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Sample records for pseudoautosomal region par

  1. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

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    Anjali G Hinch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudoautosomal region (PAR is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  2. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blavet, N.; Blavet, Hana; Čegan, Radim; Zemp, N.; Ždánská, Jana; Janoušek, Bohuslav; Hobza, Roman; Widmer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 226 (2012), s. 1-9 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : BAC library * pseudoautosomal region * Silene latifolia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.397, year: 2012

  3. Meiotic Consequences of Genetic Divergence Across the Murine Pseudoautosomal Region

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    Dumont, Beth L.

    2017-01-01

    The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X/Y segregation is buffered against the ...

  4. A pronounced evolutionary shift of the pseudoautosomal region boundary in house mice

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    White, Michael A.; Ikeda, Akihiro; Payseur, Bret A.

    2012-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is essential for the accurate pairing and segregation of the X and Y chromosomes during meiosis. Despite its functional significance, the PAR shows substantial evolutionary divergence in structure and sequence between mammalian species. An instructive example of PAR evolution is the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus (represented by the C57BL/6J strain), which has the smallest PAR among those that have been mapped. In C57BL/6J, the PAR boundary is located jus...

  5. Meiotic Consequences of Genetic Divergence Across the Murine Pseudoautosomal Region.

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    Dumont, Beth L

    2017-03-01

    The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X / Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations. Here, I investigate the interplay of PAR evolution and function in two interfertile house mouse subspecies characterized by structurally divergent PARs, Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. castaneus Using cytogenetic methods to visualize the sex chromosomes at meiosis, I show that intersubspecific F 1 hybrids harbor an increased frequency of pachytene spermatocytes with unsynapsed sex chromosomes. This high rate of asynapsis is due, in part, to the premature release of synaptic associations prior to completion of prophase I. Further, I show that when sex chromosomes do synapse in intersubspecific hybrids, recombination is reduced across the paired region. Together, these meiotic defects afflict ∼50% of spermatocytes from F 1 hybrids and lead to increased apoptosis in meiotically dividing cells. Despite flagrant disruption of the meiotic program, a subset of spermatocytes complete meiosis and intersubspecific F 1 males remain fertile. These findings cast light on the meiotic constraints that shape sex chromosome evolution and offer initial clues to resolve the paradox raised by the rapid evolution of this functionally significant locus. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. A pronounced evolutionary shift of the pseudoautosomal region boundary in house mice.

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    White, Michael A; Ikeda, Akihiro; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-08-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is essential for the accurate pairing and segregation of the X and Y chromosomes during meiosis. Despite its functional significance, the PAR shows substantial evolutionary divergence in structure and sequence between mammalian species. An instructive example of PAR evolution is the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus (represented by the C57BL/6J strain), which has the smallest PAR among those that have been mapped. In C57BL/6J, the PAR boundary is located just ~700 kb from the distal end of the X chromosome, whereas the boundary is found at a more proximal position in Mus spretus, a species that diverged from house mice 2-4 million years ago. In this study we used a combination of genetic and physical mapping to document a pronounced shift in the PAR boundary in a second house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus castaneus (represented by the CAST/EiJ strain), ~430 kb proximal of the M. m. domesticus boundary. We demonstrate molecular evolutionary consequences of this shift, including a marked lineage-specific increase in sequence divergence within Mid1, a gene that resides entirely within the M. m. castaneus PAR but straddles the boundary in other subspecies. Our results extend observations of structural divergence in the PAR to closely related subspecies, pointing to major evolutionary changes in this functionally important genomic region over a short time period.

  7. Bipolar disorder and the pseudoautosomal region: An association study

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    Parsian, A.; Todd, R.D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-03-15

    From family, adoption, and twin studies it is clear that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder (McGuffin and Katz: The Biology of Depression, Gaskell, London, 1986). Recently Yoneda et al. reported an association between an allele (A4) of a VNTR marker (DXYS20) for the pseudoautosomal region and bipolar disorder in a Japanese population. In order to test for this association in a Caucasian population, we have typed a sample of 52 subjects with bipolar disorder and 61 normal controls. The bipolar subjects are probands of multiple incidence families. The normal controls are an epidemiologically ascertained sample of middle-aged, unrelated individuals. The two groups were matched for sex and ethnic background. There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of DXYS20 between the two groups. In particular, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the A4 allele in normal controls and bipolar patients (0.377 vs. 0.317, respectively). The prevalence of the A4 allele in bipolar patients and normal controls was 0.567 and 0.622, respectively. We were not able to replicate the results of the 1992 Yoneda et al. study. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Compound heterozygous deletions in pseudoautosomal region 1 in an infant with mild manifestations of langer mesomelic dysplasia.

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    Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Shibata, Minoru; Numabe, Hironao; Jinno, Tomoko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Gen; Nagai, Toshiro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2014-02-01

    Haploinsufficiency of SHOX on the short arm pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) leads to Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and nullizygosity of SHOX results in Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). Molecular defects of LWD/LMD include various microdeletions in PAR1 that involve exons and/or the putative upstream or downstream enhancer regions of SHOX, as well as several intragenic mutations. Here, we report on a Japanese male infant with mild manifestations of LMD and hitherto unreported microdeletions in PAR1. Clinical analysis revealed mesomelic short stature with various radiological findings indicative of LMD. Molecular analyses identified compound heterozygous deletions, that is, a maternally inherited ∼46 kb deletion involving the upstream region and exons 1-5 of SHOX, and a paternally inherited ∼500 kb deletion started from a position ∼300 kb downstream from SHOX. In silico analysis revealed that the downstream deletion did not affect the known putative enhancer regions of SHOX, although it encompassed several non-coding elements which were well conserved among various species with SHOX orthologs. These results provide the possibility of the presence of a novel enhancer for SHOX in the genomic region ∼300 to ∼800 kb downstream of the start codon. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Synaptonemal complex aberrations in the pseudoautosomal region of X, Y chromosomes in irradiated hamsters

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    Allen, J.W.; Collins, B.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Poorman-Allen, P. [Wellcome Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, N.C. (United States); Sontag, M.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center

    1994-05-01

    The effects of X-radiation, bleomycin and amsacrine (m-AMSA) on the meiotic chromosomes of male Armenian hamsters were determined by electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complex (SC) damage. Pachytene stage cells were analyzed 5 or 6 days following their treatment at putative preleptotene-leptotene stages of meiosis. Of the multiple types of SC aberrations observed to be significantly increased over control levels, lateral element breakage and synaptic anomalies were most prevalent. The focus of these studies was on the sex chromosomes which, in the Armenian hamster, reveal an unusally well-defined pseudoautosomal region. In the XY pair, radiation and chemical treatments caused certain forms of structural and synaptic anomalies which appeared to be preferentially localized to telomeric and/or crossover regions. The nature of these specific aberrations, involving breakage, bridge formation and asynapsis, is not well understood; however, their distributions are suggestive of possible relationships with sites and processes of crossing over. (author).

  10. Pseudoautosomal region in schizophrenia: linkage analysis of seven loci by sib-pair and lod-score methods.

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    d'Amato, T; Waksman, G; Martinez, M; Laurent, C; Gorwood, P; Campion, D; Jay, M; Petit, C; Savoye, C; Bastard, C

    1994-05-01

    In a previous study, we reported a nonrandom segregation between schizophrenia and the pseudoautosomal locus DXYS14 in a sample of 33 sibships. That study has been extended by the addition of 16 new sibships from 16 different families. Data from six other loci of the pseudoautosomal region and of the immediately adjacent part of the X specific region have also been analyzed. Two methods of linkage analysis were used: the affected sibling pair (ASP) method and the lod-score method. Lod-score analyses were performed on the basis of three different models--A, B, and C--all shown to be consistent with the epidemiological data on schizophrenia. No clear evidence for linkage was obtained with any of these models. However, whatever the genetic model and the disease classification, maximum lod scores were positive with most of the markers, with the highest scores generally being obtained for the DXYS14 locus. When the ASP method was used, the earlier finding of nonrandom segregation between schizophrenia and the DXYS14 locus was still supported in this larger data set, at an increased level of statistical significance. Findings of ASP analyses were not significant for the other loci. Thus, findings obtained from analyses using the ASP method, but not the lod-score method, were consistent with the pseudoautosomal hypothesis for schizophrenia.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a pseudoautosomal region-specific genetic marker in C57BL/6 mice using genomic representational difference analysis.

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    Kalcheva, I D; Matsuda, Y; Plass, C; Chapman, V M

    1995-12-19

    Representational difference analysis was used to identify strain-specific differences in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of mouse X and Y chromosomes. One second generation (C57BL/6 x Mus spretus) x Mus spretus interspecific backcross male carrying the C57BL/6 (B6) PAR was used for tester DNA. DNA from five backcross males from the same generation that were M. spretus-type for the PAR was pooled for the driver. A cloned probe designated B6-38 was recovered that is B6-specific in Southern analysis. Analysis of genomic DNA from several inbred strains of laboratory mice and diverse Mus species and subspecies identified a characteristic Pst I pattern of fragment sizes that is present only in the C57BL family of strains. Hybridization was observed with sequences in DBA/2J and to a limited extent with Mus musculus (PWK strain) and Mus castaneus DNA. No hybridization was observed in DNA of different Mus species, M. spretus, M. hortulanus, and M. caroli. Genetic analyses of B6-38 was conducted using C57BL congenic males that carry M. spretus alleles for distal X chromosome loci and the PAR and outcrosses of heterozygous congenic females with M. spretus. These analyses demonstrated that the B6-38 sequences were inherited with both the X and Y chromosome. B6-38 sequences were genetically mapped as a locus within the PAR using two interspecific backcrosses. The locus defined by B6-38 is designated DXYRp1. Preliminary analyses of recombination between the distal X chromosome gene amelogenin (Amg) and the PAR loci for either TelXY or sex chromosome association (Sxa) suggest that the locus DXYRp1 maps to the distal portion of the PAR.

  12. Suppression of genetic recombination in the pseudoautosomal region and at subtelomeres in mice with a hypomorphic Spo11 allele.

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    Smagulova, Fatima; Brick, Kevin; Pu, Yongmei; Sengupta, Uttara; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Petukhova, Galina V

    2013-07-22

    Homologous recombination is the key process that generates genetic diversity and drives evolution. SPO11 protein triggers recombination by introducing DNA double stranded breaks at discreet areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. The hotspot locations are largely determined by the DNA binding specificity of the PRDM9 protein in human, mice and most other mammals. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae, which lacks a Prdm9 gene, meiotic breaks are formed opportunistically in the regions of accessible chromatin, primarily at gene promoters. The genome-wide distribution of hotspots in this organism can be altered by tethering Spo11 protein to Gal4 recognition sequences in the strain expressing Spo11 attached to the DNA binding domain of the Gal4 transcription factor. To establish whether similar re-targeting of meiotic breaks can be achieved in PRDM9-containing organisms we have generated a Gal4BD-Spo11 mouse that expresses SPO11 protein joined to the DNA binding domain of yeast Gal4. We have mapped the genome-wide distribution of the recombination initiation sites in the Gal4BD-Spo11 mice. More than two hundred of the hotspots in these mice were novel and were likely defined by Gal4BD, as the Gal4 consensus motif was clustered around the centers in these hotspots. Surprisingly, meiotic DNA breaks in the Gal4BD-Spo11 mice were significantly depleted near the ends of chromosomes. The effect is particularly striking at the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes - normally the hottest region in the genome. Our data suggest that specific, yet-unidentified factors influence the initiation of meiotic recombination at subtelomeric chromosomal regions.

  13. Deletion of Xpter encompassing the SHOX gene and PAR1 region in familial patients with Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis syndrome.

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    Mutesa, L; Vanbellinghen, J F; Hellin, A C; Segers, K; Jamar, M; Pierquin, G; Bours, V

    2009-01-01

    Heterozygote deletions or mutations of pseudoautosomal 1 region (PAR1) encompassing the short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene cause Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD), which is a dominantly inherited osteochondroplasia characterized by short stature with mesomelic shortening of the upper and lower limbs and Madelung deformity of the wrists. SHOX is expressed by both sex chromosomes in males and females and plays an important role in bone growth and development. Clinically, the LWD expression is variable and more severe in females than males due to sex differences in oestrogen levels. Here, we report two familial cases of LWD with a large Xp terminal deletion (approximately 943 kb) of distal PAR1 encompassing the SHOX gene. In addition, the proband had mental retardation which appeared to be from recessive inheritance in the family.

  14. Identification of the first PAR1 deletion encompassing upstream SHOX enhancers in a family with idiopathic short stature.

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    Benito-Sanz, Sara; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Rodríguez-Estevez, Amaya; Rica-Etxebarria, Ixaso; Gracia, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Short stature homeobox-containing gene, MIM 312865 (SHOX) is located within the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. Mutations in SHOX or its downstream transcriptional regulatory elements represent the underlying molecular defect in ~60% of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and ~5-15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) patients. Recently, three novel enhancer elements have been identified upstream of SHOX but to date, no PAR1 deletions upstream of SHOX have been observed that only encompass these enhancers in LWD or ISS patients. We set out to search for genetic alterations of the upstream SHOX regulatory elements in 63 LWD and 100 ISS patients with no known alteration in SHOX or the downstream enhancer regions using a specifically designed MLPA assay, which covers the PAR1 upstream of SHOX. An upstream SHOX deletion was identified in an ISS proband and her affected father. The deletion was confirmed and delimited by array-CGH, to extend ~286 kb. The deletion included two of the upstream SHOX enhancers without affecting SHOX. The 13.3-year-old proband had proportionate short stature with normal GH and IGF-I levels. In conclusion, we have identified the first PAR1 deletion encompassing only the upstream SHOX transcription regulatory elements in a family with ISS. The loss of these elements may result in SHOX haploinsufficiency because of decreased SHOX transcription. Therefore, this upstream region should be included in the routine analysis of PAR1 in patients with LWD, LMD and ISS.

  15. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

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    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  16. Vegetal fibers used in artisan fishing in the Salgado region, Pará

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    Luiz Carlos Batista Lobato

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived fibers used in small-scale fisheries of the Salgado region of Pará state, Brazil. Fiber-providing plants occupy a distinctive place in the daily life of traditional Amazonian communities, next to medicinal plants, food plants, and timber species. In the Salgado region of Pará state, Brazil, on the Atlantic coast (municipalities of Colares, Curuçá, Magalhães Barata, Maracanã, Marapanim, Salinópolis, Santarém Novo, São Caetano de Odivelas, São João de Pirabas, and Vigia plant-derived fibers are used in basketwork, ropes, construction reinforcements (in place of nails, body adornments, and clothing. For this survey, data were obtained from craft workers and fishermen in the Salgado region, in about 150 semi-structured interviews. In all, 17 plant species in eight botanical families and 17 genera are used in the preparation of fishing gear. Supports are made from the stems of Marantaceae and stipes of Arecaceae, woven elements are the aerial roots of Araceae and Cyclanthaceae and the stems of vine-like Bignoniaceae and Dilleniaceae, and roofing thatch is made from the leaves and midribs of Arecaceae. The most represented family in terms of number of species and uses was Arecaceae, with 8 species, followed by Dilleniaceae and Araceae, each with 2 species, and Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Cyclanthaceae, Marantaceae, and Poaceae, each with a single utilized species. In addition, this paper provides information on these fiber-producing plants, in terms of their morphology, the origin and manipulation of plant materials by craftsmen, and the produced artifacts and their uses, as well as reporting cultural aspects of fibrous plant use in daily fishing activities in the Salgado region.

  17. PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX are the most frequent defect in a Spanish cohort of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) probands.

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    Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Blanco, Darya Gorbenko; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Magano, Luis F; Lapunzina, Pablo; Argente, Jesús; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2006-10-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and Madelung deformity. Mutations or deletions of the SHOX gene have been previously identified as the main cause of LWD. We recently identified the existence of a second class of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions which do not include SHOX, implicated in the etiopathogenesis of LWD. The deletions map at least 30-250 kb downstream of SHOX, are variable in size and clearly cosegregate with the LWD phenotype. In order to determine the frequency of this new type of deletions in the Spanish population we analyzed the distribution of PAR1 defects, including the screening of SHOX deletions, mutations, and PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX, in a total of 26 LWD probands by a combination of MLPA, microsatellite analysis, SNP genotyping, dHPLC, and DNA sequencing. A molecular defect was identified in 16/26 LWD patients (61.5%): 10 PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX, four SHOX encompassing deletions, and two SHOX mutations. No apparent phenotypic differences were observed between patients with SHOX defects and those with PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX. In the examined cohort of Spanish LWD probands, PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX represent the highest proportion of identified mutations (38%) compared to SHOX deletions (15%) and mutations (8%). As a consequence of our findings, the screening of this region should be included in the routine genetic testing of LWD. Also, LWD patients who tested negative for SHOX defects should be re-evaluated for PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX.

  18. Identification of the first de novo PAR1 deletion downstream of SHOX in an individual diagnosed with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD).

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    Barroso, Eva; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Belinchón, Alberta; Yuste-Checa, Patricia; Gracia, Ricardo; Aragones, Angel; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2010-01-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD, MIM 127300), is a dominantly inherited skeletal dysplasia with disproportionate short stature, mesomelic limb shortening, and the characteristic Madelung deformity. Two regions of the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) have been shown to be involved in LWD, SHOX (short-stature homeobox-containing gene) and the downstream enhancer region. We report our genetic findings of a young girl clinically diagnosed with LWD. We analyzed the proband and her family using MLPA and microsatellite analysis. We identified a deletion, 726-866 kb in size, of the downstream SHOX enhancer region in the proband. Neither parent carried the deletion. Microsatellite analysis showed that the deleted allele was of paternal origin. The mutation is more likely to have arisen from a de novo event but paternal gonadal mosaicism cannot be excluded. In conclusion, we report the clinical and molecular details of the first case of a de novo deletion of the downstream PAR1 region in an LWD individual. De novo deletions of SHOX and the downstream enhancer region must be therefore considered in cases of isolated LWD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical and molecular evaluation of SHOX/PAR1 duplications in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS).

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    Benito-Sanz, S; Barroso, E; Heine-Suñer, D; Hisado-Oliva, A; Romanelli, V; Rosell, J; Aragones, A; Caimari, M; Argente, J; Ross, J L; Zinn, A R; Gracia, R; Lapunzina, P; Campos-Barros, A; Heath, K E

    2011-02-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and the Madelung deformity of the forearm. SHOX mutations and pseudoautosomal region 1 deletions encompassing SHOX or its enhancers have been identified in approximately 60% of LWD and approximately 15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) individuals. Recently SHOX duplications have been described in LWD/ISS but also in individuals with other clinical manifestations, thus questioning their pathogenicity. The objective of the study was to investigate the pathogenicity of SHOX duplications in LWD and ISS. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is routinely used in our unit to analyze for SHOX/pseudoautosomal region 1 copy number changes in LWD/ISS referrals. Quantitative PCR, microsatellite marker, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were undertaken to confirm all identified duplications. During the routine analysis of 122 LWD and 613 ISS referrals, a total of four complete and 10 partial SHOX duplications or multiple copy number (n > 3) as well as one duplication of the SHOX 5' flanking region were identified in nine LWD and six ISS cases. Partial SHOX duplications appeared to have a more deleterious effect on skeletal dysplasia and height gain than complete SHOX duplications. Importantly, no increase in SHOX copy number was identified in 340 individuals with normal stature or 104 overgrowth referrals. MLPA analysis of SHOX/PAR1 led to the identification of partial and complete SHOX duplications or multiple copies associated with LWD or ISS, suggesting that they may represent an additional class of mutations implicated in the molecular etiology of these clinical entities.

  20. Identification of the first recurrent PAR1 deletion in Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and idiopathic short stature reveals the presence of a novel SHOX enhancer.

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    Benito-Sanz, Sara; Royo, Jose Luis; Barroso, Eva; Paumard-Hernández, Beatriz; Barreda-Bonis, Ana C; Liu, Pengfei; Gracía, Ricardo; Lupski, James R; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Heath, Karen Elise

    2012-07-01

    SHOX, located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sexual chromosomes, encodes a transcription factor implicated in human growth. Defects in SHOX or its enhancers have been observed in ∼60% of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) patients, a skeletal dysplasia characterised by short stature and/or the characteristic Madelung deformity, and in 2-5% of idiopathic short stature (ISS). To identify the molecular defect in the remaining genetically undiagnosed LWD and ISS patients, this study screened previously unanalysed PAR1 regions in 124 LWD and 576 ISS probands. PAR1 screening was undertaken by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Copy number alterations were subsequently confirmed and delimited by locus-specific custom-designed MLPA, array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and breakpoint junction PCR/sequencing. A recurrent PAR1 deletion downstream of SHOX spanning 47543 bp with identical breakpoints was identified in 19 LWD (15.3%) and 11 ISS (1.9%) probands, from 30 unrelated families. Eight evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs 1-8) identified within the deleted sequence were evaluated for SHOX regulatory activity by means of chromosome conformation capture (3C) in chicken embryo limbs and luciferase reporter assays in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells. The 3C assay indicated potential SHOX regulatory activity by ECR1, which was subsequently confirmed to act as a SHOX enhancer, operating in an orientation and position independent manner, in human U2OS cells. This study has identified the first recurrent PAR1 deletion in LWD and ISS, which results in the loss of a previously uncharacterised SHOX enhancer. The loss of this enhancer may decrease SHOX transcription, resulting in LWD or ISS due to SHOX haploinsufficiency.

  1. Identification of internal variation in the pseudoautosomal VNTR DXYS17, with nonrandom distribution of the alleles on the X and the Y chromosomes

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    Decorte, R.; Wu, R.; Marynen, P.; Cassiman, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    The PCR technique was used to analyze the DXYS17 locus in the pseudoautosomal region of the X and the Y chromosomes. Analysis on an automated DNA sequencer allowed for sensitive and highly accurate typing of 16 different alleles with a size between 480 and 1,100 bp. Two DXYS17 alleles migrated with the same size on agarose or denaturing polyacrylamide gels but with different mobilities on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. Sequence analysis showed that, while an identical number of repeats were present in both alleles, differences in the composition of the units were observed. The origin of these differences was found in the 28- and 33-bp units, which only had a specific repeat pattern at the 5' and 3' ends of the region. The genotype distribution for DXYS17 in a Caucasian population did not deviate from the values expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. However, the frequency of one allele and one genotype was significantly different between males and females. Segregation analysis showed that this difference was the result of a nonrandom distribution of certain alleles on the sex chromosomes in males. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The SHOX region and its mutations.

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    Capone, L; Iughetti, L; Sabatini, S; Bacciaglia, A; Forabosco, A

    2010-06-01

    The short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene lies in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) that comprises 2.6 Mb of the short-arm tips of both the X and Y chromosomes. It is known that its heterozygous mutations cause Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) (OMIM #127300), while its homozygous mutations cause a severe form of dwarfism known as Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) (OMIM #249700). The analysis of 238 LWD patients between 1998 and 2007 by multiple authors shows a prevalence of deletions (46.4%) compared to point mutations (21.2%). On the whole, deletions and point mutations account for about 67% of LWD patients. SHOX is located within a 1000 kb desert region without genes. The comparative genomic analysis of this region between genomes of different vertebrates has led to the identification of evolutionarily conserved non-coding DNA elements (CNE). Further functional studies have shown that one of these CNE downstream of the SHOX gene is necessary for the expression of SHOX; this is considered to be typical "enhancer" activity. Including the enhancer, the overall mutation of the SHOX region in LWD patients does not hold in 100% of cases. Various authors have demonstrated the existence of other CNE both downstream and upstream of SHOX regions. The resulting conclusion is that it is necessary to reanalyze all LWD/LMD patients without SHOX mutations for the presence of mutations in the 5'- and 3'-flanking SHOX regions.

  3. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

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    Vasconcelos, P F; Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Rosa, E S; Monteiro, H A; Cruz, A C; Barros, V L; Souza, M R; Rosa, J F

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes.

  4. Merge processing in the human brain: a sub-region based functional investigation in the left pars opercularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eZaccarella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is thought to represent one of the most complex cognitive functions in humans. Here we break down complexity of language to its most basic syntactic computation which hierarchically binds single words together to form larger phrases and sentences. So far, the neural implementation of this basic operation has only been inferred indirectly from studies investigating more complex linguistic phenomena. In the present sub-region based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we directly assessed the neuroanatomical nature of this process. Our results showed that syntactic phrases—compared to word-list sequences—corresponded to increased neural activity in the ventral-anterior portion of the left pars opercularis (Brodmann Area (BA 44, whereas the adjacently located deep frontal operculum/anterior insula (FOP/aINS, a phylogenetically older and less specialized region, was found to be equally active for both conditions. Crucially, the functional activity of syntactic binding was confined to one out of five clusters proposed by a recent fine-grained sub-anatomical parcellation for BA 44, with consistency across individuals. Neuroanatomically, the present results call for a redefinition of BA 44 as a region with internal functional specializations. Neurocomputationally, they support the idea of invariance within BA 44 in the location of activation across participants for basic syntactic building processing.

  5. PARS risk charts: A 10-year study of risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases in Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop a risk assessment chart for the clinical management and prevention of the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Iranian population, which is vital for developing national prevention programs. The Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS is a population-based prospective study of 6504 Iranian adults ≥35 years old, followed-up for ten years, from 2001 to 2010. Behavioral and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined every five years, while biennial follow-ups for the occurrence of the events was performed by phone calls or by verbal autopsy. Among these participants, 5432 (2784 women, 51.3% were CVD free at baseline examination and had at least one follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to predict the risk of ischemic CVD events, including sudden cardiac death due to unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The model fit statistics such as area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC, calibration chi-square and the overall bias were used to assess the model performance. We also tested the Framingham model for comparison. Seven hundred and five CVD events occurred during 49452.8 person-years of follow-up. The event probabilities were calculated and presented color-coded on each gender-specific PARS chart. The AUROC and Harrell's C indices were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72-0.76 and 0.73, respectively. In the calibration, the Nam-D'Agostino χ2 was 10.82 (p = 0.29. The overall bias of the proposed model was 95.60%. PARS model was also internally validated using cross-validation. The Android app and the Web-based risk assessment tool were also developed as to have an impact on public health. In comparison, the refitted and recalibrated Framingham models, estimated the CVD incidence with the overall bias of 149.60% and 128.23% for men, and 222.70% and 176.07% for women, respectively. In conclusion, the PARS risk assessment chart is a simple, accurate, and well-calibrated tool for predicting a 10-year

  6. In vitro activity of five quinolones and analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE in Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum clinical isolates from perinatal patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yasuhiro; Nakura, Yukiko; Wakimoto, Tetsu; Nomiyama, Makoto; Tokuda, Tsugumichi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Shiraishi, Jun; Wasada, Kenshi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Tomio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitsuda, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Isao; Takeuchi, Makoto; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2015-04-01

    Ureaplasma spp. cause several disorders, such as nongonococcal urethritis, miscarriage, and preterm delivery with lung infections in neonates, characterized by pathological chorioamnionitis in the placenta. Although reports on antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma are on the rise, reports on quinolone-resistant Ureaplasma infections in Japan are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibilities to five quinolones of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum isolated from perinatal samples in Japan and to characterize the quinolone resistance-determining regions in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Out of 28 clinical Ureaplasma strains, we isolated 9 with high MICs of quinolones and found a single parC gene mutation, resulting in the change S83L. Among 158 samples, the ParC S83L mutation was found in 37 samples (23.4%), including 1 sample harboring a ParC S83L-GyrB P462S double mutant. Novel mutations of ureaplasmal ParC (S83W and S84P) were independently found in one of the samples. Homology modeling of the ParC S83W mutant suggested steric hindrance of the quinolone-binding pocket (QBP), and de novo prediction of peptide structures revealed that the ParC S84P may break/kink the formation of the α4 helix in the QBP. Further investigations are required to unravel the extent and mechanism of antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. in Japan. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A Experiência do Planejamento Regional em Bases Territoriais na Amazônia O Caso da Regionalização do Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional integration is a historic challenge for the construction of an alternative model of development in state of Pará. The regions of Integration arise from the need to obtain a spatial clipping more consistent with the model of development proposed by the Government which took over the administration of the State, during the period from 2007-2010 and had the purpose of integrating the spaces, aimed at reducing regional inequalities. In this sense, the article proposes to contextualize the experience of regional planning in the state of Pará, from the use of instruments that were intended to promote development on territorial level. The twelve Regions of Integration arose from the selection of socioeconomic indicators of the Pará State in the northern region, which then were tiered, defining thus the municipalities that compose each region. The methodology is embodied in literature review and document analysis, in order to clarify the concept of regions, emphasizing integration strategies and instruments used, formulated with the objective of effective decentralization. Thus, present themselves as a result use of the territory for purposes of territorial planning, substantiated in the creation of centres and regional Centres; the establishment of the territorial planning through the development of Regional Sustainable development plans (PDRS; the attempt of adequacy of proposed regionalization through the Participative Territorial Planning and the inauguration of new Federal relationship, particularly, between the State Government and the municipalities. However, it was not possible to assess properly the main objective, combating regional inequalities.

  8. A recoding scheme for X-linked and pseudoautosomal loci to be used with computer programs for autosomal LOD-score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Konstantin; Baur, Max P; Wienker, Thomas F

    2004-01-01

    We present a recoding scheme that allows for a parametric multipoint X-chromosomal linkage analysis of dichotomous traits in the context of a computer program for autosomes that can use trait models with imprinting. Furthermore, with this scheme, it is possible to perform a joint multipoint analysis of X-linked and pseudoautosomal loci. It is required that (1) the marker genotypes of all female nonfounders are available and that (2) there are no male nonfounders who have daughters in the pedigree. The second requirement does not apply if the trait locus is pseudoautosomal. The X-linked marker loci are recorded by adding a dummy allele to the males' hemizygous genotypes. For modelling an X-linked trait locus, five different liability classes are defined, in conjunction with a paternal imprinting model for male nonfounders. The formulation aims at the mapping of a diallelic trait locus relative to an arbitrary number of codominant markers with known genetic distances, in cases where a program for a genuine X-chromosomal analysis is not available. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. El modelo de televisión regional en Colombia: canales públicos bajo los parámetros del mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego García Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La televisión pública regional heredó de la televisión pública nacional sus principales defectos: la politiza - ción y su orientación comercial. Aquí se argumenta que tal situación está asociada al modelo bajo el que se conciben estos canales, en el que los contenidos están pensados más para la rentabilidad que garantice su sostenibilidad económica que para el servicio público. A partir del concepto audiencia-mercancía propuesto desde la economía política de la comunicación se reflexiona sobre la forma en la que debería ser pensada la televisión pública regional para deslindarse de las lógicas impuestas por la TV comercial y de esta manera, generar una ofertar independiente, plural y diversa que no sea medida y evaluada bajo los parámetros del mercado, ni caiga en el abandono e inercia de los canales públicos nacionales.

  10. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...... comprehensive review of suPAR in CVD and explore its function and usefulness in predicting cardiovascular events....

  11. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  12. FooPar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo......, results based on a empirical analysis on two supercomputers are given. We achieve close-to-optimal performance wrt. theoretical peak performance. Based on this result we conclude that FooPar allows programmers to fully access Scalas design features without suffering from performance drops when compared...

  13. It's quicker "Par Avignon"!

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!

  14. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  15. Leishmaniose cutânea na Amazônia: isolamento de Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni do roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no estado do Pará, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon Region: isolation of Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni from the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando T. Silveira

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o registro, pela primeira vez, do isolamento de Leishmania (V. lainsoni de um mamífero silvestre, o roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras do parasita foram isoladas da pele, aparentemente íntegra, de 3 espécimes desse roedor, capturados no município de Tucuruí (ilha de Tocantins, em área que seria inundada pela formação do lago da hidrelétrica construída naquele município. Nenhum isolamento foi obtido de vísceras de qualquer dos animais. A identificação das amostras de L. (V. lainsoni baseou-se na morfologia de amastigotas e promastigotas, no comportamento da infecção em "hamsters", na análise bioquímica de isoenzimas e, ainda, através de testes com anticorpos monoclonais. A natureza inaparente da infecção nos animais faz supor que o mamífero em questão possa representar um hospedeiro definitivo do parasita na região Amazônica.The isolation of Leishmania (V. lainsoni is recorded for the first time from a wild animal, the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, from Pará State, north Brazil. Isolates of the parasite were made from apparently normal skin of 3 specimens of this rodent captured on the Island of Tocantins, in the municipality of Tucuruí, an area subsequently flooded in the formation of the lake associated with the Tucuruí hydroeletric dam. No isolations were made from the viscera. Identification of the parasite was in each case based on morphology of the amastigotes and promastigotes, behavior of the organism in hamsters, isoenzymes profiles and the use of monoclonal antibodies. The inapparent nature of the infection leads us to suggest that the "paca", Agouti paca, represents a primitive host of L. (V. lainsoni in the Amazon Region.

  16. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  17. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of biomarkers that can promptly predict unfavourable outcome of critically illness is an emerging necessity taking into consideration the need for early intervention, the shortage of available beds in intensive care units and the considerable cost of hospitalisation. The most...... promising biomarker is soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Three studies in large populations of critically ill patients and patients admitted to the emergency department have shown that concentrations >12ng/mL can safely predict unfavourable outcome. This review presents...

  18. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  19. Bacterial mitosis: Partitioning protein ParA oscillates in spiral-shaped structures and positions plasmids at mid-cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2004-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes oscillating ATPase ParA, DNA binding protein ParB and two cis-acting DNA regions to which ParB binds (parC1 and parC2). Three independent techniques were used to investigate the subcellular localization of plasmids carrying par2. In cells......A-GFP oscillated in spiral-shaped structures. Amino acid substitutions in ParA simultaneously abolished ParA spiral formation, oscillation and either plasmid localization or plasmid separation at mid-cell. Therefore, our results suggest that ParA spirals position plasmids at the middle of the bacterial nucleoid...

  20. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  1. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia) shawi shawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Yara Lins; de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs). Identifications revealed 11 (25.6%) strains of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, 4 (9.3%) of L. (V.) shawi shawi, 7 (16.3%) of L. (V.) shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9%) of L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) lainsoni, 2 (4.7%) of L. (L.) amazonensis, and 7 (16.3%) of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V.) braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V.) shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains) expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V.) guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V.) s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains) did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V.) shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V.) s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains), L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V.) guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V.) s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) s. shawi exchange genetic information. PMID:25083790

  2. Carcinoma apócrino na glândula parótida e na região submandibular Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo S. Francisco

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho consistem na apresentação de um caso de carcinoma apócrino e na discussão de aspectos relacionados ao seu diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico. Os carcinomas com diferenciação apócrina que não correspondem aos casos de doença extramamária de Paget, de carcinoma ductal de mama, de adenocarcinoma das glândulas de Moll e de carcinoma ceruminal são tumores muito raros. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, negra, com 51 anos, na qual duas lesões de carcinoma apócrino acometeram a parótida esquerda (processo inicial e recidiva e uma lesão envolveu a pele da região submandibular do mesmo lado. O exame histopatológico destas lesões mostrou a presença de neoplasia epitelial glandular infiltrativa com pleomorfismo celular e nuclear moderados; apresentando células poligonais ou arredondadas, com núcleos grandes e citoplasma eosinofílico e granular. Destacou-se a presença de secreção por decapitação apical na maior parte das células tumorais voltadas para a luz das estruturas císticas neoplásicas. Adicionalmente, foi encontrada a presença de focos de comedo-necrose e de material corado pelo PAS com e sem diastase. Apesar de não podermos definir com certeza qual a sede do tumor primário, com base nos aspectos histopatológicos compatíveis com o carcinoma apócrino cutâneo, consideramos que tenha sido, provavelmente, a lesão retirada da pele da região submandibular. A paciente foi submetida a tratamentos cirúrgicos e não apresentou alterações após um ano de acompanhamento, depois da retirada do tumor recidivante na parótida.The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors. We

  3. Interactions of Kid-Kis toxin-antitoxin complexes with the parD operator-promotor region of plasmid R1 are piloted by the Kis antitoxin and tuned by the stoichiometry of Kid-Kis oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, M.C.; Hernandez-Arriaga, A.M.; Kamphuis, M.B.; Lopez-Villarejo, J.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1 encodes a toxin–antitoxin system, which is involved in plasmid stabilization. The toxin Kid inhibits cell growth by RNA degradation and its action is neutralized by the formation of a tight complex with the antitoxin Kis. A fascinating but poorly

  4. Seqüência Latossolo Amarelo - Podzólico Amarelo - Areias Quartzosas sob material da formação barreiras na região de Tucuruí, estado do Pará Oxisol-Ultisol-Entisol sequence developed from clayey material near Tucuruí region, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.M. Demattê

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma seqüência de Latossolo Amarelo-Podzólico Amarelo-Areia Quartzosa desenvolvida em sedimentos da Formação Barreiras. A área se localiza no sul do Pará, nas proximidades entre Tucuruí e o Rio Moju, distando 65km da Usina Hidroelétrica de Tucuruí. Foi escolhida uma encosta de aproximadamente 1500 metros formada por Latossolo na parte alta e Podzólico Amarelo na encosta, ambos argilosos, terminando em amplo vale de fundo arenoso, com forte hidromorfísmo. Os regimes de temperatura são isohipertérmico e hipertérmico e os de umidade ústico e áquico, nas partes elevadas e fundo do vale, respectivamente. Foram abertas quatro trincheiras ao longo da encosta e feitas oito tradagens para apoio. O material de origem é representado pela caolinita. Verificou-se que a diferenciação lateral dos solos: Latossolo Amarelo na parte alta, Podzólico Latossólico na encosta e Areia Quartzosa no fundo do vale, pode ser devida principalmente a processos de remoção e/ou destruição de finos (argila silicatada + óxidos. O encharcamento temporário e a gleização acentuada, exerceram papel preponderante na diferenciação da seqüência estudada.The objective of this work was to study the genesis of an Oxisol-Ultisol-Entisol sequence, developed from sediments of the Barreiras Formation in the Tucurui region. The area is located about 65 km from Tucurui. In this area a soil topo sequence was selected, represented by a clayey oxisol in the higher parts, a clayey ultisol in the middle part, ending in an ample valley of sandy botton, with strong hidromorphism. The temperature regimes are isohyperthermic and hyperthermic and the moisture regimes are udic and aquic, in the higher parts and valley botton, respectively. Four profiles were examined and auger samples were taken in eight representative sites. The parent material is represented by clayey sediments from the Barreiras Formation. Chemically, the soils are leached with high aluminum

  5. Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parring, Inge

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid

  6. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  7. Levantamento da infestação de plantas daninhas associada a uma pastagem cultivada de baixa produtividade no Nordeste Paraense Survey of weeds associated to cultivated low yield pastures in the northern region of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Modesto Júnior

    2001-04-01

    in 0.33 ha pastures covered with Brachiaria humidicola in Terra Alta, located at the northern region of Pará - Brazil (0º 58" S e 47º 52" W. Gr.. The 4,700 specimens were sorted out in 17 botanical families with 35 species belonging to Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Solanaceae, with five, five, four, three and three species being found, respectively. The most important weed species in the community were Borreria verticillata, Hyptis atrorubens, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Panicum pilosum, Davilla rugosa, Imperata brasiliensis, Paspalum maritimum, Vernonia scorpioides and Vismia guianensis.

  8. par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casart Yveth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF. Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli σ70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS.

  9. The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G; Gerdes, K; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2001-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All...

  10. TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

  11. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  12. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  13. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  14. Composição e variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna de uma praia arenosa na região amazônica (Ajuruteua, Pará Composition and spatio-temporal variability of meiofauna community on a sandy beach in the Amazon region (Ajuruteua, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianne P. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna do médiolitoral na praia de Ajuruteua, Estado do Pará. As coletas foram realizadas a cada dois meses, entre abril de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004 durante as marés de sizígia, em diferentes zonas da praia. As amostras foram retiradas com um amostrador cilíndrico de 3,14 cm² e fixadas em formalina salina a 5%. Em laboratório, as amostras foram passadas em malha de 0,063 mm de abertura e os organismos retidos identificados em nível de grandes grupos taxonômicos, contados e fixados em álcool etílico a 70%. A meiofauna esteve representada por oito grupos: Turbellaria, Nematoda, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Acari, adultos de Copepoda Harpacticoida e juvenis de Copepoda Harpacticoida. Nematoda foi o grupo dominante, representando 74% do total de indivíduos, seguido de Copepoda (19%. Pôde-se observar clara zonação horizontal da fauna, que se distribuiu em três faixas paralelas à linha de praia, com características significativamente distintas quanto à abundância, riqueza e densidade dos principais grupos taxonômicos. No médiolitoral médio foram observados valores significativamente mais elevados de riqueza e abundância, enquanto os valores mais baixos foram registrados no médiolitoral superior e inferior. A comunidade de meiofauna, ainda que não tenha variado significativamente entre períodos climáticos, foi mais rica e abundante nos meses secos. Os principais fatores responsáveis pelas variações espaço-temporais da meiofauna foram a ação das ondas e das marés e as variações na salinidade da água.The present study investigates the spatio-temporal changes in the meiofauna community along the intertidal zone of Ajuruteua Beach, State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected during spring tides at different levels of the beach face every two months from April 2003 to February 2004. The material was sampled using a cylindrical corer (3.14 cm² and

  15. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  16. Análise de risco aplicada ao manejo precaucionário das pescarias artesanais na região do reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí (Pará, Brasil Risk analysis applied to the precautionary management of artisanal fisheries in the region of Tucuruí reservoir (Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Aily Franco de Camargo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As pescarias no reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí no rio Tocantins, Pará, envolvem cerca de 6.000 pescadores e movimentam cerca de R$ 4,2 milhões/ano. A atividade se concentra em três espécies principais: tucunaré Cichla monoculus (capturado com anzol, pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (capturado com rede e/ou anzol e mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (capturado com rede. Com o objetivo de caracterizar os pescadores e as pescarias do reservatório, criar cenários de aumento do esforço pesqueiro e prever os momentos de conflito pela escassez de recursos, foram levantadas informações da literatura e realizadas duas campanhas de coleta de dados nos anos de 1999 e 2000, envolvendo entrevistas com líderes comunitários e pescadores. As seguintes variáveis foram consideradas: desembarque por espécie-alvo (de acordo com os registros fornecidos pelas colônias de pescadores, artes de pesca, estratégias dos pescadores, conflitos e formas de apropriação do espaço e rendimentos da atividade. Estas variáveis foram inseridas em um modelo dinâmico, simulado no software Vensim PLE para um período de 10 anos a partir de 1999. Os resultados indicam que a pesca de anzol é a estratégia mais rentável, e que possíveis momentos de conflito devido à escassez de recursos podem acontecer em curto prazo (2005. A metodologia utilizada para as simulações e análises de risco também se revelou adequada à realidade local e ao conjunto de dados disponíveis.The fisheries in the reservoir of UHE-Tucuruí employ about 6.000 fishermen generating approximately R$ 4.2 million/year. There are three main target-species: Tucunaré Cichla monoculus (caught with hook and line, Pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (caught with gill net and/or hook and line and Mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (caught with gill net. Published information was reviewed and data collected during two field trips in 1999 and 2000 that included interviews with community leaders and

  17. Identification of a new epitope in uPAR as a target for the cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibody ATN-658, a structural homolog of the uPAR binding integrin CD11b (αM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR plays a role in tumor progression and has been proposed as a target for the treatment of cancer. We recently described the development of a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets uPAR and has anti-tumor activity in multiple xenograft animal tumor models. This antibody, ATN-658, does not inhibit ligand binding (i.e. uPA and vitronectin to uPAR and its mechanism of action remains unclear. As a first step in understanding the anti-tumor activity of ATN-658, we set out to identify the epitope on uPAR to which ATN-658 binds. Guided by comparisons between primate and human uPAR, epitope mapping studies were performed using several orthogonal techniques. Systematic site directed and alanine scanning mutagenesis identified the region of aa 268-275 of uPAR as the epitope for ATN-658. No known function has previously been attributed to this epitope Structural insights into epitope recognition were obtained from structural studies of the Fab fragment of ATN-658 bound to uPAR. The structure shows that the ATN-658 binds to the DIII domain of uPAR, close to the C-terminus of the receptor, corroborating the epitope mapping results. Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM, a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. These studies reveal a new functional epitope on uPAR involved in tumor progression and demonstrate a previously unrecognized strategy for the therapeutic targeting of uPAR.

  18. Recherche documentaire par titrage automatique

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez , Cédric; Prince , Violaine; Roche , Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Nous proposons dans cet article un système facilitant la recherche d'information dans un ensemble de documents textuels, basé sur le titrage (et sous-titrage) automatique. Ce dernier peut se révéler crucial, par exemple, dans le cadre de la problématique de l'accessibilité des pages web (norme W3C). Notre processus de titrage automatique consiste à extraire des syntagmes nominaux pertinents dans les textes, pouvant constituer des titres ou sous-titres candidats. Une approche originale combina...

  19. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  20. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. → L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. → Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  1. The Measurement of Reactivity In Multiregion Subcritical Systems by the Pulsed Neutron Technique; Mesure de la Reactivite dans les Systemes Sous-Critiques a Plusieurs Regions par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Izmerenie reaktivnosti v mnogozonnykh podkriticheskikh sistemakh metodom impul'snykh nejtronov; Mediciones de la Reactividad en Sistemas Subcriticos de Varias Regiones Mediante la Tecnica de los Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwin, J.; Leng, J. H. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale Works, Cumberland (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    -critique a plusieurs regions, au moyen d'une theorie de diffusion a deux groupes. Ils montrent qu'on peut etablir un rapport entre la constante de decroissance du mode fondamental des neutrons instantanes et le facteur de multiplication effectif du systeme en fonction de deux parametres qui ont ete definis, aux fins du present memoire, comme le coefficient de reponse du reacteur et le facteur de correction pour la decroissance des neutrons instantanes et qui dependent dans une large mesure des structures de flux spatiales a l'interieur du systeme. Pour le systeme uniforme sans reflecteur, le coefficient de reponse peut etre considere comme etant identique a la duree de vie moyenne des neutrons dans le systeme; pour un systeme a plusieurs regions, c'est une moyenne des durees de vie dans toutes les regions ponderees par des integrales du type a perturbation. Le deuxieme parametre - le facteur de correction pour la decroissance - ne peut avoir aucune signification physique, en ce sens qu'il ressort d'une tentative faite pour etablir une relation entre les deux echelles de reactivite, savoir l'echelle que l'on obtient en utilisant la constante de decroissance des neutrons instantanes et celle que l'on obtient en utilisant le facteur de multiplication effectif. Les auteurs etudient les proprietes de ces parametres en se referant a un reacteur a uranium enrichi ralenti au graphite, qui se compose d'un coeur uniforme et d'un reflecteur; ils montrent que les deux parametres ne sont pas definis uniquement par la reactivite du systeme, mais dependent de la methode choisie pour rendre le systeme sous-critique. Deux series de mesures sont traitees d'une maniere theorique. Dans l'une, le reacteur a gaz pousse de Windscale a ete arrete par un poison uniforme. Dans l'autre, on a fait varier la reactivite d'un coeur du reacteur HERO de puissance zero en modifiant le rayon de la charge. Les auteurs montrent que toutes les mesures faites au moyen des neutrons puises sont en bon accord avec

  2. Age and gender effects on normal regional cerebral blood flow studied using two different voxel-based statistical analyses; Effets de l'age et du genre sur la perfusion cerebrale regionale etudiee par deux methodes d'analyse statistique voxel-par-voxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirson, A.S.; George, J.; Krug, B.; Vander Borght, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Van Laere, K. [Leuven Univ. Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Div. (Belgium); Jamart, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Dept. de Biostatistiques, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); D' Asseler, Y. [Ghent Univ., Medical Signal and Image Processing Dept. (MEDISIP), Faculty of applied sciences (Belgium); Minoshima, S. [Washington Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Seattle (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Fully automated analysis programs have been applied more and more to aid for the reading of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT study. They are increasingly based on the comparison of the patient study with a normal database. In this study, we evaluate the ability of Three-Dimensional Stereotactic Surface Projection (3 D-S.S.P.) to isolate effects of age and gender in a previously studied normal population. The results were also compared with those obtained using Statistical Parametric Mapping (S.P.M.99). Methods Eighty-nine {sup 99m}Tc-E.C.D.-SPECT studies performed in carefully screened healthy volunteers (46 females, 43 males; age 20 - 81 years) were analysed using 3 D-S.S.P.. A multivariate analysis based on the general linear model was performed with regions as intra-subject factor, gender as inter-subject factor and age as co-variate. Results Both age and gender had a significant interaction effect with regional tracer uptake. An age-related decline (p < 0.001) was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, left frontal association cortex and left insula. Bilateral occipital association and left primary visual cortical uptake showed a significant relative increase with age (p < 0.001). Concerning the gender effect, women showed higher uptake (p < 0.01) in the parietal and right sensorimotor cortices. An age by gender interaction (p < 0.01) was only found in the left medial frontal cortex. The results were consistent with those obtained with S.P.M.99. Conclusion 3 D-S.S.P. analysis of normal r.C.B.F. variability is consistent with the literature and other automated voxel-based techniques, which highlight the effects of both age and gender. (authors)

  3. SECHAGE DE PRODUITS GRANULAIRES PAR DESHYDRATATION PAR DETENTES SUCCESSIVES (DDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla , Galal; Mellouk , Hamid; Belghit , Abdelhamid; Allaf , Karim

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les performances d'un nouveau procédé de séchage dans le cas du liège en granulés. Ce procédé (La déshydratation par détentes successives : DDS) consiste à soumettre le matériau liège dans une chambre hermétique aux variations cycliques de la pression. Chaque cycle est composé d'une compression et d'une décompression. La phase de compression est réalisée en injectant de l'air comprimé à température ambiante provenant d'un compresseur...

  4. Study by neutron diffusion of magnetic fluctuations in iron in the curie temperature region; Etude des fluctuations d'aimantation dans le fer au voisinage de la temperature de curie par diffusion des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson-Galula, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-12-15

    Heinsenberg model and a simple band model; our values in good agreement with those calculated in the Heisenberg model and exclude the band model used. Finally, in chapter IV we recall the chief results obtained. (author) [French] La diffusion critique des neutrons dans le fer est due aux fluctuations d'aimantation qui existent dans les substances ferromagnetiques au voisinage de la temperature de Curie. Les fluctuations peuvent se decrire en termes de correlations; on definit une fonction de correlation: {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t), {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t) , valeur moyenne du produit scalaire d'un spin de reference et d'un spin situe a la distance (R) du premier et considere a l'instant t. Dans le chapitre I nous rappelons les generalites sur les sections efficaces de diffusion des neutrons; nous donnons un bref resume de la theorie de VAN HOVE qui a montre que la section efficace de diffusion magnetique des neutrons est la transformee de FOURIER de la fonction de correlation. Dans le chapitre II nous etudions la dependance spatiale de la fonction de correlation, supposee independante du temps. On peut alors la caracteriser par deux parametres K{sub 1} et r{sub 1} qui permettent de calculer respectivement la portee et l'intensite des correlations. Apres avoir expose le principe de la mesure de ces parametres, nous decrirons l'appareillage experimental. Les valeurs experimentales obtenues sont en bon accord avec celles calculees, l'accord est meilleur si on suppose que ce sont les deuxiemes et non les premiers voisins d'un atome de fer qui sont magnetiquement actifs, ainsi que l'a propose NEEL. Dans le chapitre III nous etudions l'evolution dans le temps de la fonction de correlation; cette evolution est caracterisee par un parametre {lambda} dependant de la temperature, qui intervient dans l'equation de diffusion, a laquelle obeissent les fluctuations d'aimantation {delta}M{sub vector}/{delta}t = {lambda} {nabla

  5. La preuve par le nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available S’il en était besoin, la question des usages et de la finalité des résultats de l’inventaire général pourrait être abordée par le nombre : nombre d’œuvres répertoriées, de communes inventoriées, de clichés photographiques réalisés, de dossiers, de consultations des notices dans les bases de données… Les additions aujourd’hui sont éloquentes, mais elles laissent dans l’ombre le rôle de l’inventaire qui, en mettant en œuvre une démarche systématique de connaissance, participe à l’ identificatio...

  6. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  7. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9% and 58 (68.2% tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883 and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881 as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  8. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hong-hua; Zhang, Xi; Cao, Pei-guo [Department of Oncology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2011-11-18

    The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1)/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9%) and 58 (68.2%) tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883) and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881) as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  9. Prediction of ozone pollution peaks in the Etang de Berre area; Prevision des pics de pollution par l'ozone dans la region de l'etang de Berre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valfre, G.; Thieleke, R.; Leopold, A.; Mesbah, B.A. [AIRFOBEP, Association agreee de surveillance de la qualite de l' air, 13 - Martigues (France)

    1999-09-01

    Prediction of ozone pollution peaks is very useful in the procedure of people information, in particular sensitive persons, about photochemical pollution episodes occurrence. We have developed a technique to predict ozone pollution peaks in the Etang de Berre area, where air qualify monitoring is operated by the network AIRFOBEP (Association for air quality monitoring in the Etang de Berre and the west of Bouches-du-Rhone area). The technique indirectly models the regional photochemical pollution by the use of a set of linked binary logic tests. These tests are carried out on some relevant parameters. The selection of the most sensitive parameters for the prediction is done starting from: the background knowledge concerning the regional air pollution phenomena (experts experiences), the measurement data analysis. Characteristics of those parameters, like the time, the place of their measurement and their thresholds, are optimized with a simulation program, run on the five last years AIRFOBEP measurements data. Models elaborated with this technique have been tested during the 1998 summer. Results concerning both a D day and a (D+ 1) day prediction are good. They are consistent with the expected performances and with the five last years simulation results. (authors)

  10. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  11. ¡París!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Caballero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El día no le alcanzaba para caminarlo. Conocía cada puente, cada calle,plaza, museo, rincón, iglesia, café, y la mesa con el mejor ángulo para mirar siempre una iglesia, ojalá Saint-Germain-des-Pres, o Notre-Dame. Siempre contaba la impresión que le había causado a Bolívar ver allí cuando el papa coronó a Napoleón. Él se iba para la oficina todos los días, Luis a un taller a pintar, Antonio a estudiar ciencias políticas, yo al colegio y mamá hacía las cosas prácticas. Aprendíamos francés todos al tiempo y por la noche nos contábamos lo nuevo que cada uno había aprendido. Mamá después, cuando ya se quería volver, decía que París nos había maleado a todos. Estaba en pleno furor el cine francés de la "nueva ola", pero ella sólo me llevaba a ver películas de vaqueros pues no se fiaba de la clasificación de los periódicos.

  12. Summary of thirty years of environmental knowledge acquired by Hydro-Quebec in large hydroelectric projects in northern regions; Synthese de trente annees de connaissances environnementales acquises par Hydro-Quebec reliees aux grands amenagements hydroelectriques en milieu nordique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demers, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    Power generation in Canada is a provincial responsibility. Since Quebec does not possess petroleum, natural gas or coal deposits, the Quebec government decided, in the 1970s, to develop hydroelectric resources in the northern regions of the province. This paper presents a brief historical overview of the hydroelectric development of the La Grande River project, also referred to as the James Bay project. Located approximately 1000 kilometres north of Montreal, the La Grande project lies in a humid continental climate with an average winter temperature of - 23 Celsius and an average summer temperature of 14 Celsius. The construction of the dam was not preceded by an environmental impact assessment, but environmental data was collected for the first time before construction began. It was an opportunity for all environmental sciences to develop inventory methodologies and analysis techniques specific to northern regions applicable to hydroelectric development. This project also required the signing of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement by the governments of Canada and Quebec, Hydro-Quebec, and the Crees and Inuit of Quebec. The Agreement covers an area of 1 million square kilometres. As a result, Hydro-Quebec has become, over the past 30 years, a leader in environmental assessments and studies in the province. In northern Quebec, a hydroelectric reservoir constitutes an ecosystem whose biological productivity is comparable to a natural lake or ecosystem of equal area. During the first 5 years after flooding, reservoirs possess water quality slightly below that of a natural lake, but still favorable to biological development. The flooding of areas and the subsequent organic degradation promote mercury methylation and its accumulation in the food chain. The emissions of greenhouse gases by northern reservoirs are minimal compared to tropical reservoirs. The fauna in northern Quebec suffered habitat loss, but none became endangered. No Aboriginal community

  13. La micro-entreprise moyen de lutte contre la pauvreté: mise en évidence par application au niveau des régions tunisiennes = Micro-enterprises are the medium against poverty: Its application in Tunisian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram Gaaliche

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La contribution du secteur des micro-entreprises en Tunisie, dans la lutte contre la pauvreté, s’est manifestée de telle sorte que, tout accroissement du nombre d’unité de micro-entreprise entraîne une réduction du taux de pauvreté. En outre, il s’est avérée que la participation de ces petites unités dans la lutte contre la pauvreté, varie d’une région à une autre, selon le secteur d’activité y exerçantes. La détection d’une telle spécialisation sectorielle au niveau de la lutte contre la pauvreté, permet l’adoption de politiques régionales ciblées, destinées à encourager la création de micro-entreprises, au niveau des secteurs d’activité les plus pertinents.In Tunisia, the contribution of the microentreprises sector, in the fight against poverty, has appeared so that, every increasing in the number of the microentreprises involves a reduction of the poverty rate. In addition, it proved that the participation of these small unities in the fight against poverty varies from one area to another, according to the activity sectors. The detection of such sectoral specialization on the level of the fight against poverty, allows the adoption of targeted regional policies, intended to encourage the creation of microentreprises, in the most relevant activity sectors.

  14. Etk/Bmx regulates proteinase-activated-receptor1 (PAR1 in breast cancer invasion: signaling partners, hierarchy and physiological significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR(1 plays a central role in tumor progression, little is known about the cell signaling involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here the impact of PAR(1 cellular activities using both an orthotopic mouse mammary xenograft and a colorectal-liver metastasis model in vivo, with biochemical analyses in vitro. Large and highly vascularized tumors were generated by cells over-expressing wt hPar1, Y397Z hPar1, with persistent signaling, or Y381A hPar1 mutant constructs. In contrast, cells over-expressing the truncated form of hPar1, which lacks the cytoplasmic tail, developed small or no tumors, similar to cells expressing empty vector or control untreated cells. Antibody array membranes revealed essential hPar1 partners including Etk/Bmx and Shc. PAR(1 activation induces Etk/Bmx and Shc binding to the receptor C-tail to form a complex. Y/A mutations in the PAR(1 C-tail did not prevent Shc-PAR(1 association, but enhanced the number of liver metastases compared with the already increased metastases obtained with wt hPar1. We found that Etk/Bmx first binds via the PH domain to a region of seven residues, located between C378-S384 in PAR(1 C-tail, enabling subsequent Shc association. Importantly, expression of the hPar1-7A mutant form (substituted A, residues 378-384, which is incapable of binding Etk/Bmx, resulted in inhibition of invasion through Matrigel-coated membranes. Similarly, knocking down Etk/Bmx inhibited PAR(1-induced MDA-MB-435 cell migration. In addition, intact spheroid morphogenesis of MCF10A cells is markedly disrupted by the ectopic expression of wt hPar1. In contrast, the forced expression of the hPar1-7A mutant results in normal ball-shaped spheroids. Thus, by preventing binding of Etk/Bmx to PAR(1 -C-tail, hPar1 oncogenic properties are abrogated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration that a cytoplasmic portion of the PAR(1 C-tail functions as a scaffold

  15. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  16. Study of the Plugging of Oil Well Sand Control Area in a Polymer Flooding Region Étude du colmatage aux abords des puits d’injection dans un réservoir d’hydrocarbure produit par balayage au polymère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The plugging of the oil well sand control area in a polymer flooding region was studied and the plugging substances were analyzed through UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis, plasma emission spectrometry analysis, laser particle size analysis, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD analysis, microscopic observation, chromatograph-mass spectrometer, etc. It is inferred that the main reason for the plugging of the sand control area was the adsorption, gathering and bridging of PAM on the surface of the sand. The migration of the mineral fines from the stratum and the adsorption of the crude oil ingredients on the surface of the fines also result in plugging. An experimental study on the polymer degradation was performed and two types of plug removal agents, potassium persulfate and sodium thiosulfate, were selected and tested. It showed that potassium persulfate and sodium thiosulfate could degrade the plugging substances and recover core permeability effectively. Moreover, field application tests were conducted in Gudao oil field which showed the restoration of the performance of various wells. It also indicated that the injection pressure obviously decreased and liquid production per day increased greatly after application of the plug removal agents in the sand control area. Le colmatage des zones de puits où un contrôle de venues de sable est réalisé par injection de polymère a été étudié et les substances à l’origine du colmatage ont été analysées par spectrophotométrie UV-Visible, spectrométrie à émission de plasma, analyse de taille de particules par diffraction laser, diffraction X (DRX, observation microscopique, spectrométrie de masse, etc. Nous avons conclu que la raison principale du colmatage de la zone de contrôle des venues de sable était l’adsorption, l’accumulation et le pontage du polyacrylamide (PAM à la surface du sable. La migration des fines du milieu poreux et l’adsorption de composés du brut à la surface des

  17. A mechanism for ParB-dependent waves of ParA, a protein related to DNA segregation during cell division in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunding, Axel; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2003-01-01

    in an autocatalytic process. We discuss this mechanism in relation to recent models for MinDE oscillations in E.coli and to microtubule degradation in mitosis. The study points to an ancestral role for the presented pattern types in generating bipolarity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.......Prokaryotic plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci involved in segregation of DNA to daughter cells at cell division. A functional fusion protein consisting of Walker-type ParA ATPase and green fluorescent protein (Gfp) oscillates back and forth within nucleoid regions with a wave period of about...

  18. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced

  19. Analysis of gyrA and parC mutations in enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2004-01-01

    The quinolone resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC in four species of enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were sequenced. The nucleotide sequence variations of parC could be related to the different enterococcal species. Mutations...... in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium related to reduced susceptibility were identical to mutations detected in E jaecalis and E. faecium of clinical origin. A minimal inhibitory concentration of 8 mug ml(-1) to ciprofloxacin was not associated with any mutations in the gyrA and parC gene...... of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum. These two species may be intrinsically less susceptible to ciprofloxacin....

  20. Study of the critical scattering of neutrons by iron; Etude de la diffusion critique des neutrons par le fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galula, M; Jacrot, B; Mangin, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1959-07-01

    The critical scattering of very slow neutrons by iron near critical point is measured by time of flight techniques. The VAN HOVE formula is verified and the geometrical parameters K{sub 1} et r{sub 1} introduced in this theory are determined. (author) [French] On etudie la diffusion critique des neutrons tres lents par le fer dans la region du point de Curie par une methode de temps de vol. On verifie la formule de VAN HOVE et on determine les parametres geometriques K{sub 1} et r{sub 1} introduit par ce dernier. (auteur)

  1. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  2. Analysis of the multimer resolution system encoded by the parCBA operon of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberl, Leo; Sternberg, Claus; Givskov, Michael Christian

    1994-01-01

    specific sites situated in the promoter region of the parCBA operon. The two ParA proteins that are produced as a result of independent translation initiation at two different start codons within the same open reading frame were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Both forms...

  3. Contamination potentielle des aliments par des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARA Computers

    la notion de la pollution et de l'exposition aux PCBs, lorsque 77% n'ont pas conscience de cette situation de risque ... 2018). Quoique la contamination par les. PCBs soit de faible niveau, elle est ...... Université Paris-Est, Paris, France ; 183.

  4. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  5. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  6. A cluster of aspartic residues in the extracellular loop II of PAR 4 is important for thrombin interaction and activation of platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Centellas, Daniel; Gudlur, Sushanth; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2017-06-01

    Thrombin activates platelets via proteolytic cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4. The two PARs have distinct but complementary roles. The mechanisms responsible for PAR1 activation by thrombin have been extensively studied. However, much less is known regarding thrombin activation of PAR4, especially the potential involvement of regions of PAR4 other than the N-terminal, which is bound to the catalytic site of thrombin. We have studied PAR4 in S. cerevisiae strain MMY12, an expression system in which the GPCR receptors are connected to a Lac Z reporter gene resulting in increased β-galactosidase activity. This approach was used to assess PAR4 mutants to evaluate the contribution of different aspartic residues in facilitating PAR4 activation. Furthermore, peptides mimicking parts of the PAR4 N-terminal and the second extracellular loop (ECLII) were tested for their ability to inhibit platelet activation by thrombin. Binding of these peptides to γ-thrombin was studied by monitoring the decrease in tryptophan fluorescence intensity of thrombin. We conclude that not only the N-terminal but also the electronegative aspartic residues D224, D230 and D235 (located in ECLII) are be important for PAR4 binding to thrombin. We further suggest that they play a role for the tethered ligand binding to the receptor, as mutations also affected activation in response to a PAR4-activating peptide mimicking the new N-terminal formed after cleavage. This agrees with previous results on PAR1 and thrombin binding. We suggest that the ECLII of PAR4 could be a potential target for antithrombotic drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinação da composição isotópica de estrôncio em águas naturais: exemplos de sua aplicação em águas subsuperficiais da zona costeira na região Bragantina-PA Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Bordalo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Pará. Coastal plateau waters have delta87Sr between 1.51 and 6.26‰ and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show delta87Sr between 0.55 and 0.90‰ and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have delta87Sr‰ around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal pleteau waters.

  8. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  9. Fase aguda da doença de Chagas na Amazônia brasileira: estudo de 233 casos do Pará, Amapá e Maranhão observados entre 1988 e 2005 Acute phase of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon region: study of 233 cases from Pará, Amapá and Maranhão observed between 1988 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Yecê das Neves Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 233 casos de fase aguda da doença de Chagas, oriundos do Pará, Amapá e Maranhão, observados no período de 1988 a 2005, cento e sessenta deles retrospectivamente de 1988 a 2002 e setenta e três prospectivamente de 2003 a 2005. Entre os casos estudados 78,5% (183/233 faziam parte de surtos provavelmente por transmissão oral, acometendo em média 4 pessoas e 21,5% (50/233 eram casos isolados. Foram considerados casos agudos aqueles que apresentaram exames parasitológicos diretos (a fresco, gota espessa ou Quantitative Buffy Coat - QBC e/ou IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi positivos. Foram feitos ainda xenodiagnósticos em 224 pacientes e hemoculturas em 213. Todos foram avaliados clinica e epidemiologicamente. As manifestações clínicas mais freqüentes foram febre (100%, cefaléia (92,3%, mialgia (84,1%, palidez (67%, dispnéia (58,4%, edema de membros inferiores (57,9%, edema de face (57,5% dor abdominal (44,2%, miocardite (39,9% e exantema (27%. O eletrocardiograma mostrou alterações de repolarização ventricular em 38,5% dos casos, baixa voltagem de QRS em 15,4% e desvio de SAQRS em 11,5%, extra-sístoles ventriculares em 5,8%, bradicardia em 5,8% e taquicardia em 5,8%, bloqueio de ramo direito em 4,8% e fibrilação atrial em 4,8%. A alteração mais freqüente vista no ecocardiograma foi o derrame pericárdico em 46,2% dos casos. Treze (5,6% pacientes evoluíram para o óbito, 10 (76,9% dos quais por comprometimento cardiovascular, dois por complicações de origem digestiva e um de causa mal definida.Two hundred and thirty-three cases of the acute phase of Chagas disease, from Pará, Amapá and Maranhão, were observed between 1988 and 2005. One hundred and sixty were studied retrospectively from 1988 to 2002 and seventy-three were prospectively followed up from 2003 to 2005. Among the cases studied, 78.5% (183/233 formed part of outbreaks, probably due to oral transmission (affecting a mean of 4 individuals, and 21

  10. The role of gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolones-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Nouri

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to examine mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR of gyrA and parC genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. A total of 100 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different university-affiliated hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were evaluated by agar dilution assay. DNA sequences of the QRDR of gyrA and parC were determined by the dideoxy chain termination method. Of the total 100 isolates, 64 were resistant to ciprofloxacin. No amino acid alterations were detected in gyrA or parC genes of the ciprofloxacin susceptible or ciprofloxacin intermediate isolates. Thr-83 → Ile substitution in gyrA was found in all 64 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates. Forty-four (68.75% of them had additional substitution in parC. A correlation was found between the number of the amino acid alterations in the QRDR of gyrA and parC and the level of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance of the P. aeruginosa isolates. Ala-88 → Pro alteration in parC was generally found in high level ciprofloxacin resistant isolates, which were suggested to be responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. These findings showed that in P. aeruginosa, gyrA was the primary target for fluoroquinolone and additional mutation in parC led to highly resistant isolates.

  11. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable inflammatory biomarker. In patients, suPAR is a marker of disease presence, severity and prognosis. In the general population, suPAR is predictive of disease development, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease a...

  12. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  13. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . This pilot study aimed at investigating suPAR levels in relation to outcome after CA and mild induced hypothermia. METHODS: suPAR levels were measured at 6, 36, and 72 hours in patients treated with hypothermia after CA. suPAR levels were analyzed in relation to survival after 6 months. Receiver operating...

  14. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  15. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Baronian

    Full Text Available Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  16. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  17. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  18. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly......, hence identifying the N terminus of ParB as a requirement for ParB-mediated centromere pairing. These observations suggest that centromere pairing is an important intermediate step in plasmid partitioning mediated by the common type I loci....

  19. Development of hydrogen market: the outlook for demand, wing energy production, mass storage and distribution to vehicles in the regions; Developpement des marches de l'hydrogene demande prospective dans l'industrie, production par energie eolienne, stockage massif et distribution aux vehicules en region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Duigou, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/I-Tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Quemere, M.M. [EDF R and D, 77 - Moret-Sur- Loing (France); Marion, P.; Decarre, S. [IFP Energies nouvelles, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Sinegre, L.; Nadau, L.; Pierre, H. [GDF SUEZ, DRI, 93 - La Plaine Saint Denis (France); Menanteau, Ph. [LEPII, Universite de Grenoble - CNRS, 38 (France); Rastetter, A. [ALPHEA, EURODEV Center, 57 - Forbach (France); Cuni, A.; Barbier, F. [Air Liquide, 75 - Paris (France); Mulard, Ph. [Total, La Defense, Raffige Marketing, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Alleau, Th. [AFH2, 75 - Paris (France); Antoine, L. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-03-15

    The HyFrance3 project has provided a national framework for reflection, debate and strategic exchange between major public and industrial research players, namely for their hydrogen technology arms in France (Air Liquide, Total Refining and Marketing, EDF R and D, GDF SUEZ, CNRS-LEPII Energies Nouvelles, AFH2, ALPHEA, ADEME (co-financing and partner) and the CEA (coordinator)). This project focuses on studying the landscape, trends and economic competitiveness of some links in the hydrogen chain, for industrial and energy applications, over a period referred to as 'short term' (2020-2030). Four study subjects were tackled: the prospective demand for hydrogen in industry (analysis of the current situation and outlook for 2030, in particular for refining based on two scenarios on mobility), production of hydrogen for transport uses from wind-produced electricity, mass storage that would have to be set up in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions, to balance supply that is subject to deliberate (maintenance) or involuntary interruptions, and the distribution of hydrogen in the region, for automobile use (gas station network in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions) by 2050 (with end period all-in costs between 0.4 eur/kg and 0.6 eur/kg, as a function of the price of energy and the distance from the storage site). (authors)

  20. Spatial distribution of tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the state of Pará, Brazil, 2005-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Bárbara Lopes; Azeredo, Jéssica Quelé; Nogueira, Laura Maria Vidal; Santos, Bruno de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ivaneide Leal Ataide; Santos, Marcandra Nogueira de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the incidence of tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous residents in the state of Pará from 2005-2013. Method: An ecological study was performed with data from SINAN, stratified for the 13 existing Regional Health Centers in Pará. The tuberculosis incidence rates were calculated for indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the 13 regions and maps were prepared to visualize the magnitude of the occurrence of tuberculosis. Results: Significant differ...

  1. Low-Level {beta} and {gamma} Counting in the Region 0-10 Disintegrations Per Minute; Comptage {beta} et {gamma} d'echantillons de faible activite (0 a 10 desintegrations par minute); Izmerenie {beta}- i {gamma}-izlucheniya maloj moshchnosti (0-10 raspadov v minutu); Recuento {beta} y {gamma} de muestras de baja actividad (0 a 10 desintegraciones por minuto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manov, George G [Tracerlab Inc. (United States)

    1960-06-15

    Measurements of levels of radioactivity in the region of 0-1.0 disintegrations per minute are becoming increasingly useful in the standardization of radionuclides as well as in other branches of science such as geology and medicine. For example, there is frequent need for low-level counting in the field of biological and tracer applications, particularly, in those cases in which the use of a higher level of radiation would alter the course of the mechanism or process under study. Frequently such measurements must be made under conditions in which the sample possesses an activity of only 1% of the normal, unshielded background radiation. At other times, an additional requirement is imposed because the radionuclide may have a very short half-life. There are three general ways in which the reliability of low-level measurements can be increased: more efficient counters, smaller background corrections and more stable, noise-free electronic systems. In this paper, comparative tests are described of the relative merits of hree different types of guard (anti-coincidence) counters in reducing the background. Measurements were made of: (a) umbrella, (b) annular, and (c) scintillating plastic igloo. The increasing difficulty of obtaining activity-free materials for construction of counters is a matter of some concern. Data are presented for the range of activities of materials available commercially. Stockpiling of such materials, preferably of pre-War II origin is rapidly becoming a necessity. The stability of the electronic system is a prime requisite for low level counting, particularly to avoid the counting of spurious pulses. A system is described in which a slow, measured rate of pulses is fed into the electronics, passed through the amplifier and deducted from the gross output of the register. In general, transistorized circuitry including pre-amplifiers and power supplies are more satisfactory than conventional vacuum tube devices. (author) [French] La mesure des

  2. Childhood Pars Planitis; Clinical Features and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Nikkhah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demographic and clinical features of childhood pars planitis, and to determine the therapeutic and visual outcomes of the disease. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients (less than 16 years of age at diagnosis with pars planitis and at least 6 months of follow-up who were referred to Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran over a 22 year period were reviewed. Results: Overall, 117 eyes of 61 patients including 51 (83.6% male subjects were included. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 7.8΁3.2 (range, 3-16 years. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.88΁0.76 logMAR at presentation which improved to 0.39΁0.51 logMAR at final visit (P<0.001. Endotheliitis was present in 23 (19.6% eyes and was significantly more prevalent in subjects younger than 9 years (P=0.025. Cataract formation (41.9% and cystoid macular edema (19.7% were the most prevalent complications. Univariate regression analysis showed that better baseline visual acuity (OR=0.38, 95%CI 0.21-0.70, P=0.002, age older than 5 years at disease onset (OR=0.36, 95%CI 0.14-0.9, P=0.029, absence of endotheliitis (OR=0.39, 95%CI 0.15-0.99, P=0.047 and female gender (OR=3.77, 95%CI 1.03-13.93, P=0.046 were significantly associated with final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: Childhood pars planitis was much more common among male subjects. Endotheliitis may be a sign of inflammation spillover and is more prevalent in younger patients. Visual prognosis is favorable in most patients with appropriate treatment.

  3. Absence of methylation of a CpG-rich region at the 5' end of the MIC2 gene on the active X, the inactive X, and the Y chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, P.J.; Mondello, C.; Darling, S.M.; Pym, B.; Little, P.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have identified and characterized a Hpa II tiny fragment (HTF) island associated with the promoter region of the pseudoautosomal gene MIC2. The MIC2 HTF island is unmethylated on both the active and inactive X chromosome and is similarly unmethylated on the Y chromosome. Unlike the majority of genes borne on the X chromosome, MIC2 fails to undergo X chromosome inactivation. HTF islands associated with X chromosome-liked genes that are inactivated are highly methylated on the inactive or transcriptionally silent homologue. The failure of MIC2 to undergo X chromosome inactivation correlates with the lack of methylation of HTF island at the 5' end of the gene. These results provide further evidence that DNA methylation plays an important role in the phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation

  4. Accouchement par forceps: indications et pronostic materno-foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'accouchement par voie basse, peut être parfois compromis par des facteurs maternels, foetaux ou materno-foetaux nécessitant des moyens thérapeutiques comme le forceps pour achever l'accouchement par voie naturelle. Le forceps, une méthode qui n'est pas sans risque pour la mère et le nouveau-né. Nous avons ...

  5. Evolutionary rate of a gene affected by chromosomal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Ashworth, A

    1999-09-09

    Genes evolve at different rates depending on the strength of selective pressure to maintain their function. Chromosomal position can also have an influence [1] [2]. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of mammalian sex chromosomes is a small region of sequence identity that is the site of an obligatory pairing and recombination event between the X and Y chromosomes during male meiosis [3] [4] [5] [6]. During female meiosis, X chromosomes can pair and recombine along their entire length. Recombination in the PAR is therefore approximately 10 times greater in male meiosis compared with female meiosis [4] [5] [6]. The gene Fxy (also known as MID1 [7]) spans the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB) in the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus domesticus, C57BL/6) such that the 5' three exons of the gene are located on the X chromosome but the seven exons encoding the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of the protein are located within the PAR and are therefore present on both the X and Y chromosomes [8]. In humans [7] [9], the rat, and the wild mouse species Mus spretus, the gene is entirely X-unique. Here, we report that the rate of sequence divergence of the 3' end of the Fxy gene is much higher (estimated at 170-fold higher for synonymous sites) when pseudoautosomal (present on both the X and Y chromosomes) than when X-unique. Thus, chromosomal position can directly affect the rate of evolution of a gene. This finding also provides support for the suggestion that regions of the genome with a high recombination frequency, such as the PAR, may have an intrinsically elevated rate of sequence divergence.

  6. PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep mycoses in Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhari, S; Cunha, M G; Schettini, A P; Talhari, A C

    1988-09-01

    Patients with deep mycoses diagnosed in dermatologic clinics of Manaus (state of Amazonas, Brazil) were studied from November 1973 to December 1983. They came from the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and the Federal Territory of Roraima. All of these regions, with the exception of Pará, are situated in the western part of the Amazon Basin. The climatic conditions in this region are almost the same: tropical forest, high rainfall, and mean annual temperature of 26C. The deep mycoses diagnosed, in order of frequency, were Jorge Lobo's disease, paracoccidioidomycosis, chromomycosis, sporotrichosis, mycetoma, cryptococcosis, zygomycosis, and histoplasmosis.

  8. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations.

  9. Soudage de bois feuillus par friction rotationnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Les différentes colles utilisées actuellement par l’industrie du meuble au Canada nécessitent des temps de polymérisation constituant un goulot dans la production des meubles et limitant l’atteinte de la production unitaire. Ces adhésifs synthétiques généralement issus de la pétrochimie nécessitent énormément d’énergie lors de leur confection. L’utilisation de connecteurs métalliques ou plastiques, quant à elle, limite les phases de découpage et sablage subséquentes. La présence d’adhésifs et...

  10. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Iniesta

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  11. Incorporating GOES Satellite Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Retrievals to Improve Biogenic Emission Estimates in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; White, Andrew T.; Pour Biazar, Arastoo; McNider, Richard T.; Cohan, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the influence of insolation and cloud retrieval products from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system on biogenic emission estimates and ozone simulations in Texas. Compared to surface pyranometer observations, satellite-retrieved insolation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) values tend to systematically correct the overestimation of downwelling shortwave radiation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The correlation coefficient increases from 0.93 to 0.97, and the normalized mean error decreases from 36% to 21%. The isoprene and monoterpene emissions estimated by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature are on average 20% and 5% less, respectively, when PAR from the direct satellite retrieval is used rather than the control WRF run. The reduction in biogenic emission rates using satellite PAR reduced the predicted maximum daily 8 h ozone concentration by up to 5.3 ppbV over the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) region on some days. However, episode average ozone response is less sensitive, with a 0.6 ppbV decrease near DFW and 0.3 ppbV increase over East Texas. The systematic overestimation of isoprene concentrations in a WRF control case is partially corrected by using satellite PAR, which observes more clouds than are simulated by WRF. Further, assimilation of GOES-derived cloud fields in WRF improved CAMx model performance for ground-level ozone over Texas. Additionally, it was found that using satellite PAR improved the model's ability to replicate the spatial pattern of satellite-derived formaldehyde columns and aircraft-observed vertical profiles of isoprene.

  12. Concerning the dynamic instability of actin homolog ParM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Maeda, Yuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Using in vitro TIRF- and electron-microscopy, we reinvestigated the dynamics of native ParM, a prokaryotic DNA segregation protein and actin homolog. In contrast to a previous study, which used a cysteine ParM mutant, we find that the polymerization process of wild type ATP-ParM filaments consists of a polymerization phase and a subsequent steady state phase, which is dynamically unstable, like that of microtubules. We find that the apparent bidirectional polymerization of ParM, is not due to the intrinsic nature of this filament, but results from ParM forming randomly oriented bundles in the presence of crowding agents. Our results imply, that in the bacterium, ParM filaments spontaneously form bipolar bundles. Due to their intrinsic dynamic instability, ParM bundles can efficiently 'search' the cytoplasmic lumen for DNA, bind it equally well at the bipolar ends and segregate it approximately symmetrically, by the insertion of ParM subunits at either end

  13. The protein kinase SIK downregulates the polarity protein Par3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanlandewijck, Michael; Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi; Lomnytska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    on Par3. Functionally, this mechanism impacts on tight junction downregulation. Furthermore, SIK contributes to the loss of epithelial polarity and examination of advanced and invasive human cancers of diverse origin displayed high levels of SIK expression and a corresponding low expression of Par3...

  14. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01, but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.

  15. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    Full Text Available We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01, but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.

  16. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  17. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  18. uPAR as anti-cancer target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine

    2011-01-01

    , and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...... using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse uPA or uPAR. These reagents will target uPA and uPAR in both stromal cells and cancer cells, and their therapeutic potential can now be assessed in syngenic mouse cancer models....

  19. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem

  20. Equações de chuvas intensas para o estado do Pará Intense rainfall equations for the state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo O. R. de M. Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As equações de chuvas intensas têm sido usadas como ferramenta importante para o dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas. Devido à grande carência de informações relativas às equações de chuvas intensas, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção das relações de intensidade, duração e frequência de precipitação pluvial para o Estado do Pará, utilizando-se a metodologia da desagregação da chuva de 24 h. Foram utilizadas séries históricas de dados pluviométricos de 74 cidades do Estado do Pará, obtidas no Sistema de Informações Hidrológicas da Agência Nacional de Águas-ANA. As equações de intensidade-duração-frequência foram devidamente ajustadas e apresentaram bom ajuste, com coeficientes de determinação acima de 0,99. A maioria das estações (51,4% apresentou intensidade de precipitação entre 90 e 110 mm h-1, para uma duração de chuva de 30 min e um tempo de retorno de 15 anos. Pode-se perceber uma concentração das maiores precipitações na região próxima ao litoral do nordeste paraense e no sudeste da Ilha do Marajó.The intense rainfall equations have been used as an important tool for design of hydraulic structures. Considering the lack of intense rainfall equations, this study aimed to determine the relations of intensity, duration and frequency of intense rainfall in the Pará State (Brazil, using the one-day rain disaggregation method. In this research rainfall data of 74 cities in the State of Pará were used, obtained from the Hydrological Information System of the National Water Agency-ANA. The equations of intensity-duration-frequency were adjusted and presented good adjustment with coefficients of determination above 0.99. Most stations (51.4% showed intensity of precipitation between 90 and 110 mm h-1 for duration of 30 min and rainfall return period of 15 years. The highest rainfall intensities were in the region near the northeast coast of Pará State and southeast of the Marajo

  1. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  2. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  3. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  4. First-in-human uPAR PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive...... for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment...... of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu...

  5. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical...... tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered...... an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft...

  6. Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic de la neuropathie optique toxique. C.O.A. Abouki, S Alamou, C.R.A. Assavedo, L Odoulami-Yehouessi, I Sounouvou, S Hounnou-Tchabi ...

  7. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien Pillet

    Full Text Available Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  8. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Flavien; Passot, Fanny Marie; Pasta, Franck; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  9. Prise en charge des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les signes cliniques étaient dominés par les douleurs (98%) suivies des hémorragies (73,80%) pour les morsures de serpent, la douleur pour les piqures de scorpion (100%) et les oedèmes pour les piqures d'abeilles (100%). Les cas de morsure de serpent ont été traités par le sérum antivenimeux polyvalent. Conclusion: ...

  10. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    9 mars 2011 ... remède contre la douleur par Averbukh [8], ou contre la constipation par Schemesh [9], mais l´utilisation à des fins autolytique reste toujours prédominante. Le tableau clinique de l´intoxication à ... une anurie ayant nécessité le recours à l´hémodialyse. Ce taux de survenue d´IRA anurique est relativement ...

  11. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  12. Tumor suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M.; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E.; Cleary, John P.; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Hess, Julian M.; Gimelbrant, Alexander A.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X chromosome (chrX) genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative “Escape from X-Inactivation Tumor Suppressor” (EXITS) genes, we compared somatic alterations from >4100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) chrX genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) ...

  13. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  14. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.J.H.; Deegens, J.K.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both

  15. Une terreur par l’image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie DULONG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Si d’autres événements — Hiroshima, la découverte des camps de concentration, la chute du mur de Berlin — ont, au cours du XXe siècle, marqué suffisamment l’imaginaire pour trouver leur réponse dans des œuvres d’art, le 11 septembre 2001 pose la question de la fictionnalisation autrement : il ne s’agit plus tant de combler les manques de la représentation, liés à l’absence d’images ou au délai dans leur dévoilement, mais bien de composer avec l’omniprésence d’une représentation martelée à la télévision et sur Internet. Que cette représentation soit partielle, tronquée et qu’il lui manque la présence des corps, ces grands absents des photographies et des images tournées par les journalistes, ne change rien au fait que c’est avec le trop-plein que les artistes doivent maintenant négocier.Cet article s’intéresse aux romans qui traitent l’événement de front au lieu de l’aborder sur un mode mineur, et a pour objectif de tracer un portrait de la représentation des médias dans les romans du 11 septembre 2001. Ces romans, outre le fait qu’ils traitent des événements de New York, ont comme point commun un personnage, ou décor : les médias, représentés par la télévision, l’Internet, les photographies de presse, interviennent dans les récits d’une manière significative et témoignent de la force brute des images. À travers une étude de certains des mécanismes à l’œuvre dans The Writing on the Wall (Lynne Sharon Schwartz, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (Jonathan Safran Foer, Falling Man (Don DeLillo et A Disorder Peculiar to the Country (Ken Kalfus, il s’agira de proposer des réponses à ces quelques questions : quel rôle les médias jouent-ils, et comment participent-ils au récit ? Quelle pression les images exercent-elles sur les personnages ? Que révèlent les personnages enfants dans leur rapport aux médias ? Quelle critique, finalement, les romans

  16. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  17. Improvement in remote sensing of low vegetation cover in arid regions by correcting vegetation indices for soil ''noise''; Etude des propriétés spectrales des sols arides appliquée à l'amélioration des indices de végétation obtenus par télédétection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escadafal, R. [Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, Bondy (France); Huete, A.

    1991-05-23

    The variations of near-infrared red reflectance ratios of ten aridic soil samples were correlated with a ''redness index'' computed from red and green spectral bands. These variations have been shown to limit the performances of vegetation indices (NDVI and SAVI) in discriminating low vegetation covers. The redness index is used to adjust for this ''soil noise''. Dala simulated for vegetation densities of 5 to 15% cover showed that the sensitivity of the corrected vegetation indices was significantly improved. Specifically, the ''noise-corrected'' SAVI was able to assess vegetation amounts with an error four times smaller than the uncorrected NDVI. These promising results should lead to a significant improvement in assessing biomass in arid lands from remotely sensed data. (author) [French] Les variations du rapport de la réflectance dans les bandes rouge et infrarouge sont mises en relation avec un (( indice de coloration )) pouf une série de dix sols arides. Ces variations gZnent fortement la détection des faibles taux de couvert végétal avec les indices de végétation (NDVI et SAVI) calculés à partir de ces deux bandes. Il est proposé d’utiliser l’indice de coloration comme facteur de correction de ce (( bruit )) dû au sol. Une simulation de la reflectance des sols avec une couverture végétale variant de O à 15 % en évidence un doublement de la sensibilité des indices de végétation ainsi corrigés. En particulier, le SAVI corrigé permet d’estimer le taux de végétation avec une erreur quatre fois inférieure à celle du NDVI non corrigé. Ces premiers résultats devraient conduire à une amélioration sensible de la mesure de la biomasse végétale des régions arides par télédétection. (author)

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  19. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  20. Apoptosis induced by knockdown of uPAR and MMP-9 is mediated by inactivation of EGFR/STAT3 signaling in medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaprasada Rao Kotipatruni

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a highly invasive cancer of central nervous system diagnosed mainly in children. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR are over expressed in several cancers and well established for their roles in tumor progression. The present study is aimed to determine the consequences of targeting these molecules on medulloblastoma progression.Radiation is one of the foremost methods applied for treating cancer and considerable evidence showed that radiation elevated uPAR and MMP-9 expression in medulloblastoma cell. Therefore efforts are made to target these molecules in non-irradiated and irradiated medulloblastoma cells. Our results showed that siRNA-mediated knockdown of uPAR and MMP-9, either alone or in combination with radiation modulated a series of events leading to apoptosis. Down regulation of uPAR and MMP-9 inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules like Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, XIAP and cIAPI; activated BID cleavage, enhanced the expression of Bak and translocated cyctochrome C to cytosol. Capsase-3 and -9 activities were also increased in uPAR- and MMP-9-downregulated cells. The apoptosis induced by targeting MMP-9 and uPAR was initiated by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mediated activation of STAT3 and NF-κB related signaling molecules. Silencing uPAR and MMP-9 inhibited DNA binding activity of STAT3 and also reduced the recruitment of STAT3 protein at the promoter region of Bcl-2 and survivin genes. Our results suggest that inhibiting uPAR and MMP-9 reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules by inactivating the transcriptional activity of STAT3. In addition, treating pre-established medulloblastoma with siRNAs against uPAR and MMP-9 both alone or in combination with radiation suppressed uPAR, MMP-9, EGFR, STAT3 expression and induced Bak activation leading to apoptosis.Taken together, our results illustrated that RNAi mediated targeting of

  1. [Ambroise Paré, his death and his historians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaître, P

    2001-01-01

    Ambroise Paré died December the 20th., 1590. What happened after his death and what are we knowing about his life? Never forgotten, though a lack of care, we were waiting till the XIXth. century to get recollection upon a subject sustained only by accounts of his travels. After Percy, a surgeon who tried to write Paré's biography through the "Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, de Michaud (1822)" and some second rank authors, Malgaigne is the first who inside a printing of the "Oeuvres complétes de Paré (1840-41)" has a fine look upon the question, though his work is incomplete and allows many mistakes. Doctors Chéreau and Jal, an historian, analysing civil status records, gave new information enlarged by doctors Le Paulmier, Turner and the U.S. native Janet Doe.

  2. Keratometric alterations following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Batman, Cosar; Bicer, Tolga; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2009-09-01

    To assess the alterations in keratometric astigmatism following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy. Sixteen consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. Conventional vitrectomy was applied to eight of the cases and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy was performed in eight patients. Keratometry was performed before and after the surgery. In the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were not observed in the corneal curvature in any post-operative follow-up measurement (p > 0.05); whereas in the conventional pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were observed in the first postoperative day (p = 0.01) and first postoperative month (p = 0.03). We noted that these changes returned to baseline in three months (p = 0.26). Both 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless and conventional pars plana vitrectomy are effective surgical modalities for selected diseases of the posterior segment. Surgical procedures are critical for the visual rehabilitation of the patients. The post-operative corneal astigmatism of the vitrectomised eyes can be accurately determined at least two months post-operatively.

  3. New record of the mangrove rivulid Kryptolebias hermaphroditus Costa, 2011 (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) in the Pará state, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães-Costa, Auryceia; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2017-01-01

    The mangrove killifish Kryptolebias herma­phro­ditus is reported to the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Recently, a specimen of K. hermaphroditus was collected in a shallow running seawater stream at Ajuruteua beach, Pará state, northern Brazil. This new record is ca. 1,350 km from the nearest previously known occurrence in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects of this species are described.

  4. Cyclanthaceae no estado do Pará, Brasil Cyclanthaceae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Leal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthaceae apresenta distribuição exclusiva na região neotropical sendo bem diversificada nas terras baixas das florestas pluviais tropicais, ocorrendo do sul do México até a Mata Atlântica do sul do Brasil. Consistem de ervas terrestres, epífitas, hemiepífitas ou lianas. O tratamento taxonômico de Cyclanthaceae no Pará foi baseado em coleções de herbário, trabalhos de campo e consulta a bibliografia referente à família. Foram registradas 11 espécies: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. e Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies, além de comentários sobre distribuição geográfica, hábitat e período de floração e frutificação.Cyclanthaceae is a family with a distribution exclusively in the Neotropics and is well diversified in lowland rainforests, occurring from southern Mexico to the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The family consists of terrestrial herbs, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes and lianas. This taxonomic treatment of the Cyclanthaceae from the state of Pará was based on herbarium specimens, fieldwork, and the literature. Eleven species were recorded: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. and Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. An identification key, descriptions and illustrations of species are presented. Additional information on the geographic distribution, habitat, and flowering and

  5. Canning by the diffusion caused by a heated die; Gainage par diffusion par filiere chauffante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this process, the uranium fuel is clad with a zirconium can by passing the element through a die. The operation takes place at a temperature varying between 500 and 1000 deg. C. The heating is obtained by passing low voltage electric current through the can. This process differs from the co-extrusion process in that the uranium is not deformed. The uranium is therefore machined to the final dimensions before canning, it can also be hollow. Two types of processes can be adopted for the extrusion: a) Process in which the binding of the can to the uranium is obtained without diffusion (here the can is at high temperature - subsequently cooled - and the uranium is at a low temperature); b) Process in which uranium-zirconium diffusion is initiated. No matter which process is adopted the element is subsequently heat treated in an over at 800 deg. C in order to obtain the final diffusion. The quality of this diffusion is dependent on the initial state of the surfaces and on the degree of vacuum maintained during the operation. (author) [French] Dans ce procede, la gaine zirconium est plaquee sur le combustible uranium par passage dans une filiere. L'operation a lieu a chaud, a une temperature variant entre 500 et 1000 deg. C. Le chauffage est assure par passage d'un courant basse tension dans la gaine. A la difference du procede de cofilage, l'uranium ne subit pas de deformation durant l'operation. Il est donc prealablement usine aux cotes definitives et peut etre creux. Deux processus sont possibles pendant le passage dans la filiere: a) Obtention d'un frettage de la gaine sur l'uranium sans diffusion (avec une gaine a haute temperature et un tube d'uranium a basse temperature, eventuellement refroidi); b) Obtention d'un commencement de diffusion uranium-zirconium. Quelque soit le processus adopte, la cartouche est ensuite traitee dans un four a 800 deg. C pour obtenir la diffusion definitive. La qualite de celle-ci depend essentiellement des etats de surface initiaux

  6. La projection par plasma : une revue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont pr

  7. Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre Tapinanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2013 ... Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre. Tapinanthus (Loranthaceae) et répartition de la myrmécofaune associée à Logbessou Plateau. (Douala, Cameroun). Massako F1*, Tchatat M2, Mony R3, Ladoh Yemeda CF1, Dibong SD1,4,5. 1Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Organismes ...

  8. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les loranthaceae dans la localité de Nkoemvone (sud Cameroun). 7795 to the various clones, Phragmanthera capitata was the most abundant Loranthaceae; the level of parasitism of cacao trees is more important at the cacao trees of ...

  9. Den eneste ene - hvordan etniske minoritetsunge i Danmark danner par

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Rapporten handler om etniske unges måde at danne par på. Rapporten er baseret på en større empirisk undersøgelse gennemført af forfatteren i 2003 og er desuden inspireret af forfatterens egen ph.d.-afhandling: "Ungdom, etnicitet og psychosocial intervention" (2000, Københavns Universitet). Rappor...

  10. Indications and visual outcome of first hundred pars plana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the indications and visual outcome of the first one hundred pars plana vitrectomies performed at the newly established surgical retina unit of Makkah Specialist Eye Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Aretrospective chart review was performed. Data recorded from the patient ...

  11. Epuration des effluents industriels par électroflottation Belkacem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étudié la séparation de quelques métaux lourds tels que le fer, le nickel, ... the separation of some heavy metals such as iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and ... généralement basées sur l'adsorption (par ... Différents essais de concentration en.

  12. Predicting spectral and PAR light attenuation in Greenlandic coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Markager, Stiig; Stedmon, Colin

    (CDOM), phytoplankton pigments and inorganic particles. These differences are due in part to hydrography and to the sources of meltwater: respectively, fjord-terminating and land-terminating glaciers. We present a model to explain the variation in spectral and PAR irradiance in terms of the variation...

  13. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marrag

    2016-06-01

    Le priapisme veineux est une urgence urologique. Il constitue un des effets secondaires des neuroleptiques parmi les quels la chlorpromazine. Cet effet iatrogène, qui est rare mais grave, doit être connu par les cliniciens afin d’être mieux prévenu pour éviter les séquelles érectiles.

  14. La lecture de Merleau-Ponty par Renaud Barbaras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 1336-6556 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Merleau-Ponty * Husserl * phenomenology * linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.ostium.sk/sk/la-lecture-de-merleau-ponty-par-renaud-barbaras/

  15. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond

  16. fortification des farines tropicales par l'introduction de proteines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Université d'Abomey Calavy, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Bénin ... valeur recommandée par le Codex Alimentarius pour ce type de complément alimentaire destiné aux enfants. ..... neurotransmission, coagulation sanguine et.

  17. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings.

  18. Apoplejía pituitaria con parálisis del III par craneal: Reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un varón de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió a emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por presentar cefalea intensa y ptosis palpebral izquierda. El examen físico mostró parálisis aislada del III par craneal izquierdo. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron hiponatremia e hipopituitarismo y la resonancia magnética nuclear un adenoma pituitario con áreas de hemorragia e invasión de los senos cavernosos. El tratamiento incluyó glucocorticoides y descompresión quirúrgica transesfenoidal. La anatomía patológica confirmó el diagnóstico de infarto hemorrágico de un adenoma pituitario. El paciente fue dado de alta con terapia sustitutiva de levotiroxina y prednisona. La ptosis palpebral izquierda se recuperó en forma parcial. La apoplejía pituitaria es un síndrome clínico producido por un proceso expansivo dentro de la silla turca, secundario a hemorragia o infarto de un adenoma pituitario, que se caracteriza por cefalea, déficit visual, oftalmoplejía y alteración del nivel de conciencia. Este proceso expansivo puede comprimir los pares craneales en los senos cavernosos, produciendo diferentes grados de parálisis de los músculos oculomotores. La parálisis aislada del III par craneal es rara.(Rev Med Hered 2011;22:186-189.

  19. Épidémiologie de l'intoxication par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...

  20. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    for age, sex, Charlson score and C reactive protein. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of suPAR for 30-day mortality was 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.86). Furthermore, in the entire cohort, women had slightly higher suPAR compared with men, and suPAR was associated...

  1. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    , plasmids consistently migrate behind disassembling ParA cytoskeletal structures, suggesting that ParA filaments pull plasmids by depolymerization. The perpetual cycles of ParA assembly and disassembly result in continuous relocation of plasmids, which, on time averaging, results in equidistribution...

  2. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  3. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4: A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs, including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  4. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong; Jiang, Qunguang

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.

  5. Brésil : La contamination par le mercure en Amazonie | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... En tentant de déceler la source de la contamination de l'Amazone par le ... par Jean-Rémy Davy Guimaraes de l'Université fédérale de Rio de Janeiro ... ces mattes est circonscrite par la conservation et la restauration en rive.

  6. Socioeconomic diagnosis of cheese producers of Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to diagnose the socioeconomic conditions of cheese producers from three municipalities of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil. Manufacture process, hygienic-sanitary conditions in handmade cheese production and its commercialization were some features analysed for both cream-type and butter-type cheeses. During the survey, conducted from March to September 2012 questionnaires were applied to ten Marajó’s cheese producers. The cheese fabrication was characterized as a handmade process, employing family labor, most over ten years of experience. The production has a small scale, uses rudimentary technologies, lacks proper infrastructure for the processing of the product and has unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions. Commercialization is mainly by direct sale on the ship that travels to Belém city, capital of Pará state. Interviewed producers showed good reception to knowledge that can improve quality of the product, but they need a better guidance. In this context, the transfer of information is essential to sustain the production of these cheeses and preserve local culture, contributing to the economic and social development of producers regions.

  7. Detection of enteroviruses in cases of neurological disorders in the State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOMES Maria de Lourdes Contente

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples mainly from cases of aseptic meningitis and motor deficiency syndrome were sent to the Virology Section of Evandro Chagas Institute, Belém Pará, in the period of January 1995 to January 1996 in order to isolate viruses. All samples were inoculated onto HEp-2 cell culture and newborn mice, with negative results. The probability of isolating viruses by these methods is reduced because of the low concentration of viral particles in these specimens. In order to obtain more information about the etiology of these cases, a group of 23 samples were selected to be tested by a more sensitive technique than the virus isolation - the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Specific primers directed to conserved regions in the enterovirus genome were used, considering that this group of viruses is frequently associated with these neurological disorder. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 55 years and nearly all of them lived in Belém, State of Pará, North of Brazil. Of 15 samples analyzed by RT PCR nine (60% were positive; of these, 6 (66.6% had motor deficiency and 3 (33.3% developed aseptic meningitis. These results show that it is important to investigate enterovirus as cause of these syndromes.

  8. La syphilis congenitale revelee par une fracture spontanee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Lakhdar Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu�elle est actuellement oubliee dans les pays developpes, la syphilis congenitale se voit encore chez nous faute du depistage antenatal. Ses formes cliniques sont polymorphes et orientent a tord vers d�autres pathologies surtout en periode neonatale. Le diagnostic n�est donc pas toujours facile. La revelation d�une syphilis congenitale par une fracture spontanee est exceptionnellement decrite. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d�un nourrisson de 2 mois ramene en consultation pour limitation douloureuse des mouvements du bras droit. Le diagnostic est evoque sur les donnees radiologiques et confirme par la serologie syphilitique. Le traitement a repose essentiellement sur l�administration de la penicilline G avec une bonne evolution clinique.

  9. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  10. Avis 6 sur la formation à et par la recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement

    2015-01-01

    La formation à et par la recherche s’appuie sur la démarche scientifique, les savoirs, les connaissances à transmettre, tout autant que l’acquisition de compétences en gestion de projet, de capacités au travail en équipe, d’une ouverture d’esprit qui favorisera la créativité. Elle doit permettre de prendre conscience de la responsabilité endossée par la communauté scientifique vis-à-vis de la société et de l’environnement, mais aussi préparer l’avenir professionnel de celle ou de celui qu...

  11. Evaluation of the Stability After Orthodontic Treatment Using PAR Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Ramanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to establish the results using the scores obtained from the methodology that was applied for assessing the stability after 2 years post orthodontic treatment and stability in a sample of 69 individuals. After applying PAR index to the collected group of patients, a series of scores were obtained, which were then needed to be evaluated further to establish the results. The scores were evaluated using the nomogram. A comparison was done between the post treatment and the 2 years post treatment PAR weighting scores to determine if the results were stable after orthodontic treatment. The majority of the orthodontic patients were treated to a good standard and that the results appeared to be stable.

  12. La parálisis cerebral en el contexto escolar /

    OpenAIRE

    González Vara, Azucena

    2012-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de parálisis cerebral, los diferentes tipos y sus características. También las adaptaciones que se deben realizar a nivel de centro, de aula, y a nivel individual para estos alumnos, conocer los diferentes sistemas alternativos y aumentativos de comunicación y aplicar las ayudas técnicas que precisa este alumnado

  13. Tuberculose lymphonodale cervicale chez les enfants vaccines par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La tuberculose ganglionnaire cervicale est une localisation extrapulmonaire relativement fréquente chez l'enfant. Elle pose essentiellement des difficultés de prévention. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier les particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques chez des enfants vaccinés par le BCG. Matériel et méthodes: Nôtre ...

  14. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L'oxyteTracycline Longe Action Et Transmission Experimentale de la Maladie A Partir de Bovins Traites. ... Tous les 14 animaux ont séroconverti et l'analyse post-mortem a montré la présence des lésions chroniques dont des séquestres pulmonaires chez 4 d'entre ...

  15. Adoption d'innovations agricoles par le truchement de services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'agriculture est le fer de lance de nombreuses économies en développement, mais la capacité des petits agriculteurs privés de ressources à adopter des innovations agricoles est freinée par le manque d'accès à des services financiers adéquats. Des experts internationaux estiment qu'il existe un manque à gagner ...

  16. Candido: Uma Leitura Paródica de Candide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gloria Cusumano Mazzi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda a leitura paródica que Leonardo Sciascia (1921-1989 faz de Voltaire (1694-1778 mediante o cotejo das obras: o hipertexto Candido ovvero Un sogno fatto in Sicilia (1977 e o hipotexto Candide ou l’optimisme (1759. Apresenta ainda outra possibilidade de leitura, ou seja, Candido como metáfora da própria intertextualidade.

  17. Solution volumes finis polynomiale par morceaux pour les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous présentons dans ce papier un concept de solution volumes finis continue pour des problèmes de diffusion-convection avec des données régulières. Nous comparons dans certains cas particuliers la solution proposée avec la solution volumes finis classiques (qui est une fonction constante par morceaux) et la ...

  18. Preliminary Analysis For Wolsong Par Effects Using ISACC Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yong Mann; Kim, Dong Ha

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, hydrogen control effects using PARs only are analyzed for severe SBO station blackout (SBO) sequences beyond the design basis accidents in WS-1 which are of CANDU6 type reactor. As a computational tool, the latest version of ISAAC4.3 (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code for CANDU), which is a fully integrated and lumped severe accident computer code, is used to simulate hydrogen generation and transport inside the reactor building (R/B) before its failure. For the performance of hydrogen removal, the depletion rate equation of K-PAR developed in Korea is applied. In a CANDU reactor, three areas are identified as sources of hydrogen under severe accidents: fuel-coolant interactions in intact channels, suspended fuel or debris interactions in-calandria tank and debris interactions in-calandria vault. The first two origins provide source for the late ('late' terminology is used because it takes more than one day before calandria tank failure) potential hydrogen combustion before calandria tank failure and all the three origins would provide source for the very late potential hydrogen combustion occurring at or after calaria tank failure. If the hydrogen mitigation system fails, the AICC (adiabatic isochoric complete combustion) burning of highly flammable hydrogen may cause Wolsong R/B failure. So hydrogen induced failure possibility is evaluated, using preliminary ISAAC calculations, under several SBO conditions with and without PAR for both late and very late accident periods

  19. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  20. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture...... of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles....

  1. First (18)F-labeled ligand for PET imaging of uPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and uPAR has been found to be associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. AE105 is a small linear peptide with high binding affinity to uPAR. We synthesized an N-terminal NOTA......-conjugated version (NOTA-AE105) for development of the first (18)F-labeled uPAR positron-emission-tomography PET ligand using the Al(18)F radiolabeling method. In this study, the potential of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 to specifically target uPAR-positive prostate tumors was investigated....

  2. Intact and cleaved uPAR forms: diagnostic and prognostic value in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, M.G.; Lund, I.K.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2008-01-01

    identified in tissue and body fluids. It is well-established, that the total amount of all uPAR forms is a strong prognostic marker in different types of cancer. Using immunoassays, measuring the individual uPAR forms, has revealed that the cleaved uPAR forms are even stronger prognostic markers and have...... diagnostic utility. This review will focus on the mechanism of uPAR cleavage and the functional consequences, as well as the clinical applicability of cleaved uPAR forms Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  3. Dissociating frontal regions that co-lateralize with different ventral occipitotemporal regions during word processing☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    The ventral occipitotemporal sulcus (vOT) sustains strong interactions with the inferior frontal cortex during word processing. Consequently, activation in both regions co-lateralize towards the same hemisphere in healthy subjects. Because the determinants of lateralisation differ across posterior, middle and anterior vOT subregions, we investigated whether lateralisation in different inferior frontal regions would co-vary with lateralisation in the three different vOT subregions. A whole brain analysis found that, during semantic decisions on written words, laterality covaried in (1) posterior vOT and the precentral gyrus; (2) middle vOT and the pars opercularis, pars triangularis, and supramarginal gyrus; and (3) anterior vOT and the pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus and thalamus. These findings increase the spatial resolution of our understanding of how vOT interacts with other brain areas during semantic categorisation on words. PMID:23728081

  4. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Actin-like proteins (Alps are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments.

  5. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1 regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bäumer

    Full Text Available External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  6. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  7. Estudo de parâmetros físicos, químicos e hídricos de um Latossolo Amarelo, na região Amazônica Study of physical, chemical and hydric parameter of a xanthic ferralsol in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se os atributos físicos, hídricos e químicos de um Latossolo sob sistema de agroflorestal na região Amazônica. O solo foi descrito morfologicamente e amostras com estrutura deformada foram coletadas para caracterização física e química. A análise das propriedades hidráulicas foi realizada a partir de amostras indeformadas coletadas a cada camada de 0,10 m até 1,00 m de profundidade com 5 repetições para determinação da condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado (Ko pelo método do permeâmetro de carga decrescente e determinação das curvas de retenção (fim(teta, utilizando as tensões de 1, 2 e 4 kPa (funis de placa porosa e 10, 30, 50, 100, 500 e 1500 kPa (câmaras de pressão com placa porosa. As demais análises foram realizadas até 1,50 m de profundidade. Os valores de Ko nas camadas apresentaram grande homogeneidade estando compreendido entre 2,22 a 3,20 cm dia-1, sendo relacionados com variação da densidade do solo e porosidade. A retenção hídrica demonstra que o solo tem a capacidade de reter elevada quantidade de água, mesmo quando submetido a elevados potenciais, indicando uma baixa disponibilidade para as plantas. As curvas de retenção não apresentaram um bom ajuste pela equação de van Genuchten , sugerindo uma distribuição de poros bimodal.The study of physical, hydric and chemical attributes of a Oxisol under the policultivation system in the Amazon region were studied. The soil was described morphologicaly and deformed structure samples were collected for physical and chemical characterization. The analyses of hydraulic properties was made from underformed samples collected in each 0.10 m soil layer up to 1.00 m depth with 5 replicates for the determination of hydraulic conductivity of satured soil (Ko by the falling decreasing head permeameter method and determination of the retention curve (phim(theta, using the tensions of 1, 2 and 4 kPa (porous plate funnels and 10, 30, 50, 100, 500 and

  8. ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

    2006-01-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

  9. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Rutger J H; Deegens, Jeroen K J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2013-07-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both overexpression of uPAR on podocytes and the administration of suPAR cause proteinuria in mice. The common pathogenic mechanism involves the activation of podocyte β3-integrin. Increased activation of β3-integrin is also observed in patients with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). These observations form the basis for the hypothesis that suPAR may be the circulating factor causing FSGS. A recent study fosters this idea by demonstrating increased suPAR levels in the serum of patients with FSGS and reporting an association with recurrence after transplantation and response to plasmapheresis. However, this study was heavily biased, and subsequent studies have given conflicting results. Although the experimental work is very suggestive, at present there is no proof that any known human suPAR fragment causes FSGS in humans. We therefore suggest that the measurement of suPAR using currently available assays has absolutely no value at the present time in decision-making in routine clinical practice.

  10. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique FUKUSHIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2 suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP. The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19 at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19 and severe chronic periodontitis (SP (n = 19 patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR. PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p <0.05 PAR-2 expression in patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  11. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  12. PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithäuser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection. PMID:23391721

  13. Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boosen, Meike; Vetterkind, Susanne; Koplin, Ansgar; Illenberger, Susanne; Preuss, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis

  14. Envenimation mortelle par morsure de serpent chez une femme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de morsure de serpent au niveau de la face chez une femme enceinte, dont l'évolution a été marquée par l'installation d'un oedème cervico-facial nécessitant une trachéotomie en urgence, et une mort foetale in utero avec troubles de l'hémostase responsable du décès maternel dans un ...

  15. Analysis of clinical features and visual outcomes of pars planitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Nilufer; Sen, Emine; Elgin, Ufuk; Atilgan, Cemile Ucgul; Dursun, Erdem; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment and outcomes of patients with pars planitis in a tertiary referral center in Turkey. Medical records of patients with pars planitis were retrospectively reviewed. The data including demographic and ocular features and treatment outcomes were recorded. The distribution of clinical findings and complications were evaluated according to age and gender groups. The changes in final BCVA compared to the initial BCVA were noted. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (Version 18.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Twenty-seven patients (54 eyes) were included in this study. 16 patients were male (59.3%), and 11 were female (40.7%). Mean age at diagnosis was 12.84 ± 8.26 (range 4-36) years. Mean follow-up period was 61.3 ± 52.15 (range 9-172) months. Mean BCVA was 0.58 ± 0.36 (range 0.03-1.00) (0.40 ± 0.45 logMAR) at presentation, and 0.81 ± 0.28 (range 0.10-1.00) (0.14 ± 0.27 logMAR) at final visit (P = 0.001). Vitreous inflammation (100%), vitreous haze (92.6%), snowballs (74.1%), snowbanks (66.7%), anterior chamber cells (66.7%) and peripheral retinal vascular sheathing (48.1%) were the most common presentations. Ocular complications included vitreous condensation (51.9%), cystoid macular edema (22.2%), cataract (18.5%), inferior peripheral retinal detachment (11.1%), glaucoma (5.6%) and vitreous hemorrhage (3.7%). Treatments included topical, periocular, intravitreal and systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, peripheral laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy when needed. Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis mostly affecting children and adolescents. In spite of its chronic nature with high potential of causing ocular complications, adequate treatment and close follow-up lead to favorable visual outcomes.

  16. Cartographie par carroyage et précision spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice LANGLOIS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d'une cartographie par carroyage, on étudie la désagrégation de variables zonales, en revenant sur l'hypothèse de l'équirépartition spatiale des populations. L'objectif est d'approcher des règles différenciées de désagrégation des variables en fusionnant des plans d'information de nature morphologique, topologique et environnementale.

  17. NAD+ depletion or PAR polymer formation: which plays the role of executioner in ischaemic cell death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, C; McCullough, L D

    2011-09-01

    Multiple cell death pathways are activated in cerebral ischaemia. Much of the initial injury, especially in the core of the infarct where cerebral blood flow is severely reduced, is necrotic and secondary to severe energy failure. However, there is considerable evidence that delayed cell death continues for several days, primarily in the penumbral region. As reperfusion therapies grow in number and effectiveness, restoration of blood flow early after injury may lead to a shift towards apoptosis. It is important to elucidate what are the key mediators of apoptotic cell death after stroke, as inhibition of apoptosis may have therapeutic implications. There are two well described pathways that lead to apoptotic cell death; the caspase pathway and the more recently described caspase-independent pathway triggered by poly-ADP-ribose polymers (PARP) activation. Caspase-induced cell death is initiated by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, formation of the cytosolic apoptosome, and activation of endonucleases leading to a multitude of small randomly cleaved DNA fragments. In contrast caspase-independent cell death is secondary to activation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Mitochondrial AIF translocates to the nucleus, where it induces peripheral chromatin condensation, as well as characteristic high-molecular-weight (50 kbp) DNA fragmentation. Although caspase-independent cell death has been recognized for some time and is known to contribute to ischaemic injury, the upstream triggering events leading to activation of this pathway remain unclear. The two major theories are that ischaemia leads to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion and subsequent energy failure, or alternatively that cell death is directly triggered by a pro-apoptotic factor produced by activation of the DNA repair enzyme PARP. PARP activation is robust in the ischaemic brain producing variable lengths of poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) polymers as byproducts of PARP activation. PAR polymers

  18. PET imaging of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma...... and prognostic imaging method. In this review, we will focus on the recent development of uPAR PET and the relevance within prostate cancer imaging. Novel antibody and small-molecule radiotracers-targeting uPAR, including a series of uPAR-targeting PET ligands, based on the high affinity peptide ligand AE105......, have been synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo in preclinical murine xenograft models and, recently, in a first-ever clinical uPAR PET study in cancer patients, including patients with PC. In this phase I study, a high and specific uptake of the tracer 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 was found in both primary...

  19. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Burikhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53−/− or Par-4−/− mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors.

  20. Argon activation analysis, application to dating by the potassium-argon method; Analyse par activation de l'argon. Application a la datation par la methode potassium-argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesnil, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Activation analysis using radiogenic argon-40 has been applied to rock-dating by the K-Ar method. The argon is extracted from the sample, purified, activated to saturation in a flux of 2 X 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} and measured by gamma spectroscopy. The sensitivity obtained is such that it is possible to measure amounts of argon corresponding to age of a few thousand years only. However since it has not been possible to measure the amount of pollution of radiogenic argon by atmospheric argon with any accuracy, the measurable age limit is in fact of the order of MY. The method has been applied to basalts from the Mont-Dore region. The results obtained are in fairly good agreement with geological, stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data. (author) [French] L'analyse par activation de l'argon 40 radiogenique a ete appliquee a la datation des roches par la methode K-Ar. L'argon est extrait de l'echantillon, purifie, active a saturation dans un flux de 2.10{sup 13} neutrons.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et mesure en spectrometrie gamma. La sensibilite obtenue est telle qu'il est possible de mesurer des quantites d'argon correspondant a des ages de quelques milliers d'annees seulement. Cependant la correction de pollution de l'argon radiogenique par l'argon atmospherique n'ayant pu etre etablie avec precision, la limite d'age mesurable pratique est de l'ordre de 1 Ma. La methode a ete appliquee aux basaltes de la region du Mont-Dore. Les ages obtenus sont en assez bon accord avec les donnees geologiques, stratigraphiques et paleomagnetiques. (auteur)

  1. Argon activation analysis, application to dating by the potassium-argon method; Analyse par activation de l'argon. Application a la datation par la methode potassium-argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesnil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Activation analysis using radiogenic argon-40 has been applied to rock-dating by the K-Ar method. The argon is extracted from the sample, purified, activated to saturation in a flux of 2 X 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} and measured by gamma spectroscopy. The sensitivity obtained is such that it is possible to measure amounts of argon corresponding to age of a few thousand years only. However since it has not been possible to measure the amount of pollution of radiogenic argon by atmospheric argon with any accuracy, the measurable age limit is in fact of the order of MY. The method has been applied to basalts from the Mont-Dore region. The results obtained are in fairly good agreement with geological, stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data. (author) [French] L'analyse par activation de l'argon 40 radiogenique a ete appliquee a la datation des roches par la methode K-Ar. L'argon est extrait de l'echantillon, purifie, active a saturation dans un flux de 2.10{sup 13} neutrons.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et mesure en spectrometrie gamma. La sensibilite obtenue est telle qu'il est possible de mesurer des quantites d'argon correspondant a des ages de quelques milliers d'annees seulement. Cependant la correction de pollution de l'argon radiogenique par l'argon atmospherique n'ayant pu etre etablie avec precision, la limite d'age mesurable pratique est de l'ordre de 1 Ma. La methode a ete appliquee aux basaltes de la region du Mont-Dore. Les ages obtenus sont en assez bon accord avec les donnees geologiques, stratigraphiques et paleomagnetiques. (auteur)

  2. Four cases of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutoh T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh, Koji Kadoya, Makoto ChikudaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We report our recent experience with four cases of endophthalmitis (one male, three females after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. One was a case of persistent cystoid macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion, whereas the remaining three were cases of epiretinal membrane. Preoperative antibiotics before the first PPV procedure were not administered in three of the four cases. Endophthalmitis occurred 2–4 days after the first procedure in all cases, for which ceftazidime 2.0 mg/0.1 mL and vancomycin 1.0 mg/0.1 mL were injected into the vitreous cavity. This was followed by emergent 20-gauge PPV and intraocular lens removal using an infusion fluid containing ceftazidime and vancomycin. After the second PPV procedure, progress was good in three cases while retinal detachment occurred in the remaining case one month after surgery; this case required a third PPV procedure. Final best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/100 to 20/25 for the four cases. Bacterial cultures were negative after the second PPV procedure in all cases. In conclusion, postoperative endophthalmitis occurred in four of 502 cases (0.80% that underwent 25-gauge PPV at our hospital. It is important to minimize the incidence of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV.Keywords: 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, endophthalmitis, incidence

  3. Stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.W.; Wiltse, L.L.; Dingeman, R.D.; Hayes, M.

    A stress reaction involving the pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine was confirmed in seven young athletes with a positive technetium pyrophosphate bone scan. No pars defects were detectable on their lumbosacral roentgenograms, which included oblique views. The return to normal levels of radioactive uptake on repeat bone scans correlated closely with their clinical course. If the bony reaction is recognized early, it may heal at a subroentgenographic level and prevent the development of lumbar spondylolysis. These early lesions usually show unilateral increased uptake at one lumbar level on the bone scan and, initially, the athlete localizes the pain to the corresponding unilateral lumbar paraspinous area. The ''one-legged hyperextension test'' is positive on the ipsilateral side and aggravates the pain. Treatment consists of avoiding the aggravating activities and resting. The average time for return to pain-free competition was 7.3 months. These developing defects may be the source of considerable prolonged disability in the young athlete, particularly if undiagnosed and untreated.

  4. Stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.W.; Wiltse, L.L.; Dingeman, R.D.; Hayes, M.

    1981-01-01

    A stress reaction involving the pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine was confirmed in seven young athletes with a positive technetium pyrophosphate bone scan. No pars defects were detectable on their lumbosacral roentgenograms, which included oblique views. The return to normal levels of radioactive uptake on repeat bone scans correlated closely with their clinical course. If the bony reaction is recognized early, it may heal at a subroentgenographic level and prevent the development of lumbar spondylolysis. These early lesions usually show unilateral increased uptake at one lumbar level on the bone scan and, initially, the athlete localizes the pain to the corresponding unilateral lumbar paraspinous area. The ''one-legged hyperextension test'' is positive on the ipsilateral side and aggravates the pain. Treatment consists of avoiding the aggravating activities and resting. The average time for return to pain-free competition was 7.3 months. These developing defects may be the source of considerable prolonged disability in the young athlete, particularly if undiagnosed and untreated

  5. Réduction du risque d'infection par le VIH au Botswana - essais ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Botswana, ce sont les jeunes femmes qui sont le plus touchées par les nouvelles infections par le VIH. Le présent projet a pour but de réduire le nombre de nouveaux cas d'infection par le VIH, en particulier chez les femmes de 15 à 29 ans. Bien que l'on recense des cas de VIH/sida dans la plupart des régions du ...

  6. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  7. Un « gouvernement des journalistes par le Pouvoir politique » par défaut ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Lardeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les interactions de deux mouvements concomitants apparusprincipalement dans les décennies 1950 à 1970 dans le champ de la presse française : d’un côté les initiatives – consécutives à la démarche pionnière, en 1951, de création de la première Société des journalistes (SDJ au sein du Monde – menées par les journalistes de rédactions de quotidiens pour créer des SDJ dont la destination peut aller jusqu’à gouverner les journaux; de l’autre côté, les « réponses » apportées par les Pouvoirs politique et public pour contenir ces initiatives visant à étendre le pouvoir des journalistes dans la gestion et la gouvernance de leurs journaux. Cette étude exploratoire repose principalement sur l’analyse de deux types de littérature, souvent déconsidérés ou négligés par le champ académique, en dépit de leur grande richesse : (1 la littérature professionnelle, ayant pour principaux auteurs les journalistes et managers de presse (Périer Daville, Boegner, Pigasse, etc., florissante depuis 1944 et singulièrement durant les décennies 1960 et 1970 ; (2 la littérature grise constituée notamment par des rapports publics rédigés par des institutions comme les services du Premier ministre (commissions Lindon de 1970 et Serisé de 1972, le Conseil économique et social, etc. Nos principaux résultats montrent que les propositions ou actions menées par les journalistes (1 restent le plus souvent inexploitées in concreto par les journalistes eux-mêmes; (2 entrent le plus souvent en opposition avec les politiques de nouveaux actionnaires ou directions de journaux et avec les projets des autorités politiques et publiques qui cherchent à encadrer l’autonomie de la profession journalistique pour mieux gouverner celle-ci ; (3 combien in fine les représentants des différents acteurs impliqués s’accordent pour contenir l’émergence d’un « gouvernement des journalistes » par les

  8. Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): Latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejoo; Malaspina, Dolores; Ahn, Hongshik; Perrin, Mary; Opler, Mark G; Kleinhaus, Karine; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers' age at birth ≥ 35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased gray matter volume of left pars opercularis in male orchestral musicians correlate positively with years of musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kareem, Ihssan A; Stancak, Andrej; Parkes, Laura M; Sluming, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    To compare manual volumetry of gray matter (GM) / white matter (WM) of Broca's area subparts: pars opercularis (POP) and pars triangularis (PTR) in both hemispheres between musicians and nonmusician, as it has been shown that these regions are crucial for musical abilities. A previous voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study conducted in our laboratory reported increased GM density in Broca's area of left hemisphere in male orchestral musicians. Functional segregation of POP/PTR justified separate volumetric analysis of these parts. We used the same cohort for the VBM study. Manual morphometry (stereology) was used to compare volumes between 26/26 right-handed orchestral musicians/nonmusicians. As expected, musicians showed significantly increased GM volume in the Broca's area, specifically in the left POP. No significant results were detected in right POP, left/right PTR GM volumes, and WM volumes for all regions. Results were positively correlated with years of musical performance (r = 0.7, P = 0.0001). This result corroborates the VBM study and is in line with the hypothesis of critical involvement of POP in hearing-action integration being an integral component of frontoparietotemporal mirror neuron network. We hypothesize that increased size of musicians' left POP represent use-dependent structural adaptation in response to intensive audiomotor skill acquisition. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Electron microscope study of vacancy clusters produced by quenching in magnesium; Etude par microscopie electronique des amas de lacunes crees par trempe dans le magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, V; Espinasse, J; Mairy, C; Hillairet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Vacancy clustering in quenched magnesium has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the vacancy loops observed, seems to depend essentially on the impurity content of the metal; this effect can be attributed to a variation of the stacking fault energy of magnesium due to impurities. (authors) [French] On a etudie par microscopie electronique en transmission les defauts crees par trempe dans le magnesium. Un effet considerable des impuretes du metal sur la nature des boucles obtenues par condensation de lacunes a ete mis en evidence; cet effet semble s'expliquer de facon satisfaisante par un abaissement de l'energie de faute d'empilement du magnesium du aux impuretes. (auteur)

  11. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  12. Neutrons detection by scintillation; Detection de neutrons par scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-01-15

    The absence of charge of neutrons and their elevated penetration power make difficult their detection. Techniques vary otherwise with the energy of the particle. The author proposes the realization of a scintillation detector with a big volume of liquid scintillator and containing boron for the detection of slowing-down neutrons in the domain of intermediate energies from 1 to 10{sup 5} eV about. (M.B.) [French] L'absence de charge du neutron et son pouvoir de penetration eleve rendent difficile sa detection. Les techniques par ailleurs varient avec l'energie de cette particule. L'auteur propose la realisation d'un detecteur a scintillations comprenant un grand volume de scintillateur liquide et contenant du bore pour la detection des neutrons en ralentissement dans le domaine des energies intermediaires de 1 a 10{sup 5} eV environ. (M.B.)

  13. Cancro em mogno africano no estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Tremacoldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas de cancro foram observados em plantios de mogno africano, no município de Dom Eliseu, Pará. Os fungos associados aos tecidos sintomáticos foram identificados como Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Fusarium subglutinans. Culturas puras desses fungos foram testadas quanto à patogenicidade em mudas de mogno africano sadias. Apenas L. theobromae produziu cancro, por meio de inoculação por ferimento e alta umidade. A confirmação de L. theobromae como agente causal do cancro ocorreu após o reisolamento do fungo a partir das plantas inoculadas em casa de vegetação, concluindo a primeira verificação do postulado de Koch para esse patossistema.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING IN COMPANY PARS KOMPONENTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Klega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status of production planning in company Pars Komponenty s.r.o., proposes a new method of planning based on application of the principle of MRP. It is a discrete type of production with high complexity of BOM and MTO (Make-to-Order and ETO (Engineering-to-Order from the point of decoupling point. The original planning system plans according to production capacity backward without collisions, but for a given type of production does not work in practice. Planning system was analyzed and the main problems were identified, which were high work in progress and material stocks. This article target is to propose a new planining system based on the inclusion of time reserves of purchased material items. New planning system was tested in practise with benefit in reducing both the material inventory and work in progress.

  15. Pierre Vilar Frontinhan 1906 - París 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el pasado mes de agosto falleció en París el historiador y maestro de tantas generaciones Pierre Vilar. Aunque había mantenido una intensa actividad de reflexión sobre los sucesos contemporáneos, ésta se vio afectada en 1991 luego que una grave enfermedad le negó la visión. Fue entonces cuando decidió con la ayuda de Rosa Congost escribir sus reflexiones y recuerdos, especie de memoria de juventud. Pensar Históricamente (Barcelona: Editorial Crítica, 1997, el libro que reúne estos ejercicios, es una obra de sumo interés para conocer la infancia, adolescencia y juventud de este connotado historiador.

  16. Neutrons detection by scintillation; Detection de neutrons par scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudon, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-01-15

    The absence of charge of neutrons and their elevated penetration power make difficult their detection. Techniques vary otherwise with the energy of the particle. The author proposes the realization of a scintillation detector with a big volume of liquid scintillator and containing boron for the detection of slowing-down neutrons in the domain of intermediate energies from 1 to 10{sup 5} eV about. (M.B.) [French] L'absence de charge du neutron et son pouvoir de penetration eleve rendent difficile sa detection. Les techniques par ailleurs varient avec l'energie de cette particule. L'auteur propose la realisation d'un detecteur a scintillations comprenant un grand volume de scintillateur liquide et contenant du bore pour la detection des neutrons en ralentissement dans le domaine des energies intermediaires de 1 a 10{sup 5} eV environ. (M.B.)

  17. Determination of tritium by counting; Dosage du tritium par comptage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, R; Froment, G; Pinson, J; Genty, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    Ionisation chamber assay of tritium in any gaseous mixture is a simple, fast and accurate method. We used the method of relative determination by comparison to a standard rather than the method of absolute assay in which case the constants are known with too little accuracy. The efficiency of the chamber was studied in connection to the pressure inside the chamber and its total volume. The calibration is linear in the range we are taking into account (1 to 80 millicuries). The reproducibility of the method is good: 13 runs gave a coefficient of variation of 1.6 per cent. The relative accuracy was found equal to {+-} 1.3 per cent. To end the paper, we describe in detail the apparatus and the ways of proceedings. (authors) [French] Le comptage du tritium par chambre d'ionisation est une methode simple, rapide et precise pour determiner la teneur en tritium d'un melange gazeux quelconque. Nous avons prefere utiliser la methode de determination relative par rapport a un etalon car, dans le cas d'une determination absolue, les constantes sont connues avec une trop grande incertitude. L'efficacite de la chambre a ete etudiee en fonction de la variation de la pression d'argon a l'interieur de la chambre et du volume total, de cette derniere. L'etalonnage s'est revele lineaire dans le domaine de mesures qui nous interessaient (1 a 80 millicuries). La reproductibillte de la methode est tres bonne, le coefficient de variation pour une serie de 13 essais etant de 1,6 pour cent, quant a la precision relative, elle a ete evaluee a {+-} 1,3 pour cent. Pour terminer, nous donnons une description detaillee de l'appareillage utilise et du mode operatoire suivi. (auteurs)

  18. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA, early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP. Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and CDVA (logMAR was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061 and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 mm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8% case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7% cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate.

  19. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a promising new imaging target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    modalities such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission topography (PET). In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted imaging ligands according to imaging modality. In addition, we...... will discuss the potential future clinical application for uPAR imaging as a new imaging biomarker....

  20. Pars plana vitrectomy for disturbing primary vitreous floaters: clinical outcome and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, K.F. de; Crama, N.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Klevering, B.J.; Boon, C.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary vitreous floaters can be highly bothersome in some patients. In the case of persistently bothersome floaters, pars plana vitrectomy may be the most effective treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction, after pars plana

  1. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Spectral variations of UV-A and PAR solar radiation in estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talaulikar, M.; Suresh, T.; Silveira, N.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S; Lotlikar, A

    radiation (400 to 700 nm), PAR and ultraviolet radiation in the range 350-400 nm (UV-A) are presented here. The mean PAR values at the surface were 327 W/m sup(2) and reduced to 84 W/m sup(2) at first optical depth, Z sub(90) (m) in water. The first optical...

  3. Transcriptome mapping of pAR060302, a blaCMY-2-positive broad-host-range IncA/C plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin S; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Xu, Wayne; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    The multidrug resistance-encoding plasmids belonging to the IncA/C incompatibility group have recently emerged among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains in the United States. These plasmids have a unique genetic structure compared to other enterobacterial plasmid types, a broad host range, and a propensity to acquire large numbers of antimicrobial resistance genes via their accessory regions. Using E. coli strain DH5α harboring the prototype IncA/C plasmid pAR060302, we sought to define the baseline transcriptome of IncA/C plasmids under laboratory growth and in the face of selective pressure. The effects of ampicillin, florfenicol, or streptomycin exposure were compared to those on cells left untreated at logarithmic phase using Illumina platform-based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Under growth in Luria-Bertani broth lacking antibiotics, much of the backbone of pAR060302 was transcriptionally inactive, including its putative transfer regions. A few plasmid backbone genes of interest were highly transcribed, including genes of a putative toxin-antitoxin system and an H-NS-like transcriptional regulator. In contrast, numerous genes within the accessory regions of pAR060302 were highly transcribed, including the resistance genes floR, bla(CMY-2), aadA, and aacA. Treatment with ampicillin or streptomycin resulted in no genes being differentially expressed compared to controls lacking antibiotics, suggesting that many of the resistance-associated genes are not differentially expressed due to exposure to these antibiotics. In contrast, florfenicol treatment resulted in the upregulation of floR and numerous chromosomal genes. Overall, the transcriptome mapping of pAR060302 suggests that it mitigates the fitness costs of carrying resistance-associated genes through global regulation with its transcriptional regulators.

  4. Narrative Identities and the Plebiscite in Pará: An Analysis of the Front Pages for O Liberal and Diário do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Cristina Silva da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On December 11, 2011, a plebiscite was held in Pará proposing to create two separatist states, Carajás and Tapajós, out of the state of Pará. The public voted against both projects. This article analyzes the narrative identities found on the front pages of O Liberal and Diário do Pará newspapers about the plebiscite in Pará. Depth Hermeneutics (DH, as proposed by Thompson (2011, was used as the methodological reference. DH emphasizes the object of analysis as a meaningful symbolic construction requiring interpretation. Narrative analysis, as proposed by Motta (2007, was the main research technique used to highlight the movement of construction of journalistic (discursive characters. The narrative identities built by the two newspapers showed that both were against the creation of the new states, but for very different reasons. The flag of Pará was the main object used to induce the idea of unity. Em 11 de dezembro de 2011, o plebiscito no Pará propôs a criação dos estados de Carajás e de Tapajós a partir da divisão do estado do Pará. O resultado da consulta pública foi negativo aos dois projetos. O artigo analisa as identidades narrativas constituídas pelas primeiras páginas dos jornais O Liberal e Diário do Pará sobre o plebiscito no Pará. Utilizou-se como referencial metodológico a Hermenêutica em Profundidade (HP, proposta por Thompson (2011. A HP evidencia o fato de que o objeto de análise é uma construção simbólica significativa, que exige uma interpretação. Como principal técnica de pesquisa, a análise narrativa, proposta por Motta (2007, com ênfase no movimento de construção de personagens jornalísticas (discursivas. As identidades narrativas construídas pelos dois jornais indicaram que ambos eram contrários à criação dos novos estados, porém por motivos divergentes. A bandeira do Pará foi o principal elemento utilizado para evocar a ideia de unidade. En 11 de diciembre de 2011, el plebiscito en

  5. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) and the uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP/Endo180)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The breakdown of the barriers formed by extracellular matrix proteins is a pre-requisite for all processes of tissue remodeling. Matrix degradation reactions take part in specific physiological events in the healthy organism but also represent a crucial step in cancer invasion. These degradation...... on the surface of various cell types that serves to bind the urokinase plasminogen activator and localize the activation reactions in the proteolytic cascade system of plasminogen activation. uPARAP is an integral membrane protein with a pronounced role in the internalization of collagen for intracellular...... degradation. Both receptors have additional functions that are currently being unraveled. The present discussion of uPAR and uPARAP is centered on their protein structure and molecular and cellular function....

  6. Effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on suPAR levels and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Forman, Julie L

    2018-01-01

    -lowering therapy also lowers suPAR levels is unknown. METHODS: We investigated whether treatment with Simvastatin 40 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg lowered plasma suPAR levels in 1838 patients with mild-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis, included in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, using...... and Ezetimibe treatment impeded the progression of the time-related increase in plasma suPAR levels. Year-1 suPAR was associated with all-cause mortality, MCE, and AVE irrespective of baseline levels (SEAS study: NCT00092677)....... cardiovascular events (MCE) composed of ischemic cardiovascular events (ICE) and aortic valve related events (AVE). RESULTS: After 4.3 years of follow-up, suPAR levels had increased by 9.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.0%-11.5%) in the placebo group, but only by 4.1% (1.9%-6.2%) in the group with lipid...

  7. Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident. PMID:21991216

  8. MODIS-derived daily PAR simulation from cloud-free images and its validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liangfu; Gu, Xingfa; Tian, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); The Center for National Spaceborne Demonstration, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Liu, Qinhuo [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, a MODIS-derived daily PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) simulation model from cloud-free image over land surface has been developed based on Bird and Riordan's model. In this model, the total downwelling spectral surface irradiance is divided into two parts: one is beam irradiance, and another is diffuse irradiance. The attenuation of solar beam irradiance comprises scattering by the gas mixture, absorption by ozone, the gas mixture and water vapor, and scattering and absorption by aerosols. The diffuse irradiance is scattered out of the direct beam and towards the surface. The multiple ground-air interactions have been taken into account in the diffuse irradiance model. The parameters needed in this model are atmospheric water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness and spectral albedo ranging from 400 nm to 700 nm. They are all retrieved from MODIS data. Then, the instantaneous photosynthetically available radiation (IPAR) is integrated by using a weighted sum at each of the visible MODIS wavebands. Finally, a daily PAR is derived by integration of IPAR. In order to validate the MODIS-derived PAR model, we compared the field PAR measurements in 2003 and 2004 against the simulated PAR. The measurements were made at the Qianyanzhou ecological experimental station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. A total of 54 days of cloud-free MODIS L1B level images were used for the PAR simulation. Our results show that the simulated PAR is consistent with field measurements, where the correlation coefficient of linear regression between calculated PAR and measured PAR is 0.93396. However, there were some uncertainties in the comparison of 1 km pixel PAR with the tower flux stand measurement. (author)

  9. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives...... and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR....

  10. Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 and Immunomodulatory Effects of a PAR1-Activating Peptide in a Mouse Model of Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M. Mark; Nelson, Lisa K.; Benediktsson, Hallgrimur; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Buret, Andre G.; Ceri, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS-)) induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1) the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2) the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF) on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Results. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. Conclusions. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor. PMID:24459330

  11. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  12. Comparaison du Pangola (Digitaria decumbens) et du Stargrass (Cynodon nlemfluensis) exploités par des ovins

    OpenAIRE

    Boval, Maryline

    1989-01-01

    A la Martinique l'utilisation comparée de Digitaria decumbens (Dd) et de Cynodon nlemfuensis (Cn) par des brebis allaitantes a été étudiée pendant une période d'observation de 6 mois. Le cheptel est à un taux élevé de 1 600 kg de poids vif par hectare et par an, obtenu par une fertilisation de 450 kg/ha/an en azote.

  13. Traitement de surface par explosif du cuivre polycristallin : caractérisation microstructurale et comportement en fatigue plastique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerland, M.; Dufour, J. P.; Presles, H. N.; Violan, P.; Mendez, J.

    1991-10-01

    A new surface treatment technique with a primary explosive deposited in thin layer was applied to a polycrystalline pure copper. After treatment, surface roughness remains of high quality especially when compared to shot peened surfaces. The treated zone extends over several hundreds microns in depth and the microhardness profile exhibits a significant increasing of hardness with a maximum reaching 100% at the surface. The transmission electron microscopy shows a microstructure which changes with depth : below the surface, there is a thin recrystallized layer with very small grains followed by a region with numerous mechanical twins the density of which decreases when depth increases. Tested in fatigue with a constant plastic strain amplitude, the treated copper specimens exhibit a strong hardening from the first cycles compared to the untreated specimen ; however this initial hardening erases after 2% of the fatigue life. The fatigue resistance is not modified by the treatment. Une nouvelle technique de traitement de surface à l'aide d'un explosif primaire déposé en couche mince a été utilisée sur du cuivre pur polycristallin. L'état de surface après traitement reste de très bonne qualité, surtout comparé aux surfaces grenaillées. La zone traitée s'étend sur une profondeur de quelques centaines de microns et le profil de microdureté montre une importante augmentation de dureté avec un maximum en surface pouvant atteindre 100%. La micrcrostructure, observée par microscopie électronique en transmission, est caractérisée par une fine recristallisation en surface, puis par un abondant maclage dont la densité décroît lorsque la profondeur augmente. Testé en fatigue à déformation plastique imposée, le cuivre traité présente un fort écrouissage initial dès les premiers cycles, mais qui s'efface progressivement au cours du cyclage après 2% de la durée de vie, cette dernière n'étant pas modifiée par le traitement.

  14. Pars plana Ahmed valve and vitrectomy in patients with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsh, Josh O; Gallemore, Ron P; Taban, Mehran; Hu, Charles; Sharareh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a modified technique for pars plana placement of the Ahmed valve in combination with pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease. Thirty-nine eyes with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease underwent pars plana vitrectomy combined with Ahmed valve placement. All valves were placed in the pars plana using a modified technique, without the pars plana clip, and using a scleral patch graft. The 24 eyes diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 37.6 mmHg to 13.8 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 2.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.40 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Fifteen eyes diagnosed with steroid-induced glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 27.9 mmHg to 14.1 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 1.38 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Complications included four cases of cystic bleb formation and one case of choroidal detachment and explantation for hypotony. Ahmed valve placement through the pars plana during vitrectomy is an effective option for managing complex cases of glaucoma without the use of the pars plana clip.

  15. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  16. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Hunger amidst plenty along the coast of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Nascimento

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work one analyzes some referring questions to the new significações of the temporality constructed socially enters the artisan fishing of the coast, in the city of Maracanã, using as boundary-maker the concepts the concepts of abundance and famitura the one that they send themselves to the speech in way of life of the past and the gift. It will see as the typical way of life of the rescued past of the memory of old and the meaning of the abundance in the time of the fishing-farmer, the counterpoint with the concept of famitura of the fishing-exclusive of the gift, where the loss surpasses the scope of the strict survival reaching the proper way of life with the weakness of solidarity. This analysis will be given mecanicamente in the conceptual field of the time measured for the tasks and of the time chronometered for the clock. The intensive field work ocurred on Fortaleza of the Mocooca community incorporating data gotten a long the author's experience in the fish artisan thematic of the Pará coast.

  18. Le Web pour enseigner par projets et favoriser la collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Ratté

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation du Web présentée dans cet article vient appuyer une démarche pédagogique fondée sur le partage des savoirs. Dans le contexte d’une simulation industrielle, les étudiants d’un cours de programmation avancée doivent apprendre à partager leur expertise, à communiquer clairement leurs questions, à décrire des problèmes et à faire face à des retournements inattendus. Le Web devient un espace de collaboration pour diffuser les requêtes d’un client fictif, les directives, les travaux préliminaires et les ententes. Les résultats obtenus tendent à suggérer que cette approche globale force l’étudiant à mieux planifier, l’invite à mieux formuler et décrire les problèmes, augmente le niveau de collaboration et facilite la production d’analogies. Un système facilitant la logistique entourant la revue par les pairs (récupération des travaux, construction d’une grille d’évaluation et diffusion des résultats est également présenté.

  19. Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Bridges, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell's equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported

  20. Characterization of ParTI Phoswiches Using Charged Pion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Emily; Zarrella, Andrew; Youngs, Michael; Yennello, Sherry

    2017-09-01

    The Partial Truncated Icosahedron (ParTI) detector array consists of 15 phoswiches. Each phoswich is made of two scintillating components - a thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) crystal and an EJ-212 scintillating plastic - coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Both materials have different scintillation times and are sensitive to both charged and neutral particles. The type of particle and amount of energy deposited determine the shape of the scintillation pulse as a function of time. By integrating the fast and slow signals of the scintillation pulses, a ``Fast vs. Slow Integration'' plot can be created that produces particle identification lines based on the energy deposited in the scintillating materials. Four of these phoswiches were taken to the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland where π + , π-, and proton beams were scattered onto the phoswiches to demonstrate their particle identification (PID) capabilities. Using digitizers to record the detector response waveforms, pions can also be identified by the characteristic decay pulse of the muon daughters.

  1. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  2. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Eder dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. PMID:27833419

  3. Prognostic value of suPAR and hs-CRP on cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Marie Zöga; Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Mickley, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims: Studies have shown that soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) and CRP (both inflammatory markers) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are independent risk predictors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether suPAR and CRP...... have an increased predictive prognostic value beyond the traditional CV risk factors and the CAC score. Methods: A population sample of 1179 subjects, free of CV disease was included. The subjects underwent traditional CV risk evaluation, CAC assessment and blood sampling for suPAR and CRP. CV events...

  4. Profils des enfants infectes par le vih en debut du traitement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Décrire les profils des enfants infectés par le VIH au début du traitement antirétroviral. Matériels et méthode: Les dossiers des enfants infectés par le VIH dans la région maritime ont été analysés de mai 2008 à février 2010 par le comité thérapeutique. Résultats: Parmi les 96 dossiers analysés, 66,67% venaient du ...

  5. Les dispensées par fantaisie en éducation physique et sportive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude vise à comprendre les raisons avancées par les élèves dispensés par fantaisie des cours d'EPS, pour justifier leur attitude et principalement leur forfait. Une enquête par questionnaire écrit a été menée dans 13 établissements publics de la ville de Porto-Novo au Bénin. Au total, 203 élèves parmi les 771 élèves ...

  6. MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE CHIMIQUE DANS LA REDUCTION DES OXYDES D4AZOTE PAR DECHARGE COURONNE.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHDI, Sarah ines

    2015-01-01

    CE TRAVAIL DE recherche rentre dans le cadre général de modélisation de la réduction des oxydes d'azote . l'utilisation des réacteurs a plasma froid non-thermique généré par des décharges couronnes est actuellement l'une des techniques les puis promettre .ses pour la destruction des oxydes d'azote .en effet , le traitement des gaz pollués par les décharges couronnes est notamment rendu possible par la multiplication des décharges Électriques .

  7. Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Maria; Kolev, Vihren; Soldi, Raffaella; Kirov, Alexander; Graziani, Irene; Oliveira, Silvia Marta; Kacer, Doreen; Friesel, Robert; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis

  8. Complexation de l'aluminium par des hétéropolyanions lacunaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif visé par cette étude est la dépollution des eaux à partir de la complexation d'un métal toxique, l'aluminium en solution, par des hétéropolyanions lacunaires (HPA) de type Dawson. Les complexes formés sont récupérés par membrane liquide émulsionnée (MEL).Les résultats de la complex1ation de l'aluminium ...

  9. Influence of P-Reactor operation on the aquatic ecology of Par Pond: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Tilly, L.J.

    1985-02-01

    Par Pond is a 1012 hectare reservoir that was constructed in 1958 to provide cooling water for Savannah River nuclear reactors. The purpose of this report is to summarize all known studies on the Par Pond system and point out demonstrable or probable effects that can be correlated with reactor operations. Reactor operation effects the Par Pond ecosystem through: (1) pumping, (2) thermal alteration, and (3) the addition of Savannah River makeup water. The influence of each of these factors is discussed. 108 references, 24 figures, 34 tables. (MF)

  10. Monoradiculopathy and secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Tuncay; Tutkan, Ibrahim

    2009-04-01

    Instability can develop after lumbar spinal surgery. What is also known as secondary segmental instability is one of the important causes of failed back syndrome. In this paper, we described a 45-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with secondary segmental instability caused by left L3 pars interarticularis fracture after a high lumbar disc surgery and was subsequently treated with re-operation. We evaluated the clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment methods for secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture. Furthermore, we emphasized the importance of preserving the pars interarticularis during upper lumbar disc surgeries in order to avoid a potential stress fracture.

  11. Dynamique de nanobulles et nanoplasmas generes autour de nanoparticules plasmoniques irradiees par des impulsions ultracourtes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagallier, Adrien

    L'emergence des lasers a impulsion ultrabreves et des nanotechnologies a revolutionne notre perception et notre maniere d'interagir avec l'infiniment petit. Les gigantesques intensites generees par ces impulsions plus courtes que les temps de relaxation ou de diffusion du milieu irradie induisent de nombreux phenomenes non-lineaires, du doublement de frequence a l'ablation, dans des volumes de dimension caracteristique de l'ordre de la longueur d'onde du laser. En biologie et en medecine, ces phenomenes sont utilises a des fins d'imagerie multiphotonique ou pour detruire des tissus vivants. L'introduction de nanoparticules plasmoniques, qui concentrent le champ electromagnetique incident dans des regions de dimensions nanometriques, jusqu'a une fraction de la longueur d'onde, amplifie les phenomenes non-lineaires tout en offrant un controle beaucoup plus precis de la deposition d'energie, ouvrant la voie a la detection de molecules individuelles en solution et a la nanochirurgie. La nanochirurgie repose principalement sur la formation d'une bulle de vapeur a proximite d'une membrane cellulaire. Cette bulle de vapeur perce la membrane de maniere irreversible,entrainant la cellule a sa mort, ou la perturbe temporairement, ce qui permet d'envisager de faire penetrer dans la cellule des medicaments ou des brins d'ADN pour de la therapie genique. C'est principalement la taille de la bulle qui va decider de l'issue de l'irradiation laser. Il est donc necessaire de controler finement les parametres du laser et la geometrie de la nanoparticule afin d'atteindre l'objectif fixe. Le moyen le plus direct a l'heure actuelle de valider un ensemble de conditions experimentales est de realiser l'experience en laboratoire,ce qui est long et couteux. Les modeles de dynamique de bulle existants ne prennent pas en compte les parametres de l'irradiation et ajustent souvent leurs conditions initiales a partir de leurs mesures experimentales, ce qui limite la portee du modele au cas pour

  12. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centrales termoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto al parámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas de monitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados para este estudio.This work show the study in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative with statistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements. Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parameters for this study.

  13. Efficacy and safety of the pars plana clip in the Ahmed valve device inserted via the pars plana in patients with refractory glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Diaz-Llopis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Diaz-Llopis1,2,3, David Salom1,3, Salvador García-Delpech1,2,3, Patricia Udaondo1,3, Jose Maria Millan3,5, J Fernando Arevalo61Department of Ophthalmology, La Fe University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology of the Valencia University, Valencia, Spain; 3Biomedical Network Research Centre on Rare Diseases (CIBERER, Valencia, Spain; 4Catholic University San Vicente Martir, Valencia, Spain; 5Department of Genetics, La Fe University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 6Clinica Oftalmologica Centro Caracas, Retina and VItreous Service, Caracas, DC, VenezuelaPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the pars plana clip (PPC in the Ahmed valve tube inserted via the pars plana in patients with secondary refractory glaucomas.Methods: Prospective and interventional case series that included 10 patients with secondary refractory glaucoma. The pars plana vitrectomy and the implant of the modified tube were performed during the same surgery. Control of intraocular pressure (IOP and the development of intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated during the follow-up.Results: Follow-up time was twelve months in all the patients. Control of IOP was achieved in 90% of patients, and 70% needed no antiglaucoma treatment. The complications that occurred were transient hypotony in three cases, choroidal detachment in two cases, and one case of intraocular hemorrhage. No case of tube extrusion or tube kink was observed.Conclusions: Our data suggests that implantation of the Ahmed tube modified with the PPC via the pars plana is safe and effective in patients with secondary refractory glaucomas. Keywords: pars plana clip, Ahmed valve, refractory glaucoma, pars plana vitrectomy

  14. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  15. Outcome of early pars plana vitrectomy in exogenous endophthalmitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.J.; Islam, Q.U.; Hanif, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of early pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in cases of exogenous endophthalmitis in terms of final visual outcome and to determine association between various study variables and final visual outcome. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2010 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: Eleven cases of exogenous endophthalmitis (post surgical/post traumatic) were managed surgically through 20 G or 23/25 G complete and early PPV. Vitreous aspirate/explanted intraocular lens (IOL) were sent for culture and sensitivity in all cases. Intra and post operative complications were recorded and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 3 months post operative interval was taken as final visual acuity. Results: Median age of study population was 55 years with male preponderance (64%). Approximately 2/3 rd of study population developed endophthalmitis within 6 weeks of surgery/trauma and 55% of patients were operated within 2 weeks of presentation. Positive culture from vitreous aspirate/IOL explant was obtained in 27% of cases. All the patients had initial BCVA in the range of counting finger (CF) at 2 meter to perception of light (PL+). However, 18% of the patients achieved final BCVA of 6/12 or better and 64% achieved final BCVA of 6/36 or better. Maculopathy (macular scar, macular pucker), corneal decompensation, corneal opacity and raised intraocular pressure were the major complications associated with compromised visual outcome. Conclusion: With the advancement in vitreoretinal surgical techniques and availability of more sophisticated viewing and illumination systems, early and complete vitrectomy for post operative or post traumatic endophthalmitis results in favorable visual outcome and early rehabilitation. (author)

  16. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  17. PAR-1 and thrombin: the ties that bind the microenvironment to melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Maya; Kamiya, Takafumi; Brantley, Emily C; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-11-01

    Progression of melanoma is dependent on cross-talk between tumor cells and the adjacent microenvironment. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), plays a key role in exerting this function during melanoma progression. PAR-1 and its activating factors, which are expressed on tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, induce not only coagulation but also cell signaling, which promotes the metastatic phenotype. Several adhesion molecules, cytokines, growth factors, and proteases have recently been identified as downstream targets of PAR-1 and have been shown to modulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in the process of melanoma growth and metastasis. Inhibiting such interactions by targeting PAR-1 could potentially be a useful therapeutic modality for melanoma patients. ©2011 AACR.

  18. Application of passive auto catalytic recombiner (PAR) for BWR plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Murano, K.; Yamanari, S.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR), which can recombine flammable gases such as hydrogen and oxygen with each other to avoid an explosion in case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), installed in the primary containment vessel does not require a power supply or dynamic equipment, while the existing flammability gas control system (FCS) of most BWRs as an outer loop of the primary containment vessel needs them to make flammable gases circulate through blowers and heaters in the system. PAR offers a number of advantages over existing FCS, such as high reliability, low cost due to much smaller amount of materials needed, good maintainability, good operability in case of a LOCA, and smaller space for installation. An experimental study has been carried out for the purpose of solving the problems of applying PAR to Japanese BWR plants instead of existing FCS, in which we grasped the basic characteristics of PAR. (author)

  19. ParTIES: a toolbox for Paramecium interspersed DNA elimination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2016-02-15

    Developmental DNA elimination occurs in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, but ciliates are the only single-celled eukaryotes in which this phenomenon has been reported. Despite considerable interest in ciliates as models for DNA elimination, no standard methods for identification and characterization of the eliminated sequences are currently available. We present the Paramecium Toolbox for Interspersed DNA Elimination Studies (ParTIES), designed for Paramecium species, that (i) identifies eliminated sequences, (ii) measures their presence in a sequencing sample and (iii) detects rare elimination polymorphisms. ParTIES is multi-threaded Perl software available at https://github.com/oarnaiz/ParTIES. ParTIES is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence v3. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV; Gosselin, L; Qian, P

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum

  1. uPAR Expression Pattern in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Line Hammer; Pappot, Helle; Iversen, Benedikte Richter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to confirm the expression and localisation pattern of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focusing on its possible clinical relevance in patients with urothelial neoplasia of the bladder. uPAR is a central molecule in tissue remodelling...... during cancer invasion and metastasis and is an established prognostic marker in various cancer diseases other than bladder cancer. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumour-tissue blocks from 186 patients treated with radical cystectomy were analysed. uPAR expression was scored as either negative...... or positive as well as by the actual score. Separate scores were obtained for cancer cells, macrophages and myofibroblasts at the invasive front and in tumour core. We were able to confirm, in an independent patient cohort, the tissue expression and localisation pattern of uPAR as investigated...

  2. Contamination des eaux de puits traditionnels par les nitrates sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... Objectif : La contamination des eaux souterraines par les nitrates est un ... Methodology and Results: the origin of nitrate water from traditional wells of Lobo's watershed was ...... 12 water supply wells, Yucatan, Mexico.

  3. ParFit: A Python-Based Object-Oriented Program for Fitting Molecular Mechanics Parameters to ab Initio Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Dick-Perez, Marilu

    2017-03-27

    A newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides, important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit. ParFit is in an open source program available for free on GitHub ( https://github.com/fzahari/ParFit ).

  4. Infection par le VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein et de comparer les caractéristiques anatomocliques et thérapeutiques de ces cancers du sein par rapports aux patientes non infectées par le VIH. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et analytique comparant les ...

  5. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, David, E-mail: dpopp@imcb.a-star.edu.sg [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Robinson, Robert C. [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-01-22

    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  6. Etude par simulation hil des performances d'un statcom pour la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ce travail présente l'étude par simulation Hardware In the Loop (HIL) des performances d'un STATCOM pour la stabilisation de la tension délivrée par une génératrice asynchrone triphasée auto excitée dans un réseau autonome. Nous avons combiné l'utilisation du logiciel de simulation LABVIEW et la carte ARDUINO ...

  7. The superoxide scavenger TEMPOL induces urokinase receptor (uPAR expression in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little understanding of the effect that reactive oxygen metabolites have on cellular behavior during the processes of invasion and metastasis. These oxygen metabolites could interact with a number of targets modulating their function such as enzymes involved in basement membrane dissolution, adhesion molecules involved in motility or receptors involved in proliferation. We investigated the effect of increased scavenging of superoxide anions on the expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR in PC-3M human prostate cancer cells. Urokinase receptor is a GPI-linked cell surface molecule which mediates multiple functions including adhesion, proliferation and pericellular proteolysis. Addition of the superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL to PC-3M cultures stimulated expression of uPAR protein peaking between 48 and 72 hours. Cell surface expression of the uPAR was also increased. Surprisingly, uPAR transcript levels increased only slightly and this mild increase did not coincide with the striking degree of protein increase. This disparity indicates that the TEMPOL effect on uPAR occurs through a post-transcriptional mechanism. TEMPOL presence in PC-3M cultures reduced intracellular superoxide-type species by 75% as assayed by NBT dye conversion; however this reduction significantly diminished within hours following TEMPOL removal. The time gap between TEMPOL treatment and peak uPAR protein expression suggests that reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in prostate cancer cells initiates a multistep pathway which requires several hours to culminate in uPAR induction. These findings reveal a novel pathway for uPAR regulation involving reactive oxygens such as superoxide anion.

  8. Compression robuste du signal par la transformée avec les B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par contre, elle diminue de façon considérable pour les b-splincs et les paquets dbndelcttes de Haar. Du point de vue entropie, la compression par bfsplines est bonne que celle de la TCD. Nous donnons ci-dessous un tableau récapitulatif des résultats de quelques méthodes utilisées pour deux signaux EMG. Le facteur de ...

  9. SuPAR predicts postoperative complications and mortality in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    complications with a HR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 5.1, P=0.002), per doubling in suPAR. After adjusting for the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score, suPAR remained associated with postoperative mortality with a HR 3.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 8.6, P=0.025) and 2...

  10. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  11. Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo de Almeida Farias Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Farias Junior U. de A. & Chalkidis H.M. [Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report.] Envenenamento clínico de bovino por peçonha de Bothrops atrox no município de Oriximiná-Pará, Amazô- nia Central, Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:264-268, 2015. Laboratório de Pesquisas Zoológicas, Faculdades Integradas do Tapajós, Rua Rosa Vermelha, 335, Aeroporto Velho, Santarém, PA 68010-200, Brasil. E-mail: chalkidis@hotmail.com It explains a case of poisoning bovine by Bothrops atrox, abundant snake family Viperidae, prevalent in northern Brazil, assigned as the etiological agent of over 90% of cases of snakebite in the State of Pará. Report the examination semiological and the clinical symptoms observed due to its evolution as well. Clinical signs are confronted with the findings conferred in similar cases reported by veterinarians and ranchers in the region. The treatment in this particular case was not proceeded in order to examine symptoms presented by the accuracy of these reports.

  12. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Methodology: Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Results: Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Conclusion: Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver. (author)

  13. Par and IR reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance of four crop canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjura, D.F.; Hatfield, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of electromagnetic radiation by cotton, soybeans, grain sorghum, and sunflower was measured at three growth stages in two wavebands (PAR: 0.4 to 0.7 pun and IR: 0.7 to 1.1 yim). As leaf area increased in each crop there were increases in IR reflectance and PAR absorptance and decreases in PAR reflectance and both PAR and IR transmittance. IR radiation was concentrated at the soil surface between rows by reflectance from the sides of canopies when crop cover was less than 80%. Across all crops one parameter, leaf overlap index, explained 81 and 71% of the PAR reflectance and another, crop cover, explained 86 and 94% of IR reflectance from rows and interrows, respectively. Attenuation of PAR radiation through the canopies of cotton and sunflower was similar (K = 0.62 and 0.67) but different from that of soybeans and grain sorghum (K = 0.46 and 0.43) which were the same

  14. Numerical analysis of the influence of PAR unit elevation within a vessel on its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotouč, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of successful validation of the MELCOR code on several experiments from the international OECD/NEA programme THAI, a numerical parametric study has been conducted at NRI Řež evaluating the influence of PAR's vertical position within a vessel on its performance. Simulations were carried out for an Areva PAR unit which was considered to be placed at 5 different elevations in the THAI test vessel, the sixth simulation comprised a model of blower, simulating thus forced convection. The initial conditions were those of the THAI HR-12 test, which was characterized by steam-saturated atmosphere at elevated pressure and temperature. The results show that the overall hydrogen mass recombined monotonically decreases with PAR elevation. This behavior is due to hot, light and hydrogen-lean plume, coming out from the PAR outlet, which, due to buoyancy forces, eventually fills the upper part of the vessel and prevents thus the PAR unit from efficient operation (if the latter is placed near the top). It was also demonstrated that the effect of forced convection is favorable since it breaks the gas stratification and increases thus hydrogen concentration at the PAR inlet. (author)

  15. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P.; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-01-01

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR 1 ). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR 1 -deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR 1 -specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR 1 mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR 1 and not PAR 2 . These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis

  16. Elevated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predicts mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mölkänen, T; Ruotsalainen, E; Thorball, C W

    2011-01-01

    The soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a new inflammatory marker. High suPAR levels have been shown to associate with mortality in cancer and in chronic infections like HIV and tuberculosis, but reports on the role of suPAR in acute bacteremic infections...... are scarce. To elucidate the role of suPAR in a common bacteremic infection, the serum suPAR levels in 59 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA assay and associations to 1-month mortality and with deep infection focus were analyzed. On day three, after...... the first positive blood culture for S. aureus, suPAR levels were higher in 19 fatalities (median 12.3; range 5.7-64.6 ng/mL) than in 40 survivors (median 8.4; range 3.7-17.6 ng/mL, p = 0.002). This difference persisted for 10 days. The presence of deep infection focus was not associated with elevated su...

  17. Brief communication: Population variation in human maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Scott E; Hawkey, Diane E; Turner, Christy G

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to report the results of an analysis of maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR), a common but understudied accessory ridge that may occur both mesial and distal to the central ridge of the buccal cusp of upper premolars. We developed a new five-grade scoring plaque to better categorize MxPAR variation. Subsequently, we conducted a population analysis of MxPAR frequency in 749 dental casts of South African Indian, American Chinese, Alaskan Eskimo, Tohono O'odham (Papago), Akimel O'odham (Pima), Solomon Islander, South African Bantu, and both American and South African Whites. Northeast Asian and Asian-derived populations exhibited the highest MxPAR frequencies while Indo-European samples (South African Indians, American and South African Whites) exhibited relatively low frequencies. The Solomon Islanders and South African Bantu samples exhibited intermediate frequencies. Our analysis indicates that statistically significant differences in MxPAR frequency exist between major geographic populations. As a result, the MxPAR plaque has now been added to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, an important contribution as maxillary premolar traits are underrepresented in analyses of dental morphology. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context.

  19. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a “Hub” of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Elmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca’s area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1, whereas the other brain regions of the control network showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2 translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation.

  20. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  1. Treatment time and occlusal outcome of orthognathic therapy in the East of England region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Huw G; Cousley, Richard R; Newton, Tim; Abela, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the process of combined orthognathic and orthodontic care. To identify factors that affect treatment time and percentage Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) reduction, and the PAR efficiency factor for such cases. Retrospective multi centre study of patients who underwent orthognathic treatment in the East of England region. Analysis of consecutive cases that underwent orthognathic surgery in 2008. Inclusion criteria included pre- and post-surgery orthodontic treatment. Ten orthodontic units submitted data for a total of 118 patients. Within the sample, 64% were class III, 35% class II/1 and 1% class II/2. Overall extraction rate, excluding third molars, was 58%. Median age at bond up was 17 years. Mean total number of orthodontic attendances was 23. Median length of pre-surgical orthodontics was 23 months and post-surgical orthodontics was 7 months. Median length of total treatment was 29 months. Mean wait for surgery was 3·6 months. Diagnosis of incisor relationship and skeletal base, transfer of operator, total number of visits, tooth extraction and treatment unit affected treatment duration. Median pre- and post-treatment PAR scores were 43 and 4, respectively. Median change in PAR score was 38·5. Median per cent reduction in PAR was 90·6%. The median PAR efficiency factor (reduction in PAR score divided by treatment time in months) was 1·24. Diagnosis of incisor relationship and skeletal base correlated with percentage reduction in PAR score. Combined orthognathic treatment was effective. Factors affecting treatment duration and percentage reduction in PAR have been established.

  2. Parijs is een meervoud. Adriaan van Dis en de heruitvinding van de Hollander in Parijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, M.N.; Koffeman, Maaike; Montoya, Alicia C.; Smeets, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Parijs, tot halverwege de 20ste eeuw het onbetwiste centrum van de Europese cultuur, heeft van oudsher een grote aantrekkingskracht uitgeoefend op Nederlandse kunstenaars en schrijvers. Velen van hen verbleven er kortere of langere tijd, op zoek naar internationale erkenning. De vrijere seksuele moraal

  3. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary: XIV electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study on the relationship between the agranular cells and GnRH neurons in the dorsal pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Naito, Akira; Horiuchi, Osamu; Mabuchi, Yoshio; Kanai, Miharu; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2007-11-01

    Although numerous investigators in 1970s to 1980s have reported the distribution of LH-RH nerve fibers in the median eminence, a few LH-RH fibers have been shown to be present in the pars tuberalis. The significance of the finding remains to be elucidated, and there are few studies on the distribution of LH-RH neurons in the pars tuberalis, especially in the dorsal pars tuberalis (DPT). Adult male Wistar-Imamichi rats were separated into two groups: one for electron microscopy and the other for immunohistochemistry to observe LH-RH and neurofilaments. Pituitary glands attached to the brain were fixed by perfusion, and the sections were prepared parallel to the sagittal plane. The typical glandular structure of the pars tuberalis was evident beneath the bottom floor of the third ventricle, and the thick glandular structure was present in the foremost region. Closer to the anterior lobe, the glandular structure changed to be a thin layer, and it was again observed at the posterior portion. Then the pituitary stalk was surrounded with the dorsal, lateral, and ventral pars tuberalis. LH-RH and neurofilaments fibers were noted in the bottom floor, and some of them vertically descended to the gland. Adjacent to the glandular folliculostellate cells in the pars tuberalis, Herring bodies with numerous dense granules invading into the gland were present between the pituitary stalk and DPT. It was postulated that the "message" carried by LH-RH might have been transmitted to the cells in the DPT to aid in the modulation of LH release. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Modeling post-wildfire hydrological processes with ParFlow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, I. S.; Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural processes within a watershed, such as surface runoff, evapotranspiration rates, and subsurface water storage. Post-fire hydrologic models are typically one-dimensional, empirically-based models or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models are useful for modeling and predictions at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide detailed, distributed hydrologic processes at the point scale within the watershed. This research uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to simulate post-fire hydrologic processes by representing the spatial and temporal variability of soil burn severity (via hydrophobicity) and vegetation recovery. Using this approach, we are able to evaluate the change in post-fire water components (surface flow, lateral flow, baseflow, and evapotranspiration). This work builds upon previous field and remote sensing analysis conducted for the 2003 Old Fire Burn in Devil Canyon, located in southern California (USA). This model is initially developed for a hillslope defined by a 500 m by 1000 m lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 12.4 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness to explicitly consider soil burn severity throughout the stages of recovery and vegetation regrowth. We consider four slope and eight hydrophobic layer configurations. Evapotranspiration is used as a proxy for vegetation regrowth and is represented by the satellite-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBOP) product. The pre- and post-fire surface runoff, subsurface storage, and surface storage interactions are evaluated at the point scale. Results will be used as a basis for developing and fine-tuning a watershed-scale model. Long-term simulations will advance our understanding of post-fire hydrological partitioning between water balance components and the spatial variability of watershed processes, providing improved guidance for post-fire watershed management. In reference

  5. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  6. Investigation of the core-halo structure of the neutron-rich nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He by intermediate-energy elastic proton scattering at high momentum transfer; Etude de la structure coeur-halo des noyaux riches en neutron {sup 6}He et {sup 8}He par la diffusion elastique de protons aux energies intermediaires etendue a la region du premier minimum de diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksouh, F

    2002-12-01

    The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in {sup 6,8}He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)

  7. uPA/uPAR system activation drives a glycolytic phenotype in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Chillà, Anastasia; Luciani, Cristina; Peppicelli, Silvia; Biagioni, Alessio; Bianchini, Francesca; Tenedini, Elena; Torre, Eugenio; Mocali, Alessandra; Calorini, Lido; Margheri, Francesca; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2017-09-15

    In this manuscript, we show the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis of melanoma cells. uPAR over-expression in human melanoma cells controls an invasive and glycolytic phenotype in normoxic conditions. uPAR down-regulation by siRNA or its uncoupling from integrins, and hence from integrin-linked tyrosine kinase receptors (IL-TKRs), by an antagonist peptide induced a striking inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF1α pathway, resulting into impairment of glucose uptake, decrease of several glycolytic enzymes and of PKM2, a checkpoint that controls metabolism of cancer cells. Further, binding of uPA to uPAR regulates expression of molecules that govern cell invasion, including extracellular matrix metallo-proteinases inducer (EMPPRIN) and enolase, a glycolytyc enzyme that also serves as a plasminogen receptor, thus providing a common denominator between tumor metabolism and phenotypic invasive features. Such effects depend on the α5β1-integrin-mediated uPAR connection with EGFR in melanoma cells with engagement of the PI3K-mTOR-HIFα pathway. HIF-1α trans-activates genes whose products mediate tumor invasion and glycolysis, thus providing the common denominator between melanoma metabolism and its invasive features. These findings unveil a unrecognized interaction between the invasion-related uPAR and IL-TKRs in the control of glycolysis and disclose a new pharmacological target (i.e., uPAR/IL-TKRs axis) for the therapy of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  9. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G; Toms, Andoni P [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  10. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P. [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  11. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  12. RESOLUTION DU PROBLEME DE PREDICTION LINEAIRE PAR LA METHODE ULV. APPLICATION AU SIGNAL FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M KHELIF

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la spectroscopie RMN, notre objectif est de déterminer le spectre d'absorption du signal de précession libre FID par la méthode de prédiction linéaire (PL. Ceci revient à résoudre le problème de prédiction linéaire en exploitant la méthode de corrélation par l'utilisation de la décomposition en valeurs singulières SVD pour l'inversion de la matrice de corrélation. Or, cette technique est la source d'un certain nombre de problèmes lorsque le signal est noyé dans du bruit. Aussi sera-t-elle coûteuse en temps lorsque les dimensions de la matrice de corrélation sont importantes. Afin de résoudre ce problème, nous exploitons les propriétés d'une nouvelle technique dérivée de la SVD, la décomposition ULV pour minimiser le coût du traitement et assurer une inversion correcte de la matrice de corrélation. Dans ce but, nous déterminons le spectre d'absorption par la technique ULV et nous le comparons avec le spectre déterminé par la SVD et  la FFT. Nous comparons par la suite la qualité des spectres obtenus par rapport au spectre d'absorption idéal  déterminé par FFT.

  13. Chemical analysis of rainfall and throughfall in primary forest in the Tapajós National Forest, Belterra, Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Oliveira Junior; M. Keller; J. F. da F. Ramos; T.P. Beldini; P.M Crill; P.B. de Camargo; J. van Haren

    2015-01-01

    The Tapajós National Forest (FLONA Tapajós) has 600,000 hectares of protected forest, and is situated 50 km south of the city of Santarém, Pará, Brazil, a port city of 250,000 inhabitants that is located at the confluence of the Tapajós and Amazon Rivers. There is a lot of farmland in the region, which offers many opportunities to study changes in land use. Selective...

  14. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  15. CFD modelling of hydrogen stratification in enclosures: Model validation and application to PAR performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyes, J.R., E-mail: james.hoyes@hsl.gsi.gov.uk; Ivings, M.J.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The ability of CFD to predict hydrogen stratification phenomena is investigated. • Contrary to expectation, simulations on tetrahedral meshes under-predict mixing. • Simulations on structured meshes give good agreement with experimental data. • CFD model used to investigate the effects of stratification on PAR performance. • Results show stratification can have a significant effect on PAR performance. - Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are maturing into useful tools for supporting safety analyses. This paper investigates the capabilities of CFD models for predicting hydrogen stratification in a containment vessel using data from the NEA/OECD SETH2 MISTRA experiments. Further simulations are then carried out to illustrate the qualitative effects of hydrogen stratification on the performance of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) units. The MISTRA experiments have well-defined initial and boundary conditions which makes them well suited for use in a validation study. Results are presented for the sensitivity to mesh resolution and mesh type. Whilst the predictions are shown to be largely insensitive to the mesh resolution they are surprisingly sensitive to the mesh type. In particular, tetrahedral meshes are found to induce small unphysical convection currents that result in molecular diffusion and turbulent mixing being under-predicted. This behaviour is not unique to the CFD model used here (ANSYS CFX) and furthermore, it may affect simulations run on other non-aligned meshes (meshes that are not aligned perpendicular to gravity), including non-aligned structured meshes. Following existing best practice guidelines can help to identify potential unphysical predictions, but as an additional precaution consideration should be given to using gravity-aligned meshes for modelling stratified flows. CFD simulations of hydrogen recombination in the Becker Technologies THAI facility are presented with high and low PAR positions

  16. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Bernard

    Full Text Available The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs, are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA, through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse.

  17. Increased plasma soluble uPAR level is a risk marker of respiratory cancer in initially cancer-free individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne A; Hansen, Tine Willum; Ladelund, Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable plasma biomarker associated with inflammation and disease. This study tested the association between suPAR levels and incident respiratory, gastrointestinal or other types of cancer in initially cancer-free individuals...... with respiratory, gastrointestinal and other cancer types, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels were associated with increased risk of incident respiratory cancer and other types of cancer, but not gastrointestinal cancers, independently of established risk factors, CRP and leukocyte numbers. Impact.......RESULTS: suPAR levels ranged from 0.6-22 ng/ml, and median suPAR level was 4.01 ng/ml. 1 ng/ml increase in baseline suPAR was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.23-2.11, P

  18. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Barber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated.

  19. Removal of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) factor suPAR using CytoSorb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Heiko; Müller-Deile, Janina; Schmitt, Roland; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and its recurrence after kidney transplantation associated with rapid deterioration of kidney function remains to be challenging despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy. The presence of circulating factors has been postulated to be a pivotal player in the pathogenesis of FSGS, although suPAR and CLCF-1 have been identified as the most promising causative factors. The potential therapeutic effect of suPAR elimination in an FSGS patient using CytoSorb, a hemoadsorption device that gained attention in the cytokine elimination in septic patients, was studied. Efficiency of total plasma exchange to remove suPAR was determined. CytoSorb hemoadsorption caused a 27.33% reduction of the suPAR level in a single treatment, whereas total plasma exchange showed a suPAR level reduction of 25.12% (n = 3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2777-0.8090; P < 0.01), which may indicate therapeutic potential in the treatment of primary FSGS and its recurrence in a kidney transplant. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G; Brøgger, Anna L; Frøhling, Kasper B; Boisen, Anja; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody–antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform. (paper)

  1. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer.

  2. "It was like reading a detective novel": Using PAR to work together for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Darla; McKeown, Janet; Dupuis, Sherry; de Witt, Lorna

    2015-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR), with its focus on engagement and collaboration, is uniquely suited to enhancing culture change initiatives in dementia care. Yet, there is limited literature of its application to culture change approaches in care settings, and even less in dementia specific care contexts. To address these gaps in the literature, the purpose of this paper is to examine the complexities of a PAR project aimed at changing the culture of dementia care in two diverse dementia care settings, including a long term care (LTC) and community care setting. Drawing from data gathered throughout the PAR process, we unpack the challenges experienced by participants working together to guide culture change within their respective care settings. These challenges include: overextending selves through culture change participation; fluctuating group membership; feeling uncertainty, confusion and apprehension about the process; frustratingly slow process; and seeking diverse group representation in decision making. We also highlight the potential for appreciative inquiry (AI) to be integrated with PAR to guide a process whereby participants involved in culture change initiatives can develop strategies to mitigate challenges they experience. We view the challenges and strategies shared here as being constructive to would-be culture change agents and hope this paper will move others to consider the use of PAR when engaging in culture change initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  4. Soroprevalência de infecções por vírus da hepatite B e vírus da hepatite C em indivíduos do Estado do Pará Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections among individuals in the State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Américo Aquino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As hepatites B e C continuam sendo um importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Neste estudo, determinou-se a prevalência de marcadores sorológicos para as hepatites B e C em indivíduos do Estado do Pará, atendidos no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Pará, no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2005. Foram realizados 11.282 exames para a pesquisa do HBsAg, 2.342 para o anti-HBc e 5.542 para o anti-vírus da hepatite C. A prevalência de HBsAg foi de 3,6% e predominou na faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos, enquanto que o anti-HBc foi observado em 37,7% dos indivíduos. A prevalência do antivírus da hepatite C foi de 3,6% e predominou entre indivíduos acima de 50 anos. Assim, as freqüências dos marcadores encontradas no Pará foram mais altas que em vários outros estados do país, sugerindo a necessidade de medidas de saúde publica mais eficazes no combate a estes agravos na região.Hepatitis B and C continue to be important public health problems in Brazil. In this study, the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C in individuals from the State of Pará, attended at the Central Public Health Laboratory of Pará between January 2002 and December 2005, was determined. 11,282 tests to investigate HBsAg, 2,342 for anti-HBc and 5,542 for anti-HCV were performed. The prevalence of HBsAg was 3.6% and it was predominantly found in the age range of 20 to 29 years old, while anti-HBC was observed in 37.7% of the subjects. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus was 3.6% and it was predominantly found in individuals over 50 years old. Thus, the frequencies of the markers found in Pará were higher than many other states in Brazil, hence suggesting that there is a need for public health measures of greater effectiveness for combating these illnesses in this region.

  5. mTORC2 activation is regulated by the urokinase receptor (uPAR) in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Andrew M; Leivo, Mariah Z; Gilder, Andrew S; Hu, Jing-Jing; Gonias, Steven L; Hansel, Donna E

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been identified as a major regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion. Upstream pathways that mediate mTORC2 activation remain poorly defined. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored membrane protein and known activator of cell-signaling. We identified increased uPAR expression in 94% of invasive human bladder cancers and in 54-71% of non-invasive bladder cancers, depending on grade. Normal urothelium was uPAR-immunonegative. Analysis of publicly available datasets identified uPAR gene amplification or mRNA upregulation in a subset of bladder cancer patients with reduced overall survival. Using biochemical approaches, we showed that uPAR activates mTORC2 in bladder cancer cells. Highly invasive bladder cancer cell lines, including T24, J82 and UM-UC-3 cells, showed increased uPAR mRNA expression and protein levels compared with the less aggressive cell lines, UROtsa and RT4. uPAR gene-silencing significantly reduced phosphorylation of Serine-473 in Akt, an mTORC2 target. uPAR gene-silencing also reduced bladder cancer cell migration and Matrigel invasion. S473 phosphorylation was observed by immunohistochemistry in human bladder cancers only when the tumors expressed high levels of uPAR. S473 phosphorylation was not controlled by uPAR in bladder cancer cell lines that are PTEN-negative; however, this result probably did not reflect altered mTORC2 regulation. Instead, PTEN deficiency de-repressed alternative kinases that phosphorylate S473. Our results suggest that uPAR and mTORC2 are components of a single cell-signaling pathway. Targeting uPAR or mTORC2 may be beneficial in patients with bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Phosphorus availability in the central area of the Argentine Pampean region. 1: Relationship between soil parameters, adsorption processes and wheat, soybean and corn yields in different soil and management environments Disponibilidad de fósforo en el área central de la Región Pampeana Argentina. 1: Relación entre los parámetros edáficos, los procesos de adsorción y los rendimientos de trigo, soja y maíz en diferentes ambientes de suelo y de manejo del cultivo Disponibilidade de fósforo na área central da Pampa Argentina. 1: Relação entre parâmetros do solo, processos de adsorção e rendimentos de trigo, soja e milho em diferentes ambientes de solo e manejo da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín M. Silva Rossi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Retention of phosphorus in the soil solid phase is a complex process, caused by a combination of physical and chemical mechanisms that determine pools of compounds with different degrees of solubility. The amount of P available in a given pool can be associated with the adsorption maximum proposed by the Langmuir isotherm model, and with the energy with which it is retained. The aims of this work were: i to evaluate the impact of the fertilization history and soil type on phosphorus adsorption parameters, and ii to analyze the effect of soil properties, mainly the phosphorus adsorption parameters, on the yield of wheat, soybean and corn crops. In this study we established that the Bray & Kurtz 1 extractant is insufficiently sensitive for assessing changes in the nutrient availability when phosphorous concentrations are relatively low. The amount of phosphorus retained in the labile pool and its retention energy, however, are sensitive indicators of the availability of this nutrient. These indexes explain most of the variations in crop yields, and are determined more by P fertilization management than by soil type.La retención de fósforo en la fase sólida del suelo es un proceso complejo que es causada por una combinación de varios mecanismos físicos y químicos, que determinarán reservorios de compuestos con diferente grado de solubilidad. La cantidad de P disponible en un reservorio dado se puede asociar al máximo de adsorción propuesto por el modelo de isoterma de Langmuir y a la energía con la que está retenida en la fase sólida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: i evaluar el impacto de la historia de fertilización y el tipo de suelo en los parámetros de adsorción de fósforo, y ii analizar el efecto de las propiedades del suelo, principalmente los parámetros de adsorción de fósforo, en el rendimiento de los cultivos de trigo, soja y maíz. En este estudio se estableció la baja sensibilidad del extractante Bray y Kurtz 1

  7. Tumour Microenvironments Induce Expression of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) and Concomitant Activation of Gelatinolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Synnøve; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Latysheva, Nadezhda; Pirila, Emma; Steigen, Sonja E.; Hanes, Robert; Salo, Tuula; Winberg, Jan-Olof; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Svineng, Gunbjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells’ expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Methods The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography. Results We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Conclusions Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the

  8. Tumour microenvironments induce expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR and concomitant activation of gelatinolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Magnussen

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells' expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography.We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the regulation of posttranslational

  9. Paraplégie compliquant une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahmadi, Brahim; Awab, Almahdi; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes médullaires sont des complications rares des plaies abdominales antérieures par arme blanche. Son diagnostic est difficile parfois retardé. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique reste l'examen de choix. Le traitement dépend du tableau clinique et de la gravité de la souffrance médullaire. Le pronostic est corrélé à l’étendue et à la nature de la lésion médullaire. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel d'un traumatisme médullaire chez une patiente victime d'une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche. PMID:25995808

  10. Evaluation of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) Implementation in a Konvoi NPP Containment Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Alonso, E.; Papini, D.; Jimenez, G.

    2015-07-01

    The evaluation of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) implementation has been developed under the methodology extracted from the IAEA document, analysing the size, location and number of the PARs capable to minimize the combustion risk, which arises from a hydrogen release generated during a severe accident and its distribution in containment building. A detailed three-dimensional model of Konvoi (PWR) containment with GOTHIC 8.1 code was used for the simulations. The hydrogen preferential pathways and the accumulation points were studied and identified on the basis of a base case scenario without any mitigation measure. The PAR configuration offers an improvement in the chosen accidental scenario; decreasing the possibility of hydrogen combustion and leading to concentration values below the flammability limit (hydrogen concentration below 7%), in all the containment compartments at the end of the transient. Furthermore, from the analysis, it is concluded that the time required to reach hydrogen concentrations below the combustion limit is considerably reduced. (Author)

  11. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects...... of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI......) (P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CONCLUSIONS: CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis....

  12. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects

  13. Harmonization and development of resources and tools for Italian natural language processing within the PARLI project

    CERN Document Server

    Bosco, Cristina; Delmonte, Rodolfo; Moschitti, Alessandro; Simi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume are selected as a sample of the progress in Natural Language Processing (NLP) performed within the Italian NLP community and especially attested by the PARLI project. PARLI (Portale per l’Accesso alle Risorse in Lingua Italiana) is a project partially funded by the Ministero Italiano per l’Università e la Ricerca (PRIN 2008) from 2008 to 2012 for monitoring and fostering the harmonic growth and coordination of the activities of Italian NLP. It was proposed by various teams of researchers working in Italian universities and research institutions. According to the spirit of the PARLI project, most of the resources and tools created within the project and here described are freely distributed and they did not terminate their life at the end of the project itself, hoping they could be a key factor in future development of computational linguistics.

  14. Effect of a physical activity intervention on suPAR levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Andersen, Eivind

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel inflammatory marker, associated with lifestyle diseases and mortality risk. No studies have investigated whether physical activity may reduce suPAR levels using a randomized controlled design. DESIGN AND METHODS......: suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined in blood samples from a previous randomized controlled trial with Pakistani immigrants in Norway, 2008. The study included physically inactive men that were randomized to an intervention group (supervised group exercises) or a control group...... and followed for 5 months. A linear regression model was used and adjusted for age, inactivity level at baseline, and mean difference in CRP levels. RESULTS: Overall, 80 and 53 participants were included in the intervention and control group, respectively. Obesity and smoking were associated with higher su...

  15. Accouchement par césarienne et mortalité maternelle du postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Deneux-Tharaux , Catherine; Carmona , Elodie; Bouvier-Colle , Marie-Hélène; Bréart , Gérard

    2006-01-01

    Objectifs Une augmentation continue du taux d'accouchements par césarienne (CS)est observée dans la plupart des pays depuis 20 ans. Cette évolution a suscité l'émergence d'un débat controversé sur les risques et les bénéfices associés à la CS. L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer le risque de mort maternelle du postpartum lié directement à la CS par comparaison à l'accouchement par voie basse, globalement et en distinguant les CS pre- ou intra- partum . Méthode Etude cas/témoins. Les cas...

  16. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  17. Modification de la surface du cuivre par implantation ionique par source plasma (IISP): applications à l’érosion cathodique dans les systèmes à arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, F

    2006-01-01

    L’érosion cathodique est un phénomène bien connu qui limite la durée de vie de l’électrode négative dans les systèmes à arcs. Dans le présent mémoire, nous avons tenté de voir si la formation de précipités nanométriques d’oxyde de cuivre pouvait réduire l’érosion cathodique nécessaire au maintien de l’arc en mode thermo-champ (T-F). Les dits précipités ont été produits par implantation ionique par source plasma (IISP). Avec l’aide de techniques de caractérisation telle que la microscopie à fo...

  18. Spectroscopie du Furanne et du Thiophene Par Diffusion Inelastique D'electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Said

    Nous avons etudie les molecules de furanne ( rm C_4H_4O) et de thiophene (rm C_4H_4O) au moyen de la spectroscopie de diffusion inelastique d'electrons. Pour (rm C_4H_4O), les spectres realises dans differentes conditions d'energie d'impact et d'angle de diffusion contiennent des singularites ou des families de pics correspondant a: (1) des vibrations de l'etat fondamental dans le domaine 0-0.5 eV, (2) des etats triplets ^3 B_1 et ^3 A_1 qui dominent la region 3-5.5 eV, (3) des etats de valences, entre 5 et 10 eV, dont certains son accompagnes de progressions vibrationnelles, soit ~ A _1B_2, ~ B ^1A_1 et ~ C ^1A_1, (4) toujours entre 5 et 10 eV, deux series de Ryhdberg (rm 1a_2to nda_2 et rm 1a_2to npb_2) qui convergent vers la premiere limite d'ionisation de la molecule, avec une progression vibrationnelle associee au mdoe nu_4 pour la seconde, et une troisieme serie (rm 2b_1to nsa_1 ) convergent vers la seconde limite d'ionisation accompagnee de la progression de mode nu _1. Pour rm C_4H_4S, nos spectres presentent les memes etats de vibration et les memes etats triplets que pour rm C_4H _4O. Nous avons releve egalement, dans la region de 5 a 10 eV, des etats de valence ~ A ^1A_1 (ou ~ A ^1B_2), ~ B ^1A_1 (ou ~ B ^1B _2) et ~ C ^1A_1 (ou ~ C ^1B_2). Pour la premiere fois, par la spectroscopie de diffusion inelastique d'electrons, de nombreux pics ont ete identifies et attribues, dans le cadre de ce travail. Il s'agit, notamment, des etats de vibration de l'etat electronique fondamental de ces molecules et egalement de certains etats de Rydberg dans le cas du furanne.

  19. Parásitos intestinales en monos congo Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla Carmona

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las heces de 102 monos de la especie Alouatta palliata (monos aulladores o congos de las siguientes regiones de Costa Rica. Valle Central: San Ramón (Alajuela; Pacífico Central: Isla Chira y Parque Manuel Antonio (Puntarenas; Pacífico Norte: Palo Verde, Playa Potrero, Nicoya (Guanacaste y Caribe: Cahuita (Limón. Los animales capturados fueron anestesiados con dardos conteniendo Telazol®. La mayoría defecaron espontáneamente o se les estimulaba a defecar. Las muestras se estudiaron en el laboratorio en forma directa en solución salina (0.85% y una solución de yodo o teñidas con hematoxilina para identificar los parásitos correspondientes. El material fue cultivado en el medio de Dobell para determinar la presencia de amebas y flagelados. Se encontraron helmintos de los géneros Trypanoxyuris, Strongyloides y Controrchis y protozoarios de los géneros Endolimax, Entamoeba, Trichomonas y Giardia. Los porcentajes de infección por protozoarios oscilaron entre 16.7% y 80% y se encontraron helmintos en un 3.4% a un 80% de los animales de acuerdo con la zona estudiada. No se encontraron diferencias importantes de parasitosis relacionadas con el sexo pero si existió mayor infección en los animales más jóvenes. Se establece la relación entre los índices de infección y algunos parámetros tales como las áreas estudiadas, el peso de los animales y el contacto con el ser humano.Intestinal parasites in howler monkeys Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae of Costa Rica. Fecal samples of 102 howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata from several sites of Costa Rica were studied for intestinal parasites. The zones studied were: Central Valley (San Ramón, Alajuela, Central Pacific (Chomes and Manuel Antonio National Park, Puntarenas, North Pacific (Palo Verde Park and Playa Potrero, Guanacaste, Chira Island in the Nicoya Gulf and Caribean area (Cahuita, Limón. Animals were anesthetized with dards containing Telazol in order to collect

  20. Comparison of Direct Pars Repair Techniques of Spondylolysis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients: Pars Compression Screw Versus Pedicle Screw-Rod-Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ali F; Dede, Ozgur; Atanda, Alfred A; Holmes, Larry; Rogers, Kenneth; Gabos, Peter; Shah, Suken A

    2016-08-01

    Retrospective clinical cohort study. To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who were treated with intrasegmental pars fixation by either laminar compression screw (LS) or a pedicle screw, rod, and laminar hook (PSRH) construct. Spondylolysis is a nonunion defect of the pars interarticularis. In symptomatic spondylolysis, direct repair of the pars interarticularis defect can preserve motion and prevent abnormal stresses at the adjacent levels. Sixteen patients who failed nonoperative treatment and underwent direct pars repair by using LS (n=9) or PSRH (n=7) constructs were included in the study. Clinical outcome was assessed by using the MacNab criteria. Radiologic fusion and complications were evaluated using plain radiographs or computed tomography images and patient charts. The healing rate was 100% after 6 months. The healing time was similar in both the groups: LS, 6.5 months; PSRH, 6.2 months. Patients with PSRH (5.9 mo) were more likely to return to sports earlier relative to patients with LS (7.7 mo). There were no complications in the LS group; in the PSRH group, 1 patient had mild sensory deficit and 2 had superficial wound infections. The MacNab criteria for pain assessment showed an excellent or good outcome in 8 of 9 patients in LS group and 6 of 7 patients in PSRH group. Relative to LS patients, there was a significant increase in surgical time and estimated blood loss among PSRH patients. Either of the mentioned 2 techniques appears to produce acceptable results. Biplanar fluoroscopy and navigation systems could minimize the risk of screw misplacement with LS construct. Familiarity with the various fixation techniques will allow the surgeon to select the most appropriate surgical technique.

  1. First-in-human uPAR PET: Imaging of Cancer Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Thurison, Tine; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Ploug, Michael; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with 64Cu for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment with laboratory blood screening tests was performed before and after PET ligand injection. In a subgroup of the patients, the in vivo stability of our targeted PET ligand was determined in collected blood and urine. No adverse or clinically detectable side effects in any of the 10 patients were found. The ligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from plasma and tissue compartments by renal excretion. In addition, high uptake in both primary tumor lesions and lymph node metastases was seen and paralleled high uPAR expression in excised tumor tissue. Overall, this first-in-human study therefore provides promising evidence for safe use of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients. PMID:26516369

  2. Sucralfate modulates uPAR and EGFR expression in an experimental rat model of cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannari, C; Santi, S; Migliori, M; Filippi, C; Origlia, N; Sansò, M; Boldrini, E; Giovannini, L

    2008-01-01

    Sucralfate is a drug used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer; it is cytoprotective and able to increase the bioavailability of several growth factors, modulating the wound healing process. In this study we tested the possible therapeutic effect of Sucralfate in the treatment of ulcerative lesions occurring in uterine cervix; to investigate such effect we used an experimental rat model of cervicitis in which the uPAR and EGFR expression were evaluated. Cervicitis was induced in wild and ovariectomized Wistar female rats by an acetic acid-soaked tampon. The animals were divided into two main groups (4 and 7 days) and Sucralfate was administered topically until the day they were sacrificed. In order to distinguish physiological and drug-induced healing, quantitative and qualitative uPAR and EGFR expression were evaluated by using Western blot and Immunohistochemistry techniques. Western blot analysis demonstrated an increased expression of both receptors after 4 days from wounding in wild and ovariectomized animals. In particular in ovariectomized animals the expression of uPAR and EGFR increased after 4 days while it reduced following the administration of Sucralfate. In wild rats the same was observed for uPAR expression, while EGFR was different; in fact, its expression increased significantly at day 4 in the animals treated with the drug and only at day 7 in those untreated. Immunohistochemistry highlighted a noteworthy epithelial colocalization of EGFR and uPAR after 4 days in the animals treated with Sucralfate. We conclude that Sucralfate can promote the healing of ulcerative cervicitis and moreover, it reduces the normal healing time because of its modulatory property on uPAR and EGFR expression.

  3. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity; Mediacao dos receptores ativados por proteases (PARs) em atividades biologicas da giroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-07-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH{sub 2}, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  4. Rat beta-LPH, gamma-LPH and beta-endorphin biosynthesized by isolated cells of pars intermedia and pars distalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoulakis, C.; Seidah, N.G.; Routhier, R.; Chretien, M.

    1980-01-01

    Rats pars intermedia cells were incubated for 3 h with the following amino-acids: a) 35 S-methionine and 3 H-phenylalamine; b) 3 H-valine; and c) 3 H-valine and 3 H-lysine. Radioactive gamma-lipotropin, beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin were purified on carboxy- methyl-cellulose and characterized by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis af pH 4.5, molecular weight estimation and microsequencing. Rat gamma-lipotropin was shown to differ slightly from ovine gamma-lipotropin in its NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence, in containing no methionine and having phenylalanine at position 6, valine at positions 13 and 27, and lysine at position 20. The same variations were observed in the sequence of rat beta-lipotropin, while rat beta-endorphin was shown to be identical to the ovine beta-endorphin. Following a 3-h pulse of rat pars distalis, the cells were extracted with care to avoid beta-lipotropin degradation by proteolytic enzymes. A peptide was purified and identified to be rat beta-endorphin, thus demonstrating that beta-endorphin is biosynthesized in pars distalis and is not an extraction artifact. (author)

  5. Eficacia de los antivirales en la parálisis de Bell

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, María Cristina; Sánchez, Nury; Calvo, Judith; Perna, Abayubá

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: la parálisis de Bell es una afección frecuente que presenta en 15% de los casos una recuperación incompleta. En los últimos años se ha acumulado evidencia del posible rol del virus herpes simple tipo 1 en su etiología. Objetivos: comparar la eficacia de valaciclovir y prednisona versus prednisona placebo en la parálisis de Bell. Material y método: se realizó un ensayo prospectivo, randomizado y placebo controlado. De los 41 pacientes incluidos, 21 fueron tratados con valaciclovi...

  6. evaluation de la fertilite femelle des arabusta par le niveau de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les hybrides Arabusta sont caractérisés par une faible fertilité exprimée par des taux de caracolis élevés et des taux de loges vides importants induisant des productivités faibles. Pour une stratégie plus efficiente des sélections, il est important de connaître les niveaux de fertilité femelle des différents types de caféiers ...

  7. Densité, morphologie urbaine et qualité de vie. Une approche par le projet

    OpenAIRE

    Occhiuto, Rita; Goossens, Marc; Fisher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    La recherche "Densification des tissus urbanisés en Wallonie: forme, acceptabilité et modalités pour accompagner la mutation des tissus bâtis" s'articule en plusieurs volets thématiques, parmi lesquels figure le volet "formes urbaines, modes d'habitat". Ce dernier volet est abordé selon deux approches parallèles et complémentaires qui se valident mutuellement: la première dite "par le projet" (approche qualitative et opérationnelle) et la seconde par analyse statistique et cartographique (ap...

  8. Situation des personnes transgenres par rapport au VIH/IST en Suisse : rapid assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bize, R.; Koutaissoff, D.; Dubois-Arber, F.

    2013-01-01

    Ce rapport permet d'identifier le sous-groupe des personnes transgenres pratiquant ou ayant pratiqué le travail du sexe comme une population clairement exposée à un risque notoirement élevé d'infection par le VIH et les IST. L'ampleur rapportée du phénomène justifie pleinement l'inclusion de cette population dans le dispositif de surveillance comportementale du VIH et des autres IST, mais également la réalisation urgente d'actions de prévention communautaire. Par contre, il ne nous permet pas...

  9. Experimental study about the regulating effect of Par-4 gene overexpression on the nephroblastoma sensitivity to cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lin Mao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulating effect of Par-4 gene overexpression on the nephroblastoma sensitivity to cisplatin. Methods: Nephroblastoma SK-NEP-1 cells were cultured and divided into four groups, control group were treated with RMPI-1640 without serum or drugs, cisplatin group were treated with serum-free RMPI-1640 containing 5 μg/mL cisplatin, Par-4 group were transfected by Par-4 overexpression plasmids with serum-free RMPI-1640, and cisplatin + Par-4 group were transfected by Par-4 overexpression plasmid with serum-free RMPI-1640 containing 5 μg/mL cisplatin. The cell proliferation activity as well the expression of apoptosis genes, migration genes and invasion genes was measured. Results: 8 h, 16 h and 24 h after different conditions of treatment, the cell proliferation activity of cisplatin group, Par-4 group and cisplatin + Par-4 group were significantly lower than that of control group, and the cell proliferation activity of cisplatin + Par-4 group was significantly lower than that of cisplatin group and Par-4 group; 24 h after different conditions of treatment, Bim, PDCD4, WT1, RGS4, Axin, KAI1, E-cadherin, PPARγ and PTEN mRNA expression in cisplatin group, Par-4 group and cisplatin + Par-4 group were greatly higher than those in control group whereas GDNF, GFRα1, TUBB3, NME1 and FGF1 mRNA expression were greatly lower than those in control group; Bim, PDCD4, WT1, RGS4, Axin, KAI1, E-cadherin, PPARγ and PTEN mRNA expression in cisplatin + Par-4 group were greatly higher than those in cisplatin group and Par-4 group whereas GDNF, GFRα1, TUBB3, NME1 and FGF1 mRNA expression were greatly significantly lower than those in cisplatin group and Par-4 group. Conclusion: Par-4 gene overexpression can increase the nephroblastoma sensitivity to cisplatin, reduce cell proliferation activity, promote apoptosis and inhibit cell migration and invasion.

  10. Planar Cell Polarity Breaks the Symmetry of PAR Protein Distribution prior to Mitosis in Drosophila Sensory Organ Precursor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Charlotte; Bernard, Fred; Corson, Francis; Rouault, Hervé; Reynaud, Elodie; Keder, Alyona; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, François

    2015-04-20

    During development, cell-fate diversity can result from the unequal segregation of fate determinants at mitosis. Polarization of the mother cell is essential for asymmetric cell division (ACD). It often involves the formation of a cortical domain containing the PAR complex proteins Par3, Par6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). In the fly notum, sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) divide asymmetrically within the plane of the epithelium and along the body axis to generate two distinct cells. Fate asymmetry depends on the asymmetric localization of the PAR complex. In the absence of planar cell polarity (PCP), SOPs divide with a random planar orientation but still asymmetrically, showing that PCP is dispensable for PAR asymmetry at mitosis. To study when and how the PAR complex localizes asymmetrically, we have used a quantitative imaging approach to measure the planar polarization of the proteins Bazooka (Baz, fly Par3), Par6, and aPKC in living pupae. By using imaging of functional GFP-tagged proteins with image processing and computational modeling, we find that Baz, Par6, and aPKC become planar polarized prior to mitosis in a manner independent of the AuroraA kinase and that PCP is required for the planar polarization of Baz, Par6, and aPKC during interphase. This indicates that a "mitosis rescue" mechanism establishes asymmetry at mitosis in PCP mutants. This study therefore identifies PCP as the initial symmetry-breaking signal for the planar polarization of PAR proteins in asymmetrically dividing SOPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the irradiation by the {gamma} rays on various factors of immunity; Influence de l'irradiation par les rayons {gamma} sur divers facteurs d'immunite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaude, G; Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Exposed animals often present, in the days or weeks following the irradiation, heavy infectious lesions. The goal of this survey was to search the influence of the total irradiation by the gamma radiation from cobalt-60, on the organism, on the phagocytic power of the leukocytes and on the biogenesis of antibodies. The experiences were done on hundred animals, rabbits and guinea pigs. All irradiations have been achieved with eight sources of Cobalt 60 of 10 curies each, disposed on a sphere of 1 m, the animal living the region neighboring of the center. The intensity of the radiation, in these conditions, is about 100 roentgens per hour. (authors) [French] Les animaux irradies presentent souvent, dans les jours ou les semaines qui suivent l'irradiation, de graves lesions infectieuses. Le but de cette etude etait de rechercher l'influence de l'irradiation totale de l'organisme par le rayonnement gamma du cobalt 60 sur le pouvoir phagocytaire des leucocytes et sur la biogenese des anticorps. Les experiences portent sur une centaine d'animaux, lapins et cobayes. Toutes les irradiations ont ete realisees avec huit sources de Cobalt 60 de 10 curies chacune, disposees sur une sphere de 1 m de rayon, les animaux ocoupant la region voisine du centre. L'intensite du rayonnement est, dans ces conditions, d'environ 100 roentgens par heure. (auteurs)

  12. Measurements of fission cross-sections and of neutron production rates; Mesures de sections efficaces de fission et du nombre de neutrons prompts emis par fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaud, P; Clair, C; Gaudin, M; Genin, R; Joly, R; Leroy, J L; Michaudon, A; Ouvry, J; Signarbieux, C; Vendryes, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    a) Measurements of neutron induced fission cross-sections in the low energy region. The variation of the fission cross sections of several fissile isotopes has been measured and analysed, for neutron energies below 0,025 eV. The monochromator was a crystal spectrometer used in conjunction with a mechanical velocity selector removing higher order Bragg reflections. The fissile material was laid down on the plates of a fission chamber by painting technic. An ionization chamber, having its plates coated with thin {sup 10}B layers, was used as the neutron flux monitor. b) Measurement of the fission cross section of {sup 235}U. We intend to measure the variation of the neutron induced fission cross section of {sup 235}U over the neutron energy range from 1 keV by the time of flight method. The neutron source is the uranium target of a pulsed 28 MeV electron linear accelerator. The detector is a large fission chamber, with parallel plates, containing about 10 g of {sup 235}U (20 deposits of 25 cm diameter). The relative fission data were corrected for the neutron spectrum measured with a set of BF{sub 3} proportional counters. c) Mean number {nu} of neutrons emitted in neutron induced fission. We measured the value of {nu} for several fissile isotopes in the case of fission induced by 14 MeV neutrons. The 14 MeV neutrons were produced by D (t, n) {alpha} reaction by means of a 300 kV Cockcroft Walton generator. (author)Fren. [French] a) Mesures de sectionficaces de fission a basse energie. Nous avons mesure et analyse la variation de la section efficace de fission de divers isotopes fissiles pour des neutrons d'energie inferieure a 0,025 eV. Le monochromateur est constitue par un spectrometre a cristal auquel est associe un selecteur mecanique destine a eliminer les diffractions de Bragg d'ordre superieur au premier. Le materiau fissile est contenu dans une chambre a fission sous forme de depots realises par peinture; une chambre d'ionisation a depots minces de B{sub 10

  13. écrivain-e. Par-delà le genre – par-delà le corps ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Chamayou-Kuhn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’étudier la relation qu’entretiennent, d’une part, le langage et le corps et, d’autre part, la parole et l’identité sexuelle dans Die Kränkung d’Evelyn Schlag et Der Tod und das Mädchen : III (Rosamunde ; V (Die Wand d’Elfriede Jelinek. Malgré les divergences de ton que présentent ces oeuvres, qui appartiennent à deux genres littéraires différents, il semble permis de centrer l’analyse sur une problématique commune : le personnage de « l’écrivain-e » parvient-il à saisir son propre corps ? Dans cette perspective, nous nous appuyons sur la critique formulée par Judith Butler à l’égard de la psychanalyse lacanienne, tout en considérant sa théorie sur la construction discursive du corps. Trois thématiques peuvent être développées : la dialectique de « l’in-visibilité » féminine, les processus de matérialisation du corps et la pratique subversive de la mascarade en tant qu’elle met en évidence certains mécanismes d’aliénation dans le cadre d’une genèse du corps et de l’écriture. Aussi peut-on affirmer que le drame du corps investi symboliquement sous-tend ces œuvres : l’écrivain-e tente de s’extraire de l’ordre symbolique et de saper les fondements des catégories constitutives de l’identité que sont le désir, le sexe biologique (sex et l’identité sexuelle (gender. Si les processus d’écriture laissent envisager un dépassement de l’offense narcissique et de la maladie dans Die Kränkung, un tel dénouement paraît exclu dans l’univers jelinekien : ses « héroïnes », qui évoluent comme autant de fantômes du signifiant, entament une éternelle danse de mort.Untersucht wird im folgenden Artikel – anhand der Texte Die Kränkung von Evelyn Schlag und Der Tod und das Mädchen III (Rosamunde und V (Die Wand von Elfriede Jelinek – das Verhältnis von Sprache zum Körper sowie die Beziehung zwischen Sprechen und

  14. GyrA and/or ParC alterations of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiromi; Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Horie, Kengo; Nakane, Keita; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Of 73 clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the urethra of men with urogenital infections, we enrolled 6 strains (8.2%) with levofloxacin (LVFX) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≥0.03 μg/ml in this study. All the strains were isolated from non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). We amplified the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene and the analogous region of the parC gene from bacterial DNAs by PCR and sequenced the PCR products. Two strains with a LVFX MIC of 0.03 μg/ml had an amino acid change of Asp88 to Gly in GyrA. One with a LVFX MIC of 0.06 μg/ml had a change of Asp88 to Tyr in GyrA. Two with respective LVFX MICs of 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml had a change of Ser84 to Leu in GyrA. One with a LVFX MIC of 1 μg/ml had changes of Ser84 to Leu in GyrA and of Ser84 to Ile in ParC. Multilocus sequence typing showed two strains with a change of Asp88 to Gly in GyrA had the same sequence type, but the others had sequence types different from each other. Single amino acid changes in GyrA alone or single changes in both GyrA and ParC could contribute to decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in H. influenzae isolates from NGU. Most of the isolates with GyrA and/or ParC alterations would be multiclonal. The prevalence of such isolates would be relatively low, and they would still be susceptible to fluoroquinolones commonly prescribed for treatment of NGU. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), tissue factor (TF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Kiss, Katalin; Lelkaitis, Giedrius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumor-specific biomarkers are a prerequisite for the development of targeted imaging and therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR), Tissue Factor (TF) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) are three biomarkers that exhib...... with a reduced survival. uPAR seems to be a prognostic biomarker in oral cancer....

  16. Usefulness of suPAR as a biological marker in patients with systemic inflammation or infection: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Yara; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F.; Mackie, David P.; Tacke, Frank; Koch, Alexander; Tenhunen, Jyrki J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) positively correlate with the activation level of the immune system. We reviewed the usefulness of systemic levels of suPAR in the care of critically ill patients with sepsis, SIRS, and bacteremia, focusing on its

  17. Manufactering of par-fried french-fries. Part 3: a blueprint to predict the maximum production yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research on the production yield of par-fried French-fries has been reported in the literature. This paper bridges the knowledge gap and outlines the development of a model to predict the maximum production yield of par-fried French-fries. This yield model can be used to calculate the

  18. L'initiative Agua Limpia para Perú est dirigée par un ancien titulaire ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juil. 2014 ... Au Pérou, de nombreuses sources d'eau sont contaminées par de ... l'accès à une eau propre et la formation sur l'assainissement, les eaux usées et les ... par AguaSAN Perú aux fins du traitement des eaux (en espagnol).

  19. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  20. The rate of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy and its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Vakili, Hadi; Naderan, Morteza; Lashay, Alireza; Faghihi, Houshang; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2018-05-11

    To study the incidence of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy, its causative organisms, and visual acuity outcomes. In this retrospective, comparative study, the medical records of patients with acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy at Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during a 12-year period between January 2004 and November 2015 were reviewed. To compare the endophthalmitis patients with other cases who underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the same day and also the same operating room, a control group was developed by gathering the data from surgical records. In the present study, the incidence rate of pos- vitrectomy endophthalmitis was 0.04% (16/39783). The organisms identified in aqueous or vitreous cultures (culture positive 44%) included Streptococcus pneumoniae (two patients, 12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (two patients, 12.5%), fungi (two patients, 12.5%), and Streptococcus viridans (one patient, 6.25%). Visual acuity after treatment for endophthalmitis ranged from light perception (7 eyes) to hand motion (1 eye), and evisceration was performed in 8 eyes (50%). When comparing the cases (patients developing endophthalmitis) and controls (patients with no complications operated in the same day and place of operation with the case group), only not using tamponade showed a statistically significant relation with the occurrence of endophthalmitis (p = 0.034). Our results indicated low incidence of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy comparable to previous studies which resulted in poor visual acuity. It seems that not using tamponade might increase the risk of endophthalmitis among these patients.

  1. PAR in Academic and Professional Literature: A comparison of the Recent EU Accession Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junjan, Veronica; Nemec, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The last twenty years have brought about rather tumultuous changes in terms of the way PAR is being defined, conducted, imitated and, why not, simulated. This paper aims to explore the way scientific literature has addressed the issue of reform in public administration through conducting a

  2. A Single-Cell Biochemistry Approach Reveals PAR Complex Dynamics during Cell Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Daniel J; Schwager, Francoise; Pintard, Lionel; Gotta, Monica; Goldstein, Bob

    2017-08-21

    Regulated protein-protein interactions are critical for cell signaling, differentiation, and development. For the study of dynamic regulation of protein interactions in vivo, there is a need for techniques that can yield time-resolved information and probe multiple protein binding partners simultaneously, using small amounts of starting material. Here we describe a single-cell protein interaction assay. Single-cell lysates are generated at defined time points and analyzed using single-molecule pull-down, yielding information about dynamic protein complex regulation in vivo. We established the utility of this approach by studying PAR polarity proteins, which mediate polarization of many animal cell types. We uncovered striking regulation of PAR complex composition and stoichiometry during Caenorhabditis elegans zygote polarization, which takes place in less than 20 min. PAR complex dynamics are linked to the cell cycle by Polo-like kinase 1 and govern the movement of PAR proteins to establish polarity. Our results demonstrate an approach to study dynamic biochemical events in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Par@Graph - a parallel toolbox for the construction and analysis of large complex climate networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantet, A.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Par@Graph, a software toolbox to reconstruct and analyze complex climate networks having a large number of nodes (up to at least 106) and edges (up to at least 1012). The key innovation is an efficient set of parallel software tools designed to leverage the inherited hybrid

  4. Identificación de parásitos gastrointestinales en aves silvestres en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    García Corredor, Diego José; Sánchez Parada, Oscar Javier; Pulido Medellín, Martin Orlando; Andrade Becerra, Roy José

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo identifica los parásitos gastrointestinales que presentaron las aves silvestres en cautiverio, en el municipio de Tibasosa (Boyacá, Colombia). Se tomaron 100 muestras de materia fecal de aves silvestres correspondientes a 11 familias (Psittacidae, Ramphastidae, Ophistocomidae, Cracidae, Anatidae, Icteridae, Alaudidae, Burhinidae, Phoenicopteridae, Anhimidae y Rallidae) y 16 especies (Ara ararauna, Ara macao, Amazona spp, Amazona ochrocephala, Ramphastos toco,...

  5. UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

  6. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo; Brøgger, Anna Line

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels...

  7. Jesus en geweld: Markus 12:1-12 (en par) en Thomas 65 | van Eck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesus and violence: Mark 12:1-12 (and par) and. Thomas 65. As an advanced agrarian (aristocratic) society, first-century Palestine's social fabric was built on systemic tensions and conflicts between the elite (rulers) and the peasantry (the ruled). At the root of these conflicts were incompatible values (ideologies) and

  8. Les politiques de développement élaborées par la Banque ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constamment de stratégies et de politiques de développement. De théorie en ..... supérieurs, un laxisme dans les règles de recrutement et une insuffisance de ... Par ailleurs, souligne la Banque mondiale (1980), la plupart des entreprises.

  9. uPAR EXPRESSION IN CANINE NORMAL PROSTATE AND WITH PROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Faleiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic lesions such as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN and proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA are studied in human and canine species due to their malignance potential. The plasminogen activator (PA system has been suggested to play a central role in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor invasion. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is a component of the PA, with a range of expression in tumor and stromal cells. In this study, uPAR expression in both canine normal prostates and with proliferative disorders (benign prostatic hyperplasia-BPH, proliferative inflammatory atrophy-PIA, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-PIN, and carcinoma-PC was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA slide to establish the role of this enzyme in extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and in the processes of tissue invasion. A total of 298 cores and 355 diagnoses were obtained, with 36 (10.1% normal prostates, 46 (13.0% with BPH, 128 (36.1% with PIA, 74 (20.8% with PIN and 71 (20.0% with PC. There is variation in the expression of uPAR in canine prostate according to the lesion, with lower expression in normal tissue and with BPH, and higher expression in tissue with PIA, PIN and PC. The high expression of uPAR in inflammatory and neoplastic microenvironment indicates increased proteolytic activity in canine prostates with PIA, PIN, and PC.

  10. 27 Segmentation par logique floue pour l'estimation du nombre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bagui kossan olivier

    Le diagnostic rapide est par conséquent, une urgence médicale car, le ... Vision Allied Technology, avec un capteur de MT9P031 de Micron / Aptina), avec ..... [4] - O. K. BAGUI, J. T. ZOUEU, C. WÄHLBY, Automatic malaria diagnosis by the ...

  11. La bio-indication de la pollution aquatique par les microalgues (Cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecosystCmes et introduisent des micro- organismes pathogmes qui ... organismes vivants dont on connait la sensibilite et les exigences ..... En effet, certains genres proliferent dans des milieux acides, alors que d'autres preferent des milieux alcalins. Par ailleurs, dans les milieux a fortes teneurs en elements acides tel que ...

  12. Rupture Uterine Par Accident De La Voie Publique: A propos d'un cas.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Un cas de rupture utérine par accident de la voie publique associée à une fracture de l'humérus droit et du bassin est décrit. Les pronostics maternels et foetal sont discutés à la lumière de la revue de la littérature.

  13. Evaluation de la Qualité de surface par la Dimension Fractale et les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of surface quality by Fractal Dimension and Volume. Parameters .... du microscope électronique à balayage la. FEG.SUPRA 40. ... telle configuration le rapport (L/Dp), est tel que : L0 ,75 ..... du contrôle par la dimension fractale ;.

  14. Dual Role of Host Par2 in a Murine Model of Spontaneous Metastatic B16 Melanoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejár, Tomáš; Větvička, D.; Zadinová, M.; Poučková, P.; Kukal, J.; Ježek, Petr; Matěj, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 7 (2014), s. 3511-3515 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : PAR2 * melanoma * metastasis * murine model Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2014

  15. PAR-Complex and Crumbs Function During Photoreceptor Morphogenesis and Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaud, Franck

    2018-01-01

    The fly photoreceptor has long been used as a model to study sensory neuron morphogenesis and retinal degeneration. In particular, elucidating how these cells are built continues to help further our understanding of the mechanisms of polarized cell morphogenesis, intracellular trafficking and the causes of human retinal pathologies. The conserved PAR complex, which in flies consists of Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka, and the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) are key players during photoreceptor morphogenesis. While the PAR complex regulates polarity in many cell types, Crb function in polarity is relatively specific to epithelial cells. Together Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka and Crb orchestrate the differentiation of the photoreceptor apical membrane (AM) and zonula adherens (ZA) , thus allowing these cells to assemble into a neuro-epithelial lattice. In addition to its function in epithelial polarity, Crb has also been shown to protect fly photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration, a process linked to Rhodopsin expression and trafficking. Remarkably, mutations in the human Crumbs1 (CRB1) gene lead to retinal degeneration, making the fly photoreceptor a powerful disease model system.

  16. PAR-Complex and Crumbs Function During Photoreceptor Morphogenesis and Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Pichaud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The fly photoreceptor has long been used as a model to study sensory neuron morphogenesis and retinal degeneration. In particular, elucidating how these cells are built continues to help further our understanding of the mechanisms of polarized cell morphogenesis, intracellular trafficking and the causes of human retinal pathologies. The conserved PAR complex, which in flies consists of Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka, and the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb are key players during photoreceptor morphogenesis. While the PAR complex regulates polarity in many cell types, Crb function in polarity is relatively specific to epithelial cells. Together Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka and Crb orchestrate the differentiation of the photoreceptor apical membrane (AM and zonula adherens (ZA, thus allowing these cells to assemble into a neuro-epithelial lattice. In addition to its function in epithelial polarity, Crb has also been shown to protect fly photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration, a process linked to Rhodopsin expression and trafficking. Remarkably, mutations in the human Crumbs1 (CRB1 gene lead to retinal degeneration, making the fly photoreceptor a powerful disease model system.

  17. 102 La décoloration des rejets liquides de textile (noir de soufre) par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    Résumé. Dans cette étude, nous nous intéressons au traitement d'un rejet de coloration de textile par voie ... L'industrie textile utilise environs 10 000 types de colorants, la ..... Electrochemical coagulation for textile effluent decolorization.

  18. L'obtention du crédit bancaire par les PME au Cameroun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctorante en sciences de gestion Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun. .... vient à point nommé dans son contexte et dans son domaine dans la mesure ... confrontant la performance des entreprises à leur structure financière, Wanda ..... est le plus souvent la perte du contrôle de l'entreprise par les actionnaires.

  19. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of proximal aTraumaTic. resToraTive ... absTracT. Objective: To evaluate after two years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (gic) ... or symptoms of periodontal disease, and clinically the ..... saliva contamination on the bond of dentine resin-.

  20. PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Arnfjord, Steven

    Abstract, ALARA2015012:PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland for consideration and inclusion in the programme for the ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress to be held at St. George Hotel and Conference Centre...

  1. Determining fPAR and leaf area index of several land cover classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), are three fundamental biophysical characteristics of the plant canopy that should parameterise ecophysiological models of water use (evapotranspiration) and carbon sequestration. Although Earth observation provides values and time series for both these parameters, ...

  2. Funding Research Through the Online Partnership to Accelerate Research (OnPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Dueñas, MPA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available OnPAR—the Online Partnership to Accelerate Research—seeks to provide a second opportunity for funding of high-quality, unfunded applications originally submitted to the National Institutes of Health and other national and international funding agencies. OnPAR will match applicable, unfunded applications with the research priorities of nongovernment organizations such as private biomedical foundations, pharmaceutical companies, venture capital funds, and other private funds. Funding organization members will review and make final funding decisions through a simple, 2-step process whereby applicants can submit public abstracts directly to OnPAR. If a member requests additional information, then, by invitation only, an applicant can submit their original unfunded application and their peer review summary statement. Advancing research discovery and drug development to improve clinical outcomes for patients afflicted with or at risk for disease is the primary goal of OnPAR. OnPAR invites the scientific community to fully participate in this new funding paradigm by submitting their National Institutes of Health public abstracts so that funding members can review and potentially support these high-quality, unfunded applications.

  3. Deletions of a differentially methylated CpG island at SNRPN define a putative imprinting control region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, J.S.,; Nakao, M.; Beaudet, A.L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy, or other mutations. Four transcripts designated PAR-5, PAR-7, PAR-1 and PAR-4 were isolated and localized to a region within 300 kb telomeric to the gene encoding small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N (SNRPN). Analysis of the transcripts in cultured fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from deletion patients demonstrated that SNRPN, PAR-5 and PAR-1 are expressed exclusively from the paternal chromosome, defining an imprinted domain that spans at least 200 kb. All three imprinted transcripts were absent in cells from three PWS patients (one pair of sibs and one sporadic case) with small deletions that involve a differentially methylated CpG island containing a previously undescribed 5{prime} untranslated exon ({alpha}) of SNRPN. Methylation of the CpG island is specific for the maternal chromosome consistent with paternal expression of the imprinted domain. One deletion, which is benign when maternally transmitted, extends upstream <30 kb from the CpG island, and is associated with altered methylation centromeric to SNRPN, and loss of transcription telomeric to SNRPN, implying the presence of an imprinting control region around the CpG island containing exon {alpha}.

  4. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan eSarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4 selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV and apoplast signal peptide (aTP in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT, apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era.

  5. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Kathryn A.

    2009-01-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for 252 Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for 252 Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and

  6. Radiological findings and healing patterns of incomplete stress fractures of the pars interarticularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Andrew J.; Campbell, Robert S.D.; Mayor, Peter E.; Rees, Dai

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to retrospectively record the CT and MRI features and healing patterns of acute, incomplete stress fractures of the pars interarticularis. The CT scans of 156 adolescents referred with suspected pars interarticularis stress fractures were reviewed. Patients with incomplete (grade 2) pars fractures were included in the study. Fractures were assessed on CT according to vertebral level, location of cortical involvement and direction of fracture propagation. MRI was also performed in 72 of the 156 cases. MRI images of incomplete fractures were assessed for the presence of marrow oedema and cortical integrity. Fracture healing patterns were characterised on follow-up CT imaging. Twenty-five incomplete fractures were identified in 23 patients on CT. All fractures involved the inferior or infero-medial cortex of the pars and propagated superiorly or superolaterally. Ninety-two percent of incomplete fractures demonstrated either complete or partial healing on follow-up imaging. Two (8%) cases progressed to complete fractures. Thirteen incomplete fractures in 11 patients confirmed on CT also had MRI, and 92% demonstrated oedema in the pars. Ten out of thirteen fractures (77%) showed a break in the infero-medial cortex with intact supero-lateral cortex, which correlated with the CT findings. MRI incorrectly graded one case as a complete (grade 3) fracture, and 2 cases as (grade 1) stress reaction. Six fractures had follow-up MRI, 67% showed partial or complete cortical healing, and the same number showed persistent marrow oedema. Incomplete fracture of the pars interarticularis represents a stage of the evolution of a complete stress fracture. The direction of fracture propagation is consistent, and complete healing can be achieved in most cases with appropriate clinical management. CT best demonstrates fracture size and extent, and is the most appropriate modality for follow-up. MRI is limited in its ability to fully depict the cortical integrity of

  7. Radiological findings and healing patterns of incomplete stress fractures of the pars interarticularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Andrew J.; Campbell, Robert S.D. [Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Imaging, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mayor, Peter E. [Leighton Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Crewe, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Rees, Dai [Robert Jones and Agnes-Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The objective was to retrospectively record the CT and MRI features and healing patterns of acute, incomplete stress fractures of the pars interarticularis. The CT scans of 156 adolescents referred with suspected pars interarticularis stress fractures were reviewed. Patients with incomplete (grade 2) pars fractures were included in the study. Fractures were assessed on CT according to vertebral level, location of cortical involvement and direction of fracture propagation. MRI was also performed in 72 of the 156 cases. MRI images of incomplete fractures were assessed for the presence of marrow oedema and cortical integrity. Fracture healing patterns were characterised on follow-up CT imaging. Twenty-five incomplete fractures were identified in 23 patients on CT. All fractures involved the inferior or infero-medial cortex of the pars and propagated superiorly or superolaterally. Ninety-two percent of incomplete fractures demonstrated either complete or partial healing on follow-up imaging. Two (8%) cases progressed to complete fractures. Thirteen incomplete fractures in 11 patients confirmed on CT also had MRI, and 92% demonstrated oedema in the pars. Ten out of thirteen fractures (77%) showed a break in the infero-medial cortex with intact supero-lateral cortex, which correlated with the CT findings. MRI incorrectly graded one case as a complete (grade 3) fracture, and 2 cases as (grade 1) stress reaction. Six fractures had follow-up MRI, 67% showed partial or complete cortical healing, and the same number showed persistent marrow oedema. Incomplete fracture of the pars interarticularis represents a stage of the evolution of a complete stress fracture. The direction of fracture propagation is consistent, and complete healing can be achieved in most cases with appropriate clinical management. CT best demonstrates fracture size and extent, and is the most appropriate modality for follow-up. MRI is limited in its ability to fully depict the cortical integrity of

  8. Field Courses for Volcanic Hazards Mapping at Parícutinand Jorullo Volcanoes (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Morales, A.; Delgado Granados, H.; Roberge, J.; Farraz Montes, I. A.; Linares López, C.

    2007-05-01

    authorities after proper review by peers. This project has been running for two years and hazards maps for the region of Parícutin and Jorullo volcanoes have been carried out. The students have been applying their knowledge and got results in a very short time and at the same time socially very important.

  9. Delta progradation and Neoglaciation, Laguna Parón, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Geoffrey O.; Rodbell, Donald T.

    2005-10-01

    The history of Holocene glaciation serves as an important record of glacier mass balance and, therefore, of climatic change. The moraine record of Holocene glaciation in the tropical Andes, however, is fragmentary and poorly dated. In contrast, increases in the rate of accumulation of inorganic sediment in glacier-fed lakes have been linked to periods of Neoglaciation in many mountain regions. The interpretation of such a record of Neoglaciation from sediment cores in glacier-fed lakes in the tropical Andes can provide the continuity and chronologic control that is lacking in the existing moraine record. Unusual exposures of glacial lacustrine sediment in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, provide a rare opportunity to assess the link between climatic change, glaciation, and lacustrine sedimentation.Intentional lowering of water levels in Laguna Parón (9°S, 77°44 W, 4200 m a.s.l.) in 1985 resulted in the incision and exposure of at least 20 m of deltaic deposits at the eastern end of the lake. Three deltaic units can be identified: horizontal topset beds, steeply dipping and deformed foreset beds, and horizontally laminated fine-grained sediment. Six radiocarbon ages ranging from 1800 +/- 210 to 465 +/- 95 14C yr BP on wood indicate that the average rate of delta progradation in the late Holocene has been approximately 290 m per 1000 yr. The lake formed during deglaciation at least 10 000 yr ago and if such a rate of progradation of the delta had prevailed over the entire Holocene, then the delta would be at least three times as extensive as it is today. Thus the rate of delta progradation has varied significantly over the Holocene. We suggest that the rate of delta progradation was at least three times greater when glaciers were in advanced positions. These positions are clearly delimited by Neoglacial moraines, which are within 1-2 km of the exposures studied and within 1 km of modern ice limits. The most recent increase in the rate of delta progradation is

  10. Spondylolysis outcomes in adolescents after direct screw repair of the pars interarticularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura A; Shufflebarger, Harry; O'Brien, Michael F; Thind, Harjot; Theodore, Nicholas; Kakarla, Udaya K

    2014-09-01

    Isthmic spondylolysis can significantly decrease functional abilities, especially in adolescent athletes. Although treatment can range from observation to surgery, direct screw placement through the fractured pars, or Buck's procedure, may be a more minimally invasive procedure than the more common pedicle screw-hook construct. Review of surgical databases identified 16 consecutive patients treated with Buck's procedure from 2004 to 2010. Twelve patients were treated at Miami Children's Hospital and 4 at Barrow Neurological Institute. Demographics and clinical and radiographic outcomes were recorded and analyzed retrospectively. The 16 patients had a median age of 16 years, and 14 were 20 years or younger at the time of treatment. Symptoms included axial back pain in 100% of patients with concomitant radiculopathy in 38%. Pars defects were bilateral in 81% and unilateral in 19% for a total of 29 pars defects treated using Buck's procedure. Autograft or allograft augmented with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein as well as postoperative bracing was used in all cases. Postoperatively, symptoms resolved completely or partially in 15 patients (94%). Of 29 pars defects, healing was observed in 26 (89.6%) prior to 1 revision surgery, and an overall fusion rate of 97% was observed at last radiological follow-up. There were no implant failures. All 8 athletes in this group had returned to play at last follow-up. Direct screw repair of the pars interarticularis defect as described in this series may provide a more minimally invasive treatment of adolescent patients with satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes, including return to play of adolescent athletes.

  11. Feeding and larval growth of an exotic freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens (Decapoda: Palaemonidae, from Northeastern Pará, Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN N. GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we carried out experiments on the diet of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We tested which type of food and which density of food is suitable for larval development. For the experiment on the type of food, eight treatments were carried out: (I starvation, (AL microalgae, (RO rotifers, (AN Artemia, (RO + AN rotifers + Artemia, (AL + RO microalgae + rotifers, (AL + AN microalgae + Artemia, (AL + RO + AN microalgae + rotifers + Artemia. For the experiment on the density of food, we used the type of food, which had resulted in a high survival rate in the previous experiment. Three treatments were carried out: 4, 8 and 16 Artemia nauplii /mL. The rate of feeding during larval development was observed. The survival, weight and percentage of juveniles of each feeding experiment were determined. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered.

  12. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  13. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  14. 75 FR 59143 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act; Regional Fishery Management Councils...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... collection-of-information requirements contained in this rule may be submitted to Alan Risenhoover, Director... basis for salary of Council executive directors be put on par with that of NMFS Regional Administrators... broadened and clarified to include any income, grant, or other monetary or in-kind remuneration received by...

  15. Screening of phytochemicals against protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a promising target for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-02-01

    Drug resistance and drug-associated toxicity are the primary causes for withdrawal of many drugs, although patient recovery is satisfactory in many instances. Interestingly, the use of phytochemicals in the treatment of cancer as an alternative to synthetic drugs comes with a host of advantages; minimum side effects, good human absorption and low toxicity to normal cells. Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) has been established as a promising target in many diseases including various cancers. Strong evidences suggest its role in metastasis also. There are no natural compounds known to inhibit its activity, so we aimed to identify phytochemicals with antagonist activity against PAR1. We screened phytochemicals from Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/ ) against PAR1 using virtual screening workflow of Schrödinger software. It analyzes pharmaceutically relevant properties using Qikprop and calculates binding energy using Glide at three accuracy levels (high-throughput virtual screening, standard precision and extra precision). Our study led to the identification of phytochemicals, which showed interaction with at least one experimentally determined active site residue of PAR1, showed no violations to Lipinski's rule of five along with predicted high human absorption. Furthermore, structural interaction fingerprint analysis indicated that the residues H255, D256, E260, S344, V257, L258, L262, Y337 and S344 may play an important role in the hydrogen bond interactions of the phytochemicals screened. Of these residues, H255 and L258 residues were experimentally proved to be important for antagonist binding. The residues Y183, L237, L258, L262, F271, L332, L333, Y337, L340, A349, Y350, A352, and Y353 showed maximum hydrophobic interactions with the phytochemicals screened. The results of this work suggest that phytochemicals Reissantins D, 24,25-dihydro-27-desoxywithaferin A, Isoguaiacin

  16. [Roles of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, in modulation of exocrine gland functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, is activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal extracellular tethered ligand that presumably binds to the extracellular loop 2 of the receptor itself. PAR-2 is widely distributed in the mammalian body and plays various roles in biological events in the cardiovascular, respiratory, alimentary, and central neurons systems. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically to mice and rats trigger prompt salivation in vivo. In an in vitro study, PAR-2 agonists including the endogenous PAR-2 activator trypsin induce secretion of amylase and mucin from isolated rat parotid glands and sublingual glands, respectively. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically also modulate pancreatic exocrine secretion in vivo as well as in vitro. In the gastric mucosa, PAR-2 stimulation enhances secretion of mucus and pepsinogen and suppresses acid secretion. Tear secretion can also be caused by PAR-2-related peptides in PAR-2-dependent and -independent manners. PAR-2 thus plays a general or key role in the regulation of exocrine secretion. This review focuses on the physiologic and/or pathophysiologic roles of PAR-2 in glandular exocrine secretion. The possibility of PAR-2 as a target for drug development is also discussed.

  17. Desempenho de Espécies Florestais e Pastagens em Sistemas Silvipastoris no Estado do Pará Performance of Tree Species and Pastures in Silvopastoral Systems in the State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Braga Calandrini de Azevedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Propor modelos alternativos de uso-da-terra que sejam econômicos e ecologicamente sustentáveis tem sido um grande desafio da pesquisa agrícola na Amazônia. Os sistemas silvipastoris (SSPs têm sido considerados promissores para integrar o cultivo arbóreo nos sistemas pecuários e recuperar pastagens degradadas da Amazônia. Em Paragominas, Estado do Pará, foram estudados nove sistemas silvipastoris constituídos da combinação binária das espécies florestais paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum, tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis e eucalipto (Eucalyptus tereticornis, plantadas em faixas de 6 m de largura, afastadas de 12 m, com as pastagens capim braquiarão (Brachiaria brizantha, capim quicuio da amazônia (B. humidicola, e capim colonião (Panicum maximum e em capim dictioneura (B. dictyoneura, plantadas nas entre-faixas. O sistema de manejo se caracterizava por ser rotacionado com 14 dias de permanência e 42 dias de descanso, e foi avaliado no período de agosto de 1990 a novembro de 1991. As melhores interações foram paricá e capim braquiarão e eucalipto e capim braquiarão.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.57

    Proposing economic and ecological land-use alternatives has been a great challenge for agricultural research in the Brazilian Amazon. The silvopastoral systems (SPS are promising to integrate trees in the livestock production system and reclaim degraded pastures in the Amazon region. In Municipality of Paragominas, State of Pará, nine SPS composed by combination of three tree species (Schizolobium amazonicum, Bagassa guianensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis, planted in 6 m-lane, spaced by 12 m – and three pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola and Panicum maximum / dictioneura B. dictyoneura, planted in the inter-lane space. Steers grazed the one-hectare experimental parcels simulating a rotational grazing system with 14 days - grazing period and 42 days – rest period, and was evaluated during August 1990 to

  18. Características do sistema produtivo da pecuária no município de Santarém, Pará Characterization of cattle production systems in Santarém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar as principais falhas no sistema de produção que limitam a pecuária em Santarém, Pará, foram entrevistados, ao acaso, 21 pecuaristas (90,5% de corte - cria, recria e engorda; 9,5% de leite, proprietários de 10% da população de bovinos do município. 71,4% das propriedades tinham currais para manejo do gado, entretanto apenas 38,1% possuíam balança e 23,8% tronco de contenção. A Brachiaria brizantha estava presente em todas as fazendas, sendo usada exclusivamente em 42,9% das propriedades. A disseminação de plantas invasoras (61,9% foi considerada a principal dificuldade no manejo das pastagens. Constatou-se que 76,2% dos pecuaristas utilizam misturas minerais com macro e micro-elementos, geralmente de formulações comerciais, enquanto que 19% utilizam apenas sal comum, enriquecido com micro-elementos. A concentração de fósforo (P na mistura mineral estava abaixo do recomendado para bovinos de corte em 76,9% das propriedades e apenas 19% das propriedades possuía cochos para suplementação mineral adequada.With the objective of identifying the main problems of cattle nutrition in the production systems of Santarém, Pará, Brazil, ranchers in different regions of the municipality and who owned 10% of the municipality's animals were interviewed at random. The ranchers raised mostly beef cattle; only 9.5% had dairy cattle. The infrastructure conditions are inappropriate; only 23.8% of the ranches have adequate facilities for beef cattle management and 61.9% of the ranchers do not consider weight control. Weed invasion was considered the main problem of the pastures (61.9%. The most common forage was Brachiaria brizantha, used exclusively in 42.9% of the ranches. 76.2% of the ranchers used a complete mineral supplement, with macro and micro elements, while 19% used only salt (NaCl with micro elements; the other 5% did not use mineral supplements at all. The phosphorus concentration in the mineral

  19. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  20. Lower genetic variability of HIV-1 and antiretroviral drug resistance in pregnant women from the state of Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Costa, Iran Barros; Folha, Maria Nazaré; da Luz, Anderson Levy Bessa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Ishak, Ricardo; Ishak, Marluisa Oliveira Guimarães

    2017-04-12

    The present study aimed to describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1, as well as the resistance profile of the viruses identified in HIV-1 infected pregnant women under antiretroviral therapy in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 45 HIV-1 infected pregnant to determine the virus subtypes according to the HIV-1 protease (PR) gene and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene by sequencing the nucleotides of these regions. Drug resistance mutations and susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs were analyzed by the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. Out of 45 samples, only 34 could be amplified for PR and 30 for RT. Regarding the PR gene, subtypes B (97.1%) and C (2.9%) were identified; for the RT gene, subtypes B (90.0%), F (6.7%), and C (3.3%) were detected. Resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) was identified in 5.8% of the pregnant, and mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found in 3.3%, while mutations conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found in 3.3%. These results showed a low frequency of strains resistant to antiretroviral drugs, the prevalence of subtypes B and F, and the persistent low transmission of subtype C in pregnant of the state of Pará, Brazil.

  1. uPAR Expression Pattern in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder--Possible Clinical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Hammer Dohn

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to confirm the expression and localisation pattern of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR focusing on its possible clinical relevance in patients with urothelial neoplasia of the bladder. uPAR is a central molecule in tissue remodelling during cancer invasion and metastasis and is an established prognostic marker in various cancer diseases other than bladder cancer. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumour-tissue blocks from 186 patients treated with radical cystectomy were analysed. uPAR expression was scored as either negative or positive as well as by the actual score. Separate scores were obtained for cancer cells, macrophages and myofibroblasts at the invasive front and in tumour core. We were able to confirm, in an independent patient cohort, the tissue expression and localisation pattern of uPAR as investigated by Immunohistochemistry as well as a significant association between uPAR positivity and increasing tumour stage and tumour grade. This demonstrates the robustness of our previous and current findings. In addition the association between uPAR positive myofibroblasts and poor survival was reproduced. The highest hazard ratios for survival were seen for uPAR positive myofibroblasts both at the invasive front and in tumour core. Evaluating uPAR expression by the actual score showed a significant association between uPAR positive myofibroblasts in tumour core and an increased risk of cancer specific mortality. Our investigations have generated new and valuable biological information about the cell types being involved in tumour invasion and progression through the plasminogen activation system.

  2. Linear study and bundle adjustment data fusion; Application to vision localization; Recherche lineaire et fusion de donnees par ajustement de faisceaux; Application a la localisation par vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michot, J.

    2010-12-09

    integrate this additional information directly into an extended bundle adjustment, by adding a constraint term in the weighted cost function. We evaluate three methods (based on machine learning or regularization) that dynamically select the weight associated to the constraint and show that these methods can be used in a real time multi-sensor SLAM, and validate them with different types of constraint on the orientation or on the scale. Experiments conducted on real video sequences show that this technique of constrained bundle adjustment reduces the drifts observed with the classical vision algorithms and improves the global accuracy of the positioning system. (author) [French] Les travaux presentes dans ce manuscrit concernent le domaine de la localisation et la reconstruction 3D par vision artificielle. Dans ce contexte, la trajectoire d'une camera et la structure 3D de la scene filmee sont initialement estimees par des algorithmes lineaires puis optimisees par un algorithme non-lineaire, l'ajustement de faisceaux. Cette these presente tout d'abord une technique de recherche de l'amplitude de deplacement (recherche lineaire), ou line search pour les algorithmes de minimisation iterative. La technique proposee est non iterative et peut etre rapidement implantee dans un ajustement de faisceaux traditionnel. Cette technique appelee recherche lineaire algebrique globale (G-ALS), ainsi que sa variante a deux dimensions (Two way-ALS), accelerent la convergence de l'algorithme d'ajustement de faisceaux. L'approximation de l'erreur de reprojection par une distance algebrique rend possible le calcul analytique d'une amplitude de deplacement efficace (ou de deux pour la variante Two way-ALS), par la resolution d'un polynome de degre 3 (G-ALS) ou 5 (Two way-ALS). Nos experimentations sur des donnees simulees et reelles montrent que cette amplitude, optimale en distance algebrique, est performante en distance euclidienne, et permet

  3. Metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid features and Hep Par 1 antibody positive mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, Authur; Lyman, William B; Jacobs, W Carl; Livasy, Chad A; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2018-05-09

    The hepatocyte paraffin 1 antibody (Hep Par 1) has a high positive predictive value for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinoma. 1 We report a case of metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid histology and strong positive staining for Hep Par 1 mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. To our knowledge, primary breast carcinoma staining Hep Par 1 positive has not been reported in the setting of hepatic metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Algoritmo PSO para identificación de parámetros en un motor DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la aplicación del algoritmo Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO como estrategia de búsqueda para determinar los parámetros de un sistema tipo caja gris. Este proceso de identificación se ilustra utilizando la respuesta a un escalón de un motor DC en lazo abierto. Para agilizar la identificación del sistema a través del uso de PSO, se limita el espacio de búsqueda usando la información que puede extraerse de la respuesta en el dominio del tiempo del sistema a identificar. Los resultados del proceso de identificación de los parámetros del motor se obtienen utilizando la herramienta PSOt disponible para entorno Matlab® desarrollada por Brian Birge.

  5. Estuarine morphometry governs optically active substances, Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Nielsen, J. M.; Blüthgen, J.

    2013-01-01

    estuaries using OACs as input parameters. It is concluded that there are no large differences in OAC concentrations between the two estuaries. The spatial distributions of OACs and optical properties were significantly different and governed by the estuary morphometry, i.e. a power distribution......°N) at high discharges. The major difference was the spatial distribution of the optical properties against distance, best described by significant power functions in the ria, compared to significant linear functions in the coastal plain. It was hypothesized that estuarine morphometry could explain...... this spatial distribution. Partition and multiple regression analyses showed that Chl-a governed Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficient in both estuaries. Significant, high correlations were obtained by multiple regression analyses in the estimation of Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficients in the two...

  6. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen; Conditionnement des dechets radioactifs par le bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J; Scheidhauer, J; Malabre, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1961-07-01

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [French] L'isolement de boues radioactives et de dechets par le bitume est etudie. Les resultats de divers essais portant sur la lixiviation par l'eau du produit fini en fonction du pH, du temps et de la composition sont exposes. Les conditions de realisation de l'enrobage sont controlees au point de vue du risque radioactif. (auteur)

  7. Dosimetry of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105, a PET tracer for uPAR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; El Ali, Henrik H.; Binderup, Tina

    2014-01-01

    64Cu-DOTA-AE105 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer specific to the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). In preparation of using this tracer in humans, as a new promising method to distinguish between indolent and aggressive cancers, we have performed PET...... studies in mice to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution and estimate human dosimetry of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105. MethodsFive mice received iv tail injection of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 and were PET/CT scanned 1, 4.5 and 22h post injection. Volume-of-interest (VOI) were manually drawn on the following organs: heart, lung......Favorable dosimetry estimates together with previously reported uPAR PET data fully support human testing of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105....

  8. Comprendre la ville par la chrono-chorématique: un essai prometteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Brunet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet ensemble de chrono-chorématique urbaine est exemplaire par ses méthodes et par ses résultats. Travail pluridisciplinaire de recherche de grande qualité éthique et esthétique, il livre une approche efficace à la compréhension du développement et des structures urbaines. Il ouvre de larges perspectives comparatives et des voies d’amélioration des modèles généraux de l’élaboration et des transformations des espaces urbains, en relation avec les modèles généraux de la production de l’espace géographique. On souhaite que se multiplient les études de cas, et qu’elles s’étendent à d’autres milieux urbains, à d’autres cultures.

  9. Youth empowerment in context: exploring tensions in school-based yPAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohfeldt, Danielle; Chhun, Lina; Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2011-03-01

    In much of the youth empowerment literature, researchers focus on the relationship between youth and adults involved in empowerment programs while neglecting the broader social framework in which these relationships and the program itself functions. Utilizing an ecological model, the current research examines the tensions that surfaced in attempts to create an empowering setting in an after-school PAR program with fifth-graders. Challenging assumptions about youth, structural challenges, and conflicting theories of change are highlighted. Results examine the role of sociocultural context as PAR researchers attempt to create a setting in which students gain skills to become change agents within their school. The study suggests that youth empowerment is a context dependent process that requires attention to a multiplicity of factors that influence possibilities for empowerment via second order change.

  10. Repérer des sites similaires à une recherche par Google

    OpenAIRE

    Ginouvès, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    Repérer des sites similaires à une recherche par Google Afficher graphiquement les liens d’un site avec d’autres sites similaires TouchGraph GoogleBrowser crée des agrégations de sites à partir de l’interrogation de Google. Vous visualisez ainsi des nébuleuses de sites à l’intérieur desquelles vous pouvez naviguer facilement, en sautant d'un groupe à l'autre afin de voir les nuages autour de sujets ou de communautés de sujets. Cet outil a été développé par Alex Shapiro, à partir de la version...

  11. Minimally Invasive Direct Repair of Bilateral Lumbar Spine Pars Defects in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Widi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spondylolysis of the lumbar spine has traditionally been treated using a variety of techniques ranging from conservative care to fusion. Direct repair of the defect may be utilized in young adult patients without significant disc degeneration and lumbar instability. We used minimally invasive techniques to place pars interarticularis screws with the use of an intraoperative CT scanner in three young adults, including two athletes. This technique is a modification of the original procedure in 1970 by Buck, and it offers the advantage of minimal muscle dissection and optimal screw trajectory. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. The detailed operative procedure and the postoperative course along with a brief review of pars interarticularis defect treatment are discussed.

  12. Désadification biologique des vins par les levures de fleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. LLAGUNO

    1971-03-01

    Le processus de désacidification bactérienne du vin par la fermentation malolactique est bien connu. Le vin acquiert ainsi une plus grande souplesse au goût et une stabilité biologique indispensable à sa conservation en bouteilles. Cependant, les levures Schizosaccharomyces pombe peuvent aussi fermenter l'acide malique (RIBÉREAU-GAYON et PEYNAUD, 1962. TARANTOLA et GANDINI, 1967 ont décrit des essais semi-industriels de désacidification biologique d'un moût blanc piémontais ; provoquée aussi bien par l'ensemencement de bactéries malolactiques  que de Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

  13. BOREAS TE-9 PAR and Leaf Nitrogen Data for NSA Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. This data set describes the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels and foliage nitrogen in samples from six sites in the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) collected during the three 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). This information is useful for modeling the vertical distribution of carbon fixation for these different forest types in the boreal forest. The data were collected to quantify the relationship between PAR and leaf nitrogen of black spruce, jack pine, and aspen. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  14. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  15. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  16. CALiPER Application Summary Report 20. LED PAR38 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-11-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR. Additional testing that focuses on performance attributes beyond those covered by LM-79-08 is planned for this group of lamps, and will be presented in subsequent reports.

  17. Piqures massives par un essaim d�abeilles chez un enfant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les piqures multiples d�abeilles sont responsables d�envenimation severe. Nous rapportons un cas d�une attaque massive par un essaim d�abeilles chez un enfant de sept ans. Sa gravite est liee a la localisation cephalique et au nombre important des piqures qui etait d�environ 270. Ses complications etaient l�insuffisance renale, l�anemie et une conjonctivite. La prise en charge etait symptomatique avec bonne evolution clinique et biologique.

  18. Effet de l'alimentation calcique séparée sur les performances de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2016 ... RÉSUMÉ. Object : L'étude envisagée, se propose de vérifier la réponse de la souche Lhoman Brown soumise à l'alimentation calcique séparée. Elle s'inscrit dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire, la lutte contre la pauvreté et les changements climatiques sous climat tropical humide. Matériels et ...

  19. Amélioration de la nutrition en Éthiopie par le truchement de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amélioration de la nutrition en Éthiopie par le truchement de la sélection végétale et de la gestion des sols (FCRSAI). L'Éthiopie présente l'un des plus hauts taux de malnutrition au monde. La situation est particulièrement grave dans le sud du pays en raison de la faible productivité agricole et du régime alimentaire ...

  20. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par) Evans et al. en el cultivo de cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Mora, Fernando David; Garcés Fiallos, Felipe Rafael

    2012-01-01

    More than a century, cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Ecuador has been an important source of income for farmers and currency for the country, becoming one of the biggest exporters worldwide. Then, gradually lost that status due to the attack of diseases, including moniliasis caused by [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par) Evans et al.]. It can cause damage of up to 80% in production. Currently there is little scientific date information on its occurrence, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology, life c...

  1. Influence des herbicides sur l'infestation par les adventices, la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... Keywords: Wheat, herbicides, weed, density, dry matter. INTRODUCTION. Une des raisons majeures de la chute des rendements des cultures céréalières comme les blés dans la zone «non chernozem» de la Russie et le reste du monde, demeure une forte infestation par différentes espèces adventices.

  2. La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des économies locales plus vigoureuses. 08 juin 2016. Image. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'. Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'Hyderabad, en Inde. Keenara ...

  3. Renforcement des capacités de recherche grâce au mentorat par ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet de recherche-action consistera en un programme collaboratif de mentorat par les pairs conçu pour renforcer les capacités de recherche sur les technologies de l'information et de la communication au service du développement dans les pays du Sud. Le programme sera axé sur les compétences requises pour ...

  4. Decontamination of lead by fusion (1962); Decontamination du plomb par fusion (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutot, P; Giachetto, L; Capitaine, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Various attempts to decontaminate using mechanical and chemical methods having given questionable results, a fusion method has been developed. The apparatus consists of a propane-heated oven fitted with a steel crucible of 1 400 kg capacity, with two ventilation systems, and with a vacuum gauge for preventing the diffusion of toxic gases. There are three operational controls : 1. On the samples taken before during and after the operation, 2. On the plugs taken from the ingots, 3. On the ingot itself. The continuous sanitary control is done by a radioactive aerosol recorder and by periodic sampling. This decontamination process will be improved, especially as far as the productivity and the safety precautions are concerned. (authors) [French] Divers essais de decontamination par voies mecaniques et chimiques ayant donne des resultats discutables, un procede par fusion a ete mis au point. L'appareil se compose d'un four, chauffe au propane, muni d'un creuset en acier d'une capacite de 1 400 kg, de deux systemes de ventilation et d'un deprimometre afin d'eviter la diffusion de vapeurs nocives. Trois controles d'activite sont effectues: 1. sur des echantillons preleves avant, pendant et apres l'operation, 2. sur des carottages realises sur les lingots, 3. sur le lingot lui-meme. Le controle sanitaire permanent est assure par un enregistreur d'aerosols radioactifs et par des prelevements periodiques. Ce procede de decontamination doit encore etre ameliore, principalement en ce qui concerne la productivite et la securite. (auteurs)

  5. Traitement de la margine brute d'huile d'olive par distillation suivi de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse physico-chimique de la margine brute et distillat, montre que ce dernier se caractérise par des abattements très remarquables des composés phénoliques (97%), Demande Chimique en Oxygène (DOC) (92%), Demande Biologique en Oxygène (DBO) (96%), conductivité (99%,) et chlorures (97%). Conclusion et ...

  6. L'urétroplastie par résection anastomose terminoterminale pour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.H. Sikpa

    Résumé. Objectif : évaluer l'uretroplastie par résection anastomose terminoterminale (URAT) au CHU Sylvanus. Olympio de Lomé au Togo. Patients et méthodes : étude descriptive, rétrospective sur 30 mois, portant sur 34 patients qui ont subi une. URAT. Résultats : L'âge moyen des patients était de 44,79+/-15 ans.

  7. juin 2017 Pendent le dernier trimestre, nous nous sommes préparés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Angela Wadeyua

    réaction rapide et l'altruisme ont permis de sauver le pays d'une épidémie catastrophique d'Ebola. Découvrez comment un programme de leadership stimulant mis sur pied par l'Université du Cap aide de jeunes chefs de file des secteurs public et privé en Afrique à utiliser le dialogue et le réseautage pour favoriser le ...

  8. Tsitutu , ou mecanisme local de mediation et de reconciliation « par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par ailleurs, ce rituel qui tente de proposer des solutions endogènes aux crises, fait office d'une médiation qui retrace une diplomatie africaine de résolution des conflits. Mots clés: Tsitutu, mécanisme, médiation, réconciliation, rituel, sociopolitiques. English Title: Tsitutu, or a local mechanism of mediation and reconciliation ...

  9. Éviter la reprise des conflits par des règlements politiques inclusifs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les États ayant réussi à s'extraire de la violence et à s'engager dans un processus de développement ont souvent commencé par conclure de bons règlements politiques, ou des pactes entre élites. Ceux-ci prennent parfois la forme d'accords de paix ou de coalitions électorales, voire simplement d'ententes non officielles ...

  10. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  11. Faillite de l'Etat et administration de l'espace public politique par les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    16 sept. 2010 ... rôle de premier plan dans l'espace public politique. Il apparait que ..... diffusées par les médias internationaux, qui ont eu pour effet de présenter une image ..... elle favorise un questionnement de la définition habermassienne de l'espace public perçu .... souveraineté de l'Etat ivoirien, lui refusait ce droit.

  12. Resultat du traitement d'un craniopharyngiome kystique par de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Le craniopharyngiome est une tumeur bénigne qui provient de nids épithéliaux ou de zones de métaplasies squameuses liées à l'embryogenèse hypophysaire. Touchant surtout l'enfant, peut être potentiellement agressive et caractérisée par un taux élevé de récidive après traitement chirurgical. La bléomycine ...

  13. Utilisation du partographe modifie de l'oms par les sages-femmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) de l'OMS par les sages-femmes de Lomé et leur position face à cet outil de surveillance du travail. Matériel et méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude prospective, transversale descriptive, menée du 01er juillet au 30 septembre 2011 (soit une période ...

  14. Évaluation du niveau de pollution par les métaux lourds des lacs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif principal d'évaluer le niveau de pollution métallique des lacs Bini et Dang (Ngaoundéré, Cameroun) à travers l'analyse des eaux et des sédiments de surface. La concentration des métaux lourds (Ni, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn) a été mesurée par spectrophotométrie d'absorption atomique.

  15. Optimisation de la production d'éthanol par les techniques d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous avons évalué les paramètres optimum pour la production d'alcool à partir de l'efficacité d'hydrolyse de l'amidon: chimique (HCl), enzymatique (amylase de Aspergillus niger ou de malt) et mixte (chimique et enzymatique). La fermentation alcoolique par la levure de bière est suivie, à travers l'influence du pH, de la ...

  16. Culture et exercice du pouvoir par les femmes dans les sphères de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture et exercice du pouvoir par les femmes dans les sphères de décisions en Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette recherche s'inscrit dans le contexte d'une superposition de deux faits : l'existence d'un arsenal juridique et de dispositions nationales et internationales favorables à une intégration des femmes dans les instances de ...

  17. suPAR remains uninfluenced by surgery in septic patients with bloodstream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabensteiner, Jasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical trauma induces activation of the immune system and may cause an increase of inflammatory biomarkers tested postoperatively in septic patients treated for bloodstream infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of surgical interventions on the novel sepsis biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR and to compare results with those of routine laboratory parameters CRP, PCT, and IL-6 in patients with culture-proven bloodstream infection. Forty-six adult patients with positive blood culture undergoing minor or major surgical intervention were investigated, 12 blood culture positive patients served as control group. Blood was collected 24 hours before and after surgical intervention for determination of the sepsis biomarkers suPAR, CRP, PCT, and IL-6. Within the surgical study cohort, a non-significant increase of suPAR, CRP, and PCT was observed postoperatively ( 0.642; 0.773; 0.087. In contrast, a slight decrease of IL-6 ( 0.599 was observed. A significant correlation was calculated for the pre- and postoperative difference of CRP ( 0.028 and PCT and type of surgical intervention received: after minor surgical intervention only PCT decreased significantly (<0.001, while after major surgical interventions no significant differences were observed for all biomarkers evaluated. In the control group, a significant decrease of CRP ( 0.005 and PCT ( 0.005 was observed. In patients treated adequately for bloodstream infections, postoperative suPAR levels remained uninfluenced of the surgical trauma and might therefore be a reliable parameter for postoperative infectious monitoring. After minor surgical intervention, PCT seems to be the most reliable parameter.

  18. CFD Recombiner Modelling and Validation on the H2-Par and Kali-H2 Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimouni, S.; Mechitoua, N.; Ouraou, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large amount of Hydrogen gas is expected to be released within the dry containment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), shortly after the hypothetical beginning of a severe accident leading to the melting of the core. According to local gas concentrations, the gaseous mixture of hydrogen, air and steam can reach the flammability limit, threatening the containment integrity. In order to prevent mechanical loads resulting from a possible conflagration of the gas mixture, French and German reactor containments are equipped with passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) which preventively oxidize hydrogen for concentrations lower than that of the flammability limit. The objective of the paper is to present numerical assessments of the recombiner models implemented in CFD solvers NEPTUNE C FD and Code S aturne. Under the EDF/EPRI agreement, CEA has been committed to perform 42 tests of PARs. The experimental program named KALI-H 2 , consists checking the performance and behaviour of PAR. Unrealistic values for the gas temperature are calculated if the conjugate heat transfer and the wall steam condensation are not taken into account. The combined effects of these models give a good agreement between computational results and experimental data

  19. Equilibrios de óxido-reducción. Variación del potencial de un par con el pH. Reacción entre el par dicromato-cromo y yodo-yoduro. Problema interactivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    El potencial redox de los oxoaniones oxidantes varía en función de la concentración de protones del medio. Eso le ocurre al par dicromato-cromo(III). Sin embargo, el potencial del par yodo-yoduro es formalmente independiente del pH. En este ejercicio es necesario calcular el pH para el que la reacción entre ambos pares no va teóricamente en ningún sentido.

  20. Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa infection in musculature of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Cardim de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Ninety specimens of Plagioscion squamosissimus captured using fishing tackle in the Outeiro district, state of Pará, were examined. Fish were placed in plastic bags containing water, under conditions of artificial aeration, and transported live to the Carlos Azevedo Research Laboratory (LPCA, in Belém, Pará. They were anesthetized, euthanized and necropsied; small fragments of the epaxial and hypaxial muscles were removed for examination of fresh histological sections by means of optical microscopy. In 100% of the specimens analyzed, parasitic pseudocysts were seen to be interspersed within and between the skeletal muscle. These contained pseudoquadrate and/or star-shaped spores that presented four valves and four polar capsules, which were identified from their morphology as belonging to the genus Kudoa. This is the first report of Kudoa in P. squamosissimus in the Amazon region, Pará, Brazil.

  1. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  2. EARLY SIMULTANEOUS FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellʼomo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H. Stevie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the

  3. suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    extend these findings by investigating the association of suPAR to glucose metabolic insufficiency during an oral glucose challenge (OGTT). METHODS: In 16 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and 15 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (ISI......PAR correlated inversely with ISI(composite) and positively with 2h plasma glucose, fasting insulin secretion, fasting intact proinsulin and FFA level during the OGTT (all P...-RNA, duration of HIV infection), and dyslipidemia (plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid level during the OGTT) were included, suPAR remained a significant marker of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Plasma suPAR exhibited a small CV (11%) during the 3h OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: su...

  4. uPAR Targeted Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 Inhibits Dissemination of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Juhl, Karina; Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is implicated in cancer invasion and metastatic development in prostate cancer and provides therefore an attractive molecular target for both imaging and therapy. In this study, we provide the first in vivo data on an antimetastatic effect...... of uPAR radionuclide targeted therapy in such lesions and show the potential of uPAR positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for identifying small foci of metastatic cells in a mouse model of disseminating human prostate cancer. Two radiolabeled ligands were generated in high purity and specific...... value of 100 nM in a competitive binding experiment. In vivo, uPAR targeted radionuclide therapy significantly reduced the number of metastatic lesions in the disseminated metastatic prostate cancer model, when compared to vehicle and nontargeted 177Lu groups (p

  5. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is upregulated by Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) and induces proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2014-05-29

    Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) is a serine protease elaborated by Acanthamoeba trophozoites that facilitates the invasion of trophozoites to the host and contributes to the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The aim of this study was to explore if aPA stimulates proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells via the protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway. Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites were grown in peptone-yeast extract glucose for 7 days, and the supernatants were collected and centrifuged. The aPA was purified using the fast protein liquid chromatography system, and aPA activity was determined by zymography assays. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without aPA (100 μg/mL), PAR1 agonists (thrombin, 10 μM; TRAP-6, 10 μM), and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2, 100 μM; AC 55541, 10 μM) for 24 and 48 hours. Inhibition of PAR1 and PAR2 involved preincubating the HCE cells for 1 hour with the antagonist of PAR1 (SCH 79797, 60 μM) and PAR2 (FSLLRY-NH2, 100 μM) with or without aPA. Human corneal epithelial cells also were preincubated with PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists and then incubated with or without PAR1 agonists (thrombin and TRAP-6) and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2 and AC 55541). Expression of PAR1 and PAR2 was examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Interleukin-8 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Human corneal epithelial cells constitutively expressed PAR1 and PAR2 mRNA. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator and PAR2 agonists significantly upregulated PAR2 mRNA expression (1- and 2-fold, respectively) (P aPA, and PAR2 agonists induced PAR2 mRNA expression in HCE cells (P aPA, significantly upregulated PAR1 mRNA expression, which was significantly inhibited by PAR1 antagonist in HCE cells. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator and PAR2 agonists stimulated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein production, which is significantly diminished by PAR2 antagonist

  6. MR imaging of lumbar spondylolysis: signal intensity change in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Suk Whan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To assess changes in MR signal intensity in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures in patients with lumbar spondylolysis. The MR images of 36 patients with lumbar spondylolysis, confirmed by plain radiographs, were retrospectively analyzed. Using a 1.0T unit, we evaluated the signal intensity of a total of 216 parts interarticulares and adjacent structures from L3 to L5, as seen on sagittal images, and differences between areas with and without spondylolysis. The signal intensity of T1-and T2-weighted images was graded 0(more hypointense than spinal body), 1(as isointense as spinal body), 2(more hyperintense than spinal body and more hypointense than epidural fat), or 3(as isointense as epidural fat). Signal intensity change in endplates and degree of spondylolisthesis were analyzed, and the relationship between these factors was determined. Spondylolysis was noted at L5 in 61 cases, at L4 in 22, and of L3 in no case. In three cases spondylolysis was unilateral, and in the remainder it was bilateral. The degree of signal intensity was the same on T1-and T2-weighted images, and no case was grade 0. Eighty-six of 133 areas without spondylolysis were grade 1, 43 were grade 2, and four were grade 3. In 42 of 47 cases, signal intensity change was localized at pedicles. Among 83 areas with spondylolysis,on the other hand, nine were grade 1, 48 were grade 2, and 26 were grade 3. Signal intensity change was most commonly observed at the pars interarticularis, pedicle, and lamina(50/74)({rho}<0.001). Signal intensity change at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures was accompanied in most cases by degenerative endplate change(10/11) and spondylolisthesis(11/13)({rho}<0.001). In patients with spondylolysis, signal intensity was frequently higher at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures, and is thought to have a close relationship with degenerative endplate change and spondylolisthesis. Increases in signal intensity at the pars

  7. MR imaging of lumbar spondylolysis: signal intensity change in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Suk Whan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun

    2001-01-01

    To assess changes in MR signal intensity in the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures in patients with lumbar spondylolysis. The MR images of 36 patients with lumbar spondylolysis, confirmed by plain radiographs, were retrospectively analyzed. Using a 1.0T unit, we evaluated the signal intensity of a total of 216 parts interarticulares and adjacent structures from L3 to L5, as seen on sagittal images, and differences between areas with and without spondylolysis. The signal intensity of T1-and T2-weighted images was graded 0(more hypointense than spinal body), 1(as isointense as spinal body), 2(more hyperintense than spinal body and more hypointense than epidural fat), or 3(as isointense as epidural fat). Signal intensity change in endplates and degree of spondylolisthesis were analyzed, and the relationship between these factors was determined. Spondylolysis was noted at L5 in 61 cases, at L4 in 22, and of L3 in no case. In three cases spondylolysis was unilateral, and in the remainder it was bilateral. The degree of signal intensity was the same on T1-and T2-weighted images, and no case was grade 0. Eighty-six of 133 areas without spondylolysis were grade 1, 43 were grade 2, and four were grade 3. In 42 of 47 cases, signal intensity change was localized at pedicles. Among 83 areas with spondylolysis,on the other hand, nine were grade 1, 48 were grade 2, and 26 were grade 3. Signal intensity change was most commonly observed at the pars interarticularis, pedicle, and lamina(50/74)(ρ<0.001). Signal intensity change at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures was accompanied in most cases by degenerative endplate change(10/11) and spondylolisthesis(11/13)(ρ<0.001). In patients with spondylolysis, signal intensity was frequently higher at the pars interarticularis and adjacent structures, and is thought to have a close relationship with degenerative endplate change and spondylolisthesis. Increases in signal intensity at the pars interarticularis and

  8. Glaucoma de ángulo abierto posterior a la vitrectomía pars plana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Galindo Reymond

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo nos proponemos revisar las evidencias científicas relacionadas con la aparición del glaucoma de ángulo abierto posterior a la vitrectomía pars plana. Se revisaron las evidencias científicas relacionadas con la aparición del glaucoma de ángulo abierto posterior a la cirugía de vitrectomía pars plana. Para la investigación documental se examinaron los artículos de la temática indexados en las bases de datos Pubmed, Pubmed Central y Scielo, que correspondieron a los descriptores DeCs-MeSH: glaucoma de ángulo abierto y vitrectomía pars plana. En la búsqueda de avanzada se utilizó el booleano AND y la restricción de tiempo entre los años 2004 y 2014. De los 38 artículos identificados, se desecharon 16 por no tenerse acceso íntegro al documento. El tratamiento de los datos se realizó mediante el análisis de contenido de tipo directo. Los mecanismos patológicos que causan glaucoma de ángulo abierto posterior a la vitrectomía pars plana son múltiples y complejos. La hipótesis del daño por estrés oxidativo en las celdas de la malla trabecular y su repercusión en la salida del humor acuoso, tiene un sustento científico en su patogenia que la hace plausible. El tratamiento para controlar la hipertensión ocular en estos pacientes después de la vitrectomía es individualizado; puede transitar desde el tratamiento médico y hasta el uso de técnicas quirúrgicas simples o complejas en algunos casos. Aún no se han esclarecido los mecanismos fisiopatológicos del glaucoma de ángulo abierto posterior a la vitrectomía pars plana, por lo que son necesarias nuevas investigaciones sobre el tema.

  9. Etude par imagerie radar des pollutions pétrolières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rees

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En Russie, chaque année, les déversements de pétrole représentent un cinquième de la production totale. Les plus importants se produisent dans le domaine périglaciaire où le milieu naturel est d’une extrême fragilité. Les pipelines sont soumis à de rudes conditions notamment à la corrosion et aux processus cryogéniques. Le risque de rupture augmente en conséquence. La surveillance des déversements d’hydrocarbures, contrainte par l’immensité et la fréquente inaccessibilité du réseau de pipelines, peut être réalisée par le recours à la télédétection. L’objectif de ce travail est de fournir, à travers l’exemple de la catastrophe d’Usinsk (Rép. de Komi survenue en 1994, des outils d’analyse des images radar. Outre leur capacité à s’affranchir du couvert nuageux, les capteurs radar apportent des informations complémentaires à celles fournies par des capteurs optiques. L’exploitation thématique de ces images est rendue difficile par un certain nombre de facteurs perturbateurs tels que les caractéristiques propres du capteur, la direction de visée, la topographie et le phénomène de chatoiement (speckle. Le travail présenté montre le rôle prépondérant joué par ces corrections qui permettent de disposer de données quantitatives comparables d’une date à une autre. La méthode mise au point ici pour le suivi temporel de l’épanchement de pétrole d’Usinsk à partir de trois images radar, est discutée notamment dans ses limites et son aspect opérationnel possible.

  10. Le coût par QALY rapporté au PIB (CQP): suggestion d'un nouvel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le coût par QALY rapporté au PIB (CQP): suggestion d'un nouvel indice économique évaluant l'impact réel du coût du bénéfice des molécules onéreuses en oncologie par rapport aux moyens économique d'un pays.

  11. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  12. Améliorer l'immunité innée des macrophages par la modulation des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les maladies causées par une infection guérissent le plus souvent grâce à une réaction immunitaire déclenchée par des cellules pour éliminer les agents étrangers. Ces cellules comprennent les macrophages, le principal type de cellule qui élimine les agents infectieux au cours d'un processus appelé phagocytose, ...

  13. A flexible multidomain structure drives the function of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Haydyn D.T.; Kjærgaard, Magnus; Mysling, Simon

    2012-01-01

    -deuterium exchange, and surface plasmon resonance to develop a structural model describing the allosteric regulation of uPAR. We show that the flexibility of its N-terminal domain provides the key for understanding this allosteric mechanism. Importantly, our model has direct implications for understanding uPAR-assisted...... cell adhesion and migration as well as for translational research including targeted intervention therapy and non-invasive tumor imaging in vivo....

  14. EXAME PRÉ-PARTICIPAÇÃO ESPORTIVA E O PAR-Q, EM PRATICANTES DE ACADEMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingryd Maturo Andreazzi

    Full Text Available RESUMO Introdução: O Brasil tem o maior número de academias do mundo (cerca de 20 mil e aproximadamente de 3,6 milhões de brasileiros praticam atividade física nesses locais. Torna-se necessária uma padronização da triagem de praticantes de academia a fim de reduzir ao máximo o risco de morte súbita e outras morbidades associadas ao exercício físico. Objetivo: Comparar o Questionário de Prontidão para Atividade Física (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, PAR-Q com o exame físico pré-participação esportiva na detecção de risco à saúde em praticantes de academia. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado nas cidades de São Bernardo do Campo e Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram avaliados 50 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, entre 18 e 35 anos que iniciariam atividades físicas. Realizou-se anamnese, exame físico geral e ortopédico, teste de flexibilidade e o PAR-Q. As variáveis quantitativas foram analisadas pela média, desvio padrão e porcentagens. A comparação das variáveis contínuas com distribuição normal foi feita pelo teste t e a comparação das variáveis qualitativas, pelo teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. Fixou-se em 5% a hipótese de nulidade. Resultados: O PAR-Q foi positivo em 20% dos entrevistados, assemelhando-se aos dados da anamnese, em que 28% relataram alguma doença. O questionário teve associação positiva em indivíduos que faziam uso de medicação (p = 0,001, história familiar de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (p = 0,001 e antecedentes de cirurgia (p = 0,03. Os participantes com PAR-Q positivo tiveram os maiores valores de índice de massa corpórea, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, mas a diferença não foi estatisticamente significante. O PAR-Q não foi capaz detectar morbidades clínicas como: asma (8%, dislipidemia (4%, hipotireoidismo (2%, tabagismo (8% e cirurgias prévias (40%. O exame abdominal e cardiopulmonar estava alterado em quatro

  15. O golpe de 1964 e a instauração da ditadura civil-militar no Pará: apoios e resistências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Petit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, inserido nos debates historiográficos sobre a ditadura civil-militar no Brasil (1964-1985, pretende contribuir para o conhecimento da história política do estado do Pará antes, durante e após o golpe de estado de 1964. Examinamos preferencialmente a participação dos militares e o apoio de setores da sociedade civil ao golpe militar, e a repressão que sofreram os estudantes e organizações de esquerda e políticos "populistas". Na perspectiva metodológica dos estudos de história local e regional, as principais fontes utilizadas foram os jornais de Belém, livros de memórias, trabalhos acadêmicos e fontes orais.

  16. The herpetological collection of Integrated colleges of Tapajós/College of Amazon, Santarém, Pará, Brazil: 1 - Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito I.A.S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It shows the collection of the herpetological collection of the Tapajos Integrated Colleges/College Amazon, with complete list of species of reptiles and amphibians deposited in the collection. The herpetological collection currently houses 3.349 specimens, has scientific and didactic collection. The entire collection is properly tumbled and packaged as minimum requirements for collections. He represents an excellent database for the study of amazon herpetofauna. The cities with the most representative specimens of deposits in the collection are Santarem and Belterra, Pará, Brazil; most copies come from scientific expeditions and be can considered a regional dynamic collection because it is to the community. However, greater investments are needed structural, for the maintenance and growth of, the collection so that it continues in of continue with the performance of their duties.

  17. X-ray study of the structure of polyethylene at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom; Etude par rayons X dela structure du polyethylene a l'echelle de 100-200 Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeoch nee Goldsztein, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-06-15

    Information on the structure of polyethylene is deduced from a comparison of the results obtained by central diffusion and by other X-ray methods. The structure depends on the thermal and mechanical treatment to which the samples are subjected, as well as on the observation temperature. The central diffusion due to the heterogeneity of the material at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom is bound up with the presence of both the amorphous and crystalline phases. Stretched polythene shows a more or less regular succession of orderly and disorderly regions. When released it has a structure of recrystallisation preceded by 'amorphization'. (author) [French] Les informations sur la structure du polyethylene sont deduites de la confrontation des resultats obtenus par la diffusion centrale et par d'autres methodes de rayons X. La structure depend des traitements thermiques et mecaniques subis par les echantillons ainsi que la temperature d'observation. La diffusion centrale due a l'existence d'heterogeneites de la matiere a l'echelle 100-200 Angstrom est lie a la presence des deux phases amorphe et cristallisee. Le polyethylene etire comporte une succession plus ou moins reguliere de domaines ordonnes et desordonnes. Le polyethylene relaxe a une structure de recristallisation precedee d'une 'amorphisation'. (auteur)

  18. "Derecho de locomoción", desplazamientos de cearenses al Pará y en el Pará(1889-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Gama Lacerda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento de personas de diferentes lugares, de la región que hoy se conoce como Nordeste en Brasil, hacia diversas áreas de la Amazonia, se consagró en la historiografía brasileña a partir de la participación de los emigrantes en la extracción de caucho a finales del siglo xix. Tal proceso migratorio, entretanto, es más complejo y está constituido de motivaciones e intereses varios. Este texto discute algunas de las motivaciones para los desplazamientos al Pará y los caminos deseados y/o tomados por los grupos de emigrantes que salieron del Ceará y llegaron a tierras paraenses entre 1889 y 1915.

  19. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Mechali, D; Dousset, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  20. La mesure de pluie par radar : du calibrage par des pluviomètres vers l'interprétation physique des images

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRIEU, H

    2002-01-01

    Cet article retrace l'évolution des méthodes de traitement des images radar pour la mesure des précipitations. Les études ont tout donné la priorité au calibrage des images radar par des données pluviométriques de façon à bénéficier des avantages supposés de chaque capteur : représentativité ponctuelle du pluviomètre, continuité spatiale de l'image radar. Bien que positifs, les résultats obtenus ont mis en évidence la nécessité d'une détection et d'une correction des principales sources d'err...

  1. Genetic Diversity in the UV Sex Chromosomes of the Brown Alga Ectocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia, Komlan; Lipinska, Agnieszka P; Mignerot, Laure; Montecinos, Alejandro E; Jamy, Mahwash; Ahmed, Sophia; Valero, Myriam; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark; Roze, Denis; Coelho, Susana M

    2018-06-06

    Three types of sex chromosome system exist in nature: diploid XY and ZW systems and haploid UV systems. For many years, research has focused exclusively on XY and ZW systems, leaving UV chromosomes and haploid sex determination largely neglected. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of DNA sequence neutral diversity levels across the U and V sex chromosomes of the model brown alga Ectocarpus using a large population dataset. We show that the U and V non-recombining regions of the sex chromosomes (SDR) exhibit about half as much neutral diversity as the autosomes. This difference is consistent with the reduced effective population size of these regions compared with the rest of the genome, suggesting that the influence of additional factors such as background selection or selective sweeps is minimal. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of this UV system, in contrast, exhibited surprisingly high neutral diversity and there were several indications that genes in this region may be under balancing selection. The PAR of Ectocarpus is known to exhibit unusual genomic features and our results lay the foundation for further work aimed at understanding whether, and to what extent, these structural features underlie the high level of genetic diversity. Overall, this study fills a gap between available information on genetic diversity in XY/ZW systems and UV systems and significantly contributes to advancing our knowledge of the evolution of UV sex chromosomes.

  2. A comparison of four aerial radiological surveys of Par Pond and the surrounding area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1993-09-01

    A series of gamma radiation surveys was conducted over Par Pond at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in August 1993, October 1991, and August 1992 as part of an effort to monitor the radiological changes around Par Pond as its water level was lowered. The results of an April 1989 survey, which was about one-half the area of those surveys listed above, were used as baseline data for the comparison. Gamma energy spectrum analysis revealed that the only man-made gamma ray emitter detected during the four surveys in the Par Pond area was cesium-137. The comparisons revealed that: (1) significant change in the radiological environment occurred along the Par Pond shoreline as the water levels were lowered, (2) the activity in Lower Three Runs Creek varied slightly as the level/flow rate changed during the pumping process, (3) minor changes occurred in areas adjacent to the Par Pond, and (4) little or no change occurred between surveys in the spatial distribution or kind of sources detected. All changes were directly related to the moisture variations (Par Pond water lowering, rainfall, waterway flow rates) between the survey periods. The distribution, kind, and activity of sources detected beyond the pond bed were consistent between surveys. 60 figs., 14 tabs

  3. ParShield: A computer program for calculating attenuation parameters of the gamma rays and the fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmahroug, Y.; Tellili, B.; Souga, C.; Manai, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Description of the theoretical method used by the ParShield program. • Description of the ParShield program. • Test and validation the ParShield program. - Abstract: This study aims to present a new computer program called ParShield which determines the neutron and gamma-ray shielding parameters. This program can calculate the total mass attenuation coefficients (μ t ), the effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) for gamma rays and it can also calculate the effective removal cross-sections (Σ R ) for fast neutrons for mixtures and compounds. The results obtained for the gamma rays by using ParShield were compared with the results calculated by the WinXcom program and the measured results. The obtained values of (Σ R ) were tested by comparing them with the measured results,the manually calculated results and with the results obtained by using MERCSFN program and an excellent agreement was found between them. The ParShield program can be used as a fast and effective tool to choose and compare the shielding materials, especially for the determination of (Z eff ) and (N eff ), there is no other programs in the literature which can calculate

  4. Increased Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR Levels in Plasma of Suicide Attempters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Ventorp

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP of suicide attempters (n = 54, depressed patients (n = 19 and healthy controls (n = 19 was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs.

  5. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  6. Vitrectomía pars plana y reimplante de lente intraocular en surco Pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens repositioning in the sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guerra García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó un caso de lente intraocular luxado a vítreo en paciente con conteo bajo de células endoteliales e intolerancia a lentes de contacto. Se practicó vitrectomía pars plana con reimplante de lente en surco ciliar con el objetivo de demostrar la fiabilidad de la técnica para casos que presenten condiciones adecuadas y situaciones especiales. Se revisó la bibliografía para conocer las tendencias actuales con respecto al manejo de esta patología. El paciente alcanzó una agudeza visual de 20/30. El lente permaneció estable en el surco 3 meses después de practicada la vitrectomía. El manejo de esta entidad debe ser personalizado. La técnica utilizada debe ser siempre la primera opción de tratamiento y parece ser segura en casos cuidadosamente escogidos.A case of dislocated intraocular lens moved to the vitreous cavity in a patient with low endothelial cell count and contact lens intolerance was reported. A pars plana vitrectomy with lens repositioning was performed to demonstrate the safety of this technique for some special cases under adequate conditions. The literature was reviewed to learn about the current management of this pathology. Finally, patient's best visual acuity was 20/30. The stability of the lens was confirmed three month l after the vitrectomy. Management of this disorder should be customized. This technique should be considered as the first option of treatment and seems to be safe in selected cases.

  7. PARS METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  8. Dieta e câncer gástrico: aspectos históricos associados ao padrão de consumo alimentar no estado do Pará Diet and gastric cancer: historical aspects associated with dietary patterns in the state of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Resende

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O câncer gástrico ainda constitui importante problema de saúde pública no estado do Pará, onde as taxas de mortalidade apresentam valores acima da média brasileira. As bases históricas de ocupação de espaço na Amazônia, bem como as relações econômico-sociais estabelecidas ao longo desse processo, marcaram o padrão alimentar desse Estado. Este trabalho tem por objetivo reconstruir as principais características do padrão alimentar dessa população no século passado. Procurou-se identificar todas as publicações científicas disponíveis que relacionavam dados sobre os hábitos alimentares dos residentes do Pará no século XX. A partir dessas publicações, foi possível caracterizar o padrão alimentar da população paraense no século XX, que incluía um elevado consumo de sal, utilizado na conservação de carnes e frutos do mar, um consumo relativamente reduzido e irregular de legumes e verduras e uma importante ingestão de glicídios, a partir da farinha de mandioca, muitas vezes adicionada de corantes artificiais. O padrão de dieta retratado, provavelmente comum a outras regiões da Amazônia, pode ser caracterizado, com base na literatura científica, como potencialmente favorecedor de certas condições associadas à carcinogênese gástrica. Nesse sentido, ele poderia ter contribuído, em parte, para a alta mortalidade por essa neoplasia registrada na região Norte.Gastric cancer still constitutes an important public health problem in the state of Pará, Brazil, where mortality rates are above the Brazilian average rates. The historical basis of occupation of the Amazon region, as well as the social-economic relations established during this process, have marked the dietary patterns of this state. The aim of this work is to reconstruct some of the main characteristics of the dietary pattern of the population of Pará in the last century. We sought to identify all the scientific papers that contained data on the

  9. A economia colonial do Grão-Pará: uma avaliação crítica (1720-1822 The colonial economy of Grão-Pará: a critical evaluation (1720-1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base em exaustivo trabalho de reconstituição de séries que se estendem de 1720 a 1822, o artigo objetiva contribuir para a construção de perspectivas da economia colonial amazônica que enfatizem o contexto global - a capacidade demonstrada de se afirmar como subsistema do Império Colonial Português no contexto do mercado mundial. Ao discutir essa capacidade, avalia a evolução das condições fundamentais de escala e eficiência, entendendo-as como determinadas pelas condições locais de operação do projeto colonial. Tais condições, caracterizadas pelos fundamentos naturais únicos do bioma amazônico, são avaliadas na referência das mudanças institucionais que marcam, vigorosamente, no tempo, a trajetória da economia e sociedade regionais.Based on work of restoration of time series of some important economic variables that extend from 1720 to 1822, the paper aims to contribute to a vision of the Amazonian colonial economy that emphasizes the global context - it means a demonstrated ability to assert itself as sub-system of the Portuguese Colonial Empire in the context of world market. In discussing this capacity, the article evaluates the evolution of fundamental conditions of efficiency of the colony, considering them as determined by the peculiar features that assumed the local operation of the colonial project in Grão-Pará. These conditions, strongly characterized by the uniqueness of the natural foundations of the Amazonian biome, are evaluated in reference to the institutional changes that mark in time the trajectory of the regional economy and society.

  10. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of proangiogenic retinal phenotype by an antisense oligonucleotide downregulating uPAR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Granucci, Irene; Witort, Ewa; Bono, Silvia; Di Gesualdo, Federico; Lupia, Antonella; Loffredo, Rosa; Casini, Giovanni; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2017-08-26

    Neoangiogenesis is the main pathogenic event involved in a variety of retinal diseases. It has been recently demonstrated that inhibiting the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) results in reduced angiogenesis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), establishing uPAR as a therapeutic target in proliferative retinopathies. Here, we evaluated in cultured human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and in OIR mice the potential of a specific antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ASO) in blocking the synthesis of uPAR and in providing antiangiogenic effects. uPAR expression in HRECs was inhibited by lipofection with the phosphorotioated 5'-CGGCGGGTGACCCATGTG-3' ASO-uPAR, complementary to the initial translation site of uPAR mRNA. Inhibition of uPAR expression via ASO-uPAR was evaluated in HRECs by analyzing VEGF-induced tube formation and migration. In addition, the well-established and reproducible murine OIR model was used to induce retinal neovascularization in vivo. OIR mice were injected intraperitoneally with ASO-uPAR and retinopathy was evaluated considering the extent of the avascular area in the central retina and neovascular tuft formation. The ASO-uPAR specifically decreased uPAR mRNA and protein levels in HRECs and mitigated VEGF-induced tube formation and cell migration. Noteworthy, in OIR mice ASO-uPAR administration reduced both the avascular area and the formation of neovascular tufts. In conclusion, although the extrapolation of these experimental findings to the clinic is not straightforward, ASO-uPAR may be considered a potential therapeutic tool for treatment of proliferative retinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Análisis experimental de un motor ultrasónico de elevado par

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Prous, C.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic engines are useful in several applications due to low weight, small size, good position and speed regulation, and high torque. Nowadays there are only low and medium torque engines. We are working on high torque ultrasonic engines, which can be used as power actuators. Among all possible configurations, we are dealing with a standard piezoelectric ceramic excited one, which works in the no linear zone and resonant mode. A static, modal, harmonic and transitory finite elements analysis is being carrying on. The final goal is to obtain all components design criteria in order to optimise the obtained result. The finite element analysis and motor functioning are explained, showing two prototype results, and describing the improvements of the second one and his reason.

    Los motores ultrasónicos son útiles en diversas aplicaciones debido a su poco peso, pequeñas dimensiones, buena regulación de la posición y velocidad, y elevado par. Hoy en día tan sólo existen motores que desarrollan un par bajo o medio. En esta línea, estamos trabajando en motores ultrasónicos de par elevado, que pueden ser utilizados como actuadores de potencia. Entre todas las configuraciones inicialmente propuestas, se está analizando en detalle una que es excitada por cerámica piezoeléctrica estándar, que trabaja en la zona no lineal y en modo resonante. El análisis, realizado por elementos finitos, abarca el estático y el modal, el armónico y el transitorio. En este artículo se describen el funcionamiento del motor y su análisis por elementos finitos, mostrando los resultados experimentales de dos prototipos, y describiendo las mejoras que aporta el segundo debidamente justificadas.

  12. parámetros en híbridos de populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vallejos-Barra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La variable diámetro a la altura del pecho, medido a 1.3 m desde el suelo (DAP es lognormal si log(DAP-θ se distribuye normalmente. Para simplificar el ajuste de esta función de densidad de probabilidad (fdp se supone que el parámetro de localización (θ es cero en híbridos de Populus; sin embargo, en algunos casos esta simplificación no asegura el mejor ajuste de la fdp, incidiendo en la representación de la estructura horizontal de los híbridos. El objetivo de la investigación fue calcular el parámetro θ que proporcione el mejor ajuste de la fdp lognormal del DAP en los híbridos I-488 e I-63/51. Para este cálculo se utilizó un algoritmo de búsqueda binaria, que minimizó el estadístico Dn de la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. 38 % de las parcelas presentó un parámetro θ distinto de cero, originando una mejoría del valor de probabilidad (P entre 0.02 y 55.4 %. Se hizo un análisis de varianza no paramétrico de la variable “√n * Dn”, ya que la variable original y múltiples transformaciones no permitieron aceptar los supuestos del análisis paramétrico. El tipo de ajuste presentó diferencias estadísticas altamente significativas con un valor de 17.1 (P0.800 y las edades un valor de 11.2 (P>0.260.

  13. Estuarine and offshore fishing yield statistics and fishery policies in the state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Furtado Júnior

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The coast of Pará State extends for 562 km and it counts on 123 artisan-fishing communities, distributed along 17 coastal municipal districts. In this area of the State, it highlights the presence of growth of mangroves, streams, rivers and estuaries. All those factors that favor the fishing productivity hinder the systematic control of the landings a lot and with consequence in obtaining fishing production statistics. This work objective is to present the statistics of fishing production for species in landing volume, in the estuarine and marine areas of Pará Estate and to analyze the fishing police for the systems of industrial and artisan production in the period from 1997 to 2003. To esteem the fishing productions of the estuarine and marine areas in Pará State. There was monthly control on the boat in activity for type of fishing gear used and accomplished samples of the landings of each one of those combinations of boat fishing gear. In the studied area, the municipal districts that concentrate the largest landings are Belém, Bragança and Vigia. The tuna and billfish captures started having some importance from 2000 in Belém City and from 2002 in Belém city and municipal district of Curuçá. The species or groups of more important species in capture volume are yellow weakfish, Thomas sea catfish, Spanish mackerel, sharks, Caribbean red snapper, king weakfish, crab, marine catfish and shrimp and, in economic, value lobsters, shrimp and Caribbean red snapper.

  14. Les Lesions Oculaires Par Jeu de Feu au Cours de Achoura

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ketani, A.; Amir, F.; Ali, T.B.; Hamdani, M.; Zaghloul, K.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Les enfants célèbrent la fête de Achoura au Maroc par des jeux de feu, ce qui occasionne des blessures oculaires plus au moins graves. Nous rapportons 15 observations de malades traités au Service d'Ophtalmologie Pédiatrique de l'Hôpital 20 Août 1953 de Casablanca. L'âge moyen des patients était de 12 ans et demi, avec des extrêmes de 3 et 25 ans. Les pétards, la première cause des accidents (50%), ont occasionné des contusions oculaires avec parfois un oedème de Berlin (deux cas). L'atteinte oculaire par fusée a occasionné un éclatement de globe et une plaie de paupière. Les bombes de carbone ont été responsables de brûlures de deuxième degré palpébrales et conjonctivo-cornéennes avec de multiples corps étrangers cornéens profonds. Les «étoiles» et la limaille de fer ont provoqué des brûlures cornéennes moins graves avec des corps étrangers superficiels. Les pistolets à bille ont été responsables de contusions oculaires. La réglementation de vente des jeux de feu et la sensibilisation du grand public par les moyens audiovisuels permettraient de prévenir ces blessures oculaires. PMID:21991053

  15. Preretinal partial pressure of oxygen gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate preretinal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 gradients were recorded in 7 minipigs during slow withdrawal of oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes (10-μm tip diameter) from the vitreoretinal interface to 2 mm into the vitreous cavity. Recordings were repeated after pars plana vitrectomy and balanced salt solution (BSS) intraocular perfusion. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 at the vitreoretinal interface were 62.3 ± 13.8, 22.5 ± 3.3, and 17.0 ± 7.5 mmHg, respectively, before vitrectomy; 97.7 ± 19.9, 40.0 ± 21.9, and 56.3 ± 28.4 mmHg, respectively, immediately after vitrectomy; and 59.0 ± 27.4, 25.2 ± 3.0, and 21.5 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively, 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 2 mm from the vitreoretinal interface was 28.4 ± 3.6 mmHg before vitrectomy; 151.8 ± 4.5 mmHg immediately after vitrectomy; and 34.8 ± 4.1 mmHg 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 gradients were still present after vitrectomy, with the same patterns as before vitrectomy. Preretinal PO2 gradients are not eliminated after pars plana vitrectomy. During BSS perfusion, vitreous cavity PO2 is very high. Interruption of BSS perfusion evokes progressive equilibration of vitreous cavity PO2 with concomitant progressive return of preretinal PO2 gradients to their previtrectomy patterns. This indicates that preretinal diffusion of oxygen is not altered after vitrectomy. The beneficial effect of vitrectomy in ischemic retinal diseases or macular edema may be related to other mechanisms, such as increased oxygen convection currents or removal of growth factors and cytokines secreted in the vitreous.

  16. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines; Extraction de quelques acides par des amines aliphatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [French] Les acides chlorhydrique, nitrique, sulfurique, perchlorique, phosphorique, acetique et formique, en solution aqueuse - 0,05 a 10 M - sont extraits par l'amberlite LA2 et la trilaurylamine en solution, a 5 pour cent en volume, dans le kerosene et le xylene respectivement. L'extraction comprend: une neutralisation de l'amine par l'acide avec formation d'un sel d'amine; une 'extraction moleculaire', c'est-a-dire une extraction d'acide en exces par rapport a la stoechiometrie du sel d'amine. Suivant le comportement des acides au cours de l'extraction nous distinguons trois groupes: acides entierement dissocies, acides carboxyliques, acide phosphorique. Cette classification est egalement valable pour l'extraction de l'eau qui est simultanee a celle de l'acide. Un mecanisme d'extraction pour l'acide formique est propose et nous calculons la constante de formation de son sel d'amine. (auteur)

  17. TRANSFERT THERMIQUE INSTATIONNAIRE DANS UN MUR TRICOUCHES SUBISSANT UN CHANGEMENT DE PHASE PAR SOLIDIFICATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Arfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Une étude numérique du transfert de chaleur instationnaire dans un mur tricouches est présentée. Le modèle physique est basé sur l’équation de conduction thermique unidirectionnelle en tenant compte des équations de couplages au niveau des interfaces et des conditions convectives de surfaces. Les équations de transfert sont données en représentation enthalpique pour le matériau à changement de phase (MCP, et en formulation générale pour les régions solides. La formulation adimensionnelle a permis de dégager les principaux paramètres affectant le transfert : nombre de Biot (Bi, nombre de Stephan (Ste et le degré de surchauffe (qm. La discrétisation des équations est réalisée en utilisant la méthode des volumes finis selon un schéma explicite. La solution numérique est obtenue par une méthode itérative basée sur la notion d’enthalpie critique. L’étude de l’influence de la condition convective chaude, gouvernée par  Bi¥,cet θ¥,c , a montré que la présence des couches solides affecte la cinétique de la solidification, les limites de la solidification et le transfert de chaleur par un effet de stockage et de déstockage d’énergie sensible. L’influence de la température θ¥,c sur le processus de changement de phase est fortement dépendante du nombre de Biot Bi¥,c.

  18. Les Brulures Electriques par Haut Voltage - A Propos de 10 Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmir, R.; Fejjal, N.; El Omari, M.; El Mazouz, S.; Gharib, N.; Abassi, A.; Belmahi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les accidents électriques par haute tension (AEHT) provoquent des brûlures profondes par effet Joule le long des axes vasculo-nerveux entre les points d'entrée et de sortie, qui sont le siège de lésions délabrantes. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de dix cas d'AEHT admis au service de chirurgie réparatrice et de brûlés de l'Hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. Tous les patients étaient des adultes de sexe masculin dont l'âge moyen était de 31 ans. Dans 70% des cas, ces brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec les distributeurs d'électricité avec une surface brûlée inférieure à 20%. Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation des segments de membres nécrosés dans 70% des cas, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention des AEHT, en particulier pour les accidents du travail au sein des professions exposées, reste fondamentale. PMID:21991124

  19. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only

  20. Could soluble urokinase plasminogen receptor (suPAR) be used as a diagnostic biomarker for ventilator-associated pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Adıyaman, Fırat; Binici, Irfan; Soyoral, Lokman

    2017-11-01

    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker that is increasingly used for evaluation of systemic inflammation. This study was performed to investigate whether suPAR may possess a diagnostic value in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This clinical study was performed in the anesthesia intensive care units (ICUs) of our university. In addition to descriptive data, WBC, serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and suPAR prior to and after development of VAP were noted and compared in 31 patients (22 men, 9 women) diagnosed with VAP (Study Group) and 19 patients without VAP (Control Group) in ICU (14 men, 5 women). The suPAR (P = 0.023), CRP (P = 0.037), WBCs (P = 0.024) in patients with VAP were significantly higher than patients without VAP. There was no remarkable difference in terms of WBCs (P = 0.052) and suPAR levels (P = 0.616) between groups on the first day of connection to mechanical ventilator. The suPAR and CRP levels in patients with VAP were significantly higher than prior to development of VAP (P = 0.001 for both). Area under curve value after diagnosis of pneumonia was found 0.248 (P = 0.002). To conclude, our results suggest that suPAR can be a useful diagnostic biomarker in patients with VAP. However, clinical trials on larger series are warranted to explore the clinical significance more accurately. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Parálisis del músculo oblicuo superior atípica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Castro Pérez

    Full Text Available Las paresias y parálisis oculomotoras implican todos aquellos procesos susceptibles de producir un déficit parcial o total de los movimientos del globo ocular. La lesión puede estar en cualquier parte del sistema oculomotor que incluye la corteza cerebral, el tronco cerebral, nervios, placa neuromuscular y del propio músculo. Las paresias y/o parálisis del músculo oblicuo superior o IV par craneal constituye una de las más frecuentes en la práctica médica estrabológica, puede ser de etiología congénita o adquirida, se caracteriza por hipertropía que aumenta con la inclinación de la cabeza hacia el hombro del lado del ojo afectado (signo de Bielschowsky, anisotropía en V, exciclotropía. Los pacientes con paresias y/o parálisis adquirida muestran diplopía vertical y torsional que aumenta con la mirada hacia abajo, tortícolis con inclinación de la cabeza hacia el lado opuesto del ojo afectado y descenso del mentón. El paciente acude a consulta por presentar diplopía vertical y torsional de 13 años de evolución. Al examen de la motilidad ocular había ortotropía en la Posición Primaria de la Mirada con hiperforia al cover test ojo izquierdo, 10 Dp base inferior por barra de prismas, exciclotropía 5*, tortícolis hacia la derecha y Bielschowsky positivo hacia el lado izquierdo. La impresión diagnóstica fue paresia adquirida del músculo OS izquierdo de etiología no precisada. El tratamiento realizado fue la retroinserción del recto superior del ojo izquierdo 4 mm más el desplazamiento temporal de un 1/4 de la inserción con el objetivo de eliminar la diplopía vertical y torsional y la posición anómala de la cabeza.

  2. Effet de l'alimentation calcique séparée sur les performances de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Object : L'étude envisagée, se propose de vérifier la réponse de la souche Lhoman Brown soumise à l'alimentation calcique séparée. Elle s'inscrit dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire, la lutte contre la pauvreté et les changements climatiques sous climat tropical humide. Matériels et méthodes : L'étude a été menée ...

  3. Tratamiento acupuntural vs parálisis facial periférica de Bell

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Latorre, Elvia Isabel

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó un ensayo clínico sobre la efectividad del tratamiento acupuntural en 170 pacientes afectados de Parálisis Facial Periférica de Bell que acudieron a la clínica de Medicina Natural ¨ Carlos J. Finlay ¨ en el período comprendido entre enero y julio 1996. La muestra se divide en dos grupos: control y de estudio, con 85 pacientes cada uno. Los tratamientos empleados fueron esteroides para el grupo control y acupuntura para el grupo estudio con el objetivo de comparar los resultados de ...

  4. Localisation d'une source sonore par un réseau de microphones

    OpenAIRE

    Thaljaoui , Adel; Brulin , Damien; Val , Thierry; Nasri , Nejah

    2014-01-01

    National audience; L'assistance à domicile d'une personne âgée, notamment la connaissance de sa position géographique en tout instant, est devenue actuellement l'une des problématiques les plus urgentes. L'exploitation de l'information audio captée par un réseau de capteurs munis de microphones constitue un axe de recherche prometteur qui pourrait contribuer à une meilleure localisation dans le cadre des maisons intelligentes. Nous introduisons, dans cet article, nos premiers travaux sur la l...

  5. STRATÉGIES AGRICOLES DÉvELOPPÉES PAR LES MÉNAGES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans la plupart des pays africains touchés par le VIH/SIDA, l'agriculture est la principale activité et demeure essentiellement dépendante de la force humaine. Dès lors, les effets de cette pandémie sur l'agriculture ne sont plus à démontrer. Mais face au VIH/SIDA, les ménages affectés mettent en œuvre diverses stratégies.

  6. Mentorat par les pairs de journalistes scientifiques dans les pays en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce réseau, établi à Londres, exploite des noeuds régionaux dans les pays en développement; il a joué un rôle de premier plan à l'occasion de la quatrième Conférence mondiale des journalistes scientifiques (102484). Le projet de formation entre pairs est issu de la conférence. Par l'entremise de la Fédération mondiale ...

  7. The Rules of Hearing Conservation Program and One Sample Study in Pars- Minoo Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Keshani

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Hearing conservation is one of the useful programs in industrial audiology. Few studies have been reported on this issue. Performing this program is always accompanied with some problems, In a way that lacking enough attention can cause deviation from the main instructions in the program. In the current study we will first of all, have a look on the academic foundations of a hearing conservation program and then will discuss performing such a program in Pars- Minoo Company which have been performed by the audiology department of Tehran university of medical sciences in the winter 1995 in Tehran.

  8. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  9. Olhando Teresa e pensando parâmetrosp.51-67

    OpenAIRE

    Sztajn, Paola

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende enriquecer a discussão sobre Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais através do estudo de caso de uma professora que se depara com um documento curricular e tenta implementá-lo em sua sala de aula. O documento em questão é o Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 1989) e Teresa, a professora, leciona na terceira série primária. Apesar das diferenças entre o caso americano e a realidade brasileira, olhando as dificuldade enfrentadas por Teresa,...

  10. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par Evans et al. in the crop of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando David Sánchez Mora

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available More than a century, cacao (Theobroma cacao L. in Ecuador has been an important source of income for farmers and currency for the country, becoming one of the biggest exporters worldwide. Then, gradually lost that status due to the attack of diseases, including moniliasis caused by [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al.]. It can cause damage of up to 80% in production. Currently there is little scientific date information on its occurrence, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology, life cycle management or control strategies of that disease, by performing this review both these important topics, bringing with it to this area of knowledge.

  11. Hepatogenous photosensitization in horses caused by Brachiaria humidicola (Gramineae) in the state of Pará

    OpenAIRE

    BARBOSA NETO, José Diomedes; OLIVEIRA, Carlos Magno Chaves; TOKARNIA, Carlos Maria Antônio Hubinger; PEIXOTO, Paulo Fernando de Vargas

    2006-01-01

    São apresentados os aspectos clínico-patológicos e epidemiológicos de doença, caracterizada por fotossensibili-zação, que ocorre em eqüinos no nordeste do Estado do Pará. De um total de 40 animais examinados clinicamente, sete foram necropsiados, e tiveram fragmentos de órgãos examinados microscopicamente. Em virtude das lesões características encontradas, sobretudo nas partes despigmentadas da pele, das le-sões hepáticas macro e microscópicas, e sabendo-se que as brachiárias, de uma maneira ...

  12. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  13. La prise en charge des suicides par précipitation en traumatologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Elmrini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIFS: A travers ce travail, l’épidémiologie et la psychopathologie du suicide par précipitation seront rappelées, le rôle du chirurgien traumatologue dans la restauration physique et psychique sera démontré. METHODES: Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective de 15 suicidants par précipitation admis pour des traumatismes complexes de l’appareil locomoteur entre 2004 et 2007. RESULTATS: Il s’agissait de primosuicidants, comprenant 10 femmes et 5 hommes. L’âge moyen des hommes est de 26,5 ans (24-34 ans et celui des femmes de 40,7 ans (17-45 ans. Le bilan lésionnel des suicidants a retrouvé 14 fractures des membres inférieurs, 4 traumatisme du rachis avec compression médullaire dans 1 cas, une fracture du bassin; deux traumatismes du membre supérieur. Aucun de ces patients n’a présenté de lésions viscérales ni de traumatismes crâniofacial. 80% (n = 12 des patients souffraient d’une affection psychiatrique avant leur passage à l’acte suicidaire : 8 pour une pathologie dépressive et 4 pour une schizophrénie. Chaque suicidant a subi au moins un acte chirurgical. Tous les patients avaient poursuivi la prise en charge psychiatrique en ambulatoire. Nos résultats fonctionnels étaient satisfaisants sans complications. Aucun des patients n’a récidivé. La pathologie suicidaire représente un problème de santé publique. Le suicide par précipitation représente 5 % de l’ensemble des modalités suicidaires. Les traumatismes occasionnés par ce mode suicidaire sont complexes et graves. Leur prise en charge nécessite une collaboration multidisciplinaire. CONCLUSION: La réparation chirurgicale permet à la fois le rétablissement de la fonction et l’amélioration psychique du sujet prévenant contre une rechute dépressive ou une récidive suicidaire.

  14. L'urbain trans-formé par Internet et les TIC

    OpenAIRE

    Carmes, Maryse; Noyer, Jean-Max; Rigal, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    On découvre en pensant leurs pratiques dans l'espace urbain que les Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication sont probablement mal nommées. Il n'y aurait pas de mise en forme unilatérale et fixe, d'information, mais bien des trans-formations des acteurs et des pratiques des outils entre eux, en particulier par la communication. De la prise en compte de ces pratiques variées, des mélanges de codages spatiaux et digitaux qui s'inter-relient en certains acteurs, en certains lieux et ...

  15. Evaluation de l'automédication par les antalgiques chez l'adulte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'automédication est un véritable problème de santé publique dans les pays émergents. La présente étude vise à évaluer l'automédication en pharmacie par les médicaments antalgiques au sein de la population de la ville de Douala. Une enquête a été menée auprès de 840 patients adultes âgés de 18 à 75 ans, ...

  16. Análisis del rendimiento y parámetros de una tuneladora

    OpenAIRE

    Requena Molano, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    A lo largo de este trabajo se han estudiado diferentes parámetros e incidencias que han ocasionado paradas durante la excavación de un túnel con una tuneladora del tipo TBM, con el fin de que pueda ser de utilidad en futuras obras similares. Este proyecto se ha realizado con el túnel una vez acabado en base a los partes diarios realizados por el personal de la tuneladora, donde quedan registrados los anillos colocados, el material excavado y las paradas ocasionadas por las diferentes...

  17. Evidencia de la hidroterapia en niños con Parálisis Cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente Arecha, María

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La parálisis cerebral (PC) es un grupo de desórdenes permanentes no progresivos producidos por una lesión en el cerebro antes de que su desarrollo se haya completado afectando al movimiento, a la postura y causando limitaciones en las actividades. En la actualidad es la discapacidad más común en niños afectando a 2-2,5 de cada 1000 nacidos. Para el tratamiento de la PC las terapias en el agua suponen un papel importante para restaurar el bienestar físico, psicológico y social de...

  18. Favoriser l'autonomisation des femmes par l'entremise d'Internet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Favoriser l'autonomisation des femmes par l'entremise d'Internet. L'organisme Coding Rights mise sur des approches féministes créatives pour soutenir les droits numériques. 23 octobre 2017. Que changeriez-vous si vous vous sentiez menacée en ligne ? Une récente étude menée aux États-Unis a révélé que plus de 70 ...

  19. Compensator design using the par scientific miller and ADAC Pinnacle tps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, G.; White, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ideal compensators are designed so that a uniform dose is given to a specific plane within the treatment volume despite variation in surface contour and non-homogeneity within the volume. Traditionally our department has designed compensators based on missing tissue alone and using lead sheet. We have now acquired a Par Scientific compensator miller and ADAC Pinnacle compensator design software. This poster sets out the investigations carried out to design compensators using this equipment. The investigation consisted of four parts. Part one was an evaluation of the Par Scientific miller's ability to accurately and to reproducibly mill various shapes from foam and cerrobend. It also included an examination of the effects due to varying the parameter options available in the software and the use of substitute milling bits. The second part was the choice of material to be used for the compensator. The following were investigated for moulds: steel grit; steel shot and cerrobend and for direct milling: cerrobend. Part three consisted of an investigation into the effects on compensator design with changes in the many parameter options available in ADAC software. For the final part compensators were designed using the ADAC software for both a Head and Neck, and a Mantle case. The compensators were made using the Par Scientific miller. This consisted of milling the required shape in foam and then filling it with cerrobend. TLDs were used to evaluate the compensators. Evaluation consisted of examining the uniformity of dose in the selected plane. The compensators were also compared to the traditional method for the same cases. Finally a comparison was made of the measured dose with that calculated by the ADAC Pinnacle planning system. The Par Scientific was found to be accurate and consistent, however not suitable for milling solid cerrobend directly. Investigations so far have shown that the use of molten cerrobend poured into milled foam moulds is the most

  20. Convenio Universidad de París VIII - Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alberto Cabulla Montaño

    1993-01-01

    El Departamento de Gestión Empresarial de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia ha celebrado un Acuerdo de Cooperación Interuniversitaria con la Universidad de París VID (Francia). Este Convenio responde al deseo común de facilitar y desarrollar relaciones de cooperación e intercambio en materia de investigación y enseñanza en áreas de interés común (Gestión, Economía y Sociologia), dentro del marco del Acuerdo Cultural Franco-Colombiano vigente entre los d...

  1. A Produção da "Música Cabocla": a polifonia formadora do Carimbó nas representações de literatos, jornalistas e folcloristas no Pará (1900-1960)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Antonio Maurício Dias da

    2015-01-01

    Este texto aborda o percurso histórico de debates artísticos e intelectuais desenvolvidos em torno da transformação do carimbó em expressão típica da musicalidade cabocla do Pará e da Amazônia. O intercâmbio de ideias entre folcloristas, jornalistas e escritores promoveu, entre 1900 e 1960, os sentidos que se articularam em torno da ideia do carimbó como manifestação folclórica tipicamente regional.

  2. A Produção da "Música Cabocla": a polifonia formadora do Carimbó nas representações de literatos, jornalistas e folcloristas no Pará (1900-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maurício Dias da Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto aborda o percurso histórico de debates artísticos e intelectuais desenvolvidos em torno da transformação do carimbó em expressão típica da musicalidade cabocla do Pará e da Amazônia. O intercâmbio de ideias entre folcloristas, jornalistas e escritores promoveu, entre 1900 e 1960, os sentidos que se articularam em torno da ideia do carimbó como manifestação folclórica tipicamente regional.

  3. HIV testing and clinical status upon admission to a specialized health care unit in Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Martins Abati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HIV-infected individuals upon admission to a reference health care center. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1999 and 2010 on 527 individuals with confirmed serological diagnosis of HIV infection who were enrolled in an outpatient health care service in Santarém, PA, Northern Brazil. Data were collected from medical records and included the reason for HIV testing, clinical status, and count of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes upon enrollment. The data were divided into three groups, according to the patient’s year of admission – P1 (1999-2002, P2 (2003-2006, and P3 (2007-2010 – for comparative analysis of the variables of interest. RESULTS In the study group, 62.0% of the patients were assigned to the P3 group. The reason for undergoing HIV testing differed between genders. In the male population, most tests were conducted because of the presence of symptoms suggesting infection. Among women, tests were the result of knowledge of the partner’s seropositive status in groups P1 and P2. Higher proportion of women undergoing testing because of symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection abolished the difference between genders in the most recent period. A higher percentage of patients enrolling at a more advanced stage of the disease was observed in P3. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country.

  4. HIV testing and clinical status upon admission to a specialized health care unit in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abati, Paulo Afonso Martins; Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HIV-infected individuals upon admission to a reference health care center. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1999 and 2010 on 527 individuals with confirmed serological diagnosis of HIV infection who were enrolled in an outpatient health care service in Santarém, PA, Northern Brazil. Data were collected from medical records and included the reason for HIV testing, clinical status, and count of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes upon enrollment. The data were divided into three groups, according to the patient's year of admission - P1 (1999-2002), P2 (2003-2006), and P3 (2007-2010) - for comparative analysis of the variables of interest. RESULTS In the study group, 62.0% of the patients were assigned to the P3 group. The reason for undergoing HIV testing differed between genders. In the male population, most tests were conducted because of the presence of symptoms suggesting infection. Among women, tests were the result of knowledge of the partner's seropositive status in groups P1 and P2. Higher proportion of women undergoing testing because of symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection abolished the difference between genders in the most recent period. A higher percentage of patients enrolling at a more advanced stage of the disease was observed in P3. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country.

  5. Diversity and microbial community in new dark earth soils in Tailândia-Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávia Poliana da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic Dark Earth, one of the most fertile soils in the world, often occur in the Amazon region and shows the effect of intensive occupation of land by pre-Columbian indigenous peoples. By studying Dark Earth, it is possible to develop techniques to reproduce its fertility. This study aimed to reproduce Indian Dark Earth through the use of vegetable and animal waste deposited on oxisol and to survey the biodiversity of the microbial community of this “New Dark Earth” (TPN in the municipality of Tailândia-Pará, Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 4 replicates, in an area of 3 ´ 3 m, with 2 m separating them. Combinations of coal (C, waste sawdust (RPS, shredded wood blade waste (RLT, bone residue (RA, as well as blood and fat (S were used for the following treatments: 1 (C, 2 (RPS, 3 (RLT, 4 (RA, 5 (C + RPS, 6 (C + RLT, 7 (C + RA, 8 (RPS + RLT, 9 (RPS + RA, 10 (RLT + RA, 11 (C + RPS + RLT, 12 (C + RLT + RA, 13 (RPS + RLT + RA, 14 (C + RPS + RLT + RA, 15 (C + RPS + RLT + RA + S, 16 (Control, and 17 (C + RPS + RA. The bacterial population was higher than the fungal population in the 2 study periods, and the rainy season increased the fungal population. The predominant fungi were of the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, Sclerotium, Trichoderma. The genus Bacillus and gram-negative bacteria were detected in all treatments. The number of fungal colonies was higher than the number of bacterial colonies.

  6. Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced rapid uPAR mobilization and cell migration via the G-protein-coupled receptor 30 in ovarian cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henic, Emir; Noskova, Vera; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    : rapid mobilization of uPAR from detergent-resistant domains, increased mRNA, and decreased degradation. G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a newly identified membrane estrogen receptor (ER).The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on uPAR expression...... for ERalpha, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Estradiol attenuates the stimulatory effect of EGF on cell migration and uPAR expression. Specifically, E(2) reduces the very rapid increase of detergent extractable uPAR, which occurs within minutes of EGF stimulation and probably represents...... agonist G1, mimicked the effect of E(2) on uPAR expression and cell migration. OVCAR-3 cells express mRNA for GPR30.Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced mobilization of ligated uPAR from detergent-resistant domains and subsequent migration in ovarian cancer cells. The response to various ER ligands indicates...

  7. Par-delà l’interdit (haram. Une ethnographie du mariage et de la sexualité chez les Sahraouis du Sud marocain

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    Claire Cécile Mitatre

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Par-delà l’interdit (haram. Une ethnographie du mariage et de la sexualité chez les Sahraouis du Sud marocain. Avant de me rendre dans l’Oued Noun, région oasienne du pré-Sahara atlantique, mes lectures sur le monde musulman et le bassin méditerranéen me portaient à penser que, par le mariage, une femme entrait dans le haram de son mari, domaine de l’interdit qu’un galant ne peut enfreindre sans risquer d’être tué par l’époux offensé. Les premiers temps de mon expérience ethnographique, j’interprétais alors le caractère insouciant des invitations galantes que l’on pouvait me faire tout en me sachant mariée, comme une manière détournée d’affirmer que les Occidentaux n’avaient pas de domaine de l’interdit sur lequel étendre leur autorité, et de me renvoyer à mon statut d’étrangère. C’est cependant en prenant les avances des hommes à mon égard comme objet d’analyse que je compris comment, dans cette région présaharienne, le mariage constituait en réalité, pour la femme sahraouie, un rite d’accession aux relations de galanterie : par la perte rituelle de sa virginité, la femme s’affranchit du seul véritable haram auquel elle a jamais appartenu, celui de son père.Beyond the forbidden (haram. An ethnography of marriage and sexuality among the Sahraoui of Southern Morocco. Before going to the Oued Noun, an oasis region of the Atlantic pre-Sahara, my readings on the Muslim world and the Mediterranean basin led me to think that when she married, a woman entered the haram of her husband, a forbidden domain that an admirer can only infringe upon at the risk of being killed by the offended husband. At the beginning of my ethnographic experience, I interpreted the carefree nature of the amorous invitations I received from men who knew I was married as a roundabout way of affirming that Westerners have no forbidden domain to exert their authority over, and to remind me of my status as a

  8. RF cavities for the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Nassiri, A.; Bridges, J.F.; Smith, T.L.; Song, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The cavities for the dual frequency system of the APS PAR are described. The system uses two frequencies: a 9.78MHz fundamental system for the particle accumulation and a 117.3MHz twelfth harmonic system for the bunch compression. The cavities have been built, installed, tested, and used for storing the beam in the PAR for about a year. The fundamental cavity is a reentrant coaxial type with a capacitive loading plunger and has 1.6m length. The harmonic cavity is a symmetrical reentrant coaxial type and is 0.8m long. Ferrite tuners are used for frequency tuning. During the accumulation period, the ferrite tuner of the harmonic cavity works as a damper to disable the cavity. During an injection cycle the 9.78MHz system accumulates 24 positron bunches in a bucket and the 117.3MHz system compresses the bunch into a shorter bunch. Measurements were made on the rf properties of the cavities

  9. Freno de corrientes parásitas para ensayo de motores eléctricos

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    Omar D. Gallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata distintos aspectos referidos al diseño, construcción y puesta en marcha de un freno dinamométrico de corrientes parásitas, destinado al ensayo de motores eléctricos. La introducción aborda los antecedentes y las experiencias previas con máquinas similares, además de precisiones constructivas sobre el freno y su fuente de alimentación. La sección de ensayos describe los valores de temperaturas de bobinas y discos y las pruebas bajo estados de carga. Los parámetros tales como fuerzas magnetomotrices, corrientes en discos, momentos y pérdidas, se calculan en la sección referida a valores de funcionamiento. Finalmente, en las conclusiones, se abordan las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo constructivo, y las mejoras que deberían realizarse para mejorar el desempeño de la máquina.

  10. Late-Onset Inadvertent Bleb Formation following Pars Plana M3 Molteno Implant Tube Obstruction

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    Anmar M. Abdul-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of inadvertent bleb formation presenting 18 months after pars plana M3 Molteno implant tube obstruction in a patient with mixed mechanism glaucoma. Materials and Methods: An 84-year-old Caucasian male with mixed mechanism glaucoma underwent slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, colour anterior segment photography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results: An inadvertent bleb developed 18 months after pars plana implant tube re-positioning with a 6/0 Vicryl tie ligature. The bleb was located in the area anterior to the implant plate; it was characterised by a thin, transparent, avascular and multi-cystic wall, with a visible stoma at the posterior edge of the bleb. The bleb was functioning as demonstrated by an intraocular pressure of 6 mm Hg at presentation and a punctate fluorescein uptake pattern of the bleb wall. The bleb over the plate of the Molteno implant was non-functioning, likely secondary to tube obstruction by vitreous in the early postoperative period. AS-OCT showed a tract from the anterior chamber commencing at an entry wound through a corneal tunnel to the posterior stoma at the base of the inadvertent bleb. Conclusions: We hypothesise that the pathophysiologic factors resulting in an inadvertent bleb are a result of a combination of apoptosis, late-onset wound dehiscence and internal gaping of a centrally placed corneal wound. In addition, aqueous hydrodynamic factors may play a role.

  11. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M., E-mail: carien.niessen@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  12. Efectos de las terapias ecuestres en personas con parálisis cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Jiménez de la Fuente

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es revisar la literatura científica existente a fin de comprobar los efectos de las terapias ecuestres en personas con parálisis cerebral. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en las bases de datos de Medline (PubMed, Dialnet, Scopus, Sportdiscus y Web of Science, estableciendo como criterios de inclusión para seleccionar los estudios clínicos por revisar que estos hubieran sido publicados entre 2001 y 2016, en castellano o inglés. Asimismo, se rechazaron aquellos en los que los sujetos recibieran una combinación de tratamientos farmacológicos. Se revisaron un total de 68 artículos, de los cuales 20 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se analizaron la población objeto de estudio, el tipo de tratamiento, la temporalización y los resultados obtenidos. En general, se observan beneficios significativos en el uso de las terapias ecuestres como tratamiento para personas con parálisis cerebral.

  13. Isotopic analysis of plutonium by optical spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique du plutonium par spectroscopie optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Chaput, M; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Isotopic analysis of mixtures of plutonium 239 and 240 has been carried out by means of the photo-electric spectrometer Fabry-Perot, the source being a hollow cathode cooled by liquid nitrogen. This first research has been concerned with finding among the spectral lines given by the hollow cathode, those suitable for use in analysis. Actually, the relative precision is of the order of 2 per cent (for samples containing 3 per cent of {sup 240}Pu). The study of the reproducibility of the measurements should make it possible to increase the precision; the relative precision which can be expected from this method should be 1 per cent for mixtures containing 1 per cent of {sup 240}Pu. (author) [French] L'analyse isotopique des melanges de plutonium 239 et 240 a ete effectuee a l'aide du spectrometre photoelectrique Fabry-Perot, la source etant une cathode creuse refroidie a l'azote liquide. Ce premier travail a eu pour but de discerner parmi les raies spectrales emises par la cathode creuse, celles susceptibles de servir de raies d'analyse. Actuellement, la precision relative est de l'ordre de 2 pour cent (pour des echantillons contenant 3 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu). L'etude de la reproductibilite des mesures devrait permettre d'ameliorer la precision; la precision relative que l'on pourrait atteindre par cette methode serait de 1 pour cent pour des melanges contenant 1 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu. (auteur)

  14. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology.

  15. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

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    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  16. Examples of analysis by activation; Exemples d'analyse par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    We were used various nuclear reactions to do some analysis by neutron or by X-ray activation. We used the french reactor core Zoe as neutrons sources and an Allis-Chalmers betatron as X-rays sources for the dosage of the light elements. The described processes were revealed fast and particularly useful for determination of traces. The fact that most of them don't require any chemical operations, is especially substantial when the solubilization of the sample is difficult. (M.B.) [French] Nous avons utilise des reactions nucleaires diverses pour effectuer des analyses par activation neutronique ou par rayon X. Nous avons utilise la pile francaise Zoe comme sources de neutrons et un betatron Allis-Chalmers comme sources de rayons X pour le dosage des elements legers. Les procedes decrits se sont reveles rapides et particulierement utiles dans la determination des traces. Le fait que, pour la plupart, ils n'exigent pas d'operations chimiques, est particulierement appreciable lorsque la solubilisation des echantillons est difficile. (M.B.)

  17. Artisan fishing and the fishing company in Óbidos, Pará

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    Adriana de Aviz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is product of the Project "The time of the plant: the disciplinamento of the workers of the fishing industry (Óbidos-Pará: a comparative study", developed in the years of 2002 and 2003 in the municipality of Óbidos, Pará, objectifying to understand the importance of the time in the disciplinamento of the work in the obidense fishing company. Interviews opened in entrepreneurs had been carried through of fish, controlling, heads of quality control, people in charge of hall and other actors involved in the sector fishing boat and applied half-open questionnaires with laborers and fishing. One used the photographic, recording register and the notebook of notations. The research was carried through in the fishing companies Mundial and Pasquarelli, Colony Z-19 Fishing, in the boats (river Amazon of the artisan fishing and in its residences. As central focus it was looked for to unmask the characteristics of the 'disciplined time' in the sector of improvement of the fishing company, and to detach the joint of the 'natural time' in the process of capture of the fished one. Leaving of these estimated, it was used the 'disciplined time' and the 'natural time' conceived by Thompson (1975.

  18. ParBiBit: Parallel tool for binary biclustering on modern distributed-memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Expósito, Roberto R

    2018-01-01

    Biclustering techniques are gaining attention in the analysis of large-scale datasets as they identify two-dimensional submatrices where both rows and columns are correlated. In this work we present ParBiBit, a parallel tool to accelerate the search of interesting biclusters on binary datasets, which are very popular on different fields such as genetics, marketing or text mining. It is based on the state-of-the-art sequential Java tool BiBit, which has been proved accurate by several studies, especially on scenarios that result on many large biclusters. ParBiBit uses the same methodology as BiBit (grouping the binary information into patterns) and provides the same results. Nevertheless, our tool significantly improves performance thanks to an efficient implementation based on C++11 that includes support for threads and MPI processes in order to exploit the compute capabilities of modern distributed-memory systems, which provide several multicore CPU nodes interconnected through a network. Our performance evaluation with 18 representative input datasets on two different eight-node systems shows that our tool is significantly faster than the original BiBit. Source code in C++ and MPI running on Linux systems as well as a reference manual are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/parbibit/.

  19. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  20. Acceso a la lectoescritura de los alumnos con parálisis cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Betanzos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las condiciones en que se produce el acceso a la lectoescritura de los alumnos con parálisis cerebral. Trata de profundizar en el conocimiento de cómo se lleva a cabo este proceso, deteniéndose en aquellos factores que pueden obstaculizar y caracterizar las condiciones peculiares, tanto de las personas como de los procesos. El acercamiento a este realidad quedaría incompleto si no se tratara de dar unas pautas para que la adquisición del proceso lectoescritor se realice en las mejores condiciones; pretensión esta de cierta dificultad, ya que la parálisis cerebral es un entidad muy compleja. Se exponen las pautas y dificultades relativas al aprender a leer; leer para aprender es un proceso subsiguiente a la alfabetización básica y es el vehículo fundamental del aprendizaje reglado que, por su complejidad y extensión, sería objeto de otro artículo por exceder el propósito de este.