicator is old, the cornea should be treated immediately and the mascara cultured to detect Pseudomonas. The high incidence of recurrent corneal ulceration in cases of Pseudomonas-induced keratitis indicates that initial chemotherapy should be intensive and maintained until the lesion stabilizes.

  14. Kangaroo vs. porcine aortic valves: calcification potential after glutaraldehyde fixation. (United States)

    Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G


    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Targeting quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup


    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics combined with an increasing acknowledgement of the role of biofilms in chronic infections has led to a growing interest in new antimicrobial strategies that target the biofilm mode of growth. In the aggregated biofilm mode, cell-to-cell communication...... systems involved in the process known as quorum sensing regulate coordinated expression of virulence with immune shielding mechanisms and antibiotic resistance. For two decades, the potential of interference with quorum sensing by small chemical compounds has been investigated with the aim of developing...... alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic...

  16. Complement activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E T; Kharazmi, A; Garred, P


    In chronic infections, such as the bronchopulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, bacteria persist despite an intact host immune defense and frequent antibiotic treatment. An important reason for the persistence of the bacteria is their capacity for the biofilm...... mode of growth. In this study we investigated the role of biofilms in activation of complement, a major contributor to the inflammatory process. Complement activation by P. aeruginosa was examined in a complement consumption assay, production of C3 and factor B conversion products assessed by crossed...... immuno-electrophoresis, C5a generation tested by a PMN chemotactic assay, and terminal complement complex formation measured by ELISA. Two of the four assays showed that P. aeruginosa grown in biofilm activated complement less than planktonic bacteria, and all assays showed that activation by intact...

  17. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants Produced by Pseudomonas Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Surfactants are chemical products widely used in our daily life in toothpaste and other personal hygiene and cosmetic products, and in several industries. Biosurfactants are surfactants of biological origin that can be produced by microorganisms and have many advantages, such as low toxicity and high biodegradability, compared to synthetic counterparts. Unfortunately, high production costs limit the use of biosurfactants. Low-cost production is the most important factor for biosurfactants to be able to compete in the global market place. This review presents general information on rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas species, as well as on their production and applications. In addition, industrial products and their wastes used for rhamnolipid production are reviewed in detail based on recent studies.

  18. Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.S.; Thompson, L.S.; James, S.


    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids....... However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death...... occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development...

  19. Cooperative production of siderophores by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Harrison, Freya; Buckling, Angus


    The production of iron-scavenging siderophores by the opportunistic animal pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a textbook example of public goods cooperation. This trait provides an excellent model system with which to study cooperation. Further, the links between siderophore production and P. aeruginosa virulence allow us to investigate how pathogen ecology, social behaviour and pathology might be connected. We present here the results of basic research on the evolution and ecology of siderophore cooperation in this species. In particular, we explore the effects of population and community structure, iron regime and genomic mutation rate on the relative success of siderophore cooperators and cheats. We also present preliminary data on the links between siderophore production and another clinically-relevant social trait, biofilm formation. It is our hope that more realistic laboratory studies of siderophore cooperation in P. aeruginosa will eventually cast light on the roles played by social traits in long-term microbial infections.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis masquerading as chronic uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Badami Nagaraj


    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye of 15-day duration after having undergone an uneventful cataract surgery 10 months back. He had been previously treated with systemic steroids for recurrent uveitis postoperatively on three occasions in the same eye. B-scan ultrasonography showed multiple clumplike echoes suggestive of vitreous inflammation. Aqueous tap revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitive to ciprofloxacin. The patient was treated with intravitreal ciprofloxacin and vancomycin along with systemic ciprofloxacin with good clinical response. Even a virulent organism such as P.aeruginosa can present as a chronic uveitis, which, if missed, can lead to a delay in accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas


    of mutations, slow growth and adaptation of the bacteria to the conditions in the lungs, and to antibiotic therapy. Low bacterial metabolic activity and increase of doubling times of the bacterial cells in CF lungs are responsible for some of the tolerance to antibiotics. Conventional resistance mechanisms......, such as chromosomal ß-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps, and mutations of antibiotic target molecules in the bacteria, also contribute to the survival of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy, and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy.......The persistence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is due to biofilm-growing mucoid (alginate-producing) strains. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria, embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein...

  2. Biosynthesis of pyocyanin pigment by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. El-Fouly


    Full Text Available Sixty-three isolates belonging to the genus Pseudomonas were isolated from different environmental sources including; soil, water and clinical specimens. Twenty out of them were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and individually screened for pyocyanin production. P. aeruginosa R1; isolated from rice-cultivated soil and P. aeruginosa U3 selected from clinical specimen (Urinary tract infection were the highest pyocyanin producers; pyocyanin production reached 9.3 and 5.9 μg/ml, respectively on synthetic glucose supplemented nutrient medium (GSNB. The identification of both selected strains (P. aeruginosa R1 and P. aeruginosa U3 was confirmed by 16S rRNA, the similarity with other strains available in database was 97% (with P. aeruginosa FPVC 14 and 94% (with P. aeruginosa 13.A, respectively. P. aeruginosa R1 and P. aeruginosa U3 are accessed at gene bank with accession numbers KM924432 and KM603511, in the same order. Pyocyanin was extracted by standard methods, purified by column chromatography and characterized by UV-Vis absorption, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The antimicrobial activity of purified pyocyanin against multi-drug resistant microbes was investigated; the efficiency of pyocyanin was more obvious in Gram +ve bacteria than Gram−ve bacteria and yeast. To reduce the cost of pyocyanin production, a new conventional medium based on cotton seed meal supplemented with peptone was designed. The pyocyanin production of both selected strains P. aeruginosa R1 and P. aeruginosa U3 using the new medium is increased by 30.1% and 17.2%, respectively in comparison with synthetic GSNB medium, while the cost of production process is reduced by 56.7%.

  3. Growth hormone-specific induction of the nuclear localization of porcine growth hormone receptor in porcine hepatocytes. (United States)

    Lan, H N; Hong, P; Li, R N; Shan, A S; Zheng, X


    The phenomenon of nuclear translocation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in human, rat, and fish has been reported. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in a domestic animal (such as pig). In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GHR nuclear translocation have not been thoroughly elucidated. To this end, porcine hepatocytes were isolated and used as a cell model. We observed that porcine growth hormone (pGH) can induce porcine GHR's nuclear localization in porcine hepatocytes. Subsequently, the dynamics of pGH-induced pGHR's nuclear localization were analyzed and demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear localization occurs in a time-dependent manner. Next, we explored the mechanism of pGHR nuclear localization using different pGHR ligands, and we demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear translocation is GH(s)-dependent. We also observed that pGHR translocates into cell nuclei in a pGH dimerization-dependent fashion, whereas further experiments indicated that IMPα/β is involved in the nuclear translocation of the pGH-pGHR dimer. The pGH-pGHR dimer may form a pGH-GHR-JAK2 multiple complex in cell nuclei, which would suggest that similar to its function in the cell membrane, the nuclear-localized pGH-pGHR dimer might still have the ability to signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term absence of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in chronically immunosuppressed patients after treatment with the porcine cell-based Academic Medical Center bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Nicuolo, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Andria, B.; Scuderi, V.; Scognamiglio, M.; Tammaro, A.; Mancini, A.; Cozzolino, S.; di Florio, E.; Bracco, A.; Calise, F.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.M.


    Background: Clinical use of porcine cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) support in acute liver failure as bridging therapy for liver transplantation exposes the patient to the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) to human. This risk may be enhanced when patients receive

  5. Excessive porcine circovirus type 2 antibody titres may trigger the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Jong, M.F.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.


    In a case-control study, the role of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and putative co-factors in the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) were investigated. Pigs with and without PDNS were examined for macroscopic lesions and histopathology. In addition, organs and tissues

  6. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PB112 (JN996498 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PB112 (JN996498) isolated from infected Labeo bata (Hamilton) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Somerita Panda, PK Bandyopadhyay, SN Chatterjee ...

  7. The Enzymes of the Ammonia Assimilation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Camp, Huub J.M. op den; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; Drift, Chris van der


    Glutamine synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is regulated by repression/derepression of enzyme synthesis and by adenylylation/deadenylylation control. High levels of deadenylylated biosynthetically active glutamine synthetase were observed in cultures growing with limiting amounts of nitrogen

  8. Resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative bacilli in patients with impaired host defences emphasizes the need for information on the antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms that infects such patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa are becoming increasingly resistant to ...

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans reveals novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utari, Putri Dwi; Quax, Wim J.

    The susceptibility of Caenorhabditis elegans to different virulent phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa makes the worms an excellent model for studying host-pathogen interactions. Including the recently described liquid killing, five different killing assays are now available offering superb

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection (United States)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  11. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated with Use of Hot Tubs and Spas. (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael L.


    Discusses the history, etiology, diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and prevention of Pseudomonas Folliculitis, an increasingly common skin infection contracted in hot tubs and, to some extent, in swimming pools. (Author/SM)

  12. Sequencing and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage JG004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garbe, Julia; Bunk, Boyke; Rohde, Manfred; Schobert, Max


    .... Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For an effective use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents, it is important to understand phage biology but also genes of the bacterial host essential for phage infection...

  13. Alginate overproduction affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentzer, Morten; Teitzel, G.M.; Balzer, G.J.


    During the course of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes a conversion to a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections involve surface-attached, highly antibiotic-resistant com...

  14. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S; Dueholm, Morten S


    hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm...

  15. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination (United States)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  16. Infectious conjunctivitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a bathroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eguchi, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Tatsuro; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Mitamura, Sayaka; Mitamura, Yoshinori


    .... The purpose of this report is to describe a case of suture-related conjunctivitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa for which we identified the transmission route using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE...

  17. Characterization of Glutamine-Requiring Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Herst, Patricia M.; Drift, Chris van der


    Revertants were isolated from a glutamine-requiring mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. One strain showed thermosensitive glutamine requirement and formed thermolabile glutamine synthetase, suggesting the presence of a mutation in the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. The mutation

  18. Isolation of chlorhexidine-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical lesions.


    Nakahara, H; Kozukue, H


    The chlorhexidine resistance of 317 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospital patients was determined. The distribution pattern of their susceptibility to chlorhexidine clearly revealed two peaks, and the frequency of resistance to chlorhexidine was 84.2%.

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen sensitizes anoxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm to ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Lerche, Christian J; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov


    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is characterized by the presence of endobronchial antibiotic-tolerant biofilm subject to strong oxygen (O2) depletion due to the activity of surrounding polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The exact mechanisms affecting the antibiotic susceptibility of biof...

  20. A study on nitrogen removal efficiency of Pseudomonas stutzeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 8, 2010 ... 1College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher. Education Mega Centre, Panyu District, ... Key words: Anaerobic/anoxic/oxic treatment process, reaction condition, denitrification, nitrification, nitrogen removal, Pseudomonas stutzeri.

  1. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.


    Preston, Gail M


    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathoge...

  2. Biodegradasi Petroleum dan Hidrokarbon Eikosana oleh Isolat Bakteri Pseudomonas aeruginosa


    Faiqah Umar


    Biodegradation of petroleum and hydrocarbon eicosane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate. Hydrocarbon are important environmental contaminants in soil and water. These compounds have a potential risk to human health, as many of them are carsinogenic and toxic to marine organisms such as diatome, gasthrophode, mussel, and fish. The purpose of this research was to know the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to degradate the hydrocarbon (petroleum Hundill and eicosane) substrate. Growing test used ...

  3. Effect of osmotic stress on plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. (United States)

    Sandhya, V; Ali, Sk Z; Venkateswarlu, B; Reddy, Gopal; Grover, Minakshi


    In this study we isolated and screened drought tolerant Pseudomonas isolates from arid and semi arid crop production systems of India. Five isolates could tolerate osmotic stress up to -0.73 MPa and possessed multiple PGP properties such as P-solubilization, production of phytohormones (IAA, GA and cytokinin), siderophores, ammonia and HCN however under osmotic stress expression of PGP traits was low compared to non-stressed conditions. The strains were identified as Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas monteilli respectively on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Osmotic stress affected growth pattern of all the isolates as indicated by increased mean generation time. An increase level of intracellular free amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars and exopolysaccharides was observed under osmotic stress suggesting bacterial response to applied stress. Further, strains GAP-P45 and GRFHYTP52 showing higher levels of EPS and osmolytes (amino acids and proline) accumulation under stress as compared to non-stress conditions, also exhibited higher expression of PGP traits under stress indicating a relationship between stress response and expression of PGP traits. We conclude that isolation and screening of indigenous, stress adaptable strains possessing PGP traits can be a method for selection of efficient stress tolerant PGPR strains.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Porcine Picobirnaviruses and Development of a Specific Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay▿ †


    Carruyo, Gabriela M.; Mateu, Guaniri; Martínez, Laura C.; Flor H Pujol; Silvia V Nates; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.


    The molecular characterization of partial- length genomic segment 2 of porcine picobirnavirus (PBV) strains and the development of a specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for detection of virus in feces are reported. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the studied porcine isolates were more closely related (>85% identity) to human PBV belonging to genogroup I than to the other porcine PBV described so far. Analysis by RT-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fecal samples...

  5. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. (United States)

    Jensen, T K; Vigre, H; Svensmark, B; Bille-Hansen, V


    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying intensity was diagnosed in 64 of the pigs. Of these 64 animals, 34 (18%) were infected with both PCV2 and L. intracellularis. Of the remaining 30 cases of enteritis, 23 (77%) were attributed to PCV2 infection alone. The PCV2-associated enteritis cases showed necrotizing ileitis and colitis, indistinguishable macroscopically from proliferative enteritis (PE) due to L. intracellularis. Histopathologically, L. intracellularis-positive intestines showed adenomatous proliferation of crypt enterocytes, whereas PCV2 enteritis was characterized by histiocytosis of varying intensity, with PCV2-positive cells in the submucosa, lamina propria and crypt epithelium, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the ileum and colon. Multinucleated giant cells, however, were seen in both infections. PCV2 was about three times more likely to be detected in L. intracellularis-negative than in L. intracellularis-positive samples (P<0.001). There was no association between PCV2 and other intestinal bacterial pathogens. The study demonstrated that PCV2 enteritis should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of L. intracellularis infection in pigs aged 2-4 months with a clinical history of diarrhoea.

  6. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs (United States)

    Delossantos, Aubrey I; Rodriguez, Neil L; Patel, Paarun; Franz, Michael G; Wagner, Christopher T


    We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–repaired hernias of additional animals were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks post incision to assess porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix regenerative potential and biomechanical changes. Hernias repaired with primary closure showed substantially more scarring and bone hyperplasia along the incision line. Mechanical remodeling of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix was noted over time. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were similar to fascia at 6 weeks. The biology of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced animals was more similar to native abdominal wall versus that with primary closure. In this study, porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced repairs provided more complete wound healing response compared with primary closure. PMID:24555008

  7. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Monteiro


    Full Text Available We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–repaired hernias of additional animals were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks post incision to assess porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix regenerative potential and biomechanical changes. Hernias repaired with primary closure showed substantially more scarring and bone hyperplasia along the incision line. Mechanical remodeling of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix was noted over time. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were similar to fascia at 6 weeks. The biology of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced animals was more similar to native abdominal wall versus that with primary closure. In this study, porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced repairs provided more complete wound healing response compared with primary closure.

  8. [Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains]. (United States)

    Grigor'eva, N V; Kondrat'eva, T F; Krasil'nikova, E N; Karavaĭko, G I


    The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri VKM B-975T. Upon the introduction of CN- and SCN- into cell suspensions of strains 18 and 21 in phosphate buffer (pH 8.8), the production of NH4+ was observed. Due to the high rate of their utilization, NH3, NH4+, and CNO- were absent from the culture liquids of P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18 grown with CN- or SCN-. Both Pseudomonas strains decomposed SCN- via cyanate production. The cyanase activity was 0.75 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. putida strain 21 and 1.26 micromol/(min mg protein) for P. stutzeri strain 18. The cyanase activity was present in the cells grown with SCN- but absent in cells grown with NH4+. Strain 21 of P. putida was a more active CN- decomposer than strain 18 of P. stutzeri. Ammonium and CO2 were the terminal nitrogen and carbon products of CN- and SCN- decomposition. The terminal sulfur products of SCN- decomposition by P. stutzeri strain 18 and P. putida strain 21 were thiosulfate and tetrathionate, respectively. The strains utilized the toxic compounds in the anabolism only, as sources of nitrogen (CN- and SCN-) and sulfur (SCN-). The pathway of thiocyanate decomposition by the association of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas is proposed based on the results obtained.

  9. Biosorpsi Logam Zn Pada Limbah Sintetik Menggunakan Biomassa Campuran Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Pseudomonas sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati


    Full Text Available Zinc is one of the heavy metals that could be harmful for environment. This metal usually arises from industrial activities. Biosorption of zinc in synthetic waste was conducted using biomass mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas sp. This research aims to determine the zinc adsorption capacity of the biomass in synthetic waste water. Zinc biosorption was performed at pH 4, room temperature and stirring 800 rpm. Variation of contact time used was 30, 60 and 120 min; and the amount of biomass used was 0.01 g, 0.02 g, 0.03 g, 0.04 g and 0.05 g. The highest zinc biosorption capacity was obtained 25.43% at the time of 120 minutes and the amount of biomass used 0.01 g. The optimum condition for biomass biosorption and removal capacity based on the correlation between experimental data and mathematical models was obtained with the addition of 0.04 g of biomass with correlation coefficient (R 1 and 0,965 respectively.ABSTRAK Salah satu logam berat yang berbahaya dari hasil kegiatan industri adalah logam Zn (seng. Biosorpsi logam Zn pada limbah sintetik dilakukan dengan menggunakan biomassa campuran Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Pseudomonas sp. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kapasitas biomassa dalam mengadsorpsi logam Zn pada limbah sintetik. Biosorpsi logam Zn dilakukan pada kondisi pH 4, temperatur ruang dan pengadukan 800 rpm. Variasi waktu kontak dilakukan pada 30, 60 dan 120 menit  dan menggunakan jumlah biomassa 0,01 g, 0,02 g, 0,03 g, 0,04 g  dan 0,05 g. Kapasitas biosorpsi logam Zn tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 25,43% pada waktu 120 menit dengan jumlah biomassa 0,01 g. Kondisi optimum biosorpsi logam Zn berdasarkan korelasi antara data eksperimen dan model matematika diperoleh pada penambahan jumlah biomassa sebesar 0,04 g baik untuk kapasitas biosorpsi logam Zn maupun efisiensi removal logam Zn dengan nilai koefisien korelasi (R2 masing-masing adalah 1 dan 0,965.

  10. Release of galanin from isolated perfused porcine adrenal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Messell, T


    We found a high concentration of galanin in extracts of porcine adrenal glands (114 pmol/g). By immunohistochemistry, galanin was localized to groups of medullary cells previously shown to produce norepinephrine. To study mechanisms for the release of galanin, we developed the following in vitro...... model: isolated perfused porcine adrenals with intact splanchnic nerve supply. When the nerves were electrically stimulated, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion increased 276- and 291-fold, respectively, and galanin release increased up to 1,300-fold. Acetylcholine at 10(-6) M stimulated galanin...... in anesthetized pigs increased the concentration of galanin in the caval vein but not in arterial plasma. It is concluded that galanin, coreleased with catecholamines from the adrenal glands, may have endocrine functions but that galanin may also have local regulatory functions in the adrenals....

  11. A comparative anatomic and physiologic overview of the porcine heart. (United States)

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos G; Xanthos, Theodoros T


    Despite advances during the last 2 decades in every aspect of cardiovascular research (interventional cardiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and so forth), Western societies still are plagued by the consequences of cardiovascular disease. Consequently the discovery of new regimens and therapeutic interventions is of utmost importance. Research using human subjects is associated with substantial methodologic and ethical considerations, and the quest for an appropriate animal model for the human cardiovascular system has led to swine. The porcine heart bears a close resemblance to the human heart in terms of its coronary circulation and hemodynamic similarities and offers ease of implementation of methods and devices from human healthcare facilities. A thorough comprehension of the anatomy and physiology of the porcine cardiovascular system should focus on differences between swine and humans as well as similarities. Understanding these differences and similarities is essential to extrapolating data appropriately and to addressing the social demand for the ethical use of animals in biomedical research.

  12. [Coronary angiography of in vitro porcine heart using MSCT]. (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Telet, Siy It; Wei, Hua; Ying, Chong-Liang; Wang, Ya-hui; Deng, Kai-fei; Zou, Dong-Hua; Li, Zheng-done; Zhu, Guang-You


    To establish standardized methods and parameters of the isolated heart coronary angiography through the experiment of in vitro porcine heart by MSCT. Based on different perfusion volume (50, 60 and 70 mL) and different perfusion-imaging time (5, 10 and 20 min), the in vitro porcine coronary artery was injected liposoluble and water-soluble contrast agents using remodel angiography equipment and scanned by MSCT. And the 3D image results were compared. The images were recorded and evaluated by 2 radiologists and analyzed by statistical software. Liposoluble contrast agent affected the images by damaging and infiltrating the fats around the coronary artery, while the water-soluble contrast agent didn't affect the images. The groups with 60 mL or 70 mL perfusion and 5 min perfusion-imaging time had the best images. The suitable parameters of the angiography lay the foundation of postmortem coronary angiography.

  13. Mediators of increased blood flow in porcine skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Moore


    Full Text Available Nicotinates and benzalkonium chloride (B.Cl cause inflammatory changes in human skin, thought to be dependent upon prostaglandin formation. This study has examined the effects of hexyl-nicotinate (HN and B.Cl on blood flow in porcine skin. The role of prostaglandins and interleukin (IL-1 in the blood flow response has been investigated. Blood flow was increased by both HN and B.Cl, the response to B.Cl being more protracted. Cyclooxygenase inhibitor pretreatment reduced these responses. IL-1-like biological activity was identified in normal porcine epidermis and the amounts recovered from inflamed skin were similar. Thus prostaglandin formation in HN or B.Cl-induced inflammation, if IL-1 dependent, is not associated with the loss of significant amounts of the cytokine from the epidermis.

  14. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression]. (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua


    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  15. Cardiac dysfunction in a porcine model of pediatric malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Lykke, Mikkel; Nielsen, Anne-Louise Hother


    BACKGROUND: Half a million children die annually of severe acute malnutrition and cardiac dysfunction may contribute to the mortality. However, cardiac function remains poorly examined in cases of severe acute malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: To determine malnutrition-induced echocardiographic disturbances...... and longitudinal changes in plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T in a pediatric porcine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five-week old piglets (Duroc-x-Danish Landrace-x-Yorkshire) were fed a nutritionally inadequate maize-flour diet to induce malnutrition (MAIZE, n = 12) or a reference diet...... groups. The myocardial performance index was 86% higher in MAIZE vs AGE-REF (pMalnutrition associates with cardiac dysfunction in a pediatric porcine model by increased myocardial performance index and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide...

  16. Unusual Complication of a Carpentier-Edwards Porcine Valve (United States)

    Tolis, George A.; Michalis, Alkis; Pouliou, Alice; Ivros, Constantine; Bolos, Constantine; Sfyras, Nicholas


    The following case report describes an early complication of a Carpentier-Edwards porcine heterograft in the mitral position that required emergency replacement of the malfunctioning biological prosthesis with a mechanical one. The leaflets of the valve were in a fixed-open position and would not unfold with left ventricular contractions, resulting in severe mitral regurgitation. After failure to mobilize the valve leaflets, the porcine heterograft valve was excised intact and replaced with a 27 mm Björk-Shiley monostrut prosthesis. The patient was discharged 18 days after operation on Digoxin 0.25 mg daily, Lasix 40 mg twice a week, and Sintrom 2 mg daily. He remains in excellent condition 20 months postoperatively. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1986; 13:337-339) Images PMID:15226866

  17. The effect of subretinal viscoelastics on the porcine retinal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Fischer; Ejstrup, Rasmus; Svahn, Thøger Frøsig


    pharmaceutical therapy is needed, and can only be tested in a suitable animal model. The porcine model is promising and the mfERG is well validated in this model. RD was induced in 18 pigs by vitrectomy and healon injection of various concentrations. Preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively eight animals were...... examined by mfERG. The major component P1 was analyzed statistically. Indirect ophthalmoscopy and bilateral color fundus photography (FP) were performed. Selected animals underwent high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Examination by ophthalmoscopy and FP showed that the RDs remained detached...... makes the porcine model unsuitable for examining adjuvant pharmaceutical RD treatment. Future studies should focus on foveated primates....

  18. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Induces Autophagy to Benefit Its Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Guo


    Full Text Available The new porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED has caused devastating economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Despite extensive research on the relationship between autophagy and virus infection, the concrete role of autophagy in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV infection has not been reported. In this study, autophagy was demonstrated to be triggered by the effective replication of PEDV through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, autophagy was confirmed to benefit PEDV replication by using autophagy regulators and RNA interference. Furthermore, autophagy might be associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and have a positive feedback loop with the NF-κB signaling pathway during PEDV infection. This work is the first attempt to explore the complex interplay between autophagy and PEDV infection. Our findings might accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of PEDV infection and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  19. Fluorescence properties of porcine odorant binding protein Trp 16 residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Jihad Rene, E-mail: Jihad-Rene.Albani@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)


    Summary: The present work deals with fluorescence studies of adult porcine odorant binding protein at pH=7.5. At this pH, the protein is a dimer, each monomer contains one tryptophan residue. Our results show that tryptophan residue displays significant motions and emits with three fluorescence lifetimes. Decay associated spectra showed that the three lifetime's components emanate from sub-structures surrounded by the same microenvironment.

  20. The suture pullout characteristics of human and porcine linea alba. (United States)

    Cooney, Gerard M; Lake, Spencer P; Thompson, Dominic M; Castile, Ryan M; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K


    There is a substantial prevalence of post-operative incisional hernia for both laparoscopic and laparotomy procedures, but there have been few attempts at quantifying abdominal wound closure methodology in the literature. One method to ascertain a more robust method of wound closure is the identification of the influence of suture placement parameters on suture pullout force. Current surgical practice involves a recommended bite depth and bite separation of 10mm, but the evidence base for this is not clear. In this paper, the suture pullout characteristics of both porcine and human linea alba were investigated to ascertain a suture placement protocol for surgical wound closure. Uniaxial suture pullout force testing on fresh frozen porcine and human linea alba samples was performed using standard materials testing machines. The influence of the number of suture loops, the bite depth and the bite separation of the sutures and the orientation of the sutures with respect to the principal fibre direction in the linea alba were assessed. Results showed a clearly identifiable relationship between pullout force of the suture, bite separation and bite depth, with low suture separation and high suture depth as optimal parameters for increasing pullout force. Resistance to pullout could be improved by as much as 290% when optimizing test conditions. Both human and porcine tissue were observed to exhibit very similar pullout force characteristics, corroborating the use of a porcine model for investigations into wound closure methodology. Orientation of suture application was also found to significantly affect the magnitude of suture pullout, with suturing applied longitudinally across a transverse defect resulting in higher pullout forces for small suture bite separations. Although further assessment in an environment more representative of in vivo conditions is required, these findings indicate that increasing the bite depth and reducing the bite separation with respect to

  1. Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Sialic Acid Concentrations Vary Throughout Lactation. (United States)

    Mudd, Austin T; Salcedo, Jaime; Alexander, Lindsey S; Johnson, Stacey K; Getty, Caitlyn M; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Barile, Daniela; Dilger, Ryan N


    Milk oligosaccharides (OSs) are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation compared with human milk. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA) composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Up to 250 mL of milk were collected from seven sows at each of three time points: day 0 (colostrum), days 7-9 (mature), and days 17-19 (weaning). Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and 3-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano-LC Chip-QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free) was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection. Sixty unique OSs were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OSs were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%), followed by acidic-sialylated OSs (16-29%) and neutral-fucosylated OSs (2-4%). As lactation progressed, acidic OSs decreased (P = 0.003), whereas neutral-fucosylated (P mature milk in the pig, and SA concentrations shift from free to bound forms as lactation progresses. Our results suggest that although porcine milk OS concentration and the number of structures is lower than human milk, the OS profile appears to be closer to human milk rather than to bovine milk, based on previously published profiles.

  2. Isolation and open reading frame 5 gene analysis of porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 8, 2012 ... Isolation and open reading frame 5 gene analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in. Yunnan Province, China. WANG Qing-lu1, ZHANG Shu-guang1, LI Fu-xiang2, BI Bao-liang1, CHAI Jun1,. WANG Sheng-kui1* and ZHANG Yi-fang1*. 1College of Animal Science and Technology, ...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Switzerland


    Kirchgässner, Constanze


    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. Currently, no data for antimicrobial susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae from Switzerland are available and though antimicrobial treatment is the main therapy, no standardised methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are established. Therefore, a broth microdilution test was performed for 30 Swiss porcine field isolate...

  4. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells


    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin


    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical i...

  5. Comparison of physiological and in vitro porcine gastric fluid digestion. (United States)

    Kopper, Randall A; West, Charles M; Helm, Ricki M


    In previous studies, the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was digested in vitro using pepsin and porcine gastric fluid. The results suggested that in vivo gastric digestion of allergen protein can be modeled accurately by peptic hydrolysis in vitro. In the current investigation, studies were designed to follow the gastrointestinal (GI) digestion of peanut allergens under true physiological conditions. In vitro digestion with porcine gastric fluid was compared with actual physiological digestion of peanut allergens in the porcine digestive tract in vivo. Analysis of physiologic digestion was performed in piglets administered a 20-gram bolus of peanut meal followed by periodic sampling and analysis of GI contents. The pH was monitored, and digesta were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Peanut meal initially neutralized stomach contents to a pH of approximately 7, which was subsequently acidified by HCl secretion within 30 min. Acidification to pH 2-4 resulted in active pepsin digestion of soluble protein in the stomach. Soluble intact protein/allergens were rapidly degraded to pepsin-resistant peptides in the stomach followed by hydrolysis of these fragments in the small intestine. Particulate material was evident in both the stomach and small intestine that could contribute to continued release of peanut allergens Ara h 1, 2 and 3. Porcine gastric digestion of peanut proteins resembles true physiological digestion only under optimal physiologic conditions. Soluble proteins are rapidly digested and insoluble material continues to release IgE-reactive proteins throughout the GI tract. GI digestion of food allergens can play a prominent role when assessing allergens within the context of a food matrix or meal and during the sensitization phase of IgE-mediated allergy.

  6. Bioactive porcine matrices in heart valve tissue engineering. (United States)

    Somers, Pamela; de Somer, Filip; Cornelissen, Maria; Thierens, Hubert; Van Nooten, Guido


    Platelet gel (PG), a storage vehicle of growth factors, can be considered for the application of growth factors in combination with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to accelerate tissue regeneration. Moreover, the addition of bioactive factors to porcine aortic valves could result in a more rapid repopulation. The study aim was to load acellular porcine aortic valve matrices with the PG-rich growth factors and to evaluate the effect on MSC repopulation. Ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSCs) were isolated from sheep bone marrow. Acellular porcine heart valve matrices (n = 3) were preloaded with heparin and incubated with the PG for 2 h. A quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay was used to examine the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) from the matrices, oMSC repopulation was stimulated by static and dynamic culture. The immunoassays revealed that heparin-preloaded PG-incubated matrices showed a sustained release of 56.28 pg/ml bFGF and 30.66 ng/ml TGF-beta1 after 24 h. Dynamic culture induced oMSC invasion in growth factor-loaded matrices. Cell density results showed that dynamic culture significantly enhanced the repopulation of growth factor-loaded matrices (75 +/- 21 cells/mm2) when compared to static culture (26 +/- 10 cells/mm2). The incubation of a porcine aortic valve matrix with a PG concentrate creates a bioactive matrix. However, further fine-tuning of the PG concentration is necessary to take full advantage of platelet growth factor interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix in order to optimize cellular repopulation.

  7. Sonographic abnormalities in augmented bladder using porcine intestinal submucosa (SIS)


    Rossetto, V.J.V.; Souza, P.M.; Doiche, D.P.; Mamprim, M.J.; Padovani, C.R.; Brandão, C.V.S.


    ABSTRACT Among the different materials for bladder augmentation, porcine intestinal submucosa (SIS) is the most widely investigated and stands out for its ability as a cell scaffold. In this context, the ultrasound examination allows the detection of changes from the surgical procedure, enabling the early verification of potential complications and evaluation of patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the main sonographic findings in dogs submitted to cystoplasty using acellula...

  8. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.


    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R


    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and micros...

  9. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis. (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E


    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Copy number variants in a highly inbred Iberian porcine strain. (United States)

    Fernández, A I; Barragán, C; Fernández, A; Rodríguez, M C; Villanueva, B


    We carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of porcine copy number variants (CNVs) based on whole-genome SNP genotyping data and provided new measures of genomic diversity (number, length and distribution of CNV events) for a highly inbred strain (the Guadyerbas strain). This strain represents one of the most ancient surviving populations of the Iberian breed, and it is currently in serious danger of extinction. CNV detection was conducted on the complete Guadyerbas population, adjusted for genomic waves, and used strict quality criteria, pedigree information and the latest porcine genome annotation. The analysis led to the detection of 65 CNV regions (CNVRs). These regions cover 0.33% of the autosomal genome of this particular strain. Twenty-nine of these CNVRs were identified here for the first time. The relatively low number of detected CNVRs is in line with the low variability and high inbreeding estimated previously for this Iberian strain using pedigree, microsatellite or SNP data. A comparison across different porcine studies has revealed that more than half of these regions overlap with previously identified CNVRs or multicopy regions. Also, a preliminary analysis of CNV detection using whole-genome sequence data for four Guadyerbas pigs showed overlapping for 16 of the CNVRs, supporting their reliability. Some of the identified CNVRs contain relevant functional genes (e.g., the SCD and USP15 genes), which are worth being further investigated because of their importance in determining the quality of Iberian pig products. The CNVR data generated could be useful for improving the porcine genome annotation. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Antivirulence activity of azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Francesco eImperi


    Full Text Available Antibiotics represent our bulwark to combat bacterial infections, but the spread of antibiotic resistance compromises their clinical efficacy. Alternatives to conventional antibiotics are urgently needed in order to complement the existing antibacterial arsenal. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM provides a paradigmatic example of an unconventional antibacterial drug. Besides its growth-inhibiting activity, AZM displays potent anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antivirulence activity on some intrinsically resistant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this bacterium, the antivirulence activity of AZM mainly relies on its ability to interact with the ribosome, resulting in direct and/or indirect repression of specific subsets of genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Both clinical experience and clinical trials have shown the efficacy of AZM in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The aim of this review is to combine results from laboratory studies with evidence from clinical trials in order to unify the information on the in vivo mode of action of AZM in P. aeruginosa infection.

  12. Bioadsorption characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAOI

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    Kőnig-Péter Anikó


    Full Text Available Biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II ions from aqueous solution using lyophilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAOI cells were observed under various experimental conditions. The effect of pH, initial metal concentration, equilibration time and temperature on bioadsorption was investigated. The optimum pH value for Pb(II adsorption was found to be 5.0, and for Cd(II 5.0 − 6.0. The Pb(II and Cd(II bioadsorption equilibrium were analyzed by using Freundlich and Langmuir model using nonlinear least-squares estimation. The experimental maximum uptake capacity of Pb(II and Cd(II was estimated to be 164 mg g-1 and 113 mg g-1, respectively. For biosorption kinetic study the pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied at various temperatures. The temperature had no significant effect on Pb(II bioadsorption. In case of Cd(II bioadsorption the adsorbed amount decreased with increasing temperature.

  13. Benzoate transport in Pseudomonas putida CSV86. (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Purohit, Hemant; Phale, Prashant S


    Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif LADRXGRKX in loop 2, while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices. benF and catA encode benzoate specific porin, OprD and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Biochemical studies suggest that benzoate was transported by an inducible and active process. Inhibition (90%-100%) in the presence of dinitrophenol suggests that the energy for the transport process is derived from the proton motive force. The maximum rate of benzoate transport was 484 pmole min-1 mg-1 cells with an affinity constant, Kmof 4.5 μM. Transcriptional analysis of the benzoate and glucose-grown cells showed inducible expression of benF, benK and benE, suggesting that besides outer membrane porin, both inner membrane transporters probably contribute for the benzoate transport in P. putida strain CSV86. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. The metabolism of thymol by a Pseudomonas (United States)

    Chamberlain, Enid M.; Dagley, S.


    1. Pseudomonas putida when grown with thymol contained a meta-fission dioxygenase, which required ferrous ions and readily cleaved the benzene nucleus of catechols between adjacent carbon atoms bearing hydroxyl and isopropyl groups. 2. 3-Hydroxythymo-1,4-quinone was excreted towards the end of exponential growth and later was slowly metabolized. This compound was oxidized by partially purified extracts only when NADH was supplied; the substrate for the dioxygenase appeared to be 3-hydroxythymo-1,4-quinol, which was readily and non-enzymically oxidized to the quinone. 3. 2-Oxobutyrate (0·9 mole) was formed from 1 mole of 3-hydroxythymo-1,4-quinone with the consumption of 1 mole of oxygen; acetate, isobutyrate and 2-hydroxybutyrate (which arose from the enzymic reduction of 2-oxobutyrate) were also formed. 4. These products, which were produced only when the catechol substrate contained a third hydroxyl group, appeared to result from the enzymic hydrolysis of the ring-fission product. PMID:4303067

  15. Reduced vancomycin susceptibility in porcine ST9 MRSA isolates

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    Gabriella Mei Lan Kwok


    Full Text Available Porcine strains of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA have been recognized in many countries and have been shown to be able to cause human infection. Resistance to non-beta lactam antibiotics has been reported but non-susceptibility to vancomycin, which is known to occur in human MRSA, has so far not been observed in LA-MRSA. Such resistance is typically fairly low level involving changes in the cell wall thickness. The development of resistance is usually preceded by presence of a sub-population having an increased MIC, which is selected for by exposure to vancomycin. This study investigated vancomycin susceptibility of one hundred porcine MRSA isolates using three MIC methods including spiral gradient endpoint (SGE technique which allows visualization of more resistant sub-populations. SGE revealed 16 strains with an MIC above 2.0 mg/L, of which 14 were determined to have MIC 4 mg/L by agar dilution. SGE revealed a further two isolates with MIC 2 mg/L. In addition, trailing endpoints not reaching resistance were present in 26 isolates with MIC 1.5 mg/L, the presence of vancomycin non-susceptibility in porcine isolates is of concern and further monitoring of LA-MRSA is essential.

  16. Effect of genipin collagen crosslinking on porcine corneas. (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Navia, José L


    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinker, on porcine corneas. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia. Corneal strips (12.0 mm x 2.3 mm) were harvested from porcine eyes and treated by incubation with genipin at concentrations of 1.00%, 0.25%, and 0.10%. Parallel corneal strips from the same eye were used as untreated controls. After treatment at 20 degrees C for 40 minutes, tensile strain measurements were performed in a biomaterial tester. Porcine button corneas were treated with genipin 0.25% for 15 minutes and then digested by bacterial collagenase. Treated and untreated corneas were evaluated by light microscopy. Young modulus and stiffness in treated corneas increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Genipin increased resistance to corneal collagenase 5-fold in comparison with the controls. A decrease in the interlamellar space in treated corneas was also observed. Corneal collagen crosslinking induced with genipin produced a significant increase in biomechanical strength and resistance to bacterial collagenase. This crosslinker could be useful in treating corneal ectasia and corneal infectious and noninfectious diseases involving corneal melting. Copyright (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative and genetic analysis of the porcine glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene. (United States)

    Stratil, Antonín; Wagenknecht, Daniel; Van Poucke, Mario; Kubícková, Svatava; Bartenschlager, Heinz; Musilová, Petra; Rubes, Jirí; Geldermann, Hermann; Peelman, Luc J


    The genomic sequence of the porcine (Sus scrofa) glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene (approximately 5.7 kb), encoding glucocerebrosidase (glucosylceramidase; acid beta-glucosidase; EC, was determined and compared with human (Homo sapiens) GBA and GBAP (pseudogene). The porcine gene harbours 11 exons and 10 introns, and the genomic organization is identical with human GBA. The exon sequences, coding for signal peptide and mature protein, show 81% and 90% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding human GBA sequences. Short interspersed elements, SINEs (PREs), are present in introns 2, 4 and 7. There is no evidence of a pseudogene in pig. The deduced protein sequence of GBA consists of 39 amino acids of signal peptide (long form) and 497 amino acids of the mature protein; the latter shows 90% sequence identity with the human protein. Four polymorphisms were observed within the porcine gene: insertion/deletion of one of the two SINEs (PREs) in intron 2 (locus PREA); deletion of a 37- to 39-bp stretch in intron 4 (one direct repeat and 5' end of PRE); deletion of a 47-bp stretch in the middle part of PRE in intron 4 (locus PREB); and single-base transition (C-T) in intron 6 (locus HaeIII-RFLP). GBA was assigned to chromosome 4q21 by FISH and was localized to the same region by linkage analysis and RH mapping, i.e., to the chromosome 4 segment where quantitative trait loci for growth and some carcass traits are located.

  18. Characterization of porcine eyes based on autofluorescence lifetime imaging (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten


    Multiphoton microscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique with ideal characteristics for biological applications. In this study, we propose to characterize three major structures of the porcine eye, the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina using two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2PE-FLIM). Samples were imaged using a laser-scanning microscope, consisting of a broadband sub-15 femtosecond (fs) near-infrared laser. Signal detection was performed using a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector (PML-16PMT). Therefore, spectral analysis of the fluorescence lifetime data was possible. To ensure a correct spectral analysis of the autofluorescence lifetime data, the spectra of the individual endogenous fluorophores were acquired with the 16-channel PMT and with a spectrometer. All experiments were performed within 12h of the porcine eye enucleation. We were able to image the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina at multiple depths. Discrimination of each structure based on their autofluorescence intensity and lifetimes was possible. Furthermore, discrimination between different layers of the same structure was also possible. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that 2PE-FLIM was used for porcine lens imaging and layer discrimination. With this study we further demonstrated the feasibility of 2PE-FLIM to image and differentiate three of the main components of the eye and its potential as an ophthalmologic technique.

  19. Characterization and isolation of highly purified porcine satellite cells. (United States)

    Ding, Shijie; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Guanghong; Hu, Ping


    Pig is an important food source and an excellent system to model human diseases. Careful characterization of the swine skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) will shed lights on generation of swine skeletal muscle disease model and efficient production of porcine meat for the food industry. Paired box protein 7 (Pax7) is a highly conserved transcription factor shared by satellite cells from various species. However, the sequence of Pax7 has not been characterized in pig. The lack of method to isolate highly purified satellite cells hinders the thorough characterization of the swine satellite cells. Here we found molecular markers for swine satellite cells and revealed that the porcine satellite cells were heterogeneous in various pieces of skeletal muscle. We further developed a method to isolate highly purified satellite cells directly from porcine muscles using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We next characterized the proliferation and differentiation abilities of isolated satellite cells in vitro; and found that long-term culturing of satellite cells in vitro led to stemness loss.

  20. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

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    Andresen Lars


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoglein 1 (DSG1 is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine desmoglein 1 (PIGDSG1 by a very specific reaction. This study investigated the location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene (PIGDSG1 in correlation to the cleavage site as well as if the genotype of the SNPs is correlated to susceptibility or resistance to the disease. Results DNA from 32 affected and 32 unaffected piglets with exudative epidermitis were diagnosed clinically as affected or unaffected. Two regions of the desmoglein 1 gene were sequenced and genotypes of the SNPs were established. Seven SNPs (823T>C, 828A>G, 829A>G, 830A>T, 831A>T, 838A>C and 1139C>T were found in the analysed sequences and the allele frequencies were determined for the SNPs resulting in amino acid change. Four of the seven polymorphisms were situated in the motif known to be important for toxin cleavage. The distribution of the genotypes between affected and unaffected animals was analysed. Conclusion The study indicated a possible correlation between the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis.

  1. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

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    Meng-Hwan Lee


    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  2. Rock shelter occupation during isotopic stage 5: level D of the site of Payre (Ardèche, France. Territorial organisation and intra-site activities

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    Moncel, Marie-Hélène


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from an interdisciplinary study of the level D archaeological assemblages from Payre (Ardèche, France. This site is dated to the final of OIS 6 and the beginning of OIS 5. The combined analysis of the lithic and faunal assemblages accumulated and their management “into” and “out of” the site gives a better understanding of the behaviour of the Neanderthal groups that inhabited it. This study has allowed us to correlate the territorial exploitation for game hunting and for raw material procurement, within the context of seasonal short term occupations probably during the end of autumn and the beginning of winter.  

    Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos a través del estudio multidisciplinar del registro arqueológico del nivel D del yacimiento de Payre (Ardèche, Francia datado entre el final del OIS 6 y el comienzo del OIS 5. El análisis conjunto de la industria lítica y de los restos óseos recuperados en el yacimiento y de la gestión de dichos recursos dentro y fuera de él, ha hecho posible la comprensión de los comportamientos humanos de los grupos neandertales que lo ocuparon. Dicho estudio nos ha permitido poner en relación el tipo de explotación del territorio de caza y de captación de materias primas, dentro del marco de ocupaciones estacionales de corta duración desarrolladas probablemente entre el final del otoño y el principio del invierno.  

  3. Molecular characterization of porcine circovirus 2 isolated from diseased pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

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    Liu Chengqian


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we isolated a porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 strain from piglets co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. The complete genome of this strain was sequenced, phylogenetic and polymorphic analyses were carried out. BLAST searches revealed the highest sequence identity (99.5% nt and 99.3% aa to Guangxi strain EF675230. The phylogenetic tree showed that clustering of the isolates didn't strongly correlate to geographical distribution. Polymorphic analyses demonstrated that the amino acids at most of the polymorphic sites in Open Reading Frame 1(ORF1 and 2 (ORF2belong to the same amino acid group according to chemical or structural properties, and revealed that highly polymorphic regions overlapped with the known immunoreactive epitopes of ORF2.

  4. First report of Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) and Enterovirus G (EV-G) in pig herds of Brazil. (United States)

    Donin, Daiane Güllich; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alberton, Geraldo Camilo; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo


    Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) and Enterovirus G (EV-G) have been associated with enteric, respiratory, reproductive and neurological disorders. Although Brazil is the world's fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, no information on the occurrence of PTV, PSV and EV-G infections is available for Brazilian pig herds. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Porcine enteric picornavirus infections in pig farms located in three distinct geographical regions of Brazil. Forty randomly selected diarrhoeic and normal consistency faeces of suckling (n = 22) and nursery (n = 18) pigs from farms located in 21 distinct cities of the Southern, Southeast, and Midwest regions of Brazil were evaluated by nested-RT-PCR assays. Suckling piglets presented the expected amplicon size for PTV (158 bp) and EV-G (313 bp) in single and mixed infections in 40.9 % (9/22) of the faecal samples. PSV amplicon (212 bp) was not detected in this age group. For nursery pigs, Porcine enteric picornaviruses amplicons were present in 77.8 % (14/18) of the faecal samples. PTV and EV-G were detected in single and mixed infections, while PSV was detected only in two samples in co-infection with PTV and EV-G in this age group. The Brazilian regions evaluated presented at least two of the tested viruses. Sequencing analysis revealed high similarities to the related viruses (95.3 to 99.2 % for PTV, 94.2 to 98.5 % for PSV and 86 to 100 % for EV-G). For the first time PTV, PSV and EV-G have been molecularly detected and characterised in pig faecal samples in Brazil.

  5. Revised protocol of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in severe ARDS. Recommendations of the Veno-venous ECMO Expert Panel appointed in February 2016 by the national consultant on anesthesiology and intensive care. (United States)

    Lango, Romuald; Szkulmowski, Zbigniew; Maciejewski, Dariusz; Sosnowski, Andrzej; Kusza, Krzysztof


    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has become well established technique of the treatment of severe acute respiratory failure (Veno-Venous ECMO) or circulatory failure (Veno-Arterial ECMO) which enables effective blood oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal for several weeks. Veno-Venous ECMO (V-V ECMO ) is a lifesaving treatment of patients in whom severe ARDS makes artificial lung ventilation unlikely to provide satisfactory blood oxygenation for preventing further vital organs damage and progression to death. The protocol below regards exclusively veno-venous ECMO treatment as a support for blood gas conditioning by means of extracorporeal circuit in adult patients with severe ARDS. V-V ECMO does not provide treatment for acutely and severely diseased lungs, but it enables patient to survive the critical phase of severe ARDS until recovery of lung function. Besides avoiding patients death from hypoxemia, this technique can also prevent further progression of the lung damage due to artificial ventilation. Recent experience of ECMO treatment since the outbreak of AH1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, along with technical progress and advancement in understanding pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury, have contributed to significant improvement of the results of ECMO treatment. Putative factors related to increased survival include patients retrieval after connecting them to ECMO, and less intensive anticoagulation protocols. The aim of presenting this revised protocol was to improve the effects of ECMO treatment in patients with severe ARDS, to enhance ECMO accessibility for patients who might possibly benefit from this treatment, to reduce time until patient's connection to ECMO, and to avoid ECMO treatment in futile cases. The authors believe that this protocol, based on recent papers and their own experience, can provide help and advice both for the centers which develop V-V ECMO program, and for doctors who will refer their patients for the

  6. Use of polarized light microscopy in porcine reproductive technologies. (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Maside, C; Gil, M A; Muñoz, M; Cuello, C; Díez, C; Sánchez-Osorio, J R; Martín, D; Gomis, J; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Carrocera, S; Martinez, E A; Gómez, E


    The meiotic spindle in the oocyte is composed of microtubules and plays an important role during chromosome alignment and separation at meiosis. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) could be useful for a non-invasive evaluation of the meiotic spindle and may allow removal of nuclear structures without fluorochrome staining and ultraviolet exposure. In this study, PLM was used to assess its potential application in porcine reproductive technologies. The objectives of the present study were to assess the efficiency of PLM to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes; to examine its effects on the oocyte developmental competence; to select oocytes based on the presence of the meiotic spindle detected by PLM; and to assess the efficiency oocyte enucleation assisted with PLM. In the first experiment, the presence of microtubule-polymerized protein was assessed and confirmed in oocytes (n = 117) by immunostaining and chromatin detection. In the second experiment, oocytes (n = 160) were exposed or not (controls) to PLM for 10 minutes, and then parthenogenetically activated and cultured in vitro. In the third experiment, development competence of oocytes with a positive or negative signal to PLM was analyzed after in vitro fertilization. Finally, oocytes (n = 54) were enucleated using PLM as a tool to remove the meiotic spindle. A positive PLM signal was detected in 98.2 % of the oocytes, which strongly correlated (r = 1; p PLM did not differ significantly from controls on cleavage, total blastocyst, expanded blastocyst rates and total cell numbers. The percentage of oocytes at the MII stage and blastocyst formation rate in the negative PLM group significantly differed from control and PLM positive groups. Overall efficiency of spindle removal using the PLM-Oosight system was 92.6%. These results suggest that polarized light microscopy is an efficient system to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes and does

  7. Porcine milk oligosaccharides and sialic acid concentrations vary throughout lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd


    Full Text Available Background: Milk oligosaccharides (OS are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. Objectives: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in characterizing and quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Methods: Up to 250 ml of milk was collected from 7 sows at each of three time points: d 0 (colostrum, d 7-9 (mature, and d 17-19 (weaning. Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and three-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano LC Chip QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection.Results: Sixty unique OS were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OS were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%, followed by acidic-sialylated OS (16-29% and neutral-fucosylated OS (2-4%. As lactation progressed, acidic OS decreased (P < 0.05, whereas neutral-fucosylated and neutral OS increased (P < 0.05 throughout lactation. Six OS were present in all samples analyzed across lactation (LDFH-I, 2´-FL, LNFP-I, LNnH, 3-Hex, 3´-SL, while LDFT was present only in colostrum samples. Analysis of individual OS concentrations indicated differences (P < 0.05 between days 0 and 7. Conversely, between days 7 and 18, OS concentrations remained stable with only LNnH and LNDFH-I decreasing (P < 0.05 over this period. Analysis of free SA indicated a decrease (P < 0.05 as lactation progressed, while bound and total SA increased (P < 0.05 across lactation. Conclusions: The present data suggest that while porcine milk OS profiles and

  8. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi


    Infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may be subclinical or lead to the development of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD), which includes the entities of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PCV2 infection and PMWS occur i...

  9. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna C. Nwinyi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2. Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94 ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R2 = 1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site.

  10. Síndrome da ardência bucal: revisão de cem casos = Burning mouth syndrome: review of one hundred cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini, Karen


    Full Text Available Os prontuários de cem pacientes portadores de síndrome da ardência bucal (SAB foram revisados considerando-se as seguintes variáveis: idade, sexo e cor dos pacientes bem como drogas usadas regularmente. Os resultados evidenciaram que a SAB é mais freqüente em mulheres na faixa etária compreendida entre 51 e 70 anos, a idade média dos pacientes foi de 59,8 anos e as drogas mais freqüentemente utilizadas foram os anti-hipertensivos (40% e os psicotrópicos (30%. A alta freqüência de uso desses fármacos pode ser resultado, respectivamente, da faixa etária dos pacientes acometidos pela SAB e de sua relação com condições como ansiedade e depressão. Embora muitos possíveis fatores etiológicos tenham sido apontados para a síndrome, sua causa específica permanece desconhecida e, conseqüentemente, não há tratamento eficaz para a condição. Novos estudos fazem-se necessários a fim de que se elucide a causa da SAB para então proporcionar-se melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes

  11. Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation for acute respiratory failure due to acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (United States)

    Chacko, Binila; Peter, John V; Tharyan, Prathap; John, George; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan


    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) account for one-quarter of cases of acute respiratory failure in intensive care units (ICUs). A third to half of patients will die in the ICU, in hospital or during follow-up. Mechanical ventilation of people with ALI/ARDS allows time for the lungs to heal, but ventilation is invasive and can result in lung injury. It is uncertain whether ventilator-related injury would be reduced if pressure delivered by the ventilator with each breath is controlled, or whether the volume of air delivered by each breath is limited. To compare pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in adults with ALI/ARDS to determine whether PCV reduces in-hospital mortality and morbidity in intubated and ventilated adults. In October 2014, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Isssue 9), MEDLINE (1950 to 1 October 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 1 October 2014), the Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1994 to 1 October 2014) and Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) at the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1990 to 1 October 2014), as well as regional databases, clinical trials registries, conference proceedings and reference lists. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (irrespective of language or publication status) of adults with a diagnosis of acute respiratory failure or acute on chronic respiratory failure and fulfilling the criteria for ALI/ARDS as defined by the American-European Consensus Conference who were admitted to an ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation, comparing pressure-controlled or pressure-controlled inverse-ratio ventilation, or an equivalent pressure-controlled mode (PCV), versus volume-controlled ventilation, or an equivalent volume-controlled mode (VCV). Two review authors independently screened and selected trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted

  12. Pseudomonas fluorescens' view of the periodic table. (United States)

    Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J


    Growth in a biofilm modulates microbial metal susceptibility, sometimes increasing the ability of microorganisms to withstand toxic metal species by several orders of magnitude. In this study, a high-throughput metal toxicity screen was initiated with the aim of correlating biological toxicity data in planktonic and biofilm cells to the physiochemical properties of metal ions. To this end, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was grown in the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) and biofilms and planktonic cells of this microorganism were exposed to gradient arrays of different metal ions. These arrays included 44 different metals with representative compounds that spanned every group of the periodic table (except for the halogens and noble gases). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values were obtained after exposing the biofilms to metal ions for 4 h. Using these values, metal ion toxicity was correlated to the following ion-specific physicochemical parameters: standard reduction-oxidation potential, electronegativity, the solubility product of the corresponding metal-sulfide complex, the Pearson softness index, electron density and the covalent index. When the ions were grouped according to outer shell electron structure, we found that heavy metal ions gave the strongest correlations to these parameters and were more toxic on average than the other classes of the ions. Correlations were different for biofilms than for planktonic cells, indicating that chemical mechanisms of metal ion toxicity differ between the two modes of growth. We suggest that biofilms can specifically counter the toxic effects of certain physicochemical parameters, which may contribute to the increased ability of biofilms to withstand metal toxicity.

  13. Aflatoxin B₁ degradation by a Pseudomonas strain. (United States)

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang


    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB₁, AFB₂ and AFM₁ by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB₁ effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn²⁺ and Cu²⁺ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg²⁺, Li⁺, Zn²⁺, Se²⁺, Fe³⁺ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB₁ was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB₁. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB₁ by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin.

  14. Engineering Pseudomonas stutzeri as a biogeochemical biosensor (United States)

    Boynton, L.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.


    Biogeochemical cycles are being drastically altered as a result of anthropogenic activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and the industrial production of ammonia. We know microbes play a major part in these cycles, but the extent of their biogeochemical roles remains largely uncharacterized due to inadequacies with culturing and measurement. While metagenomics and other -omics methods offer ways to reconstruct microbial communities, these approaches can only give an indication of the functional roles of microbes in a community. These -omics approaches are rapidly being expanded to the point of outpacing our knowledge of functional genes, which highlights an inherent need for analytical methods that non-invasively monitor Earth's processes in real time. Here we aim to exploit synthetic biology methods in order to engineer a ubiquitous denitrifying microbe, Pseudomonas stutzeri that can act as a biosensor in soil and marine environments. By using an easily cultivated microbe that is also common in many environments, we hope to develop a tool that allows us to zoom in on specific aspects of the nitrogen cycle. In order to monitor processes occurring at the genetic level in environments that cannot be resolved with fluorescence-based methods, such as soils, we have developed a system that instead relies on gas production by engineered microbial biosensors. P. stutzeri has been successfully engineered to release a gas, methyl bromide, which can continuously and non-invasively be measured by GC-MS. Similar to using Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP, in the biological sciences, the gene controlling gas production can be linked to those involved in denitrification, thereby creating a quantifiable gas signal that is correlated with microbial activity in the soil. Synthetically engineered microbial biosensors could reveal key aspects of metabolism in soil systems and offer a tool for characterizing the scope and degree of microbial impact on major biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections with tobramycin. (United States)

    Blair, D C; Fekety, F R; Bruce, B; Silva, J; Archer, G


    The efficacy of tobramycin in doses of 2.7 to 5.6 mg/kg per day in 29 courses of therapy in 25 hospitalized patients with serious Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was studied. Eighty-three percent of the P. aeruginosa strains showed zones of inhibition of 16 mm or more around a 10-mug tobramycin disk in the Bauer-Kirby disk method. Tobramycin minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from <0.05 to 1.5 mug/ml (microtiter twofold dilution method); for gentamicin they ranged from 0.05 to 6.2 mug/ml; corresponding geometric means were 0.19 and 0.49 mug/ml. Therapy was given for a median of 10 days (mean 19, range 1 to 83). The clinically satisfactory response rate for the 29 courses of therapy was 52%: critically ill, 44%; seriously ill, 50%; moderately ill, 80%. The response rates for various sites of infection were bone and cartilage, 100%; urinary tract infection, 56%; wound, 50%; respiratory tract, 67%; septicemia, 40%; abscess, 0%; burns, 44%. No adverse reactions were seen. Serum concentration (mug/ml +/- standard deviation) of tobramycin determined by an agar-well plate method, were 4.81 +/- 2.17 (1 h); 3.24 +/- 1.43 (2 h); 2.35 +/- 1.30 (4 h); and 1.40 +/- 1.09 (8 h). Tobramycin appears to be as effacacious as gentamicin in the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections and has a theoretical advantage of lower minimal inhibitory concentration for P. aeruginosa. The data suggest that, for life-threatening infections, dosages of tobramycin may need to be increased over those used in this study.

  16. Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing. (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua


    The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromosomal organization and segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vallet-Gely


    Full Text Available The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.

  18. Risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water. (United States)

    Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P


    drinking water industry, very little has been reported regarding the role of P. aeruginosa in biofilms. Tap water appears to be a significant route of transmission in hospitals, from colonization of plumbing fixtures. It is still not clear if the colonization results from the water in the distribution system, or personnel use within the hospital. Infections and colonization can be significantly reduced by placement of filters on the water taps. The oral dose of P. aeruginosa required to establish colonization in a healthy subject is high (George et al. 1989a). During dose-response studies, even when subjects (mice or humans) were colonized via ingestion, there was no evidence of disease. P. aeruginosa administered by the aerosol route at levels of 10(7) cells did cause disease symptoms in mice, and was lethal in aerosolized doses of 10(9) cells. Aerosol dose-response studies have not been undertaken with human subjects. Human health risks associated with exposure to P. aeruginosa via drinking water ingestion were estimated using a four-step risk assessment approach. The risk of colonization from ingesting P. aeruginosa in drinking water is low. The risk is slightly higher if the subject is taking an antibiotic resisted by P. aeruginosa. The fact that individuals on ampicillin are more susceptible to Pseudomonas gastrointestinal infection probably results from suppression of normal intestinal flora, which would allow Pseudomonas to colonize. The process of estimating risk was significantly constrained because of the absence of specific (quantitative) occurrence data for Pseudomonas. Sensitivity analysis shows that the greatest source of variability/uncertainty in the risk assessment is from the density distribution in the exposure rather than the dose-response or water consumption distributions. In summary, two routes appear to carry the greatest health risks from contacting water contaminated with P. aeruginosa (1) skin exposure in hot tubs and (2) lung exposure from

  19. Surface heparin treatment of the decellularized porcine heart valve : Effect on tissue calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Min; Lin, Yang-Hua; Shi, Wei-Ping; Shi, Hong-Can; Gu, Y. John; Shu, Yu-Sheng

    Tissue calcification is a major cause of failure of bioprosthetic heart valves. Aim of this study was to examine whether surface heparin treatment of the decellularized porcine heart valve reduces tissue calcification. Fresh porcine aortic heart valves were dissected as tissue discs and divided into

  20. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J


    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  1. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  2. A new tool for in vitro culture of porcine eggs | Hua | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new tool for in vitro culture of porcine eggs. ... are needed for the production of porcine embryos for in vitro fertilization or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). ... rates with two media were not significantly different (77.7 and 72.4%, P﹤ 0.05 ).

  3. Comparative Study on Compositions and Functional Properties of Porcine, Chicken and Duck Blood


    Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Narunatsopanon, Supawadee


    Hematological, chemical and functional characteristics of porcine, chicken and duck blood were evaluated. A porcine blood sample showed the most abundant red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and plasma protein content as well as its freeze-dried blood possessed the highest contents of protein, fat, Cu and Cr with the highest percentage of heme iron (p

  4. Validation of myocardial perfusion quantification by dynamic CT in an ex-vivo porcine heart model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Das, Marco; van Tuijl, Sjoerd; van Assen, Marly; Prinzen, Frits W; Stijnen, Marco; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Wildberger, Joachim E; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn


    To test the accuracy of quantification of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using computed tomography (CT) in ex-vivo porcine models. Five isolated porcine hearts were perfused according to Langendorff. Hearts were perfused using retrograde flow through the aorta and blood flow, blood pressure and

  5. Surveillance for porcine proliferative enteropathy in Alberta by using routine diagnostic laboratory data. (United States)

    Wilson, Jeff B; Honour, Sandra; Pauling, Gail E; O'Connor, Brendan; Benjamin, Madonna; Paradis, Marie Anne; Dick, C Paul


    Data from the Food Safety Division, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development were analyzed to determine the frequency of diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) relative to the diagnosis of other porcine enteric infections between 1993 and 1997. Next to colibacillosis, PPE was the most commonly diagnosed enteric disease among those reported.

  6. Porcine insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) gene: cloning, polymorphism and association study (United States)

    Using PCR and IPCR techniques we obtained a 4498 bp nucleotide sequence FN424076 encompassing the complete coding sequence of the porcine IRS4 gene and its proximal promoter. The 1269-amino acid porcine protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence shares 92% identity with the human IRS4 and possesse...

  7. Chapter 3: The influence of porcine somatatropin (pST) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SStC Botha

    initial weight of 27.2 ± 2 kg were used to investigate the effect of porcine somatotropin (pST) administered for six weeks prior to slaughter ... bone, % fat or % lean meat, but a significant increase in percentage skin was found. Keywords: FCR, P2 back fat, pST, porcine somatotropin, pork, tissue yield. # Corresponding author.

  8. Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan; Freude, Kristine; Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh


    The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs in the ut...

  9. Identification of 10 882 porcine microsatellite sequences and virtual mapping of 4528 of these sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Hu, Z.L.; Gorodkin, Jan


    A total of 10 882 porcine microsatelite repeats were identified in genomic shotgun sequences from the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Sequencing Consortium ( ). Of these, 4528 microsatellites were placed on a pig-human comparative map by BLAST analysis of porcine sequences against...

  10. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.


    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC....... There was a broad range of microscopical lesions and the cases were characterized as acute (n=10), subacute (n=24) or chronic (n=114) bronchopneumonia. Five bacterial species, five viruses and two Mycoplasma spp. were detected in different combinations. PCV2, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and Pasteurella multocida...

  11. Uji produksi biosurfaktan oleh Pseudomonas sp. pada substrat yang berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Fatimah


    Full Text Available Biosurfactant, microbial metabolite whose properties like surfactant, was suggested to replace chemically synthesized surfactant for take in hand environtmental pollution by petroleum hydrocarbon. This work was done to examine potency of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from Tanjung Perak Harbor to produce biosurfactant. Also, to know the effect of different substrates (glucose + yeast extract, lubricating oil and hexadecane toward biosurfactant production. Pseudomonas sp. grown in mineral synthetic water and biosurfactant production was measured on stationary phase. Biosurfactant production based on emulsification activity and surface tension reduction of supernatant (using Du Nouy tensiometer. Solar, lubricating oil, and hexadecane were used to examine emulsification activity. Results indicated that Pseudomonas sp. have a potency to produce biosurfactant. Surface tension of supernatant decreased up to 20 dyne/cm, when grown on hexadecane substrate. Hexadecane is the best growing substrate for biosurfactant production than others.

  12. Intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd(1) nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Brunori, Maurizio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca


    The cd(1) nitrite reductases, which catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, are homodimers of 60 kDa subunits, each containing one heme-c and one heme-d(1). Heme-c is the electron entry site, whereas heme-d(1) constitutes the catalytic center. The 3D structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... is controlling this internal ET step. In this study we have investigated the internal ET in the wild-type and His369Ala mutant of P. aeruginosa nitrite reductases and have observed similar cooperativity to that of the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme. Heme-c was initially reduced, in an essentially diffusion...... nitrite reductase has been determined in both fully oxidized and reduced states. Intramolecular electron transfer (ET), between c and d(1) hemes is an essential step in the catalytic cycle. In earlier studies of the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme, we observed that a marked negative cooperativity...

  13. Effects of ambroxol on alginate of mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Hua; Wan, Zhenyan; Bai, Dan


    Biofilm-forming bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in mechanically ventilated newborns, which can cause life-threatening infections. Alginate of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is considered an important virulence factor which contributes to the resistance to antibiotics. Traditionally, ambroxol is widely used in newborns with lung problems as a mucolytic agent and antioxidant agent as well. And there are few studies that demonstrated the anti-biofilm activity of ambroxol. In this study, we found that ambroxol can affect the structure of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Further, we found that ambroxol reduces the production of alginate, the expression of the important genes and the activity of key enzyme guanosine diphospho-D-mannose dehydrogenase (GDP-mannose dehydrogenase; GMD) which were involved in alginate biosynthesis.

  14. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.


    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis....... traditional animal model for this disease. Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination of sections from the infected animals revealed disintegration of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates...

  15. Conservation of the response regulator gene gacA in Pseudomonas species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, J.T.; Mazzola, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.


    The response regulator gene gacA influences the production of several secondary metabolites in both pathogenic and beneficial Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we developed primers and a probe for the gacA gene of Pseudomonas species and sequenced a 425 bp fragment of gacA from ten Pseudomonas strains

  16. Information Management of Genome Enabled Data Streams for Pseudomonas syringae on the Pseudomonas-Plant Interaction (PPI Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalen Lindeberg


    Full Text Available Genome enabled research has led to a large and ever-growing body of data on Pseudomonas syringae genome variation and characteristics, though systematic capture of this information to maximize access by the research community remains a significant challenge. Major P. syringae data streams include genome sequence data, newly identified type III effectors, biological characterization data for type III effectors, and regulatory feature characterization. To maximize data access, the Pseudomonas-Plant Interaction (PPI website [1] is primarily focused on categorization of type III effectors and curation of effector functional data represented in the Hop database and Pseudomonas-Plant Interaction Resource, respectively. The PPI website further serves as a conduit for incorporation of new genome characterization data into the annotation records at NCBI and other data repositories, and clearinghouse for additional data sets and updates in response to the evolving needs of the research community.

  17. Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (United States)

    Hachani, Abderrahman; Lossi, Nadine S.; Hamilton, Alexander; Jones, Cerith; Bleves, Sophie; Albesa-Jové, David; Filloux, Alain


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Such infections are associated with an active type VI secretion system (T6SS), which consists of about 15 conserved components, including the AAA+ ATPase, ClpV. The T6SS secretes two categories of proteins, VgrG and Hcp. Hcp is structurally similar to a phage tail tube component, whereas VgrG proteins show similarity to the puncturing device at the tip of the phage tube. In P. aeruginosa, three T6SSs are known. The expression of H1-T6SS genes is controlled by the RetS sensor. Here, 10 vgrG genes were identified in the PAO1 genome, among which three are co-regulated with H1-T6SS, namely vgrG1a/b/c. Whereas VgrG1a and VgrG1c were secreted in a ClpV1-dependent manner, secretion of VgrG1b was ClpV1-independent. We show that VgrG1a and VgrG1c form multimers, which confirmed the VgrG model predicting trimers similar to the tail spike. We demonstrate that Hcp1 secretion requires either VgrG1a or VgrG1c, which may act independently to puncture the bacterial envelope and give Hcp1 access to the surface. VgrG1b is not required for Hcp1 secretion. Thus, VgrG1b does not require H1-T6SS for secretion nor does H1-T6SS require VgrG1b for its function. Finally, we show that VgrG proteins are required for secretion of a genuine H1-T6SS substrate, Tse3. Our results demonstrate that VgrG proteins are not only secreted components but are essential for secretion of other T6SS substrates. Overall, we emphasize variability in behavior of three P. aeruginosa VgrGs, suggesting that, although very similar, distinct VgrGs achieve specific functions. PMID:21325275

  18. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déziel Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation point. This type of group behaviour is still poorly understood and its characterization provides important information on bacterial structured communities such as biofilms. Using GeneChip® Affymetrix microarrays, we obtained the transcriptomic profiles of both bacterial populations located at the tip of migrating tendrils and swarm center of swarming colonies and compared these profiles to that of a bacterial control population grown on the same media but solidified to not allow swarming motility. Results Microarray raw data were corrected for background noise with the RMA algorithm and quantile normalized. Differentially expressed genes between the three conditions were selected using a threshold of 1.5 log2-fold, which gave a total of 378 selected genes (6.3% of the predicted open reading frames of strain PA14. Major shifts in gene expression patterns are observed in each growth conditions, highlighting the presence of distinct bacterial subpopulations within a swarming colony (tendril tips vs. swarm center. Unexpectedly, microarrays expression data reveal that a minority of genes are up-regulated in tendril tip populations. Among them, we found energy metabolism, ribosomal protein and transport of small molecules related genes. On the other hand, many well-known virulence factors genes were globally repressed in tendril tip cells. Swarm center cells are distinct and appear to be under oxidative and copper stress responses. Conclusions Results reported in this study show that, as opposed to

  19. [Emergency Keratoplasty with Porcine Xenografts in Necrotizing Keratitis]. (United States)

    Drozhzhyna, Galyna I; Gaidamaka, Tetiana B; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn O; Ivanovska, Olena V; Ostashevsky, Viktor L; Kogan, Boris M; Usov, Volodymyr J; Pasyechnikova, Natalija V


    Background The great shortage of donor material in Ukraine makes it necessary to find additional sources of transplant material. A possible suitable material are the porcine corneas, as they are similar in structure and biomechanical parameters to the human cornea. The purpose of our study was to analyze the results of therapeutic keratoplasty (KP) with keratoxenotransplants from cryolyophilized porcine corneas in patients with severe necrotizing keratitis. Methods A retrospective analysis of 32 xenotransplantations patients with severe necrotizing keratitis (17 lamellar, 6 stepped perforating, 4 perforating, 5 "biological coverage" according to Puchkovskaya) was completed. Results All eyes could be preserved, but the graft was rejected in all eyes. A semitransparent xenograft (XG) was achieved in 9 patients (33.3%). The best results were obtained after lamellar XKP with an XT diameter of 3.5 - 6.5 mm. Lamellar XTs with larger diameters (7.0 - 10.0 mm) were opaque. Postoperatively, the intensity of the inflammatory response after stepped XKP was slightly lower than that of the classical perforating XKP. A new KP with human corneas had to be performed in 5 patients, in one case combined with an antiglaucomatous operation and in another case with cataract extraction. Antiglaucomatous surgery had to be performed in 5 patients (15.6%). Conclusion In the absence of human donor corneas, a porcine keratoxenoimplant can be used as temporary therapeutic keratoplasty in case of emergency stop the inflammation process and to save the eye. In cases of keratoxenoimplant, a poor visual outcome is expected. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Visualization of porcine eye anatomy by X-ray microtomography. (United States)

    Leszczyński, Bartosz; Sojka-Leszczyńska, Paulina; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Wróbel, Andrzej; Pędrys, Roman


    The aim of our study is to obtain, as accurately as possible, porcine ocular tissue visualization using microtomography (micro-CT) method. We propose image contrast enhancement by different staining procedures with combination of micro-CT scanning. Porcine eye globes were investigated with Bruker-SkyScan 1172 micro-CT. We used 4F1G and Bouin's as sample fixation solutions and tincture of iodine, 100% Lugol, phosphotungstic acid and 1% osmium tetroxide solutions for staining. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed based on micro-CT reconstruction images histograms and 3D volume rendering models of investigated samples. This investigation showed that staining methods improved micro-CT image quality in case of ocular anatomy visualization. Characteristic profiles of the grey level distributions and quality of the cross-section and 3D volume rendering images confirmed the staining effect. Most significant contrast enhancement was obtained after 96 h staining in osmium tetroxide and Lugol solutions. The images of eye anatomical structures were characterized: cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, vitreous, retina, choroid and sclera, vasculature and optic nerve. Staining of porcine eye globes used in this work leads to quality improvement of the micro-CT imaging. The most contrast images were obtained for Lugol and osmium tetroxide solutions. Different affinity of staining solutions to eye anatomical structures has been observed in the obtained images. Osmium tetroxide provides sharper image of conjunctiva, sclera, choroid, retina, iris and ciliary body structure. Lugol staining leads to more accurate vessels, cornea and optic nerve imagining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification, characterization and immunolocalization of porcine surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.M.; Nielsen, Ove Lilholm; Willis, A.


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin believed to play an important role in innate immunity. SP-D is characterized by having a collagen-like domain and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), which has a specific Ca2+-dependent specificity for saccharides and thus the ability to bind complex...... mass to similar to24 000 MW and similar to48 000 MW respectively, in the reduced state. N-deglycosylation of the collagen-resistant fragment, reduced the molecular mass to similar to21 000 MW showing the presence of an N-glycosylation site located in the CRD. Porcine SP-D bound to solid-phase mannan...

  2. A novel strain of porcine deltacoronavirus in Vietnam. (United States)

    Le, Van Phan; Song, Sok; An, Byung-Hyun; Park, Gyu-Nam; Pham, Ngoc Thach; Le, Dinh Quyen; Nguyen, Van Tam; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Kim, Ki-Sun; Choe, SeEun; An, Dong-Jun


    Two porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) strains (Binh21 and HaNoi6) were isolated from two pig farms in North Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes and the Spike and Membrane genes revealed that the two Vietnam PDCoVs belong to the same lineage as PDCoVs from Thailand and Laos; however, the N genes belonged to the same lineage as PDCoVs from the USA, Korea, China, and Hong Kong. The recombination detection program subsequently identified the major parent (S5011 strain) and minor parent (HKU15-44 strain) of the two Vietnam PDCoV strains (p < 0.01).

  3. Efficacy of the porcine species in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina eGutierrez


    Full Text Available Since domestication, pigs have been used extensively in agriculture and kept as companion animals. More recently they have been used in biomedical research, given they share many physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Recent technological advances in assisted reproduction, somatic cell cloning, stem cell culture, genome editing and transgenesis now enable the creation of unique porcine models of human diseases. Here we highlight the potential applications and advantages of using pigs, particularly minipigs, as indispensable large animal models in fundamental and clinical research, including the development of therapeutics for inherited and chronic disorders, and cancers.

  4. Inactivation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus using heated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M. Zentkovich


    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV is a very contagious swine pathogen that spreads easily via the fecal-oral route, notably from contaminated fomites. The present study investigated heated water as a method for rapid thermal inactivation of PEDV. Cell-culture adapted PEDV was treated with water at varying temperatures and viral titers were measured at multiple time points post-treatment. Viable PEDV was not recovered after a ten second or longer treatment with water heated to ≥76 °C; however, PEDV nucleic acid was detected in all samples regardless of treatment. Hot water decontamination could be considered in settings where chemical disinfection is impractical.

  5. Heterotopic transplantation of a decellularized and recellularized whole porcine heart. (United States)

    Kitahara, Hiroto; Yagi, Hiroshi; Tajima, Kazuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Yoshitake, Akihiro; Aeba, Ryo; Kudo, Mikihiko; Kashima, Ichiro; Kawaguchi, Shinji; Hirano, Akinori; Kasai, Mio; Akamatsu, Yuta; Oka, Hidetoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimizu, Hideyuki


    One of the final treatments for end-stage heart failure is heart transplantation. However, a shortage of donor hearts has created a long waiting list and limited benefits. Our ultimate goal is to create a whole beating heart fabricated on an organ scaffold for human heart transplantation. Here, we successfully performed the first transplantation using a decellularized whole porcine heart with mesenchymal stem cells. A porcine heart was harvested following cardiac arrest induced by a high-potassium solution and stored at -80°C for 24 h. The porcine heart was completely decellularized with 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate and 1% Triton X-100 under the control of perfusion pressure (100 mmHg) and maintained at 37°C. A decellularized whole-heart scaffold was sterilized with gamma irradiation. Cultured mesenchymal stem cells were collected and either infused into the ascending aorta or injected directly into the left ventricular wall. Finally, recellularized whole-heart scaffolds were transplanted into pigs under systemic anticoagulation treatment with heparin. Coronary artery angiography of the transplanted heart graft was performed. In our decellularization method, all cellular components were removed, preserving the heart extracellular matrix. Heterotopic transplantations were successfully performed using a decellularized heart and a recellularized heart. The scaffolds were well perfused, without bleeding from the surface or anastomosis site. Coronary angiography revealed a patent coronary artery in both scaffolds. The transplanted decellularized heart was harvested on Day 3. Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed thrombosis in the coronary arteries and migrated inflammatory cells. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of the transplanted recellularized heart showed similar findings, with the exception of injected mesenchymal stem cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of heterotopic transplantation of a decellularized whole porcine heart with

  6. [Porcine proliferative enteropathy in feeders and breeder sows]. (United States)

    Ehrlein, J; Breuer, W; Heinritzi, K; Hermanns, W


    Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) was recognized as an important economic factor in pig production. In the following, three cases of PPE in pigs presented for necropsy are discussed. The animals were raised in a stud stock and a weaning production facility in Bavaria. The clinical signs described in the history indicated a herd problem with hemorrhagic diarrhoea and paleness being the cardinal signs. The diagnosis was based upon gross and histopathological findings and was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The different types of manifestation of the disease seen in the two production facilities are discussed in the context of the current literature on etiology and pathogenesis.

  7. An atypical porcine proliferative enteropathy of malgrowth piglets. (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Masuo; Arikawa, Akinobu; Uemura, Ryoko; Nakamori, Kentaro; Nagatomo, Hiroshi


    Two 60-day-old pigs showing clinical signs of malgrowth and diarrhea were diagnosed as atypical porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE). The intestinal mucosal lesions in the piglets were characterized by the adenomatous proliferation of the crypt epithelium together with growth of small curved bacteria within the enterocytes. The lesions could be seen in the ileum and other portions of the intestine histologically, although no significant thickening of the gut wall could be observed grossly in the present case. The macroscopic findings are extremely important for the diagnosis of PPE, however, this paper shows that the histopathological and/or immunohistochemical findings were also critical to identify the disease.

  8. Whole genome analysis provides evidence for porcine-to-simian interspecies transmission of rotavirus-A. (United States)

    Navarro, Ryan; Aung, Meiji Soe; Cruz, Katalina; Ketzis, Jennifer; Gallagher, Christa Ann; Beierschmitt, Amy; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Ghosh, Souvik


    We report here whole genome analysis of a porcine rotavirus-A (RVA) strain RVA/Pig-wt/KNA/ET8B/2015/G5P[13] detected in a diarrheic piglet, and nearly whole genome (except for VP4 gene) analysis of a simian RVA strain RVA/Simian-wt/KNA/08979/2015/G5P[X] detected in a non-diarrheic African green monkey (AGM) on the island of St. Kitts, Caribbean region. Strain ET8B exhibited a G5-P[13]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1 genotype constellation that was identical to those of Brazilian porcine RVA G5P[13] strains RVA/Pig-wt/BRA/ROTA01/2013/G5P[13] and RVA/Pig-wt/BRA/ROTA07/2013/G5P[13], the only porcine G5P[13] RVAs that have been analyzed for the whole genome so far. Phylogenetically, all the 11 gene segments of ET8B were closely related to those of porcine and porcine-like human RVAs within the respective genotypes. Although the porcine G5P[13] RVAs exhibited identical genotype constellations, ET8B did not appear to share common evolutionary pathways with the Brazilian porcine G5P[13] RVAs. Interestingly, the VP2, VP3, VP6, VP7, and NSP1-NSP5 genes of simian RVA strain 08979 were closely related to those of porcine and porcine-like human RVA strains, exhibiting 99%-100% nucleotide sequence identities to cognate genes of co-circulating porcine RVA strain ET8B. On the other hand, the VP1 of 08979 appeared to be genetically divergent from porcine and human RVAs within the R1 genotype, and its exact origin could not be ascertained. Taken together, these observations suggested that simian strain 08979 might have been derived from interspecies transmission events involving transmission of ET8B-like RVAs from pigs to AGMs. In St. Kitts, AGMs often stray from the wild into livestock farms. Therefore, it may be possible that the AGM acquired the infection from a pig farm on the island. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection of porcine-like RVAs in monkeys. Also, the present study is the first to report whole genomic analysis of a porcine RVA strain from the Caribbean

  9. Research on the Relationship Between the Degree of European Corn Borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbn. Attack and Maize Fusariosis (Fusarium spp. at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria VĂLEAN


    Full Text Available The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübn., which is found almost universally in Europe and America, is an extremely important pest from economic point of view (Szőke et al., 2005. European corn borer larvae cause physical injuries to stalks and ears, and promote infections with Fusarium, by carrying the fungus spores from the plant surface to the surfaces of damaged kernels or to the interior of stalks, where infection occurs (Czembor, 2015. On account of the fact that between Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. and Fusarium spp. there is a strong connection, and their presence lead to lower maize production, it’s purposed is reducing the corn borer attack, but also the occurrence of maize fusariosis, by applying treatments to the vegetation. The research was carried out at ARDS Turda, in the period 2014-2015 as a bifactorial experience, in which were performed two treatments on growing period, with insecticides, using the products: Avaunt 250 ml/ha (s.a. indoxacarb, Coragen 250 ml/ha (s.a. chlorantraniliprol, Proteus 400 ml/ha (s.a. tiacloprid + deltametrin, Calypso 150 ml/ha (s.a. tiacloprid and Confidor 400 ml/ha (s.a. imidacloprid + deltametrin, and the biological material was used Turda 165 hybrid. Amid the climatic conditions in the two experimental years (2014-2015, regarding the frecquency attack of the Ostrinia nubilalis, 2015 proved to be a very favorable year for this pest, and by applying treatments to the vegetation, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. and Fusarium spp. attack has been reduced very significant. In order to combat the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. chemically, are recommended products based on: chlorantraniliprol and tiacloprid+deltametrin.

  10. Defining the Pseudomonas Genus: Where Do We Draw the Line with Azotobacter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özen, Asli Ismihan; Ussery, David


    genome family trees based on conserved gene families also show A. vinelandii to be more closely related to Pseudomonas than other related organisms. Third, exhaustive BLAST comparisons demonstrate that the fraction of shared genes between A. vinelandii and Pseudomonas genomes is similar...... using three genomic sequence-based methods. First, using 16S rRNA trees, it is shown that A. vinelandii groups within the Pseudomonas close to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genomes from other related organisms (Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Cellvibrio) are outside the Pseudomonas cluster. Second, pan...

  11. Seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Aujeszky's disease, and porcine parvovirus in replacement gilts in Thailand. (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod


    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in replacement gilts from selected five swine herds in Thailand. The study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective data analysis on the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ADV glycoprotein I (gI) in gilts, sows, boars, nursery, and fattening pigs in five herds (n = 7,030). Second, a cross-sectional study on seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV (n = 200) in replacement gilts. Last, the seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV in gilts culled due to reproductive failure (n = 166). Across the herds, the seroprevalence of PRRSV and ADV was 79.3% and 5.3%, respectively. The cross-sectional study revealed that 87.5%, 4.0%, and 99.0% of the replacement gilts were infected with PRRSV, ADV, and PPV, respectively. In the gilts culled due to reproductive failure, the seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV was 73.5%, 28.3%, and 86.0%, respectively. Of these culled gilts, 75.5% had been infected with at least two viruses and 18.9% had been infected with all three viruses. It could be concluded that most of the replacement gilts were exposed to PRRSV (84%), PPV (97%), and ADV (4%) before entering the breeding house. PPV was an enzootic disease among the selected herds. The prevalence of ADV was higher in gilts culled due to reproductive disturbance than in the healthy gilts.

  12. Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in surgical units of Ahmadu Bello University teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria: An ... The antibiotic susceptibility of isolates and a standard strain to ceftazidime, amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin and perfloxacin was determined by the ...

  13. Utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas sp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenotype was not transformed to Pseudomonas by conjugation even with lysozyme treatment, however the petroleum oil and octadecane utilization were transformed to E. coli by lysozyme treatment. The transformed E. coli lost the ability to use octadecane after three subcultures on nutrient broth and 34 generations.

  14. Genomic and metabolic characterization of spoilage-associated Pseudomonas species. (United States)

    Stanborough, Tamsyn; Fegan, Narelle; Powell, Shane M; Singh, Tanoj; Tamplin, Mark; Chandry, P Scott


    Pseudomonas are common spoilage agents of aerobically stored fresh foods. Their ability to cause spoilage is species- and may be strain-specific. To improve our understanding of the meat and milk spoilage agents Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas lundensis, we sequenced the genomes of 12 P. fragi and seven P. lundensis isolates. These genomes provided a dataset for genomic analyses. Key volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced or metabolised by the isolates were determined during their growth on a beef paste and where possible, metabolic activity was associated with gene repertoire. Genome analyses showed that the isolates included in this work may belong to more than two Pseudomonas species with possible spoilage potential. Pan-genome analyses demonstrated a high degree of diversity among the P. fragi and genetic flexibility and diversity may be traits of both species. Growth of the P. lundensis isolates was characterised by the production of large amounts of 1-undecene, 5-methyl-2-hexanone and methyl-2-butenoic acid. P. fragi isolates produced extensive amounts of methyl and ethyl acetate and the production of methyl esters predominated over ethyl esters. Some of the P. fragi produced extremely low levels of VOCs, highlighting the importance of strain-specific studies in food matrices. Furthermore, although usually not considered to be denitrifiers, all isolates generated molecular nitrogen, indicating that at least some steps of this pathway are intact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elastase Deficiency Phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Canine Otitis Externa Isolates


    Petermann, Shana R.; Doetkott, Curt; Rust, Lynn


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates were assayed for elastase and total matrix protease activity. The elastase activity of canine ear isolates was much less than that of strain PAO1 and that of all other veterinary isolates (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that canine ear isolates have a distinct elastase phenotype.

  16. An update on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, tolerance, and dispersal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Morten; Yang, Liang; Pamp, Sünje Johanna


    We review the recent advances in the understanding of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lifestyle from studies using in vitro laboratory setups such as flow chambers and microtiter trays. Recent work sheds light on the role of nutrients, motility, and quorum sensing in structure formation in P. ...

  17. extracts of senna siamea (lam) on pseudomonas aeruginosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 30, 2009 ... convulsion in children (Alli – Smith, 2009). In an attempt to rationally identify which pathogen to screen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was epidemiologically identified as the hardiest bacterium that constitutes problems to researchers and clinicians. As literature showed, the hardy nature of Ps aeruginosa is ...

  18. Biological production of monoethanolamine by engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foti, M.J.; Médici, R.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.


    Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered for the production of monoethanolamine (MEA) from glucose via the decarboxylation of the central metabolite l-serine, which is catalyzed by the enzyme l-serine decarboxylase (SDC).The host was first evaluated for its tolerance towards MEA as well as its

  19. an tibiotic resistance trend of pseudomonas aeruginosa'in port

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN TIBIOTIC RESISTANCE TREND OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA'IN PORT. HARCOURT oaursca. 0. K}. ONYEJEPU, N 1. 1. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology. University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Port Harcourt. 2. Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. 6 Edmond Crescent, Yabl. Lagos.

  20. Secretion of elastinolytic enzymes and their propeptides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, P; de Groot, A; Bitter, W; Tommassen, J

    Elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is synthesized as a preproenzyme. The signal sequence is cleaved ol during transport across the inner membrane and, in the periplasm, proelastase is further processed. We demonstrate that the propeptide and the mature elastase are both secreted but that the

  1. Induction of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Jensen, E T; Høiby, N


    Imipenem induced high levels of beta-lactamase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Piperacillin also induced beta-lactamase production in these biofilms but to a lesser degree. The combination of beta-lactamase production with other protective properties of the biofilm mode of growth...

  2. The cytotoxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa : Cytotoxicity requires proteolytic activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlik-Eisel, Gabriele; Lutz, Frieder; Henschen, Agnes; Eisel, Ulrich; Struckmeier, Martin; Kräuter, Josef; Niemann, Heiner

    The primary structure of a cytotoxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined by sequencing of the structural gene. The cytotoxin (31,700 Mr) lacks an N-terminal signal sequence for bacterial secretion but contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence commonly found in prokaryotic proteins which

  3. Heavy Metal uptake Potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uptake of heavy metals, silver and cadmium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a Gram negative bacterium) and Micrococcus luteus (a Gram positive bacterium) was investigated in Cadmium and Silver stock solution using ion selective electrodes. Silver and cadmium uptake by the two organisms was described by Langmuir ...

  4. Dechlorination of 1,2– dichloroethane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our attempt at isolating and stocking some indigenous microbial species, we isolated a bacterium from a waste dumpsite with appreciable dechlorination activity. 16S rDNA profiling revealed the isolate to be a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the sequence has been deposited in the NCBI nucleotide ...

  5. Antibiotic sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of 229 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated between June 1998 and May 2000 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu was studied. The isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens by culturing on standard media viz: blood agar, ...

  6. Rhamnolipid stimulates uptake of hydrophobic compounds by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, WH; Janssen, DB

    The biodegradation of hexadecane by five biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG1, Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43066, R. erythropolis ATCC 19558, and strain BCG112) was determined in the presence and absence of exogenously added

  7. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    degrading microorganisms in oil-polluted site. (Atlas, 1981). Crude oil biodegradation can occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (Zengler et al., 1999). This research was aimed at investigating the effects of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and. Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of gallium resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Contreras, R; Lira-Silva, E; Jasso-Chávez, R; Hernández-González, I.L.; Maeda, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Boogerd, F.C.; Sheng, L; Wood, TK; Moreno-Sánchez, R


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 cells resistant to the novel antimicrobial gallium nitrate (Ga) were developed using transposon mutagenesis and by selecting spontaneous mutants. The mutants showing the highest growth in the presence of Ga were selected for further characterization. These mutants showed

  9. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Z.; Horská, K.; Kim, S.-R.; Lee, Ch.-H.; Pospíšková, K.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo


    Roč. 73, č. 9 (2016), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biofilm * food waste materials * magnetic spent grain * Pseudomonas aeruginosa Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.197, year: 2016

  10. Characterization of Pseudomonas species causing brown blotch of Agaricus bisporis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Hendriks, M.J.A.; Baars, J.J.P.; Amsing, J.G.M.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Warris, S.


    Bacterial blotch is occasionally causing damage in the production of common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The disease is found worldwide and can be caused by different fluorescent Pseudomonas species present in casing material. For identification of the causative agents of blotch in the Netherlands

  11. dichloroethane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OK1 isolated from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    chlorinated organics such as monochloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, dichloromethane, trichloromethane and tetrachloromethane at pH 7.5 and 9.0. Optimum temperature for dehalogenase activity against 1, 2 – DCE was 35oC. Key words: Dechlorination, 16S rDNA, bioremediation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa OK1.

  12. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  13. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  14. Screening of thermophilic neutral lipase-producing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From oil-contaminated soil, three lipase-producing microorganisms were selected as good lipase producers using rhodamine B-olive oil plate agar and they were identified as from Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Klebsiella genera by morphology, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the ...

  15. Enhanced alpha-galactosidase expression in pseudomonas chlororaphis (United States)

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis is a non-pathogenic bacterium useful for fermentative production of biopolymer (i.e., poly(hydroxyalkanoates); PHA) and biosurfactant (i.e., rhamnolipid; RhL). In order to enable P. chlororaphis to better fermentatively utilize the residual soy sugars in soy molasses – a lo...

  16. Effect of biosurfactant from two strains of Pseudomonas on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Pseudomonas strains isolated from oil-contaminated soil which produce biosurfactant were studied. The biosurfactant containing broth formed stable emulsions with liquid light paraffin, cooking medium vegetable oil and toluene. The strains under study produce extra cellular biosurfactant in the culture media.

  17. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chitinase, a Gradually Secreted Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folders, J. (Jindra); Algra, J. (Jon); Roelofs, M.S. (Marc); Loon, L.C. van; Tommassen, J.P.M.; Bitter, Wilbert


    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes many proteins into its extracellular environment via the type I, II, and III secretion systems. In this study, a gene, chiC, coding for an extracellular chitinolytic enzyme, was identified. The chiC gene encodes a polypeptide of 483 amino

  18. Effect of alternating and direct currents on Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2010 ... studies must be done so as to reach optimum voltage and currents. The test media were Muller-Hinton agar and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar. In this research Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was isolated from patients׳ wounds was examined with levels of alternating and direct current (AC and DC).

  19. Effect of alternating and direct currents on Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was isolated from patients wounds was examined with levels of alternating and direct current (AC and DC) electrical stimulation (1.5V, 3.5V, 5.5V and 10V) to see if these currents could inhibit P. aeruginosa growth in vitro. The experiment was performed in two forms: The first ...

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection in a dedicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a major cause of morbidity in burns patients. There is a paucity of publications dealing with this infection in the paediatric population. We describe the incidence, microbiology and impact of P. aeruginosa infection in a dedicated paediatric burns unit. Methods.

  1. Utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas sp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pseudomonas isolated from a petroleum-contaminated soil was instable. In this work, t is shown that when the isolates are immobilized on Perlite, they are more stable for oil egradation. Although the isolate did not have any chemotaxis to ...

  2. High Temperature Induced Antibiotic Sensitivity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)


    aeruginosa ATCC 9027 was maintained on Pseudomonas P agar slants (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI.). The organism was cultivated at 37°C or 46°C in a proteose...Studies on the permeability change produced in coliform bacteria by ethylene diamine tetracetate. J. Biol. Chem. 243: 2372 - 2380. 7. 9. Lowry, O.H., N.J

  3. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas resistant to heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas resistant to heavy metals and poly aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Persian Gulf sediments. ... Among 10 bacterial species isolated from marine sediment, one strain represented high potential to grow in medium supplemented with copper and phenanthrene. Isolated ...

  4. The Transcriptional Landscape of the Production Organism Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arrigo, Isotta

    Bacterial cell factories represent a valid alternative to fossil fuel-based production. A promising bacterium that can be optimized as cell factory is Pseudomonas putida. However, its development in bioproduction applications poses some challenges including a clear understanding of the bacterial ...

  5. Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification is rapid, highly sensitive and specifically developed method for detection of bacterial infections. AprX gene for alkaline metalloprotease of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used to design four primers and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) conditions were standardized for ...

  6. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.


    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed

  7. Characterization of the chlorate reductase from Pseudomonas chloritidismutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.; Schiltz, E.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Hagen, W.R.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Stams, A.J.M.


    A chlorate reductase has been purified from the chlorate-reducing strain Pseudomonas chloritidismutans. Comparison with the periplasmic (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1 showed that the cytoplasmic chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reduced only chlorate and bromate. Differences were

  8. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas , Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  9. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  10. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic ...

  11. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices of Pseudomonas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objectives: Pseudomonas and Klebsiella infections are important nosocomial infections because of the attendant significant morbidity, mortality and socio-economic impact. These infections are difficult to treat due to the innate and acquired resistance mediated by the organisms' genome and other transferable ...

  12. Production of a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant by Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work herewith investigated the effect of the culture medium composition on rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBM10, previously isolated from an estuarine environment in Southern Brazil. Experimental design and surface response methodology were used in order to improve biosurfactant ...

  13. Isolation, purification and properties of lipase from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 26, 2012 ... Isolate Ps5 showed the highest lipase activity which was later identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effect of ..... Identification and characterization of a locally isolated lipolytic microfungus Geotrichum candidum. Malaysian J. Microbiol. 2: 22-29. Martinelle M, Hult K (1995).Kinetics of acyl transfer ...

  14. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods]. (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia


    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  15. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas putida WLY for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The azoreductase produced by P. putida WLY was extracellular and induced according to electrophoresis experiments and decolorization tests. After purification by ion exchange and gel chromatography, its molecular weight was estimated to be 28,000 Da by SDS-PAGE. Key words: Pseudomonas putida; reactive brilliant ...

  16. Isolation, purification and properties of lipase from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six isolates (Ps1, Ps2, Ps3, Ps4, Ps5 and Ps6) producing lipase were screened from wastewater on a selective medium agar containing Tween 80 or olive oil as the only source of carbon. Isolate Ps5 showed the highest lipase activity which was later identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effect of media composition ...

  17. Isolation and molecular characterization of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its endocrine effects in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Bersani, M; Schmidt, P


    was found in the two tissues. The adrenal peptide was sequenced and found to differ from human alpha-CGRP at six positions and from human beta-CGRP at three positions. By immunohistochemistry, CGRP was found in nerve fibers in the pancreatic ganglia. A synthetic replica of the porcine peptide was infused...... significantly by 10(-8) M CGRP. In immunoneutralization studies (n = 6) using a high-affinity somatostatin antibody, the inhibitory effect of CGRP at 10(-8) M was reversed to a significant stimulation of insulin and glucagon secretion. Insulin secretion in response to square-wave increases in glucose...

  18. Bovine and porcine heparins: different drugs with similar effects on human haemodialysis (United States)


    Background Heparins from porcine and bovine intestinal mucosa differ in their structure and also in their effects on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. However, they are used as undistinguishable drugs. Methods We compared bovine and porcine intestinal heparin administered to patients undergoing a particular protocol of haemodialysis. We compared plasma concentrations of these two drugs and also evaluated how they affect patients and the dialyzer used. Results Compared with porcine heparin, bovine heparin achieved only 76% of the maximum plasma concentration as IU mL-1. This observation is consistent with the activities observed in the respective pharmaceutical preparations. When the plasma concentrations were expressed on weight basis, bovine heparin achieved a maximum concentration 1.5 fold higher than porcine heparin. The reduced anticoagulant activity and higher concentration, on weight basis, achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer used. The heparin dose is still in a range, which confers security and safety to the patients. Discussion Despite no apparent difference between bovine and porcine intestinal heparins in the haemodialysis practice, these two types of heparins should be used as distinct drugs due to their differences in structure and biological effects. Conclusions The reduced anticoagulant activity achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer. PMID:23763719

  19. Anatomy and bronchoscopy of the porcine lung. A model for translational respiratory medicine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P


    The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model was overcome with the successful generation of gene-targeted pigs and the publication of the pig genome. As a result, the role of this model is likely to become even more important. For the respiratory medicine field, the similarities between pig and human lungs give the porcine model particular potential for advancing translational medicine. An increasing number of lung conditions are being studied and modeled in the pig. Genetically modified porcine models of cystic fibrosis have been generated that, unlike mouse models, develop lung disease similar to human cystic fibrosis. However, the scientific literature relating specifically to porcine lung anatomy and airway histology is limited and is largely restricted to veterinary literature and textbooks. Furthermore, methods for in vivo lung procedures in the pig are rarely described. The aims of this review are to collate the disparate literature on porcine lung anatomy, histology, and microbiology; to provide a comparison with the human lung; and to describe appropriate bronchoscopy procedures for the pig lungs to aid clinical researchers working in the area of translational respiratory medicine using the porcine model.

  20. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging. (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit


    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  1. Interaction between fish spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas sp and Shewanella putrefaciens in fish extracts and on fish tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette


    , supernatant fluids from siderophore- negative Pseudomonas isolates did not inhibit growth of S. putrefaciens. The inhibitory effect was, except for one strain of Pseudomonas, not seen in supernatant fluids from iron- enriched cultures of Pseudomonas sp. Finally, siderophore- producing Pseudomonas sp. lowered...

  2. Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil. (United States)

    Toro, Marcia; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro


    We isolated a bacterial strain designated PCAVU11(T) in the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in rhizospheric soil of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Guárico state, Venezuela. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.2 % sequence similarity with respect to the most closely related species, Pseudomonas taiwanensis, and 99.1 % with respect to Pseudomonas entomophila, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Pseudomonas monteilii, on the basis of which PCAVU11(T) was classified as representing a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation and showed sequence similarities lower than 95 % in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Strain PCAVU11(T) showed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0 (25.7 %), 18 : 1ω7c (20.4 %), 17 : 0 cyclo (11.5 %) and 16 : 1ω7c/15 : 0 iso 2-OH in summed feature 3 (10.8 %). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, the arginine dihydrolase system was present but nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. Strain PCAVU11(T) grew at 44 °C and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 61.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 56 % relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain PCAVU11(T) as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, which we propose to name Pseudomonas guariconensis sp. nov. The type strain is PCAVU11(T) ( = LMG 27394(T) = CECT 8262(T)).

  3. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements (United States)

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui


    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  4. Barrier Functionality of Porcine and Bovine Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Nakhlband


    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, isolated cell based blood-brain barrier (BBB models have been widely used for brain drug delivery and targeting, due to their relatively proper bioelectrical and permeability properties. However, primary cultures of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs isolated from different species vary in terms of bioelectrical and permeability properties. Methods: To pursue this, in the current investigation, primary porcine and bovine BCECs (PBCECs and BBCECs, respectively were isolated and used as an in vitro BBB model. The bioelectrical and permeability properties were assessed in BCECs co-cultured with C6 cells with/without hydrocortisone (550 nM. The bioelectrical properties were further validated by means of the permeability coefficients of transcellular and paracellular markers. Results: The primary PBCECs displayed significantly higher trans-endothelial electrical resistance (~900 W.cm2 than BBCECs (~700 W.cm2 - both co-cultured with C6 cells in presence of hydrocortisone. Permeability coefficients of propranolol/diazepam and mannitol/sucrose in PBCECs were ~21 and ~2 (×10-6 cm.sec-1, where these values for BBCECs were ~25 and ~5 (×10-6 cm.sec-1. Conclusion: Upon our bioelectrical and permeability findings, both models display discriminative barrier functionality but porcine BCECs seem to provide a better platform than bovine BCECs for drug screening and brain targeting.

  5. Molecular detection of porcine enteric caliciviruses in Venezuelan farms. (United States)

    Martínez, Mindre A; Alcalá, Ana C; Carruyo, Gabriela; Botero, Ligia; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E


    Caliciviruses are a well-established cause of respiratory, vesicular and hemorrhagic diseases in animals. In addition, these viruses are an important cause of enteric diseases in humans. Recently, molecular analysis of several porcine enteric caliciviruses indicated that they are closely related to human enteric caliciviruses. The objective of this work was to determine the frequency, age distribution, and association with diarrhea of enteric calicivirus infections in piglets and to partially characterize the detected isolates. A total of 203 stool samples from animals 0 to 9 weeks of age, collected between 1993 and 2003 in seven porcine farms located in the central region of Venezuela were tested for enteric caliciviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification using primers designed to detect both norovirus and sapovirus. Selected amplicons were sequenced to establish phylogenetic relationships with reference strains. Calicivirus were detected in 18% (36/204) of the samples. Viruses were detected more frequently in animals between 3 and 4 weeks of age, and were detected in samples from animals with diarrhea and without diarrhea with equal frequencies (14 versus 19%, p>0.5). Phylogenetic studies based on partial RNA polymerase gene sequences indicated that the Venezuelan isolates were most closely related (75-95% identity) to the sapovirus Cowden reference strain. These results provide evidence that caliciviruses of the genus sapovirus circulate frequently in piglets but further studies are needed to clarify their importance as cause of diarrhea.

  6. Ultrastructural changes in porcine mammary tissue during lactogenesis. (United States)

    Kensinger, R S; Collier, R J; Bazer, F W


    Ultrastructural changes occurring in porcine mammary tissue were characterised between Day 90 of pregnancy and Day 4 of lactation. Porcine mammary tissue on Day 90 of pregnancy was composed of alveoli which contained negligible to moderate amounts of secretion. Epithelial cells of these alveoli were relatively undifferentiated. The appearance and distribution of cellular organelles suggested that mammary epithelial differentiation had been initiated by Day 105 of pregnancy in the pig. A further increase in intracellular lipid droplets and granular endoplasmic reticulum suggested that differentiation had progressed by Day 112. On the day of parturition, secretions within the alveolar lumina assumed the appearance of normal milk (as opposed to colostrum) and the epithelia displayed a distinct cellular polarity characteristic of lactating mammary tissue. By Day 4 of lactation, differentiation of epithelial cells appeared to be complete, with dilated cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and with numerous secretory vesicles. Elongated microvilli were present and numerous cells contained lipid droplets which were being extruded into the lumina. Data from this and previous studies indicate that lactogenesis in the pig occurs in two stages. Stage 1 occurs between Days 90 and 105 of pregnancy, and Stage 2 between Days 112 of pregnancy and early lactation when the predominant feature is active milk secretion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3429308

  7. Preparation and Biomechanical Properties of an Acellular Porcine Corneal Stroma. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Hongmei; Dai, Zhenye; Cao, Yichen; Jin, Chuanyu


    To construct an acellular porcine corneal stroma (aPCS) as a human corneal stroma alternative and to further explore its biomechanical properties. A combination of DNA-RNA enzymes and ultrasound technology was used to strip the native porcine corneal cells. The microstructure of aPCS was observed by H&E staining, DAPI staining, and α-Gal tests. The mechanical properties were detected by a tension machine. Cytotoxicity of aPCS was measured by the MTT assay. The subcutaneous embedding experiment in rats was also used to detect immunity and degradation. The aPCS was transplanted into the rabbit cornea by lamellar keratoplasty, general observations were made at 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after implantation, respectively. The microstructure and mechanical properties of aPCS were not damaged during the decellularization process. The aPCS extracts had no significant cytotoxicity on human corneal stroma cells. Moreover, the subcutaneous embedding experiment in rats demonstrated that aPCS could not be degraded and induced no immune reaction in and around the transplanted discs. More important is that the aPCS reconstructed normal corneal stroma and maintained corneal transparency and thickness, with almost no neovascularization and inflammation at 3 months after surgery. The aPCS prepared in this study had good biocompatibility, safety, and low antigenicity, which has great potential for corneal disease treatment.

  8. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Quan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoVs are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Some porcine NoVs are genetically similar to human strains and are classified into GII, like most epidemic human NoVs. So far, PoNoV have been exclusively detected in fecal samples of adult pig without clinical signs. Results Result showed that 2 of the 12 evaluated fecal samples were positive for PoNoVs, one of which was positive for PoNoV alone, and the other was coinfected with porcine circovirus and PoNoV. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis showed that the PoNoV positive alone strain was a recombinant new genotype strain. Experimental infection of miniature pigs with fecal suspensions confirmed that this strain can cause gastroenteritis in piglets. Conclusion This is the first report that recombinant new genotype PoNoV exised in pig herd of China, which cause diarrhea in pigs in nature condition. This find raised questions about the putative epidemiologic role of PoNoV.

  9. Frequency of Aneuploidy Related to Age in Porcine Oocytes (United States)

    Musilova, Petra; Pavlok, Antonin; Kubelka, Michal; Motlik, Jan; Rubes, Jiri; Anger, Martin


    It is generally accepted that mammalian oocytes are frequently suffering from chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I, which have severe consequences, including pregnancy loss, developmental disorders and mental retardation. In a search for physiologically more relevant model than rodent oocytes to study this phenomenon, we have employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), combined with whole genome amplification (WGA), to study the frequency of aneuploidy in porcine oocytes, including rare cells obtained from aged animals. Using this method, we were able to analyze segregation pattern of each individual chromosome during meiosis I. In contrast to the previous reports where conventional methods, such as chromosome spreads or FISH, were used to estimate frequency of aneuploidy, our results presented here show, that the frequency of this phenomenon was overestimated in porcine oocytes. Surprisingly, despite the results from human and mouse showing an increase in the frequency of aneuploidy with advanced maternal age, our results obtained by the most accurate method currently available for scoring the aneuploidy in oocytes indicated no increase in the frequency of aneuploidy even in oocytes from animals, whose age was close to the life expectancy of the breed. PMID:21556143

  10. Inhibition of budding/release of porcine endogenous retrovirus. (United States)

    Abe, Masumi; Fukuma, Aiko; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Yasuda, Jiro


    PERV is integrated into the genome of all pigs. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic and can productively infect human cell lines, whereas PERV-C is ecotropic. Recombinant PERV-A/C can infect human cells and exhibits high titer replication. Therefore, use of pigs for human xenotransplantation raises concerns about the risks of transfer of this infectious agent from donors to xenotransplantation recipients. To establish strategies to inhibit PERV production from cells, in the present study, we investigated the mechanism of PERV budding and anti-PERV activity of Tetherin/BST-2. The results showed that DN mutants of WWP-2, Tsg101, and Vps4A/B markedly reduced PERV production in human and porcine cell lines, suggesting that PERV budding uses these cellular factors and the cellular MVB sorting pathway as well as many other retroviruses. Moreover, PERV production was also reduced by human and porcine Tetherin/BST-2. These data are useful for developing strategies to inhibit PERV production and may reduce the risk of PERV infection in xenotransplantation. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Infection Barriers to Successful Xenotransplantation Focusing on Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (United States)

    Tönjes, Ralf R.


    Summary: Xenotransplantation may be a solution to overcome the shortage of organs for the treatment of patients with organ failure, but it may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms and the development of xenozoonoses. Whereas most microorganisms may be eliminated by pathogen-free breeding of the donor animals, porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) cannot be eliminated, since these are integrated into the genomes of all pigs. Human-tropic PERV-A and -B are present in all pigs and are able to infect human cells. Infection of ecotropic PERV-C is limited to pig cells. PERVs may adapt to host cells by varying the number of LTR-binding transcription factor binding sites. Like all retroviruses, they may induce tumors and/or immunodeficiencies. To date, all experimental, preclinical, and clinical xenotransplantations using pig cells, tissues, and organs have not shown transmission of PERV. Highly sensitive and specific methods have been developed to analyze the PERV status of donor pigs and to monitor recipients for PERV infection. Strategies have been developed to prevent PERV transmission, including selection of PERV-C-negative, low-producer pigs, generation of an effective vaccine, selection of effective antiretrovirals, and generation of animals transgenic for a PERV-specific short hairpin RNA inhibiting PERV expression by RNA interference. PMID:22491774

  12. Porcine brain natriuretic peptide receptor in bovine adrenal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Ohashi, M.; Takayanagi, R.; Haji, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nawata, H.


    The action of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP) on the steroidogenesis was investigated in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Porcine BNP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of both ACTH- and A II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. 10/sup /minus/8/M and 10/sup /minus/7/M pBNP also significantly inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretions. Binding studies of (/sup 125/I)-pBNP to bovine adrenocortical membrane fractions showed that adrenal cortex had high-affinity and low-capacity pBNP binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.70 x 10/sup /minus/10/M and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 19.9 fmol/mg protein. Finally, the 135 Kd radioactive band was specially visualized in the affinity labeling of bovine adrenal cortex with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). These results suggest that pBNP may have receptor-mediated suppressive actions on bovine adrenal steroidogenesis, similar to that in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

  13. Simulations of Porcine Eye Exposure to Primary Blast Insult. (United States)

    Watson, Richard; Gray, Walt; Sponsel, William E; Lund, Brian J; Glickman, Randolph D; Groth, Sylvia L; Reilly, Matthew A


    A computational model of the porcine eye was developed to simulate primary blast exposure. This model facilitates understanding of blast-induced injury mechanisms. A computational model of the porcine eye was used to simulate the effects of primary blast loading for comparison with experimental findings from shock tube experiments. The eye model was exposed to overpressure-time histories measured during physical experiments. Deformations and mechanical stresses within various ocular tissues were then examined for correlation with pathological findings in the experiments. Stresses and strains experienced in the eye during a primary blast event increase as the severity of the blast exposure increases. Peak stresses in the model occurred in locations in which damage was most often observed in the physical experiments. Blast injuries to the anterior chamber may be due to inertial displacement of the lens and ciliary body while posterior damage may arise due to contrecoup interactions of the vitreous and retina. Correlation of modeling predictions with physical experiments lends confidence that the model accurately represents the conditions found in the physical experiments. This computational model offers insights into the mechanisms of ocular injuries arising due to primary blast and may be used to simulate the effects of new protective eyewear designs.

  14. A porcine model system of BRCA1 driven breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff eClark


    Full Text Available BRCA1 is a breast and ovarian tumor suppressor. Hereditary mutations in BRCA1 result in a predisposition to breast cancer, and BRCA1 expression is down-regulated in ~30% of sporadic cases. The function of BRCA1 remains poorly understood, but it appears to play an important role in DNA repair and the maintenance of genetic stability. Mouse models of BRCA1 deficiency have been developed in an attempt to understand the role of the gene in vivo. However, the subtle nature of BRCA1 function and the well-known discrepancies between human and murine breast cancer biology and genetics may limit the utility of mouse systems in defining the function of BRCA1 in cancer and validating the development of novel therapeutics for breast cancer. In contrast to mice, pig biological systems and cancer genetics appear to more closely resemble their human counterparts. To determine if BRCA1 inactivation in pig cells promotes their transformation and may serve as a model for the human disease, we developed an immortalized porcine breast cell line and stably inactivated BRCA1 using miRNA. The cell line developed characteristics of breast cancer stem cells and exhibited a transformed phenotype. These results validate the concept of using pigs as a model to study BRCA1 defects in breast cancer and establish the first porcine breast tumor cell line.

  15. Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors in The Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arss Secka


    Full Text Available During a stratified cross-sectional survey, 1705 pigs were sampled from 279 randomly selected households, 63 randomly selected communities and villages, from four study areas in The Gambia and Senegal during the period October 2007 to January 2008. Porcine cysticercosis prevalence detected by tongue inspection at animal level per study area ranged from 0.1% to 1.0%. Using an antigen-detection ELISA the seroprevalence of cysticercosis at both community/village and animal levels for the four selected study areas is: Western region 80.0% (95%CI: 52.4%–93.6% and 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4%–6.5%, Bignona 86.7% (95%CI: 59.8%–96.6% and 8.9% (95%CI: 5.0%–15.5%, Kolda 82.4% (95%CI: 46.8%–96.1% and 13.2% (95%CI: 10.8%–16.0%, and Ziguinchor 81.3% (95%CI: 43.5%–96.1% and 6.4% (95%CI: 4.0%–10.1%, respectively. No risk factors for cysticercosis were found significant in this study. This study proved that porcine cysticercosis is endemic and distributed widely in the study areas though its incidence might be suppressed by the generalised use of toilets and latrines in the study areas.

  16. Effects of erythropoietin on angiogenesis after myocardial infarction in porcine. (United States)

    Kawachi, Keisuke; Iso, Yoshitaka; Sato, Takatoshi; Wakabayashi, Kohei; Kobayashi, Youichi; Takeyama, Youichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi


    Erythropoietin (EPO) has recently been shown to confer cardioprotective effects via angiogenesis and antiapoptosis. The administration of EPO after myocardial infarction (MI) reduces infarct size and improves cardiac function in small animals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effects of EPO in porcine MI. Each animal in the EPO group received four injections of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO; 6000 U per injection) at 2-day intervals, starting after coronary occlusion. Animals in the control group received saline. Left ventriculography was performed just after coronary occlusion and at 28 days. Time-course changes in serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) were measured. The number of vessels was calculated, and the mRNA expressions of VEGF and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) were examined. Left ventricular function was similar between the groups. The numbers of cells positive for anti-α-smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, and c-kit were significantly higher in the EPO group than in the controls (P porcine MI.

  17. Evaluation of a porcine model of early aortic valve sclerosis. (United States)

    Sider, Krista L; Zhu, Cuilan; Kwong, Andrea V; Mirzaei, Zahra; de Langé, Cornelius F M; Simmons, Craig A


    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity. While late-stage CAVD is well-described, early pathobiological processes are poorly understood due to the lack of animal models that faithfully replicate early human disease. Here we evaluated a hypercholesterolemic porcine model of early diet-induced aortic valve sclerosis. Yorkshire swine were fed either a standard or high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 2 or 5 months. Right coronary aortic valve leaflets were excised and analyzed (immuno)histochemically. Early human-like proteoglycan-rich onlays formed between the endothelial layer and elastic lamina in the fibrosa layer of valve leaflets, with accelerated formation associated with hypercholesterolemia (Psclerosis in hypercholesterolemic swine is characterized by the formation of proteoglycan-rich onlays in the fibrosa, which can occur prior to significant lipid accumulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, or myofibroblast activation. These characteristics mimic those of early human aortic valve disease, and thus the porcine model has utility for the study of early valve sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathology and biofilm formation in a porcine model of staphylococcal osteomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, L K; Koch, J; Frees, D


    A porcine model was used to examine the potential of human and porcine Staphylococcus aureus isolates to induce haematogenously spread osteomyelitis. Pigs were inoculated in the right femoral artery with one of the following S. aureus strains: S54F9 (from a porcine lung abscess; n = 3 animals......), NCTC-8325-4 (a laboratory strain of human origin; n = 3 animals) and UAMS-1 (a human osteomyelitis isolate; n = 3 animals). Two pigs were sham inoculated with saline. At 11 or 15 days post infection the animals were scanned by computed tomography before being killed and subjected to necropsy...

  19. Histopathological investigation in porcine infected with torque teno sus virus type 2 by inoculation (United States)


    Background Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is a small icosahedral and non-enveloped virus which contains a single-stranded (ssDNA), circular and negative DNA genome and infects mainly vertebrates and is currently classified into the 'floating' genus Anellovirus of Circoviridae with two species. Viral DNA of both porcine TTSuV species has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States, Europe and Asia. However, there exists no information about histopathological lesions caused by infection with porcine TTSuV2. Methods Porcine liver tissue homogenate with 1 ml of 6.91 × 107genomic copies viral loads of porcine TTSuV2 that had positive result for torque teno sus virus type 2 and negative result for torque teno sus virus type 1 and porcine pseudorabies virus type 2 were used to inoculate specific pathogen-free piglets by intramuscular route and humanely killed at 3,7,10,14,17,21 and 24 days post inoculation (dpi), the control pigs were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of sterile DMEM and humanely killed the end of the study for histopathological examination routinely processed, respectively. Results All porcine TTSuV2 inoculated piglets were clinic asymptomatic but developed myocardial fibroklasts and endocardium, interstitial pneumonia, membranous glomerular nephropathy, and modest inflammatory cells infiltration in portal areas in the liver, foci of hemorrhage in some pancreas islet, a tiny amount red blood cells in venule of muscularis mucosae and outer longitudinal muscle, rarely red blood cells in the microvasculation and infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils) of tonsil and hilar lymph nodes, infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and necrosis or degeneration and focal gliosis of lymphocytes in the paracortical zone after inoculation with porcine TTSuV2-containing tissue homogenate

  20. Histopathological investigation in porcine infected with torque teno sus virus type 2 by inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Miao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV is a small icosahedral and non-enveloped virus which contains a single-stranded (ssDNA, circular and negative DNA genome and infects mainly vertebrates and is currently classified into the 'floating' genus Anellovirus of Circoviridae with two species. Viral DNA of both porcine TTSuV species has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States, Europe and Asia. However, there exists no information about histopathological lesions caused by infection with porcine TTSuV2. Methods Porcine liver tissue homogenate with 1 ml of 6.91 × 107genomic copies viral loads of porcine TTSuV2 that had positive result for torque teno sus virus type 2 and negative result for torque teno sus virus type 1 and porcine pseudorabies virus type 2 were used to inoculate specific pathogen-free piglets by intramuscular route and humanely killed at 3,7,10,14,17,21 and 24 days post inoculation (dpi, the control pigs were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of sterile DMEM and humanely killed the end of the study for histopathological examination routinely processed, respectively. Results All porcine TTSuV2 inoculated piglets were clinic asymptomatic but developed myocardial fibroklasts and endocardium, interstitial pneumonia, membranous glomerular nephropathy, and modest inflammatory cells infiltration in portal areas in the liver, foci of hemorrhage in some pancreas islet, a tiny amount red blood cells in venule of muscularis mucosae and outer longitudinal muscle, rarely red blood cells in the microvasculation and infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils of tonsil and hilar lymph nodes, infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and necrosis or degeneration and focal gliosis of lymphocytes in the paracortical zone after inoculation with porcine TTSuV2