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Sample records for pseudomallei type iii

  1. Global transcriptional profiling of Burkholderia pseudomallei under salt stress reveals differential effects on the Bsa type III secretion system

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    Singsuksawat Ekapot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis where the highest reported incidence world wide is in the Northeast of Thailand, where saline soil and water are prevalent. Moreover, recent reports indicate a potential pathogenic role for B. pseudomallei in cystic fibrosis lung disease, where an increased sodium chloride (NaCl concentration in airway surface liquid has been proposed. These observations raise the possibility that high salinity may represent a favorable niche for B. pseudomallei. We therefore investigated the global transcriptional response of B. pseudomallei to increased salinity using microarray analysis. Results Transcriptome analysis of B. pseudomallei under salt stress revealed several genes significantly up-regulated in the presence of 320 mM NaCl including genes associated with the bsa-derived Type III secretion system (T3SS. Microarray data were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR. Western blot analysis confirmed the increased expression and secretion of the invasion-associated type III secreted proteins BipD and BopE in B. pseudomallei cultures at 170 and 320 mM NaCl relative to salt-free medium. Furthermore, salt-treated B. pseudomallei exhibited greater invasion efficiency into the lung epithelial cell line A549 in a manner partly dependent on a functional Bsa system. Conclusions B. pseudomallei responds to salt stress by modulating the transcription of a relatively small set of genes, among which is the bsa locus associated with invasion and virulence. Expression and secretion of Bsa-secreted proteins was elevated in the presence of exogenous salt and the invasion efficiency was enhanced. Our data indicate that salinity has the potential to influence the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  2. Near-atomic resolution analysis of BipD, a component of the type III secretion system of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, M.; Erskine, P. T.; Gill, R. S.; Wood, S. P.; Cooper, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system needle-tip protein BipD has been crystallized in a form that diffracts X-rays to 1.5 Å resolution and the structure has been refined to an R factor of 16.1% and an R free of 19.8% at this resolution. The putative antiparallel dimer interface that was observed in earlier structures is conserved. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, possesses a type III protein secretion apparatus that is similar to those found in Salmonella and Shigella. A major function of these secretion systems is to inject virulence-associated proteins into target cells of the host organism. The bipD gene of B. pseudomallei encodes a secreted virulence factor that is similar in sequence and is most likely to be functionally analogous to IpaD from Shigella and SipD from Salmonella. Proteins in this family are thought to act as extracellular chaperones at the tip of the secretion needle to help the hydrophobic translocator proteins enter the target cell membrane, where they form a pore and may also link the translocon pore with the secretion needle. BipD has been crystallized in a monoclinic crystal form that diffracted X-rays to 1.5 Å resolution and the structure was refined to an R factor of 16.1% and an R free of 19.8% at this resolution. The putative dimer interface that was observed in previous crystal structures was retained and a larger surface area was buried in the new crystal form

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of BipD, a component of the Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secretion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roversi, Pietro; Johnson, Steven; Field, Terry; Deane, Janet E.; Galyov, Edouard E.; Lea, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    A construct consisting of residues 10–310 of mature BipD, a component of the B. pseudomallei type III secretion system, has been crystallized. Native BipD crystals and SeMet and K 2 PtCl 4 derivative crystals have undergone preliminary crystallographic analysis. A construct consisting of residues 10–310 of BipD, a component of the Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secretion system (T3SS), has been overexpressed as a GST fusion, cleaved from the GST tag and purified. Crystals were grown of native and selenomethionine-labelled BipD. The crystals grow in two different polymorphs from the same condition. The first polymorph belongs to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.98, b = 122.79, c = 49.17 Å, a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.4 Å 3 Da −1 (47% solvent content) and one molecule per asymmetric unit. The second polymorph belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 136.47, b = 89.84, c = 50.15 Å, and a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.3 Å 3 Da −1 (45% solvent content) for two molecules per asymmetric unit (analysis of the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a weak twofold non-crystallographic symmetry axis in this P2 1 2 1 2 form). The native crystals of both forms give diffraction data to 2.7 Å resolution, while the SeMet-labelled P2 1 2 1 2 crystals diffract to 3.3 Å resolution. A K 2 PtCl 4 derivative of the P2 1 2 1 2 form was also obtained and data were collected to 2.7 Å with radiation of wavelength λ = 0.933 Å. The Pt-derivative anomalous difference Patterson map revealed two self-peaks on the Harker sections

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of BipD, a component of the Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roversi, Pietro; Johnson, Steven [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Field, Terry [Division of Microbiology, Institute for Animal Health, Compton Laboratory, Berkshire RG20 7NN (United Kingdom); Deane, Janet E. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Galyov, Edouard E. [Division of Microbiology, Institute for Animal Health, Compton Laboratory, Berkshire RG20 7NN (United Kingdom); Lea, Susan M., E-mail: susan.lea@biop.ox.ac.uk [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    A construct consisting of residues 10–310 of mature BipD, a component of the B. pseudomallei type III secretion system, has been crystallized. Native BipD crystals and SeMet and K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} derivative crystals have undergone preliminary crystallographic analysis. A construct consisting of residues 10–310 of BipD, a component of the Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secretion system (T3SS), has been overexpressed as a GST fusion, cleaved from the GST tag and purified. Crystals were grown of native and selenomethionine-labelled BipD. The crystals grow in two different polymorphs from the same condition. The first polymorph belongs to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.98, b = 122.79, c = 49.17 Å, a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.4 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} (47% solvent content) and one molecule per asymmetric unit. The second polymorph belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 136.47, b = 89.84, c = 50.15 Å, and a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} (45% solvent content) for two molecules per asymmetric unit (analysis of the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a weak twofold non-crystallographic symmetry axis in this P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 form). The native crystals of both forms give diffraction data to 2.7 Å resolution, while the SeMet-labelled P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 crystals diffract to 3.3 Å resolution. A K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} derivative of the P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 form was also obtained and data were collected to 2.7 Å with radiation of wavelength λ = 0.933 Å. The Pt-derivative anomalous difference Patterson map revealed two self-peaks on the Harker sections.

  5. Molecular architecture of the N-type ATPase rotor ring from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sarah; Wilkes, Martin; Mills, Deryck J; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Meier, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The genome of the highly infectious bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei harbors an atp operon that encodes an N-type rotary ATPase, in addition to an operon for a regular F-type rotary ATPase. The molecular architecture of N-type ATPases is unknown and their biochemical properties and cellular functions are largely unexplored. We studied the B. pseudomallei N 1 N o -type ATPase and investigated the structure and ion specificity of its membrane-embedded c-ring rotor by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. Of several amphiphilic compounds tested for solubilizing the complex, the choice of the low-density, low-CMC detergent LDAO was optimal in terms of map quality and resolution. The cryoEM map of the c-ring at 6.1 Å resolution reveals a heptadecameric oligomer with a molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Biochemical measurements indicate that the c 17 ring is H + specific, demonstrating that the ATPase is proton-coupled. The c 17 ring stoichiometry results in a very high ion-to-ATP ratio of 5.7. We propose that this N-ATPase is a highly efficient proton pump that helps these melioidosis-causing bacteria to survive in the hostile, acidic environment of phagosomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Historical Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates Collected in Southeast Asia from 1964 to 1967 Provides Insight into the Epidemiology of Melioidosis

    OpenAIRE

    McCombie, Roberta L.; Finkelstein, Richard A.; Woods, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 207 historically relevant Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The strain collection contains environmental isolates obtained from a geographical distribution survey of B. pseudomallei isolates in Thailand (1964 to 1967), as well as stock cultures and colony variants from the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit (Malaysia), the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research, and the Pasteur Institute (Vietnam). The 207 isolates of the colle...

  7. Tandem Repeat Regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei Genome and their Application for High-Resolution Genotyping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    U'Ren, Jana M; Schupp, James M; Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie; Friedman, Christine L; Smith, Kimothy L; Daugherty, Rebecca R; Rhoton, Shane D; Leadem, Ben; Georgia, Shalamar

    2007-01-01

    .... pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis...

  8. Unravelling the Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity among Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates from South India Using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Kamthan, Aayushi; Shaw, Tushar; Ke, Vandana; Kumar, Subodh; Bhat, Vinod; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    There is a slow but steady rise in the case detection rates of melioidosis from various parts of the Indian sub-continent in the past two decades. However, the epidemiology of the disease in India and the surrounding South Asian countries remains far from well elucidated. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a useful epidemiological tool to study the genetic relatedness of bacterial isolates both with-in and across the countries. With this background, we studied the molecular epidemiology of 32 Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates (31 clinical and 1 soil isolate) obtained during 2006-2015 from various parts of south India using multi-locus sequencing typing and analysis. Of the 32 isolates included in the analysis, 30 (93.7%) had novel allelic profiles that were not reported previously. Sequence type (ST) 1368 (n = 15, 46.8%) with allelic profile (1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 1, 3) was the most common genotype observed. We did not observe a genotypic association of STs with geographical location, type of infection and year of isolation in the present study. Measure of genetic differentiation (FST) between Indian and the rest of world isolates was 0.14413. Occurrence of the same ST across three adjacent states of south India suggest the dispersion of B.pseudomallei across the south western coastal part of India with limited geographical clustering. However, majority of the STs reported from the present study remained as "outliers" on the eBURST "Population snapshot", suggesting the genetic diversity of Indian isolates from the Australasian and Southeast Asian isolates.

  9. Unravelling the Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity among Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates from South India Using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Tellapragada

    Full Text Available There is a slow but steady rise in the case detection rates of melioidosis from various parts of the Indian sub-continent in the past two decades. However, the epidemiology of the disease in India and the surrounding South Asian countries remains far from well elucidated. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST is a useful epidemiological tool to study the genetic relatedness of bacterial isolates both with-in and across the countries. With this background, we studied the molecular epidemiology of 32 Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates (31 clinical and 1 soil isolate obtained during 2006-2015 from various parts of south India using multi-locus sequencing typing and analysis. Of the 32 isolates included in the analysis, 30 (93.7% had novel allelic profiles that were not reported previously. Sequence type (ST 1368 (n = 15, 46.8% with allelic profile (1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 1, 3 was the most common genotype observed. We did not observe a genotypic association of STs with geographical location, type of infection and year of isolation in the present study. Measure of genetic differentiation (FST between Indian and the rest of world isolates was 0.14413. Occurrence of the same ST across three adjacent states of south India suggest the dispersion of B.pseudomallei across the south western coastal part of India with limited geographical clustering. However, majority of the STs reported from the present study remained as "outliers" on the eBURST "Population snapshot", suggesting the genetic diversity of Indian isolates from the Australasian and Southeast Asian isolates.

  10. Outcome of tyrosinaemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, C J; Holme, E; Standing, S; Preece, M A; Green, A; Ploechl, E; Ugarte, M; Trefz, F K; Leonard, J V

    2001-12-01

    Tyrosinaemia type III is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the second enzyme in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. The majority of the nine previously reported patients have presented with neurological symptoms after the neonatal period, while others detected by neonatal screening have been asymptomatic. All have had normal liver and renal function and none has skin or eye abnormalities. A further four patients with tyrosinaemia type III are described. It is not clear whether a strict low tyrosine diet alters the natural history of tyrosinaemia type III, although there remains a suspicion that treatment may be important, at least in infancy.

  11. Competition between Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. thailandensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamdee, Wikanda; Tandhavanant, Sarunporn; Wikraiphat, Chanthiwa; Reamtong, Onrapak; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Salje, Jeanne; Low, David A; Peacock, Sharon J; Chantratita, Narisara

    2015-03-03

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis, an often fatal disease in tropical countries. Burkholderia thailandensis is a non-virulent but closely related species. Both species are soil saprophytes but are almost never isolated together. We identified two mechanisms by which B. pseudomallei affects the growth of B. thailandensis. First, we found that six different isolates of B. pseudomallei inhibited the growth of B. thailandensis on LB agar plates. Second, our results indicated that 55% of isolated strains of B. pseudomallei produced a secreted compound that inhibited the motility but not the viability of B. thailandensis. Analysis showed that the active compound was a pH-sensitive and heat-labile compound, likely a protein, which may affect flagella processing or facilitate their degradation. Analysis of bacterial sequence types (STs) demonstrated an association between this and motility inhibition. The active compound was produced from B. pseudomallei during the stationary growth phase. Taken together, our results indicate that B. pseudomallei inhibits both the growth and motility of its close relative B. thailandensis. The latter phenomenon appears to occur via a previously unreported mechanism involving flagellar processing or degradation.

  12. Burkholderia pseudomallei transcriptional adaptation in macrophages

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    Chieng Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. How the bacterium interacts with host macrophage cells is still not well understood and is critical to appreciate the strategies used by this bacterium to survive and how intracellular survival leads to disease manifestation. Results Here we report the expression profile of intracellular B. pseudomallei following infection of human macrophage-like U937 cells. During intracellular growth over the 6 h infection period, approximately 22 % of the B. pseudomallei genome showed significant transcriptional adaptation. B. pseudomallei adapted rapidly to the intracellular environment by down-regulating numerous genes involved in metabolism, cell envelope, motility, replication, amino acid and ion transport system and regulatory function pathways. Reduced expression in catabolic and housekeeping genes suggested lower energy requirement and growth arrest during macrophage infection, while expression of genes encoding anaerobic metabolism functions were up regulated. However, whilst the type VI secretion system was up regulated, expression of many known virulence factors was not significantly modulated over the 6hours of infection. Conclusions The transcriptome profile described here provides the first comprehensive view of how B. pseudomallei survives within host cells and will help identify potential virulence factors and proteins that are important for the survival and growth of B. pseudomallei within human cells.

  13. Airborne Transmission of Melioidosis to Humans from Environmental Aerosols Contaminated with B. pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Shih; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Liu, Pei-Ju; Ni, Wei-Fan; Hsueh, Pei-Tan; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chialin; Chen, Ya-Lei

    2015-06-01

    Melioidosis results from an infection with the soil-borne pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, and cases of melioidosis usually cluster after rains or a typhoon. In an endemic area of Taiwan, B. pseudomallei is primarily geographically distributed in cropped fields in the northwest of this area, whereas melioidosis cases are distributed in a densely populated district in the southeast. We hypothesized that contaminated cropped fields generated aerosols contaminated with B. pseudomallei, which were carried by a northwesterly wind to the densely populated southeastern district. We collected soil and aerosol samples from a 72 km2 area of land, including the melioidosis-clustered area and its surroundings. Aerosols that contained B. pseudomallei-specific TTSS (type III secretion system) ORF2 DNA were well distributed in the endemic area but were rare in the surrounding areas during the rainy season. The concentration of this specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of the contaminated cropped field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity for aerosols collected from the southeast over a 2-year period. According to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analyses, PFGE Type Ia (ST58) was the predominant pattern linking the molecular association among soil, aerosol and human isolates. Thus, the airborne transmission of melioidosis moves from the contaminated soil to aerosols and/or to humans in this endemic area.

  14. Burkholderia pseudomallei Data Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Since its discovery , B. pseudomallei has become recognized as a significant public health threat in the tropical regions of the globe where it is...alcoholics, kava users (Australia), chronic drug users, or diabetic. However, HIV does not seem to be a factor. Table 2-1. Published melioidosis...However, the history for these types of vaccines has shown better efficacy in mouse models that in human trials. In addition to the naked-DNA

  15. Study of type III ELMs in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, R.; Saibene, G.; Horton, L. D.; Becoulet, M.; Budny, R.; Borba, D.; Chankin, A.; Conway, G. D.; Cordey, G.; McDonald, D.; Guenther, K.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Igithkanov, Y.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P. J.; Pogutse, O.; Rapp, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of JET experiments aimed at studying the operational space of plasmas with a Type III ELMy edge, in terms of both local and global plasma parameters. In JET, the Type III ELMy regime has a wide operational space in the pedestal n(e)-T-e diagram, and Type III ELMs are

  16. Burkholderia pseudomallei Evades Nramp1 (Slc11a1- and NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Killing in Macrophages and Exhibits Nramp1-Dependent Virulence Gene Expression

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    Veerachat Muangsombut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial survival in macrophages can be affected by the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1; also known as solute carrier family 11 member a1 or Slc11a1 which localizes to phagosome membranes and transports divalent cations, including iron. Little is known about the role of Nramp1 in Burkholderia infection, in particular whether this differs for pathogenic species like Burkholderia pseudomallei causing melioidosis or non-pathogenic species like Burkholderia thailandensis. Here we show that transfected macrophages stably expressing wild-type Nramp1 (Nramp1+ control the net replication of B. thailandensis, but not B. pseudomallei. Control of B. thailandensis was associated with increased cytokine responses, and could be abrogated by blocking NADPH oxidase-mediated production of reactive oxygen species but not by blocking generation of reactive nitrogen species. The inability of Nramp1+ macrophages to control B. pseudomallei was associated with rapid escape of bacteria from phagosomes, as indicated by decreased co-localization with LAMP1 compared to B. thailandensis. A B. pseudomallei bipB mutant impaired in escape from phagosomes was controlled to a greater extent than the parent strain in Nramp1+ macrophages, but was also attenuated in Nramp1− cells. Consistent with reduced escape from phagosomes, B. thailandensis formed fewer multinucleated giant cells in Nramp1+ macrophages at later time points compared to B. pseudomallei. B. pseudomallei exhibited elevated transcription of virulence-associated genes of Type VI Secretion System cluster 1 (T6SS-1, the Bsa Type III Secretion System (T3SS-3 and the bimA gene required for actin-based motility in Nramp1+ macrophages. Nramp1+ macrophages were found to contain decreased iron levels that may impact on expression of such genes. Our data show that B. pseudomallei is able to evade Nramp1- and NADPH oxidase-mediated killing in macrophages and that expression of virulence

  17. What drives the occurrence of the melioidosis bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in domestic gardens?

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    Mirjam Kaestli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is an often fatal infectious disease affecting humans and animals in tropical regions and is caused by the saprophytic environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Domestic gardens are not only a common source of exposure to soil and thus to B. pseudomallei, but they also have been found to contain more B. pseudomallei than other environments. In this study we addressed whether anthropogenic manipulations common to gardens such as irrigation or fertilizers change the occurrence of B. pseudomallei. We conducted a soil microcosm experiment with a range of fertilizers and soil types as well as a longitudinal interventional study over three years on an experimental fertilized field site in an area naturally positive for B. pseudomallei. Irrigation was the only consistent treatment to increase B. pseudomallei occurrence over time. The effects of fertilizers upon these bacteria depended on soil texture, physicochemical soil properties and biotic factors. Nitrates and urea increased B. pseudomallei load in sand while phosphates had a positive effect in clay. The high buffering and cation exchange capacities of organic material found in a commercial potting mix led to a marked increase in soil salinity with no survival of B. pseudomallei after four weeks in the potting mix sampled. Imported grasses were also associated with B. pseudomallei occurrence in a multivariate model. With increasing population density in endemic areas these findings inform the identification of areas in the anthropogenic environment with increased risk of exposure to B. pseudomallei.

  18. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

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    Nicole L Podnecky

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1 assay. Crossing threshold (C T values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  19. Study of Type III ELMs in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, R [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Saibene, G [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Horton, L D [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Becoulet, M [Association Euratom-CEA, CE Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, CEDEX (France); Budny, R [PPPL, Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Borba, D [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, 1096 Lisbon, CODEX (Portugal); Chankin, A [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Conway, G D [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Cordey, G [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McDonald, D [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Guenther, K [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hellermann, M G von [FOM-Rijnhuizen, Ass. Euratom-FOM, TEC, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Igithkanov, Yu [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Ass., D-17491, Greifswald (Germany); Loarte, A [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Lomas, P J [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pogutse, O [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rapp, J [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents the results of JET experiments aimed at studying the operational space of plasmas with a Type III ELMy edge, in terms of both local and global plasma parameters. In JET, the Type III ELMy regime has a wide operational space in the pedestal n{sub e} - T{sub e} diagram, and Type III ELMs are observed in standard ELMy H-modes as well as in plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB). The transition from an H-mode with Type III ELMs to a steady state Type I ELMy H-mode requires a minimum loss power, P{sub TypeI}. P{sub TypeI} decreases with increasing plasma triangularity. In the pedestal n{sub e} - T{sub e} diagram, the critical pedestal temperature for the transition to Type I ELMs is found to be inversely proportional to the pedestal density (T{sub crit} {proportional_to} 1/n) at a low density. In contrast, at a high density, T{sub crit}, does not depend strongly on density. In the density range where T{sub crit} {proportional_to} 1/n, the critical power required for the transition to Type I ELMs decreases with increasing density. Experimental results are presented suggesting a common mechanism for Type III ELMs at low and high collisionality. A single model for the critical temperature for the transition from Type III to Type I ELMs, based on the resistive interchange instability with magnetic flutter, fits well the density and toroidal field dependence of the JET experimental data. On the other hand, this model fails to describe the variation of the Type III n{sub e} - T{sub e} operational space with isotopic mass and q{sub 95}. Other results are instead suggestive of a different physics for Type III ELMs. At low collisionality, plasma current ramp experiments indicate a role of the edge current in determining the transition from Type III to Type I ELMs, while at high collisionality, a model based on resistive ballooning instability well reproduces, in term of a critical density, the experimentally observed q{sub 95} dependence of the

  20. Damping of type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The meter- and decameter-wavelength damping of type III bursts may be attributable to stabilization of the Langmuir-wave instability of the fast-electron streams through excitation of cyclotron-branch plasma waves

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of BipD, a virulence factor from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M. J.; Ruaux, A.; Mikolajek, H.; Erskine, P. T.; Gill, R.; Wood, S. P. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Wood, M. [Institute of Animal Health, Division of Environmental Microbiology, Institute for Animal Health, Compton Laboratory, Berkshire RG20 7NN (United Kingdom); Cooper, J. B., E-mail: j.b.cooper@soton.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-01

    BipD is likely to be a component of a type-III protein secretion system (TTSS) in B. pseudomallei. Native and selenomethionyl-BipD proteins have been expressed and crystals have been obtained which diffract to 2.1 Å. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, possesses a protein-secretion apparatus that is similar to those found in Salmonella and Shigella. A major function of these secretion systems is to secrete virulence-associated proteins into target cells of the host organism. The BipD gene of B. pseudomallei encodes a secreted virulence factor that is similar in sequence and most likely functionally analogous to IpaD from Shigella and SipD from Salmonella. Thus, the BipD protein is likely to be a component of a type III protein-secretion system (TTSS) in B. pseudomallei. Proteins in the same class as BipD, such as IpaD and SipD, are thought to act as extracellular chaperones to help the hydrophobic translocator proteins enter the target cell membrane, where they form a pore and might even link the translocon pore with the secretion needle. There is evidence that the translocator proteins also bind an integrin which stimulates actin-mediated insertion of the bacterium into the host-cell membrane. Native BipD has been crystallized in a monoclinic crystal form that diffracts X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution. BipD protein which incorporates selenomethionine (SeMet-BipD) has also been expressed and forms crystals which diffract to a higher resolution of 2.1 Å.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of BipD, a virulence factor from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M. J.; Ruaux, A.; Mikolajek, H.; Erskine, P. T.; Gill, R.; Wood, S. P.; Wood, M.; Cooper, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    BipD is likely to be a component of a type-III protein secretion system (TTSS) in B. pseudomallei. Native and selenomethionyl-BipD proteins have been expressed and crystals have been obtained which diffract to 2.1 Å. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, possesses a protein-secretion apparatus that is similar to those found in Salmonella and Shigella. A major function of these secretion systems is to secrete virulence-associated proteins into target cells of the host organism. The BipD gene of B. pseudomallei encodes a secreted virulence factor that is similar in sequence and most likely functionally analogous to IpaD from Shigella and SipD from Salmonella. Thus, the BipD protein is likely to be a component of a type III protein-secretion system (TTSS) in B. pseudomallei. Proteins in the same class as BipD, such as IpaD and SipD, are thought to act as extracellular chaperones to help the hydrophobic translocator proteins enter the target cell membrane, where they form a pore and might even link the translocon pore with the secretion needle. There is evidence that the translocator proteins also bind an integrin which stimulates actin-mediated insertion of the bacterium into the host-cell membrane. Native BipD has been crystallized in a monoclinic crystal form that diffracts X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution. BipD protein which incorporates selenomethionine (SeMet-BipD) has also been expressed and forms crystals which diffract to a higher resolution of 2.1 Å

  3. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are predominantly susceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podin, Yuwana; Sarovich, Derek S; Price, Erin P; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Hii, KingChing; Ngian, Hieung; Wong, SeeChang; Wong, IngTien; Wong, JinShyan; Mohan, Anand; Ooi, MongHow; Fam, TemLom; Wong, Jack; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul; Giffard, Philip M; Currie, Bart J

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Resistance to gentamicin is generally a hallmark of B. pseudomallei, and gentamicin is a selective agent in media used for diagnosis of melioidosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence and mechanism of gentamicin susceptibility found in B. pseudomallei isolates from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We performed multilocus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility testing on 44 B. pseudomallei clinical isolates from melioidosis patients in Sarawak district hospitals. Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify the mechanism of gentamicin susceptibility. A novel allelic-specific PCR was designed to differentiate gentamicin-sensitive isolates from wild-type B. pseudomallei. A reversion assay was performed to confirm the involvement of this mechanism in gentamicin susceptibility. A substantial proportion (86%) of B. pseudomallei clinical isolates in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, were found to be susceptible to the aminoglycoside gentamicin, a rare occurrence in other regions where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Gentamicin sensitivity was restricted to genetically related strains belonging to sequence type 881 or its single-locus variant, sequence type 997. Whole-genome sequencing identified a novel nonsynonymous mutation within amrB, encoding an essential component of the AmrAB-OprA multidrug efflux pump. We confirmed the role of this mutation in conferring aminoglycoside and macrolide sensitivity by reversion of this mutation to the wild-type sequence. Our study demonstrates that alternative B. pseudomallei selective media without gentamicin are needed for accurate melioidosis laboratory diagnosis in Sarawak. This finding may also have implications for environmental sampling of other locations to test for B. pseudomallei endemicity.

  4. Chaos in Kundt Type-III Spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakalli, I.; Halilsoy, M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion in a particular Kundt type-III spacetime in which the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations admit the solutions. On a particular surface as constraint, we project the geodesics into the (x, y) plane and treat the problem as a two-dimensional one. Our numerical study shows that chaotic behavior emerges under reasonable conditions. (general)

  5. The multiple roles of hypothetical gene BPSS1356 in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

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    Hokchai Yam

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis. It is able to adapt to harsh environments and can live intracellularly in its infected hosts. In this study, identification of transcriptional factors that associate with the β' subunit (RpoC of RNA polymerase was performed. The N-terminal region of this subunit is known to trigger promoter melting when associated with a sigma factor. A pull-down assay using histidine-tagged B. pseudomallei RpoC N-terminal region as bait showed that a hypothetical protein BPSS1356 was one of the proteins bound. This hypothetical protein is conserved in all B. pseudomallei strains and present only in the Burkholderia genus. A BPSS1356 deletion mutant was generated to investigate its biological function. The mutant strain exhibited reduced biofilm formation and a lower cell density during the stationary phase of growth in LB medium. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the ΔBPSS1356 mutant cells had a shrunken cytoplasm indicative of cell plasmolysis and a rougher surface when compared to the wild type. An RNA microarray result showed that a total of 63 genes were transcriptionally affected by the BPSS1356 deletion with fold change values of higher than 4. The expression of a group of genes encoding membrane located transporters was concurrently down-regulated in ΔBPSS1356 mutant. Amongst the affected genes, the putative ion transportation genes were the most severely suppressed. Deprivation of BPSS1356 also down-regulated the transcriptions of genes for the arginine deiminase system, glycerol metabolism, type III secretion system cluster 2, cytochrome bd oxidase and arsenic resistance. It is therefore obvious that BPSS1356 plays a multiple regulatory roles on many genes.

  6. Brain abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padigione, A.; Spelman, D.; Ferris, N.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Melioidosis, or infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important human disease in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Neurological manifestations are well recognized amongst its protean presentations, but direct focal central nervous system infection is infrequently described with only 9 adult and 5 paediatric cases reported in the English language literature. A case of brain abscess due to Burkholderia pseudomallei occurring in a 20 year old Dutch visitor to Australia which progressed despite antibiotic treatment is described. A review of the clinical manifestations, Magnetic Resonance (MR) appearance, diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis is presented, highlighting that: (i) physicians outside endernic areas should consider melioidosis in any patient with an appropriate travel history, (ii) MR imaging is more sensitive then CT in diagnosing early brain infection, especially of the brainstem; (iii) Bacterial culture, the mainstay of diagnosis, has many shortcomings; (iv)In vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing may not translate into clinical efficacy; and (v) Steroids appear to have little role, even in severe disease

  7. Genetic diversity and microevolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisara Chantratita

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The soil dwelling Gram-negative pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis. The diversity and population structure of this organism in the environment is poorly defined.We undertook a study of B. pseudomallei in soil sampled from 100 equally spaced points within 237.5 m(2 of disused land in northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei was present on direct culture of 77/100 sampling points. Genotyping of 200 primary plate colonies from three independent sampling points was performed using a combination of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Twelve PFGE types and nine sequence types (STs were identified, the majority of which were present at only a single sampling point. Two sampling points contained four STs and the third point contained three STs. Although the distance between the three sampling points was low (7.6, 7.9, and 13.3 meters, respectively, only two STs were present in more than one sampling point. Each of the three samples was characterized by the localized expansion of a single B. pseudomallei clone (corresponding to STs 185, 163, and 93. Comparison of PFGE and MLST results demonstrated that two STs contained strains with variable PFGE banding pattern types, indicating geographic structuring even within a single MLST-defined clone.We discuss the implications of this extreme structuring of genotype and genotypic frequency in terms of micro-evolutionary dynamics and ecology, and how our results may inform future sampling strategies.

  8. Discriminating the reaction types of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yugo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    Functional prediction of paralogs is challenging in bioinformatics because of rapid functional diversification after gene duplication events combined with parallel acquisitions of similar functions by different paralogs. Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), producing various secondary metabolites, represent a paralogous family that has undergone gene duplication and functional alteration. Currently, there is no computational method available for the functional prediction of type III PKSs. We developed a plant type III PKS reaction predictor, pPAP, based on the recently proposed classification of type III PKSs. pPAP combines two kinds of similarity measures: one calculated by profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) built from functionally and structurally important partial sequence regions, and the other based on mutual information between residue positions. pPAP targets PKSs acting on ring-type starter substrates, and classifies their functions into four reaction types. The pHMM approach discriminated two reaction types with high accuracy (97.5%, 39/40), but its accuracy decreased when discriminating three reaction types (87.8%, 43/49). When combined with a correlation-based approach, all 49 PKSs were correctly discriminated, and pPAP was still highly accurate (91.4%, 64/70) even after adding other reaction types. These results suggest pPAP, which is based on linear discriminant analyses of similarity measures, is effective for plant type III PKS function prediction. pPAP is freely available at ftp://ftp.genome.jp/pub/tools/ppap/. goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Decay time of type III solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F.T.

    1972-01-01

    Sixty-four Type III bursts that drifted to frequencies below 600 kHz between March 1968 and February 1970 were analyzed. Decay times were measured and combined with published data ranging up to about 200 MHz. By fitting power functions to the computed and observed decay times, and using the local plasma hypothesis, it was found that the ratio rho of computed to observed values varies with radiocentric radial distance according to a power function rho = 3r 0 . 7 . (U.S.)

  10. Diversity of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS reveals phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-neighbors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Liguori

    Full Text Available Length polymorphisms within the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS have been described as stable genetic markers for studying bacterial phylogenetics. In this study, we used these genetic markers to investigate phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-relative species. B. pseudomallei is known as one of the most genetically recombined bacterial species. In silico analysis of multiple B. pseudomallei genomes revealed approximately four homologous rRNA operons and ITS length polymorphisms therein. We characterized ITS distribution using PCR and analyzed via a high-throughput capillary electrophoresis in 1,191 B. pseudomallei strains. Three major ITS types were identified, two of which were commonly found in most B. pseudomallei strains from the endemic areas, whereas the third one was significantly correlated with worldwide sporadic strains. Interestingly, mixtures of the two common ITS types were observed within the same strains, and at a greater incidence in Thailand than Australia suggesting that genetic recombination causes the ITS variation within species, with greater recombination frequency in Thailand. In addition, the B. mallei ITS type was common to B. pseudomallei, providing further support that B. mallei is a clone of B. pseudomallei. Other B. pseudomallei near-neighbors possessed unique and monomorphic ITS types. Our data shed light on evolutionary patterns of B. pseudomallei and its near relative species.

  11. Sources of type III solar microwave bursts

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    Zhdanov D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave fine structures allow us to study plasma evolution in an energy release region. The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT is a unique instrument designed to examine fine structures at 5.7 GHz. A complex analysis of data from RATAN-600, 4–8 GHz spectropolarimeter, and SSRT, simultaneously with EUV data, made it possible to localize sources of III type microwave bursts in August 10, 2011 event within the entire frequency band of burst occurrence, as well as to determine the most probable region of primary energy release. To localize sources of III type bursts from RATAN-600 data, an original method for data processing has been worked out. At 5.7 GHz, the source of bursts was determined along two coordinates, whereas at 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, and 6.0 GHz, their locations were identified along one coordinate. The size of the burst source at 5.1 GHz was found to be maximum as compared to those at other frequencies.

  12. Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov., a New Species Related to Burkholderia thailandensis and the Fifth Member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanyok, Apichai; Mayo, Mark; Scholz, Holger; Hall, Carina M; Allender, Christopher J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Ginther, Jennifer; Spring-Pearson, Senanu; Bollig, Molly C; Stone, Joshua K; Settles, Erik W; Busch, Joseph D; Sidak-Loftis, Lindsay; Sahl, Jason W; Thomas, Astrid; Kreutzer, Lisa; Georgi, Enrico; Gee, Jay E; Bowen, Richard A; Ladner, Jason T; Lovett, Sean; Koroleva, Galina; Palacios, Gustavo; Wagner, David M; Currie, Bart J; Keim, Paul

    2017-03-01

    During routine screening for Burkholderia pseudomallei from water wells in northern Australia in areas where it is endemic, Gram-negative bacteria (strains MSMB43 T , MSMB121, and MSMB122) with a similar morphology and biochemical pattern to B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis were coisolated with B. pseudomallei on Ashdown's selective agar. To determine the exact taxonomic position of these strains and to distinguish them from B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis , they were subjected to a series of phenotypic and molecular analyses. Biochemical and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was unable to distinguish B. humptydooensis sp. nov. from closely related species. With matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis, all isolates grouped together in a cluster separate from other Burkholderia spp. 16S rRNA and recA sequence analyses demonstrated phylogenetic placement for B. humptydooensis sp. nov. in a novel clade within the B. pseudomallei group. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of the three isolates in comparison with MLST data from 3,340 B. pseudomallei strains and related taxa revealed a new sequence type (ST318). Genome-to-genome distance calculations and the average nucleotide identity of all isolates to both B. thailandensis and B. pseudomallei , based on whole-genome sequences, also confirmed B. humptydooensis sp. nov. as a novel Burkholderia species within the B. pseudomallei complex. Molecular analyses clearly demonstrated that strains MSMB43 T , MSMB121, and MSMB122 belong to a novel Burkholderia species for which the name Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain MSMB43 T (American Type Culture Collection BAA-2767; Belgian Co-ordinated Collections of Microorganisms LMG 29471; DDBJ accession numbers CP013380 to CP013382). IMPORTANCE Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. The genus Burkholderia consists of a diverse group of species, with

  13. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofejev, G.L.; Imenitov, A.B.; Klimenko, E.Y.

    1980-01-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb 3 Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T. (author)

  14. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeiev, G L; Imenitov, A B; Klimenko, E Y [Gosudarstvennyi Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoi Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoi Ehnergii

    1980-06-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb/sub 3/Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T.

  15. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  16. Burkholderia pseudomallei septicaemia - A case report

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    Dias M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a natural saprophyte widely distributed in soil, stagnant waters of endemic areas, is said to infect humans through breaks in the skin or through inhalation causing protean clinical manifestations including fatal septicaemia. A case of septicaemia in a elderly female diabetic due to B. pseudomallei following a history of fall is being reported with complete details.

  17. Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application for high resolution genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Steven P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We identified and categorized tandem repeat arrays and their distribution throughout the genome of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of 31 isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis in order to identify loci with varying degrees of polymorphism. A subset of these tandem repeat arrays were subsequently developed into a multiple-locus VNTR analysis to examine 66 B. pseudomallei and 21 B. mallei isolates from around the world, as well as 95 lineages from a serial transfer experiment encompassing ~18,000 generations. Results B. pseudomallei contains a preponderance of tandem repeat loci throughout its genome, many of which are duplicated elsewhere in the genome. The majority of these loci are composed of repeat motif lengths of 6 to 9 bp with 4 to 10 repeat units and are predominately located in intergenic regions of the genome. Across geographically diverse B. pseudomallei and B.mallei isolates, the 32 VNTR loci displayed between 7 and 28 alleles, with Nei's diversity values ranging from 0.47 and 0.94. Mutation rates for these loci are comparable (>10-5 per locus per generation to that of the most diverse tandemly repeated regions found in other less diverse bacteria. Conclusion The frequency, location and duplicate nature of tandemly repeated regions within the B. pseudomallei genome indicate that these tandem repeat regions may play a role in generating and maintaining adaptive genomic variation. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis revealed extensive diversity within the global isolate set containing B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, and it detected genotypic differences within clonal lineages of both species that were

  18. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofejev, G. L.; Imenitov, A. B.; Klimenko, E. Yu.

    1980-06-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogenious monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr, Nb 3Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The longitudinal electric field for homogenious wires may be described by E=J ρnexp- T c/T 0+ T/T 0+ B/B 0+ J/J 0, where To, Bo, Jo are the increasing parameters, which depend weakly on B and T, of the electric field. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (ie the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T, B, J - space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T.

  19. Prevalence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Zheng, D; Cai, Q; Yuan, Z

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is now recognized as an important public health problem in Southeast Asia and tropical northern Australia. Although B. pseudomallei has been detected in various water and soil samples in southeast China, the enviromental distribution of B. pseudomallei in China is unclear. In the winter months of 2007, 154 and 130 soil and water samples, respectively, were collected from several locations in Guangxi, China. The samples were screened for B. pseudomallei by bacterial culture and identification and confirmed by PCR for species-specific 16S rDNA and flagellin genes. B. pseudomallei was detected in 8.4% of the soil samples but in none of the water samples. All positive samples were confined to a single low-lying region from rice paddy fields. Counts of B. pseudomallei ranged from 23 to 521 c.f.u./g soil. This is the first geographical distribution survey of B. pseudomallei in soil in Guangxi, China, and the data are of importance for further evaluating the impact of this pathogen on melioidosis in this region.

  20. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei O-antigen serotypes in near-neighbor species

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    Stone Joshua K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and a CDC category B select agent with no available effective vaccine. Previous immunizations in mice have utilized the lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a potential vaccine target because it is known as one of the most important antigenic epitopes in B. pseudomallei. Complicating this strategy are the four different B. pseudomallei LPS O-antigen types: A, B, B2, and rough. Sero-crossreactivity is common among O-antigens of Burkholderia species. Here, we identified the presence of multiple B. pseudomallei O-antigen types and sero-crossreactivity in its near-neighbor species. Results PCR screening of O-antigen biosynthesis genes, phenotypic characterization using SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot analysis showed that majority of B. mallei and B. thailandensis strains contained the typical O-antigen type A. In contrast, most of B. ubonensis and B. thailandensis-like strains expressed the atypical O-antigen types B and B2, respectively. Most B. oklahomensis strains expressed a distinct and non-seroreactive O-antigen type, except strain E0147 which expressed O-antigen type A. O-antigen type B2 was also detected in B. thailandensis 82172, B. ubonensis MSMB108, and Burkholderia sp. MSMB175. Interestingly, B. thailandensis-like MSMB43 contained a novel serotype B positive O-antigen. Conclusions This study expands the number of species which express B. pseudomallei O-antigen types. Further work is required to elucidate the full structures and how closely these are to the B. pseudomallei O-antigens, which will ultimately determine the efficacy of the near-neighbor B serotypes for vaccine development.

  1. A Burkholderia pseudomallei colony variant necessary for gastric colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, C R; Goodyear, A W; Bartek, I L; Stewart, A; Sutherland, M D; Silva, E B; Zweifel, A; Vitko, N P; Tuanyok, A; Highnam, G; Mittelman, D; Keim, P; Schweizer, H P; Vázquez-Torres, A; Dow, S W C; Voskuil, M I

    2015-02-03

    Diverse colony morphologies are a hallmark of Burkholderia pseudomallei recovered from infected patients. We observed that stresses that inhibit aerobic respiration shifted populations of B. pseudomallei from the canonical white colony morphotype toward two distinct, reversible, yet relatively stable yellow colony variants (YA and YB). As accumulating evidence supports the importance of B. pseudomallei enteric infection and gastric colonization, we tested the response of yellow variants to hypoxia, acidity, and stomach colonization. Yellow variants exhibited a competitive advantage under hypoxic and acidic conditions and alkalized culture media. The YB variant, although highly attenuated in acute virulence, was the only form capable of colonization and persistence in the murine stomach. The accumulation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was a characteristic of YB as observed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of gastric tissues, as well as in an in vitro stomach model where large amounts of eDNA were produced without cell lysis. Transposon mutagenesis identified a transcriptional regulator (BPSL1887, designated YelR) that when overexpressed produced the yellow phenotype. Deletion of yelR blocked a shift from white to the yellow forms. These data demonstrate that YB is a unique B. pseudomallei pathovariant controlled by YelR that is specifically adapted to the harsh gastric environment and necessary for persistent stomach colonization. Seemingly uniform populations of bacteria often contain subpopulations that are genetically identical but display unique characteristics which offer advantages when the population is faced with infrequent but predictable stresses. The pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is capable of forming several reversible colony types, and it interconverted between one white type and two yellow types under certain environmental stresses. The two yellow forms exhibited distinct advantages in low-oxygen and acidic environments. One yellow

  2. Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei adhesins for human respiratory epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. A well-studied aspect of pathogenesis by these closely-related bacteria is their ability to invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify adherence factors expressed by these organisms. Results Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649 that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA, was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells and A549 (type II pneumocytes, as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE. Consistent with these findings, disruption of the boaA gene in B. mallei ATCC23344 reduced adherence to all three cell types by ~50%. The genomes of the B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and DD503 were also found to contain boaA and inactivation of the gene in DD503 considerably decreased binding to monolayers of HEp2 and A549 cells and to NHBE cultures. A second YadA-like gene product highly similar to BoaA (65% identity was identified in the published genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 (locus # BPSL1705. The gene specifying this protein, termed boaB, appears to be B. pseudomallei-specific. Quantitative attachment assays demonstrated that recombinant E. coli expressing BoaB displayed greater binding to A549 pneumocytes, HEp2 cells and NHBE cultures. Moreover, a boaB mutant of B. pseudomallei DD503 showed decreased adherence to these respiratory cells. Additionally, a B. pseudomallei strain lacking expression of both boaA and boaB was impaired in its ability to

  3. Isolation of the highly pathogenic and zoonotic agent Burkholderia pseudomallei from a pet green Iguana in Prague, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Mandy C; Hnizdo, Jan; Stamm, Ivonne; El-Adawy, Hosny; Mertens, Katja; Melzer, Falk

    2014-11-28

    Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia (B.) pseudomallei is an endemic zoonotic disease mainly reported from northern Australia and Southeast Asia. In Europe, cases of human melioidosis have been reported only from patients travelling to endemic regions. Besides humans, B. pseudomallei has a very broad host range in domestic and wild animals. There are some reports about importation of B. pseudomallei-infected animals from endemic areas into Europe. The present report describes the first case of B. pseudomallei infection of a pet iguana in Europe. In a 5-year-old pet Iguana iguana living in a private household in Prague, Czech Republic, B. pseudomallei was isolated from pus of an abscess. The isolate VB976100 was identified by Vitek®2, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction as B. pseudomallei. The molecular typing resulted in multi-locus sequence type 436 hitherto, which has been found only once worldwide in a B. pseudomallei strain isolated in the USA and originating from Guatemala. The identification as internal transcribed spacer type G indicates a close relatedness to strains mainly isolated in the Western Hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the iguana became infected in this region or in a breeding facility through contact to other infected animals. The present case highlights the risk of importation of the highly pathogenic and zoonotic B. pseudomallei into non-endemic regions through animal trade. Therefore, veterinarians treating animals from these areas and physicians examining patients owning such animals should include melioidosis in differential diagnosis whenever specific symptoms appear. Furthermore, veterinary authorities responsible for supervision of traders and pet shops should be aware of this risk of zoonotic transmission.

  4. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  5. Activation of MAPK/ERK signaling by Burkholderia pseudomallei cycle inhibiting factor (Cif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ying Ng

    Full Text Available Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs are virulence proteins secreted by the type III secretion system of some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei. Cif is known to function to deamidate Nedd8, leading to inhibition of Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL and consequently induction of cell cycle arrest. Here we show that Cif can function as a potent activator of MAPK/ERK signaling without significant activation of other signaling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Importantly, we found that the ability of Cif to activate ERK is dependent on its deamidase activity, but independent of Cullin E3 ligase inhibition. This suggests that apart from Nedd8, other cellular targets of Cif-dependent deamidation exist. We provide evidence that the mechanism involved in Cif-mediated ERK activation is dependent on recruitment of the Grb2-SOS1 complex to the plasma membrane. Further investigation revealed that Cif appears to modify the phosphorylation status of SOS1 in a region containing the CDC25-H and proline-rich domains. It is known that prolonged Cullin E3 ligase inhibition leads to cellular apoptosis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ERK activation is an important mechanism to counter the pro-apoptotic effects of Cif. Indeed, we show that Cif dependent ERK activation promotes phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein Bim, thereby potentially conferring a pro-survival signal. In summary, we identified a novel deamidation-dependent mechanism of action of the B. pseudomallei virulence factor Cif/CHBP to activate MAPK/ERK signaling. Our study demonstrates that bacterial proteins such as Cif can serve as useful molecular tools to uncover novel aspects of mammalian signaling pathways.

  6. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  7. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Swietnicki

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50 values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  8. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Carmany, Daniel; Retford, Michael; Guelta, Mark; Dorsey, Russell; Bozue, Joel; Lee, Michael S; Olson, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50) values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  9. Unusual case of failure to thrive: Type III Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S; Subedi, K; Ray, P; Rayamajhi, A

    2016-09-01

    Bartter syndrome Type III is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from an inherited defect in the thick ascending limb of the loop of henle of the nephrons in kidney. The typical clinical manifestations in childhood are failure to thrive and recurrent episodes of vomiting. Typical laboratory findings which help in the diagnosis are hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypercalciuria. We report a case of Type III Bartter syndrome not responding to repeated conventional treatment of failure to thrive.

  10. Guarding the frontiers: the biology of type III interferons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wack, Andreas; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) or IFN-λs regulate a similar set of genes as type I IFNs, but whereas type I IFNs act globally, IFN-λs primarily target mucosal epithelial cells and protect them against the frequent viral attacks that are typical for barrier tissues. IFN-λs thereby help to maintain...

  11. Alanine racemase mutants of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei and use of alanine racemase as a non-antibiotic-based selectable marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl L W Zajdowicz

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are category B select agents and must be studied under BSL3 containment in the United States. They are typically resistant to multiple antibiotics, and the antibiotics used to treat B. pseudomallei or B. mallei infections may not be used as selective agents with the corresponding Burkholderia species. Here, we investigated alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei for development of non-antibiotic-based genetic selection methods and for attenuation of virulence. The genome of B. pseudomallei K96243 has two annotated alanine racemase genes (bpsl2179 and bpss0711, and B. mallei ATCC 23344 has one (bma1575. Each of these genes encodes a functional enzyme that can complement the alanine racemase deficiency of Escherichia coli strain ALA1. Herein, we show that B. pseudomallei with in-frame deletions in both bpsl2179 and bpss0711, or B. mallei with an in-frame deletion in bma1575, requires exogenous D-alanine for growth. Introduction of bpsl2179 on a multicopy plasmid into alanine racemase deficient variants of either Burkholderia species eliminated the requirement for D-alanine. During log phase growth without D-alanine, the viable counts of alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei decreased within 2 hours by about 1000-fold and 10-fold, respectively, and no viable bacteria were present at 24 hours. We constructed several genetic tools with bpsl2179 as a selectable genetic marker, and we used them without any antibiotic selection to construct an in-frame ΔflgK mutant in the alanine racemase deficient variant of B. pseudomallei K96243. In murine peritoneal macrophages, wild type B. mallei ATCC 23344 was killed much more rapidly than wild type B. pseudomallei K96243. In addition, the alanine racemase deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei K96243 exhibited attenuation versus its isogenic parental strain with respect to growth and survival in murine

  12. Alanine Racemase Mutants of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei and Use of Alanine Racemase as a Non-Antibiotic-Based Selectable Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdowicz, Sheryl L. W.; Jones-Carson, Jessica; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Jobling, Michael G.; Gill, Ronald E.; Holmes, Randall K.

    2011-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are category B select agents and must be studied under BSL3 containment in the United States. They are typically resistant to multiple antibiotics, and the antibiotics used to treat B. pseudomallei or B. mallei infections may not be used as selective agents with the corresponding Burkholderia species. Here, we investigated alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei for development of non-antibiotic-based genetic selection methods and for attenuation of virulence. The genome of B. pseudomallei K96243 has two annotated alanine racemase genes (bpsl2179 and bpss0711), and B. mallei ATCC 23344 has one (bma1575). Each of these genes encodes a functional enzyme that can complement the alanine racemase deficiency of Escherichia coli strain ALA1. Herein, we show that B. pseudomallei with in-frame deletions in both bpsl2179 and bpss0711, or B. mallei with an in-frame deletion in bma1575, requires exogenous d-alanine for growth. Introduction of bpsl2179 on a multicopy plasmid into alanine racemase deficient variants of either Burkholderia species eliminated the requirement for d-alanine. During log phase growth without d-alanine, the viable counts of alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei decreased within 2 hours by about 1000-fold and 10-fold, respectively, and no viable bacteria were present at 24 hours. We constructed several genetic tools with bpsl2179 as a selectable genetic marker, and we used them without any antibiotic selection to construct an in-frame ΔflgK mutant in the alanine racemase deficient variant of B. pseudomallei K96243. In murine peritoneal macrophages, wild type B. mallei ATCC 23344 was killed much more rapidly than wild type B. pseudomallei K96243. In addition, the alanine racemase deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei K96243 exhibited attenuation versus its isogenic parental strain with respect to growth and survival in murine peritoneal macrophages

  13. Blood groups and acute aortic dissection type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Vukmirovic, Mihailo; Radojevic, Nemanja; Zornic, Nenad; Banzic, Igor; Ilic, Nikola; Kostic, Dusan; Pajovic, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Acute aortic type III dissection is one of the most catastrophic events, with in-hospital mortality ranging between 10% and 12%. The majority of patients are treated medically, but complicated dissections, which represent 15% to 20% of cases, require surgical or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). For the best outcomes adequate blood transfusion support is required. Interest in the relationship between blood type and vascular disease has been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate distribution of blood groups among patients with acute aortic type III dissection and to identify any kind of relationship between blood type and patient's survival. From January 2005 to December 2014, 115 patients with acute aortic type III dissection were enrolled at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in Belgrade, Serbia and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were separated into two groups. The examination group consisted of patients with a lethal outcome, and the control group consisted of patients who survived. The analysis of the blood groups and RhD typing between groups did not reveal a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.220). Our results indicated no difference between different blood groups and RhD typing with respect to in-hospital mortality of patients with acute aortic dissection type III.

  14. The Burkholderia pseudomallei Proteins BapA and BapC Are Secreted TTSS3 Effectors and BapB Levels Modulate Expression of BopE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthayalai Treerat

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative pathogens use a type III secretion system (TTSS for the injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. The injected effector proteins play direct roles in modulation of host cell pathways for bacterial benefit. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, expresses three different TTSSs. One of these systems, the TTSS3, is essential for escape from host endosomes and therefore intracellular survival and replication. Here we have characterized three putative TTSS3 proteins; namely BapA, BapB and BapC. By employing a tetracysteine (TC-FlAsH™ labelling technique to monitor the secretion of TC-tagged fusion proteins, BapA and BapC were shown to be secreted during in vitro growth in a TTSS3-dependant manner, suggesting a role as TTSS3 effectors. Furthermore, we constructed B. pseudomallei bapA, bapB and bapC mutants and used the well-characterized TTSS3 effector BopE as a marker of secretion to show that BapA, BapB and BapC are not essential for the secretion process. However, BopE transcription and secretion were significantly increased in the bapB mutant, suggesting that BapB levels modulate BopE expression. In a BALB/c mouse model of acute melioidosis, the bapA, bapB and bapC mutants showed a minor reduction of in vivo fitness. Thus, this study defines BapA and BapC as novel TTSS3 effectors, BapB as a regulator of BopE production, and all three as necessary for full B. pseudomallei in vivo fitness.

  15. [Diagnostic values of serum type III procollagen N-terminal peptide in type IV gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, S; Fujiki, T; Kanda, Y; Kumai, R; Yoshida, S

    1985-04-01

    Since increased synthesis of collagen has been demonstrated in tissue of type IV gastric cancer, we attempted to distinguish type IV gastric cancer from other cancers by measuring serum levels of type III procollagen N-terminal peptide (type III-N-peptide). Mean serum levels in type IV gastric cancer patients without metastasis were found to be elevated above normal values and developed a tendency to be higher than those in types I, II and III gastric cancer patients without metastasis. Highly positive ratios were found in patients with liver diseases including hepatoma and colon cancer, biliary tract cancer, and esophageal cancer patients with liver, lung or bone metastasis, but only 2 out of 14 of these cancer patients without such metastasis showed positive serum levels of type III-N-peptide. Positive cases in patients with type IV gastric cancer were obtained not only in the group with clinical stage IV but also in the groups with clinical stages II and III. In addition, high serum levels of type III-N-peptide in patients with type IV gastric cancer were seen not only in the cases with liver, lung or bone metastasis but also in cases with disseminated peritoneal metastasis alone. These results suggest that if the serum level of type III-N-peptide is elevated above normal values, type IV gastric cancer should be suspected after ruling out liver diseases, myelofibrosis and liver, lung or bone metastasis.

  16. Type III bursts in interplanetary space - Fundamental or harmonic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulk, G. A.; Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.

    1984-01-01

    ISEE-3 spacecraft observation of 120 relatively simple, isolated bursts in the 30-1980 kHz range are the basis of the present study of Type III bursts in the solar wind. Several characteristics are identified for many of these bursts which imply that the mode of emission changes from predominantly fundamental plasma radiation during the rise phase to predominantly second harmonic during decay. The fundamental emission begins in time coincidence with the start of Langmuir waves, confirming the conventional belief in these waves' causation of Type III bursts. Attention is given to the characteristics of fundamental components, by comparison to harmonics, at km-wavelengths.

  17. Paravertebral Abscess Caused by Bukholderia Pseudomallei in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old Malay man was admitted with intestinal obstruction, fever and lower limb weakness. Initial clinical impression was myelitis causing paralytic ilues and paraperesis. Blood culture showed Burkholderia pseudomallei infection and subsequent MRI showed paravertebral abscess. This case highlights a rare manifestation of melioidosis involving the spine and difficulties in establishing the diagnosis.

  18. Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheaktra, Ngoun; Putchhat, Hor; Sin, Lina; Sen, Bun; Kumar, Varun; Langla, Sayan; Peacock, Sharon J.; Day, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected in 16% of children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. This organism was isolated from 30% of rice paddies in the surrounding vicinity. Despite the lack of reported indigenous cases, melioidosis is likely to occur in Cambodia. PMID:18258125

  19. Laparoscopic treatment of type III para-oesophageal hernia | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III congenital para-oesophageal hernia is a rare condition in children and is ... portion of the stomach and the gastro-oesophageal junction into the chest. ... in the hands of paediatric surgeons familiar with laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery.

  20. Late Presentation of a Type III Axis Fracture with Spondyloptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Choi, David; Casey, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented with an undiagnosed Effendi type III classification fracture and spondyloptosis of the axis with remarkably normal neurology. We discuss his surgery 4 years since the initial injury, and the presentation, features and management of fractures of the axis. PMID:18430325

  1. Receptosecretory nature of type III cells in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Sumio

    2009-01-01

    Type III cells in taste buds form chemical synapses with intragemmal afferent nerve fibers and are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm. Although the vesicles differ in shape and size among species, they are primarily categorized into small clear (40 nm in diameter) and large dense-cored (90-200 nm) types. As such vesicles tend to be closely juxtaposed to the synaptic membrane of the cells, it is reasonable to consider that the vesicles include transmitter(s) towards the gustatory nerve. In the guinea-pig taste bud, stimulation with various taste substances (sucrose, sodium chloride, quinine hydrochloride, or monosodium L-glutamate) causes ultrastructural alterations of the type III cells. At the synapse, the presynaptic plasma membrane often displays invaginations of 90 nm in a mean diameter towards the cytoplasm, which indicates the dense-cored vesicles opening into the synaptic cleft by means of exocytosis. The vesicles are also exocytosed at the non-synaptic region into the intercellular space. These findings strongly suggest that the transmitters presumably contained in the vesicles are released to conduct the excitement of the type III cells to the nerves and also to exert their paracrine effects upon the surroundings, such as the Ebner's salivary gland, acting as local hormones.

  2. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end.

  3. On the theory of the type III burst exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1976-01-01

    In situ satellite observations of type III burst exciters at 1 AU show that the beam does not evolve into a plateau in velocity space, contrary to the prediction of quasilinear theory. The observations can be explained by a theory that includes mode coupling effects due to excitation of the parametric oscillating two-stream instability and its saturation by anomalous resistivity. The time evolution of the beam velocity distribution is included in the analysis.

  4. Type III radio bursts in a flaming structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlicky, M.; Tlamicha, A.

    1977-01-01

    An interpretation is presented of the burst of 3.7.1974. The slowly drifting, fine structure in this type III burst is evidence of the existence of very fast, spatially extensive processes in the corona. The concept is presented of a rapidly varying, magnetohydrodynamically unstable, flaming structure of the magnetic field and, using this model, the intensities were computed of the magnetic field at certain altitudes and at two moments differing by 1.4 s. (author)

  5. Interventional therapy of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in type III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Weijun; Wu Peihong; Zhang Liang; Huang Jinhua; Zhang Fujun; Gu Yangkui; Zhao Ming; Huang Xianglong; Guo Changyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of synthetic interventional therapy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma in type III and IV. Methods: Twenty-one patients with obstructive cholestasis were pathological confirmed as cholangioadenocarcinoma, and they were classified as type III and IV cholangioadenocarcinoma by CT, MRCP, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with internal and external drainage (PTCD), multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation, biliary stent endoprosthesis, and interventional adjuvant chemotherapy were applied sequentially. Results: All masses presented with density diminution in CT one month after RF ablation, in which 13 masses had about 30% reduction in size, 4 masses had about 20% reduction in size, and 4 masses remained unchanged. All the masses presented with size reduction with an average of 37% in follow-up CT after 6 months, and the most remarkable size reduction was 60%. The direct and indirect bilirubin levels prompt returned to normal range in 17 cases one month after synthetic interventional therapy and returned to normal range in all cases 6 months later. All patients survived with the follow-up period ranging from 9 to 24 months, with the mean survival time of 14 months. Conclusion: Synthetic interventional therapy is a micro-invasive and effective treatment for type III and IV cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  6. Type I-II laryngeal cleft: clinical course and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonimsky, Guy; Carmel, Eldar; Drendel, Michael; Lipschitz, Noga; Wolf, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Laryngeal cleft (LC) is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting in a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorders and aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. The mild forms (types I-II) may be underdiagnosed, leading to protracted symptomatology and morbidity. To evaluate the diagnostic process, clinical course, management and outcome in children with type I-II laryngeal clefts. We conducted a retrospective case analysis for the years 2005-2012 in a tertiary referral center. Seven children were reviewed: five boys and two girls ranging in age from birth to 5 years. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, aspirations and pneumonia. Evaluation procedures included fiber-optic laryngoscopy (FOL), direct laryngoscopy (DL) and videofluoroscopy. Other pathologies were seen in three children. Six children underwent successful endoscopic surgery and one child was treated conservatively. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful in most of the cases. Types I-II LC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with protracted cough and aspirations. DL is crucial for establishing the diagnosis. Endoscopic surgery is safe and should be applied promptly when conservative measures fail.

  7. The Capsular Polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei Contributes to Survival in Serum by Reducing Complement Factor C3b Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L.; DeVinney, Rebekah; Woods, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei produces an extracellular polysaccharide capsule -3)-2-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-β-d-manno-heptopyranose-(1- which has been shown to be an essential virulence determinant. The addition of purified capsule was shown to increase the virulence of a capsule mutant strain in the Syrian hamster model of acute melioidosis. An increase in the number of wild-type B. pseudomallei cells in the blood was seen by 48 h, while the number of capsule mutant cells in the blood declined by 48 h...

  8. Burkholderia pseudomallei traced to water treatment plant in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, T J; Garrow, S C; Henderson, M; Clair, A; Sampson, J; O'Reilly, L; Cameron, B

    2000-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from environmental specimens 1 year after an outbreak of acute melioidosis in a remote coastal community in northwestern Australia. B. pseudomallei was isolated from a water storage tank and from spray formed in a pH-raising aerator unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the aerator and storage tank isolates were identical to the outbreak strain, WKo97.

  9. Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type III with Primary Hypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome is defined as multiple endocrine gland insufficiencies accompanied by autoimmune diseases of the endocrine and nonendocrine system. After Schmidt introduced a case of nontuberculosis adrenal gland dysfunction with thyroiditis in 1926, Neufeld defined polyglandular autoimmune syndrome by I, II, and III subtypes in 1980 by their presentation of occurrence age, heredity methods, relationship with human leukocyte antigen, and accompanying diseases. We report a case of a 32-year-old female with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III accompanied by type 1 diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin (36 units per day for 11 years. She had insulin deficiency and Hashimoto thyroiditis as an autoimmune disorder. In addition, she had several features similar to Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy including short stature, truncal obesity, round face, short neck, low intelligence (full IQ 84, and decreased memory. Although Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy is morphological evidence of pseudohypoparathyroidism or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, she had primary hypoparathyroidism on laboratory results. Here, we report a case of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III with type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis, and primary hypoparathyroidism, accompanied by clinical features similar to Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy.

  10. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Malaysia and were confirmed by In-house TTS1-PCR. Isolates were subjected for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to explore their genotypic diversity and to investigate for possible clonal clustering of a certain sequence type. Patient's clinical information was examined to investigate for clinical correlation among the different genotypes. In spite of small sample set, MLST results indicated predictive results; considerable genotypic diversity, predominance and novelty among B. pseudomallei collected over a single geographically-located population in Malaysia. Massive genotypic heterogeneity was observed; 8 different sequence types with predominance of sequence type 54 and discovery of two novel sequence types. However, no clear pathogenomic or organ tropism clonal relationships were predicted.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Burkholderia pseudomallei from a remote region of Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The island of New Guinea is located midway between the world's two major melioidosis endemic regions of Australia and Southeast Asia. Previous studies in Papua New Guinea have demonstrated autochthonous melioidosis in Balimo, Western province. In contrast to other regions of endemicity, isolates recovered from both environmental and clinical sources demonstrate narrow genetic diversity over large spatial and temporal scales. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed molecular typing techniques to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these isolates to each other and to others worldwide to aid in understanding the origins of the Papua New Guinean isolates. Multi-locus sequence typing of the 39 isolates resolved three unique sequence types. Phylogenetic reconstruction and Structure analysis determined that all isolates were genetically closer to those from Australia than those from Southeast Asia. Gene cluster analysis however, identified a Yersinia-like fimbrial gene cluster predominantly found among Burkholderia pseudomallei derived from Southeast Asia. Higher resolution VNTR typing and phylogenetic reconstruction of the Balimo isolates resolved 24 genotypes with long branch lengths. These findings are congruent with long term persistence in the region and a high level of environmental stability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given that anthropogenic influence has been hypothesized as a mechanism for the dispersal of B. pseudomallei, these findings correlate with limited movement of the indigenous people in the region. The palaeogeographical and anthropogenic history of Australasia and the results from this study indicate that New Guinea is an important region for the further study of B. pseudomallei origins and dissemination.

  12. A theory of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.L.; Smith, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of type III bursts is reviewed. Energetic electrons propagating through the interplanetary medium are shown to excite the one dimensional oscillating two stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI is in turn stabilized by anomalous resistivity which completes the transfer of long wavelength Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electrons. The theory explains the small energy losses suffered by the electrons in propagating to 1 AU, the predominance of second harmonic radiation, and the observed correlation between radio and electron fluxes. (Auth.)

  13. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  14. The ophthalmological course of Usher syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, L; Tuppurainen, K; Laippala, P; Mäntyjärvi, M; Puhakka, H

    Usher syndrome is a recessive hereditary disease group with clinical and genetical heterogeneity leading to handicapped hearing and visual loss until middle age. It is the most common cause for deaf-blindness. Three distinct phenotypes and five distinct genotypes are already known. In Finland the distribution of known Usher types is different than elsewhere. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) is common in Finland and it is thought to include 40% of patients. Progressive hearing loss is characteristic of USH3. Elsewhere USH3 has been regarded as a rarity covering only several percent of the whole Usher population. The aim of this paper is to describe, for the first time, the course of visual handicap and typical refractive errors in USH3 and compare it with other USH types. From a total patient sample consisting of 229 Finnish USH patients, 200 patients' visual findings were analyzed in a multicenter retrospective follow-up study. The average progress rate during a 10-year follow-up period in different USH types was similar. The essential progress occurred below the age of 40 and was continuous up to that age. Visual acuity dropped below 0.05 (severely impaired) at the age of 37 and the visual fields were of tubular shape without any peripheric islands at the average age of 30. Clinically significant hypermetropia with astigmatism seems to be a pathognomonic clinical sign of USH3.

  15. Elective visceral hybrid repair of type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the classification given by Crawford et al. type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA is dilatation of the aorta from the level of the rib 6 to the separation of the aorta below the renal arteries, capturing all the visceral branch of aorta. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA is a procedure developed in recent years in the world, which involves a combination of conventional, open and endovascular aortic reconstruction surgery at the level of separation of the left subclavian artery to the level of visceral branches of aorta. Case report. We presented a 75-years-old man, with elective visceral hybrid reconstruction of type III TAAA. Computerized scanning (CT angiography of the patient showed type III TAAA with the maximum transverse diameter of aneurysm of 92 mm. Aneurysm started at the level of the sixth rib, and the end of the aneurysm was 1 cm distal to the level of renal arteries. Aneurysm compressed the esophagus, causing the patient difficulty in swallowing act, especially solid food, and frequent back pain. From the other comorbidity, the patient had been treated for a long time, due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension. In general endotracheal anesthesia with epidural analgesia, the patient underwent visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA, which combines classic, open vascular surgery and endovascular procedures. Classic vascular surgery is visceral reconstruction using by-pass procedure from the distal, normal aorta to all visceral branches: celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and both renal arteries, with ligature of all arteries very close to the aorta. After that, by synchronous endovascular technique a complete aneurysmal exclusion of thoracoabdominal aneurysm with thoracic stent-graft was performed. The postoperative course was conducted properly and the patient left the Clinic for Vascular Surgery on postoperative day 21. Control CT, performed 3 months after the surgery

  16. High mobility and high concentration Type-III heterojunction FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, R.; Fiddy, M. A.; Her, T.

    2018-02-01

    The PN junction was introduced in transistors by doping, resulting in high losses due to Coulomb scattering from the dopants. The MOSFET introduced carriers in the form of electrons and holes with an applied bias to the oxide barrier, resulting in carrier transfer without doping. This avoids high scattering losses and dominates the IC industries. With heterojunctions having valence-band maxima near and even above the conduction-band minimum in the formation of Type-III superlattices, very useful devices, introduced by Tsu, Sai-Halacz, and Esaki, soon followed. If the layer thicknesses are more than the carrier mean-free-path, incoherent scattering results in the formation of carrier transfer via diffusion instead of opening up new energy gaps. The exploitation of carriers without scattering represents a new and significant opportunity in what we call a Broken Gap Heterojunction FET.

  17. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  18. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the ''primary liner.'' The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the ''secondary liner.'' The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank [Wallace and Yau, 1986]. The task of this analysis is to simulate the ''hydrogen deflagration'' scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration

  19. Usher syndrome type III can mimic other types of Usher syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Fields, R.R.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Deutman, A.F.; Kimberling, W.J.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical and genetic characteristics are presented of 2 patients from a Dutch Usher syndrome type III family who have a new homozygous USH3 gene mutation: 149-152delCAGG + insTGTCCAAT. One individual (IV:1) is profoundly hearing impaired and has normal vestibular function and retinitis punctata

  20. Noncanonical Effects of IRF9 in Intestinal Inflammation: More than Type I and Type III Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Majoros, Andrea; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Strobl, Birgit; Stockinger, Silvia; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor with its Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits is employed for transcriptional responses downstream of receptors for type I interferons (IFN-I) that include IFN-α and IFN-β and type III interferons (IFN-III), also called IFN-λ. Here, we show in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis that IRF9 deficiency protects animals, whereas the combined loss of IFN-I and IFN-III receptors worsens their condition. We explain the different phenotypes by demonstrating a function of IRF9 in a noncanonical transcriptional complex with Stat1, apart from IFN-I and IFN-III signaling. Together, Stat1 and IRF9 produce a proinflammatory activity that overrides the benefits of the IFN-III response on intestinal epithelial cells. Our results further suggest that the CXCL10 chemokine gene is an important mediator of this proinflammatory activity. We thus establish IFN-λ as a potentially anticolitogenic cytokine and propose an important role for IRF9 as a component of noncanonical Stat complexes in the development of colitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. The content and ratio of type I and III collagen in skin differ with age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    III ratio and changes in skin tension, elasticity, and healing. Also, the content of type I, III collagen and type I/III ratio are significantly altered in hypertrophic scar tissue compared to uninjured age-matched controls, resulting in a different structural ...

  2. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Rutger F; Pennings, Ronald J E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Tuppurainen, Kaija; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Cremers, Cor W R J; Deutman, August F

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients. Cross-sectional regression analyses of the functional acuity score (FAS), functional field score (FFS*) and functional vision score (FVS*) related to age were performed for all patients. The FFS* and FVS* were calculated using the isoptre V-4 test target instead of the usual III-4 target. Statistical tests relating to regression lines and Student's t-test were used to compare between USH3 patients and the other genetic subtypes of Usher syndrome. Cross-sectional analyses revealed significant deterioration in the FAS (1.3% per year), FFS* (1.4% per year) and FVS* (1.8% per year) with advancing age in the USH3 patient group. At a given age the USH3 patients showed significantly poorer visual field function than the USH2a patients. The rate of deterioration in visual function in Finnish USH3 patients was fairly similar to that in Dutch USH1b or USH2a patients. At a given age, visual field impairment in USH3 patients was similar to that in USH1b patients but poorer than in USH2a patients.

  3. Usher syndrome type III can mimic other types of Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Ronald J E; Fields, Randall R; Huygen, Patrick L M; Deutman, August F; Kimberling, William J; Cremers, Cor W R J

    2003-06-01

    Clinical and genetic characteristics are presented of 2 patients from a Dutch Usher syndrome type III family who have a new homozygous USH3 gene mutation: 149-152delCAGG + insTGTCCAAT. One individual (IV:1) is profoundly hearing impaired and has normal vestibular function and retinitis punctata albescens (RPA). The other individual is also profoundly hearing impaired, but has well-developed speech, vestibular areflexia, and retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (RPSP). These findings suggest that Usher syndrome type III can be clinically misdiagnosed as either Usher type I or II; that Usher syndrome patients who are profoundly hearing impaired and have normal vestibular function should be tested for USH3 mutations; and that RPA and RPSP can occur as fundoscopic manifestations of pigmentary retinopathy in Usher syndrome.

  4. Caspase-1-dependent and -independent cell death pathways in Burkholderia pseudomallei infection of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bast

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cytosolic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei and causative agent of melioidosis has been shown to regulate IL-1β and IL-18 production through NOD-like receptor NLRP3 and pyroptosis via NLRC4. Downstream signalling pathways of those receptors and other cell death mechanisms induced during B. pseudomallei infection have not been addressed so far in detail. Furthermore, the role of B. pseudomallei factors in inflammasome activation is still ill defined. In the present study we show that caspase-1 processing and pyroptosis is exclusively dependent on NLRC4, but not on NLRP3 in the early phase of macrophage infection, whereas at later time points caspase-1 activation and cell death is NLRC4- independent. In the early phase we identified an activation pathway involving caspases-9, -7 and PARP downstream of NLRC4 and caspase-1. Analyses of caspase-1/11-deficient infected macrophages revealed a strong induction of apoptosis, which is dependent on activation of apoptotic initiator and effector caspases. The early activation pathway of caspase-1 in macrophages was markedly reduced or completely abolished after infection with a B. pseudomallei flagellin FliC or a T3SS3 BsaU mutant. Studies using cells transfected with the wild-type and mutated T3SS3 effector protein BopE indicated also a role of this protein in caspase-1 processing. A T3SS3 inner rod protein BsaK mutant failed to activate caspase-1, revealed higher intracellular counts, reduced cell death and IL-1β secretion during early but not during late macrophage infection compared to the wild-type. Intranasal infection of BALB/c mice with the BsaK mutant displayed a strongly decreased mortality, lower bacterial loads in organs, and reduced levels of IL-1β, myeloperoxidase and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In conclusion, our results indicate a major role for a functional T3SS3 in early NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis and a contribution of late caspase-1

  5. Development of Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ediane B.; Dow, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are Gram-negative bacteria that cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Inhalational infection with either organism can result in severe and rapidly fatal pneumonia. Inoculation by the oral and cutaneous routes can also produce infection. Chronic infection may develop after recovery from acute infection with both agents, and control of infection with antibiotics requires prolonged treatment. Symptoms for both meliodosis and glanders are non-specific, making diagnosis difficult. B. pseudomallei can be located in the environment, but in the host, B. mallei and B. psedomallei are intracellular organisms, and infection results in similar immune responses to both agents. Effective early innate immune responses are critical to controlling the early phase of the infection. Innate immune signaling molecules such as TLR, NOD, MyD88, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α play key roles in regulating control of infection. Neutrophils and monocytes are critical cells in the early infection for both microorganisms. Both monocytes and macrophages are necessary for limiting dissemination of B. pseudomallei. In contrast, the role of adaptive immune responses in controlling Burkholderia infection is less well understood. However, T cell responses are critical for vaccine protection from Burkholderia infection. At present, effective vaccines for prevention of glanders or meliodosis have not been developed, although recently development of Burkholderia vaccines has received renewed attention. This review will summarize current and past approaches to develop B. mallei and B. pseudomalllei vaccines, with emphasis on immune mechanisms of protection and the challenges facing the field. At present, immunization with live attenuated bacteria provides the most effective and durable immunity, and it is important therefore to understand the immune correlates of protection induced by live attenuated vaccines. Subunit

  6. Antiviral type I and type III interferon responses in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Kreit, Marguerite; Hermant, Pascale; Lardinois, Cécile; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i) preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii) the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii) the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv) the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  7. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  8. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant pathogens have presented increasing challenges to the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. The type III secretion system (T3SS, existing in bacterial chromosomes or plasmids, is one of the most complicated protein secretion systems. T3SSs of animal and plant pathogens possess many highly conserved main structural components comprised of about 20 proteins. Many Gram-negative bacteria carry T3SS as a major virulence determinant, and using the T3SS, the bacteria secrete and inject effector proteins into target host cells, triggering disease symptoms. Therefore, T3SS has emerged as an attractive target for antimicrobial therapeutics. In recent years, many T3SS-targeting small-molecule inhibitors have been discovered; these inhibitors prevent the bacteria from injecting effector proteins and from causing pathophysiology in host cells. Targeting the virulence of Gram-negative pathogens, rather than their survival, is an innovative and promising approach that may greatly reduce selection pressures on pathogens to develop drug-resistant mutations. This article summarizes recent progress in the search for promising small-molecule T3SS inhibitors that target the secretion and translocation of bacterial effector proteins.

  9. Harnessing type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any...... report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR...... and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided...

  10. Adaptation and Antibiotic Tolerance of Anaerobic Burkholderia pseudomallei ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohamad A.; Austin, Chad R.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Higgins, Mike; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Voskuil, Martin I.

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and is remarkably resistant to most classes of antibacterials. Even after months of treatment with antibacterials that are relatively effective in vitro, there is a high rate of treatment failure, indicating that this pathogen alters its patterns of antibacterial susceptibility in response to cues encountered in the host. The pathology of melioidosis indicates that B. pseudomallei encounters host microenvironments that limit aerobic respiration, including the lack of oxygen found in abscesses and in the presence of nitric oxide produced by macrophages. We investigated whether B. pseudomallei could survive in a nonreplicating, oxygen-deprived state and determined if this physiological state was tolerant of conventional antibacterials. B. pseudomallei survived initial anaerobiosis, especially under moderately acidic conditions similar to those found in abscesses. Microarray expression profiling indicated a major shift in the physiological state of hypoxic B. pseudomallei, including induction of a variety of typical anaerobic-environment-responsive genes and genes that appear specific to anaerobic B. pseudomallei. Interestingly, anaerobic B. pseudomallei was unaffected by antibacterials typically used in therapy. However, it was exquisitely sensitive to drugs used against anaerobic pathogens. After several weeks of anaerobic culture, a significant loss of viability was observed. However, a stable subpopulation that maintained complete viability for at least 1 year was established. Thus, during the course of human infection, if a minor subpopulation of bacteria inhabited an oxygen-restricted environment, it might be indifferent to traditional therapy but susceptible to antibiotics frequently used to treat anaerobic infections. PMID:21537012

  11. Type III intermediate filaments desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and peripherin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M.; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-01-01

    Type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review the

  12. Type III Intermediate Filaments Desmin, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Vimentin, and Peripherin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-01-01

    SummaryType III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review

  13. Glycogen storage disease type III: modified Atkins diet improves myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Hartmann, Hans; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-11-28

    Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa. Administration of carbohydrates may elicit reactive hyperinsulinism, resulting in suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, heart and skeletal muscle are depleted of energy substrates. Modified Atkins diet leads to increased blood levels of ketone bodies and fatty acids. We hypothesize that this health care intervention improves the energetic balance of muscles. We treated 2 boys with glycogenosis IIIa aged 9 and 11 years with a modified Atkins diet (10 g carbohydrate per day, protein and fatty acids ad libitum) over a period of 32 and 26 months, respectively. In both patients, creatine kinase levels in blood dropped in response to Atkins diet. When diet was withdrawn in one of the patients he complained of chest pain, reduced physical strength and creatine kinase levels rapidly increased. This was reversed when Atkins diet was reintroduced. One patient suffered from severe cardiomyopathy which significantly improved under diet. Patients with glycogenosis IIIa benefit from an improved energetic state of heart and skeletal muscle by introduction of Atkins diet both on a biochemical and clinical level. Apart from transient hypoglycaemia no serious adverse effects were observed.

  14. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  15. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  16. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The concentrations of ambient Burkholderia pseudomallei during typhoon season in endemic area of melioidosis in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. METHODS: We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September and reference season (October to December. RESULTS: We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season.

  18. The concentrations of ambient Burkholderia pseudomallei during typhoon season in endemic area of melioidosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Lei; Yen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Min Sheng; Ho, Chi-Kung; Mena, Kristina D; Wang, Peng-Yau; Chen, Pei-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September) and reference season (October to December). We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season.

  19. Characterization of BcaA, a putative classical autotransporter protein in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cristine G; Borst, Luke; Cotter, Peggy A

    2013-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a tier 1 select agent, and the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease with effects ranging from chronic abscesses to fulminant pneumonia and septic shock, which can be rapidly fatal. Autotransporters (ATs) are outer membrane proteins belonging to the type V secretion system family, and many have been shown to play crucial roles in pathogenesis. The open reading frame Bp1026b_II1054 (bcaA) in B. pseudomallei strain 1026b is predicted to encode a classical autotransporter protein with an approximately 80-kDa passenger domain that contains a subtilisin-related domain. Immediately 3' to bcaA is Bp11026_II1055 (bcaB), which encodes a putative prolyl 4-hydroxylase. To investigate the role of these genes in pathogenesis, large in-frame deletion mutations of bcaA and bcaB were constructed in strain Bp340, an efflux pump mutant derivative of the melioidosis clinical isolate 1026b. Comparison of Bp340ΔbcaA and Bp340ΔbcaB mutants to wild-type B. pseudomallei in vitro demonstrated similar levels of adherence to A549 lung epithelial cells, but the mutant strains were defective in their ability to invade these cells and to form plaques. In a BALB/c mouse model of intranasal infection, similar bacterial burdens were observed after 48 h in the lungs and liver of mice infected with Bp340ΔbcaA, Bp340ΔbcaB, and wild-type bacteria. However, significantly fewer bacteria were recovered from the spleen of Bp340ΔbcaA-infected mice, supporting the idea of a role for this AT in dissemination or in survival in the passage from the site of infection to the spleen.

  20. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  1. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  2. AN IMPORTED CASE OF ACUTE MELIOIDOSIS CAUSED BY ST881 BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohui; Deng, Yiyun

    2016-03-01

    A previously healthy Chinese male working in Malaysia returned to China with high fever. A blood culture showed Burkholderia pseudomallei strain WCBP1. This isolate was sequenced, showing type, ST881, which appears to be present in Malaysia. WCP1 had unusual susceptibility to aminoglycosides and habored the Yersinia-like fimbrial gene cluster for virulence. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly but he recovered after receiving meropenem and intensive care support. Melioidosis is a potential problem among Chinese imigrant workers with strains new to China being identified.

  3. Identification of proteins similar to AvrE type III effector proteins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III effector proteins are injected into host cells through type III secretion systems. Some effectors are similar to host proteins to promote pathogenicity, while others lead to the activation of disease resistance. We used partial least squares alignment-free bioinformatics methods to identify proteins similar to AvrE proteins ...

  4. Relationship between type III-V radio and hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Type III-V radio bursts are found to be closely associated with impulsive hard X-ray bursts. Probably 0.1% to 1% of the fast electrons in the X-ray source region escape to heights >0.1 solar radii in the corona and excite the type III-V burst. (Auth.)

  5. Epidemiological tracking and population assignment of the non-clonal bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Julia; Price, Erin P; Hornstra, Heidie; Busch, Joseph D; Mayo, Mark; Godoy, Daniel; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Baker, Anthony; Foster, Jeffrey T; Wagner, David M; Tuanyok, Apichai; Warner, Jeffrey; Spratt, Brian G; Peacock, Sharon J; Currie, Bart J; Keim, Paul; Pearson, Talima

    2011-12-01

    Rapid assignment of bacterial pathogens into predefined populations is an important first step for epidemiological tracking. For clonal species, a single allele can theoretically define a population. For non-clonal species such as Burkholderia pseudomallei, however, shared allelic states between distantly related isolates make it more difficult to identify population defining characteristics. Two distinct B. pseudomallei populations have been previously identified using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). These populations correlate with the major foci of endemicity (Australia and Southeast Asia). Here, we use multiple Bayesian approaches to evaluate the compositional robustness of these populations, and provide assignment results for MLST sequence types (STs). Our goal was to provide a reference for assigning STs to an established population without the need for further computational analyses. We also provide allele frequency results for each population to enable estimation of population assignment even when novel STs are discovered. The ability for humans and potentially contaminated goods to move rapidly across the globe complicates the task of identifying the source of an infection or outbreak. Population genetic dynamics of B. pseudomallei are particularly complicated relative to other bacterial pathogens, but the work here provides the ability for broad scale population assignment. As there is currently no independent empirical measure of successful population assignment, we provide comprehensive analytical details of our comparisons to enable the reader to evaluate the robustness of population designations and assignments as they pertain to individual research questions. Finer scale subdivision and verification of current population compositions will likely be possible with genotyping data that more comprehensively samples the genome. The approach used here may be valuable for other non-clonal pathogens that lack simple group-defining genetic characteristics

  6. Epidemiological tracking and population assignment of the non-clonal bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid assignment of bacterial pathogens into predefined populations is an important first step for epidemiological tracking. For clonal species, a single allele can theoretically define a population. For non-clonal species such as Burkholderia pseudomallei, however, shared allelic states between distantly related isolates make it more difficult to identify population defining characteristics. Two distinct B. pseudomallei populations have been previously identified using multilocus sequence typing (MLST. These populations correlate with the major foci of endemicity (Australia and Southeast Asia. Here, we use multiple Bayesian approaches to evaluate the compositional robustness of these populations, and provide assignment results for MLST sequence types (STs. Our goal was to provide a reference for assigning STs to an established population without the need for further computational analyses. We also provide allele frequency results for each population to enable estimation of population assignment even when novel STs are discovered. The ability for humans and potentially contaminated goods to move rapidly across the globe complicates the task of identifying the source of an infection or outbreak. Population genetic dynamics of B. pseudomallei are particularly complicated relative to other bacterial pathogens, but the work here provides the ability for broad scale population assignment. As there is currently no independent empirical measure of successful population assignment, we provide comprehensive analytical details of our comparisons to enable the reader to evaluate the robustness of population designations and assignments as they pertain to individual research questions. Finer scale subdivision and verification of current population compositions will likely be possible with genotyping data that more comprehensively samples the genome. The approach used here may be valuable for other non-clonal pathogens that lack simple group-defining genetic

  7. Global and regional dissemination and evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewapreecha, Claire; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Yang, Zhirong; Harris, Simon R; Mather, Alison E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; De Smet, Birgit; Le Hello, Simon; Bizet, Chantal; Mayo, Mark; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Spratt, Brian G; Corander, Jukka; Keim, Paul; Dougan, Gordon; Dance, David A. B.; Currie, Bart J; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2017-01-01

    The environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes an estimated 165,000 cases of human melioidosis per year worldwide, and is also classified as a biothreat agent. We used whole genome sequences of 469 B. pseudomallei isolates from 30 countries collected over 79 years to explore its geographic transmission. Our data point to Australia as an early reservoir, with transmission to Southeast Asia followed by onward transmission to South Asia, and East Asia. Repeated reintroduction was observed within the Malay Peninsula, and between countries bordered by the Mekong river. Our data support an African origin of the Central and South American isolates with introduction of B. pseudomallei into the Americas between 1650 and 1850, providing a temporal link with the slave trade. We also identified geographically distinct genes/variants in Australasian or Southeast Asian isolates alone, with virulence-associated genes being among those overrepresented. This provides a potential explanation for clinical manifestations of melioidosis that are geographically restricted. PMID:28112723

  8. Development of ceftazidime resistance in an acute Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarovich DS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Derek S Sarovich,1,2,* Erin P Price,1,2,* Direk Limmathurotsakul,3 James M Cook,1 Alex T Von Schulze,1 Spenser R Wolken,1 Paul Keim,1 Sharon J Peacock,3,4 Talima Pearson1 1Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; 2Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium that causes the disease melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. First-line antibiotic therapy for treating melioidosis is usually the synthetic β-lactam, ceftazidime (CAZ, as almost all B. pseudomallei strains are susceptible to this drug. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, which can lead to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different drug in a timely manner. Serial B. pseudomallei isolates obtained from an acute Thai melioidosis patient infected by a CAZ susceptible strain, who ultimately succumbed to infection despite being on CAZ therapy for the duration of their infection, were analyzed. Isolates that developed CAZ resistance due to a proline to serine change at position 167 in the β-lactamase PenA were identified. Importantly, these CAZ resistant isolates remained sensitive to the alternative melioidosis treatments; namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and meropenem. Lastly, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of rapidly identifying CAZ resistance in B. pseudomallei isolates at the position 167 mutation site were developed. The ability to rapidly identify the emergence of CAZ resistant B. pseudomallei populations in melioidosis patients will allow timely alterations in treatment strategies

  9. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III–V Radio Bursts in a Solar Flare ... velocities of the electron streams associated with the above two types of bursts indicate ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News ...

  10. Treatment of type II and type III open tibia fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, C S; Weiner, L S; Yang, E C

    1997-07-01

    To determine whether severe open tibial fractures in children behave like similar fractures in adults. A combined retrospective and prospective review evaluated treatment protocol for type II and type III open tibial fractures in children over a ten-year period from 1984 to 1993. Twenty-three fractures were studied in children aged 3.5 to 14.5 (18 boys and 5 girls). There were six type II, eight type IIIA, and nine type IIIB fractures. Type I fractures were not included. Seven fractures were comminuted with significant butterfly fragments or segmental patterns. Treatment consisted of adequate debridement of soft tissues, closure of dead space, and stabilization with external fixation. Bone debridement only included contaminated devitalized bone or devitalized bone without soft tissue coverage. Bone that could be covered despite periosteal stripping was preserved. Clinical and roentgenographic examinations were used to determine time to union. All fractures in this series healed between eight and twenty-six weeks. Wound coverage included two flaps, three skin grafts, and two delayed primary closures. No bone grafts were required. There were no deep infections, growth arrests, or malunions. Follow-up has ranged from six months to four years. Open tibia fractures in children differ from similar fractures in adults in the following ways: soft tissues have excellent healing capacity, devitalized bone that is not contaminated or exposed can be saved and will become incorporated, and external fixation can be maintained until the fracture has healed. Periosteum in young children can form bone even in the face of bone loss.

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in 2 pet iguanas, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Ashley M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Koski, Marilyn A; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A; Swanson, Alexandra A; Rood, Michael P; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A; Blaney, David D; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Beeler, Emily S

    2014-02-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  12. Environmental Survival, Military Relevance, and Persistence of Burkholderia Pseudomallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    products used for disinfection and decontamination (Sagripanti and Bonifacino, 1996, 1999, 2000). 20 Preliminary results indicate that chloramine may be...CONTENTS 1. IN T R O D U C T IO N ............................................................................................. 9 2. IMPACT OF THE...pseudomallei. Moreover, the intracellular nature of melioidosis makes stimulation of T cell immunity difficult. Therefore, a vaccine to provide complete

  13. Molecular Characterization of Putative Virulence Determinants in Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Moi Puah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative saprophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease which is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. This bacterium possesses many virulence factors which are thought to contribute to its survival and pathogenicity. Using a virulent clinical isolate of B. pseudomallei and an attenuated strain of the same B. pseudomallei isolate, 6 genes BPSL2033, BP1026B_I2784, BP1026B_I2780, BURPS1106A_A0094, BURPS1106A_1131, and BURPS1710A_1419 were identified earlier by PCR-based subtractive hybridization. These genes were extensively characterized at the molecular level, together with an additional gene BPSL3147 that had been identified by other investigators. Through a reverse genetic approach, single-gene knockout mutants were successfully constructed by using site-specific insertion mutagenesis and were confirmed by PCR. BPSL2033::Km and BURPS1710A_1419::Km mutants showed reduced rates of survival inside macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and also low levels of virulence in the nematode infection model. BPSL2033::Km demonstrated weak statistical significance (P=0.049 at 8 hours after infection in macrophage infection study but this was not seen in BURPS1710A_1419::Km. Nevertheless, complemented strains of both genes were able to partially restore the gene defects in both in vitro and in vivo studies, thus suggesting that they individually play a minor role in the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  14. Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates in 2 Pet Iguanas, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Ashley M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Koski, Marilyn A.; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A.; Swanson, Alexandra A.; Rood, Michael P.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A.; Blaney, David D.; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Beeler, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  15. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) linked to chromosome 3q in an Italian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, P; De Fazio, A; Croce, A I; Stanziale, P; Zelante, L

    1998-08-01

    We report an Italian family affected by Usher type III syndrome. Linkage study, performed using markers corresponding to the Usher loci already mapped, clearly showed linkage with markers on chromosome 3q24-25. Our data further support the presence of an Usher III locus on chromosome 3, as recently reported in a Finnish population.

  16. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) linked to chromosome 3q in an Italian family.

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparini, P; De Fazio, A; Croce, A I; Stanziale, P; Zelante, L

    1998-01-01

    We report an Italian family affected by Usher type III syndrome. Linkage study, performed using markers corresponding to the Usher loci already mapped, clearly showed linkage with markers on chromosome 3q24-25. Our data further support the presence of an Usher III locus on chromosome 3, as recently reported in a Finnish population.

  17. Diverse Burkholderia Species Isolated from Soils in the Southern United States with No Evidence of B. pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina M Hall

    Full Text Available The global distribution of the soil-dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis, is poorly understood. We used established culturing methods developed for B. pseudomallei to isolate Burkholderia species from soil collected at 18 sampling sites in three states in the southern United States (Arizona (n = 4, Florida (n = 7, and Louisiana (n = 7. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST of seven genes, we identified 35 Burkholderia isolates from these soil samples. All species belonged to the B. cepacia complex (Bcc, including B. cenocepacia, B. cepacia, B. contaminans, B. diffusa, B. metallica, B. seminalis, B. vietnamiensis and two unnamed members of the Bcc. The MLST analysis provided a high level of resolution among and within these species. Despite previous clinical cases within the U.S. involving B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relatives, we did not isolate any of these taxa. The Bcc contains a number of opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Interestingly, we found that B. vietnamiensis was present in soil from all three states, suggesting it may be a common component in southern U.S. soils. Most of the Burkholderia isolates collected in this study were from Florida (30/35; 86%, which may be due to the combination of relatively moist, sandy, and acidic soils found there compared to the other two states. We also investigated one MLST gene, recA, for its ability to identify species within Burkholderia. A 365bp fragment of recA recovered nearly the same species-level identification as MLST, thus demonstrating its cost effective utility when conducting environmental surveys for Burkholderia. Although we did not find B. pseudomallei, our findings document that other diverse Burkholderia species are present in soils in the southern United States.

  18. Diverse Burkholderia Species Isolated from Soils in the Southern United States with No Evidence of B. pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carina M; Busch, Joseph D; Shippy, Kenzie; Allender, Christopher J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W; Schupp, James M; Colman, Rebecca E; Keim, Paul; Currie, Bart J; Wagner, David M

    2015-01-01

    The global distribution of the soil-dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis, is poorly understood. We used established culturing methods developed for B. pseudomallei to isolate Burkholderia species from soil collected at 18 sampling sites in three states in the southern United States (Arizona (n = 4), Florida (n = 7), and Louisiana (n = 7)). Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of seven genes, we identified 35 Burkholderia isolates from these soil samples. All species belonged to the B. cepacia complex (Bcc), including B. cenocepacia, B. cepacia, B. contaminans, B. diffusa, B. metallica, B. seminalis, B. vietnamiensis and two unnamed members of the Bcc. The MLST analysis provided a high level of resolution among and within these species. Despite previous clinical cases within the U.S. involving B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relatives, we did not isolate any of these taxa. The Bcc contains a number of opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Interestingly, we found that B. vietnamiensis was present in soil from all three states, suggesting it may be a common component in southern U.S. soils. Most of the Burkholderia isolates collected in this study were from Florida (30/35; 86%), which may be due to the combination of relatively moist, sandy, and acidic soils found there compared to the other two states. We also investigated one MLST gene, recA, for its ability to identify species within Burkholderia. A 365bp fragment of recA recovered nearly the same species-level identification as MLST, thus demonstrating its cost effective utility when conducting environmental surveys for Burkholderia. Although we did not find B. pseudomallei, our findings document that other diverse Burkholderia species are present in soils in the southern United States.

  19. Second harmonic generation microscopy differentiates collagen type I and type III in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Kayra, Damian; Elliott, W. Mark; Hogg, James C.; Abraham, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The structural remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins in peripheral lung region is an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiphoton microscopy is capable of inducing specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal from non-centrosymmetric structural proteins such as fibrillar collagens. In this study, SHG microscopy was used to examine structural remodeling of the fibrillar collagens in human lungs undergoing emphysematous destruction (n=2). The SHG signals originating from these diseased lung thin sections from base to apex (n=16) were captured simultaneously in both forward and backward directions. We found that the SHG images detected in the forward direction showed well-developed and well-structured thick collagen fibers while the SHG images detected in the backward direction showed striking different morphological features which included the diffused pattern of forward detected structures plus other forms of collagen structures. Comparison of these images with the wellestablished immunohistochemical staining indicated that the structures detected in the forward direction are primarily the thick collagen type I fibers and the structures identified in the backward direction are diffusive structures of forward detected collagen type I plus collagen type III. In conclusion, we here demonstrate the feasibility of SHG microscopy in differentiating fibrillar collagen subtypes and understanding their remodeling in diseased lung tissues.

  20. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynda, W.J.; Lobner, P.R.; Powell, R.W.; Straker, E.A.

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems

  1. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Kishore

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... of the electron streams that generate type V bursts, spread in the velocity spectrum, and the curvature of the magnetic field lines along which they travel. Keywords. Sun—corona—magnetic field—flares—radio bursts—polarization. 1. Introduction. Type V bursts are relatively unusual solar radio tran- sients.

  2. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Sankila, E.M.; Tuppurainen, K.; Kleemola, L.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Deutman, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients.

  3. Polar lipids of Burkholderia pseudomallei induce different host immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In endemic regions the disease occurs primarily in humans and goats. In the present study, we used the goat as a model to dissect the polar lipids of B. pseudomallei to identify lipid molecules that could be used for adjuvants/vaccines or as diagnostic tools. We showed that the lipidome of B. pseudomallei and its fractions contain several polar lipids with the capacity to elicit different immune responses in goats, namely rhamnolipids and ornithine lipids which induced IFN-γ, whereas phospholipids and an undefined polar lipid induced strong IL-10 secretion in CD4(+ T cells. Autologous T cells co-cultured with caprine dendritic cells (cDCs and polar lipids of B. pseudomallei proliferated and up-regulated the expression of CD25 (IL-2 receptor molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polar lipids were able to up-regulate CD1w2 antigen expression in cDCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, the same polar lipids had only little effect on the expression of MHC class II DR antigens in the same caprine dendritic cells. Finally, antibody blocking of the CD1w2 molecules on cDCs resulted in decreased expression for IFN-γ by CD4(+ T cells. Altogether, these results showed that polar lipids of B. pseudomallei are recognized by the caprine immune system and that their recognition is primarily mediated by the CD1 antigen cluster.

  4. Polar Lipids of Burkholderia pseudomallei Induce Different Host Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Mima, Naoko; Trunck, Lily A.; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Bowen, Richard A.; Dascher, Kyle; Mwangi, Waithaka; Eckstein, Torsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In endemic regions the disease occurs primarily in humans and goats. In the present study, we used the goat as a model to dissect the polar lipids of B. pseudomallei to identify lipid molecules that could be used for adjuvants/vaccines or as diagnostic tools. We showed that the lipidome of B. pseudomallei and its fractions contain several polar lipids with the capacity to elicit different immune responses in goats, namely rhamnolipids and ornithine lipids which induced IFN-γ, whereas phospholipids and an undefined polar lipid induced strong IL-10 secretion in CD4+ T cells. Autologous T cells co-cultured with caprine dendritic cells (cDCs) and polar lipids of B. pseudomallei proliferated and up-regulated the expression of CD25 (IL-2 receptor) molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polar lipids were able to up-regulate CD1w2 antigen expression in cDCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, the same polar lipids had only little effect on the expression of MHC class II DR antigens in the same caprine dendritic cells. Finally, antibody blocking of the CD1w2 molecules on cDCs resulted in decreased expression for IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells. Altogether, these results showed that polar lipids of B. pseudomallei are recognized by the caprine immune system and that their recognition is primarily mediated by the CD1 antigen cluster. PMID:24260378

  5. Recent Advances on p-Type III-Nitride Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrui Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available p-Type doping represents a key step towards III-nitride (InN, GaN, AlN optoelectronic devices. In the past, tremendous efforts have been devoted to obtaining high quality p-type III-nitrides, and extraordinary progress has been made in both materials and device aspects. In this article, we intend to discuss a small portion of these processes, focusing on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown p-type InN and AlN—two bottleneck material systems that limit the development of III-nitride near-infrared and deep ultraviolet (UV optoelectronic devices. We will show that by using MBE-grown nanowire structures, the long-lasting p-type doping challenges of InN and AlN can be largely addressed. New aspects of MBE growth of III-nitride nanostructures are also discussed.

  6. Fate of circulating amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen in conscious pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Risteli, J

    1993-01-01

    The amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP, M(r) 42,000) is a promising marker for the formation of type III collagen of granulation tissue in experimental and clinical studies. The disposal kinetics of circulating PIIINP is, however, almost unknown. In conscious pigs with a th......The amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP, M(r) 42,000) is a promising marker for the formation of type III collagen of granulation tissue in experimental and clinical studies. The disposal kinetics of circulating PIIINP is, however, almost unknown. In conscious pigs...... of the plasma disappearance curve originated from the formation and disappearance of a high and a low molecular weight (MW) fraction as part of the degradation of PIIINP. The high MW fraction (approximately M(r) 90,000) was similar to a previously described, but not further characterized, PIIINP immunoreactive...

  7. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. ... it is interesting to study mechanisms that underlie interactions involving biocontrol bacteria, type-III ... depending on the response speed and magnitude in contrast.

  8. Rich dynamics of a food chain model with ratio-dependent type III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rich dynamics of a food chain model with ratio-dependent type III functional responses. ... Stability analysis of model is carried out by using usual theory of ordinary ... that Hopf bifurcation may also occur when delay passes its critical value.

  9. Stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers

  10. Critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Llamoza, O. [Departamento de Fisica, FACYT, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela); Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela)], E-mail: llamoza@ula.ve; Cosenza, M.G. [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela); Ponce, G.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras (Honduras); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Pedagogica Nacional Francisco Morazan, Tegucigalpa (Honduras)

    2008-04-15

    The critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent near the transition to robust chaos via type-III intermittency is determined for a family of one-dimensional singular maps. Critical boundaries separating the region of robust chaos from the region where stable fixed points exist are calculated on the parameter space of the system. A critical exponent {beta} expressing the scaling of the Lyapunov exponent is calculated along the critical curve corresponding to the type-III intermittent transition to chaos. It is found that {beta} varies on the interval 0 {<=} {beta} < 1/2 as a function of the order of the singularity of the map. This contrasts with earlier predictions for the scaling behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency. The variation of the critical exponent {beta} implies a continuous change in the nature of the transition to chaos via type-III intermittency, from a second-order, continuous transition to a first-order, discontinuous transition.

  11. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara; Thomas, Ludivine; Marondedze, Claudius; Sgro, Germá n G; Garofalo, Cecilia G; Ficarra, Florencia A; Gehring, Christoph A; Ottado, Jorgelina; Gottig, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system

  12. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  13. OPA3, mutated in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, encodes two transcripts targeted primarily to mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizing, Marjan; Dorward, Heidi; Ly, Lien

    2010-01-01

    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type III (3-MGCA type III), caused by recessive mutations in the 2-exon gene OPA3, is characterized by early-onset bilateral optic atrophy, later-onset extrapyramidal dysfunction, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. Her...... in the mitochondrion rather than the peroxisome and implicate loss of OPA3A rather than gain of OPA3B in disease etiology....

  14. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  15. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  16. Regulation of type III iodothyronine deiodinase expression in human cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Monique H. A.; Kuiper, George G. J. M.; Versteeg, Rogier; Visser, Theo J.

    2006-01-01

    Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) and type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) catalyze the activation of the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3; type III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inactivation of T4 and T3. D3 is highly expressed in brain, placenta, pregnant uterus, and fetal

  17. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems can provide redundancy to counteract viral escape from type I systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas, Sukrit; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Jackson, Simon A; Aroca-Crevillén, Alejandra; Hansen, Loren L; Fineran, Peter C; Fire, Andrew Z; Sánchez-Amat, Antonio

    2017-08-17

    CRISPR-Cas-mediated defense utilizes information stored as spacers in CRISPR arrays to defend against genetic invaders. We define the mode of target interference and role in antiviral defense for two CRISPR-Cas systems in Marinomonas mediterranea . One system (type I-F) targets DNA. A second system (type III-B) is broadly capable of acquiring spacers in either orientation from RNA and DNA, and exhibits transcription-dependent DNA interference. Examining resistance to phages isolated from Mediterranean seagrass meadows, we found that the type III-B machinery co-opts type I-F CRISPR-RNAs. Sequencing and infectivity assessments of related bacterial and phage strains suggests an 'arms race' in which phage escape from the type I-F system can be overcome through use of type I-F spacers by a horizontally-acquired type III-B system. We propose that the phage-host arms race can drive selection for horizontal uptake and maintenance of promiscuous type III interference modules that supplement existing host type I CRISPR-Cas systems.

  18. Exercise intolerance in Glycogen Storage Disease Type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Pradel, Agnès; Husu, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Myopathic symptoms in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa (GSD IIIa) are generally ascribed to the muscle wasting that these patients suffer in adult life, but an inability to debranch glycogen likely also has an impact on muscle energy metabolism. We hypothesized that patients with GSD IIIa can...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Isolated from a Pet Green Iguana in Prague, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Prasad; El-Adawy, Hosny; Mertens, Katja; Melzer, Falk; Hnizdo, Jan; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from pus from an abscess of a pet iguana living in a private household in Prague, Czech Republic. This paper presents the complete genome sequence of B. pseudomallei strain VB976100. PMID:28280033

  20. The [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] star-type single-molecule magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas; Bernt, Ingo; Heinemann, Frank W; Postnikov, Andrei V; Schünemann, Volker; Trautwein, Alfred X; Alam, Mohammad S; Rupp, Holger; Müller, Paul

    2006-06-21

    Star-shaped complex [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] (3) was synthesized starting from N-methyldiethanolamine H2L1 (1) and ferric chloride in the presence of sodium hydride. For 3, two different high-spin iron(III) ion sites were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed that 3 crystallizes with four molecules of chloroform, but, with only three molecules of dichloromethane. The unit cell of 3.4CHCl3 contains the enantiomers (delta)-[(S,S)(R,R)(R,R)] and (lambda)-[(R,R)(S,S)(S,S)], whereas in case of 3.3CH2Cl2 four independent molecules, forming pairs of the enantiomers [lambda-(R,R)(R,R)(R,R)]-3 and [lambda-(S,S)(S,S)(S,S)]-3, were observed in the unit cell. According to SQUID measurements, the antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling of the iron(III) ions in 3 results in a S = 10/2 ground state multiplet. The anisotropy is of the easy-axis type. EPR measurements enabled an accurate determination of the ligand-field splitting parameters. The ferric star 3 is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics below a blocking temperature of about 1.2 K. However, weak intermolecular couplings, mediated in a chainlike fashion via solvent molecules, have a strong influence on the magnetic properties. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) were used to determine the structural and electronic properties of star-type tetranuclear iron(III) complex 3. The molecules were deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Small, regular molecule clusters, two-dimensional monolayers as well as separated single molecules were observed. In our STS measurements we found a rather large contrast at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules. This direct addressing of the metal centers was confirmed by DFT calculations.

  1. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen......, type VI, was found in the endomysium and the network forming collagen, type IV, was found in the basement membrane. This is the first report of type V collagen in cod muscle and of types II, IV and VI in the muscle of a teleost....

  2. Fine structure near the starting frequency of solar type III radio bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, A.O.; Zlobec, P.; Jaeggi, M.

    1982-06-01

    We have systematically analyzed the period in time and frequency adjacent to the beginning of type III bursts digitally recorded at Bleien during the second half of 1980. A surprisingly high percentage (10%, possibly more than 20%) of the type III bursts show fine structure in the form of narrow-banded spikes of 0.05 s and less duration, which form clusters of relatively large bandwidth. These spikes are not totally polarized (contrary to claims in the literature) and they are uniformly distributed over the disk. Individual spikes often show highly variable polarization, which may even change sense. The average degree of polarization of the clouds has a wider distribution than that of the associated type III bursts, but generally the same sign. Spikes are considerably different from type I bursts.

  3. Types I and III procollagen extension peptides in serum respond to fracture in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Jensen, L T; Andersen, G R

    1992-01-01

    Markers of types I and III collagen turnover were measured in serial blood samples in 16 patients with a Colles' fracture. The collagen markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP......). Significant increases were found of PIIINP within 1 week and of PICP within 2 weeks. This sequential appearance of PIIINP and PICP was found to be in agreement with the appearance of types III and I collagen during early fracture healing as demonstrated in previous animal experimental studies. PICP had...... levelled off after 9 months, whereas PIIINP remained elevated. Osteocalcin, a serum marker of osteoblast activity, increased within 1 week and levelled off after 9 months. Correlations between the change in osteocalcin and those in PICP and PIIINP, respectively, were weak. These new biochemical markers may...

  4. Methods for enhancing P-type doping in III-V semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Methods of doping a semiconductor film are provided. The methods comprise epitaxially growing the III-V semiconductor film in the presence of a dopant, a surfactant capable of acting as an electron reservoir, and hydrogen, under conditions that promote the formation of a III-V semiconductor film doped with the p-type dopant. In some embodiments of the methods, the epitaxial growth of the doped III-V semiconductor film is initiated at a first hydrogen partial pressure which is increased to a second hydrogen partial pressure during the epitaxial growth process.

  5. NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome predict type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sulistiowati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS have a greater risk for acquiring type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM. The MetS criteria usually used are those of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (NCEP and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III and of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. This study aimed to evaluate the modified NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria as predictor of type 2 DM among subjects with MetS.   Methods A cohort study was conducted among 4240 subjects with MetS. MetS was determined according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria. The study followed up 3324 non-diabetic subjects of the cohort study of non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors (NCD study during a 2-year period. Type 2 DM was determined from the diagnosis by health personnel or from fasting blood glucose of ≥126 mg/dL or blood glucose of ≥200 mg/dL, 2 hours after 75g glucose loading.   Results The MetS prevalence based on modified NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria in non-DM subjects was 17.1% and 15.6%, respectively. The risk for DM in subjects with MetS using modified NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria was 4.7 (CI 95%: 3.4-6.5 and 4.1 (CI 95%: 3.0-5.7, respectively.   Conclusions Both MetS criteria can be used as predictors of the occurrence of DM type 2, but the modified NCEP-ATP III is more properly applied than the IDF criteria in subjects with MetS. Screening programs and routine monitoring of MetS components are required for early detection of type 2 DM.

  6. Environmental Free-Living Amoebae Isolated from Soil in Khon Kaen, Thailand, Antagonize Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parumon Noinarin

    Full Text Available Presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil and water is correlated with endemicity of melioidosis in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Several biological and physico-chemical factors have been shown to influence persistence of B. pseudomallei in the environment of endemic areas. This study was the first to evaluate the interaction of B. pseudomallei with soil amoebae isolated from B. pseudomallei-positive soil site in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Four species of amoebae, Paravahlkampfia ustiana, Acanthamoeba sp., Naegleria pagei, and isolate A-ST39-E1, were isolated, cultured and identified based on morphology, movement and 18S rRNA gene sequence. Co-cultivation combined with a kanamycin-protection assay of B. pseudomallei with these amoebae at MOI 20 at 30°C were evaluated during 0-6 h using the plate count technique on Ashdown's agar. The fate of intracellular B. pseudomallei in these amoebae was also monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM observation of the CellTracker™ Orange-B. pseudomallei stained cells. The results demonstrated the ability of P. ustiana, Acanthamoeba sp. and isolate A-ST39-E1 to graze B. pseudomallei. However, the number of internalized B. pseudomallei substantially decreased and the bacterial cells disappeared during the observation period, suggesting they had been digested. We found that B. pseudomallei promoted the growth of Acanthamoeba sp. and isolate A-ST39-E1 in co-cultures at MOI 100 at 30°C, 24 h. These findings indicated that P. ustiana, Acanthamoeba sp. and isolate A-ST39-E1 may prey upon B. pseudomallei rather than representing potential environmental reservoirs in which the bacteria can persist.

  7. Increased Levels of Type I and III Collagen and Hyaluronan in Scleroderma Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Heickendorff, Lene; L, Risteli

    1997-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and hyaluronan (HA) were measured in plasma and suction blister fluid from 13 systemic sclerosis patients and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and skin biopsies were...

  8. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f p to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f p and 2 f p radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f p than 2 f p emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f p radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f p radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  9. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, R T; White, S M; Ray, P S; Kaiser, M L

    2015-01-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena. (paper)

  10. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena.

  11. Removal of boron(III) by N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives with higher adsorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Toshio; Mihara, Nobutake; Yamada, Kouji; Nambu, Nobuyoshi; Itoh, Osamu; Doi, Takao; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    To obtain adsorbents for boron(III) derived from a natural polymer, two forms (powder and fiber) of N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were newly synthesized. After the graft polymerization of two forms of cellulose with vinyl monomer having epoxy groups, the N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were obtained by the reaction of the grafted cellulose with N-methylglucamine. The adsorption capacities of the cellulose derivatives for boron(III) were the same levels as that of a commercially available N-methylglucamine-type polystyrene resin. However, the cellulose derivatives adsorbed boron(III) more quickly than the polystyrene resin. The adsorption and desorption of boron(III) with a column method using the cellulose fiber were achieved at a higher flow rate than that using the polystyrene resin. In addition, the boron(III), adsorbed on the cellulose fiber column, was quantitatively recovered with dilute hydrochloric acid in 20- and 200-fold increased concentrations. Consequently, it was found that the cellulose derivatives were superior to the polystyrene resin as adsorbents for boron(III) for treatment of a large quantity of wastewater

  12. Pyogenic Liver Abscess Caused by Burkhoderia pseudomallei in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan is a well-known disease entity, commonly associated with a single pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Melioidosis is an endemic disease in Taiwan that can manifest as multiple abscesses in sites including the liver. We report three cases of liver abscesses caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The first patient was a 54-year-old diabetic woman, who presented with liver abscess and a left subphrenic abscess resulting from a ruptured splenic abscess, co-infected with K. pneumoniae and B. pseudomallei. The second patient, a 58-year-old diabetic man, developed bacteremic pneumonia over the left lower lung due to B. pseudomallei with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and relapsed 5 months later with bacteremic abscesses of the liver, spleen, prostate and osteomyelitis, due to lack of compliance with prescribed antibiotic therapy. The third patient was a 61-year-old diabetic man with a history of travel to Thailand, who presented with jaundice and fever of unknown origin. Liver and splenic abscesses due to B. pseudomallei were diagnosed. A high clinical alertness to patients' travel history, underlying diseases, and the presence of concomitant splenic abscess is essential to early detection of the great mimicker, melioidosis. The treatment of choice is intravenous ceftazidime for at least 14 days or more. An adequate duration of maintenance oral therapy, with amoxicillin-clavulanate or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 12-20 weeks, is necessary to prevent relapse. Liver abscess in Taiwan is most commonly due to K. pneumoniae, but clinicians should keep in mind that this may be a presenting feature of melioidosis.

  13. Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in individuals with Mucopolysaccharide Disease Type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfenden, C.; Wittkowski, A.; Hare, Dougal

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in many genetic disorders is well documented but not as yet in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III). MPS III is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder and evidence suggests that symptoms of ASD present in MPS III. This systematic review examined the extant literature on the symptoms of ASD in MPS III and quality assessed a total of 16 studies. Results indicated that difficulties within speech, language and communication consistent with ...

  14. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; Ptriglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Challenges for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemarajata, Peera; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Risa; Humphries, Romney M

    2016-12-01

    Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infection caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical diagnosis of melioidosis can be challenging since there is no pathognomonic clinical syndrome, and the organism is often misidentified by methods used routinely in clinical laboratories. Although the disease is more prevalent in Thailand and northern Australia, sporadic cases may be encountered in areas where it is not endemic, including the United States. Since the organism is considered a tier 1 select agent according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, clinical laboratories must be proficient at rapidly recognizing isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei, be able to safely perform necessary rule-out tests, and to refer suspect isolates to Laboratory Response Network reference laboratories. In this minireview, we report a case of melioidosis encountered at our institution and discuss the laboratory challenges encountered when dealing with clinical isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei or clinical specimens from suspected melioidosis cases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Yetışır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirizzi syndrome (MS is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann’s pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests.

  17. Heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered

  18. Bartter syndrome type III and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract: an antenatal presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westland, Rik; Hack, Wilfried W; van der Horst, Henricus J R; Uittenbogaard, Lukas B; van Hagen, Johanna M; van der Valk, Paul; Kamsteeg, Erik J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; van Wijk, Joanna A E

    2012-12-01

    Bartter syndrome encompasses a variety of inheritable renal tubular transport disorders characterized by hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome Type III is caused by genetic alterations in the chloride channel kidney B (CLCNKB) gene and often presents in the first 2 years of life, known as classic Bartter syndrome. However, in rare cases Bartter syndrome Type III has an antenatal presentation with polyhydramnios, premature delivery and severe dehydration in the first weeks of life. Associations between congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and Bartter syndrome are extremely rare. This case report presents a girl with Bartter syndrome Type III due to a homozygous CLCNKB mutation and bilateral congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In addition, we describe the antenatal presentation as well as its perinatal management.

  19. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipul Kumar; Saiki, Uma Kaimal; Sarm, Dipti; Choudhury, Bikash Narayan; Choudhury, Sarojini Dutta; Saharia, Dhiren; Saikia, Mihir

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) comprise a wide clinical spectrum of autoimmune disorders. APS is divided into Type I, Type II, Type I and Type IV depending upon the pattern of disease combination. Ghronic diarrhoea is one of the many manifestations of APS and many aetiological factors have been suggested for it. Apart from the established aetiological factors, intestinal lymphangiectasia may be responsible for chronic diarrhea in some cases.Intestinal lymphangiectasia has been reported in Type I APS. We report a case of Type III APS with hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidism who had chronic diarrhea of long duration and was finally diagnosed to have intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  20. Collagen Type III Degradation Is Associated with Deterioration of Kidney Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Hansen, Tine Wilum; Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen

    Background In diabetes one of the main features of the progression to diabetic kidney disease is a pathological deposition of extracellular matrix components triggering renal fibrosis. The main structural component of the fibrotic core is collagen. One of the most prominent collagens is collagen...... type III (COL III), which is excessively synthesized and incorporated into the fibrotic extracellular matrix. Multiple studies in both humans and mice have suggested that MMP-9 activity is increased in diabetic kidney disease. We investigated whether a neo-epitope fragment of COL III generated by MMP-9...... (C3M) was associated with deterioration of kidney function in a well-characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms of coronary artery disease. Methods The cohort included 200 participants, followed for 6.1 years. We measured C3M levels in serum (S-C3M) and urine...

  1. Polysaccharide microarray technology for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Narayanan; DeShazer, David; England, Marilyn; Waag, David M

    2006-11-01

    A polysaccharide microarray platform was prepared by immobilizing Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei polysaccharides. This polysaccharide array was tested with success for detecting B. pseudomallei and B. mallei serum (human and animal) antibodies. The advantages of this microarray technology over the current serodiagnosis of the above bacterial infections were discussed.

  2. Systematic review and consensus guidelines for environmental sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Tier 1 Select Agent and the cause of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative bacillus present in the environment in many tropical countries. Defining the global pattern of B. pseudomallei distribution underpins efforts to prevent infection, and is dependent upon robust environmental sampling methodology. Our objective was to review the literature on the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei, update the risk map for melioidosis, and propose international consensus guidelines for soil sampling.An international working party (Detection of Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei Working Party (DEBWorP was formed during the VIth World Melioidosis Congress in 2010. PubMed (January 1912 to December 2011 was searched using the following MeSH terms: pseudomallei or melioidosis. Bibliographies were hand-searched for secondary references. The reported geographical distribution of B. pseudomallei in the environment was mapped and categorized as definite, probable, or possible. The methodology used for detecting environmental B. pseudomallei was extracted and collated. We found that global coverage was patchy, with a lack of studies in many areas where melioidosis is suspected to occur. The sampling strategies and bacterial identification methods used were highly variable, and not all were robust. We developed consensus guidelines with the goals of reducing the probability of false-negative results, and the provision of affordable and 'low-tech' methodology that is applicable in both developed and developing countries.The proposed consensus guidelines provide the basis for the development of an accurate and comprehensive global map of environmental B. pseudomallei.

  3. Survival and Intra-Nuclear Trafficking of Burkholderia pseudomallei: Strategies of Evasion from Immune Surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna Vadivelu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During infection, successful bacterial clearance is achieved via the host immune system acting in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, it still remains a tip of the iceberg as to where persistent pathogens namely, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei reside/hide to escape from host immune sensors and antimicrobial pressure.We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM to investigate post-mortem tissue sections of patients with clinical melioidosis to identify the localisation of a recently identified gut microbiome, B. pseudomallei within host cells. The intranuclear presence of B. pseudomallei was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM of experimentally infected guinea pig spleen tissues and Live Z-stack, and ImageJ analysis of fluorescence microscopy analysis of in vitro infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells.TEM investigations revealed intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei in cells of infected human lung and guinea pig spleen tissues. We also found that B. pseudomallei induced actin polymerization following infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Infected A549 lung epithelial cells using 3D-Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei.B. pseudomallei was found within the nuclear compartment of host cells. The nucleus may play a role as an occult or transient niche for persistence of intracellular pathogens, potentially leading to recurrrent episodes or recrudescence of infection.

  4. Assessing the potential for Burkholderia pseudomallei in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is an underreported zoonosis in many countries where environmental conditions may be favorable for B. pseudomallei. This soil saprophyte is most often detected in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and Northern Australia where the cas...

  5. Survival and Intra-Nuclear Trafficking of Burkholderia pseudomallei: Strategies of Evasion from Immune Surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Jamuna; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Thimma, Jaikumar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Kang, Wen-Tyng; Choh, Leang-Chung; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-01-01

    Background During infection, successful bacterial clearance is achieved via the host immune system acting in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, it still remains a tip of the iceberg as to where persistent pathogens namely, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei) reside/hide to escape from host immune sensors and antimicrobial pressure. Methods We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate post-mortem tissue sections of patients with clinical melioidosis to identify the localisation of a recently identified gut microbiome, B. pseudomallei within host cells. The intranuclear presence of B. pseudomallei was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of experimentally infected guinea pig spleen tissues and Live Z-stack, and ImageJ analysis of fluorescence microscopy analysis of in vitro infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Results TEM investigations revealed intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei in cells of infected human lung and guinea pig spleen tissues. We also found that B. pseudomallei induced actin polymerization following infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Infected A549 lung epithelial cells using 3D-Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei. Conclusion B. pseudomallei was found within the nuclear compartment of host cells. The nucleus may play a role as an occult or transient niche for persistence of intracellular pathogens, potentially leading to recurrrent episodes or recrudescence of infection. PMID:28045926

  6. Conservative Management of Type III Dens in Dente Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens in dente, also known as dens invaginatus, dilated composite odontoma, or deep foramen caecum, is a developmental malformation that usually affects maxillary incisor teeth, particularly lateral incisors. It may occur in teeth anywhere within the jaws, other locations are comparatively rare. It can occur within both the crown and the root, although crown invaginations are more common. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is very helpful in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. In this case we demonstrate the use of CBCT in the evaluation and endodontic management of a Type III dens in dente (Oehler′s Type III.

  7. Serum aminoterminal type III procollagen peptide reflects repair after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Toft, P

    1990-01-01

    similar to changes observed during wound healing in humans. PIIINP is cleaved off procollagen type III during the biosynthesis of type III collagen, which characterizes the early stages of repair and inflammation. Our findings suggest that serum PIIINP reflects the repair processes and scar formation...... following acute myocardial infarction. The serum PIIINP alterations in acute myocardial infarction differ essentially from the changes in myocardial enzymes reflecting myocardial injury. Serum PIIINP may therefore provide new and clinically relevant information on the healing of myocardial infarction....

  8. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound on the m......In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  9. Quantitative comparisons of type III radio burst intensity and fast electron flux at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Evans, L. G.; Lin, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    We compare the flux of fast solar electrons and the intensity of the type III radio emission generated by these particles at 1 AU. We find that there are two regimes in the generation of type III radiation: one where the radio intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux, and the second regime, which occurs above a threshold electron flux, where the radio intensity is proportional to the approximately 2.4 power of the electron flux. This threshold appears to reflect a transition to a different emission mechanism.

  10. Neuronal migration disorders in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I/III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric-Sekhar, Gordana; Kapur, Raj P; Glass, Ian A; Murray, Mitzi L; Parnell, Shawn E; Hevner, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) is a rare microlissencephaly syndrome, with at least two distinct phenotypic and genetic types. MOPD type II is caused by pericentrin mutations, while types I and III appear to represent a distinct entity (MOPD I/III) with variably penetrant phenotypes and unknown genetic basis. The neuropathology of MOPD I/III is little understood, especially in comparison to other forms of lissencephaly. Here, we report postmortem brain findings in an 11-month-old female infant with MOPD I/III. The cerebral cortex was diffusely pachygyric, with a right parietal porencephalic lesion. Histologically, the cortex was abnormally thick and disorganized. Distinct malformations were observed in different cerebral lobes, as characterized using layer-specific neuronal markers. Frontal cortex was severely disorganized and coated with extensive leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia. Temporal cortex had a relatively normal 6-layered pattern, despite cortical thickening. Occipital cortex was variably affected. The corpus callosum was extremely hypoplastic. Brainstem and cerebellar malformations were also present, as well as old necrotic foci. Findings in this case suggest that the cortical malformation in MOPD I/III is distinct from other forms of pachygyria-lissencephaly.

  11. Hepatitis E virus persists in the presence of a type III interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Li, Xinlei; Ambardekar, Charuta; Hu, Zhimin; Lhomme, Sébastien; Feng, Zongdi

    2017-05-01

    The RIG-I-like RNA helicase (RLR)-mediated interferon (IFN) response plays a pivotal role in the hepatic antiviral immunity. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) counter this response by encoding a viral protease that cleaves the mitochondria antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), a common signaling adaptor for RLRs. However, a third hepatotropic RNA virus, the hepatitis E virus (HEV), does not appear to encode a functional protease yet persists in infected cells. We investigated HEV-induced IFN responses in human hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. HEV infection resulted in persistent virus replication despite poor spread. This was companied by a type III IFN response that upregulated multiple IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but type I IFNs were barely detected. Blocking type III IFN production or signaling resulted in reduced ISG expression and enhanced HEV replication. Unlike HAV and HCV, HEV did not cleave MAVS; MAVS protein size, mitochondrial localization, and function remained unaltered in HEV-replicating cells. Depletion of MAVS or MDA5, and to a less extent RIG-I, also diminished IFN production and increased HEV replication. Furthermore, persistent activation of the JAK/STAT signaling rendered infected cells refractory to exogenous IFN treatment, and depletion of MAVS or the receptor for type III IFNs restored the IFN responsiveness. Collectively, these results indicate that unlike other hepatotropic RNA viruses, HEV does not target MAVS and its persistence is associated with continuous production of type III IFNs.

  12. Genomic Diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical Isolates: Subtractive Hybridization Reveals a Burkholderia mallei-Specific Propage in B. pseudomallei 1026b

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeShazer, David

    2004-01-01

    .... pseudomallei, 1026b and K96243. Numerous mobile genetic elements, including a temperate bacteriophage designated phi1026b, were identified among the 1026b-specific suppression subtractive hybridization products...

  13. [Diagnostic values of type III Procollagen N-terminal peptide and combination assay of type III procollagen N-terminal peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, S; Harada, A; Futatsuki, K

    1984-07-01

    It is known that interstitial collagens are initially synthesized as precursors (procollagen), which possess extra peptide segments at both ends of the molecules. The authors attempted to detect the aminoterminal peptide of type III procollagen (type III-N-peptide) and also to measure the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) together in sera of patients with gastric cancer. The results showed that: (1) mean serum levels and positive ratios of the type III-N-peptide increased as the clinical stage of the patients with gastric cancer advanced; (2) serum levels of the type III-N-peptide were not correlated either with those of CEA or CA 19-9; (3) positive ratios of type III-N-peptide, CEA and CA 19-9 were 51.7%, 44.8% and 48.3%, respectively: (4) positive ratio in combination of the type III-N-peptide with CEA was 69.3% and that in combination of the type III-N-peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 was 72.4%. These results suggest that type III-N-peptide is available for diagnosis of gastric cancer and, that the combination assay of type III-N-peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 is more effective than a single assay for diagnosis.

  14. Selective expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 by mouse type III taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yusuke; Eguchi, Kohgaku; Yoshii, Kiyonori; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Each taste bud cell (TBC) type responds to a different taste. Previously, we showed that an unidentified cell type(s) functionally expresses a muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype, M3, and we suggested the ACh-dependent modification of its taste responsiveness. In this study, we found that M3 is expressed by type III TBCs, which is the only cell type that possesses synaptic contacts with taste nerve fibers in taste buds. The application of ACh to the basolateral membrane of mouse fungiform TBCs in situ increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in 2.4 ± 1.4 cells per taste bud (mean ± SD, n = 14). After Ca 2+ imaging, we supravitally labeled type II cells (phospholipase C β2 [PLCβ2]-immunoreactive cells) with Lucifer yellow CH (LY), a fluorescent dye and investigated the positional relationship between ACh-responding cells and LY-labeled cells. After fixation, the TBCs were immunohistostained to investigate the positional relationships between immunohistochemically classified cells and LY-labeled cells. The overlay of the two positional relationships obtained by superimposing the LY-labeled cells showed that all of the ACh-responding cells were type III cells (synaptosomal-associated protein 25 [SNAP-25]-immunoreactive cells). The ACh responses required no added Ca 2+ in the bathing solution. The addition of 1 μM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, decreased the magnitude of the ACh response, whereas that of 1 μM U73343, a negative control, had no effect. These results suggest that type III cells respond to ACh and release Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. We also discuss the underlying mechanism of the Ca 2+ response and the role of M3 in type III cells.

  15. Compounds of type Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Ossup(V)O/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiber, U; Kemmler-Sack, S [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1981-07-01

    The black perovskites of type Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Ossup(V)O/sub 6/ crystallize cubic (Bsup(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm-Lu, Y) and rhombohedral (Bsup(III) = La) respectively; the cell volumina decrease linearily with (rsub(B)sup(III))/sup 3/. Intensity calculations on powder data for Ba/sub 2/YOsO/sub 6/ (space group Fm3m-Osub(h)/sup 5/) and Ba/sub 2/LaOsO/sub 6/ (space group R-3m-Dsub(3d)/sup 5/) gave the intensity related R'values of 4.6% and 5.0% respectively. The results of the vibrational spectroscopic investigations are reported in common with the bond orders, M-O distances and mean amplitudes and compared with the corresponding values of the series Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Irsup(V)O/sub 6/ and Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Rusup(V)O/sub 6/.

  16. Apparent diffusion coefficient vale of the brain in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd El-Gaber, Nahed; Abdalla, Ahmed; Fathy, Abeer; Azab, Ahmed; Rahman, Ashraf Abdel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the brain for diagnosis of patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III. Prospective study was conducted upon 13 patients (nine boys and four girls aged 8 months-14 years: mean 6.1 years) with Gaucher's disease type II and III and for age-matched control group (n = 13). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a single-shot echo-planar imaging with a diffusion-weighted factor b of 0, 500, and 1,000 s/mm 2 was done for all patients and volunteers. The ADC value was calculated in ten regions of the brain parenchyma and correlated with genotyping. There was significantly lower ADC value of the cortical frontal (P = 0.003), cortical temporal (P = 0.04), frontal subcortical white matter (P = 0.02), corticospinal tract (P = 0.001), cerebellum (P = 0.001), medulla (P = 0.002), and midbrain (P = 0.02) between patients and volunteers. There was significant difference in the ADC value of the frontal and temporal gray matter (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) between patients with heterozygous and homozygous gene mutation. We concluded that ADC value is a new promising quantitative imaging parameter that can be used for the detection of brain abnormalities in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III and has a correlation with genotyping. (orig.)

  17. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  18. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen provides new information on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Jensen, L T; Bendixen, P M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sequential changes in serum levels of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (S-PIIINP) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to assess the value of S-PIIINP as a predictor of outcome. The study group comprised 74 patients with AMI, and 24 ...

  19. Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation of interplanetary type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Alves, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A new generation mechanism of interplanetary type III radio bursts at the fundamental electron plasma frequency is discussed. It is shown that the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability, driven by two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, can account for the experimental observations. In particular, the major difficulties encountered by the previously considered electromagnetic decay instability are removed. 19 references

  20. Intramedullary rodding in type III osteogenesis imperfecta. Effects on neuromotor development in 10 children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; Helders, P. J.; Keessen, W.; Pruijs, H. E.; Gooskens, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    We studied retrospectively gross motor development and the impact of intramedullary rodding in 10 children with type III osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). There was a pronounced delay in motor development and the order in achieving gross motor milestones differed from the normal developmental sequence.

  1. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of Phylotype I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HP2000

    R. solanacearum finds its way into the plant through wounds in the roots and .... 10% (c) Acidic residues should be absent within the first twelve amino acids. .... PilA has been used to study the genetic diversity in soil bacterium ..... the GALA type III effector family contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum adaptation on different.

  2. Radiative type-III ELMy H-mode in all-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Neu, R.; Eich, T.; Fischer, R.; Herrmann, A.; Potzel, S.; van Rooij, G. J.; Zielinski, J. J.; ASDEX Upgrade team,

    2012-01-01

    The type-III ELMy H-mode might be the solution for an integrated ITER operation scenario fulfilling the fusion power amplification factor (output fusion power to input heating power) of Q = 10 with simultaneous acceptable steady-state and transient power loads to the plasma-facing components. This

  3. Critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Cosenza, M.G.; Ponce, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent near the transition to robust chaos via type-III intermittency is determined for a family of one-dimensional singular maps. Critical boundaries separating the region of robust chaos from the region where stable fixed points exist are calculated on the parameter space of the system. A critical exponent β expressing the scaling of the Lyapunov exponent is calculated along the critical curve corresponding to the type-III intermittent transition to chaos. It is found that β varies on the interval 0 ≤ β < 1/2 as a function of the order of the singularity of the map. This contrasts with earlier predictions for the scaling behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency. The variation of the critical exponent β implies a continuous change in the nature of the transition to chaos via type-III intermittency, from a second-order, continuous transition to a first-order, discontinuous transition

  4. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15

  5. IpaD is localized at the tip of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa; Botteaux, Anne; Parsot, Claude; Sansonetti, Philippe; Boekema, Egbert J.; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2007-01-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) systems are used by numerous Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria to inject virulence proteins into animal and plant host cells. The core of the T3S apparatus, known as the needle complex, is composed of a basal body transversing both bacterial membranes and a needle protruding

  6. Assessing the ability of Salmonella enterica to translocate Type III effectors into plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica, a human enteric pathogen, has the ability to multiply and survive endophytically in plants, and mutations in genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) or its effectors (T3Es) may contribute to this colonization. Two reporter plasmids for T3E translocation into plant ce...

  7. Bartter syndrome Type III and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract: an antenatal presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Hack, W.W.; van der Horst, H.J.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; van Hagen, J.M.; van der Valk, P.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; van Wijk, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Bartter syndrome encompasses a variety of inheritable renal tubular transport disorders characterized by hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome Type III is caused by genetic alterations in the chloride channel kidney B (CLCNKB) gene and often presents in the first 2

  8. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kruparova, O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Type III bursts are generated by fast electron beams originated from magnetic reconnection sites of solar flares. As propagation of radio waves in the interplanetary medium is strongly affected by random electron density fluctuations, type III bursts provide us with a unique diagnostic tool for solar wind remote plasma measurements. Here, we performed a statistical survey of 152 simple and isolated type III bursts observed by the twin-spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission. We investigated their time–frequency profiles in order to retrieve decay times as a function of frequency. Next, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the role of scattering due to random electron density fluctuations on time–frequency profiles of radio emissions generated in the interplanetary medium. For simplification, we assumed the presence of isotropic electron density fluctuations described by a power law with the Kolmogorov spectral index. Decay times obtained from observations and simulations were compared. We found that the characteristic exponential decay profile of type III bursts can be explained by the scattering of the fundamental component between the source and the observer despite restrictive assumptions included in the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Our results suggest that relative electron density fluctuations /{n}{{e}} in the solar wind are 0.06–0.07 over wide range of heliospheric distances.

  9. Biofilms and type III secretion are not mutually exclusive in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H; Bond, N J; Skindersoe, M E

    2009-01-01

    in exponential phase than to those in stationary phase. In the current study, we investigated how these conditions influence the production of virulence factors using a transcriptomic approach. Our results show that biofilms express the type III secretion system, whereas planktonic cells do not...

  10. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Mat´ern III process within a bounded window in Rd fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  11. Hierarchical protein export mechanism of the bacterial flagellar type III protein export apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2018-06-01

    The bacterial flagellum is supramolecular motility machinery consisting of the basal body, the hook and the filament. Flagellar proteins are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane via a type III protein export apparatus, diffuse down the central channel of the growing structure and assemble at the distal end. Flagellar assembly begins with the basal body, followed by the hook and finally the filament. The completion of hook assembly is the most important morphological checkpoint of the sequential flagellar assembly process. When the hook reaches its mature length of about 55 nm in Salmonella enterica, the type III protein export apparatus switches export specificity from proteins required for the structure and assembly of the hook to those responsible for filament assembly, thereby terminating hook assembly and initiating filament assembly. Three flagellar proteins, namely FliK, FlhB and FlhA, are responsible for this substrate specificity switching. Upon completion of the switching event, interactions among FlhA, the cytoplasmic ATPase complex and flagellar type III export chaperones establish the assembly order of the filament at the hook tip. Here, we describe our current understanding of a hierarchical protein export mechanism used in flagellar type III protein export.

  12. Aquatic Therapy for a Child with Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales…

  13. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates.

  15. Collagen Type III Metabolism Evaluation in Patients with Malignant Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Mazurek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation affects the metabolism of key proteins of extracellular matrix including type III collagen, an important component of human skin. The aim of the work is an analysis of the impact of radical and palliative radiotherapy on collagen type III synthesis in patients with head and neck cancer. The test group consisted of 56 males with histopathologically confirmed head and neck cancer, for whom radiotherapy was applied as a form of radical or palliative treatment. The level of procollagen III aminoterminal propeptide (PIIINP, which is a marker of collagen type III synthesis, was determined in blood serum before radiotherapy, immediately following radiotherapy, and 3 months after it was finished. As a result of radical radiotherapy a statistically significant decrease of PIIINP levels in serum (p<0.0001 was observed, both immediately after the radiotherapy and 3 months after the end of the treatment. Also the palliative radiotherapy caused a significant decrease of PIIINP right after the treatment (p=0.0052, as well as during the examination performed 3 months later (p=0.0004. The achieved results suggest that PIIINP can be used as a marker helpful in assessing radiation damage to connective tissue.

  16. Expression of adenylyl cyclase types III and VI in human hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, M; Arturi, F; Presta, I; Bruno, R; Scarpelli, D; Calvagno, M G; Cristofaro, C; Bulotta, S; Giannasio, P; Sacco, R; Filetti, S; Russo, D

    2003-05-30

    Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules are characterized by the presence of spontaneous somatic mutations responsible for constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway. However, alterations affecting other elements of the cAMP signaling system may counteract the effects of the mutations. In this study, the expression of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) types III and VI was investigated by Western blot in 18 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules; in 12 samples, we also assessed the presence of TSH receptor (TSHR) or gsp mutations and levels of AC VI and III mRNA. We found that the expression of nodular AC VI (but not AC III) was significantly lower (85.1% of normal, P=0.014) than the expression of both adenylyl cycles types of perinodular tissue from the same patients. Slightly, but not significant differences were detected in nodules with or without mutations and AC protein levels generally showed correlation with the levels of the transcripts detected by RT-PCR. In addition, AC III and AC VI expression levels within a given nodule were characterized by a significant positive correlation. These findings indicate that a diminished expression of AC type VI may be part of the mechanisms occurring in the hyperfunctioning nodules, independently of the presence of TSHR or gsp mutations, which influence the resulting phenotype.

  17. In Vitro Activity of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam against Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Andrew; Parsonson, Fiona; Cronin, Katie; Engler, Kathy; Norton, Robert

    2018-06-25

    We investigated the in vitro activity of a novel fifth-generation cephalosporin-tazobactam combination, ceftolozane-tazobactam against Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiological agent of melioidosis. Using both disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) strip techniques against 56 clinical isolates and an NCTC strain, the MIC to ceftolozane-tazobactam was found to be between 0.75 and 4 mcg/mL. The MIC50 was found to be 1.5 mcg/mL and MIC90 was 2.0 mcg/mL. This study provides initial evidence of ceftolozane-tazobactam as a novel agent in the management of melioidosis.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Tachyplesin 1 against Burkholderia pseudomallei: an in vitro and in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn-Fay Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many conventional antibiotics. Therefore, alternative antimicrobial agents such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensively studied to combat this issue. Our study aims to identify and understand the mode of action of the potential AMP(s that are effective against B. pseudomallei in both planktonic and biofilm state as well as to predict the possible binding targets on using in vitro and in silico approaches. In the in vitro study, 11 AMPs were tested against 100 B. pseudomallei isolates for planktonic cell susceptibility, where LL-37, and PG1, demonstrated 100.0% susceptibility and TP1 demonstrated 83% susceptibility. Since the B. pseudomallei activity was reported on LL-37 and PG1, TP1 was selected for further investigation. TP1 inhibited B. pseudomallei cells at 61.69 μM, and membrane blebbing was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, TP1 inhibited B. pseudomallei cell growth, reaching bactericidal endpoint within 2 h post exposure as compared to ceftazidime (CAZ (8 h. Furthermore, TP1 was shown to suppress the growth of B. pseudomallei cells in biofilm state at concentrations above 221 μM. However, TP1 was cytotoxic to the mammalian cell lines tested. In the in silico study, molecular docking revealed that TP1 demonstrated a strong interaction to the common peptide or inhibitor binding targets for lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, as well as autolysin, pneumolysin, and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Homology modelled B. pseudomallei PspA protein (YDP also showed a favourable binding with a strong electrostatic contribution and nine hydrogen bonds. In conclusion, TP1 demonstrated a good potential as an anti-B. pseudomallei agent.

  19. Design of fractional order differentiator using type-III and type-IV discrete cosine transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interpolation method based on discrete cosine transform (DCT is employed for digital finite impulse response-fractional order differentiator (FIR-FOD design. Here, a fractional order digital differentiator is modeled as finite impulse response (FIR system to get an optimized frequency response that approximates the ideal response of a fractional order differentiator. Next, DCT-III and DCT-IV are utilized to determine the filter coefficients of FIR filter that compute the Fractional derivative of a given signal. To improve the frequency response of the proposed FIR-FOD, the filter coefficients are further modified using windows. Several design examples are presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. The simulation results have also been compared with the existing FIR-FOD design methods such as DFT interpolation, radial basis function (RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods. The result reveals that the proposed FIR-FOD design technique using DCT-III and DCT-IV outperforms DFT interpolation, RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods in terms of magnitude error.

  20. [Efficacy and safety of Longjintonglin Capsule for the treatment of type III prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Geng, Qiang; Duan, Jian-Min; Zheng, De-Quan; Xie, Lei; Guo, Jun

    2014-12-01

    To study the therapeutic effect and safety of Longjintonglin Capsule in the treatment of type III prostatitis (chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). We selected 240 patients with type III prostatitis according to the diagnostic standards of the American National Institute of Health (NIH) and treated them with Longjintonglin Capsule orally 3 capsules once tid for 12 weeks. Based on the NIH chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome score, and leukocyte count in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), we evaluated the results of treatment. Totally 238 patients completed the treatment, including 108 IIIA and 120 III B prostatitis cases. Before and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment, the total NIH-CPSI scores were 23.12 ± 6.99, 18.22 ± 6.39, 14.12 ± 5.88, and 12.36 ± 6.04 (P prostatitis patients and 22.01 ± 6.28, 17.56 ± 5.89, 13.67 ± 5.18, and 11.45 ± 5.22 in the III prostatitis patients (P prostatitis, deserves to be recommended for clinical application.

  1. Surgical versus conservative management of Type III acromioclavicular dislocation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Mauro; Rizzello, Giacomo; Mannering, Nicholas; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-06-01

    The management of Type III acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations is still controversial. We wished to compare the rate of recurrence and outcome scores of operative versus non-operative treatment of patients with Type III AC dislocations. A systematic review of the literature was performed by applying the PRISMA guidelines according to the PRISMA checklist and algorithm. A search in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL was performed using combinations of the following keywords: 'dislocation', 'Rockwood', 'type three', 'treatment', 'acromioclavicular' and 'joint'. Fourteen studies were included, evaluating 646 shoulders. The rate of recurrence in the surgical group was 14%. No statistical significant differences were found between conservative and surgical approaches in terms of postoperative osteoarthritis and persistence of pain, although persistence of pain seemed to occur less frequently in patients undergoing a surgical treatment. Persistence of pain seemed to occur less frequently in patients undergoing surgery. Persistence of pain seems to occur less frequently in patients treated surgically for a Type III AC dislocation. There is insufficient evidence to establish the effects of surgical versus conservative treatment on functional outcome of patients with AC dislocation. High-quality randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to establish whether there is a difference in functional outcome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Type III odontoid fractures: A subgroup analysis of complex, high-energy fractures treated with external immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Niemeier

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Complex Type III odontoid fractures are distinctly different from low-energy injuries. In the current study, 21% of patients were unsuccessfully treated nonoperatively with external immobilization and required surgery. For complex Type III fractures, we recommend initial conservative treatment, while maintaining close monitoring throughout patient recovery and fracture union.

  3. Apparent diffusion coefficient vale of the brain in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd El-Gaber, Nahed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdalla, Ahmed; Fathy, Abeer [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric, Mansoura (Egypt); Azab, Ahmed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mansoura (Egypt); Rahman, Ashraf Abdel [Radiology Unit of Pediatric Hospital, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the brain for diagnosis of patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III. Prospective study was conducted upon 13 patients (nine boys and four girls aged 8 months-14 years: mean 6.1 years) with Gaucher's disease type II and III and for age-matched control group (n = 13). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a single-shot echo-planar imaging with a diffusion-weighted factor b of 0, 500, and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} was done for all patients and volunteers. The ADC value was calculated in ten regions of the brain parenchyma and correlated with genotyping. There was significantly lower ADC value of the cortical frontal (P = 0.003), cortical temporal (P = 0.04), frontal subcortical white matter (P = 0.02), corticospinal tract (P = 0.001), cerebellum (P = 0.001), medulla (P = 0.002), and midbrain (P = 0.02) between patients and volunteers. There was significant difference in the ADC value of the frontal and temporal gray matter (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) between patients with heterozygous and homozygous gene mutation. We concluded that ADC value is a new promising quantitative imaging parameter that can be used for the detection of brain abnormalities in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III and has a correlation with genotyping. (orig.)

  4. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen. Studies on physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T

    1997-01-01

    receiving growth hormone therapy. We conclude: 1) That, for our purpose, the best method of determining PIIINP is the PIIINP RIA, owing to the profile of the substances determined. It was possible to improve the quality of the tracer and to increase sensitivity by changing the assay procedure. 2...... of peaks B and C (intact PIIINP) may, owing to the disposal rate, reflect changes in type III collagen turnover over one day (6 half-lives). The liver and kidneys actively take part in the degradation of circulating PIIINP. Serum concentrations of PIIINP in the presence of changing body composition (weight...... disappears when the body is in a catabolic state. Anabolic states give rise to increased serum concentrations of PIIINP as compared with normals states. The general conclusion is that serum PIIINP is a marker of type III collagen turnover under well-defined conditions. Serum PIIINP, mainly consisting...

  5. Efficient n-type doping of zinc-blende III-V semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besteiro, Lucas V.; Tortajada, Luis; Souto, J.; Gallego, L. J.; Chelikowsky, James R.; Alemany, M. M. G.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that it is preferable to dope III-V semiconductor nanowires by n-type anion substitution as opposed to cation substitution. Specifically, we show the dopability of zinc-blende nanowires is more efficient when the dopants are placed at the anion site as quantified by formation energies and the stabilization of DX-like defect centers. The comparison with previous work on n - type III-V semiconductor nanocrystals also allows to determine the role of dimensionality and quantum confinement on doping characteristics of materials. Our results are based on first-principles calculations of InP nanowires by using the PARSEC code. Work supported by the Spanish MICINN (FIS2012-33126) and Xunta de Galicia (GPC2013-043) in conjunction with FEDER. JRC acknowledges support from DoE (DE-FG02-06ER46286 and DESC0008877). Computational support was provided in part by CESGA.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Mn(III) chloro complexes with salen-type ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong Chul; Han, Chung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Baik, Jong Seok; Park, Yu Chul

    2002-01-01

    A series of novel salen-type complexes ((Mn(III)(L acn )Cl): n=1∼11) containing Cl - ion were obtained by reactions of the Mn(CH 3 COO) 2 ·4H 2 O with the potentially tetradentate compartmental ligand (H 2 L acn ), prepared by condensation the of one mole of diamine (ethylenediamine, 1,3-propanediamine, o-phenylenediamine, and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine) with two moles of aldehyde (salicylaldehyde, 5-chloro- salicylaldehyde, 3,5-dichlorosalicylal-dehyde, and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde) in a methanol solution . The resulting salen-type ligands and their Mn(III) complexes were identified and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, thermogravimetry and UV-VIS, IR, and NMR spectroscopy

  7. Visualization and characterization of individual type III protein secretion machines in live bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongdeng; Lara-Tejero, María; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Galán, Jorge E

    2017-06-06

    Type III protein secretion machines have evolved to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Although electron microscopy has provided a detailed view of these machines in isolation or fixed samples, little is known about their organization in live bacteria. Here we report the visualization and characterization of the Salmonella type III secretion machine in live bacteria by 2D and 3D single-molecule switching superresolution microscopy. This approach provided access to transient components of this machine, which previously could not be analyzed. We determined the subcellular distribution of individual machines, the stoichiometry of the different components of this machine in situ, and the spatial distribution of the substrates of this machine before secretion. Furthermore, by visualizing this machine in Salmonella mutants we obtained major insights into the machine's assembly. This study bridges a major resolution gap in the visualization of this nanomachine and may serve as a paradigm for the examination of other bacterially encoded molecular machines.

  8. On Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Left Censored Burr Type III Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Feroze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Burr type III is an important distribution used to model the failure time data. The paper addresses the problem of estimation of parameters of the Burr type III distribution based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE when the samples are left censored. As the closed form expression for the MLEs of the parameters cannot be derived, the approximate solutions have been obtained through iterative procedures. An extensive simulation study has been carried out to investigate the performance of the estimators with respect to sample size, censoring rate and true parametric values. A real life example has also been presented. The study revealed that the proposed estimators are consistent and capable of providing efficient results under small to moderate samples.

  9. Molecular model of a type III secretion system needle: Implications for host-cell sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Janet E; Roversi, Pietro; Cordes, Frank S; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Daniell, Sarah; Booy, Frank; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Blocker, Ariel J; Lea, Susan M

    2006-08-15

    Type III secretion systems are essential virulence determinants for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The type III secretion system consists of cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular domains. The extracellular domain is a hollow needle protruding above the bacterial surface and is held within a basal body that traverses both bacterial membranes. Effector proteins are translocated, via this external needle, directly into host cells, where they subvert normal cell functions to aid infection. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to formation of a pore, thought to be contiguous with the needle channel, in the host-cell membrane. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri needle subunit MxiH and a complete model for the needle assembly built into our three-dimensional EM reconstruction. The model, combined with mutagenesis data, reveals that signaling of host-cell contact is relayed through the needle via intersubunit contacts and suggests a mode of binding for a tip complex.

  10. Evidence of scattering effects on the sizes of interplanetary Type III radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.; Dulk, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of 162 interplanetary Type III radio bursts; some of these bursts have been observed in association with fast electrons and Langmuir wave events at 1 AU and, in addition, have been subjected to in situ plasma parameter measurements. It is noted that the sizes of burst sources are anomalously large, compared to what one would anticipate on the basis of the interplanetary plasma density distribution, and that the variation of source size with frequency, when compared with the plasma frequency variation measured in situ, implies that the source sizes expand with decreasing frequency to fill a cone whose apex is at the sun. It is also found that some local phenomenon near the earth controls the apparent size of low frequency Type III sources.

  11. Interplanetary scattering of fast solar electrons deduced from type III bursts observed at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of low frequency solar type III radio bursts and the associated fast solar electrons show that the total path length travelled by the particles between the Sun and the Earth is significantly greater than the length of the smooth Archimedean spiral trajectory followed by the centroid of the type III exciter (Alvarez et al., 1975). Here it is assumed that the ratio of electron path length and the spiral length increases approximately as rsup(n), where r is heliocentric distance, and then compute the radio bursts arrival time at 1 AU for different values of n. A comparison with the radio observations indicates that the best fit occurs for n=1.5+-1.0. These results are interpreted in terms of the variation of electron scattering with heliocentric distance. (Auth.)

  12. [Molecular and clinical characterization of Colombian patients suffering from type III glycogen storage disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Carolina; Toro, Mónica; Sepúlveda, María Elsy; Insuasty, Margarita; Di Filippo, Diana; López, Juan Álvaro; Baquero, Carolina; Navas, María Cristina; Arias, Andrés Augusto

    2018-05-01

    Type III glycogen storage disease (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which a mutation in the AGL gene causes deficiency of the glycogen debranching enzyme. The disease is characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly and progressive myopathy. Molecular analyses of AGL have indicated heterogeneity depending on ethnic groups. The full spectrum of AGL mutations in Colombia remains unclear. To describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of ten Colombian patients diagnosed with GSD III. We recruited ten Colombian children with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of GSD III to undergo genetic testing. The full coding exons and the relevant exon-intron boundaries of the AGL underwent Sanger sequencing to identify mutation. All patients had the classic phenotype of the GSD III. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation p.Arg910X in two patients. One patient had the mutation p.Glu1072AspfsX36, and one case showed a compound heterozygosity with p.Arg910X and p.Glu1072AspfsX36 mutations. We also detected the deletion of AGL gene 3, 4, 5, and 6 exons in three patients. The in silico studies predicted that these defects are pathogenic. No mutations were detected in the amplified regions in three patients. We found mutations and deletions that explain the clinical phenotype of GSD III patients. This is the first report with a description of the clinical phenotype and the spectrum of AGL mutations in Colombian patients. This is important to provide appropriate prognosis and genetic counseling to the patient and their relatives.

  13. Some five-dimensional Bianchi type-iii string cosmological models in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, G.C.; Biswal, S.K.; Mohanty, G.; Rameswarpatna, Bhubaneswar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we have constructed some five-dimensional Bianchi type-III cosmological models in general relativity when source of gravitational field is a massive string. We obtained different classes of solutions by considering different functional forms of metric potentials. It is also observed that one of the models is not physically acceptable and the other models possess big-bang singularity. The physical and kinematical behaviors of the models are discussed

  14. [Characteristics of lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system in glycogenosis types I and III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenova, N V; Strokova, T V; Starodubova, A V

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by early childhood lipid metabolic disturbances with potentially proatherogenic effects. The review outlines the characteristics of impaired lipid composition and other changes in the cardiovascular system in GSD types I and III. It analyzes the factors enabling and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with GSD. The review describes the paradox of vascular resistance to the development of early atherosclerosis despite the proatherogenic composition of lipids in the patients of this group.

  15. Supersymmetric type-III seesaw mechanism: Lepton flavor violation and LHC phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Martin; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian; Weiss, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    We study a supersymmetric version of the type-III seesaw mechanism considering two variants of the model: a minimal version for explaining neutrino data with only two copies of 24 superfields and a model with three generations of 24-plets. The latter predicts, in general, rates for mu -> e gamma inconsistent with experimental data. However, this bound can be evaded if certain special conditions within the neutrino sector are fulfilled. In the case of two 24-plets, lepton flavor violation cons...

  16. Restricted fragmentation of poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 RNAs by ribonuclease III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, A. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook); Lee, Y.F.; Babich, A.; Jacobson, A.; Dunn, J.J.; Wimmer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Cleavage of the genome RNAs of poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 with the ribonuclease III of Escherichia coli has been investigated with the following results: (1) at or above physiological salt concentration, the RNAs are completely resistant to the action of the enzyme, an observation suggesting that the RNAs lack primary cleavage sites; (2) lowering the salt concentration to 0.1 M or below allows RNase III to cleave the RNAs at secondary sites. Both large and small fragments can be obtained in a reproducible manner depending on salt conditions chosen for cleavage. Fingerprints of three large fragments of poliovirus type 2 RNA show that they originate from unique segments and represent most if not all sequences of the genome. Based upon binding to poly(U) filters of poly(A)-linked fragments, a physical map of the large fragments of poliovirus type 2 RNA was constructed. The data suggest that RNase III cleavage of single-stranded RNA provides a useful method to fragment the RNA for further studies.

  17. Structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahuhta, Markus; Xu, Qi; Brunecky, Roman; Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The crystals used for data collection belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 35.43, b = 45.73, c = 107.72 Å, and the structure was refined to an R factor of 0.166. Structural comparisons found over 800 similar structures in the Protein Data Bank. The broad range of different proteins or protein domains with high structural similarity makes it especially demanding to classify these proteins. Previous studies of fibronectin type III-like modules have indicated that they might function as ligand-binding modules, as a compact form of peptide linkers or spacers between other domains, as cellulose-disrupting modules or as proteins that help large enzyme complexes remain soluble

  18. The relationship between chronic type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation and cervical spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestri Anna R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed at evaluating whether or not patients with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation develop cervical spine pain and degenerative changes more frequently than normal subjects. Methods The cervical spine of 34 patients with chronic type III AC dislocation was radiographically evaluated. Osteophytosis presence was registered and the narrowing of the intervertebral disc and cervical lordosis were evaluated. Subjective cervical symptoms were investigated using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ. One-hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. Results The rate and distribution of osteophytosis and narrowed intervertebral disc were similar in both of the groups. Patients with chronic AC dislocation had a lower value of cervical lordosis. NPQ score was 17.3% in patients with AC separation (100% = the worst result and 2.2% in the control group (p Conclusions Our study shows that chronic type III AC dislocation does not interfere with osteophytes formation or intervertebral disc narrowing, but that it may predispose cervical hypolordosis. The higher average NPQ values were observed in patients with chronic AC dislocation, especially in those that developed cervical hypolordosis.

  19. Novel low fluence combination laser treatment of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wei Cheng Anthony Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate a novel low fluence combination laser technique [Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Erb:YAG and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG] to effectively treat solar lentigines in type III Asian skin in a single session. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five patients (all females were enrolled into the study. The ages ranged 35-60 years; all patients had Fitzpatrick skin type III. Measurements: Photographs were taken at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. These were reviewed by two independent physicians who were blinded to the study. Changes in pigment severity were assessed by a 5-point scale (1: Aggravation of pigment, 2: No change, 3: 25-50% improvement, 4: 51-75% improvement, and 5: 76-100% improvement. Results: All patients received a single treatment session. At 1-month follow-up, a reduction in pigment was observed in all patients. Both physicians′ reports were independently agreeable. All patients scored 5, having >90% improvement in pigment severity. No hypopigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH, or recurrence was seen. Conclusion: Low fluence combination laser is effective and safe for clearance of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin.

  20. Operated DeBakey type III dissecting aortic aneurysm: review of 12 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hi Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Oh, Sang Joon; Yoon, Sei Ra; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Han, Chang Yul

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the indications of operation and radiologic findings in 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections. We retrospectively reviewed radiologic findings of 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections, using CT, MRI, or aortography, and correlations were made with clinical course of the patients. Three cases were uncomplicated dissections. There were aneurysm rupture in 4 cases, impending rupture in 4 cases, occlusion of common iliac artery in 2 cases, occlusion of renal artery in 1 case, and compression of bronchus and esophagus by dilated aorta in 1 case. Associated clinical sign and symptoms were chest and back pain in 12 cases, claudication in 3 cases, dyspnea and dysphagia in 1 case, hoarseness in 1 case, and hemoptysis in 1 case. Post-operative complications were death from aneurysm rupture in 1 case, paraplegia in 2 cases, acute renal failure in 3 cases, and hemopericardium in 1 case. Although medical therapy is preferred in management of DeBakey type III aortic dissection, surgical treatment should be considered in patients with radiological findings of aortic rupture, impending rupture, occlusion of aortic major branches

  1. Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Antonacci, Monia; De Medici, Dario; Fenicia, Lucia

    2012-01-27

    Clostridium botulinum type C and type D belonging to the group III organisms, are mainly responsible for animal botulism outbreaks. Clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a diagnosis of botulism and a laboratory confirmation is required. Laboratory confirmation can be performed by demonstrating the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in serum, gastrointestinal contents, liver, wound of sick or dead animals, or by demonstrating the presence of C. botulinum in gastrointestinal contents, liver, and wound. Demonstration of spores in gastrointestinal contents or tissue of animals with clinical signs indicative of botulism reinforces the clinical diagnosis. With the aim of detecting and typing C. botulinum group III organisms, a multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green was developed and in-house validated. Selectivity, limit of detection, relative accuracy, relative specificity, relative sensitivity, and repeatability of the method were investigated. The multiplex real-time PCR SYBR green used showed a 100% selectivity, 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative specificity, 100% relative sensitivity and a limit of detection of 277 and 580 DNA copies for C. botulinum type C and C. botulinum type D, respectively. The method reported here represents a suitable tool for laboratory diagnosis of type C and D botulism and for testing a large number of samples collected during the animal botulism surveillance and prevention activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Delineation of the Exact Transcription Termination Signal for Type 3 Polymerase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 3 Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used for expression of small RNAs, including short hairpin RNA for RNAi applications and guide RNA in CRISPR genome-editing platforms. RNA polymerase III uses a T-stretch as termination signal, but the exact properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we systematically measured the in vivo termination efficiency and the actual site of termination for different T-stretch signals in three commonly used human Pol III promoters (U6, 7SK, and H1. Both the termination efficiency and the actual termination site depend on the T-stretch signal. The T4 signal acts as minimal terminator, but full termination efficiency is reached only with a T-stretch of ≥6. The termination site within the T-stretch is quite heterogeneous, and consequently small RNAs have a variable U-tail of 1–6 nucleotides. We further report that such variable U-tails can have a significant negative effect on the functionality of the crRNA effector of the CRISPR-AsCpf1 system. We next improved these crRNAs by insertion of the HDV ribozyme to avoid U-tails. This study provides detailed design guidelines for small RNA expression cassettes based on Pol III.

  3. Results of Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rockwood Types III and V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukainen, Antti; Kröger, Heikki; Niemitukia, Lea; Mäkelä, E. Antero; Väätäinen, Urho

    2014-01-01

    Background: The optimal treatment of acute, complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is still unresolved. Purpose: To determine the difference between operative and nonoperative treatment in acute Rockwood types III and V ACJ dislocation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In the operative treatment group, the ACJ was reduced and fixed with 2 transarticular Kirschner wires and ACJ ligament suturing. The Kirschner wires were extracted after 6 weeks. Nonoperatively treated patients received a reduction splint for 4 weeks. At the 18- to 20-year follow-up, the Constant, University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA), Larsen, and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores were obtained, and clinical and radiographic examinations of both shoulders were performed. Results: Twenty-five of 35 potential patients were examined at the 18- to 20-year follow-up. There were 11 patients with Rockwood type III and 14 with type V dislocations. Delayed surgical treatment for ACJ was used in 2 patients during follow-up: 1 in the operatively treated group and 1 in the nonoperatively treated group. Clinically, ACJs were statistically significantly less prominent or unstable in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (normal/prominent/unstable: 9/4/3 and 0/6/3, respectively; P = .02) and in the operative type III (P = .03) but not type V dislocation groups. In operatively and nonoperatively treated patients, the mean Constant scores were 83 and 85, UCLA scores 25 and 27, Larsen scores 11 and 11, and SST scores 11 and 12 at follow-up, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in type III and type V dislocations. In the radiographic analysis, the ACJ was wider in the nonoperative than the operative group (8.3 vs 3.4 mm; P = .004), and in the type V dislocations (nonoperative vs operative: 8.5 vs 2.4 mm; P = .007). There was no statistically significant difference between study groups in

  4. Workshop on treatment of and postexposure prophylaxis for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei Infection, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipsitz, Rebecca; Garges, Susan; Aurigemma, Rosemarie; Baccam, Prasith; Blaney, David D.; Cheng, Allen C.; Currie, Bart J.; Dance, David; Gee, Jay E.; Larsen, Joseph; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Morrow, Meredith G.; Norton, Robert; O'Mara, Elizabeth; Peacock, Sharon J.; Pesik, Nicki; Rogers, L. Paige; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Tan, Gladys; Tan, Patrick; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Smith, Theresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause

  5. Early prophylactic autogenous bone grafting in type III open tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Subaşi, Mehmet; Arslan, Huseyin; Necmioğlu, Serdar; Kayikçi, Cuma

    2004-08-01

    The authors report the results achieved in patients with type III open tibial fractures who underwent primary autogenous bone grafting at the time of debridement and skeletal stabilisation. Twenty patients with a mean age of 35.8 years (range, 24-55) were treated between 1996 and 1999. Eight fractures were type IIIA, 11 were type IIIB, and 1 was type IIIC. At the index procedure, wound debridement, external fixation and autogenous bone grafting with bone coverage were achieved. The mean follow-up period was 46 months (range, 34-55). The mean time to fixator removal was 21 weeks (range, 14-35), and the mean time to union was 28 weeks (range, 19-45). Skin coverage was achieved by a myocutaneous flap in 2 patients, late primary closure in 4, and split skin grafting in 14. One (5%) of the patients experienced delayed union, and 1 (5%) developed infection. In tibial type III open fractures, skin coverage may be delayed, using the surrounding soft tissue to cover any exposed bone after thorough débridement and wound cleansing. Primary prophylactic bone grafting performed at the same time reduces the rate of delayed union, shortens the time to union, and does not increase the infection rate.

  6. Modified closed-loop double-endobutton technique for repair of rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Qi, Ji; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqun; Liu, Gang; Ping, Ruiyue; Li, Yikai; Fu, Shijie

    2018-01-01

    Acromioclavicular dislocation (ACD) is a common injury. According to the Rockwood classification, ACD is classified into six types (type I–VI); however, for type III injuries, it remains controversial whether or not operative treatment should be applied. Numerous studies have advocated early surgical treatment to ensure early rehabilitation activities. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate a modified closed-loop double-endobutton technique (MCDT), that may be used to repair Rockwood type III ACD. In the current study, 61 patients with Rockwood type III ACD were enrolled during a period of 5 years at the Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University. Patients were divided into three groups according to the surgical method used, the MCDT group (n=20), the common closed-loop double-endobutton technique (CCDT) group (n=21), and the clavicular hook plate fixation (CHPF) group (n=20). Preoperative and intraoperative information were recorded. Furthermore, the functional scores of injured shoulder were evaluated prior to surgery and following surgery with a 1-year follow-up. Among the three groups, postoperative functional scores were significantly more improved compared with those prior to surgery (P0.05). Postoperative functional scores in the MCDT and CCDT groups were significantly more improved compared those in the CHPF group (P<0.05). In addition, the duration of surgery in the MCDT group was significantly shorter compared with that in the CCDT group (P<0.05). Furthermore, compared with the CHPF group, the incision length was significantly shorter with reduced hemorrhage in the MCDT group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that MCDT is more simple, convenient and efficient compared with CCDT, and is worth popularizing. PMID:29399102

  7. Type I and Type III Interferons Display Different Dependency on Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases to Mount an Antiviral State in the Human Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervolaraki, Kalliopi; Stanifer, Megan L; Münchau, Stephanie; Renn, Lynnsey A; Albrecht, Dorothee; Kurzhals, Stefan; Senís, Elena; Grimm, Dirk; Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Rabin, Ronald L; Boulant, Steeve

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are constantly exposed to commensal flora and pathogen challenges. How IECs regulate their innate immune response to maintain gut homeostasis remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines produced during infections. While type I IFN receptors are ubiquitously expressed, type III IFN receptors are expressed only on epithelial cells. This epithelium specificity strongly suggests exclusive functions at epithelial surfaces, but the relative roles of type I and III IFNs in the establishment of an antiviral innate immune response in human IECs are not clearly defined. Here, we used mini-gut organoids to define the functions of types I and III IFNs to protect the human gut against viral infection. We show that primary non-transformed human IECs, upon viral challenge, upregulate the expression of both type I and type III IFNs at the transcriptional level but only secrete type III IFN in the supernatant. However, human IECs respond to both type I and type III IFNs by producing IFN-stimulated genes that in turn induce an antiviral state. Using genetic ablation of either type I or type III IFN receptors, we show that either IFN can independently restrict virus infection in human IECs. Importantly, we report, for the first time, differences in the mechanisms by which each IFN establishes the antiviral state. Contrary to type I IFN, the antiviral activity induced by type III IFN is strongly dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway, suggesting a pathway used by type III IFNs that non-redundantly contributes to the antiviral state. In conclusion, we demonstrate that human intestinal epithelial cells specifically regulate their innate immune response favoring type III IFN-mediated signaling, which allows for efficient protection against pathogens without producing excessive inflammation. Our results strongly suggest that type III IFN constitutes the frontline of antiviral response in the human gut. We propose that

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Subarna; Haq, Sabah; Hasan, Mohammad Rokibul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful

    2017-07-20

    Melioidosis an infectious disease, caused by a Gram negative bacterium called Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Bangladesh. This organism is sensitive to limited number of antimicrobial agents and need prolonged treatment. There is no comprehensive data on the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of B. pseudomallei isolated in Bangladesh over last several years. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of B. pseudomallei isolated in a tertiary care hospital of Dhaka city from 2009 to 2015. All B. pseudomallei isolated from melioidosis patients over a period of 7 years (2009-2015) in the Department of Microbiology of a 725-bed tertiary care referral hospital in Dhaka city, Bangladesh were included in the study. B. pseudomallei was identified by Gram stain, culture, specific biochemical tests, serology and PCR using specific primers constructed from 16s rRNA region of B. pseudomallei. Antimicrobial susceptibility to specific agents was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. A total of 20 isolates of B. pseudomallei which were isolated from patients coming from different geographic locations of Bangladesh were included in the study. All the isolates were uniformly sensitive (100%) to ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and tetracycline by both disk diffusion and MIC methods. Two strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by disk diffusion method but were sensitive by MIC method. The MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of the above antimicrobial agents were almost similar. All the isolates were resistant to amikacin by both MIC and disk diffusion methods. The results of the study suggest that B. pseudomallei prevalent in Bangladesh were still susceptible to all recommended antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of melioidosis. However, regular monitoring is needed to detect any emergence of resistance and shifting of MIC 50 and MIC 90 values.

  9. An Objective Approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Selection as Challenge Material for Medical Countermeasures Efficacy Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S.; Warren, Richard L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rate...

  10. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group

    OpenAIRE

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Mal...

  11. Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Individuals with Mucopolysaccharide Disease Type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, C; Wittkowski, A; Hare, D J

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in many genetic disorders is well documented but not as yet in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III). MPS III is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder and evidence suggests that symptoms of ASD present in MPS III. This systematic review examined the extant literature on the symptoms of ASD in MPS III and quality assessed a total of 16 studies. Results indicated that difficulties within speech, language and communication consistent with ASD were present in MPS III, whilst repetitive and restricted behaviours and interests were less widely reported. The presence of ASD-like symptoms can result in late diagnosis or misdiagnosis of MPS III and prevent opportunities for genetic counselling and the provision of treatments.

  12. Energy decay in a Timoshenko-type system for thermoelasticity of type III with distributed delay and past history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghao Hao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider a one-dimensional Timoshenko system of thermoelasticity of type III with past history and distributive delay. It is known that an arbitrarily small delay may be the source of instability. We establish the well-posedness and the stability of the system for the cases of equal and nonequal speeds of wave propagation respectively. Our results show that the damping effect is strong enough to uniformly stabilize the system even in the presence of time delay under suitable conditions and improve the related results.

  13. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies in high-grade acromioclavicular separation (type III - V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Jochen; Schwarting, Tim; Malcherczyk, Dominik; Peterlein, Christian-Dominik; Ruchholtz, Steffen; El-Zayat, Bilal Farouk

    2017-11-10

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocations are common injuries of the shoulder associated with physical activity. The diagnosis of concomitant injuries proves complicated due to the prominent clinical symptoms of acute ACJ dislocation. Because of increasing use of minimally invasive surgery techniques concomitant pathologies are diagnosed more often than with previous procedures. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of concomitant intraarticular injuries in patients with high-grade acromioclavicular separation (Rockwood type III - V) as well as to reveal potential risk constellations. The concomitant pathologies were compiled during routine arthroscopically assisted treatment in altogether 163 patients (147 male; 16 female; mean age 36.8 years) with high-grade acromioclavicular separation (Rockwood type III: n = 60; Rockwood type IV: n = 6; Rockwood type V: n = 97). Acromioclavicular separation occurred less often in women than men (1:9). In patients under 35, the most common cause for ACJ dislocation was sporting activity (37.4%). Rockwood type V was observed significantly more often than the other types with 57.5% (Rockwood type III = 36.8%, Rockwood type IV 3.7%). Concomitant pathologies were diagnosed in 39.3% of the patients with that number rising to as much as 57.3% in patients above 35 years. Most common associated injuries were rotator cuff injuries (32.3%), chondral defects (30.6%) and SLAP-lesions (22.6%). Of all patients, 8.6% needed additional reconstructive surgery. Glenohumeral injuries are a much more common epiphenomenon during acromioclavicular separation than previously ascertained. High risk group for accompanying injuries are patients above 35 years with preexisting degenerative disease. The increasing use of minimally invasive techniques allows for an easier diagnosis and simultaneous treatment of the additional pathologies.

  14. Management of Oehler’s Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Ranganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler’s classification (1957 for Dens Invaginatus (DI into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler’s Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation.

  15. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Carlos Jaña Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo-Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive; presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score index; mortality rate; and infection rate. RESULTS: 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%. Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75% and IIIB (25% predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. CONCLUSION: The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions.

  16. G-rich, a Drosophila selenoprotein, is a Golgi-resident type III membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chang Lan; Shim, Myoung Sup; Chung, Jiyeol; Yoo, Hyun-Seung; Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Jinmi; Zang, Shu Liang; Hou, Xiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2006-01-01

    G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of G-rich suggests that this protein is either type II or type III transmembrane protein. To determine the type of transmembrane protein experimentally, GFP-G-rich in which GFP was tagged at the N-terminus of G-rich, or G-rich-GFP in which GFP was tagged at the C-terminus of G-rich, were expressed in SL2 cells. The tagged proteins were then digested with trypsin, and analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the C-terminus of the G-rich protein was exposed to the cytoplasm indicating it is a type III microsomal membrane protein. G-rich is First selenoprotein identified in the Golgi apparatus

  17. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  18. Mash1-expressing cells could differentiate to type III cells in adult mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroki; Seta, Yuji; Kataoka, Shinji; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Toyono, Takashi; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2018-03-10

    The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the cells expressing type III cell markers-aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25)-were significantly reduced in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. However, gustducin and phospholipase C beta2 (PLC beta2)-markers of type II taste bud cells-were not significantly changed in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. These results suggest that Mash1-positive cells could be differentiated to type III cells, not type II cells in the taste buds.

  19. Distinct Effects of Type I and III Interferons on Enteric Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Ingle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are key host cytokines in the innate immune response to viral infection, and recent work has identified unique roles for IFN subtypes in regulating different aspects of infection. Currently emerging is a common theme that type III IFNs are critical in localized control of infection at mucosal barrier sites, while type I IFNs are important for broad systemic control of infections. The intestine is a particular site of interest for exploring these effects, as in addition to being the port of entry for a multitude of pathogens, it is a complex tissue with a variety of cell types as well as the presence of the intestinal microbiota. Here we focus on the roles of type I and III IFNs in control of enteric viruses, discussing what is known about signaling downstream from these cytokines, including induction of specific IFN-stimulated genes. We review viral strategies to evade IFN responses, effects of IFNs on the intestine, interactions between IFNs and the microbiota, and briefly discuss the role of IFNs in controlling viral infections at other barrier sites. Enhanced understanding of the coordinate roles of IFNs in control of viral infections may facilitate development of antiviral therapeutic strategies; here we highlight potential avenues for future exploration.

  20. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A Darshanee Ruwandeepika

    Full Text Available Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels, which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells.

  1. Poor phenotype-genotype association in a large series of patients with Type III Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Castaño, Alejandro; Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Madariaga, Leire; Aguirre, Mireia; Madrid, Álvaro; Chocrón, Sara; Nadal, Inmaculada; Navarro, Mercedes; Lucas, Elena; Fijo, Julia; Espino, Mar; Espitaletta, Zilac; García Nieto, Víctor; Barajas de Frutos, David; Loza, Reyner; Pintos, Guillem; Castaño, Luis; Ariceta, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Type III Bartter syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubule disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene, which encodes the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb. In this study, we carried out a complete clinical and genetic characterization in a cohort of 30 patients, one of the largest series described. By comparing with other published populations, and considering that 80% of our patients presented the p.Ala204Thr Spanish founder mutation presumably associated with a common phenotype, we aimed to test the hypothesis that allelic differences could explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with type III BS. Clinical data were retrieved from the referral centers. The exon regions and flanking intronic sequences of the CLCNKB gene were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Presence of gross deletions or duplications in the region was checked for by MLPA and QMPSF analyses. Polyuria, polydipsia and dehydration were the main common symptoms. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia of renal origin were detected in all patients at diagnosis. Calciuria levels were variable: hypercalciuria was detected in 31% of patients, while 23% had hypocalciuria. Nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed in 20% of the cohort. Two novel CLCNKB mutations were identified: a small homozygous deletion (c.753delG) in one patient and a small deletion (c.1026delC) in another. The latter was present in compound heterozygosis with the already previously described p.Glu442Gly mutation. No phenotypic association was obtained regarding the genotype. A poor correlation was found between a specific type of mutation in the CLCNKB gene and type III BS phenotype. Importantly, two CLCNKB mutations not previously described were found in our cohort.

  2. Poor phenotype-genotype association in a large series of patients with Type III Bartter syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García Castaño

    Full Text Available Type III Bartter syndrome (BS is an autosomal recessive renal tubule disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene, which encodes the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb. In this study, we carried out a complete clinical and genetic characterization in a cohort of 30 patients, one of the largest series described. By comparing with other published populations, and considering that 80% of our patients presented the p.Ala204Thr Spanish founder mutation presumably associated with a common phenotype, we aimed to test the hypothesis that allelic differences could explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with type III BS.Clinical data were retrieved from the referral centers. The exon regions and flanking intronic sequences of the CLCNKB gene were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Presence of gross deletions or duplications in the region was checked for by MLPA and QMPSF analyses.Polyuria, polydipsia and dehydration were the main common symptoms. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia of renal origin were detected in all patients at diagnosis. Calciuria levels were variable: hypercalciuria was detected in 31% of patients, while 23% had hypocalciuria. Nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed in 20% of the cohort. Two novel CLCNKB mutations were identified: a small homozygous deletion (c.753delG in one patient and a small deletion (c.1026delC in another. The latter was present in compound heterozygosis with the already previously described p.Glu442Gly mutation. No phenotypic association was obtained regarding the genotype.A poor correlation was found between a specific type of mutation in the CLCNKB gene and type III BS phenotype. Importantly, two CLCNKB mutations not previously described were found in our cohort.

  3. SORPTION OF Ga (III ON FLEXIBLE OPEN CELL POLYURETHANE FOAM OF POLYETHER TYPE IMPREGNATED WITH TRI-N-BUTHYL PHOSPATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Tofan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtained results concerning the Ga (III ion retention on flexible open cell polyurethane foam of polyether type pretreated with tri-n-butyl phosphate are presented. The influence of solution acidity, phases contact time, Ga (III concentration and solution temperature have been investigated. The parameters of Ga (III batch sorption have been optimized. On the basis of Langmuir isotherms, the sorption constants and the thermodynamic parameters, ∆G, ∆Η and ∆S have been calculated.

  4. Induction of type I and type III interferons by Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with pathogenesis and requires linear plasmid 36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Krupna-Gaylord

    Full Text Available The capacity for Borrelia burgdorferi to cause disseminated infection in humans or mice is associated with the genotype of the infecting strain. The cytokine profiles elicited by B. burgdorferi clinical isolates of different genotype (ribosomal spacer type groups were assessed in a human PBMC co-incubation model. RST1 isolates, which are more frequently associated with disseminated Lyme disease in humans and mice, induced significantly higher levels of IFN-α and IFN-λ1/IL29 relative to RST3 isolates, which are less frequently associated with disseminated infection. No differences in the protein concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 or TNF-α were observed between isolates of differing genotype. The ability of B. burgdorferi to induce type I and type III IFNs was completely dependent on the presence of linear plasmid (lp 36. An lp36-deficient B. burgdorferi mutant adhered to, and was internalized by, PBMCs and specific dendritic cell (DC subsets less efficiently than its isogenic B31 parent strain. The association defect with mDC1s and pDCs could be restored by complementation of the mutant with the complete lp36. The RST1 clinical isolates studied were found to contain a 2.5-kB region, located in the distal one-third of lp36, which was not present in any of the RST3 isolates tested. This divergent region of lp36 may encode one or more factors required for optimal spirochetal recognition and the production of type I and type III IFNs by human DCs, thus suggesting a potential role for DCs in the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi infection.

  5. The prognostic relevance of parapyloric lymph node metastasis in Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Man-Qiang; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of patients with Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) with parapyloric lymph node (No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes, PLN) metastasis and to determine the need for PLN dissection for patients with type II/III AEG. A total of 1008 patients with type II/III AEG who underwent a transabdominal total gastrectomy were enrolled. The long-term surgical outcome of PLN-positive patients and the therapeutic value of PLN dissection were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of PLN metastasis between type II and III cancers (5.7% vs. 8.5%, P > 0.05). PLN metastasis was a significant prognostic factor for type II/III cancers (HR 1.63; P = 0.001). Among type II/III cancers, the 5-year survival of patients with PLN-positive cancers was much lower than that of patients with PLN-negative cancers (21.3% vs. 60.8%, P  0.05). In the analysis of the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection in each station for type II and III cancers after radical resection, lymph nodes with the lowest therapeutic value index after No. 12a were No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes. Patients with type II/III AEG with PLN metastasis have a poor prognosis, similar to patients with stage IV disease. PLN dissection offers marginal therapeutic value for patients with type II/III AEG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Does Not Prevent Neurological Deterioration in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Lindsey; Marchal, Jan Pieter; van Hasselt, Peter; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Wijburg, Frits A; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo disease, is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by defective lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS). No effective disease-modifying therapy is yet available. In contrast to some other neuronopathic LSDs, bone

  7. Percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in the management of unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cui, Wei; Fan, Wenzhe; Zhang, Yingqiang; Yao, Wang; Huang, Kunbo; Li, Jiaping

    2016-08-16

    To assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement was successful in all patients without any technical problems; the technical success rate was 100%. Chemotherapy was administered to two patients. After treatment, serum direct bilirubin levels were notably decreased. Six patients died during the follow-up period. Median stent patency from the time of the first RFA and survival from the time of diagnosis were 100 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 85-115 days) and 5.3 months (95% CI, 2.5-8.1 months), respectively. No acute pancreatitis, bile duct bleeding and perforation, bile leakage, or other severe complications occurred. Four cases of procedure-related cholangitis, three cases of postoperative abdominal pain, and five cases of asymptomatic transient increase in serum amylase were observed. One patient who presented with stent blockage 252 days' post-procedure underwent repeat ablation. Between September 2013 and May 2015, nine patients with unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma who were treated with percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement after the percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage were included in the retrospective analysis. Procedure-related complications, stent patency, and survival after treatment were investigated. Percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement is a technically safe and feasible therapeutic option for the palliative treatment of unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Its long-term efficacy and safety is promising, but needs further study via randomized and prospective trials that include a greater number of patients.

  8. Identification and characterization of a type III secretion-associated chaperone in the type III secretion system 1 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Okayama, Kanna; Kimura, Tomomi; Dryselius, Rikard; Kodama, Toshio; Oishi, Kazunori; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes human gastroenteritis. Genomic sequencing of this organism has revealed that it has two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2, both of which are important for its pathogenicity. However, the mechanism of protein secretion via T3SSs is unknown. A characteristic of many effectors is that they require specific chaperones for efficient delivery via T3SSs; however, no chaperone has been experimentally identified in the T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, we identified candidate T3SS1-associated chaperones from genomic sequence data and examined their roles in effector secretion/translocation and binding to their cognate substrates. From these experiments, we concluded that there is a T3S-associated chaperone, VecA, for a cytotoxic T3SS1-dependent effector, VepA. Further analysis using pulldown and secretion assays characterized the chaperone-binding domain encompassing the first 30-100 amino acids and an amino terminal secretion signal encompassing the first 5-20 amino acids on VepA. These findings will provide a strategy to clarify how the T3SS1 of V. parahaemolyticus secretes its specific effectors.

  9. Medial Condyle Fracture (Kilfoyle Type III of the Distal Humerus with Transient Fishtail Deformity after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Sonohata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A “Fishtail deformity” is one of the well-known complications following pediatric lateral condyle or supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We herein report a case of medial condyle fracture (Kilfoyle type III in an 11-year-old boy. He had a transient “fishtail deformity” of the trochlear groove after open reduction and internal fixation. As occurred in the current case, the bone remodeling and the improvement of ischemia of the trochlea after medial condyle fracture may be associated with the likelihood of recovery from transient “fishtail deformity.”

  10. Traveling waves in a diffusive predator-prey model with holling type-III functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wantong; Wu Shiliang

    2008-01-01

    We establish the existence of traveling wave solutions and small amplitude traveling wave train solutions for a reaction-diffusion system based on a predator-prey model with Holling type-III functional response. The analysis is in the three-dimensional phase space of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation system given by the diffusive predator-prey system in the traveling wave variable. The methods used to prove the results are the shooting argument, invariant manifold theory and the Hopf bifurcation theorem

  11. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  12. The effect of initial conditions on the electromagnetic radiation generation in type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, H.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 052903 (2011)]. The numerical simulations were carried out using different density profiles and fast electron distribution functions. It is shown that electromagnetic L and R modes are excited by the transverse current, initially imposed on the system. In the course of the simulations, no further interaction of the electron beam with the background plasma could be observed

  13. A genetic programming approach for Burkholderia Pseudomallei diagnostic pattern discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Tan, Gladys; Felgner, Philip L.; Titball, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Finding diagnostic patterns for fighting diseases like Burkholderia pseudomallei using biomarkers involves two key issues. First, exhausting all subsets of testable biomarkers (antigens in this context) to find a best one is computationally infeasible. Therefore, a proper optimization approach like evolutionary computation should be investigated. Second, a properly selected function of the antigens as the diagnostic pattern which is commonly unknown is a key to the diagnostic accuracy and the diagnostic effectiveness in clinical use. Results: A conversion function is proposed to convert serum tests of antigens on patients to binary values based on which Boolean functions as the diagnostic patterns are developed. A genetic programming approach is designed for optimizing the diagnostic patterns in terms of their accuracy and effectiveness. During optimization, it is aimed to maximize the coverage (the rate of positive response to antigens) in the infected patients and minimize the coverage in the non-infected patients while maintaining the fewest number of testable antigens used in the Boolean functions as possible. The final coverage in the infected patients is 96.55% using 17 of 215 (7.4%) antigens with zero coverage in the non-infected patients. Among these 17 antigens, BPSL2697 is the most frequently selected one for the diagnosis of Burkholderia Pseudomallei. The approach has been evaluated using both the cross-validation and the Jack–knife simulation methods with the prediction accuracy as 93% and 92%, respectively. A novel approach is also proposed in this study to evaluate a model with binary data using ROC analysis. Contact: z.r.yang@ex.ac.uk PMID:19561021

  14. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Sun

    Full Text Available Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated with immobilization and/or remobilization.In the Berlin bed rest study, 20 young men were recruited and randomly assigned to 8-week's strict bed rest with or without resistive vibration exercise countermeasure. We measured three neo-epitope ELISA kits in the serum samples of this study: Pro-C3, measured the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage.Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected at all. We found that Pro-C3 and C6M levels are related to LBM at baseline and that high levels of Pro-C6 are associated with smaller changes in muscle mass during both immobilization and remobilization.The Pro-C3 and-C6 biomarkers change likely reflect remodeling changes in response to unloading or reloading, whereas C6M does not appear to respond to unloading. Pro-C3 and C6M levels correlate with LBM at baseline, while Pro-C6 is related to the anabolic and catabolic responses to unloading and reloading.

  15. Survey of innate immune responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei in human blood identifies a central role for lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisara Chantratita

    Full Text Available B. pseudomallei is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the tropical infection melioidosis. In northeast Thailand, mortality from melioidosis approaches 40%. As exemplified by the lipopolysaccharide-Toll-like receptor 4 interaction, innate immune responses to invading bacteria are precipitated by activation of host pathogen recognition receptors by pathogen associated molecular patterns. Human melioidosis is characterized by up-regulation of pathogen recognition receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In contrast to many gram-negative pathogens, however, the lipopolysaccharide of B. pseudomallei is considered only weakly inflammatory. We conducted a study in 300 healthy Thai subjects to investigate the ex vivo human blood response to various bacterial pathogen associated molecular patterns, including lipopolysaccharide from several bacteria, and to two heat-killed B. pseudomallei isolates. We measured cytokine levels after stimulation of fresh whole blood with a panel of stimuli. We found that age, sex, and white blood cell count modulate the innate immune response to B. pseudomallei. We further observed that, in comparison to other stimuli, the innate immune response to B. pseudomallei is most highly correlated with the response to lipopolysaccharide. The magnitude of cytokine responses induced by B. pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide was significantly greater than those induced by lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and comparable to many responses induced by lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota despite lower amounts of lipid A in the B. pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide preparation. In human monocytes stimulated with B. pseudomallei, addition of polymyxin B or a TLR4/MD-2 neutralizing antibody inhibited the majority of TNF-α production. Challenging existing views, our data indicate that the innate immune response to B. pseudomallei in human blood is largely driven by lipopolysaccharide, and that the response to B

  16. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients: effects of increasing doses of GH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  17. Perdeuteration, purification, crystallization and preliminary neutron diffraction of an ocean pout type III antifreeze protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit-Haertlein, Isabelle; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Howard, Eduardo; Hazemann, Isabelle; Mitschler, Andre; Haertlein, Michael; Podjarny, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Perdeuterated type III antifreeze protein has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary neutron data collection showed diffraction to 1.85 Å resolution from a 0.13 mm 3 crystal. The highly homologous type III antifreeze protein (AFP) subfamily share the capability to inhibit ice growth at subzero temperatures. Extensive studies by X-ray crystallography have been conducted, mostly on AFPs from polar fishes. Although interactions between a defined flat ice-binding surface and a particular lattice plane of an ice crystal have now been identified, the fine structural features underlying the antifreeze mechanism still remain unclear owing to the intrinsic difficulty in identifying H atoms using X-ray diffraction data alone. Here, successful perdeuteration (i.e. complete deuteration) for neutron crystallographic studies of the North Atlantic ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) AFP in Escherichia coli high-density cell cultures is reported. The perdeuterated protein (AFP D) was expressed in inclusion bodies, refolded in deuterated buffer and purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Well shaped perdeuterated AFP D crystals have been grown in D 2 O by the sitting-drop method. Preliminary neutron Laue diffraction at 293 K using LADI-III at ILL showed that with a few exposures of 24 h a very low background and clear small spots up to a resolution of 1.85 Å were obtained using a ‘radically small’ perdeuterated AFP D crystal of dimensions 0.70 × 0.55 × 0.35 mm, corresponding to a volume of 0.13 mm 3

  18. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  19. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  20. Programmable type III-A CRISPR-Cas DNA targeting modules.

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    H Travis Ichikawa

    Full Text Available The CRISPR-Cas systems provide invader defense in a wide variety of prokaryotes, as well as technologies for many powerful applications. The Type III-A or Csm CRISPR-Cas system is one of the most widely distributed across prokaryotic phyla, and cleaves targeted DNA and RNA molecules. In this work, we have constructed modules of Csm systems from 3 bacterial species and heterologously expressed the functional modules in E. coli. The modules include a Cas6 protein and a CRISPR locus for crRNA production, and Csm effector complex proteins. The expressed modules from L. lactis, S. epidermidis and S. thermophilus specifically eliminate invading plasmids recognized by the crRNAs of the systems. Characteristically, activation of plasmid targeting activity depends on transcription of the plasmid sequence recognized by the crRNA. Activity was not observed when transcription of the crRNA target sequence was blocked, or when the opposite strand or a non-target sequence was transcribed. Moreover, the Csm module can be programmed to recognize plasmids with novel target sequences by addition of appropriate crRNA coding sequences to the module. These systems provide a platform for investigation of Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems in E. coli, and for introduction of programmable transcription-activated DNA targeting into novel organisms.

  1. Adenocarcinoma arising in a heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III: a case report

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    Egashira Yutaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Heterotopic pancreatic cancer in the duodenum is a very rare disease. Only twelve cases have been reported worldwide to date. We report a rare case of malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum with long-term survival of the patient, and review the 12 cases in the literature. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital complaining of nausea and vomiting. Endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed marked duodenal stenosis. A pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected specimen showed malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 30. He is well and shows no signs of recurrence at the time of writing, six years after the surgery. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma arising within the heterotopic pancreas appears to be rare. It is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis preoperatively. The management of heterotopic pancreas depends on the presence or absence of symptoms. If the patient is asymptomatic or benign, conservative treatment with regular follow-up is recommended. When the patient is symptomatic or there is a suspicion of malignancy, surgical management with intra-operative frozen section diagnosis is indicated.

  2. Type III Mixed Cryoglobulinemia and Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient With Partial DiGeorge Syndrome

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    Alice D. Chang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS, status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT. Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated β2-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF, and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF. This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  3. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

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    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  4. Unusual xanthomas in a young patient with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and type III hyperlipoproteinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feussner, G.; Dobmeyer, J. [Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Nissen, H.; Hansen, T.S. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark)

    1996-10-16

    We report on a 20-year-old man with the combination of two independent familial lipoprotein disorders: heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP). Familial hypercholesterolemia was diagnosed by elevated total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and family history. By denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, a G{r_arrow}A splice donor mutation in intron 3 of the proband`s low density lipoprotein receptor gene was identified as the underlying molecular defect. This mutation was described previously as a receptor-negative founder mutation in Norway (FH-Elverum) and subsequently in 6 unrelated heterozygous English patients, creating a severe phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia. Type III HLP was confirmed by homozygosity for apolipoprotein (apo) E2 and an elevated ratio of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol to serum triglycerides (0.40; normal ratio about 0.20). The patient has unusual flat xanthomas in the interdigital webs of the hands which are normally not found in either disease. These dermatological findings might therefore be indicative of the rare combination of both disorders of lipoprotein metabolism in one individual. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Decimetric type III radio bursts and associated hard X-ray spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Benz, A. O.; Ranieri, M.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    For a relatively weak solar flare on August 6, 1981, at 10:32 UT, a detailed comparison is made between hard X-ray spikes and decimetric type III radio bursts. The hard X-ray observations are made at energies above 30 keV, and the radio data are obtained in the frequency range from 100 to 1000 MHz. The time resolution for all the data sets is approximately 0.1 s or better. The dynamic radio spectrum exhibits many fast drift type III radio bursts with both normal and reverse slope, whereas the X-ray time profile contains many well resolved short spikes with durations less than or equal to 1 s. Some of the X-ray spikes are seen to be associated in time with reverse-slope bursts, indicating either that the electron beams producing the radio burst contain two or three orders of magnitude more fast electrons than has previously been assumed or that the electron beams can induce the acceleration of additional electrons or occur in coincidence with this acceleration. A case is presented in which a normal slope radio burst at approximately 600 MHz occurs in coincidence with the peak of an X-ray spike to within 0.1 s.

  6. Identification and functional characterization of three type III polyketide synthases from Aquilaria sinensis calli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhongxiu; Dong, Xianjuan; Feng, Yingying; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Bowen; Wang, Jinling; Zhang, Le; Wang, Juan; Shi, Shepo; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) play an important role in biosynthesis of various plant secondary metabolites and plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Aquilaria sinensis (A. sinensis) is the main plant species for production of agarwood, little is known about its PKS family. In this study, AsCHS1 and two new type III PKSs, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2, were isolated and characterized in A. sinensis calli. The comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 belonged to non-CHS group different from AsCHS1. The recombinant AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 produced the lactone-type products, suggesting their different enzyme activities from AsCHS1. Three PKS genes had a tissues-specific pattern in A. sinensis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of three PKS genes in calli under different abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. AsCHS1 transcript was most significantly induced by salt stress, AsPKS1 abundance was most remarkably enhanced by CdCl 2 treatment, while AsPKS2 expression was most significantly induced by mannitol treatment. Furthermore, AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 expression was enhanced upon gibberellins (GA3), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or salicylic acid (SA) treatment, while three PKS genes displayed low transcript levels at the early stage under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. In addition, three GFP:PKSs fusion proteins were localized in the cytoplasm and cell wall in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. These results indicated the multifunctional role of three type III PKSs in polyketide biosynthesis, plant resistance to abiotic stresses and signal transduction. - Highlights: • Two new PKS genes (AsPKS1 and AsPKS2) were isolated and characterized from A. sinensis. • The recombinant AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 catalyzed lactone-type products in vitro. • AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 were involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses and hormone stimuli. • Our results also indicated that AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 were predominantly localized

  7. Propionibacterium Acnes Phylogenetic Type III is Associated with Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rolf L W; Scholz, Christian F P; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role. Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH...... lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination...... of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide. We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly...

  8. Osteogenesis imperfecta type III/Ehlers-Danlos overlap syndrome in a Chinese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanqin; Wang, Yanzhou; Rauch, Frank; Li, Hu; Zhang, Yao; Zhai, Naixiang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Xiuzhi; Han, Jinxiang

    2018-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) are rare genetic disorders that are typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Few cases of OI/EDS overlap syndrome have been documented. Described here is a 30-year-old Chinese male with OI type III and EDS. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed a heterozygous COL1A1 mutation (c.671G>A, p.Gly224Asp) that affected the N-anchor domain of the alpha 1 chain of collagen type I. Ultrastructural analysis of a skin biopsy specimen revealed thin collagen fibers with irregular alignment of collagen fibers. These findings have expanded the genotypic spectrum of the OI/EDS overlap syndrome.

  9. Type III Osteogenesis Imperfecta With Dentinogenesis Imperfecta - A Case Report And review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabal Pal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis Imperfecta is a genetic disorder affecting approximately 20,000 U.S. population with multiple fracture of the bone. The, actual literature of the number of patients suffering from Osteogenesis Impcrfecta in Indian Population is still nor available. This is a case of a male patient who presented to the O.PD. of Subharati Dental College with history of pain ands swelling in the left lower posterior teeth region. On detail workout of the case it was found that the patient had Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type I with Type III Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Very few cases with such presentation is reported in Indian Literature. The following report presents the clinical findings of Osteogcnesis Imperfecta and an associated review of Literature.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Waves Associated with Type III Radio Bursts: I. Wind Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interplanetary electron beams are unstable in the solar wind and they generate Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency or its harmonic. Radio observations of the waves in the range 4-256 kHz, observed in 1994-2010 with the WAVES experiment onboard the WIND spacecraft, are statistically analyzed. A subset of 36 events with Langmuir waves and type III bursts occurring at the same time was selected. After removal of the background, the remaining power spectral density is modeled by the Pearson system of probability distributions (types I, IV and VI. The Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT predicts log-normal distribution for the power spectrum density of the Langmuir waves. Our results indicate that SGT possibly requires further verification.

  11. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

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    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  12. Synthesis and structures of a pincer-type rhodium(iii) complex: reactivity toward biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Milan M; Bogojeski, Jovana V; Klisurić, Olivera; Scheurer, Andreas; Elmroth, Sofi K C; Bugarčić, Živadin D

    2016-10-04

    A novel rhodium(iii) complex [Rh III (H 2 L tBu )Cl 3 ] (1) (H 2 L tBu = 2,6-bis(5-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine) containing a pincer type, tridentate nitrogen-donor chelate system was synthesized. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with a = 20.7982(6), b = 10.8952(4), c = 10.9832(4) Å, V = 2488.80(15) Å 3 , and eight molecules in the unit cell. The rhodium center in the complex [Rh III (H 2 L tBu )Cl 3 ] (1) is coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry by the tridentate N,N,N-donor and three chloro ligands, adopting a mer arrangement with an essentially planar ligand skeleton. Due to the tridentate coordination of the N,N,N-donor, the central nitrogen atom N1 is located closer to the Rh III center. The reactivity of the synthesized complex toward small biomolecules (l-methionine (l-Met), guanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP), l-histidine (l-His) and glutathione (GSH)) and to a series of duplex DNAs and RNA was investigated. The order of reactivity of the studied small biomolecules is: 5'-GMP > GSH > l-Met > l-His. Duplex RNA reacts faster with the [Rh III (H 2 L tBu )Cl 3 ] complex than duplex DNA, while shorter duplex DNA (15mer GG) reacts faster compared with 22mer GG duplex DNA. In addition, a higher reactivity is achieved with a DNA duplex with a centrally located GG-sequence than with a 22GTG duplex DNA, in which the GG-sequence is separated by a T base. Furthermore, the interaction of this metal complex 1 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by absorption (UV-Vis) and emission spectral studies (EthBr displacement studies). Overall, the studied complex exhibited good DNA and BSA interaction ability.

  13. Presynaptic type III neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Melissa L; Canetta, Sarah E; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2008-05-05

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of alpha7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface alpha7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of alpha7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting alpha7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function.

  14. Presynaptic type III neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Melissa L; Canetta, Sarah E; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2008-06-01

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of alpha7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface alpha7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of alpha7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting alpha7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function.

  15. Presynaptic Type III Neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Melissa L.; Canetta, Sarah E.; Role, Lorna W.; Talmage, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of α7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface α7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of α7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting α7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function. PMID:18458158

  16. Crystal structure of the second fibronectin type III (FN3) domain from human collagen α1 type XX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingfeng; Ren, Jixia; Wang, Nan; Cheng, Zhong; Yang, Runmei; Lin, Gen; Guo, Yi; Cai, Dayong; Xie, Yong; Zhao, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Collagen α1 type XX, which contains fibronectin type III (FN3) repeats involving six FN3 domains (referred to as the FN#1-FN#6 domains), is an unusual member of the fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACIT) subfamily of collagens. The results of standard protein BLAST suggest that the FN3 repeats might contribute to collagen α1 type XX acting as a cytokine receptor. To date, solution NMR structures of the FN#3, FN#4 and FN#6 domains have been determined. To obtain further structural evidence to understand the relationship between the structure and function of the FN3 repeats from collagen α1 type XX, the crystal structure of the FN#2 domain from human collagen α1 type XX (residues Pro386-Pro466; referred to as FN2-HCXX) was solved at 2.5 Å resolution. The crystal structure of FN2-HCXX shows an immunoglobulin-like fold containing a β-sandwich structure, which is formed by a three-stranded β-sheet (β1, β2 and β5) packed onto a four-stranded β-sheet (β3, β4, β6 and β7). Two consensus domains, tencon and fibcon, are structural analogues of FN2-HCXX. Fn8, an FN3 domain from human oncofoetal fibronectin, is the closest structural analogue of FN2-HCXX derived from a naturally occurring sequence. Based solely on the structural similarity of FN2-HCXX to other FN3 domains, the detailed functions of FN2-HCXX and the FN3 repeats in collagen α1 type XX cannot be identified.

  17. Type II and III Taste Bud Cells Preferentially Expressed Kainate Glutamate Receptors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Cil-Han; Kim, Se-Nyun; Chung, Ki-Myung; Cho, Young-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2009-12-01

    Glutamate-induced cobalt uptake reveals that non-NMDA glutamate receptors (GluRs) are present in rat taste bud cells. Previous studies involving glutamate induced cobalt staining suggest this uptake mainly occurs via kainate type GluRs. It is not known which of the 4 types of taste bud cells express subunits of kainate GluR. Circumvallate and foliate papillae of Sprague-Dawley rats (45~60 days old) were used to search for the mRNAs of subunits of non-NMDA GluRs using RT-PCR with specific primers for GluR1-7, KA1 and KA2. We also performed RT-PCR for GluR5, KA1, PLCbeta2, and NCAM/SNAP 25 in isolated single cells from taste buds. Taste epithelium, including circumvallate or foliate papilla, express mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1. However, non-taste tongue epithelium expresses no subunits of non-NMDA GluRs. Isolated single cell RT-PCR reveals that the mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1 are preferentially expressed in Type II and Type III cells over Type I cells.

  18. Hepatic Artery Resection for Bismuth Type III and IV Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Is Reconstruction Always Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Jie; Jin, Yan-Wen; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Shrestha, Anuj; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Wang, Jun-Ke; Liu, Fei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2018-03-06

    The objective of the study is to examine the feasibility of hepatic artery resection (HAR) without subsequent reconstruction (RCS) in specified patients of Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 63 patients who underwent hepatic artery resection for Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. These patients were subsequently enrolled into two groups based on whether the artery reconstruction was conducted. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term survival outcome were compared between the two groups. There were 29 patients in HAR group and 34 patients in the HAR + RCS group. Patients with hepatic artery reconstruction tended to have longer operative time (545.6 ± 143.1 min vs. 656.3 ± 192.8 min; P = 0.013) and smaller tumor size (3.0 ± 1.1 cm vs. 2.5 ± 0.9 cm; P = 0.036). The R0 resection margin was comparable between the HAR group and HAR + RCS group (86.2 vs. 85.3%; P > 0.05). Twelve patients (41.4%) with 24 complications in HAR group and 13 patients (38.2%) with 25 complications in HAR + RCS group were recorded (P = 0.799). The postoperative hepatic failure rate (13.8 vs. 5.9%) and postoperative mortality rate (3.4% vs. 2.9%) were also comparable between the two groups. In the HAR group, the overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 72, 41, and 19%, respectively; while in the HAR + RCS group, the overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 79, 45, and 25%, respectively (P = 0.928). Hepatic artery resection without reconstruction is also a safe and feasible surgical procedure for highly selected cases of Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. Type III radical hysterectomy after induction chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Graniel, C; Reyes, M; Chanona, G; Gonzalez, A; Robles, E; Mohar, A; Lopez-Basave, H; De La Garza, J G; Dueñas-Gonzalez, A

    2001-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is a promising approach in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, technical aspects, and clinical results of surgery after induction chemotherapy in this patient population. Forty-one untreated cervical carcinoma patients staged as IB2 to IIIB received three 21-day courses of cisplatin 100mg/m2 on day 1 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 followed by surgery or concomitant chemoradiation. The response to chemotherapy, operability, surgical/pathological findings, disease-free period, and survival of the surgically treated patients were evaluated. All 41 patients were evaluated for toxicity and 40 were evaluated for response. The overall objective response rate was 95% (95% confidence interval 88%-100%), and was complete in three patients (7.5%) and partial in 35 (87.5%). Granulocytopenia grades 3/4 occurred in 13.8% and 3.4% of the courses, respectively, whereas nonhematological toxicity was mild. Twenty-three patients underwent type III radical hysterectomy. Mean duration of surgery was 3.8 h (range 2:30-5:20), median estimated blood loss was 670 ml and median hospital stay was 5.2 days. Intraoperative complications occurred in one case (venous injury). In all but one case the resection margins were negative. Four patients (17%) had positive nodes (one node each); six (26%) had complete pathologic response, three (13%) had microscopic; and 14 (60%) macroscopic residual disease. At 24 months of maximum follow-up (median 20), the disease-free and overall survival rates were 59% and 91%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin/gemcitabine produced a high response rate and did not increase the difficulty of surgery. Operating time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, and hospital stay were all within the range observed for type III hysterectomy in early stage patients. We therefore conclude that type III radical hysterectomy is feasible in locally

  20. Treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft and endobutton technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye G

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gang Ye, Chao-An Peng, Hua-Bin Sun, Jing Xiao, Kang Zhu Department of Orthopedics, the People’s Hospital of Huangpi District, Wuhan City, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique, and compare with hook plate in treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocation.Methods: From April 2012 to April 2013, we treated 46 patients with Rockwood type III AC joint dislocation. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was treated using a hook plate and Group B with autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique. All participants were followed up for 12 months. Radiographic examinations were performed every 2 months postoperatively, and clinical evaluation was performed using the Constant–Murley score at the last follow-up.Results: Results indicated that patients in Group B showed higher mean scores (90.3±5.4 than Group A (80.4±11.5 in terms of Constant–Murley score (P=0.001. Group B patients scored higher in terms of pain (P=0.002, activities (P=0.02, range of motion (P<0.001, and strength (P=0.004. In Group A, moderate pain was reported by 2 (8.7% and mild pain by 8 (34.8% patients. Mild pain was reported by 1 (4.3% patient in Group B. All patients in Group B maintained complete reduction, while 2 (8.7% patients in Group A experienced partial reduction loss. Two patients (8.7% encountered acromial osteolysis on latest radiographs, with moderate shoulder pain and limited range of motion.Conclusion: Autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique showed better results compared with the hook plate method and exhibited advantages of fewer complications such as permanent pain and acromial osteolysis. Keywords: Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation, autogenous semitendinosus graft, endobutton, hook plate

  1. A heterodimer comprised of two bovine lactoferrin antimicrobial peptides exhibits powerful bactericidal activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puknun, Aekkalak; Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol

    2013-07-01

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease that is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of this disease, has developed resistance to an increasing list of antibiotics, demanding a search for novel agents. Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin are two antimicrobial domains of lactoferrin with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. A hybrid peptide (LFchimera) containing lactoferrampin (LFampin265-284) and a part of lactoferricin (LFcin17-30) has strikingly higher antimicrobial activities compared to the individual peptides. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of this chimeric construct (LFchimera1), as well as of another one containing LFcin17-30 and LFampin268-284, a shorter fragment of LFampin265-284 (LFchimera2), and the constituent peptides were tested against 7 isolates of B. pseudomallei and compared to the preferential antibiotic ceftazidime (CAZ). All isolates including B. pseudomallei 979b shown to be resistant to CAZ, at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml, could be killed by 5-10 μM of LFchimera1 within 2 h, while the other peptides as well as the antibiotic CAZ only inhibited the B. pseudomallei strains resulting in an overgrowth in 24 h. These data indicate that LFchimera1 could be considered for development of therapeutic agents against B. pseudomallei.

  2. A type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex mediating massive target DNA destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenyuan; Li, Yingjun; Deng, Ling; Feng, Mingxia; Peng, Wenfang; Hallstrøm, Søren; Zhang, Jing; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yun Xiang; White, Malcolm F; She, Qunxin

    2017-02-28

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system protects archaea and bacteria by eliminating nucleic acid invaders in a crRNA-guided manner. The Sulfolobus islandicus type III-B Cmr-α system targets invading nucleic acid at both RNA and DNA levels and DNA targeting relies on the directional transcription of the protospacer in vivo. To gain further insight into the involved mechanism, we purified a native effector complex of III-B Cmr-α from S. islandicus and characterized it in vitro. Cmr-α cleaved RNAs complementary to crRNA present in the complex and its ssDNA destruction activity was activated by target RNA. The ssDNA cleavage required mismatches between the 5΄-tag of crRNA and the 3΄-flanking region of target RNA. An invader plasmid assay showed that mutation either in the histidine-aspartate acid (HD) domain (a quadruple mutation) or in the GGDD motif of the Cmr-2α protein resulted in attenuation of the DNA interference in vivo. However, double mutation of the HD motif only abolished the DNase activity in vitro. Furthermore, the activated Cmr-α binary complex functioned as a highly active DNase to destroy a large excess DNA substrate, which could provide a powerful means to rapidly degrade replicating viral DNA. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Tetracycline treatment of type III prostatitis nanobacteria infection of 100 cases report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyi; Li, Chongxian; Wu, Baisuo; Hao, Shaojun; Ming, Aimin; Zhang, Xinji; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of tetracycline treatment of nanobacterial infection in 100 cases of type III prostatitis. randomly divided into treatment group and control group with double blind method, the treatment group was given Tetracycline Tablets 250mg, oral, 2 times a day; the control group were treated with Levofloxacin Tablets 0.lg, oral, 2 times a day; observation of curative effect of two groups of patients after 1 months of treatment. after the treatment group patients NIH-CPSI score and pain, urinary symptoms and quality of life scores were significantly lower than that of control group (Pprostate fluid and cultured positive cases of nanobacterial numbers were 21 (21%) and 100 cases (100%), the positive rate of nanobacteria in observation group was significantly lower than the control group (Pprostatitis.

  4. Non-LTE calculations of Al III line strengths in early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P.L.; Brown, P.J.F.; Lennon, D.J.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Non-LTE line formation calculations, based on the 'complete linearization method' are presented for the Al III ion in early-type stars. Equivalent widths, together with the corresponding LTE values, are tabulated for 15 ultraviolet and visible region transitions, for effective temperatures from 20 000 to 35 000 K, logarithmic gravities of 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5, microturbulent velocities of 0 and 5 km s -1 and logarithmic aluminium abundances of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. The non-LTE line strengths are significantly larger than the LTE values particularly for the visible region transitions and the implications of this are briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Observation of Current Structures at Type-III ELM Onset on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Naulin, Volker; Xu, G.

    structure. To verify the current characteristic of this structure, a mono-polar current filaments model was involved, which can reproduce same pattern commendably. Thus, current transport may dominant in transitional stage and plays an important role in the nonlinear development phase of ELM exhaustive......In far scrape-o layer (SOL), alternating negative and positive burst structures in ion saturation current were detected at the onset of each type-III edge localized mode (ELM) on EAST. Different from the fast streaming phenomenon reported previously, one subsequent positive burst structure appears...... every time in the early phase of ELM. It seems like a quick transitional stage between edge localized mode (MHD) phase and transport phase during the ELM. A pronounced sinusoidal pattern has been observed on the radial magnetic induction signal by Langmuir - magnetic probe, corresponding with almost...

  6. The SPI-1-like Type III secretion system: more roles than you think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Frank; Barret, Matthieu; O’Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein delivery system which is involved in a wide spectrum of interactions, from mutualism to pathogenesis, between Gram negative bacteria and various eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, protozoa and mammals. Various phylogenetic families of the T3SS have been described, including the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 family (SPI-1). The SPI-1 T3SS was initially associated with the virulence of enteric pathogens, but is actually found in a diverse array of bacterial species, where it can play roles in processes as different as symbiotic interactions with insects and colonization of plants. We review the multiple roles of the SPI-1 T3SS and discuss both how these discoveries are changing our perception of the SPI-1 family and what impacts this has on our understanding of the specialization of the T3SS in general. PMID:24575107

  7. A Case of Refractory Type III Hyperlypoproteinemia Successfully Treated with Plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Tuzcu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male was hospitalized in Department of Endocrinologyfor evaluation of persistent hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholestrolemia.He was normal on physical examination except having multiple xanthomasin elbow, knee and ankle. ApoE genotyping was performed by PCR andapoE phenotype was found to be E2/E2. Firstly, he was treated withatorvastatin (40mg/day and niacin (1500mg/day but it was found that thepatient did not respond the after three months of the treatment. Then he wastreated with plasmapheresis twice a week. After three weeks ofplasmapheresis treatment triglyceride and cholesterol levels was markedlydecreased.Plasmapheresis can be highly effective in removing the lipoproteinremnantparticles, leading to generalized improvement in the lipoproteinprofile in severe type III hyperlipidemia, which do not respond conventionalthreapies as in our case.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an octaketide-producing plant type III polyketide synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-11-01

    Octaketide synthase from A. arborescens has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.6 Å. Octaketide synthase (OKS) from Aloe arborescens is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that produces SEK4 and SEK4b from eight molecules of malonyl-CoA. Recombinant OKS expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.2, c = 281.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  9. The SPI-1-like Type III secretion system: more roles than you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Frank; Barret, Matthieu; O'Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein delivery system which is involved in a wide spectrum of interactions, from mutualism to pathogenesis, between Gram negative bacteria and various eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, protozoa and mammals. Various phylogenetic families of the T3SS have been described, including the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 family (SPI-1). The SPI-1 T3SS was initially associated with the virulence of enteric pathogens, but is actually found in a diverse array of bacterial species, where it can play roles in processes as different as symbiotic interactions with insects and colonization of plants. We review the multiple roles of the SPI-1 T3SS and discuss both how these discoveries are changing our perception of the SPI-1 family and what impacts this has on our understanding of the specialization of the T3SS in general.

  10. Measurement of serum type III procollagen aminopeptide with RIA-gnost PIIIP coated tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Takagi, Toshikazu; Okazaki, Isao

    1992-01-01

    In 55 patients with various alcoholic liver diseases, serum type III procollagen aminopeptide (PIIIP) was measured on admission, on biopsy (2-4 weeks after admission) and on discharge from hospital (3 months after admission) using RIA-gnost PIIIP coated tube, an assay kit recently launched by Hoechst Japan Limited. Serum PIIIP on admission showed a good correlation with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and was significantly higher in any disease group than in healthy controls, suggesting its usefulness as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis. After abstinence, however, serum PIIIP level exhibited an increasing tendency in all the disease groups expect alcoholic hepatitis, and the number of laboratory tests showing a significant correlation with PIIIP decreased as compared with that on admission. The mechanism of serum PIIIP elevations seen after abstience is yet to be elucidated in detail, considering their possible association with factors other than collagen synthesis in the liver. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional Langmuir wave instabilities in type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardwell, S.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming that type III solar radio bursts are associated with electron streams moving at about c/3, Langmuir waves should be strongly excited. We have studied all of the Langmuir-wave linear parametric instabilities excited in cylindrical symmetry by an electron-stream--driven Langmuir wave-pump propagating along the stream axis. Included in this unified homogeneous treatment are induced backscattering off ions, the oscillating two-stream instability, and a new ''stimulated modulational instability,'' previously unconsidered in this context. Near a few solar radii, the latter two deposit Langmuir wave energy into a forward-scattering cone about the stream axis. It is concluded that the linear stage of the forward-scattering instabilities involves transfer of energy to Langmuir waves which remain in resonance with the stream, and therefore probably do not prevent rapid depletion of the electron stream due to quasilinear plateau formation at these distances from the Sun

  12. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known...... about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates...... a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection....

  13. An Adult Case of Bartter Syndrome Type III Presenting with Proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jung Cha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bartter syndrome (BS I–IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting salt reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This report highlights clinicopathological findings and genetic studies of classic BS in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with persistent mild proteinuria for 2 years. A renal biopsy demonstrated a mild to moderate increase in the mesangial cells and matrix of most glomeruli, along with marked juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia. These findings suggested BS associated with mild IgA nephropathy. Focal tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration were also observed. A genetic study of the patient and her parents revealed a mutation of the CLCNKB genes. The patient was diagnosed with BS, type III. This case represents an atypical presentation of classic BS in an adult patient. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy combined with genetic analysis and clinicolaboratory findings are important in making an accurate diagnosis.

  14. An Adult Case of Bartter Syndrome Type III Presenting with Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Jung; Hwang, Won Min; Yun, Sung-Ro; Park, Moon Hyang

    2016-03-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) I-IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting salt reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This report highlights clinicopathological findings and genetic studies of classic BS in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with persistent mild proteinuria for 2 years. A renal biopsy demonstrated a mild to moderate increase in the mesangial cells and matrix of most glomeruli, along with marked juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia. These findings suggested BS associated with mild IgA nephropathy. Focal tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration were also observed. A genetic study of the patient and her parents revealed a mutation of the CLCNKB genes. The patient was diagnosed with BS, type III. This case represents an atypical presentation of classic BS in an adult patient. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy combined with genetic analysis and clinicolaboratory findings are important in making an accurate diagnosis.

  15. Anisotropic Bianchi Type-III Bulk Viscous Fluid Universe in Lyra Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropic Bianchi type-III cosmological model is investigated in the presence of a bulk viscous fluid within the framework of Lyra geometry with time-dependent displacement vector. It is shown that the field equations are solvable for any arbitrary function of a scale factor. To get the deterministic model of the universe, we have assumed that (i a simple power-law form of a scale factor and (ii the bulk viscosity coefficient are proportional to the energy density of the matter. The exact solutions of the Einstein’s field equations are obtained which represent an expanding, shearing, and decelerating model of the universe. Some physical and kinematical behaviors of the cosmological model are briefly discussed.

  16. Type III occipital condylar fracture presenting with hydrocephalus, vertebral artery injury and vasospasm: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, J.A.; Baskaya, M.K.; Day, M.A.; Nanda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Occipital condylar fractures (OCF) are rare and have a high mortality rate. We report a patient with OCF who presented with acute hydrocephalus and died from diffuse vasospasm secondary to vertebral artery injury. A 45-year-old man fell 20 feet from a deer stand and landed on his head. CT showed a type III OCF continuing to the anterior rim of the foramen magnum on the left, with a bone fragment pushing into the medulla, causing hydrocephalus. The patient was stabilized, and a four-vessel arteriogram showed diffuse vasospasm with complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery at the level of the OCF. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of the conjunction of OCF, hydrocephalus, and vasospasm. (orig.)

  17. Bacterial flagella and Type III secretion: case studies in the evolution of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, M J; Gophna, U

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial flagella at first sight appear uniquely sophisticated in structure, so much so that they have even been considered 'irreducibly complex' by the intelligent design movement. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that these remarkable pieces of molecular machinery are the product of processes that are fully compatible with Darwinian evolution. In this chapter we present evidence for such processes, based on a review of experimental studies, molecular phylogeny and microbial genomics. Several processes have played important roles in flagellar evolution: self-assembly of simple repeating subunits, gene duplication with subsequent divergence, recruitment of elements from other systems ('molecular bricolage'), and recombination. We also discuss additional tentative new assignments of homology (FliG with MgtE, FliO with YscJ). In conclusion, rather than providing evidence of intelligent design, flagellar and non-flagellar Type III secretion systems instead provide excellent case studies in the evolution of complex systems from simpler components.

  18. Changes in histoanatomical distribution of types I, III and V collagen promote adaptative remodeling in posterior tibial tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Satomi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult flat foot deformity, and its etiology is unknown. PURPOSE: In this study, we characterized the morphologic pattern and distribution of types I, III and V collagen in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. METHOD: Tendon samples from patients with and without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were stained by immunofluorescence using antibodies against types I, III and V collagen. RESULTS: Control samples showed that type V deposited near the vessels only, while surgically obtained specimens displayed type V collagen surrounding other types of collagen fibers in thicker adventitial layers. Type III collagen levels were also increased in pathological specimens. On the other hand, amounts of collagen type I, which represents 95% of the total collagen amount in normal tendon, were decreased in pathological specimens. CONCLUSION: Fibrillogenesis in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is altered due to higher expression of types III and V collagen and a decreased amount of collagen type I, which renders the originating fibrils structurally less resistant to mechanical forces.

  19. Protein homology network families reveal step-wise diversification of Type III and Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Medini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 251 prokaryotic genomes stored in public databases, the 761,260 deduced proteins were used to reconstruct a complete set of bacterial proteic families. Using the new Overlap algorithm, we have partitioned the Protein Homology Network (PHN, where the proteins are the nodes and the links represent homology relationships. The algorithm identifies the densely connected regions of the PHN that define the families of homologous proteins, here called PHN-Families, recognizing the phylogenetic relationships embedded in the network. By direct comparison with a manually curated dataset, we assessed that this classification algorithm generates data of quality similar to a human expert. Then, we explored the network to identify families involved in the assembly of Type III and Type IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS. We noticed that, beside a core of conserved functions (eight proteins for T3SS, seven for T4SS, a variable set of accessory components is always present (one to nine for T3SS, one to five for T4SS. Each member of the core corresponds to a single PHN-Family, while accessory proteins are distributed among different pure families. The PHN-Family classification suggests that T3SS and T4SS have been assembled through a step-wise, discontinuous process, by complementing the conserved core with subgroups of nonconserved proteins. Such genetic modules, independently recruited and probably tuned on specific effectors, contribute to the functional specialization of these organelles to different microenvironments.

  20. Kernel based machine learning algorithm for the efficient prediction of type III polyketide synthase family of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika V

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Type III Polyketide synthases (PKS are family of proteins considered to have significant role in the biosynthesis of various polyketides in plants, fungi and bacteria. As these proteins show positive effects to human health, more researches are going on regarding this particular protein. Developing a tool to identify the probability of sequence, being a type III polyketide synthase will minimize the time consumption and manpower efforts. In this approach, we have designed and implemented PKSIIIpred, a high performance prediction server for type III PKS where the classifier is Support Vector Machine (SVM. Based on the limited training dataset, the tool efficiently predicts the type III PKS superfamily of proteins with high sensitivity and specificity. PKSIIIpred is available at http://type3pks.in/prediction/. We expect that this tool may serve as a useful resource for type III PKS researchers. Currently work is being progressed for further betterment of prediction accuracy by including more sequence features in the training dataset.

  1. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration

  2. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  3. Detergent Isolation Stabilizes and Activates the Shigella Type III Secretion System Translocator Protein IpaC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Abram R; Duarte, Shari M; Kumar, Prashant; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-07-01

    Shigella rely on a type III secretion system as the primary virulence factor for invasion and colonization of human hosts. Although there are an estimated 90 million Shigella infections, annually responsible for more than 100,000 deaths worldwide, challenges isolating and stabilizing many type III secretion system proteins have prevented a full understanding of the Shigella invasion mechanism and additionally slowed progress toward a much needed Shigella vaccine. Here, we show that the non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent N, N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) and non-ionic detergent n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene efficiently isolated the hydrophobic Shigella translocator protein IpaC from the co-purified IpaC/IpgC chaperone-bound complex. Both detergents resulted in monomeric IpaC that exhibits strong membrane binding and lysis characteristics while the chaperone-bound complex does not, suggesting that the stabilizing detergents provide a means of following IpaC "activation" in vitro. Additionally, biophysical characterization found that LDAO provides significant thermal and temporal stability to IpaC, protecting it for several days at room temperature and brief exposure to temperatures reaching 90°C. In summary, this work identified and characterized conditions that provide stable, membrane active IpaC, providing insight into key interactions with membranes and laying a strong foundation for future vaccine formulation studies taking advantage of the native immunogenicity of IpaC and the stability provided by LDAO. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixed-valent perovskites of the type Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)PtRuO/sub 9/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmler-Sack, S; Ehmann, A; Herrmann, M [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1981-08-01

    Compounds of type Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)PtRuO/sub 9/ - with a mean oxydation state of the noble metals of +4.5 - crystallize with Bsup(III) = Gd-Lu, Y in a variant of hexagonal BaTiO/sub 3/ type with ordered cationic distribution. Intensity calculations on powder data of Ba/sub 3/YPtRuO/sub 9/ (a = 5.88/sub 8/; c = 14.7/sub 0/ A) gave in the space group P6/sub 3//mmc (sequence (hcc)/sub 2/) a refined, intensity related R' value of 5.9%. With Bsup(III) = Eu the lattice is monoclinic and for Bsup(III) = Sm, Nd, La triclinic distorted.

  5. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungkind, D L; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  6. Impairment of Vision in a Mouse Model of Usher Syndrome Type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Lee, Richard; Ropelewski, Philip; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an Usher syndrome type III mouse model with retinal phenotype. Speed congenic method was used to obtain Clrn1 exon 1 knockout (Clrn1-/-) and Clrn1N48K knockin (Clrn1N48K/N48K) mice under A/J background. To study the retinal functions of these mice, we measured scotopic and photopic ERG responses. To observe if there are any structural abnormalities, we conducted light and transmission electron microscopy of fixed retinal specimens. In 3-month-old Clrn1-/- mice, scotopic b-wave amplitude was reduced by more than 25% at the light intensities from -2.2 to 0.38 log cd·s/m2, but scotopic a-wave amplitudes were comparable to those of age-matched wild type mice at all the light intensities tested. In 9-month-old Clrn1-/- mice, scotopic b-wave amplitudes were further reduced by more than 35%, and scotopic a-wave amplitude also showed a small decline as compared with wild type mice. Photopic ERG responses were comparable between Clrn1-/- and wild type mice. Those electrophysiological defects were not associated with a loss of rods. In Clrn1N48K/N48K mice, both a- and b-wave amplitudes were not discernable from those of wild type mice aged up to 10 months. Mutations that are Clrn1-/- biallelic cause visual defects when placed under A/J background. The absence of apparent rod degeneration suggests that the observed phenotype is due to functional defects, and not due to loss of rods. Biallelic Clrn1N48K/N48K mutations did not cause discernible visual defects, suggesting that Clrn1- allele is more severely dysfunctional than ClrnN48K allele.

  7. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher E. Van Zandt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs, the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA Animal Rule 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified 6 strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  8. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S; Warren, Richard L; Gelhaus, H Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA "Animal Rule" 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  9. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human memory T cell responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei.

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    Patcharaporn Tippayawat

    Full Text Available Infection with the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important cause of community-acquired lethal sepsis in endemic regions in southeast Asia and northern Australia and is increasingly reported in other tropical areas. In animal models, production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma is critical for resistance, but in humans the characteristics of IFN-gamma production and the bacterial antigens that are recognized by the cell-mediated immune response have not been defined.Peripheral blood from 133 healthy individuals who lived in the endemic area and had no history of melioidosis, 60 patients who had recovered from melioidosis, and 31 other patient control subjects were stimulated by whole bacteria or purified bacterial proteins in vitro, and IFN-gamma responses were analyzed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry.B. pseudomallei was a potent activator of human peripheral blood NK cells for innate production of IFN-gamma. In addition, healthy individuals with serological evidence of exposure to B. pseudomallei and patients recovered from active melioidosis developed CD4(+ (and CD8(+ T cells that recognized whole bacteria and purified proteins LolC, OppA, and PotF, members of the B. pseudomallei ABC transporter family. This response was primarily mediated by terminally differentiated T cells of the effector-memory (T(EMRA phenotype and correlated with the titer of anti-B. pseudomallei antibodies in the serum.Individuals living in a melioidosis-endemic region show clear evidence of T cell priming for the ability to make IFN-gamma that correlates with their serological status. The ability to detect T cell responses to defined B. pseudomallei proteins in large numbers of individuals now provides the opportunity to screen candidate antigens for inclusion in protein or polysaccharide-conjugate subunit vaccines against this important but neglected disease.

  10. Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals an Asian Origin for African Burkholderia pseudomallei and Further Supports Melioidosis Endemicity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarovich, Derek S; Garin, Benoit; De Smet, Birgit; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Vandamme, Peter; Jacobs, Jan; Lompo, Palpouguini; Tahita, Marc C; Tinto, Halidou; Djaomalaza, Innocente; Currie, Bart J; Price, Erin P

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, an environmental bacterium that causes the deadly disease melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. An increasing number of melioidosis cases are being reported in other tropical regions, including Africa and the Indian Ocean islands. B. pseudomallei first emerged in Australia, with subsequent rare dissemination event(s) to Southeast Asia; however, its dispersal to other regions is not yet well understood. We used large-scale comparative genomics to investigate the origins of three B. pseudomallei isolates from Madagascar and two from Burkina Faso. Phylogenomic reconstruction demonstrates that these African B. pseudomallei isolates group into a single novel clade that resides within the more ancestral Asian clade. Intriguingly, South American strains reside within the African clade, suggesting more recent dissemination from West Africa to the Americas. Anthropogenic factors likely assisted in B. pseudomallei dissemination to Africa, possibly during migration of the Austronesian peoples from Indonesian Borneo to Madagascar ~2,000 years ago, with subsequent genetic diversity driven by mutation and recombination. Our study provides new insights into global patterns of B. pseudomallei dissemination and adds to the growing body of evidence of melioidosis endemicity in Africa. Our findings have important implications for melioidosis diagnosis and management in Africa. IMPORTANCE Sporadic melioidosis cases have been reported in the African mainland and Indian Ocean islands, but until recently, these regions were not considered areas where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Given the high mortality rate of melioidosis, it is crucial that this disease be recognized and suspected in all regions of endemicity. Previous work has shown that B. pseudomallei originated in Australia, with subsequent introduction into Asia; however, the precise origin of B. pseudomallei in other tropical regions remains poorly understood. Using

  11. Evidence for four- and three-wave interactions in solar type III radio emissions

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    G. Thejappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high time resolution observations obtained by the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts, Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets with short durations of only few ms. One of these wave packets shows that it is a three-dimensional field structure with WLneTe ~ 10−3, where WL is the peak energy density, and ne and Te are the electron density and temperature, respectively. For this wave packet, the conditions of the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI and supersonic collapse are satisfied within the error range of determination of main parameters. The density cavity, observed during this wave packet indicates that its depth, width and temporal coincidence are consistent with those of a caviton, generated by the ponderomotive force of the collapsing wave packet. The spectrum of each of the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave packet contains a primary peak at fpe, two secondary peaks at fpe ± fS and a low-frequency enhancement below fS, which, as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT-based tricoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, fpe + fS, fpe − fS, are coupled to each other by the OTSI type of four-wave interaction (fpe is the local electron plasma frequency and fS is the frequency of ion sound waves. In addition to the primary peak at fpe, each of these spectra also contains a peak at 2fpe, which as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the wavelet-based bicoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, appears to correspond to the second harmonic electromagnetic waves generated as a result of coalescence of oppositely propagating sidebands excited by the OTSI. Thus, these observations for the first time provide combined evidence that (1 the OTSI and related strong turbulence processes play a significant role in the stabilization of the electron beam, (2 the coalescence

  12. The Role of Type III Interferons in Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Therapy

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    Janina Bruening

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human interferon (IFN response is a key innate immune mechanism to fight virus infection. IFNs are host-encoded secreted proteins, which induce IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs with antiviral properties. Among the three classes of IFNs, type III IFNs, also called IFN lambdas (IFNLs, are an essential component of the innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV. In particular, human polymorphisms in IFNL gene loci correlate with hepatitis C disease progression and with treatment response. To date, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly elusive; however it seems clear that viral infection of the liver induces IFNL responses. As IFNL receptors show a more restricted tissue expression than receptors for other classes of IFNs, IFNL treatment has reduced side effects compared to the classical type I IFN treatment. In HCV therapy, however, IFNL will likely not play an important role as highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA exist. Here, we will review our current knowledge on IFNL gene expression, protein properties, signaling, ISG induction, and its implications on HCV infection and treatment. Finally, we will discuss the lessons learnt from the HCV and IFNL field for virus infections beyond hepatitis C.

  13. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Differences in Funding Sources of Phase III Oncology Clinical Trials by Treatment Modality and Cancer Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Vikram; Yu, James B; Aneja, Sanjay; Wilson, Lynn D; Lloyd, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Given the limited resources available to conduct clinical trials, it is important to understand how trial sponsorship differs among different therapeutic modalities and cancer types and to consider the ramifications of these differences. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for a cross-sectional register of active, phase III, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying treatment-related endpoints such as survival and recurrence for the 24 most prevalent malignancies. We classified the RCTs into 7 categories of therapeutic modality: (1) chemotherapy/other cancer-directed drugs, (2) targeted therapy, (3) surgery, (4) radiation therapy (RT), (5) RT with other modalities, (6) multimodality therapy without RT, and (7) other. RCTs were categorized as being funded by one or more of the following groups: (1) government, (2) hospital/university, (3) industry, and (4) other. χ analysis was performed to detect differences in funding source distribution between modalities and cancer types. The percentage of multimodality trials (5%) and radiation RCTs (4%) funded by industry was less than that for chemotherapy (32%, Pfunding than any of the other modalities (Pfunded by industry if they also studied targeted therapy (Pfunded by industry than trials studying multimodality therapy or radiation. The impact of industry funding versus institutional or governmental sources of funding for cancer research is unclear and requires further study.

  15. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

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    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  16. Type III Interferon-Mediated Signaling Is Critical for Controlling Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Virus Infection In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douam, Florian; Soto Albrecht, Yentli E; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Sadimin, Evita; Davidson, Christian; Kotenko, Sergei V; Ploss, Alexander

    2017-08-15

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling and type II interferon (IFN-γ) signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action in viral infection. However, it remains unclear how type III IFN (IFN-λ) integrates into this antiviral system. Here, we report that while wild-type (WT) and IFN-λ receptor knockout (λR -/- ) mice were largely resistant to YFV-17D, deficiency in type I IFN signaling resulted in robust infection. Although IFN-α/β receptor knockout (α/βR -/- ) mice survived the infection, mice with combined deficiencies in both type I signaling and type III IFN signaling were hypersusceptible to YFV-17D and succumbed to the infection. Mortality was associated with viral neuroinvasion and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). α/βR -/- λR -/- mice also exhibited distinct changes in the frequencies of multiple immune cell lineages, impaired T-cell activation, and severe perturbation of the proinflammatory cytokine balance. Taken together, our data highlight that type III IFN has critical immunomodulatory and neuroprotective functions that prevent viral neuroinvasion during active YFV-17D replication. Type III IFN thus likely represents a safeguard mechanism crucial for controlling YFV-17D infection and contributing to shaping vaccine immunogenicity. IMPORTANCE YFV-17D is a live attenuated flavivirus vaccine strain recognized as one of the most effective vaccines ever developed. However, the host and viral determinants governing YFV-17D attenuation and its potent immunogenicity are still unknown. Here, we analyzed the

  17. Oblique Axis Body Fracture: An Unstable Subtype of Anderson Type III Odontoid Fractures—Apropos of Two Cases

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    Hirokazu Takai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as “oblique type axis body fracture.” Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic “oblique type” fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1–C3/4 posterior fusion and the course was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion for this injury and suggest early operative stabilization.

  18. Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefang; McAteer, Sean P.; Tree, Jai J.; Shaw, Darren J.; Wolfson, Eliza B. K.; Beatson, Scott A.; Roe, Andrew J.; Allison, Lesley J.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Mahajan, Arvind; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Morabito, Stefano; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90%) of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%). PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins. PMID:22615557

  19. Regulation of the Type III InsP3 Receptor by InsP3 and ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Hagar, Robert E.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    2000-01-01

    Many hormones and neurotransmitters raise intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) by generating InsP(3) and activating the inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)R). Multiple isoforms with distinct InsP(3) binding properties () have been identified (). The type III InsP(3)R lacks Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition, a property that makes it ideal for signal initiation (). Regulation of the type III InsP(3)R by InsP(3) and ATP was explored in detail using planar lipid bilayers. In comparison to the typ...

  20. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men

  1. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  2. Genetics of type III Bartter syndrome in Spain, proposed diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Castaño, Alejandro; Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Madariaga, Leire; Aguirre, Mireia; Madrid, Alvaro; Nadal, Inmaculada; Navarro, Mercedes; Lucas, Elena; Fijo, Julia; Espino, Mar; Espitaletta, Zilac; Castaño, Luis; Ariceta, Gema

    2013-01-01

    The p.Ala204Thr mutation (exon 7) of the CLCNKB gene is a "founder" mutation that causes most of type III Bartter syndrome cases in Spain. We performed genetic analysis of the CLCNKB gene, which encodes for the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb, in a cohort of 26 affected patients from 23 families. The diagnostic algorithm was: first, detection of the p.Ala204Thr mutation; second, detecting large deletions or duplications by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments; and third, sequencing of the coding and flanking regions of the whole CLCNKB gene. In our genetic diagnosis, 20 families presented with the p.Ala204Thr mutation. Of those, 15 patients (15 families) were homozygous (57.7% of overall patients). Another 8 patients (5 families) were compound heterozygous for the founder mutation together with a second one. Thus, 3 patients (2 siblings) presented with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion (comprising the entire gene); one patient carried the p.Val170Met mutation (exon 6); and 4 patients (3 siblings) presented with the novel p.Glu442Gly mutation (exon 14). On the other hand, another two patients carried two novel mutations in compound heterozygosis: one presented the p.Ile398_Thr401del mutation (exon 12) associated with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion, and the other one carried the c.1756+1G>A splice-site mutation (exon 16) as well as the already described p.Ala210Val change (exon 7). One case turned out to be negative in our genetic screening. In addition, 51 relatives were found to be heterozygous carriers of the described CLCNKB mutations. In conclusion, different mutations cause type III Bartter syndrome in Spain. The high prevalence of the p.Ala204Thr in Spanish families thus justifies an initial screen for this mutation. However, should it not be detected further investigation of the CLCNKB gene is warranted in clinically diagnosed families.

  3. Genetics of type III Bartter syndrome in Spain, proposed diagnostic algorithm.

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    Alejandro García Castaño

    Full Text Available The p.Ala204Thr mutation (exon 7 of the CLCNKB gene is a "founder" mutation that causes most of type III Bartter syndrome cases in Spain. We performed genetic analysis of the CLCNKB gene, which encodes for the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb, in a cohort of 26 affected patients from 23 families. The diagnostic algorithm was: first, detection of the p.Ala204Thr mutation; second, detecting large deletions or duplications by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments; and third, sequencing of the coding and flanking regions of the whole CLCNKB gene. In our genetic diagnosis, 20 families presented with the p.Ala204Thr mutation. Of those, 15 patients (15 families were homozygous (57.7% of overall patients. Another 8 patients (5 families were compound heterozygous for the founder mutation together with a second one. Thus, 3 patients (2 siblings presented with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion (comprising the entire gene; one patient carried the p.Val170Met mutation (exon 6; and 4 patients (3 siblings presented with the novel p.Glu442Gly mutation (exon 14. On the other hand, another two patients carried two novel mutations in compound heterozygosis: one presented the p.Ile398_Thr401del mutation (exon 12 associated with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion, and the other one carried the c.1756+1G>A splice-site mutation (exon 16 as well as the already described p.Ala210Val change (exon 7. One case turned out to be negative in our genetic screening. In addition, 51 relatives were found to be heterozygous carriers of the described CLCNKB mutations. In conclusion, different mutations cause type III Bartter syndrome in Spain. The high prevalence of the p.Ala204Thr in Spanish families thus justifies an initial screen for this mutation. However, should it not be detected further investigation of the CLCNKB gene is warranted in clinically diagnosed families.

  4. In Vitro Reconstitution of Functional Type III Protein Export and Insights into Flagellar Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Akihiro; Tatsumi, Chinatsu; Namba, Keiichi; Minamino, Tohru; Imada, Katsumi

    2018-06-26

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) forms the functional core of injectisomes, protein transporters that allow bacteria to deliver virulence factors into their hosts for infection, and flagella, which are critical for many pathogens to reach the site of infection. In spite of intensive genetic and biochemical studies, the T3SS protein export mechanism remains unclear due to the difficulty of accurate measurement of protein export in vivo Here, we developed an in vitro flagellar T3S protein transport assay system using an inverted cytoplasmic membrane vesicle (IMV) for accurate and controlled measurements of flagellar protein export. We show that the flagellar T3SS in the IMV fully retains export activity. The flagellar hook was constructed inside the lumen of the IMV by adding purified component proteins externally to the IMV solution. We reproduced the hook length control and export specificity switch in the IMV consistent with that seen in the native cell. Previous in vivo analyses showed that flagellar protein export is driven by proton motive force (PMF) and facilitated by ATP hydrolysis by FliI, a T3SS-specific ATPase. Our in vitro assay recapitulated these previous in vivo observations but furthermore clearly demonstrated that even ATP hydrolysis by FliI alone can drive flagellar protein export. Moreover, this assay showed that addition of the FliH 2 /FliI complex to the assay solution at a concentration similar to that in the cell dramatically enhanced protein export, confirming that the FliH 2 /FliI complex in the cytoplasm is important for effective protein transport. IMPORTANCE The type III secretion system (T3SS) is the functional core of the injectisome, a bacterial protein transporter used to deliver virulence proteins into host cells, and bacterial flagella, critical for many pathogens. The molecular mechanism of protein transport is still unclear due to difficulties in accurate measurements of protein transport under well-controlled conditions in

  5. Development and validation of Burkholderia pseudomallei-specific real-time PCR assays for clinical, environmental or forensic detection applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P Price

    Full Text Available The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a rare but serious illness that can be fatal if untreated or misdiagnosed. Species-specific PCR assays provide a technically simple method for differentiating B. pseudomallei from near-neighbor species. However, substantial genetic diversity and high levels of recombination within this species reduce the likelihood that molecular signatures will differentiate all B. pseudomallei from other Burkholderiaceae. Currently available molecular assays for B. pseudomallei detection lack rigorous validation across large in silico datasets and isolate collections to test for specificity, and none have been subjected to stringent quality control criteria (accuracy, precision, selectivity, limit of quantitation (LoQ, limit of detection (LoD, linearity, ruggedness and robustness to determine their suitability for environmental, clinical or forensic investigations. In this study, we developed two novel B. pseudomallei specific assays, 122018 and 266152, using a dual-probe approach to differentiate B. pseudomallei from B. thailandensis, B. oklahomensis and B. thailandensis-like species; other species failed to amplify. Species specificity was validated across a large DNA panel (>2,300 samples comprising Burkholderia spp. and non-Burkholderia bacterial and fungal species of clinical and environmental relevance. Comparison of assay specificity to two previously published B. pseudomallei-specific assays, BurkDiff and TTS1, demonstrated comparable performance of all assays, providing between 99.7 and 100% specificity against our isolate panel. Last, we subjected 122018 and 266152 to rigorous quality control analyses, thus providing quantitative limits of assay performance. Using B. pseudomallei as a model, our study provides a framework for comprehensive quantitative validation of molecular assays and provides additional, highly validated B. pseudomallei assays for the scientific research community.

  6. Genetic and expression studies of SMN2 gene in Russian patients with spinal muscular atrophy type II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiöth Helgi B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type I, II and III is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1. SMN2 is a centromeric copy gene that has been characterized as a major modifier of SMA severity. SMA type I patients have one or two SMN2 copies while most SMA type II patients carry three SMN2 copies and SMA III patients have three or four SMN2 copies. The SMN1 gene produces a full-length transcript (FL-SMN while SMN2 is only able to produce a small portion of the FL-SMN because of a splice mutation which results in the production of abnormal SMNΔ7 mRNA. Methods In this study we performed quantification of the SMN2 gene copy number in Russian patients affected by SMA type II and III (42 and 19 patients, respectively by means of real-time PCR. Moreover, we present two families consisting of asymptomatic carriers of a homozygous absence of the SMN1 gene. We also developed a novel RT-qPCR-based assay to determine the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio as SMA biomarker. Results Comparison of the SMN2 copy number and clinical features revealed a significant correlation between mild clinical phenotype (SMA type III and presence of four copies of the SMN2 gene. In both asymptomatic cases we found an increased number of SMN2 copies in the healthy carriers and a biallelic SMN1 absence. Furthermore, the novel assay revealed a difference between SMA patients and healthy controls. Conclusions We suggest that the SMN2 gene copy quantification in SMA patients could be used as a prognostic tool for discrimination between the SMA type II and SMA type III diagnoses, whereas the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio could be a useful biomarker for detecting changes during SMA pharmacotherapy.

  7. Modulation of innate immune responses by Yersinia type III secretion system translocators and effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliska, James B; Wang, Xiaoying; Viboud, Gloria I; Brodsky, Igor E

    2013-10-01

    The innate immune system of mammals responds to microbial infection through detection of conserved molecular determinants called 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs). Pathogens use virulence factors to counteract PAMP-directed responses. The innate immune system can in turn recognize signals generated by virulence factors, allowing for a heightened response to dangerous pathogens. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens encode type III secretion systems (T3SSs) that translocate effector proteins, subvert PAMP-directed responses and are critical for infection. A plasmid-encoded T3SS in the human-pathogenic Yersinia species translocates seven effectors into infected host cells. Delivery of effectors by the T3SS requires plasma membrane insertion of two translocators, which are thought to form a channel called a translocon. Studies of the Yersinia T3SS have provided key advances in our understanding of how innate immune responses are generated by perturbations in plasma membrane and other signals that result from translocon insertion. Additionally, studies in this system revealed that effectors function to inhibit innateimmune responses resulting from insertion of translocons into plasma membrane. Here, we review these advances with the goal of providing insight into how a T3SS can activate and inhibit innate immune responses, allowing a virulent pathogen to bypass host defences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered that Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15718.001 PMID:27377244

  9. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of Cu/Ag doped type-III Ba24Ge100 clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiefei; Su, Xianli; Yan, Yonggao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhengkai; She, Xiaoyu; Uher, Ctirad; Tang, Xinfeng

    2017-09-01

    Type-III Ba24Ge100 clathrates possess low thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity at room temperature and, as such, have a great potential as thermoelectric materials for power generation. However, the Seebeck coefficient is very low due to the intrinsically high carrier concentration. In this paper, a series of Ba24CuxGe100-x and Ba24AgyGe100-y specimens were prepared by vacuum melting combined with the subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Doping Cu or Ag on the Ge site not only suppresses the concentration of electrons but it also decreases the thermal conductivity. In addition, the carrier mobility and the Seebeck coefficient increase due to the decrease in the carrier concentration. Thus, the power factor is greatly improved, leading to an improvement in the dimensionless figure of merit ZT. Cu-doped Ba24Cu6Ge94 reaches the maximum ZT value of about 0.17 at 873 K, while Ag-doped Ba24Ag6Ge94 attains the dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 0.31 at 873 K, more than 2 times higher value compared to un-doped Ba24Ge100.

  11. The structural and optical properties of type III human collagen biosynthetic corneal substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; Lewis, Phillip; Islam, M. Mirazul; Doutch, James; Sorensen, Thomas; White, Tomas; Griffith, May; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of clinically biocompatible, cell-free hydrogels comprised of synthetically cross-linked and moulded recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) with and without the incorporation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and refractometry. These findings were examined alongside similarly obtained data from 21 human donor corneas. TEM demonstrated the presence of loosely bundled aggregates of fine collagen filaments within both RHCIII and RHCIII-MPC implants, which X-ray scattering showed to lack D-banding and be preferentially aligned in a uniaxial orientation throughout. This arrangement differs from the predominantly biaxial alignment of collagen fibrils that exists in the human cornea. By virtue of their high water content (90%), very fine collagen filaments (2–9 nm) and lack of cells, the collagen hydrogels were found to transmit almost all incident light in the visible spectrum. They also transmitted a large proportion of UV light compared to the cornea which acts as an effective UV filter. Patients implanted with these hydrogels should be cautious about UV exposure prior to regrowth of the epithelium and in-growth of corneal cells into the implants. PMID:26159106

  12. Chain elongation and cyclization in type III PKS DpgA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Chen; Li, Yi-San; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lyu, Syue-Yi; Wu, Chang-Jer; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2012-04-16

    Chain elongation and cyclization of precursors of dihydroxyphenylacetyl-CoA (DPA-CoA) catalyzed by the bacterial type III polyketide synthase DpgA were studied. Two labile intermediates, di- and tri-ketidyl-CoA (DK- and TK-CoA), were proposed and chemically synthesized. In the presence of DpgABD, each of these with [(13)C(3)]malonyl-CoA (MA-CoA) was able to form partially (13)C-enriched DPA-CoA. By NMR and MS analysis, the distribution of (13)C atoms in the partially (13)C-enriched DPA-CoA shed light on how the polyketide chain elongates and cyclizes in the DpgA-catalyzed reaction. Polyketone intermediates elongate in a manner different from that which had been believed: two molecules of DK-CoA, or one DK-CoA plus one acetoacetyl-CoA (AA-CoA), but not two molecules of AA-CoA can form one molecule of DPA-CoA. As a result, polyketidyl-CoA serves as both the starter and extender, whereas polyketone-CoA without the terminal carboxyl group can only act as an extender. The terminal carboxyl group is crucial for the cyclization that likely takes place on CoA. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. /sup 31/P-NMR studies of a case of type III glycogenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Itoh, Masamitsu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Murase, Toshio

    1988-05-01

    /sup 31/P-NMR spectra of skeletal muscles were obtained from a patient of type III glycogenosis (33 y.o. man, reported by one of the authors, T. Murase, in 1973) and the control subject (32 y.o. man), using a superconducting whole body MR (Magnetom, Siemens). Two parameters, 1. muscle pH calculated from the chemical shift of Pi (inorganic phosphate) and PCr (creatine phosphate) and 2. PCr/Pi ratio were monitored before and after the aerobic or ischemic exercise. In resting state, the spectra were normal except for the muscle pH of thigh extensors (7.3), which was obviously higher than that of the control subject (7.0). Significant reduction of PCr/Pi ratio (from 7.0 to 4.1) was observed after the aerobic exercise in thigh extensors. Such a reduction was not recognized in the control subject. The ischemic exercise of forearm muscles revealed slight decrease in muscle pH (from 7.1 to 6.9), which was less prominent than that of the control subject. These results were compatible with the abnormality in the energy metabolism of this disorder, the block in the pathway of glycogenolysis.

  14. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  15. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III Overexpression By Gene Therapy Exerts Antitumoral Activity In Mouse Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Raúl González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in cirrhotic liver. The nitric oxide (NO synthase type III (NOS-3 overexpression induces cell death in hepatoma cells. The study developed gene therapy designed to specifically overexpress NOS-3 in cultured hepatoma cells, and in tumors derived from orthotopically implanted tumor cells in fibrotic livers. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 administration in mice. Hepa 1-6 cells were used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The first generation adenovirus was designed to overexpress NOS-3 (or GFP and luciferase cDNA under the regulation of murine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP and Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV promoters, respectively. Both adenoviruses were administered through the tail vein two weeks after orthotopic tumor cell implantation. AFP-NOS-3/RSV-Luciferase increased oxidative-related DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and caspase-8 activity in cultured Hepa 1-6 cells. The increased expression of CD95/CD95L and caspase-8 activity was abolished by l-NAME or p53 siRNA. The tail vein infusion of AFP-NOS- 3/RSV-Luciferase adenovirus increased cell death markers, and reduced cell proliferation of established tumors in fibrotic livers. The increase of oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by NOS-3 overexpression induced DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The effectiveness of the gene therapy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Cell individuality: the bistable gene expression of the type III secretion system in Dickeya dadantii 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quan; Laiosa, Michael D; Steeber, Douglas A; Biddle, Eulandria M; Peng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii 3937 is a gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium that expresses genes encoding a type III secretion system (T3SS) in a bistable pattern when cultured in a homogeneous minimal media. In this work, we further characterized the bistable gene expression of T3SS at the single-cell level. We demonstrated that bistable expression of the HrpL-regulon genes, such as hrpA and hrpN, is controlled by the same regulatory mechanism. We also showed that the expression level of the T3SS master regulatory gene hrpL plays an important role in the development of the bistable expression of hrpA. A high expression level of hrpL is required but unable to guarantee the high-state expression of hrpA in a cell. In addition, bistable expression patterns of T3SS genes in other gram-negative pathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families were also described in this study. This suggests that the T3SS bistability might be a conserved population behavior in several gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  17. Pedestal Temperature Model for Type III ELMy H-mode Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buangam, W.; Suwanna, S.; Onjun, T.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R.; Singhsomroje, W.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: It is widely known that the improved performance of H-mode plasma results mainly from a formation of the pedestal, which is a narrow region of strong pressure gradient near the edge of plasma. A predictive capability for the conditions at the top of the pedestal is important, especially for predictive simulations of future experiments. New models for predicting the temperature values at the top of the pedestal for type III ELMy H-mode plasma are developed by using two different approaches: a theory-based approaches and an empirical approach. For a theory-based approach, a model is developed based on the calculation of thermal energy in the pedestal region and on accepted scaling laws of energy confinement time. For an empirical model, a scaling law for pedestal temperature in terms of plasma controlled parameters, such as plasma current, magnetic field, heating power, is deduced from experimental data. Predictions from these models are compared with experimental data from the Pedestal International Database. Statistical quantities, such as Root-Mean Square Error (RMSE) and offset values, are computed to quantify the predictive capability of the models. It is found that the theory-based model predicts the pedestal temperature values moderately well yielding RMSE between 30% and 40%. The IPB98(y,3) scaling law yields with best agreement with RMSE of 30.4%. The empirical model predicts the pedestal temperature value with better agreement, yield RMSE of 25.9%

  18. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  19. A Phosphorylation Switch on Lon Protease Regulates Bacterial Type III Secretion System in Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into host cytosol through type III secretion systems (T3SS to perturb host immune responses. The expression of T3SS is often repressed in rich medium but is specifically induced in the host environment. The molecular mechanisms underlying host-specific induction of T3SS expression is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate in Xanthomonas citri that host-induced phosphorylation of the ATP-dependent protease Lon stabilizes HrpG, the master regulator of T3SS, conferring bacterial virulence. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome analysis revealed that phosphorylation of Lon at serine 654 occurs in the citrus host. In rich medium, Lon represses T3SS by degradation of HrpG via recognition of its N terminus. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that phosphorylation at serine 654 deactivates Lon proteolytic activity and attenuates HrpG proteolysis. Substitution of alanine for Lon serine 654 resulted in repression of T3SS gene expression in the citrus host through robust degradation of HrpG and reduced bacterial virulence. Our work reveals a novel mechanism for distinct regulation of bacterial T3SS in different environments. Additionally, our data provide new insight into the role of protein posttranslational modification in the regulation of bacterial virulence.

  20. 31P-NMR studies of a case of type III glycogenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Itoh, Masamitsu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Murase, Toshio

    1988-01-01

    31 P-NMR spectra of skeletal muscles were obtained from a patient of type III glycogenosis (33 y.o. man, reported by one of the authors, T. Murase, in 1973) and the control subject (32 y.o. man), using a superconducting whole body MR (Magnetom, Siemens). Two parameters, 1. muscle pH calculated from the chemical shift of Pi (inorganic phosphate) and PCr (creatine phosphate) and 2. PCr/Pi ratio were monitored before and after the aerobic or ischemic exercise. In resting state, the spectra were normal except for the muscle pH of thigh extensors (7.3), which was obviously higher than that of the control subject (7.0). Significant reduction of PCr/Pi ratio (from 7.0 to 4.1) was observed after the aerobic exercise in thigh extensors. Such a reduction was not recognized in the control subject. The ischemic exercise of forearm muscles revealed slight decrease in muscle pH (from 7.1 to 6.9), which was less prominent than that of the control subject. These results were compatible with the abnormality in the energy metabolism of this disorder, the block in the pathway of glycogenolysis. (author)

  1. BurkDiff: a real-time PCR allelic discrimination assay for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene R Bowers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time PCR assay, BurkDiff, was designed to target a unique conserved region in the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei genomes containing a SNP that differentiates the two species. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed by screening BurkDiff across 469 isolates of B. pseudomallei, 49 isolates of B. mallei, and 390 isolates of clinically relevant non-target species. Concordance of results with traditional speciation methods and no cross-reactivity to non-target species show BurkDiff is a robust, highly validated assay for the detection and differentiation of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei.

  2. Oxygen perovskites of type Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)RuIrO/sub 9/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrschmidt, E; Kemmler-Sack, S [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1980-11-01

    The black perovskites Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)RuIrO/sub 9/ with Bsup(III) = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, In, Sc are isotypic. They crystallize in a hexagonal BaTiO/sub 3/ structure (sequence (hcc)/sub 2/). The mean oxydation state of the noble metal ions is +4.5.

  3. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Daniel Ming Ming; Govindarajan, Kunde Ramamoorthy; Khan, Asif M; Ong, Terenze Yao Rui; Samad, Hanif M; Soh, Wei Wei; Tong, Minyan; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2010-10-15

    Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE) sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i) comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii) submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii) the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression) are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%). Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors. The T3SEdb represents a platform for inclusion of

  4. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Minyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Results Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%. Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. Conclusions T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors

  5. Type III Interferon-Mediated Signaling Is Critical for Controlling Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Virus Infection In Vivo

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    Florian Douam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever virus (YFV is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I interferon (IFN-α/β signaling and type II interferon (IFN-γ signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action in viral infection. However, it remains unclear how type III IFN (IFN-λ integrates into this antiviral system. Here, we report that while wild-type (WT and IFN-λ receptor knockout (λR−/− mice were largely resistant to YFV-17D, deficiency in type I IFN signaling resulted in robust infection. Although IFN-α/β receptor knockout (α/βR−/− mice survived the infection, mice with combined deficiencies in both type I signaling and type III IFN signaling were hypersusceptible to YFV-17D and succumbed to the infection. Mortality was associated with viral neuroinvasion and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. α/βR−/− λR−/− mice also exhibited distinct changes in the frequencies of multiple immune cell lineages, impaired T-cell activation, and severe perturbation of the proinflammatory cytokine balance. Taken together, our data highlight that type III IFN has critical immunomodulatory and neuroprotective functions that prevent viral neuroinvasion during active YFV-17D replication. Type III IFN thus likely represents a safeguard mechanism crucial for controlling YFV-17D infection and contributing to shaping vaccine immunogenicity.

  6. [Surgical treatment for talar neck fracture of Hawkins III, IV type with compression hollow screws combined with external fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Xun; Wan, Chang-Tao; Yu, Li

    2017-05-25

    To investigate the clinical effects of compression hollow screws combined with external fixator in treating talar neck fracture of Hawkins III, IV type. From March 2010 to August 2014, 15 patients with talar neck fractures of Hawkins III, IV type were treated by open reduction and compression hollow screws fixation complicated with external fixator fixation. Including 9 males and 6 females, aged from 17 to 65 years old with an average of 37.5 years old. There were 9 cases of Hawkins III and 6 cases of Hawkins IV type. Postoperative radiographs and CT of ankle were used to evaluate the fracture healing and talar necrosis. The function of ankle and foot were evaluated by American Society of Ankle and Foot Surgery(AOFAS). All the patients were followed up for 8 to 55 months with an average of 23.5 months and all fractures got bone healing from 13 to 38 weeks with an average of (17.99±6.81) weeks. Traumatic arthritis occurred in 7 cases and talar necrosis in 6 cases (2 cases of type III and 4 cases of type IV) after operation. The average AOFAS score was 61.80±18.75, including excellent in 4 cases, good in 2 cases, fair in 4 cases and poor in 5 cases. Talar neck fracture with Hawkins III, IV type has large possibility to develop avascular necrosis. Hollow compression screw combined with external fixation may late weight-bearing for ankle and can sufficiently guarantee bone healing time, and achieve good results for the treatment of talar neck fracture.

  7. Type III Cells in Anterior Taste Fields Are More Immunohistochemically Diverse Than Those of Posterior Taste Fields in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney E; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2017-10-31

    Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking. Here, we compare Type III cells in four taste fields: fungiform, soft palate, circumvallate, and foliate in terms of reactivity to four canonical markers of Type III cells: polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1), synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Our findings indicate that while PKD2L1, 5-HT, and SNAP25 are highly coincident in posterior taste fields, they diverge in anterior taste fields. In particular, a subset of taste cells expresses PKD2L1 without the synaptic markers, and a subset of SNAP25 cells lacks expression of PKD2L1. In posterior taste fields, GAD67-positive cells are a subset of PKD2L1 expressing taste cells, but anterior taste fields also contain a significant population of GAD67-only expressing cells. These differences in expression patterns may underlie the observed functional differences between anterior and posterior taste fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  9. A heterodimer comprised of two bovine lactoferrin antimicrobial peptides exhibits powerful bactericidal activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puknun, A.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Nazmi, K.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Tungpradabkul, S.; Wongratanacheewin, S.; Kanthawong, S.; Taweechaisupapong, S.

    2013-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease that is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of this disease, has developed resistance to an increasing list of antibiotics, demanding a search for novel agents. Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Malaysian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Ceftazidime (CAZ, the synthetic β-lactam, is normally used as the first-line antibiotic therapy for treatment of melioidosis. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, leading to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different antibiotic(s in a timely manner. In this study, susceptibilities of 81 B. pseudomallei isolates to nine different antimicrobial agents were determined using the disk diffusion method, broth microdilution test and Etest. Highest percentage of susceptibility was demonstrated to CAZ, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although these drugs demonstrated the highest percentage of susceptibility in B. pseudomallei, the overall results underline the importance of the emergence of resistance in this organism. PCR results showed that, of the 81 B. pseudomallei, six multidrug resistant (MDR isolates carried bpeB, amrB, and BPSS1119 and penA genes. Genotyping of the isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed six different PCR fingerprinting patterns generated from the six MDR isolates clusters (A and eight PCR fingerprinting patterns generated for the remaining 75 non-MDR isolates clusters (B.

  11. Rapid DNA vaccination against Burkholderia pseudomallei flagellin by tattoo or intranasal application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Wagemakers, Alex; Birnie, Emma; Haak, Bastiaan W.; Trentelman, Jos J. A.; Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Ersöz, Jasmin; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Hovius, Joppe W.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Bins, Adriaan D.

    2017-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is

  12. Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection in a Cystic Fibrosis Patient from the Caribbean: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Mateos Corral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a pathogen identified with increasing frequency in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF patients from endemic areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The following report describes the first known reported case in a CF patient from the Caribbean attending a North American CF clinic.

  13. Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in a cystic fibrosis patient from the Caribbean: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Dimas Mateos; Coates, Allan L; Yau, Yvonne CW; Tellier, Raymond; Glass, Mindy; Jones, Steven M; Waters, Valerie J

    2008-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a pathogen identified with increasing frequency in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from endemic areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The following report describes the first known reported case in a CF patient from the Caribbean attending a North American CF clinic. PMID:18716683

  14. Screening for potential anti-infective agents towards Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Su Anne; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The established treatment for melioidosis is antibiotic therapy. However, a constant threat to this form of treatment is resistance development of the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, towards antibiotics. One option to circumvent this threat of antibiotic resistance is to search for new alternative anti-infectives which target the host innate immune system and/or bacterial virulence. In this study, 29 synthetic compounds were evaluated for their potential to increase the lifespan of an infected host. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was adopted as the infection model as its innate immune pathways are homologous to humans. Screens were performed in a liquid-based survival assay containing infected worms exposed to individual compounds and survival of untreated and compound-treated worms were compared. A primary screen identified nine synthetic compounds that extended the lifespan of B. pseudomallei-infected worms. Subsequently, a disc diffusion test was performed on these selected compounds to delineate compounds into those that enhanced the survival of worms via antimicrobial activity i.e. reducing the number of infecting bacteria, or into those that did not target pathogen viability. Out of the nine hits selected, two demonstrated antimicrobial effects on B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the findings from this study suggest that the other seven identified compounds are potential anti-infectives which could protect a host against B. pseudomallei infection without developing the risk of drug resistance.

  15. Neutrophil extracellular traps in the host defense against sepsis induced by Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Hanna K.; Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Achouiti, Ahmed; van der Meer, Anne J.; Bulder, Ingrid; Stephan, Femke; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Day, Nick P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a central player in the host response to bacteria: neutrophils release extracellular DNA (nucleosomes) and neutrophil elastase to entrap and kill bacteria. We studied the role of NETs in Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis), an important cause

  16. Potential efficacy of enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapy in three siblings with Gaucher disease type III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox-Brinkman, J.; van Breemen, M. J.; van Maldegem, B. T.; Bour, L.; Donker, W. E.; Hollak, C. E. M.; Wijburg, F. A.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.

    2008-01-01

    We report three siblings with Gaucher disease type III, born between 1992 and 2004. During this period, new developments resulted in different potential therapies, changing clinical practice. The two eldest siblings received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) from the age of 24 and 5 months

  17. Cierny-Mader Type III chronic osteomyelitis: the results of patients treated with debridement, irrigation, vancomycin beads and systemic antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Mert

    2007-01-01

    Cierny-Mader (C-M) Type III osteomyelitis is defined as a localised lesion with both medullary and cortical involvement that is stable mechanically after debridement. The treatment of C-M Type III osteomyelitisis is difficult and requires a precise protocol to achieve a disease-free long-term follow-up. We report here the results of our study on 26 patients (19 men and 7 women; average age: 34.7 years) with C-M Type III osteomylelitis who were treated with radical debridement, irrigation, vancomycin-impregnated custom-made beads and culture-specific systemic antibiotics. Those patients with metaphyseal involvement were treated with deroofing of the cortex and debridement by means of a “trough” (16 patients); those with diaphyseal involvement were treated with both intramedullary reaming and debridement from a trough (ten patients). Antibiotic cement rods were used as an additional therapy in five patients with diaphyseal involvement. Recurrence developed in three patients and was attributed to inadequate debridement; all three patients were treated again in the same manner with success. The mean follow-up is currently 3.6 years (range: 2–6 years). All of the patients have normal clinical, radiographic and laboratory parameters, and all are ambulatory and have returned to their pretreatment level of activity or better. We conclude that C-M Type III chronic osteomyelitis can be safely treated with this protocol. PMID:17375299

  18. Generation of type III solar radio bursts: the role of induced scattering of plasma waves by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.; Lerner, A.M.; Rapoport, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma waves in type III solar radio-burst sources might have a spectrum which can explain why, in the quasilinear burst generation model, nonlinear scattering of the waves by ions is so weak. The agent exciting a burst would travel through the corona at velocities limited to a definite range

  19. Extracellular secretion of a recombinant therapeutic peptide by Bacillus halodurans utilizing a modified flagellin type III secretion system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berger, E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available further 3.5-fold increase in the secretion of recombinant peptide fusions. Conclusions: The type III flagellar secretion system of B. halodurans has been shown to successfully secrete a therapeutic peptide as a heterologous flagellin fusion. Improvements...

  20. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincus, Seth H; Moran, Emily; Maresh, Grace

    2012-01-01

    ) is considered the dominant "protective" immune mediator. Here we study the fine specificity and potential host reactivity of a panel of well-characterized murine monoclonal Abs against the type III CPS by examining the binding of the Abs to intact and neuraminidase-digested GBS, purified CPS, synthetic...

  1. Exact Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi types I and III cosmological models with a conformally invariant scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Einstein-Conformally Invariant Scalar Field Equations are obtained for Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi types I and III cosmologies. The presence of the conformally invariant scalar field is responsible for some interesting features of the solutions. In particular it is found that the Bianchi I model is consistent with the big-bang theory of cosmology. (Author) [pt

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Barascuk, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via...

  3. ABNORMAL TYPE-III COLLAGEN PRODUCED BY AN EXON-17-SKIPPING MUTATION OF THE COL3A1 GENE IN EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME TYPE-IV IS NOT INCORPORATED INTO THE EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHIODO, AA; SILLENCE, DO; COLE, WG; BATEMAN, JF

    1995-01-01

    A novel heterozygous mutation of the COL3Al gene that encodes the alpha 1(III) chains of type III collagen was identified in a family with the: acrogeric form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS-IV). Cultured dermal fibroblasts produced normal and shortened alpha 1(III) chains. The triple helix

  4. The type III neurofilament peripherin is expressed in the tuberomammillary neurons of the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Jean-Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripherin, a type III neuronal intermediate filament, is widely expressed in neurons of the peripheral nervous system and in selected central nervous system hindbrain areas with projections towards peripheral structures, such as cranial nerves and spinal cord neurons. Peripherin appears to play a role in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration, but its exact function is not known. We noticed high peripherin expression in the posterior hypothalamus of mice, and decided to investigate further the exact location of expression and function of peripherin in the mouse posterior hypothalamus. Results In situ hybridization indicated expression of peripherin in neurons with a distribution reminiscent of the histaminergic neurons, with little signal in any other part of the forebrain. Immunocytochemical staining for histidine decarboxylase and peripherin revealed extensive colocalization, showing that peripherin is produced by histaminergic neurons in all parts of the tuberomammillary nucleus. We next used histamine immunostaining in peripherin knockout, overexpressing and wild type mice to study if altered peripherin expression affects these neurons, but could not detect any visible difference in the appearance of these neurons or their axons. Peripherin knockout mice and heterozygotic littermates were used for measurement of locomotor activity, feeding, drinking, and energy expenditure. Both genotypes displayed diurnal rhythms with all the parameters higher during the dark period. The respiratory quotient, an indicator of the type of substrate being utilized, also exhibited a significant diurnal rhythm in both genotypes. The diurnal patterns and the average values of all the recorded parameters for 24 h, daytime and night time were not significantly different between the genotypes, however. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that peripherin is expressed in the tuberomammillary neurons of the mouse

  5. Observation of solar radio bursts of type II and III at kilometer wavelengths from Prognoz-8 during STIP Interval XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, S.; Kecskemety, K.; Kudela, K.

    1982-04-01

    Type II and type III radio events were observed at low frequencies (2.16 MHz to 114 kHz) by the Prognoz-8 satellite during the period of STIP Interval XII in April and May, 1981, respectively. This review covers briefly a chronology of the sub-megahertz radio events, and where possible their association with both groundbased radio observations and solar flare. (author)

  6. Uptake Of Trivalent Actinides (Cm(III)) And Lanthanides (Eu(III)) By Cement-Type Minerals: A Wet Chemistry And Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, J.; Stumpf, T; Wieland, E.; Fanghaenel, T

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of the two chemical homologues Cm (III) and Eu(III) with calcium silicate hydrates at pH 13.3 has been investigated in batch-type sorption studies using Eu(III), and complemented with time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy using Cm(III). The sorption data for Eu(III) reveal fast sorption kinetics, and a strong uptake by CSH phases, with distribution ratios of 6({+-}3)*105 L kg-1. Three different types of sorbed Cm(III) species have been identified: a non-fluorescing species, which was identified as Cm cluster present either as surface precipitate or as Cm(III) colloid in solution, and two sorbed fluorescing species. The sorbed fluorescing species have characteristic emission spectra (main peak maxima at 618.9 nm and 620.9 nm) and fluorescence emission lifetimes (289 {+-} 11 ms and 1482{+-} 200 ms). From the fluorescence lifetimes, it appears that the two fluorescing Cm(III) species have, respectively, one to two or no water molecules left in their first coordination sphere, suggesting that these species are incorporated into the CSH structure. A structural model for Cm(III) and Eu(III) incorporation into CSH phases is proposed based on the substitution of Ca at two different types of sites in the CSH structure. (author)

  7. Skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type effects on lower incisor preoperative decompensation and postoperative compensation in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2011-01-01

    To determine the initial compensation, preoperative decompensation, and postoperative compensation of the lower incisors according to the skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type in skeletal Class III patients. The samples consisted of 68 skeletal Class III patients treated with two-jaw surgery and orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms were taken before preoperative orthodontic treatment (T0) and before surgery (T1) and after debonding (T2). According to skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy/vertical type (ANB, criteria  =  -4°; SN-GoMe, criteria  =  35°) at the T0 stage, the samples were allocated into group 1 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 2 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 3 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17), or group 4 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17). After measurement of variables, one-way analysis of variance with Duncan's multiple comparison test, crosstab analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis were performed. At T0, groups 3 and 2 exhibited the most and least compensated lower incisors. In group 2, good preoperative decompensation and considerable postoperative compensation resulted in different values for T0, T1, and T2 (IMPA, T0 lower incisors in Class III patients.

  8. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C 15 and Ob 15 ) and 30 (C 30 and Ob 30 ) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob 15 group was similar to the C 15 group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob 30 group was less than C 30 group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob 30 when compared with Ob 15 . Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression

  9. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares [Departamento de Esportes, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de [Escola de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Padovani, Carlos Roberto [Departamento de Bioestatística do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Cicogna, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: dany.tomaz@gmail.com [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C{sub 15} and Ob{sub 15}) and 30 (C{sub 30} and Ob{sub 30}) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob{sub 15} group was similar to the C{sub 15} group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob{sub 30} group was less than C{sub 30} group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob{sub 30} when compared with Ob{sub 15}. Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression.

  10. Secondary metabolites from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from soil can kill Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boottanun, Patcharaporn; Potisap, Chotima; Hurdle, Julian G; Sermswan, Rasana W

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus species are Gram-positive bacteria found in abundance in nature and their secondary metabolites were found to possess various potential activities, notably antimicrobial. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N2-4 and N3-8 were isolated from soil and their metabolites could kill Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium also found in soil in its endemic areas. Moreover, the metabolites were able to kill drug resistant isolates of B. pseudomallei and also inhibit other pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii but not the non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis, which is closely related to B. pseudomallei. Since the antimicrobial activity of N3-8 was not partially decreased or abolished when treated with proteolytic enzymes or autoclaved, but N2-4 was, these two strains should have produced different compounds. The N3-8 metabolites with antimicrobial activity consisted of both protein and non-protein compounds. The inhibition spectrum of the precipitated proteins compared to the culture supernatant indicated a possible synergistic effect of the non-protein and peptide compounds of N3-8 isolates against other pathogens. When either N2-4 or N3-8 isolates was co-cultured with B. pseudomallei the numbers of the bacteria decreased by 5 log 10 within 72 h. Further purification and characterization of the metabolites is required for future use of the bacteria or their metabolites as biological controls of B. pseudomallei in the environment or for development as new drugs for problematic pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Welkos

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational. Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains

  12. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welkos, Susan L; Klimko, Christopher P; Kern, Steven J; Bearss, Jeremy J; Bozue, Joel A; Bernhards, Robert C; Trevino, Sylvia R; Waag, David M; Amemiya, Kei; Worsham, Patricia L; Cote, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP) infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational). Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b) were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains and in the

  13. Tracking the Cognitive, Social, and Neuroanatomical Profile in Early Neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Couto, Blas; Herrera, Eduar; Bocanegra, Yamile; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Madrigal-Zapata, Lucia; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin; Villegas, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration, and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications, and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy) tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language, and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions), which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging. PMID:24324434

  14. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations

  15. Cone structure in patients with usher syndrome type III and mutations in the Clarin 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Västinsalo, Hanna; Roorda, Austin; Sankila, Eeva-Marja K; Duncan, Jacque L

    2013-01-01

    To study macular structure and function in patients with Usher syndrome type III (USH3) caused by mutations in the Clarin 1 gene (CLRN1). High-resolution macular images were obtained by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 3 patients with USH3 and were compared with those of age-similar control subjects. Vision function measures included best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Coding regions of the CLRN1 gene were sequenced. CLRN1 mutations were present in all the patients; a 20-year-old man showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.N48K and p.S188X), and 2 unrelated women aged 25 and 32 years had homozygous mutations (p.N48K). Best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/16 to 20/40, with scotomas beginning at 3° eccentricity. The inner segment-outer segment junction or the inner segment ellipsoid band was disrupted within 1° to 4° of the fovea, and the foveal inner and outer segment layers were significantly thinner than normal. Cones near the fovea in patients 1 and 2 showed normal spacing, and the preserved region ended abruptly. Retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in patient 3 where cones were lost. Cones were observed centrally but not in regions with scotomas, and retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in regions without cones in patients with CLRN1 mutations. High-resolution measures of retinal structure demonstrate patterns of cone loss associated with CLRN1 mutations. These findings provide insight into the effect of CLRN1 mutations on macular cone structure, which has implications for the development of treatments for USH3. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00254605.

  16. Effective cancer vaccine platform based on attenuated salmonella and a type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Hegazy, Wael A H; Guo, Linjie; Gao, Xiuhua; Courtney, Amy N; Kurbanov, Suhrab; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Gengwen; Manuel, Edwin R; Diamond, Don J; Hensel, Michael; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines explored for cancer therapy have been based generally on injectable vector systems used to control foreign infectious pathogens, to which the immune system evolved to respond naturally. However, these vectors may not be effective at presenting tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to the immune system in a manner that is sufficient to engender antitumor responses. We addressed this issue with a novel orally administered Salmonella-based vector that exploits a type III secretion system to deliver selected TAA in the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells in situ. A systematic comparison of candidate genes from the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) locus was conducted in the vaccine design, using model antigens and a codon-optimized form of the human TAA survivin (coSVN), an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in most human cancers. In a screen of 20 SPI2 promoter:effector combinations, a PsifB::sseJ combination exhibited maximal potency for antigen translocation into the APC cytosol, presentation to CD8 T cells, and murine immunogenicity. In the CT26 mouse model of colon carcinoma, therapeutic vaccination with a lead PsifB::sseJ-coSVN construct (p8032) produced CXCR3-dependent infiltration of tumors by CD8 T cells, reversed the CD8:Treg ratio at the tumor site, and triggered potent antitumor activity. Vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor potency were enhanced by coadministration of the natural killer T-cell ligand 7DW8-5, which heightened the production of IL12 and IFNγ. Furthermore, combined treatment with p8032 and 7DW8-5 resulted in complete tumor regression in A20 lymphoma-bearing mice, where protective memory was demonstrated. Taken together, our results demonstrate how antigen delivery using an oral Salmonella vector can provide an effective platform for the development of cancer vaccines. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Tracking the cognitive, social and neuroanatomical profile in early neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind and empathy tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions, which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging.

  18. The Type III Secretion System-Related CPn0809 from Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid C Engel

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS, which enables the pathogen to deliver, in a single step, effector proteins for modulation of host-cell functions into the human host cell cytosol to establish a unique intracellular niche for replication. The translocon proteins located at the top of the T3SS needle filament are essential for its function, as they form pores in the host-cell membrane. Interestingly, unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, C. pneumoniae has two putative translocon operons, named LcrH_1 and LcrH_2. However, little is known about chlamydial translocon proteins. In this study, we analyzed CPn0809, one of the putative hydrophobic translocators encoded by the LcrH_1 operon, and identified an 'SseC-like family' domain characteristic of T3S translocators. Using bright-field and confocal microscopy, we found that CPn0809 is associated with EBs during early and very late phases of a C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, CPn0809 forms oligomers, and interacts with the T3SS chaperone LcrH_1, via its N-terminal segment. Moreover, expression of full-length CPn0809 in the heterologous host Escherichia coli causes a grave cytotoxic effect that leads to cell death. Taken together, our data indicate that CPn0809 likely represents one of the translocon proteins of the C. pneumoniae T3SS, and possibly plays a role in the translocation of effector proteins in the early stages of infection.

  19. Potassium transport of Salmonella is important for type III secretion and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yehao; Ho, Katharina Kim; Su, Jing; Gong, Hao; Chang, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular cations are essential for the physiology of all living organisms including bacteria. Cations such as potassium ion (K+), sodium ion (Na+) and proton (H+) are involved in nearly all aspects of bacterial growth and survival. K+ is the most abundant cation and its homeostasis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella is regulated by three major K+ transporters: high affinity transporter Kdp and low affinity transporters Kup and Trk. Previous studies have demonstrated the roles of cations and cation transport in the physiology of Escherichia coli; their roles in the virulence and physiology of pathogenic bacteria are not well characterized. We have previously reported that the Salmonella K+ transporter Trk is important for the secretion of effector proteins of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here we further explore the role of Salmonella cation transport in virulence in vitro and pathogenesis in animal models. Impairment of K+ transport through deletion of K+ transporters or exposure to the chemical modulators of cation transport, gramicidin and valinomycin, results in a severe defect in the TTSS of SPI-1, and this defect in the TTSS was not due to a failure to regulate intrabacterial pH or ATP. Our results also show that K+ transporters are critical to the pathogenesis of Salmonella in mice and chicks and are involved in multiple growth and virulence characteristics in vitro, including protein secretion, motility and invasion of epithelial cells. These results suggest that cation transport of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella, especially K+ transport, contributes to its virulence in addition to previously characterized roles in maintaining homeostasis of bacteria. PMID:23728623

  20. Separating the contributions to 15N transverse relaxation in a fibronectin type III domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekhof, Alison E.; Freund, Stefan M.V.

    1999-01-01

    In proteins, dynamic mobility is an important feature of structure, stability, and biomolecular recognition. Uniquely sensitive to motion throughout the milli- to picosecond range, rates of transverse relaxation, R2, are commonly obtained for the characterization of chemical exchange, and the construction of motional models that attempt to separate overall and internal mobility. We have performed an in-depth study of transverse relaxation rates of backbone 15N nuclei in TNfn31-90, the third fibronectin type III domain from human tenascin. By combining the results of spin-echo (CPMG) and off-resonance T1ρ experiments, we present R2 rates at effective field strengths of 2 to 40 krad/s, obtaining a full spectrum of 16 independent R2 data points for most residues. Collecting such a large number of replicate measurements provides insight into intrinsic uncertainties. The median standard deviation in R2 for non-exchanging residues is 0.31, indicating that isolated measurements may not be sufficiently accurate for a precise interpretation of motional models. Chemical exchange events on a timescale of 570 μs were observed in a cluster of residues at the C terminus. Rates of exchange for five other residues were faster than the sampled range of frequencies and could not be determined. Averaged 'exchange free' transverse relaxation rates, R20, were used to calculate the diffusion tensor for rotational motion. Despite a highly asymmetric moment of inertia, the narrow angular dispersion of N-H vectors within the β sandwich proves insufficient to define deviations from isotropic rotation. Loop residues provide exclusive evidence for axially symmetric diffusion (Dpar/Dper=1.55)

  1. Alterations in Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 1 Protein Gene Are Associated with Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Y Deng

    Full Text Available Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs for blood pressure (BP have been detected in rat models of human polygenic hypertension. Great challenges confronting us include molecular identifications of individual QTLs. We first defined the chromosome region harboring C1QTL1 to a segment of 1.9 megabases that carries 9 genes. Among them, we identified the gene encoding the fibronectin type III domain containing 1 protein (Fndc1/activator of G protein signaling 8 (Ags8 to be the strongest candidate for C1QTL1, since numerous non-synonymous mutations are found. Moreover, the 5' Fndc1/Ags8 putative promoter contains numerous mutations that can account for its differential expression in kidneys and the heart, prominent organs in modulating BP, although the Fndc1/Ags8 protein was not detectable in these organs under our experimental conditions. This work has provided the premier evidence that Fndc1/Ags8 is a novel and strongest candidate gene for C1QTL1 without completely excluding other 8 genes in the C1QTL1-residing interval. If proven true by future in vivo function studies such as single-gene Fndc1/Ags8 congenics, transgenesis or targeted-gene modifications, it might represent a part of the BP genetic architecture that operates in the upstream position distant from the end-phase physiology of BP control, since it activates a Gbetagamma component in a signaling pathway. Its functional role could validate the concept that a QTL in itself can influence BP 'indirectly' by regulating other genes downstream in a pathway. The elucidation of the mechanisms initiated by Fndc/Ags8 variations will reveal novel insights into the BP modulation via a regulatory hierarchy.

  2. Cone Structure in Patients With Usher Syndrome Type III and Mutations in the Clarin 1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Västinsalo, Hanna; Roorda, Austin; Sankila, Eeva-Marja K.; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study macular structure and function in patients with Usher syndrome type III (USH3) caused by mutations in the Clarin 1 gene (CLRN1). Methods High-resolution macular images were obtained by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 3 patients with USH3 and were compared with those of age-similar control subjects. Vision function measures included best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Coding regions of the CLRN1 gene were sequenced. Results CLRN1 mutations were present in all the patients; a 20-year-old man showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.N48K and p.S188X), and 2 unrelated women aged 25 and 32 years had homozygous mutations (p.N48K). Best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/16 to 20/40, with scotomas beginning at 3° eccentricity. The inner segment-outer segment junction or the inner segment ellipsoid band was disrupted within 1° to 4° of the fovea, and the foveal inner and outer segment layers were significantly thinner than normal. Cones near the fovea in patients 1 and 2 showed normal spacing, and the preserved region ended abruptly. Retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in patient 3 where cones were lost. Conclusions Cones were observed centrally but not in regions with scotomas, and retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in regions without cones in patients with CLRN1 mutations. High-resolution measures of retinal structure demonstrate patterns of cone loss associated with CLRN1 mutations. Clinical Relevance These findings provide insight into the effect of CLRN1 mutations on macular cone structure, which has implications for the development of treatments for USH3. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00254605 PMID:22964989

  3. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of phylotype I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trupti Asolkar

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... (Asia), phylotype II (America), phylotype III (Africa) and phylotype IV (Indonesia). ... terium is the primary virulence factor and impairs water transport within its .... With the availability of genomic data through whole genome ...

  4. Assembly and stoichiometry of the core structure of the bacterial flagellar type III export gate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Takuma; Makino, Fumiaki; Dietsche, Tobias; Kinoshita, Miki; Kato, Takayuki; Wagner, Samuel; Namba, Keiichi; Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus, which is required for flagellar assembly beyond the cell membranes, consists of a transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR form the gate complex inside the basal body MS ring, although FliO is required for efficient export gate formation in Salmonella enterica. However, it remains unknown how they form the gate complex. Here we report that FliP forms a homohexameric ring with a diameter of 10 nm. Alanine substitutions of conserved Phe-137, Phe-150, and Glu-178 residues in the periplasmic domain of FliP (FliPP) inhibited FliP6 ring formation, suppressing flagellar protein export. FliO formed a 5-nm ring structure with 3 clamp-like structures that bind to the FliP6 ring. The crystal structure of FliPP derived from Thermotoga maritia, and structure-based photo-crosslinking experiments revealed that Phe-150 and Ser-156 of FliPP are involved in the FliP-FliP interactions and that Phe-150, Arg-152, Ser-156, and Pro-158 are responsible for the FliP-FliO interactions. Overexpression of FliP restored motility of a ∆fliO mutant to the wild-type level, suggesting that the FliP6 ring is a functional unit in the export gate complex and that FliO is not part of the final gate structure. Copurification assays revealed that FlhA, FlhB, FliQ, and FliR are associated with the FliO/FliP complex. We propose that the assembly of the export gate complex begins with FliP6 ring formation with the help of the FliO scaffold, followed by FliQ, FliR, and FlhB and finally FlhA during MS ring formation.

  5. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro, E-mail: kkohtaro@waseda.jp; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-05-13

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni{sup 2+}-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  6. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni"2"+-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  7. Nematode Peptides with host-directed anti-inflammatory activity rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Perng Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators.

  8. Development of a Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Specific Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Differentiation from Burkholderia pseudomallei and Other Closely Related Burkholderiaceae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulrich, Ricky L; Ulrich, Melanie P; Schell, Mark A; Kim, H. S; DeShazer, David

    2005-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agents responsible for glanders and melioidosis, respectively, are genetically and phenotypically similar and are category B biothreat agents...

  9. A survey of Type III restriction-modification systems reveals numerous, novel epigenetic regulators controlling phase-variable regulons; phasevarions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Yang, Yuedong; Jennings, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern, leading to changes in gene expression. These epigenetic regulatory systems are called phasevarions — phase-variable regulons. The extent of these phase-variable genes in the bacterial kingdom is unknown. Here, we interrogated a database of restriction-modification systems, REBASE, by searching for all simple DNA sequence repeats in mod genes that encode Type III N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases. We report that 17.4% of Type III mod genes (662/3805) contain simple sequence repeats. Of these, only one-fifth have been previously identified. The newly discovered examples are widely distributed and include many examples in opportunistic pathogens as well as in environmental species. In many cases, multiple phasevarions exist in one genome, with examples of up to 4 independent phasevarions in some species. We found several new types of phase-variable mod genes, including the first example of a phase-variable methyltransferase in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Phasevarions are a common epigenetic regulation contingency strategy used by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:29554328

  10. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  12. Changes in the proportions of types I and III collagen in hemorrhoids: the sliding anal lining theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sardiñas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine changes in the proportions of types I and III collagen in hemorrhoids and to verify the sliding anal canal lining theory. Patients and method: The study is focused on a sample of 17 patients, 9 females and 8 males (age range: 30–70 years, with grade III and grade IV hemorrhoids. Tissue from 4 fetuses (age: 16 weeks of gestation was used as control sample. All the participants gave their informed consent. Samples were gathered in 2014. All patients underwent open hemorrhoidectomy by using the technique described by Milligan and Morgan, published in Lancet journal in 1937. The hemorrhoid samples were stained with hematoxylin–eosin for the histologic study to confirm the hemorrhoidal tissue diagnosis. The picrosirius red staining protocol was used after the histologic analysis. The method used for image processing is described in the text. Images were imported to the Image Tool for Windows software. The same process was used on the embryonic tissue. Data resulting from the analysis of images were processed using STATISTICA, a software for statistical analysis. Results: When compared, it was found that the two tissues presented very different values, with hemorrhoids containing the highest type III collagen values. Conclusion: Our results seem to imply that hemorrhoids have a larger proportion of type III collagen than fetal tissue. They also suggest a possible age-related deterioration of the tissue. Resumo: Objetivo: Esse estudo tem por objetivo determinar mudanças nos percentuais do colágeno dos tipos I e III em hemorroidas e verificar a teoria do revestimento de canal anal deslizante. Pacientes e método: O estudo está focado em uma amostra de 17 pacientes (9 mulheres e 8 homes; faixa etária: 30-70 anos, com hemorroidas de graus III e IV. Utilizamos tecido de quatro fetos (idade: 16 semanas de gestação como amostra de controle. Todos os participantes deram consentimento informado. As amostras

  13. Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4) and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119) of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C) can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y) for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A→V) was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a lack of correlation

  14. Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moratorio Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4 and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119 of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A→V was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a

  15. Reply to the paper 'Solar radio type III bursts and coronal density structures' by Y. Leblane and J. de la Noee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.

    1978-01-01

    Leblanc and de la Noee used the set of data published by Mercier and Rosenberg (1974) on the type III burst at 169 MHz. They conclude that type III bursts are associated with low density coronal structures and occur in low density regions. It is shown that their methods cannot lead to firm conclusions; some inconsistencies in their results are pointed out. (Auth.)

  16. Two-Phase Bactericidal Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles against Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawinee Siritongsuk

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have a strong antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogenic bacteria. The killing mechanism of AgNPs involves direct physical membrane destruction and subsequent molecular damage from both AgNPs and released Ag+. Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an endemic infectious disease primarily found in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. B. pseudomallei is intrinsically resistant to most common antibiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of AgNPs (10-20 nm against B. pseudomallei were investigated. The MIC and MBC for nine B. pseudomallei strains ranged from 32-48 μg/mL and 96-128 μg/mL, respectively. Concentrations of AgNPs less than 256 μg/mL were not toxic to human red blood cells. AgNPs exhibited a two-phase mechanism: cell death induction and ROS induction. The first phase was a rapid killing step within 5 min, causing the direct damage of the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterial cells, as observed by a time-kill assay and fluorescence microscopy. During the period of 5-30 min, the cell surface charge was rapidly neutralized from -8.73 and -7.74 to 2.85 and 2.94 mV in two isolates of B. pseudomallei, as revealed by zeta potential measurement. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy showed the silver element deposited on the bacterial membrane, and TEM micrographs of the AgNP-treated B. pseudomallei cells showed severe membrane damage and cytosolic leakage at 1/5 MIC and cell bursting at MBC. During the killing effect the released Ag+ from AgNPs was only 3.9% from the starting AgNPs concentration as observed with ICP-OES experiment. In the second phase, the ROS induction occurred 1-4 hr after the AgNP treatment. Altogether, we provide direct kinetic evidence of the AgNPs killing mechanism, by which cell death is separable from the ROS induction and AgNPs mainly contributes in the killing action. AgNPs may be considered a potential candidate to

  17. Palliative treatment with radiation-emitting metallic stents in unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Guo, Jin-He; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Li; Wang, Chao; Pan, Tian-Fan; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The emerging data for stenting in combination with brachytherapy in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma are encouraging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiation-emitting metallic stents (REMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous placement with REMS or uncovered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma between September 2011 and April 2016 were identified into this retrospective study. Data on patient demographics and overall survival, functional success, stent patency and complications were collected at the authors' hospital. A total of 59 patients were included: 33 (55.9%) in the REMS group and 26 (44.1%) in the SEMS group. The median overall survival was 338 days in the REMS group and 141 days in the SEMS group (philar cholangiocarcinoma, and seems to prolong survival as well as patency of stent in these patients.

  18. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    Full Text Available Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.

  19. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region of the mo......We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...... of the module. The FG-loop region also contains a putative nucleotide-binding motif, which was shown by NMR to interact with ATP. Furthermore, ATP was demonstrated to inhibit binding of the second F3 module of NCAM to FGFR....

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    An acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthase from H. serrata has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å. Polyketide synthase 1 (PKS1) from Huperzia serrata is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that shows an unusually versatile catalytic potential, producing various aromatic tetraketides, including chalcones, benzophenones, phlorogulucinols and acridones. Recombinant H. serrata PKS1 expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.3, b = 85.0, c = 137.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  1. Always one step ahead: How pathogenic bacteria use the type III secretion system to manipulate the intestinal mucosal immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchès Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intestinal immune system and the epithelium are the first line of defense in the gut. Constantly exposed to microorganisms from the environment, the gut has complex defense mechanisms to prevent infections, as well as regulatory pathways to tolerate commensal bacteria and food antigens. Intestinal pathogens have developed strategies to regulate intestinal immunity and inflammation in order to establish or prolong infection. The organisms that employ a type III secretion system use a molecular syringe to deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. These effectors target the host cell cytoskeleton, cell organelles and signaling pathways. This review addresses the multiple mechanisms by which the type III secretion system targets the intestinal immune response, with a special focus on pathogenic E. coli.

  2. Purification, crystal structure determination and functional characterization of type III antifreeze proteins from the European eelpout Zoarces viviparus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are essential components of many organisms adaptation to cold temperatures. Fish type III AFPs are divided into two groups, SP isoforms being much less active than QAE1 isoforms. Two type III AFPs from Zoarces viviparus, a QAE1 (ZvAFP13) and an SP (ZvAFP6) isoform......, are here characterized and their crystal structures determined. We conclude that the higher activity of the QAE1 isoforms cannot be attributed to single residues, but rather a combination of structural effects. Furthermore both ZvAFP6 and ZvAFP13 crystal structures have water molecules around T18...... equivalent to the tetrahedral-like waters previously identified in a neutron crystal structure. Interestingly, ZvAFP6 forms dimers in the crystal, with a significant dimer interface. The presence of ZvAFP6 dimers was confirmed in solution by native electrophoresis and gel filtration. To our knowledge...

  3. An Unusual Case Report of Bertolotti's Syndrome: Extraforaminal Stenosis and L5 Unilateral Root Compression (Castellvi Type III an LSTV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Chaniotakis, Constantinos; Paraskevopoulos, Constantinos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    Castellvi Type III lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) is an unusual case of Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) due to extraforaminal stenosis, especially manifesting in elderly patients. We report a case of BS in a 62 years old Greek female. The signs of the clinical examination are low back pain, sciatica, hypoesthesia, and pain to the contribution of L5 nerve. Imaging techniques revealed an LSTV Type III a (complete sacralization between LSTV and sacrum). Despite the fact that LSTV is a congenital lesion, the clinical manifestation of BS may present in the elderly population. The accumulative effect of the gradual degeneration of intervertebral foramen (stenosis) may lead to the compression of extraforaminal portion of the nerve root.

  4. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Barascuk, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via...... their activity in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular macromolecules such as collagens, resulting in the generation of specific cleavage fragments. These neo-epitopes may be used as markers of fibrosis....

  6. Controllable synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Monomer-Dimer Cocrystallized MnIII Salen-type composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Wei; Wu, Yongmei; Li, Weili; Qiao, Yongfeng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Baoling

    2018-04-01

    By the reaction of manganese-Schiff-base complexes with penta-anionic Anderson heteropolyanion, a new supramolecular architecture [Mn2(Salen)2(H2O)2][Mn(Salen)(H2O)2]2Na[IMo6O24]·8H2O (1) (salen = N,N‧-ethylene-bis (salicylideneiminate) has been isolated. Compound 1 was characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental, IR and thermal gravimetric analyses. Structural analysis reveals that the unit cell simultaneously contains MnIII-Salen dimer and monomer cation fragments, for which the Anderson-type polyanions serve as counter anions. In the packing arrangement, all the MnIII dimers are well separated by polyoxometalate units and form tertiary structure together with MnIII monomers. Interestingly, different from the previous work, in the exact same reaction conditions, we are able to template MnIII-Salen complexes into different configurations by varying the charge state of polyanions. Besides, the magnetic properties of 1 were also examined by using both dc and ac magnetic field of the superconducting quantum interference devices. Most importantly, our fitting of the experimental data to a Heisenberg-type spin model shows that there exists a ferromagnetic exchange interaction ∼5 K between the spins (S = 2) on MnIII in the dimer, while antiferromagnetic ones exist among monomers and dimer (∼2 K). This meta-magnetic state could induce a slight spin frustration at low temperature, which would in turn affect the magnetic behavior. In addition, our ac field measurement of the susceptibilities suggests a typical signature for a single-molecule magnet.

  7. High frequency of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with SCCmec type III and Spa types t037 and t631 isolated from burn patients in southwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Marashifard, Masoud; Yazdanpanah, Mahboobeh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Moein, Masoud; Naraki, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Methicilin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are the major challenges in hospitals, especially in the burn units. The use of molecular typing methods is essential for tracking the spread of S. aureus infection and epidemiological investigations. The aim of this study was to find the profile of the spa types and also the prevalence of each SCCmec type of S. aureus strains in a central burn hospital in southwest of Iran. A total of 81 non-duplicate S. aureus were isolated from burn patients between April 2011 and February 2012. The susceptibility of the isolates against 13 different antibiotics was tested by disk agar diffusion (DAD) method. MRSA strains were identified by amplification of mecA gene. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the SCCmec types of MRSA strains and all the S. aureus isolates were typed by spa typing method. Detection of mecA gene showed that 70 (86.4%) of the isolates were MRSA. The highest rate of resistance was observed for penicillin (97.5%) and erythromycin (77.8%). None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Sixty-seven of the 70 MRSA isolates harbored only SCCmec type III and three untypeable isolates. Five different spa types were detected. The most common spa types were t037 (42.5%) and t631 (34.5%) and were only found in MRSA isolates. Only SCCmec type III was found in burn patients which emphasizes the HA-MRSA origin of these strains. Only five different spa types identified in this study are in accordance with one SCCmec type which indicates that a limited number of bacterial colons are circulated in the burn unit in this hospital. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MINIFILAMENT ERUPTION AS THE SOURCE OF A BLOWOUT JET, C-CLASS FLARE, AND TYPE-III RADIO BURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2017-01-20

    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by H α images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory . The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND /WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  9. En bloc resection of extra-peritoneal soft tissue neoplasms incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sanjay S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A type III hemipelvectomy has been utilized for the resection of tumors arising from the superior or inferior pubic rami. Methods In eight patients, we incorporated a type III internal hemipelvectomy to achieve an en bloc R0 resection for tumors extending through the obturator foramen or into the ischiorectal fossa. The pelvic ring was reconstructed utilizing marlex mesh. This allowed for pelvic stability and abdominal wall reconstruction with obliteration of the obturator space to prevent herniations. Results All eight patients had an R0 resection with an overall survival of 88% and with average follow up of 9.5 years. Functional evaluation utilizing the Enneking classification system, which evaluates motion, pain, stability and strength of the affected extremity, revealed a 62% excellent result and a 37% good result. No significant complications were associated with the operative procedure. Marlex mesh reconstruction provided pelvic stability and eliminated all hernial defects. Conclusion The superior and inferior pubic rami provide a barrier to a resection for tumors that arise in the extra-peritoneal pelvis extending through the obturator foramen or ischiorectal fossa. Incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy with a simple marlex mesh reconstruction allows for complete tumor resection without functional compromise, acute infectious issues, obturator or abdominal hernia defects.

  10. [Triple no loop Endobutton plate combined with Orthcord line for the treatment of acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shui-Hua; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Chen, Wei-Dong; He, Jian-Hua; Ding, Hao; Hu, Qian-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Peng

    2016-07-25

    To explore the clinical effects of the triple no loop Endobutton plate combined with Orthcord line in treating acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III. Between February 2011 and September 2013, 36 patients with acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III were treated with triple no loop Endobutton plate and Orthcord line. There were 21 males and 15 females, aged from 9 to 48 years old with an average of (26.41±14.05) years. Couse of disease was from 2 to 7 days in the patients. The patients had the clinical manifestations such as shoulder pain, extension limited, acromioclavicular tenderness, positive organ point sign. Clinical effects were assessed by acromioclavicular scoring system. Thirty six patients were followed up from 8 to 15 months with an average of (12.2±4.3) months. All incisions got primary healing. At the final follow up, all shoulder pain vanished, acromioclavicular joints without tenderness, negative organ point sign. No redislocation and steel plate loosening were found. According to the acromioclavicular scoring system, 31 cases obtained excellent results, 5 good. The method of triple no loop Endobutton plate combined with Orthcord line for acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III has advantage of less risk and complication, good functional rehabilitation and is an ideal method.

  11. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  12. Redefining the PF06864 Pfam family based on Burkholderia pseudomallei PilO2(Bp S-SAD crystal structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lassaux

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are surface-exposed filaments and bacterial virulence factors, represented by the Tfpa and Tfpb types, which assemble via specific machineries. The Tfpb group is further divided into seven variants, linked to heterogeneity in the assembly machineries. Here we focus on PilO2(Bp, a protein component of the Tfpb R64 thin pilus variant assembly machinery from the pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. PilO2(Bp belongs to the PF06864 Pfam family, for which an improved definition is presented based on newly derived Hidden Markov Model (HMM profiles. The 3D structure of the N-terminal domain of PilO2(Bp (N-PilO2(Bp, here reported, is the first structural representative of the PF06864 family. N-PilO2(Bp presents an actin-like ATPase fold that is shown to be present in BfpC, a different variant assembly protein; the new HMM profiles classify BfpC as a PF06864 member. Our results provide structural insight into the PF06864 family and on the Type IV pili assembly machinery.

  13. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3 genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior vertebral fusion along the thoraco-lumbar vertebrae compatible with the non-infectious type.

  14. Training improves oxidative capacity, but not function, in spinal muscular atrophy type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Hansen, Regitze Sølling; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    max (17 ± 2 to 21 ± 2 ml/kg/min, P sleep in 3 patients, and led to training modifications in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cycle exercise improves VO2max in SMA III without causing muscle...... a 12-week training program, performing 42 30-minute sessions exercising at 65-70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). VO2max , muscle strength, functional tests, and self-reported activities of daily living were assessed before and after the training. RESULTS: Training induced a 27 ± 3% increase in VO2...... damage, but it also induces significant fatigue. This warrants study into alternative training methods to improve exercise capacity in SMA III patients....

  15. Delayed or No Feedback? Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Son, Donghoon; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: hjbae@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    We present gas kinematics based on the [O iii] λ 5007 line and their connection to galaxy gravitational potential, active galactic nucleus (AGN) energetics, and star formation, using a large sample of ∼110,000 AGNs and star-forming (SF) galaxies at z < 0.3. Gas and stellar velocity dispersions are comparable to each other in SF galaxies, indicating that the ionized gas kinematics can be accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies. In contrast, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. The [O iii] velocity–velocity dispersion (VVD) diagram dramatically expands toward high values as a function of AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven, while SF galaxies do not show such a trend. We find that the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [O iii] profile. AGNs with strong outflow signatures show on average similar specific star formation rates (sSFRs) to those of star-forming galaxies. In contrast, AGNs with weak or no outflows have an order of magnitude lower sSFRs, suggesting that AGNs with current strong outflows do now show any negative AGN feedback and that it may take dynamical time to impact on star formation over galactic scales.

  16. Effects of sodium chloride on heat resistance, oxidative susceptibility, motility, biofilm and plaque formation of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumirat, Pornpan; Vanaporn, Muthita; Boonyuen, Usa; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Rungruengkitkun, Amporn; Chantratita, Narisara

    2017-08-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental saprophyte and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease prevalent in tropical areas, including southeast Asia and northern Australia. In Thailand, the highest incidence of melioidosis is in the northeast region, where saline soil and water are abundant. We hypothesized that B. pseudomallei develops an ability to thrive in saline conditions and gains a selective ecological advantage over other soil-dwelling microorganisms. However, little is known about how an elevated NaCl concentration affects survival and adaptive changes in this pathogen. In this study, we examined the adaptive changes in six isolates of B. pseudomallei after growth in Luria-Bertani medium containing different concentrations of NaCl at 37°C for 6 hr. The bacteria were then investigated for resistance to heat at 50°C and killing by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In addition, flagellar production, biofilm formation, and the plaque formation efficiency of B. pseudomallei after culture in saline conditions were observed. In response to exposure to 150 and 300 mmol L -1 NaCl, all B. pseudomallei isolates showed significantly increased thermal tolerance, oxidative resistance, and plaque-forming efficiency. However, NaCl exposure notably decreased the number of B. pseudomallei flagella. Taken together, these results provide insight into the adaptations of B. pseudomallei that might be crucial for survival and persistence in the host and/or endemic environments with high salinity. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Rapid DNA vaccination against Burkholderia pseudomallei flagellin by tattoo or intranasal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Wagemakers, Alex; Birnie, Emma; Haak, Bastiaan W; Trentelman, Jos J A; Weehuizen, Tassili A F; Ersöz, Jasmin; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Hovius, Joppe W; Wiersinga, W Joost; Bins, Adriaan D

    2017-11-17

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of melioidosis. Here, we explore the use of rapid plasmid DNA vaccination against B. pseudomallei flagellin for protection against respiratory challenge. We tested three flagellin DNA vaccines with different subcellular targeting designs. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated via skin tattoo on day 0, 3 and 6 before intranasal challenge with B. pseudomallei on day 21. Next, the most effective construct was used as single vaccination on day 0 by tattoo or intranasal formulation. Mice were sacrificed 72 hours post-challenge to assess bacterial loads, cytokine responses, inflammation and microscopic lesions. A construct encoding a cellular secretion signal resulted in the most effective protection against melioidosis via tattooing, with a 10-fold reduction in bacterial loads in lungs and distant organs compared to the empty vector. Strikingly, a single intranasal administration of the same vaccine resulted in >1000-fold lower bacterial loads and increased survival. Pro-inflammatory cytokine responses were significantly diminished and strong reductions in markers for distant organ damage were observed. A rapid vaccination scheme using flagellin DNA tattoo provides significant protection against intranasal challenge with B. pseudomallei, markedly improved by a single administration via airway mucosa. Hence intranasal vaccination with flagellin-encoding DNA may be applicable when acute mass vaccination is indicated and warrants further testing.

  18. Fatal Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection Initially Reported as a Bacillus Species, Ohio, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Doker, Thomas J.; Quinn, Celia L.; Salehi, Ellen D.; Sherwood, Joshua J.; Benoit, Tina J.; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Gee, Jay E.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Bower, William A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Walke, Henry T.; Blaney, David D.; DiOrio, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    A fatal case of melioidosis was diagnosed in Ohio one month after culture results were initially reported as a Bacillus species. To identify a source of infection and assess risk in patient contacts, we abstracted patient charts; interviewed physicians and contacts; genetically characterized the isolate; performed a Burkholderia pseudomallei antibody indirect hemagglutination assay on household contacts and pets to assess seropositivity; and collected household plant, soil, liquid, and insect...

  19. The effect of environmental conditions on biofilm formation of Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Siti K Ramli

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative saprophytic bacterium, is the causative agent of the potentially fatal melioidosis disease in humans. In this study, environmental parameters including temperature, nutrient content, pH and the presence of glucose were shown to play a role in in vitro biofilm formation by 28 B. pseudomallei clinical isolates, including four isolates with large colony variants (LCVs and small colony variants (SCVs morphotypes. Enhanced biofilm formation was observed when the isolates were tested in LB medium, at 30 °C, at pH 7.2, and in the presence of as little as 2 mM glucose respectively. It was also shown that all SVCs displayed significantly greater capacity to form biofilms than the corresponding LCVs when cultured in LB at 37 °C. In addition, octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(8-HSL, a quorum sensing molecule, was identified by mass spectrometry analysis in bacterial isolates referred to as LCV CTH, LCV VIT, SCV TOM, SCV CTH, 1 and 3, and the presence of other AHL's with higher masses; decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(10-HSL and dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(12-HSL were also found in all tested strain in this study. Last but not least, we had successfully acquired two Bacillus sp. soil isolates, termed KW and SA respectively, which possessed strong AHLs degradation activity. Biofilm formation of B. pseudomallei isolates was significantly decreased after treated with culture supernatants of KW and SA strains, demonstrating that AHLs may play a role in B. pseudomallei biofilm formation.

  20. Nasal Acai Polysaccharides Potentiate Innate Immunity to Protect against Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Skyberg, Jerod A.; Rollins, MaryClare F.; Holderness, Jeff S.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Goodyear, Andrew; Dow, Steven W.; Jutila, Mark A.; Pascual, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections are highly lethal in untreated patients, and current antibiotic regimens are not always effective. Activating the innate immune system provides an alternative means of treating infection and can also complement antibiotic therapies. Several natural agonists were screened for their ability to enhance host resistance to infection, and polysaccharides derived from the Acai berry (Acai PS) were found to have potent abilitie...

  1. Chronic suppurative joint effusion due to burkholderia pseudomallei: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacillus is the causative agent of Melioidosis, a glanders-like disease, primarily a disease of animals. Melioidosis has been only a rare and sporadic disease in humans outside its endemic region. Currently, diagnosis of B. pseudomallei in the clinical laboratory is very difficult, owing to low awareness of physicians to the nonspecific clinical manifestations, lack of responsiveness among microbiologists outside endemic areas, identification systems in the average sentinel laboratory, and the biosafety conditions necessary to process these organisms. We report a case of chronic left hip joint effusion in a known case of diabetes mellitus. Gram stain of computed tomography (CT-guided aspirate from the joint revealed Gram-negative bacilli along with pus cells. Culture was confirmed as Burkholderia pseudomallei on Vitek2C, which was sensitive to ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfmethoxazole. Unfortunately, patient could not be started on appropriate antibiotics due to delay in detection and patient succumbed to severe septicemia. This case is reported to highlight importance of automated identification and sensitivity especially in nonendemic areas and unusual antibiogram of this organism for which disc diffusion method is not standardized.

  2. The In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility of Malaysian Isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazah Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute melioidosis may present as localised or septicaemic infections and can be fatal if left untreated. Burkholderia pseudomallei resistant to antibiotics used for the treatment of melioidosis had been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated in Malaysia to a panel of antibiotics used for the treatment of melioidosis and also to potential alternative antibiotics such as tigecycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, and piperacillin/tazobactam. A total of 170 Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration determination using E-test method to eleven antibiotics. All isolates were sensitive to meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. For ceftazidime, imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and doxycycline resistance was observed in 1 isolate (0.6% for each of the antibiotics. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was observed in 17 (10% isolates. For other antibiotics, ampicillin/sulbactam, chloramphenicol, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin resistance were observed in 1 (0.6%, 6 (3.5%, 60 (35.3% and 98 (57.7% isolates respectively. One isolate B170/06 exhibited resistance to 4 antibiotics, namely, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tigecycline. In conclusion, the Malaysian isolates were highly susceptible to the current antibiotics used in the treatment of melioidosis in Malaysia. Multiple resistances to the antibiotics used in the maintenance therapy are the cause for a concern.

  3. Inactivation of Burkholderia pseudomallei on environmental surfaces using spray-applied, common liquid disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, M W; Wendling, M

    2015-11-01

    Five commercially available liquid antimicrobials were evaluated for their ability to decontaminate common environmental surface materials, contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei, using a spray-based disinfectant delivery procedure. Tests were conducted at both an ambient temperature (c. 20°C) and a lower temperature (c. 12°C) condition. Nonporous materials (glass and aluminium) were more easily decontaminated than porous materials (wood, concrete and carpet). Citric acid (1%) demonstrated poor efficacy in all test conditions. Bleach (pH-adjusted), ethanol (70%), quaternary ammonium and PineSol®, demonstrated high (>6 log10 reduction) efficacies on glass and aluminium at both temperatures, but achieved varying results for wood, carpet and concrete. Temperature had minimal effect on decontamination efficacy during these tests. Much of the antimicrobial efficacy data for pathogenic micro-organisms are generated with testing that utilizes hard nonporous surface materials. These data are not directly translatable for decontaminant selection following an incident whereby complex and porous environmental surfaces are contaminated. This study presents efficacy data for spray-applied antimicrobial liquids, when used to decontaminate common environmental surfaces contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei. These data can help responders develop effective remediation strategies following an environmental contamination incident involving B. pseudomallei. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. A preliminary X-ray study of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Shin, Dong Hae

    2009-01-01

    Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA) from B. pseudomallei is one of the targets of antibiotic adjuvants for melioidosis. In this study, GmhA has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA) converts d-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to d,d-heptose 7-phosphate. This is the first step in the biosynthesis pathway of NDP-heptose, which is responsible for the pleiotropic phenotype. This biosynthesis pathway is the target of inhibitors to increase the membrane permeability of Gram-negative pathogens or of adjuvants working synergistically with known antibiotics. Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a seriously invasive disease in animals and humans in tropical and subtropical areas. GmhA from B. pseudomallei is one of the targets of antibiotic adjuvants for melioidosis. In this study, GmhA has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray data were also collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 61.3, b = 84.2, c = 142.3 Å. A full structural determination is under way in order to provide insights into the structure–function relationships of this protein

  5. Membrane-active mechanism of LFchimera against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Puknun, Aekkalak; Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; van Marle, Jan; de Soet, Johannes J; Veerman, Enno C I; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol

    2014-10-01

    LFchimera, a construct combining two antimicrobial domains of bovine lactoferrin, lactoferrampin265-284 and lactoferricin17-30, possesses strong bactericidal activity. As yet, no experimental evidence was presented to evaluate the mechanisms of LFchimera against Burkholderia isolates. In this study we analyzed the killing activity of LFchimera on the category B pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei in comparison to the lesser virulent Burkholderia thailandensis often used as a model for the highly virulent B. pseudomallei. Killing kinetics showed that B. thailandensis E264 was more susceptible for LFchimera than B. pseudomallei 1026b. Interestingly the bactericidal activity of LFchimera appeared highly pH dependent; B. thailandensis killing was completely abolished at and below pH 6.4. FITC-labeled LFchimera caused a rapid accumulation within 15 min in the cytoplasm of both bacterial species. Moreover, freeze-fracture electron microscopy demonstrated extreme effects on the membrane morphology of both bacterial species within 1 h of incubation, accompanied by altered membrane permeability monitored as leakage of nucleotides. These data indicate that the mechanism of action of LFchimera is similar for both species and encompasses disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequently leakage of intracellular nucleotides leading to cell dead.

  6. Expression, refolding and spectroscopic characterization of fibronectin type III (FnIII)-homology domains derived from human fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT)-1,-2, and-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lila; Falkesgaard, Maria Hansen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben

    2017-01-01

    various species have been determined, the expression and purification of recombinant FLRT FnIII domains, important steps for further structural and functional characterizations of the proteins, have not yet been described. Here we present a protocol for expressing recombinant FLRT-FnIII domains...... that a strand-strand cystine bridge has significant effect on the stability of the FLRT FnIII fold. We further show by Surface Plasmon Resonance that all three FnIII domains bind to FGFR1, and roughly estimate a Kd for each domain, all Kds being in the µM range....

  7. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah E; Luca, Edlira; Pertot, Elyse; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2011-01-01

    Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs). Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling) can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K) signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  8. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Canetta

    Full Text Available Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs. Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  9. Procollagen type III amino terminal peptide and myocardial fibrosis: A study in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Moreira, Carlos; Serejo, Fátima; Alcântara, Paula; Ramalhinho, Vítor; Braz Nogueira, J

    2015-05-01

    An exaggerated accumulation of type I and type III fibrillar collagens occurs throughout the free wall and interventricular septum of patients with primary hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In the present study the serum concentration of procollagen type III amino terminal peptide (PIIIP) was measured to determine the value of this peptide as a potential marker of ventricular fibrosis in hypertensive patients, particularly those with LVH. The study population consisted of patients with never-treated mild to moderate essential hypertension and 30 normotensive control subjects. Clinical, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and biochemical parameters were assessed in all patients. Heart rate, body mass index and levels of blood pressure were increased in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, compared to normotensive controls. Posterior wall thickness, left ventricular (LV) mass and LV mass index, and serum PIIIP concentration were also increased in hypertensives, with significant differences between the two hypertensive groups. The ratio between maximal early and late transmitral flow velocity measured during diastole was lower in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, than in normotensive controls. The increase in PIIIP indicates that type III collagen synthesis increases in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, implying that alterations in the heart in hypertension are the result not solely of hypertrophied LV muscle, but also of increased collagen deposition within the ventricular wall and around the coronary vessels. Thus, measurement of serum PIIIP could be a practical and useful tool in the non-invasive assessment of myocardial remodeling in hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic mutagenesis of genes encoding predicted autotransported proteins of Burkholderia pseudomallei identifies factors mediating virulence in mice, net intracellular replication and a novel protein conferring serum resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie R Lazar Adler

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, which commonly presents as sepsis. The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes eleven predicted autotransporters, a diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins often associated with virulence. In a systematic study of these autotransporters, we constructed insertion mutants in each gene predicted to encode an autotransporter and assessed them for three pathogenesis-associated phenotypes: virulence in the BALB/c intra-peritoneal mouse melioidosis model, net intracellular replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells and survival in 45% (v/v normal human serum. From the complete repertoire of eleven autotransporter mutants, we identified eight mutants which exhibited an increase in median lethal dose of 1 to 2-log10 compared to the isogenic parent strain (bcaA, boaA, boaB, bpaA, bpaC, bpaE, bpaF and bimA. Four mutants, all demonstrating attenuation for virulence, exhibited reduced net intracellular replication in J774.2 macrophage-like cells (bimA, boaB, bpaC and bpaE. A single mutant (bpaC was identified that exhibited significantly reduced serum survival compared to wild-type. The bpaC mutant, which demonstrated attenuation for virulence and net intracellular replication, was sensitive to complement-mediated killing via the classical and/or lectin pathway. Serum resistance was rescued by in trans complementation. Subsequently, we expressed recombinant proteins of the passenger domain of four predicted autotransporters representing each of the phenotypic groups identified: those attenuated for virulence (BcaA, those attenuated for virulence and net intracellular replication (BpaE, the BpaC mutant with defects in virulence, net intracellular replication and serum resistance and those displaying wild-type phenotypes (BatA. Only BcaA and BpaE elicited a strong IFN-γ response in a restimulation assay using whole blood from seropositive donors

  11. Effects of solid acellular type-I/III collagen biomaterials on in vitro and in vivo chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Type-I/III collagen membranes are advocated for clinical use in articular cartilage repair as being able of inducing chondrogenesis, a technique termed autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC). Area covered: The current in vitro and translational in vivo evidence for chondrogenic effects of solid acellular type-I/III collagen biomaterials. Expert commentary: In vitro, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) adhere to the fibers of the type-I/III collagen membrane. No in vitro study provides evidence that a type-I/III collagen matrix alone may induce chondrogenesis. Few in vitro studies compare the effects of type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds on chondrogenesis. Recent investigations suggest better chondrogenesis with type-II collagen scaffolds. A systematic review of the translational in vivo data identified one long-term study showing that covering of cartilage defects treated by microfracture with a type-I/III collagen membrane significantly enhanced the repair tissue volume compared with microfracture alone. Other in vivo evidence is lacking to suggest either improved histological structure or biomechanical function of the repair tissue. Taken together, there is a paucity of in vitro and preclinical in vivo evidence supporting the concept that solid acellular type-I/III collagen scaffolds may be superior to classical approaches to induce in vitro or in vivo chondrogenesis of MSCs.

  12. Deep vein thrombosis, an unreported first manifestation of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Horsey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman with severe right lower leg pain, edema and erythema was presented to the Emergency Department and was found to have an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT confirmed by ultrasound. She underwent an extensive evaluation due to her prior history of malignancy and new hypercoagulable state, but no evidence of recurrent disease was detected. Further investigation revealed pernicious anemia (PA, confirmed by the presence of a macrocytic anemia (MCV=115.8fL/red cell, Hgb=9.0g/dL, decreased serum B12 levels (56pg/mL, with resultant increased methylmalonic acid (5303nmol/L and hyperhomocysteinemia (131μmol/L, the presumed etiology of the DVT. The patient also suffered from autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD, and both antithyroglobulin and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were detected. She responded briskly to anticoagulation with heparin and coumadin and treatment of PA with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Our case suggests that a DVT secondary to hyperhomocystenemia may represent the first sign of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III-B (PAS III-B, defined as the coexistent autoimmune conditions AITD and PA. It is important to recognize this clinical entity, as patients may not only require acute treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation and prolonged anticoagulation, as in this patient, but may also harbor other autoimmune diseases.

  13. [Congenital type I antithrombin III deficiency with serious complications in a 7-year-old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, M; Nagy, I; Schultz, K; Kiss, I; Gastonyi, V

    1989-03-19

    This case report concerns a child admitted to the County Hospital of Zalaegerszeg with the symptoms of ataxia, focal convulsions and hemiparesis. Anticonvulsive therapy abolished the epileptic manifestations, but hemiparesis remained unchanged. At the age of six and half years progressive venous thrombosis developed first on the left and some days later on the right lower limb. Phlebography revealed on both sides thrombosis of the vena iliaca which led to stenosis of the right femoral vein and dilated venous collaterals on the abdomen and right thigh. Coeliacography showed an enlarged spleen and varicosity around the portal vein. Later thrombosis of the arteria dorsalis pedis developed indicated by the gangrene the fifth toe. At this stage the child was transfered to the Pediatric Department of the University of Pécs for further evaluation. Examination of the hemostasis showed hypercoagulability due to antithrombin III deficiency pointing towards a common cause, namely thromboembolism of the earlier and recent clinical manifestations. A reduced activity of the antithrombin III was also observed in the mother and two sisters of the child. The response to Syncumar therapy was beneficial, arterial thrombosis regressed and no further thromboembolic complications developed.

  14. The type III secretion system is involved in the invasion and intracellular survival of Escherichia coli K1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yufeng; Xie, Yi; Perace, Donna; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Jie; Tao, Jing; Guo, Xiaokui; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems have been documented in many Gram-negative bacteria, including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We have previously shown the existence of a putative type III secretion system in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strains, referred to as E. coli type III secretion 2 (ETT2). The sequence of ETT2 in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain EC10 (O7:K1) revealed that ETT2 comprises the epr, epa and eiv genes, but bears mutations, deletions and insertions. We constructed the E...

  15. [Medium-term outcome, follow-up, and quality of life in children treated for type III esophageal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeytre, C; De Lagausie, P; Merrot, T; Baumstarck, K; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term outcome (health status, medical and surgical French National Health Authority-recommended follow-up, and quality of life) of children born with type III esophageal atresia (EA). Previous events (during the perinatal period, associated abnormalities, respiratory and digestive complications) of children treated for type III EA at the Marseille university hospitals between 1999 and 2009 were noted. Parents completed a standardized questionnaire concerning the health of their children during the previous year, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (PedsQL 4.0) was also completed by children aged more than 8 years. Among the 68 children treated, 44 responded to our solicitation (mean age, 7.6 years; range, 3-12.8 years). Previous important events were : pneumonia(s) (65%), asthma before the age of 3 years (66%), hospitalization for a respiratory event (45%), fundoplication (20%), and esophageal dilatation (45%). We noted current chronic cough (16%), asthma (30%), dysphagia (39%), and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (9%). National guidelines were not respected, except for the surgical indications in children aged less than 6 years. The quality-of-life scores (n=43 children) were similar to healthy controls but were negatively influenced by a gastrostomy procedure (P=0.020), pneumonia (P=0.013), and hospitalization due to a respiratory event (P=0.006) or a digestive event (P=0.010), and also by current asthma (P=0.004). In conclusion, despite recurrent respiratory or digestive symptoms and inadequate recommended follow-up, the quality of life of children treated for type III of EA is good. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. [Clinical value of "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" in resection of type III or IV hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-dong; Liu, Wei; Tao, Lian-yuan; Zhang, Zhen-huan; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Shuang-min

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the surgical technique of "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" in the treatment for type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The clinical data of 89 patients with type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma surgically treated in our department between Jan. 1990 and Jan. 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Since January 2000, "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" was performed for some patients with advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups: group A treated between 1990 and 1999, group B between 2000 and 2008. The rate of resection, therapeutic efficacy and complications in these two groups were compared, respectively. Of the 37 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma in group A, 4 were surgically treated (10.8%), with 1 (2.7%) radical resection and 3 (8.1%) palliative resection. Among the 52 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma in the group B, 35 (67.3%) received surgical resection, of them 15 (28.8%) underwent radical resection and 20 (38.5%) had palliative resection. Twenty-eight of these 35 cases underwent the "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis". The resection rate of advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma in the group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P anastomosis" developed bile leakage to a varying degree and recovered after drainage and symptomatic treatment. The resection rate of type III or IV advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma can be remarkably improved by using a novel alternative surgical technique called "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis". However, the long-term outcome still needs to be determined by close follow-up and further observation.

  17. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III 8-11 ) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III 8-11 scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin β1 but not with αvβ3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials

  18. Lack of immunogenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC12 preparation administered by the oral route to human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, R W R; Cooper, K J; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Before a novel protein can be used in foods, its potential allergenicity must be assessed. In this study, healthy volunteers consumed ice structuring protein (ISP) Type III preparation or a control material 5 days a week for a total of 8 weeks. General measures of health were recorded during...... background against which to interpret the results. Nevertheless, the absence of an immune response using a protocol which could have been expected to result in a response with a strongly immunogenic protein, confirms the conclusions of earlier published work, and attests to the lack of allergenicity of ISP...

  19. Hopf and Bautin Bifurcation in a Tritrophic Food Chain Model with Holling Functional Response Types III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Víctor; Castillo-Santos, Francisco Eduardo; Dela-Rosa, Miguel Angel; Loreto-Hernández, Iván

    In this paper, we analyze the Hopf and Bautin bifurcation of a given system of differential equations, corresponding to a tritrophic food chain model with Holling functional response types III and IV for the predator and superpredator, respectively. We distinguish two cases, when the prey has linear or logistic growth. In both cases we guarantee the existence of a limit cycle bifurcating from an equilibrium point in the positive octant of ℝ3. In order to do so, for the Hopf bifurcation we compute explicitly the first Lyapunov coefficient, the transversality Hopf condition, and for the Bautin bifurcation we also compute the second Lyapunov coefficient and verify the regularity conditions.

  20. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Pascal; Mance, Deni; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baldus, Marc; Lange, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  1. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Pascal [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Mance, Deni [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Chevelkov, Veniamin [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany); Baldus, Marc [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Lange, Adam, E-mail: alange@fmp-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  2. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong; Liu, Wen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Zhongren; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2

  3. Expression of synaptogyrin-1 in T1R2-expressing type II taste cells and type III taste cells of rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Takeshi; Toyono, Takashi; Seta, Yuji; Kitou, Ayae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyoshima, Kuniaki

    2013-09-01

    Synaptogyrins are conserved components of the exocytic apparatus and function as regulators of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. The synaptogyrin family comprises three isoforms: two neuronal (synaptogyrin-1 and -3) and one ubiquitous (synaptogyrin-2) form. Although the expression patterns of the exocytic proteins synaptotagmin-1, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin-2 and synaptophysin have been elucidated in taste buds, the function and expression pattern of synaptogyrin-1 in rat gustatory tissues have not been determined. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of synaptogyrin-1 and several cell-specific markers of type II and III cells in rat gustatory tissues. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assays and immunoblot analysis revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 mRNA and its protein in circumvallate papillae. In fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae, the antibody against synaptogyrin-1 immunolabeled a subset of taste bud cells and intra- and subgemmal nerve processes. Double-labeling experiments revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 in most taste cells immunoreactive for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule. A subset of synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells also expressed phospholipase Cβ2, gustducin, or sweet taste receptor (T1R2). In addition, most synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells expressed synaptobrevin-2. These results suggest that synaptogyrin-1 plays a regulatory role in transmission at the synapses of type III cells and is involved in exocytic function with synaptobrevin-2 in a subset of type II cells in rat taste buds.

  4. Collagen metabolism during wound healing in rats. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in serum and wound fluid in relation to formation of granulation tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Garbarsch, C; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    1993-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation ......, changes in serum PIIINP mirror fibrillogenesis. Furthermore, our study provides experimental evidence consistent with the hypothesis that wound fluid PIIINP directly mirrors the local formation of granulation tissue, independent of weight loss and cyclophosphamide treatment.......The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in serum has been shown to correlate with fibrillogenesis, and thus to be a potential direct marker of type III collagen deposition. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between changes in serum PIIINP and formation...... loss caused by treatment, weight loss caused by starvation was investigated. In untreated rats, serum PIIINP and wound fluid PIIINP were related to formation of granulation tissue (serum: r = 0.58, p

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay in type I+II seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Tezpur University,Tezpur-784028 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2015-11-30

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the new physics contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below the upper limit set by the GERDA experiment and also satisfying bounds from lepton flavor violation, cosmology and colliders.

  6. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). III. 142 ADDITIONAL O-TYPE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apellániz, J. Maíz; Sota, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Gamen, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R  ∼ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al.

  7. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). III. 142 ADDITIONAL O-TYPE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apellániz, J. Maíz [Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, campus ESAC, camino bajo del castillo s/n, E-28 692 Madrid (Spain); Sota, A.; Alfaro, E. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18 008 Granada (Spain); Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Walborn, N. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21 218 (United States); Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38 200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Negueruela, I.; Marco, A. [DFISTS, EPS, Universidad de Alicante, carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, E-03 690 Alicante (Spain); Leão, J. R. S. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte—UFRN, Caixa Postal 1524, CEP 59 078-970, Natal—RN (Brazil); Gamen, R. C., E-mail: jmaiz@cab.inta-csic.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET, UNLP), Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R  ∼ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al.

  8. CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides protect mice from Burkholderia pseudomallei but not Francisella tularensis Schu S4 aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozak, David A; Gelhaus, Herbert C; Smith, Mark; Zadeh, Mojgan; Huzella, Louis; Waag, David; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J

    2010-02-05

    Studies have shown that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) protect mice from various bacterial pathogens, including Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), when administered before parenteral challenge. Given the potential to develop CpG ODN as a pre-treatment for multiple bacterial biological warfare agents, we examined survival, histopathology, and cytokine data from CpG ODN-treated C57BL/6 mice to determine whether previously-reported protection extended to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b and highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 infections. We found that, although CpG ODN protected mice from aerosolized B. pseudomallei challenges, the immunostimulant failed to benefit the animals exposed to F. tularensis Schu S4 aerosols. Our results, which contrast with earlier F. tularensis LVS studies, highlight potential differences in Francisella species pathogenesis and underscore the need to evaluate immunotherapies against human pathogenic species.

  9. Ordered perovskites with cationic vacancies. 9. Compounds of the type Sr/sub 2/Srsub(1/4)Bsub(1/2)sup(III)vacantsub(1/4)WO/sub 6/ equivalent to Sr/sub 8/SrB/sub 2/sup(III)vacantW/sub 4/O/sub 24/ (Bsup(III) = La, Pr, Nd, Sm - Tm, Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmler-Sack, S; Ehmann, A [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1981-08-01

    The compounds Sr/sub 2/Srsub(1/4)Bsub(1/2)sup(III)vacantsub(1/4)WO/sub 6/ equivalent to Sr/sub 8/SrB/sub 2/sup(III)vacantW/sub 4/O/sub 24/ belong to the group of perovskites with octahedral cationic vacancies (cation/vacancy ratio (CN 6) = 7:1). For the larger Bsup(III) ions (La, Pr, Nd, Sm-Dy) different ordering effects are observed. The perovskites with Bsup(III) = Sm, Eu, Gd are polymorphic too (HT modification: higher ordered cubic perovskite (Bsup(III) = Gd: a = 2 x 8.23/sub 4/ A); LT modification: hexagonal perovskite stacking polytype (Bsup(III) = Gd: a = 9.95/sub 4/ A; c = 19.0/sub 4/ A)). With the smaller Bsup(III) ions (Ho, Er, Tm and Y) a cubic, 1:1 ordered perovskite type is observed.

  10. Clonal structure of Trypanosoma cruzi Colombian strain (biodeme Type III: biological, isoenzymic and histopathological analysis of seven isolated clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camandaroba Edson Luiz Paes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The clonal structure of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, biodeme Type III and zymodeme 1, was analyzed in order to characterize its populations and to establish its homogeneity or heterogeneity. Seven isolated clones presented the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemic curves, tissue tropism to skeletal muscle and myocardium, high pathogenicity with extensive necrotic-inflammatory lesions from the 20th to 30th day of infection. The parental strain and its clones C1, C3, C4 and C6, determined the higher levels of parasitemia, 20 to 30 days of infection, with high mortality rate up to 30 days (79 to 100%; clones C2, C5 and C7 presented lower levels of parasitemia, with low mortality rates (7.6 to 23%. Isoenzymic patterns, characteristic of zymodeme 1, (Z1 were similar for the parental strain and its seven clones. Results point to a phenotypic homogeneity of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain and suggest the predominance of a principal clone, responsible for the biological behavior of the parental strain and clones.

  11. Crystal structure of the Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex in the type III-A CRISPR-Cas interference complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomoyuki; Inanaga, Hideko; Sato, Chikara; Osawa, Takuo

    2015-01-30

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci play a pivotal role in the prokaryotic host defense system against invading genetic materials. The CRISPR loci are transcribed to produce CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), which form interference complexes with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The interference complex of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system is composed of five Cas proteins (Csm1-Csm5) and a crRNA, and targets invading DNA. Here, we show that the Csm1, Csm3, and Csm4 proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii form a stable subcomplex. We also report the crystal structure of the M. jannaschii Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex at 3.1Å resolution. The complex structure revealed the presence of a basic concave surface around their interface, suggesting the RNA and/or DNA binding ability of the complex. A gel retardation analysis showed that the Csm3-Csm4 complex binds single-stranded RNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Csm4 structurally resembles Cmr3, a component of the type III-B CRISPR-Cas interference complex. Based on bioinformatics, we constructed a model structure of the Csm1-Csm4-Csm3 ternary complex, which provides insights into its role in the Csm interference complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Re-evaluating the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis during initiation of DNA sliding by Type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; Bollins, Jack; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-15

    DNA cleavage by the Type III restriction enzymes requires long-range protein communication between recognition sites facilitated by thermally-driven 1D diffusion. This 'DNA sliding' is initiated by hydrolysis of multiple ATPs catalysed by a helicase-like domain. Two distinct ATPase phases were observed using short oligoduplex substrates; the rapid consumption of ∼10 ATPs coupled to a protein conformation switch followed by a slower phase, the duration of which was dictated by the rate of dissociation from the recognition site. Here, we show that the second ATPase phase is both variable and only observable when DNA ends are proximal to the recognition site. On DNA with sites more distant from the ends, a single ATPase phase coupled to the conformation switch was observed and subsequent site dissociation required little or no further ATP hydrolysis. The overall DNA dissociation kinetics (encompassing site release, DNA sliding and escape via a DNA end) were not influenced by the second phase. Although the data simplifies the ATP hydrolysis scheme for Type III restriction enzymes, questions remain as to why multiple ATPs are hydrolysed to prepare for DNA sliding. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Comparison of the Tight Rope Technique and Clavicular Hook Plate for the Treatment of Rockwood Type III Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Leyi; Wang, Te; Lu, Di; Hu, Wei; Hong, Jianjun; Chen, Hua

    2018-06-01

    Acromioclavicular joint dislocation is one of the most common shoulder problems and may lead to instability or degenerative changes. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the Tight Rope system and clavicular hook plate for Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in adults. This was a prospective, randomized study in a hospital setting. From January 2012 to December 2014, 69 patients with type III injury were reviewed. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was treated using the TightRope system and Group B with the clavicular hook plate. All participants were followed up for 12 months. Clinical outcomes, radiological results and postoperative complications were recorded. The length of incision was significantly shorter in Goup A than that in Group B. The blood loss of surgery was significantly less in the Group A. Significant difference could be found between the two groups regarding the Visual Analogue Scale scores one day after surgery, at the 3 and 12 months follow-up. There were no differences according to the improvement of the Constant-Murley score and the coracoclavicular distance between the groups. The two groups have similar clinical and radiological outcomes. Both treatments could relieve the pain of dislocation, improve the function of Acromioclavicular joint and rectify the coracoclavicular distance measured in plain films. However, the TightRope system exhibited some advantages in terms of length of incision, blood loss of surgery, the pain postoperatively and no need for a second surgery.

  14. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction–Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction–Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can ‘turnover’, albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. ‘DNA sliding’). PMID:22523084

  15. Hemorrhagic pleural effusion secondary to an unusual type III hiatal hernia in a 4-year-old great dane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lena C; Friend, Edward J; Hamilton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    An unusual case of combined axial and paraesophageal (type III) hiatal hernia (HH) in a 4-year-old Great Dane is reported. The main presenting complaint was dyspnea, and no history of trauma was present. A tentative diagnosis of HH with secondary pleural effusion was made based on clinical signs and radiographic findings. Exploratory celiotomy revealed herniation of the gastric cardia, fundus, and body through the esophageal hiatus and an adjacent, distinct defect in the diaphragm. Rupture of the short gastric vessels lead to the formation of a hemorrhagic pleural effusion that impaired ventilation. The esophageal hiatus was surgically reduced in size, and the second defect was closed with nonabsorbable sutures. Esophagopexy and tube gastropexy procedures were also performed. The dog was clinically normal 9 months postoperatively. This type of HH is not currently defined within the traditional classification system and to the authors' knowledge has not been previously reported.

  16. Estimation of fast neutron fluence in steel specimens type Laguna Verde in TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia A, J.; Francois L, J. L.; Aguilar H, F.

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this work is to obtain the fluence of fast neutrons recorded within four specimens of carbon steel, similar to the material having the vessels of the BWR reactors of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde when subjected to neutron flux in a experimental facility of the TRIGA Mark III reactor, calculating an irradiation time to age the material so accelerated. For the calculation of the neutron flux in the specimens was used the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. In an initial stage, three sheets of natural molybdenum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) were incorporated into a model developed of the TRIGA reactor operating at 1 M Wth, to calculate the resulting activity by setting a certain time of irradiation. The results obtained were compared with experimentally measured activities in these same materials to validate the calculated neutron flux in the model used. Subsequently, the fast neutron flux received by the steel specimens to incorporate them in the experimental facility E-16 of the reactor core model operating at nominal maximum power in steady-state was calculated, already from these calculations the irradiation time required was obtained for values of the neutron flux in the range of 10 18 n/cm 2 , which is estimated for the case of Laguna Verde after 32 years of effective operation at maximum power. (Author)

  17. Genomic characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates selected for medical countermeasures testing: comparative genomics associated with differential virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Sahl

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis and a potential bioterrorism agent. In the development of medical countermeasures against B. pseudomallei infection, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA animal Rule recommends using well-characterized strains in animal challenge studies. In this study, whole genome sequence data were generated for 6 B. pseudomallei isolates previously identified as candidates for animal challenge studies; an additional 5 isolates were sequenced that were associated with human inhalational melioidosis. A core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP phylogeny inferred from a concatenated SNP alignment from the 11 isolates sequenced in this study and a diverse global collection of isolates demonstrated the diversity of the proposed Animal Rule isolates. To understand the genomic composition of each isolate, a large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR analysis was performed on the entire pan-genome; this demonstrated the variable composition of genes across the panel and also helped to identify genes unique to individual isolates. In addition, a set of ~550 genes associated with pathogenesis in B. pseudomallei were screened against the 11 sequenced genomes with LS-BSR. Differential gene distribution for 54 virulence-associated genes was observed between genomes and three of these genes were correlated with differential virulence observed in animal challenge studies using BALB/c mice. Differentially conserved genes and SNPs associated with disease severity were identified and could be the basis for future studies investigating the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. Overall, the genetic characterization of the 11 proposed Animal Rule isolates provides context for future studies involving B. pseudomallei pathogenesis, differential virulence, and efficacy to therapeutics.

  18. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnamon Sue C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3 was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction.

  19. Caracterización del síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos tipo III Characterization of Type-III Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Caridad Campo Díaz

    2013-06-01

    agregación y la función plaquetaria.Introduction: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS is a heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders, caused by mutations in the genes that codify fibrillar collagen or the enzymes implicated in modifying post-translational collagen that affects skin, joints and blood vessels. Frequently, the clinical picture presents articular hypermobility with hyperextension associated with cutaneous anomalies. Objective: to characterize Type-III Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome in Pinar del Rio province. Material and method: an applied, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study that included 305 children (from 5 to 18 years old suffering from type-III Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS to the diagnosis of typical articular manifestations of the disease, along with an assessment that involved cardiology, ophthalmology, physical-therapy specialties; performing at the same time a coagulation assay and peripheral blood smear. Results: no sex prevalence was found and family history was present in more than the half of patients, where maternal line prevailed. Hemorrhagic familial trend was positive in 36 cases. The main manifestations found in these patients were described to this health condition, the existence of mucous-cutaneous bleeding predominated or as a consequence of invasive procedures in 181 children; which was associated with the presence of disorders associated with macro-platelets and the finding of disperse platelets in peripheral-blood smears. Conclusions: the results evidenced the presence of qualitative platelet disorders that must be evaluated by means of much more specific coagulation assays, not in existence in the province, which must include aggregation and platelet function.

  20. Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov., A Burkholderia thailandensis-Like Species and the Fifth Member of the pseudomallei Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    biochemical pattern to B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis were co-64 isolated with B. pseudomallei on Ashdown’s selective agar. To determine the...three B. ubonensis strains) (see SI doc and Fig. S2). 157 Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution 158...rifampicin (0.0625–8 mg/L), chloramphenicol (0.5–64 mg/L), 162 trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole (0.25–32/4.75–608 mg/L), streptomycin (0.25–32 mg/L

  1. Geomagnetic storm related to intense solar radio burst type II and III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strong energetic particles ejected during sun's activity will propagate towards earth and contribute to solar radio bursts. These solar radio bursts can be detected using CALLISTO system. The open website of the NASA provides us the data including CALLISTO, TESIS, solar monitor, SOHO and space weather. The type ...

  2. Assignment of an Usher syndrome type III (USH3) gene to chromosome 3q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankila, E M; Pakarinen, L; Kääriäinen, H; Aittomäki, K; Karjalainen, S; Sistonen, P; de la Chapelle, A

    1995-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) refers to genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorders with combined visual and hearing loss. Type I (USH1) is characterized by a congenital, severe to profound hearing loss and absent vestibular function; in type II (USH2) the hearing loss is congenital and moderate to severe, and the vestibular function is normal. Progressive pigmentary retinopathy (PPR) is present in both types. A third type (USH3) differing from USH2 by the progressive nature of its hearing loss has been suggested. USH3 has previously been estimated to comprise 2% of all USH. However, based on clinical criteria, in Finland 42% of USH patients have progressive hearing loss suggesting enrichment of an USH3 gene. We excluded the four previously mapped USH regions as the site of the USH3 disease locus. Systematic search for USH3 by genetic linkage analyses in 10 multiple affected families using polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed significant linkage with markers mapping to chromosome 3q. Pairwise lod scores at zero recombination distance were 7.87 for D3S1308, and 11.29 for D3S1299, incorporating the observed linkage disequilibrium. Conventional multipoint linkage analysis gave a maximum lod score of 9.88 at D3S1299 assigning USH3 to the 5 cM interval between markers D3S1555 and D3S1279 in 3q21-25.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Chromosomal Targeting by the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System Can Reshape Genomes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Wang, Wanying; Sun, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]-CRISPR-associated protein [Cas]) systems can provide protection against invading genetic elements by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) as a guide to locate and degrade the target DNA. CRISPR-Cas systems have been classified into two classes and five types according to the content of cas genes. Previous studies have indicated that CRISPR-Cas systems can avoid viral infection and block plasmid transfer. Here we show that chromosomal targeting by the Staphylococcus aureus type III-A CRISPR-Cas system can drive large-scale genome deletion and alteration within integrated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ). The targeting activity of the CRISPR-Cas system is associated with the complementarity between crRNAs and protospacers, and 10- to 13-nucleotide truncations of spacers partially block CRISPR attack and more than 13-nucleotide truncation can fully abolish targeting, suggesting that a minimal length is required to license cleavage. Avoiding base pairings in the upstream region of protospacers is also necessary for CRISPR targeting. Successive trinucleotide complementarity between the 5' tag of crRNAs and protospacers can disrupt targeting. Our findings reveal that type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems can modulate bacterial genome stability and may serve as a high-efficiency tool for deleting resistance or virulence genes in bacteria. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that can cause a wide range of infections in humans. Studies have suggested that CRISPR-Cas systems can drive the loss of integrated mobile genetic elements (MGEs) by chromosomal targeting. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR-mediated cleavage contributes to the partial deletion of integrated SCC mec in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which provides a strategy for the treatment of MRSA infections. The spacer within artificial CRISPR arrays should contain more than 25 nucleotides for immunity, and consecutive

  4. On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija L Mehtälä

    Full Text Available Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2 protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m, V(max and k(cat of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients.

  5. Cardiovascular profile in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jem L; Au, Jason S; Guzman, Juan C; Morillo, Carlos A; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2017-04-01

    The cardiovascular profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome + Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (POTS + EDSIII) has not been described, despite suggestions that it plays a role in orthostatic intolerance. We studied nine individuals diagnosed with POTS + EDSIII and found that the arterial stiffness and cardiac profiles of patients with POTS + EDSIII were comparable to those of age- and sex-matched controls, suggesting an alternate explanation for orthostatic intolerance.

  6. Discontinuity of the annuity curves. III. Two types of vital variability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovskaia, I B; Mylnikov, S V; Mozhaev, G A

    2016-01-01

    We confirm five-phased construction of Drosophila annuity curves established earlier. Annuity curves were composed of stable five-phase component and variable one. Variable component was due to differences in phase durations. As stable, so variable components were apparent for 60 generations. Stochastic component was described as well. Viability variance which characterize «reaction norm» was apparent for all generation as well. Thus, both types of variability seem to be inherited.

  7. Chicken line-dependent mortality after experimental infection with three type IIxIII recombinant Toxoplasma gondii clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schares, G; Herrmann, D C; Maksimov, P; Matzkeit, B; Conraths, F J; Moré, G; Preisinger, R; Weigend, S

    2017-09-01

    Three genetically different clones of Toxoplasma gondii, also different in mouse virulence, were studied by experimental infection in chickens. For the experiments, four chicken lines were used, which differed in phylogenetic origin and performance level: two white egg layer lines, one with high laying performance (WLA), one with low (R11) and two brown layer lines, also displaying high (BLA) and low (L68) egg number. Chickens were intraperitoneally infected with three different T. gondii isolates representing type IIxIII recombinant clones, i.e. showing both, type II- and type III-specific alleles. These clones (K119/2 2C10, B136/1 B6H6, K119/2 A7) had exhibited virulence differences in a mouse model. In chickens, a significantly higher mortality was observed in white layer lines, but not in brown layer lines, suggesting that differences in the phylogenetic background may influence the susceptibility of chickens for toxoplasmosis. In addition, antibody (IgY) levels varied in surviving chickens at 31 days post infection. While low to intermediate antibody levels were observed in white layers, intermediate to high levels were measured in brown layers. Infection with a T. gondii clone showing low chicken virulence resulted in higher antibody levels in all chicken lines compared to infection with T. gondii clones of intermediate or high chicken virulence. This was in agreement with the parasite load as determined by real-time PCR. Overall, results show that progeny resulting from natural sexual recombination of T. gondii clonal lineages, may differ in their virulence for mice and chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of Cardiomyopathy After High-Fat Diet in Two Siblings with Glycogen Storage Disease Type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Alessandra; Mannarino, Savina; Pretese, Roberta; Gasperini, Serena; Galimberti, Cinzia; Parini, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Glycogenosis type III (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to amylo-1,6-glucosidase deficiency. This disease causes limit dextrin storage in affected tissues: liver, skeletal muscles, and heart in GSD IIIa and only liver in GSD IIIb. Cardiomyopathy is quite frequent in GSD IIIa with variable severity and progression of manifestations. It is not clear if diet manipulation may interfere with cardiomyopathy's progression. Recent case reports showed improvement of cardiomyopathy following a ketogenic diet.Two siblings (girl and boy), 7- and 5-year-old, both affected with GSD IIIa, developed severe and rapidly worsening left ventricular hypertrophy in the first years of life, while treated with frequent diurnal and nocturnal hyperproteic meals followed by orally administered uncooked cornstarch. Subsequently they were treated with high-fat (60%) and high-protein (25%), low-carbohydrate (15%) diet. After 12 months exertion dyspnea disappeared in the girl and biochemical blood tests, cardiac enzymes, and congestive heart failure markers improved in both (CK 3439→324, 1304→581 U/L; NT-proBNP 2084→206, 782→135 pg/mL, respectively); ultrasound assessment in both patients showed a relevant reduction of the thickness of interventricular septum (30→16, 16→11 mm, respectively) and left ventricle posterior wall (18→7, 13→8 mm, respectively) and an improvement of the outflow obstruction. A diet rich in fats as well as proteins and poor in carbohydrates could be a beneficial therapeutic choice for GSD III with cardiomyopathy. Future research is needed to confirm the beneficial effect of this treatment and to design treatment strategies with the aim to provide alternative source of energy and prevent glycogen accumulation.

  9. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Ginther

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area.

  10. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Jennifer L.; Mayo, Mark; Warrington, Stephanie D.; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mullins, Travis; Wagner, David M.; Currie, Bart J.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area. PMID:26121041

  11. Omnidirectional Internal Fixation by Double Approaches for Treating Rüedi-Allgöwer Type III Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chong-Hua; Sun, Jun; Chen, Kun-Quan; Zhang, Hui-Bo

    In the present study, we explored the effectiveness and complications of omnidirectional internal fixation using a double approach for treating Rüedi-Allgöwer type III pilon fractures. A retrospective analysis was performed of 19 cases of Rüedi-Allgöwer type III unilateral closed pilon fracture. With preoperative preparation and correct surgical timing, the reduction was performed using anteromedial and posterolateral approaches, and the fracture fragments were fixed by omnidirectional internal fixation. Imaging evaluation was performed using the Burwell-Charnley scoring system. The Johner-Wruhs scoring system was used to assess the functional status of the patients. A comprehensive evaluation of efficacy was performed using a 5-point Likert score. The complications were also recorded and analyzed. All patients were followed up for an average of 16.2 months. The operative incisions of 15 cases healed by primary intent and with delayed healing in 4. All patients had achieved bony union at an average of 16 weeks postoperatively. No deep infection, broken nail or withdrawn nail, exposed plate, or skin flap necrosis occurred. The Burwell-Charnley imaging evaluation showed that 14 patients had anatomic reduction of the articular surface and 5 had acceptable reduction. Using the Johner-Wruhs scoring system, the results were excellent for 8, good for 7, fair for 2, and poor for 2 patients; the combined rate of excellent and good results was 78.9%. The Likert score of efficacy self-reported by the patients was 3 to 4 points for 12 patients, 2 points for 4 patients, and 0 to 1 point for 3 patients. The Likert score of therapeutic efficacy reported by the physicians was 3 to 4 points for 10 patients, 2 points for 5 patients, and 0 to 1 point for 4 patients. Omnidirectional internal fixation using double approaches was an effective method to treat Rüedi-Allgöwer type III pilon fractures with satisfactory reduction and rigid fixation, good joint function recovery, and

  12. [COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN TWO OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES OF CORACOCLAVICULAR LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION FOR TREATMENT OF Tossy TYPE III ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongwei; Gao, Sheng; Yin, Yong; Li, Yunfei; Han, Qingtian; Li, Huizhang

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of double Endobutton technique and suture anchor combined Endobutton plate in the treatment of Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Between May 2010 and March 2014, a retrospective study was preformed on 56 patients with Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation. The coracoclavicular ligament was reconstructed with double Endobutton technique in 31 cases (Endobutton group), and with suture anchor combined Endobutton plate in 25 cases (Anchor group). There was no significant difference in age, gender, injury causes, injury side, associated injury, medical comorbidities, and disease duration between 2 groups (P>0.05). The operation time, medical device expenses, postoperative complications, preoperative and postoperative Constant-Murley scores, and postoperative Karlsson grading of the injured shoulder were compared between 2 groups. The average operation time in Endobutton group was significantly greater than that in Anchor group (t = 4.285, P = 0.000); there was no significant difference in the medical device expenses between 2 groups (t = 1.555, P = 0.126). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients of 2 groups; no early complications of infection and skin necrosis occurred. All patients were followed up 15.6 months on average (range, 11-35 months). During follow-up, some loss of reduction and ectopic ossification in the coracoclavicular gap were observed in 1 case and 6 cases of Endobutton group, respectively. No recurrence of acromioclavicular joint dislocation, implant fixation loosening and broken, and secondary fractures occurred in the other patients. There was significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between 2 groups (P = 0.013). Constant-Murley scores of the injured shoulder significantly increased at 9 months after operation when compared with preoperative values in 2 groups (P 0.05). At last follow-up, there was no significant difference in

  13. Content and technical evaluation of Type III Iranian medical universities\\' websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadejeh Shabankareh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides the role that universities websites have in reflection of universities’ educational and research activities, they have also significant importance in promotion of universities’ national and international ranking in webometrics ranking of world universities and also in webometric ranking of Islamic world Science Citation and subsequently obtaining national and international credibility and gaining student and funding. So, continuous evaluation of universities websites in different aspects, especially based on considering index of these ranking systems, is important. Therefore, present study aimed to review the situation of Type 3 Iranian medical universities’ websites based on content and technical features effecting on promotion of webometric rank. Materials and Methods : Present study is a survey with descriptive approach which descriptive the present situation of Type 3 Iranian medical universities’ websites. Data were collected using a researcher-made checklist which was consisted of two parts including content criteria effecting on webometric ranking (50 criteria and technical criteria of search engines optimization (52 criteria. Content evaluation of websites was done by researcher direct referring and observing. In order to evaluation of these websites, based on technical criteria of search engines optimization, automatic tools about website evaluation were used. Data were analyzed by SPSS20. Results: The finding of this study showed that, Gonabad, Bushehr & Shahrekord universities of medical sciences have the most accommodation with the research checklist.  Bam, Dezful & Jiroft universities of medical sciences have the least accommodation. According to research findings less than 50 percent of the research community, reached more than 50 percent of the criteria in checklist. Conclusion: Evaluation of studied websites indicated that whole websites are far from ideal situation. So type 3 medical universities

  14. III. The Second Type of Secret Society among the Northwest Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Jacobsen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available I. The Medicine Man and the Kosijut (Shaman. The type of secret society formed by the medicine men or shamans is called Pak-hallas among the Kwakiutl, or Pak-kwalla, and Allo-kwalla among the Bella Coola.  Found on the Northwest Coast of America as well as in Siberia, they can be divided into two classes.  One class is formed by those who heal illnesses, the other by those who distinguish themselves before the people through miracles and fortune telling. They perform all their deeds not thro...

  15. [Intervention of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on expressions of connective tissue growth factor, type I collagen, and type III collage in acute paraquat poisoned rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Yang, Hui-fang; Zhang, Ping; Chang, Xiu-li; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    To observe the changes in the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), type I collagen (Col I), and type III collagen (Col III) among the rats with acute paraquat (PQ) poisoning and the intervention effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on their expression, and to investigate the mechanism of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the intervention effect of PDTC on the disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 6), PQ group (n = 36), and PQ + PDTC group (n = 36). The PQ group and PQ + PDTC group were given a single dose of saline-diluted PQ (80 mg/kg) by gavage; 2 h later, the PQ + PDTC group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of PDTC (100 mg/kg), and the PQ group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline. The control group was given saline (1 ml/kg) by gavage and was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of saline 2h later. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 25, and 56 days after operation, the protein expression of CTGF was evaluated by Western blot; the mRNA expression of CTGF, Col I, and Col III was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR; the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured, and the pathological changes of lung tissue of the poisoned rats were observed. The protein expression of CTGF in the PQ group increased as the time went on, slowly from the 3rd to the 14th day and rapidly from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of CTGF in the PQ group began to rise markedly on the 1st day, increased rapidly from the 3rd to the 14th day, and remained at a relatively high level from the 28th to the 56th day, significantly higher than that in the control group at each time point (P < 0.01). The mRNA expression of Col I in the PQ group changed little on the 1st and 3rd day, increased slightly on the 7th day, and increased greatly from the 14th to the 56th day, significantly

  16. Identification and cloning of four riboswitches from Burkholderia pseudomallei strain K96243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyati-Othman, Noor; Fatah, Ahmad Luqman Abdul; Piji, Mohd Al Akmarul Fizree Bin Md; Ramlan, Effirul Ikhwan; Raih, Mohd Firdaus

    2015-09-01

    Structured RNAs referred as riboswitches have been predicted to be present in the genome sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain K96243. Four of the riboswitches were identified and analyzed through BLASTN, Rfam search and multiple sequence alignment. The RNA aptamers belong to the following riboswitch classifications: glycine riboswitch, cobalamin riboswitch, S-adenosyl-(L)-homocysteine (SAH) riboswitch and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch. The conserved nucleotides for each aptamer were identified and were marked on the secondary structure generated by RNAfold. These riboswitches were successfully amplified and cloned for further study.

  17. Hydrolyzable tannins of tamaricaceous plants. III. Hellinoyl- and macrocyclic-type ellagitannins from Tamarix nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Mohamed A A; Taniguchi, Shoko; Yoshimura, Morio; Yoshida, Takashi; Kishino, Kaori; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2010-05-28

    Three new hellinoyl-type ellagitannins, nilotinins M4 (7), D7 (8), and D8 (9), and a new macrocyclic-type, nilotinin D9 (10), together with eight known tannins, hirtellins B (2), C (11), and F (12), isohirtellin C (13), tamarixinin A (3), tellimagrandins I and II, and 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose (14), were isolated from an aqueous acetone extract of Tamarix nilotica dried leaves. Nilotinin M4 (7) is a monomeric tannin possessing a hellinoyl moiety. The structure of 8 demonstrated replacement of one of the HHDP groups at the glucose core O-4/O-6 in ordinary dimeric tannins with a galloyl moiety at O-6. This is a new structural feature among the tamaricaceous ellagitannins. On the basis of the results, reported spectroscopic assignments for 2, 3, and the macrocyclic tannins 11-13 were revised. Unusual shifts in the NMR spectra of these macrocyclic tannins are also discussed in relation to their conformations. Several tannins isolated from T. nilotica were assessed for possible cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines, and nilotinin D8 (9) and hirtellin A (1) showed high cytotoxic effects.

  18. Time Delays Between Decimetric Type-Iii Bursts and Associated Hard X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Lattari, C. J. B.; Benz, A. O.; Dennis, B. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En julio de 1987, se efectuaron radio observaciones en 1.6 CHz usando la antena de 13.7-m de Itapetinga con un tiempo de resoluci5n de 3 ms. Las observaciones en rayos-X fueron obtenidas del HXRBS en SMM. Comparaciones de observaciones de 1.6 CHz con espectro dinamico en el intervalo de (1000 - 100) MHz y rayos-X duros muestran los siguientes resultados: I) en 12 casos, identificamos la continuaci6n de brotes de tipo Ill-RD hasta 1.6 GHz. ii) Por primera vez, hemos identificadopicos de rayos-X demorados en comparaci6n con el brote decimetrico tipolll-RD. Estos retardos son mas largos - 1 5 - que lo esperado ( " 100 ms) y han sido interpretados suponiendo que la emisi6n decimetrica es la 2a. ar- m6nica y esta causada por el borde delantero del excitador, mientras que los picos de los rayos-X han sido atribuidos a la entrada completa del excitador dentro de la regi6n que produce los rayos-X. ABSTRACT. In July, 1985 radio observations were made at 1.6 GHz using 13.7 m Itapetinga antenna with time resolution of 3 ms. The hard X-ray observations were obtained from HXRBS on SMM. Comparison of 1.6 GHz observations with dynamic spectra in the frequency range of (1000 - 100) MHz and hard X-rays shows the following results: i) In 12 cases, we identify continuation of type Ill-RD bursts up to 1.6 GHz suggesting presence of type Ill-RD bursts at 1.6 GHz. ii) For the first time, we have idetified hard X-ray peaks delayed in comparison to decimetric type Ill-RD bursts. These dalays are longer - 1 5 - than expected ( 100 ms) and have been interpreted assuming that the decimetric emission is at 2 nd harmonic and caused by the leading edge of the exciter, whereas peaks of X-rays have been attributed to entire entry of the exciter into the X-ray producing region. Keq : SUN BURSTS - SUN-

  19. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma

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    Jie Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1 and type III (Col3. A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002, respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13, respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03. In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  20. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ming-Bo; Li, Yan-Mi; Fei, Xiang; Song, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1) and type III (Col3). A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE) examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF) of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002), respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13), respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03). In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a novel plant type III polyketide synthase that produces pentaketide chromone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin [ZOEGENE Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the COE21 Program, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [ZOEGENE Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the COE21 Program, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: ssugio@rc.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2006-09-01

    Pentaketide chromone synthase from A. arborescens has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å. Pentaketide chromone synthase (PCS) from Aloe arborescens is a novel plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the formation of 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone from five molecules of malonyl-CoA. Recombinant PCS expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.2, b = 88.4, c = 70.0 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 95.6°. Diffraction data were collected to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  2. An enantiomerically pure siderophore type ligand for the diastereoselective 1 : 1 complexation of lanthanide(III ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Albrecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A facile synthesis of a highly preorganized tripodal enterobactine-type ligand 1a-H3 consisting of a chiral C3-symmetric macrocyclic peptide and three tridentate 2-amido-8-hydroxyquinoline coordinating units is presented. Complex formation with various metal ions (Al3+, Ga3+, Fe3+, La3+ and Eu3+ was investigated by spectrophotometric methods. Only in the case of La3+ and Eu3+ were well defined 1 : 1 complexes formed. On the basis of CD spectroscopy and DFT calculations the configuration at the metal centre of the La3+ complex was determined to show Λ helicity. The coordination compounds [(1aLn] presented should be prototypes for further lanthanide(III complexes with an enterobactine analogue binding situation.

  3. An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Feng, Mingxia; Feng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide a small RNA-based mechanism to defend against invasive genetic elements in archaea and bacteria. To investigate the in vivo mechanism of RNA interference by two type III-B systems (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) in Sulfolobus islandicus, a genetic assay was developed using plasmids...... carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR (AC) locus with a single spacer. After pAC plasmids were introduced into different strains, Northern analyses confirmed that mature crRNAs were produced from the plasmid-borne CRISPR loci, which then guided gene silencing to target gene expression. Spacer mutagenesis....... islandicus Cmr-α mediated transcription-dependent DNA interference, the Cmr-α constitutes the first CRISPR system exhibiting dual targeting of RNA and DNA....

  4. Usher Syndrome Type III: Revised Genomic Structure of the USH3 Gene and Identification of Novel Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Randall R.; Zhou, Guimei; Huang, Dali; Davis, Jack R.; Möller, Claes; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Kimberling, William J.; Sumegi, Janos

    2002-01-01

    Usher syndrome type III is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. The disease gene was localized to 3q25 and recently was identified by positional cloning. In the present study, we have revised the structure of the USH3 gene, including a new translation start site, 5′ untranslated region, and a transcript encoding a 232–amino acid protein. The mature form of the protein is predicted to contain three transmembrane domains and 204 residues. We have found four new disease-causing mutations, including one that appears to be relatively common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. We have also identified mouse (chromosome 3) and rat (chromosome 2) orthologues, as well as two human paralogues on chromosomes 4 and 10. PMID:12145752

  5. Serum type III procollagen peptide in patients with Pneumocystis carinii infection. The Copenhagen-Amsterdam PCP-Prednisolone Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Nielsen, T L; Eaftinck Schattenkerk, J K

    1993-01-01

    Inflammation may play a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Serum levels of the amino-terminal propeptide of Type III procollagen (PIIINP) reflect inflammatory activity in granulation tissue and in chronic rheumatic and liver disorders....... To investigate changes in PIIINP serum levels during an episode of HIV-related PCP, consecutive serum samples were taken from 48 HIV-infected patients with PCP in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effect of adjunctive methylprednisolone therapy (26 in corticosteroid [CS] group and 22 in control group......). All patients were treated with co-trimoxazole. In the control group, PIIINP serum levels at day of initiation of therapy (Day 0) were significantly higher in patients requiring mechanical ventilation and/or dying during the course of the pneumonia, and serum levels of PIIINP higher than 5 ng/ml were...

  6. Skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired during exercise in glycogen storage disease type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt

    2015-01-01

    /kg/min (p = 0.024). Fructose ingestion improved exercise tolerance in the patients. CONCLUSION: Similar to patients with McArdle disease, in whom muscle glycogenolysis is also impaired, GSDIIIa is associated with a reduced skeletal muscle oxidation of carbohydrates and a compensatory increase in fatty acid......OBJECTIVE: Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSDIIIa) is classically regarded as a glycogenosis with fixed weakness, but we hypothesized that exercise intolerance in GSDIIIa is related to muscle energy failure and that oral fructose ingestion could improve exercise tolerance in this metabolic...... myopathy. METHODS: We challenged metabolism with cycle-ergometer exercise and measured substrate turnover and oxidation rates using stable isotope methodology and indirect calorimetry in 3 patients and 6 age-matched controls on 1 day, and examined the effect of fructose ingestion on exercise tolerance...

  7. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  8. RNA and DNA Targeting by a Reconstituted Thermus thermophilus Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina Y; Iavarone, Anthony T; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are RNA-guided adaptive immunity pathways used by bacteria and archaea to defend against phages and plasmids. Type III-A systems use a multisubunit interference complex called Csm, containing Cas proteins and a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target cognate nucleic acids. The Csm complex is intriguing in that it mediates RNA-guided targeting of both RNA and transcriptionally active DNA, but the mechanism is not well understood. Here, we overexpressed the five components of the Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus) Type III-A Csm complex (TthCsm) with a defined crRNA sequence, and purified intact TthCsm complexes from E. coli cells. The complexes were thermophilic, targeting complementary ssRNA more efficiently at 65°C than at 37°C. Sequence-independent, endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by TthCsm was triggered by recognition of a complementary ssRNA, and required a lack of complementarity between the first 8 nucleotides (5' tag) of the crRNA and the 3' flanking region of the ssRNA. Mutation of the histidine-aspartate (HD) nuclease domain of the TthCsm subunit, Cas10/Csm1, abolished DNA cleavage. Activation of DNA cleavage was dependent on RNA binding but not cleavage. This leads to a model in which binding of an ssRNA target to the Csm complex would stimulate cleavage of exposed ssDNA in the cell, such as could occur when the RNA polymerase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during transcription. Our findings establish an amenable, thermostable system for more in-depth investigation of the targeting mechanism using structural biology