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Sample records for pseudoanalog true-time-delay module

  1. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  2. Compact optically-fed microwave true-time delay using liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui

    2009-01-01

    Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz.......Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz....

  3. Optically fed microwave true-time delay based on a compact liquid-crystal hotonic-bandgap-fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui

    2009-01-01

    An electrically tunable liquid-crystal, photonic-bandgap-fiber-device-based, optically fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated with the response time in the millisecond range. A maximum electrically controlled phase shift of around 70° at 15GHz and an averaged 12.9ps true time delay over...... the whole modulation frequency range of 1-15GHz are obtained....

  4. Chirped-pulse programming of optical coherent transient true-time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, K D; Babbitt, W R

    1998-04-01

    Programming an optical coherent transient true-time delay device with two frequency-chirped pulses provides a novel means of performing broadband (> >GHz) true-time delay with a wide dynamic range of delays with fine temporal resolution. We have demonstrated true-time delays exceeding 2micros with sub-100-ps resolution. Chirped-pulse programming has the advantages over the previously proposed brief pulse programming [Opt. Lett. 21 1102 (1996)] of reduced instantaneous power requirements and the ability to control the true-time delay by frequency shifting the programming pulses.

  5. True-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel MZM and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua; Wang, Li Xian; Wang, Jia Sheng; Liu, Jian Guo; Liu, Yu; Qi, Xiao Qiong; Xie, Liang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xin; Han, Wei

    2011-06-20

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel tunable true-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light. The phase of the optical carrier can be continuously and precisely controlled by simply adjusting the dc bias of the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. In addition, both the slow light and single-sideband modulation can be simultaneously achieved in the stimulated Brillouin scattering process with three types of configuration. Finally, the true-time delay technique is clearly verified by a two-tap incoherent microwave photonic filter as the free spectral range of the filter is changed.

  6. Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the slowand fast light properties of a semiconductor waveguide device employing concatenated gain and absorber sections. This letter presents the experimental results as well as theoretical modeling. A large phase shift of 110 and a true-time delay of more than 150 ps...

  7. True-time-delay photonic beamformer for an L-band phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuda, Henry; Toughlian, Edward N.; Payson, Paul M.; Malowicki, John E.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of obtaining a true-time-delay photonic beamformer has recently been a topic of great interest. Many interesting and novel approaches to this problem have been studied. This paper examines the design, construction, and testing of a dynamic optical processor for the control of a 20-element phased array antenna operating at L-band (1.2-1.4 GHz). The approach taken here has several distinct advantages. The actual optical control is accomplished with a class of spatial light modulator known as a segmented mirror device (SMD). This allows for the possibility of controlling an extremely large number (tens of thousands) of antenna elements using integrated circuit technology. The SMD technology is driven by the HDTV and laser printer markets so ultimate cost reduction as well as technological improvements are expected. Optical splitting is efficiently accomplished using a diffractive optical element. This again has the potential for use in antenna array systems with a large number of radiating elements. The actual time delay is achieved using a single acousto-optic device for all the array elements. Acousto-optic device technologies offer sufficient delay as needed for a time steered array. The topological configuration is an optical heterodyne system, hence high, potentially millimeter wave center frequencies are possible by mixing two lasers of slightly differing frequencies. Finally, the entire system is spatially integrated into a 3D glass substrate. The integrated system provides the ruggedness needed in most applications and essentially eliminates the drift problems associated with free space optical systems. Though the system is presently being configured as a beamformer, it has the ability to operate as a general photonic signal processing element in an adaptive (reconfigurable) transversal frequency filter configuration. Such systems are widely applicable in jammer/noise canceling systems, broadband ISDN, and for spread spectrum secure communications

  8. True-time delay by slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating amplifying and absorbing sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Modeling of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating gain and absorption sections demonstrate an increase in time delay by concatenating segments. A true-time delay is predicted over a large bandwidth at high frequency.......Modeling of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide with alternating gain and absorption sections demonstrate an increase in time delay by concatenating segments. A true-time delay is predicted over a large bandwidth at high frequency....

  9. Three Dimensionally Interconnected Silicon Nanomembranes for Optical Phased Array (OPA) and Optical True Time Delay (TTD) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Electronics 16(1), 61-69 (2010). [4-21] A. Brown, G. O’Neill, and S. Blackstone , Proc. SPIE 4174, 406-415 (2000). [4-22] F. Laermer and A. Urban...baking. The insets show the top view of SU-8 waveguides before and after baking. The insets on the right shows the screen shots of the power meter...devices such as hybrid silicon modulators1-3, optical switches4, on-chip environmental sensors for underground water pollution detection5, and gas

  10. Thermionic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  11. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  12. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  13. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Lenox, Carl J. S. [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  14. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  15. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  16. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  17. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  18. Electroabsorption optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2017-11-21

    An electroabsorption modulator incorporates waveguiding regions along the length of the modulator that include quantum wells where at least two of the regions have quantum wells with different bandgaps. In one embodiment of the invention, the regions are arranged such that the quantum wells have bandgaps with decreasing bandgap energy along the length of the modulator from the modulator's input to its output. The bandgap energy of the quantum wells may be decreased in discrete steps or continuously. Advantageously, such an arrangement better distributes the optical absorption as well as the carrier density along the length of the modulator. Further advantageously, the modulator may handle increased optical power as compared with prior art modulators of similar dimensions, which allows for improved link gain when the optical modulator is used in an analog optical communication link.

  19. CDC 7600 module slice

    CERN Multimedia

    Each module contained 8 circuit cards for a total of about 300-500 uncovered transistors packaged with face plates so the Freon plates wouldn't touch the circuits. (cooling plates that surrounded each module).

  20. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied.

  1. CDC 6600 Cordwood Module

    CERN Document Server

    1964-01-01

    The CDC 6600 cordwood module containing 64 silicon transistors. The module was mounted between two plates that were cooled conductive by a refrigeration unit via the front panel. The construction of this module uses the cord method, so called because the resistors seem to be stacked like cord between the two circuit boards in order to obtain a high density. The 6600 model contained nearly 6,000 such modules.

  2. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P A R; Savini, G [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chuss, D T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Hanany, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota/Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Haynes, V; Pisano, G [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy - Alan Turing Building, Upper Brooke street, Manchester, M13 4PL (United Kingdom); Keating, B G [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kogut, A [Code 665 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ruhl, J E [Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Wollack, E J [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  3. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [16] Smith P F and Tercan A, Generalizations of CS-modules, Commun. Algebra 21 (1993). 1809–1847. [17] Yucel T and Mustafa A, Prime modules and submodules, Commun. Algebra 31(11). (2003) 5253–5261. [18] Zhang G, Wang F and Tong W, Multiplication modules in which every prime submodule is contained in a ...

  4. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  5. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  6. Artist Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Yang Lien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a full-color photovoltaic (PV module, called the artist PV module, is developed by laser processes. A full-color image source is printed on the back of a protective glass using an inkjet printer, and a brightened grayscale mask is used to precisely define regions on the module where colors need to be revealed. Artist PV modules with 1.1 × 1.4 m2 area have high a retaining power output of 139 W and an aesthetic appearance making them more competitive than other building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV products. Furthermore, the installation of artist PV modules as curtain walls without metal frames is also demonstrated. This type of installation offers an aesthetic advantage by introducing supporting fittings, originating from the field of glass technology. Hence, this paper is expected to elevate BIPV modules to an art form and generate research interests in developing more functional PV modules.

  7. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  8. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  9. Modulation cancellation method (MOCAM) in modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, V.; Dong, L.; Kosterev, A. A.; Thomazy, D.; Doty, J. H.; Tittel, F. K.

    2011-05-01

    An innovative spectroscopic technique based on balancing and cancellation of modulated signals induced by two excitation sources. We used quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in a 2f wavelength modulation mode as an absorption sensing technique and employed a modulation cancelation approach for spectroscopic measurements of small temperature differences in a gas mixture and detection of broadband absorbers. We demonstrated measurement of small temperature differences in a C2H2/N2gas mixture with a sensitivity of 30 mK in 17 sec and detection of hydrazine, a broadband absorbing chemical species, down to concentration of 1 part per million in volume in 1 sec. In both cases we used near-infrared laser diodes and selected overtone transitions.nuscrip

  10. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  11. Growth Modulation in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Philip K; Kilinc, Eray; Birch, John G

    2017-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia with a rate of nearly 1/10,000. The development of lower extremity deformity is well documented, and various modes of correction have been reported. There are no reports on the use of growth modulation to correct angular deformity in achondroplasia. Medical Records from 1985 to 2015 were reviewed for the diagnosis of achondroplasia and growth modulation procedures. Patients who had been treated for angular deformity of the legs by growth modulation were identified. A detailed analysis of their medical record and preoperative and final lower extremity radiographs was completed. Four patients underwent growth modulation procedures, all to correct existing varus deformity of the legs. Three of the 4 patients underwent bilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial growth modulation. The remaining patient underwent tibial correction only. Two of the 4 patients had a combined proximal fibular epiphysiodesis. All limbs had some improvement of alignment; however, 1 patient went on to bilateral osteotomies. Only 1 limb corrected to a neutral axis with growth modulation alone at last follow-up, initial implantation was done before 5 years of age. Growth modulation is an effective means for deformity correction in the setting of achondroplasia. However implantation may need to be done earlier than would be typical for patients without achondroplasia. Osteotomy may still be required after growth modulation for incomplete correction.

  12. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  13. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  14. The ANTARES optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R.W.; Blondeau, F.; Botton, N. de; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C.B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S.L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; Dantzig, R. van; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaquet, M.; Jong, M. de; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H. E-mail: lafoux@cea.fr; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J.E.; Michel, J.L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G.J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G.V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L.F.

    2002-05-21

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km{sup 2} and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. The ANTARES Optical Module

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, P; Anvar, S; Ardellier-Desages, F E; Aslanides, Elie; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Azoulay, R; Bailey, D; Basa, S; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Benhammou, Ya; Bernard, F; Berthier, R; Bertin, V; Billault, M; Blaes, R; Bland, R W; Blondeau, F; De Botton, N R; Boulesteix, J; Brooks, B; Brunner, J; Cafagna, F; Calzas, A; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Cârloganu, C; Carmona, E; Carr, J; Carton, P H; Cartwright, S L; Cassol, F; Cecchini, S; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; Compere, C; Cooper, S; Coyle, P; Croquette, J; Cuneo, S; Danilov, M; Van Dantzig, R; De Marzo, C; De Vita, R; Deck, P; Destelle, J J; Dispau, G; Drougou, J F; Druillole, F; Engelen, J; Feinstein, F; Festy, D; Fopma, J; Gallone, J M; Giacomelli, G; Goret, P; Gosset, L G; Gournay, J F; Heijboer, A; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herrouin, G; Hubbard, John R; Jacquet, M; De Jong, M; Karolak, M; Kooijman, P M; Kouchner, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lachartre, D; Lafoux, H; Lamare, P; Languillat, J C; Laubier, L; Laugier, J P; Le Guen, Y; Le Provost, H; Le Van-Suu, A; Lemoine, L; Lo Nigro, L; Lo Presti, D; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Louis, F; Lyashuk, V I; Magnier, P; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Massol, A; Masullo, R; Mazéas, F; Mazeau, B; Mazure, A; McMillan, J E; Michel, J L; Migneco, E; Millot, C; Mols, P; Montanet, François; Montaruli, T; Morel, J P; Moscoso, L; Navas, S; Nezri, E; Nooren, G J L; Oberski, J; Olivetto, C; Oppelt-pohl, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Payre, P; Perrin, P; Petruccetti, M; Petta, P; Piattelli, P; Poinsignon, J; Popa, V; Potheau, R; Queinec, Y; Racca, C; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Rethore, F; Riccobene, G; Ricol, J S; Ripani, M; Roca-Blay, V; Rolin, J F; Rostovtsev, A A; Russo, G V; Sacquin, Yu; Salusti, E; Schuller, J P; Schuster, W; Soirat, J P; Suvorova, O; Spooner, N J C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, T; Stubert, D; Taiuti, M; Tao, Charling; Tayalati, Y; Thompson, L F; Tilav, S; Triay, R; Valente, V; Varlamov, I; Vaudaine, G; Vernin, P; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; De Wolf, E; Zakharov, V; Zavatarelli, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan; Zúñiga, J

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km-squared and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R & D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  17. Compact dynatron modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonov, A V

    2001-01-01

    It is proposed to use a dynatron effect to modulate the voltage across the vacuum inverted coaxial diode with magnetic insulation supplied by an external pulsed high-voltage source connected to the modulator via the RL-circuit. Oscillations of the voltage due to oscillating regime of diode charging and/or azimuthal instability of a rotating electron flow simulates back-bombardment electron flow to the cathode and leads to power spikes of secondary emission current exceeding the primary one. As a result,the amplitude of oscillations grows and the system can turn the modulator and its possible applications.

  18. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  19. Rings and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bland, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of rings and modules that goes beyond what one normally obtains in a graduate course in abstract algebra. In addition to the presentation of standard topics in ring and module theory, it also covers category theory, homological algebra and even more specialized topics like injective envelopes and projective covers, reflexive modules and quasi-Frobenius rings, and graded rings and modules. The book is a self-contained volume written in a very systematic style: allproofs are clear and easy for the reader to understand and allarguments are based onmaterials contained in the book. A problem sets follow each section. It is suitable for graduate and PhD students who have chosen ring theory for their research subject.

  20. CIM - compact intensity modulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, M.; Lang, E.; Gahler, G.; Lal, J.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source; Inst. Lau Langevin

    2008-07-21

    Compact intensity modulation (CIM), a new method to modulate the intensity of a neutron beam is demonstrated. CIM allows the production of arbitrary signals where the focus point can be chosen and changed without any constraints. A novel feature in this technique compared to spin echo techniques is that the neutron polarization is kept parallel or anti-parallel to the static fields during the passage through the magnetic fields and the beating pattern at the detector is produced by an amplitude modulation (AM) of the adiabatic RF-spin flippers rather than Larmor precession like in neutron spin echo (NSE) instruments; thus, the achievable contrast is very high and the instrument resolution can be changed very quickly. This gives the fascinating possibility at pulsed neutron sources to sweep the modulation frequency of the flippers in order to increase dynamic resolution range during the same neutron pulse.

  1. Specification du module FIPADUC

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R

    2004-01-01

    FIPADUC est un module WorldFIP intelligent et generique construit autour d'un microcontroleur ADUC834 et d'une interface de communication WorldFIP basee sur une technologie MICROFIP. Il est prevu pour des applications reduites devant resister aux radiations (minimum 200Gry). Ce module sera dedie a l'acquisition d'entrees/sorties et constituera une base d'interfacage intelligente WorldFIP.

  2. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  3. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  4. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  5. Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from Lunar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from the Lunar Module, 'Spider', on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module, 'Gumdrop'. Object jutting out from the Service Module aft bulkhead is the high-gain S-Band antenna.

  6. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2017-10-03

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, from the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.

  7. NREL module energy rating methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  8. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I-ship...... code available at the department. It will be structured as a general preprocessor mainly to determine the hydrodynamic mass and damping. A strip processor including three different theories: A linear frequency domain strip theory, a quadratic strip theory and a nonlinear time domain strip theory....... At last a postprocessor will be included with facilities for statistical calculations and for plots and prints of the results.The project is divided into 7 tasks where the third is to be completed.This report has two aims. To give an introduction to the project of developing a strip theory module...

  9. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  10. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  11. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  12. Drupal Contributed Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    These Drupal Modules extend the functionality of Drupal by including specific styles for dates and tabs, publishing options for scheduled and immediate publication of content modes, field visibility in content forms, keyword block filters (taxonomy based), adding content nodes to a specified queue for display in views, and status display of workflow settings.

  13. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  14. Transformations of CLP Modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Gabbrielli, Maurizio

    1996-01-01

    We propose a transformation system for Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) aprograms and modules. The framework is inspired by the one of [37] for pure logic programs. However, the use of CLP allows us to introduce some new operations such as splitting and constraint replacement. We provide two sets

  15. Transformations of CLP modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Etalle (Sandro); M. Gabbrielli

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a transformation system for CLP programs and modules. The framework is inspired by the one of Tamaki and Sato for pure logic programs. However, the use of CLP allows us to introduce some new operations such as splitting and constraint replacement. We provide two sets of

  16. An Integrated Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Marie R.; Seiferth, Berniece B.

    This integrated teaching module provides elementary and junior high school teachers with a "hands-on" approach to studying the Anasazi Indian. Emphasis is on creative exploration that focuses on integrating art, music, poetry, writing, geography, dance, history, anthropology, sociology, and archaeology. Replicas of artifacts,…

  17. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  18. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic collec....... The goal of research on ageing is not to increase human longevity regardless of the consequences, but to increase active longevity free from disability and functional dependence......Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic...... collection of data describing age-related changes in organisms, organs, tissues, cells and macromolecules, biogerontologists are now in a position to construct general principles of ageing and explore various possibilities of intervention using rational approaches. While not giving serious consideration...

  19. Silicon Optical Modulator Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Thor LIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a way of predicting and analyzing high speed optical modulator. Our research adopted a bottom-up approach to consider high-speed optical links using an eye diagram. Our method leverages on modular mapping of electrical characteristics to optical characteristics, while attaining the required accuracy necessary for device footprint approaching sub-micron scales where electrical data distribution varies drastically. We calculate for the bias dependent phase shift (2pi/mm and loss (dB/mm for the optical modulator based on the real and imaginary part of complex effective indices. Subsequently, combine effectively both the electrical and optical profiles to construct the optical eye diagram which is the essential gist of signal integrity of such devices.

  20. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  1. Pulse code modulation telemetry - Properties of various binary modulation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E. L.

    The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the performance of methods for the transmission of digital data, taking into account aspects of performance under simulated range conditions. Attention is given to radio frequency spectra, bit error rate performance, peak carrier deviation, premodulation filtering, receiver IF bandpass filtering, receiver/demodulator video bandwidth, pulse code modulation (PCM) codes, phase shift keying, and four major methods for recording PCM signals. It is found that pulse code modulation/phase modulation (PCM/PM) signals can achieve better data quality than pulse code modulation/frequency modulation (PCM/FM) signals with the same radiated power if wide bandwidths are available.

  2. Sparx PCA Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Sparx, a new environment for Cryo-EM image processing; Cryo-EM, Single particle reconstruction, principal component analysis; Hardware Req.: PC, MAC, Supercomputer, Mainframe, Multiplatform, Workstation. Software Req.: operating system is Unix; Compiler C++; type of files: source code, object library, executable modules, compilation instructions; sample problem input data. Location/transmission: http://sparx-em.org; User manual & paper: http://sparx-em.org;

  3. Chemical release module facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  4. Solar-heating module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Comprehensive set of engineering drawings and instructions for installation, operation, repair, and maintenance are available for module that provides hot-air or hot-water needs for residence or commercial building. It can accommodate solar collectors of various sizes and types. It can provide utility, workshop, or storage space, in addition to providing hot water or hot air. Extensive insulation minimizes heat losses in structure and in storage and fluid-handling subsystems.

  5. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  6. Synthetic Space Vector Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    controller. The VSI controller has traditionally been operated by hardwired pulse-width modulation (PWM) or the use of a programmable microprocessor ...frequency. The primary difference between SVM and synthetic SVM is the implementation strategy of software versus inexpensive hardware, respectively. A...resistors and capacitors. There are no microcontrollers or FPGAs necessary to produce Alt-Rev SVM. F. DUAL OUTPUT VARIABLE FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR After

  7. Equivalence of quotient Hilbert modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    in principle may be used, to construct a set of complete unitary invariants for quotient modules Q = M ⊖ M0. The invariants are given explicitly in the particular case of k = 2. Keywords. Hilbert modules; function algebra; quotient module; longitudinal and transversal curvature; kernel function; jet and angle. 1. Preliminaries. Let.

  8. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  9. Polarisation Encryption/Decryption Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A polarisation encryption/decryption module comprising at least two array based modulating devices, preferably spatial light modulators (SLMs), at least one array based intensity detector, and at least one source of electromagnetic radiation. A local region of information displayed on a first...

  10. Scophony Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard V.; Guerin, Jean-Michel; Swanberg, Mel E.

    1985-02-01

    An alternative to the conventional flying-spot scanner architecture is the Scophony scanner. The Scophony scanner uses the same optical elements as the more familiar flying-spot scanner: a rotating polygon mirror, an acousto-optic (A/O) modulator, and a laser light source. The flying-spot scanner is designed to construct its image a pixel at a time; no more than one pixel is illuminated at any given instant. The Scophony scanner is designed to image a broad swath of the A/0 modulator's acoustic pulses onto the photoreceptor. Many pixels are illuminated at any given instant in the Scophony scanner. The result is a scanner with a coherent imaging response. This coherent response implies that the phase of the modulator's electronic drive signal for a given pixel profoundly influences the formation of the neighboring pixels at the scanner image plane. This coherent response enables electronic manipulation of the video drive signal to have significant impact on the optical imaging performance of the scanner. In this paper, two electronic manipulation schemes are pro-posed for doubling the resolution of the Scophony scanner, one scheme for analog video signals and one scheme for binary digital video signals. Each scheme gives superior contrast ratio performance when compared with the flying-spot scanner.

  11. Solar Module Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Amrani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important steps in the photovoltaic industry is the encapsulation of the solar cells. It consists to connect the cells in order to provide useful power for any application and also protect them from environmental damages which cause corrosion, and mechanical shocks. In this paper, we present the encapsulation process we have developed at Silicon Technology Unit (UDTS for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. We will focus particularly on the thermal treatment, the most critical step in the process, which decides on the quality and the reliability of the module. This thermal treatment is conducted in two steps: the lamination and the polymerization. Several tests of EVA reticulation have been necessary for setting technological parameters such as the level of vacuum, the pressure, the temperature, and the time. The quality of our process has been confirmed by the tests conducted on our modules at the European Laboratory of Joint Research Centre (JRC of ISPRA (Italy. The electrical characterization of the modules has showed that after the encapsulation the current has been improved by a factor of 4% to 6% and the power gain by a factor of 4% to 7%. This is mainly due to the fact of using a treated glass, which reduces the reflection of the light at a level as low as 8%.

  12. Modulation masking produced by complex-tone modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Verhey, J.L.; Dau, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    Thresholds were measured for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation in the presence of a complex-tone masker modulation. Both modulations were applied to the same sinusoidal carrier. Two different masker modulations were used: (i) a pair of components beating at the difference frequency and (ii......) a three-tone complex producing a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the modulation depth at the difference frequency between adjacent components. Both maskers show a periodicity in the waveform that is not contained in the envelope spectrum itself but can be observed when the envelope of the envelope......, referred to as the "venelope" [Ewert et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112. 2921-2931 (2002)], is calculated. For a signal frequency equal to the masker-venelope periodicity, modulation depth at threshold was measured as a function of the signal phase relative to the phase of the masker-venelope component...

  13. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  14. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoelae, Kalle [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Ridout, David [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  15. Self Defense Module

    OpenAIRE

    Shibi k john

    2014-01-01

    Self Defense module is like a Smart Watch For Women .It has the potential to help women with technologies that are embedded. It is specially designed for women safety. It has a control button that will be used by women to inform nearby police when they are in danger. This watch directly gets connected to the satellite through GPS when activated. Then the location is transferred through the GSM and it is also provided with a system that produces 60 shockwaves in 1 second in emergency situations.

  16. CDC 7600 Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The CDC 7600 has been created by Seymour Cray. It was designed to be compatible with the 6600, which allows for a substantial increase in performance. Furthermore the rise of new technologies has enabled this performance by reducing the minor cycle clock period from 100 ns to 27.5 ns (4 time faster). A very large machine, the 7600 had over 120 miles of hand-wired interconnections. It was the most powerful computer of its time. However, this speed caused a ground-loop problem causing intermittent faults, and eventually requiring all modules to be fitted with sheathed rubber bands. The CDC 7600 was replaced in 1983 by CRAY-1A.

  17. Module of solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Katsuaki; Ohira, Takeo

    1988-04-30

    It is proposed to apply transparent plastics film on the surface of solar cell module as the substitute of the transparent tempered glass. However, weather proof film made of polyester or polyvinyliden fluoride has a drawback of weak bonding with the filler made of ethylen-vinyl acetate copolymer. This invention relates to the improvement of the bonding characteristics without decreasing the transparency of the film, by covering the surface of it with Al or other metals, or inorganic material such as silicon dioxide, by applying sputtering or vapour deposition method. In addition, application of silan coupling agent is mentioned as an improving method of the bonding. (2 figs)

  18. HACT Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    OSA Topical Conference on Spatial Light Modulators, September 10-12,1990). [20] WJ. Tanski, S.W. Merritt, R.N. Sacks, D.E. Cullen, EJ. Branciforte , R.D...Cullen, T.W. Grudkowski, S.W. Merritt, WJ. Tanski, R.D. Carroll, R.N. Sacks 3 and E.J. Branciforte , "HACT Device Applications", IEEE Ultrasonics...T. Eschrich, G. Peterson, r excitonic electroabsorption in coupled wells. R. Sacks, W. Tanski, and E. Branciforte is gratefully is attributed to an

  19. Semiconductor Spatial Light Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    68 29 Experimental time-expansion of modulated C02 laser beam for three levels of punp energies. CalcJlaten time-aependent solution is super... Gallium -Arsenide sample. Tre photo-excited carriers decay i Ga~s in a shorter distance because of their lower diffusion lengths as co’,nared to InSb...electron populations and producing large changes in te Far3day Dotation of another beam tined to a frequency close to tie absorption line. It has been shown

  20. Vaccination to Modulate Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takayuki; Tse, Kevin; Sette, Alessandro; Ley, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Adaptive immunity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recently, modulation of the immune response against atherosclerotic plaque antigen(s) has attracted attention as a potentially preventive and therapeutic approach. Here we review a series of studies on immunization with various antigens targeting treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis-related antigens include oxidized LDL, apolipoprotein B-100, and heat shock protein 60/65. Accumulating evidence supports the idea that immunization with these antigenic proteins or peptides may reduce atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the current status of immunization studies and possible associated mechanisms of atheroprotection. PMID:25683179

  1. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  2. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  4. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-Xl Dragon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    On September 26 and September 28,2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 m1 evacuated canisters from the sealed Space-Xl Dragon Module. One sample was also acquired from Space-X Facility near the module at the start of the test. Samples of the module air were taken in triplicate once the module had been sealed, and then taken again in triplicate 1.98 days later. Ofthe triplicate samples, the first served as a line purge, and the last two were analyzed. The results of 5 samples are reported.

  5. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  6. Declarative Debugging of Maude Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Riesco Rodríguez, Adrián; Verdejo López, José Alberto; Caballero, Rafael; Martí Oliet, Narciso

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a declarative debugger for Maude modules: functional modules correspond to executable specifications in membership equational logic, while system modules correspond to rewrite theories. First we describe the construction of appropriate debugging trees for oriented equational and membership inferences and rewrite rules. These trees are obtained as the result of collapsing in proof trees all those nodes whose correction does not need any justification. We include severa...

  7. Reliability Research for Photovoltaic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ronald J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes research approach used to improve reliability of photovoltaic modules. Aimed at raising useful module lifetime to 20 to 30 years. Development of cost-effective solutions to module-lifetime problem requires compromises between degradation rates, failure rates, and lifetimes, on one hand, and costs of initial manufacture, maintenance, and lost energy, on other hand. Life-cycle costing integrates disparate economic terms, allowing cost effectiveness to be quantified, allowing comparison of different design alternatives.

  8. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  9. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Perancangan Modul Penggajian Berbasis Odoo

    OpenAIRE

    Koeswanto, Vincent K. Edison; Yulia, Yulia; Adipranata, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Human Resource Module is one of the modules owned by Odoo. One of the feature of this module is payroll. However, the features is not in accordance with the needs of companies in Indonesia in general. This causes the payroll system in Odoo not suitable to be implemented directly in the company.To solve these problems, author develop the payroll system in Human Resource module in Odoo. The development of this system is preceded by designing and analyze the payroll system at PT X. It also condu...

  11. New pulse modulator with low switching frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub V. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an integrating pulse modulator (analog signal converter with the pulse frequency and duration modulation similar to sigma-delta modulation (with low switching frequency, without quantization. The modulator is characterized by the absence of the quantization noise inherent in sigma-delta modulator, and a low switching frequency, unlike the pulse-frequency modulator. The modulator is recommended, in particular, to convert signals at the input of the class D power amplifier.

  12. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... Abstract. We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulation- ally stable case of polar phase in F = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that ...

  13. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic ...

  14. CMS Inner Tracker Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The production of silicon detector modules that will instrument the CMS Inner Tracker has now a days reached 1300 units out of the approximately 3700 needed in total, with an overall yield close to 96%. A description of the module design, the assembly procedures and the qualification tests is given. The results of the quality assurance are presented and the experience gained is discussed.

  15. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  16. 47 CFR 78.115 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 78.115 Section 78.115... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.115 Modulation limits. (a) If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall not exceed 100 percent modulation. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78...

  17. OCGen Module Mooring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, Portland, ME (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Ocean Renewable Power Company's OCGen Module Mooring Project provided an extensive research, design, development, testing and data collection effort and analysis conducted with respect to a positively buoyant, submerged MHK device secured to the seabed using a tensioned mooring system. Different analytic tools were evaluated for their utility in the design of submerged systems and their moorings. Deployment and testing of a prototype OCGen® system provided significant data related to mooring line loads and system attitude and station keeping. Mooring line loads were measured in situ and reported against flow speeds. The Project made a significant step in the development of designs, methodologies and practices related to floating and mooring of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Importantly for Ocean Renewable Power Company, the Project provided a sound basis for advancing a technically and commercially viable OCGen® Power System. The OCGen® Power System is unique in the MHK industry and, in itself, offers distinct advantages of MHK devices that are secured to the seabed using fixed structural frames. Foremost among these advantages are capital and operating cost reductions and increased power extraction by allowing the device to be placed at the most energetic level of the water column.

  18. Fast polymer modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Larry

    2001-03-01

    Nanostructured organic electro-optic (EO) materials and devices have the potential to generate a revolution in telecommunications, information processing, display, and transportation technologies . Recently, drive voltages as low as 0.8 volts and operational bandwidths as large as 113 GHz have been demonstrated. The fabrication sophisticated 3-D passive/active optical circuits and the efficient integration of these with semiconductor VLSI electronics and silica transmission fibers have also been achieved. A number of impressive new prototype devices and phenomena have been demonstrated utilizing new materials. These include (1) frequency agile oscillators with bandwidths on the order of 100 GHz; (2) large angle 3-D optical beam steering; (3) time stretching over many orders of magnitude; (4) in-line and polarization-insensitive modulation; (5) optical gyroscopes; (6) acoustic spectrum analyzers; and (7) novel phased array radar systems. With amplification of electro-optic effects exploiting photonic bandgap and other resonating nano-structures, the possibility of detecting millivolt and even microvolt electrical signals exists. This would, in turn, create a revolution in sensor technology. The theoretical basis of design of improved organic EO materials is given and a number examples of new materials and devices are discussed.

  19. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  20. On the Matlis duals of local cohomology modules and modules of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 1. On the Matlis Duals of Local Cohomology Modules and Modules of Generalized Fractions. Kazem Khashyarmanesh. Volume ... Keywords. Local cohomology module; Matlis dual functor; module of generalized fractions; filter regular sequence.

  1. Evaluation of LED vehicular and pedestrian modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute : of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules ...

  2. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  3. High-Efficiency Power Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    One or more embodiments of the present invention pertain to an all solid-state microwave power module. The module includes a plurality of solid-state amplifiers configured to amplify a signal using a low power stage, a medium power stage, and a high power stage. The module also includes a power conditioner configured to activate a voltage sequencer (e.g., bias controller) when power is received from a power source. The voltage sequencer is configured to sequentially apply voltage to a gate of each amplifier and sequentially apply voltage to a drain of each amplifier.

  4. Complex Wavelet Based Modulation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luneau, Jean-Marc; Lebrun, Jérôme; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    Low-frequency modulation of sound carry important information for speech and music. The modulation spectrum i commonly obtained by spectral analysis of the sole temporal envelopes of the sub-bands out of a time-frequency analysis. Processing in this domain usually creates undesirable distortions...... polynomial trends. Moreover an analytic Hilbert-like transform is possible with complex wavelets implemented as an orthogonal filter bank. By working in an alternative transform domain coined as “Modulation Subbands”, this transform shows very promising denoising capabilities and suggests new approaches for joint...

  5. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  6. Light intensity modulation in phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanovich, P. A.; Zon, B. A.; Kunin, A. A.; Pankova, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    A hypothesis that blocking ATP synthesis is one of the main causes of the stimulating effect is considered based on analysis of the primary photostimulation mechanisms. The light radiation intensity modulation is substantiated and the estimates of such modulation parameters are made. An explanation is offered to the stimulation efficiency decrease phenomenon at the increase of the radiation dose during the therapy. The results of clinical research of the medical treatment in preventive dentistry are presented depending on the spectrum and parameters of the light flux modulation.

  7. Modular crystals as modulated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elcoro, L.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Friese, K.

    2008-01-01

    The use of the superspace formalism is extended to the description and refinement of the homologous series of modular structures with two symmetry-related modules with different orientations. The lillianite homologous series has been taken as a study case. Starting from a commensurate modulated...... and introduce in the starting model the two orientations of the underlying module sublattices. We show that a composite approach with this type of function, which treats the cations and anions as two separate subsystems forming a misfit compound, is the most appropriate and robust method for the refinements....

  8. Photodiode-Coupled Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserjian, Joseph; Eng, Sverre T.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption of one light beam controls transmission of another. High-performance monolithic light modulator comprised of p-doped/intrinsic/n-doped (PIN) GaAs photodiode grown directly over InAs/GaAs PIN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) diode. Photodiode-coupled multiple-quantum-well modulator includes advanced semi-conductor microstructures enhancing electro-optical properties. Using standard lithographic and etching techniques for defining picture elements, structures fabricated into two-dimensional arrays for use as spatial light modulators.

  9. Pulse code modulation telemetry: Properties of various binary modulation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E. L.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that was conducted to determine the properties of several binary pulse code modulation types. The topics addressed include: (1) Radio frequency spectral occupancy, (2) Bit error rate versus intermediate frequency signal-to-noise ratio in a bandwidth equal to the bit rate, (3) Peak carrier deviation, (4) Effect of filtering on data quality, and (5) Frequency and phase modulation.

  10. Modulation of lymphopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C.

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing experiments contribute to the four specific aims in our current 3-year project period studying lymphopoiesis using CE mammary adenocarcinoma (CE maca) mice. Specific Aim 1: Function of Bone Marrow Stroma in CE Maca Bearing Mice. We have concluded that bone marrow stromal cells from tumor bearing animals are as effective as bone marrow stromal cells from normal animals at supporting B lymphopoiesis in culture. If stromal cell disfunction occurs in tumor bearing animals, the effect is not long lasting. Specific Aim 2: Factors Elaborated by CE Maca. Conditioned medium from CE maca cultures induces bone resorbing activity in bone organ cultures. We have identified a 32 kDa protein that meets the criteria for an osteoclast specific growth factor in this medium. However, we have also found that even though an osteoclast specific growth factor exists, a growth factor whose primary targets are granulocyte precursors will also stimulate osteoclast activity. Specific Aim 3: In Vitro Systems for Investigating Modulation of NK Lymphopoiesis by CE Maca. CE maca is shown to inhibit NK all production as well as B all production. In the course of the these experiments, we have established conditions for enriching NK precursors and have established a prototype long term bone marrow culture system which shows NK cell production. Specific Aim 4: Relationship Between Myclogenic and Intrathymic T Cell Precursors. There is evidence for a stream of T all maturation in both host (or intrathymic) cells and non-host (both hematogenous and intrathymic) cells. If thymic atrophy is induced by cortisone (a depopulation equivalent to that caused by 1000 rad) our data conclusively show thymic recovery is effected almost exclusively by intrathymic cells. This assigns a much greater importance to intrathymic T all progenitors in the maintenance of T cell production in the thymus than has been hitherto recognized. (MHB)

  11. Modulation of lymphopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C.

    1991-01-01

    During the current project period we have demonstrated correspondence between animal models and in vitro models of modulated lymphopoiesis. Our finding that G-CSF, a growth factor for neutrophil granulocytes, suppresses lymphopoiesis in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) has important implications both for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of hemopoiesis and for clinical use of recombinant growth factors that are beginning to be widely used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. During the present project period we adopted LTBMC systems developed by others for the purposes of our specific aims. Also we developed a novel long term culture system for NK cells. The discovery of a new growth factor, O-CSF, specific for osteoclasts and the establishment of a clonal assay system that provides evidence for a new class of hemopoietic progenitor cells, the osteoclast progenitor, are important contributions. Given the important role T cells play in the immune response and in the regulation of other lymphohemopoietic cell lineages through the lymphokines they secrete, the need for an in vitro system that lends itself to the analysis of T cell maturation and to the testing of factors that may adversely affect T lymphopoiesis cannot be overemphasized. We believe that we can exploit an advantageous set of circumstances that present an excellent opportunity for initiating a focused experimental program for developing such a system. By a systematic and selective analysis of molecular interactions between heterogenous thymic stromal cells and T cell progenitors at different stages of maturation, it will be possible for our program to define the complement of critical cellular interactions on which successive stages of T lymphopoiesis depend. The experiments we propose will lay a rational foundation for the development of a long term culture system for T lymphopoiesis. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....

  13. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  14. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wohlgemuth, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bosco, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Nancy [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States); Earnest, Thomas [DuPont, Wilmington, DE (United States); Romero, Ralph [Black & Veatch, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  15. CIM-Compact intensity modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: mbleuel@anl.gov; Lang, E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gaehler, R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue J. Horowitz, Grenoble 38042 (France); Lal, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-07-21

    Compact intensity modulation (CIM), a new method to modulate the intensity of a neutron beam is demonstrated. CIM allows the production of arbitrary signals where the focus point can be chosen and changed without any constraints. A novel feature in this technique compared to spin echo techniques is that the neutron polarization is kept parallel or anti-parallel to the static fields during the passage through the magnetic fields and the beating pattern at the detector is produced by an amplitude modulation (AM) of the adiabatic RF-spin flippers rather than Larmor precession like in neutron spin echo (NSE) instruments; thus, the achievable contrast is very high and the instrument resolution can be changed very quickly. This gives the fascinating possibility at pulsed neutron sources to sweep the modulation frequency of the flippers in order to increase dynamic resolution range during the same neutron pulse.

  16. ABOUT SOLIDWORKS COSTING MODULE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin IANCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paperwork is presented the SolidWorks analysis of costing, using Simulation Costing module. There are presented the settings that have to be done for such analysis and the results shown by this software module. The elements that are taken into account are specific to costing templates in SolidWorks, but can be adjusted for the specific costs of a given factory.

  17. Modulation corticale de la locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Tard, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson 's disease present gait impairments, sometimes sudden and unexpected, either improved or deteriorated with environmental stimuli. Attention focalization, either on external stimuli or on gait, could then modulate locomotion.The main objective was to better characterize how environmental stimuli would modulate locomotion, via attentional networks, in healthy subjects and in parkinsonian patients, with or without freezing of gait.At first, we precisely defined the attent...

  18. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  19. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  20. Modulation of glucose postprandiale phase

    OpenAIRE

    Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of the postprandial glycemic excursions has been proposed as to limit risk of type 2 diabetes. There has been growing interest in the development of dietary ingredients that could potentially modulate carbohydrates bioavailability and thus their impact on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of the the modulation of glucose bioavailability by different ingredients on 2-hour glycemic response but also on glucose kinetics (total, exogenous a...

  1. Intelligent spacecraft module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  2. Histamine modulates microglia function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Histamine is commonly acknowledged as an inflammatory mediator in peripheral tissues, leaving its role in brain immune responses scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms elicited by this molecule and its receptors in microglia-induced inflammation by evaluating cell migration and inflammatory mediator release. Methods Firstly, we detected the expression of all known histamine receptor subtypes (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R), using a murine microglial cell line and primary microglia cell cultures from rat cortex, by real-time PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Then, we evaluated the role of histamine in microglial cell motility by performing scratch wound assays. Results were further confirmed using murine cortex explants. Finally, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated by ELISA measurements to determine the role of histamine on the release of these inflammatory mediators. Results After 12 h of treatment, 100 μM histamine and 10 μg/ml histamine-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles significantly stimulated microglia motility via H4R activation. In addition, migration involves α5β1 integrins, and p38 and Akt signaling pathways. Migration of microglial cells was also enhanced in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml), used as a positive control. Importantly, histamine inhibited LPS-stimulated migration via H4R activation. Histamine or H4R agonist also inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β release in both N9 microglia cell line and hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Conclusions To our knowledge, we are the first to show a dual role of histamine in the modulation of microglial inflammatory responses. Altogether, our data suggest that histamine per se triggers microglia motility, whereas histamine impedes LPS-induced microglia migration and IL-1β release. This last datum assigns a new putative anti-inflammatory role for

  3. Customized PEC modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Martin B. (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the project ''Customized PEC modules'' was to move from the production hand-made individual DSCs (dye-sensitized solar cells) in the laboratory to the production of DSC modules in a semi-automated process. At the same time allowing sufficient variation in the product's specification for real tailoring of the product to the application. The tailoring can be related to the module's electrical output and size, but also to the possibility of designing patterns for decoration or communication purposes by playing around with the shape, size and layout of the individual cells forming the module. This was to be accomplished mainly by screen printing of DSC components on glass substrates at Mekoprint. For reaching this goal the work was divided into a number of steps. The central part of the work done was in the initial conception activity and the following manufacturing activity. An activity regarding optimization included several tasks of optimization and adaptation of the existing laboratory process for manufacturing of the DSCs. Finally, work focused on international activities was done. All the steps needed for the production of customized DSC modules have been demonstrated in this project. In combination with the development of a high performing printable sealant and sealing method all the prerequisites for producing customized DSC modules have been demonstrated. (LN)

  4. Essentially finitely indecomposable QTAG-Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alveera Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A right module $M$ over an associative ring with unity is a $QTAG$-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of $M$ is a direct sum of uniserial modules. There are many fascinating results related to these modules and essentially indecomposable modules are extensively researched. Motivated by these modules we generalize them as essentially finitely indecomposable modules whose every direct decomposition $M=\\bigoplus\\limits_{k\\in I} M_k$ implies that there exists a positive integer $n$ such that $H_n(M_i=0$ for all $M_i$'s except for a finite number of $M_i$'s. Here we investigate these modules and their relationship with $HT$-modules. The cases when the modules are not $HT$-modules are especially highlighted.

  5. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  6. Modulation masking produced by second-order modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C.J.; Demany, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that an auditory nonlinearity converts second-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) (i.e., modulation of SAM depth) into a first-order SAM component, which contributes to the perception of second-order SAM. However, conversion may also occur in other ways...... such as cochlear filtering. The present experiments explored the source of the first-order SAM component by investigating the ability to detect a 5-Hz, first-order SAM probe in the presence of a second-order SAM masker beating at the probe frequency. Detection performance was measured as a function of masker...... and off-frequency listening play a role in second-order SAM perception. The estimated magnitude of the modulation distortion component ranges from 5%–12%. ©2005 Acoustical Society of America....

  7. 47 CFR 74.663 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 74.663 Section 74.663 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.663 Modulation limits. If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall...

  8. 47 CFR 80.213 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 80.213 Section 80.213... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.213 Modulation requirements. (a) Transmitters must meet the following modulation requirements: (1) When double sideband emission is used the peak modulation...

  9. 47 CFR 74.463 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 74.463 Section 74.463....463 Modulation requirements. (a) Each new remote pickup broadcast station authorized to operate with a... modulation in excess of the limits set forth in this subpart. (b) If amplitude modulation is employed...

  10. 47 CFR 87.141 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 87.141 Section 87.141... Technical Requirements § 87.141 Modulation requirements. (a) When A3E emission is used, the modulation... modulation in excess of 100 percent. (c) If any licensed radiotelephone transmitter causes harmful...

  11. Feasibility of photovoltaic: thermoelectric hybrid modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules suffers from elevated temperatures. Conversion efficiency losses of up to about 25% can result, depending on the type of integration of the modules in the roof. Cooling of modules would therefore enhance annual PV performance. Instead of module

  12. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  13. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear accelerators ... and after this procedure? What is Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and how is it used? Intensity-modulated radiation ...

  14. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  15. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-X Dragon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 7 April and 11 April 2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 ml evacuated canisters from the sealed Dragon Module at the Space-X facility at KSC. Three samples were taken of facility air (two before the test and one after the test), and a total of 9 samples were taken from the sealed module in triplicate at the following times: 0 hours, 48 hours, and 96 hours. The module contained 470 kg, which was 100% of the mass to be launched. Analytical data contained in the Toxicology Group Report (attached) show that the ambient facility air was clean except for almost 9 milligrams per cubic meter of isopropanol (IPA) in the sample taken at the end of the test. Space-X must ensure that IPA is not introduced into the module before it is sealed for launch. Other minor contaminants in the ambient air included the following: perfluoro(2-methyl)pentane and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane. The first-acquired samples of each triplicate from the module were not analyzed. Analyses of pairs of samples that were taken during the test show excellent agreement between the pairs and a linear increase in the T-values during the 4 days of the test (figure below). The rate of increase averaged 0.124 T units per day. If the time from last purge of the module on the ground to crew first entry on orbit is 10 days, then the T value at first entry should be less than 1.2 units, which is well below the criterion of 3.0 for consideration of additional protection of the crew from offgas products. The primary contributors were as follows: trimethylsilanol (0.057), fluorotrimethylsilane (0.047), acetaldehyde (0.004), hexamethylcyclopentasiloxane (0.003), and toluene (0.002).

  16. Photovoltaic cell module and method of forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Malinda; Juen, Donnie; Ketola, Barry; Tomalia, Mary Kay

    2017-12-12

    A photovoltaic cell module, a photovoltaic array including at least two modules, and a method of forming the module are provided. The module includes a first outermost layer and a photovoltaic cell disposed on the first outermost layer. The module also includes a second outermost layer disposed on the photovoltaic cell and sandwiching the photovoltaic cell between the second outermost layer and the first outermost layer. The method of forming the module includes the steps of disposing the photovoltaic cell on the first outermost layer, disposing a silicone composition on the photovoltaic cell, and compressing the first outermost layer, the photovoltaic cell, and the second layer to form the photovoltaic cell module.

  17. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Scot P.; Dugan, Larry M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  18. Central-Monitor Software Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    One of the software modules of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system of the two preceding articles performs numerous functions for the central monitoring subsystem. This module monitors the states of all units (vehicle transponders and intersection controllers): It provides real-time access to the phases of traffic and pedestrian lights, and maps the positions and states of all emergency vehicles. Most of this module is used for installation and configuration of units as they are added to the system. The module logs all activity in the system, thereby providing information that can be analyzed to minimize response times and optimize response strategies. The module can be used from any location within communication range of the system; with proper configuration, it can also be used via the Internet. It can be integrated into call-response centers, where it can be used for alerting emergency vehicles and managing their responses to specific incidents. A variety of utility subprograms provide access to any or all units for purposes of monitoring, testing, and modification. Included are "sniffer" utility subprograms that monitor incoming and outgoing data for accuracy and timeliness, and that quickly and autonomously shut off malfunctioning vehicle or intersection units.

  19. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  20. Joint Acoustic and Modulation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Atlas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a considerable evidence that our perception of sound uses important features which is related to underlying signal modulations. This topic has been studied extensively via perceptual experiments, yet there are few, if any, well-developed signal processing methods which capitalize on or model these effects. We begin by summarizing evidence of the importance of modulation representations from psychophysical, physiological, and other sources. The concept of a two-dimensional joint acoustic and modulation frequency representation is proposed. A simple single sinusoidal amplitude modulator of a sinusoidal carrier is then used to illustrate properties of an unconstrained and ideal joint representation. Added constraints are required to remove or reduce undesired interference terms and to provide invertibility. It is then noted that the constraints would also apply to more general and complex cases of broader modulation and carriers. Applications in single-channel speaker separation and in audio coding are used to illustrate the applicability of this joint representation. Other applications in signal analysis and filtering are suggested.

  1. Quantification of modulation degree for VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Ye, Sung Joon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Carkson, Joel [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to quantify the degree of modulation by presenting a modulation index (MI) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the speed and acceleration analysis of modulating-parameters such as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotation and dose-rate, comprehensively, as well as by performing texture analysis on fluence maps. The MIt showed good performance for the evaluation of the modulation-degree of VMAT plans showing highest correlations to the plan deliverability.

  2. On a class of semicommutative modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let R be a ring with identity, M a right R-module and S = EndR(M). In this note, we introduce S-semicommutative, S-Baer, S-q.-Baer and S-p.q.-Baer modules. We study the relations between these classes of modules. Also we prove if M is an. S-semicommutative module, then M is an S-p.q.-Baer module if and only ...

  3. A compact nanosecond pulse modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jizhang; Xue, Jianchao; Qiang, Bohan

    Two circuits of nanosecond pulse modulator which generate two different width rectangular pulses respectively are described. The basic configuration of the modulator is the Marx circuit, in which avalanche transistors are used as switching devices. In order to obtain the rectangular pulses a pulse-forming network (PFN) is introduced and fitted into the Marx. A multi-parallel arrangement of the Marx is used to satisfy the broad pulse requirement. Experiments have shown that the two different width rectangular pulses which have 130 V amplitudes and 30 and 200 ns widths respectively can be obtained at a 50 ohms load. The two pulses have steep front edges (3.6 ns and 10 ns respectively) and flat tops with less than + or - 5 percent ripples. Therefore, the modulator can meet the requirements of the nanosecond pulse radar.

  4. Interfacial reactions in thermoelectric modules

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hsin-jay

    2018-02-21

    Engineering transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials leads to incessantly breakthroughs in the zT values. Nevertheless, modular design holds a key factor to advance the TE technology. Herein, we discuss the structures of TE module and illustrate the inter-diffusions across the interface of constituent layers. For Bi2Te3-based module, soldering is the primary bonding method, giving rise to the investigations on the selections of solder, diffusion barrier layer and electrode. For mid-temperature PbTe-based TE module, hot-pressing or spark plasma sintering are alternative bonding approaches; the inter-diffusions between the diffusion barrier layer, electrode and TE substrate are addressed as well.

  5. Phasic affective modulation of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Thus far, it has been shown that positive compared to negative mood increases creativity, for instance, as measured by performance in the remote associate task, where participants are asked to find the common remote associate for three clue words (e.g., RABBIT CLOUD MILK solution word WHITE). The present experiments show that very brief variations in affect, lasting for only a few seconds and changing from trial to trial within participants, are sufficient to modulate creativity in that task, presumably by modulating the breadth of semantic spread. Using word valence of remote associates themselves (Experiment 1), and consonant and dissonant chords (Experiment 2) as affect inductions, it was observed that brief positive compared to negative affect increased creative performance. This evidence extends the affect-modulation hypothesis to a temporal micro-level.

  6. Allosteric modulation of chemoattractant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Cesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related GPCR. Emerging evidence indicates that the signalling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the endogenous agonist and modulate the receptor signalling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities.

  7. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  8. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  9. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  10. CAMAC 488 module: 68,000 based GPIB interface module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, K.C.

    1985-03-01

    What kind of hardware and software should be used to interface GPIB devices with the existing computer system. One idea was to use a commercially available Multibus card, BLC 8488 from National Semiconductor, whose on-board Z80 would manage the GPIB read/write functions and handshakes. With this card, one could make a hardware system which would consist of (1) CAMAC 080, (2) Multibus crate, (3) M. Shea's M68000, (4) M080, (5) BLC 8488 and (6) memory board. And the software considered for such a hardware package was GAS, which had been an established software package for communication between the ACNET computer system and smart CAMAC modules. However, a second idea was to put everything on a two-wide CAMAC module. The author pursued the second idea and came up with a two-wide CAMAC module called C488. The author describes the hardware - block diagrams, circuit blocks, front panel and hardware tests. He also refers to the software - system, modules and applications.

  11. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  12. Lattice of ℤ-module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of lattice of ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [5].We formally prove that scalar products in lattices are bilinear forms over the field of real numbers ℝ. We also formalize the definitions of positive definite and integral lattices and their properties. Lattice of ℤ-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [14], and cryptographic systems with lattices [15] and coding theory [9].

  13. Dual modulation of semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorfinkel, V.B. [Univ. of Kassel (Germany); Luryi, S. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Large signal analysis of dual modulation of semiconductor lasers (by a simultaneous high-frequency control of the pumping current I and an additional intrinsic parameter) shows that the method allows suppressing the relaxation oscillations for an arbitrary shape of the pumping current signal I (t). Because of that, the rate of information coding can be enhanced to about 80 Gbit/sec. Moreover, the authors demonstrate that dual modulation allows to maintain a linear relationship between I (t) and the output optical power in a wide frequency band.

  14. Apollo 11 Command Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of the Apollo 11 command service module ready to be mated with the spacecraft LEM adapter of the third stage. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  15. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  16. Serre's Problem on Projective Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, TY

    2005-01-01

    Presents some of the most comprehensive view available on the mathematics of 'Serre's Conjecture'. This title includes such coverage as stably free modules and the basic calculus of unimodular rows, Suslin's Normality and Factorial Theorems, and a survey of research since 1978

  17. Exercises in modules and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, TY

    2009-01-01

    This volume offers a compendium of exercises of varying degree of difficulty in the theory of modules and rings. All exercises are solved in full detail. Each section begins with an introduction giving the general background and the theoretical basis for the problems that follow.

  18. Radio frequency modulation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Modulation to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  19. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  20. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  1. Reward Modulates Adaptations to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single…

  2. Piezoelectric strain modulation in FETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, T.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2013-01-01

    We report on a feature for the transistor, a piezoelectric layer to modulate the strain in the channel. The strain is proportional to the gate-source voltage, and thus increases as the device is turned on. As a result, the device has the leakage current of a relaxed device and the lower threshold

  3. Microdisplays in spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, I. N.; Andreev, A. L.

    2017-05-01

    The characteristics of modern microdisplays based on liquid crystals and electromechanical micromirrors are considered. These displays, being spatial light modulators, can rapidly generate large optical data arrays to be recorded as holograms and used for data processing. The potential of microdisplays for visualising digital holograms in real time is estimated.

  4. Bidirectional reachability-based modules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce an algorithm for MinA extraction in EL based on bidirectional reachability. They obtain a significant reduction in the size of modules extracted at almost no additional cost to that of extracting standard reachability...

  5. Automated Accounting. Payroll. Instructor Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…

  6. Modules over discrete valuation domains

    CERN Document Server

    Tuganbaev, Askar A

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the first systematic treatment of modules over discrete valuation domains which plays an important role in various areas of algebra, especially in commutative algebra. Many important results representing the state of the art are presented in the text which is supplemented by exercises and interesting open problems. An important contribution to commutative algebra.

  7. Centripetal modules and ancient introns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S W; Nosaka, M; de Souza, S J; Gilbert, W

    1999-09-30

    We have created an algorithm which instantiates the centripetal definition of modules, compact regions of protein structure, as introduced by Go and Nosaka (M. Go and M. Nosaka, 1987. Protein architecture and the origin of introns. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Bio. 52, 915-924). That definition seeks the minima of a function that sums the squares of C-alpha carbon distances over a window around each amino acid residue in a three-dimensional protein structure and identifies such minima with module boundaries. We analyze a set of 44 ancient conserved proteins, with known three-dimensional structures, which have intronless homologues in bacteria and intron-containing homologues in the eukaryotes, with a corresponding set of 988 intron positions. We show that the phase zero intron positions are significantly correlated with the module boundaries (p = 0.0002), while the intron positions that lie within codons, in phase one and phase two, are not correlated with these 'centripetal' module boundaries. Furthermore, we analyze the phylogenetic distribution of intron positions and identify a subset of putatively 'ancient' intron positions: phase zero positions in one phylogenetic kingdom which have an associated intron either in an identical position or within three codons in another phylogenetic kingdom (a notion of intron sliding). This subset of 120 'ancient' introns lies closer to the module boundaries than does the full set of phase zero introns with high significance, a p-value of 0.008. We conclude that the behavior of this set of introns supports the prediction of a mixed theory: that some introns are very old and were used for exon shuffling in the progenote, while many introns have been lost and added since.

  8. Earth System Science Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  9. Cavity Enhanced Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Brian; Mills, Andrew; Porambo, Michael; McCall, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    Over the past several decades, velocity modulation spectroscopy has been used to study dozens of molecular ions of astronomical importance. This technique has been so productive because it provides the advantage of ion-neutral discrimination, which is critically important when interfering neutral molecules are many orders of magnitude more abundant, and when combined with heterodyne techniques, its sensitivity can approach the shot noise limit. Traditionally, velocity modulation experiments have utilized unidirectional multipass White cells to achieve up to about 8 passes through a positive column discharge cell. But by positioning the cell within an optical cavity, it is possible to obtain an effective path length orders of magnitude longer than was previously possible. We have demonstrated this novel technique using a Ti:Sapp laser in the near-IR to observe rovibronic transitions of N2+. By demodulating at twice the modulation frequency, 2nd derivative-like lineshapes are observed for ions that are velocity-modulated, while Gaussian lineshapes are observed for excited neutral that are concentration-modulated. The signals for N2+ and N2+* have been observed to be 78° out of phase with one another, so ion-neutral discrimination is retained. And due to the laser power enhancement and geometry of the optical cavity, Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy is now possible. Observed Lamb dips have widths of 50 MHz, and when combined with calibration by an optical frequency comb, this allows for determination of line centers to within 1 MHz. In our original demonstration of this technique, our sensitivity was limited by noise in the laser-cavity lock. Since then, we have integrated Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Molecular Spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) by adding sidebands to the laser at an exact multiple of the cavity free spectral range, and demodulating at the sideband frequency before sending the signal to a lock-in amplifier for demodulating at twice the

  10. Cosmic-Ray Modulation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraal, H.

    2013-06-01

    The temporal variation of the cosmic-ray intensity in the heliosphere is called cosmic-ray modulation. The main periodicity is the response to the 11-year solar activity cycle. Other variations include a 27-day solar rotation variation, a diurnal variation, and irregular variations such as Forbush decreases. General awareness of the importance of this cosmic-ray modulation has greatly increased in the last two decades, mainly in communities studying cosmogenic nuclides, upper atmospheric physics and climate, helio-climatology, and space weather, where corrections need to be made for these modulation effects. Parameterized descriptions of the modulation are even used in archeology and in planning the flight paths of commercial passenger jets. The qualitative, physical part of the modulation is generally well-understood in these communities. The mathematical formalism that is most often used to quantify it is the so-called Force-Field approach, but the origins of this approach are somewhat obscure and it is not always used correct. This is mainly because the theory was developed over more than 40 years, and all its aspects are not collated in a single document. This paper contains a formal mathematical description intended for these wider communities. It consists of four parts: (1) a description of the relations between four indicators of "energy", namely energy, speed, momentum and rigidity, (2) the various ways of how to count particles, (3) the description of particle motion with transport equations, and (4) the solution of such equations, and what these solutions mean. Part (4) was previously described in Caballero-Lopez and Moraal (J. Geophys. Res, 109: A05105, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010358, 2004). Therefore, the details are not all repeated here. The style of this paper is not to be rigorous. It rather tries to capture the relevant tools to do modulation studies, to show how seemingly unrelated results are, in fact, related to one another, and to point out the

  11. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  12. Index modulation for 5G wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Miaowen; Yang, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a thorough examination of index modulation, an emerging 5G modulation technique. It includes representative transmitter and receiver design, optimization, and performance analysis of index modulation in various domains. First, the basic spatial modulation system for the spatial domain is introduced. Then, the development of a generalized pre-coding aided quadrature spatial modulation system as well as a virtual spatial modulation system are presented. For the space-time domain, a range of differential spatial modulation systems are examined, along with the pre-coding design. Both basic and enhanced index modulated OFDM systems for the frequency domain are discussed, focusing on the verification of their strong capabilities in inter-carrier interference mitigation. Finally, key open problems are highlighted and future research directions are considered. Designed for researchers and professionals, this book is essential for anyone working in communications networking, 5G, and system design. A...

  13. Pulse shaping using a spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond pulse shaping can be done by different kinds of pulse shapers, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM), acousto optic modulators (AOM) and deformable and movable mirrors. A few applications where pulse shaping...

  14. Broadband optical modulators based on graphene supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Emre O; Kocabas, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    Optical modulators are commonly used in communication and information technology to control intensity, phase, or polarization of light. Electro-optic, electroabsorption, and acousto-optic modulators based on semiconductors and compound semiconductors have been used to control the intensity of light. Because of gate tunable optical properties, graphene introduces new potentials for optical modulators. The operation wavelength of graphene-based modulators, however, is limited to infrared wavelengths due to inefficient gating schemes. Here, we report a broadband optical modulator based on graphene supercapacitors formed by graphene electrodes and electrolyte medium. The transparent supercapacitor structure allows us to modulate optical transmission over a broad range of wavelengths from 450 nm to 2 μm under ambient conditions. We also provide various device geometries including multilayer graphene electrodes and reflection type device geometries that provide modulation of 35%. The graphene supercapacitor structure together with the high-modulation efficiency can enable various active devices ranging from plasmonics to optoelectronics.

  15. Last LEP superconducting module travels to surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The last superconducting module is raised from the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider tunnel, through the main shaft, to the surface. Superconducting modules were only used in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  16. PENGEMBANGAN MODUL PEMBELAJARAN INKUIRI BERBASIS LABORATORIUM VIRTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Adi Prabowo

    2016-06-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan modul pembelajaran biologi berbasis pendekatan pembelajaran inkuiri yang dilengkapi dengan media simulasi interaktif berupa laboratorium virtual. Modul dikembangkan mengacu pada model penelitian dan pengembangan ADDIE yang meliputi lima tahapan, yaitu analysis, design, development, implementation, dan evaluation. Kelayakan modul hasil pengembangan mengacu pada hasil penilaian ahli, praktisi lapangan, dan respon siswa sebagai subjek uji coba. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan modul yang dikembangkan telah memenuhi standar aspek kelayakan yang meliputi validitas, kepraktisan, dan keefektifan bahan ajar.

  17. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent modules......, in particular highlighting four key concepts: auxiliary state, interference abstraction, resource ownership and atomicity. We show how these concepts combine to provide powerful approaches to specifying concurrent modules....

  18. Automatic modulation classification principles, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhechen

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC) has been a key technology in many military, security, and civilian telecommunication applications for decades. In military and security applications, modulation often serves as another level of encryption; in modern civilian applications, multiple modulation types can be employed by a signal transmitter to control the data rate and link reliability. This book offers comprehensive documentation of AMC models, algorithms and implementations for successful modulation recognition. It provides an invaluable theoretical and numerical comparison of AMC algo

  19. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.

    1977-10-01

    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  20. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  1. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  2. Development of ATHENA mirror modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Landgraf, Boris; Günther, Ramses; Vervest, Mark; van der Hoeven, Roy; Dekker, Danielle; Chatbi, Abdel; Girou, David; Sforzini, Jessica; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Shortt, Brian; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Booysen, Karin; Wijnperle, Maurice; van Baren, Coen; Eigenraam, Alexander; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn E.; Della Monica Ferreira, Desirée.; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Oliver, Paul; Checquer, Ian; Ball, Kevin; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), developed at cosine with the European Space Agency (ESA) and several academic and industrial partners, provides lightweight, yet stiff, high-resolution x-ray optics. This technology enables ATHENA to reach an unprecedentedly large effective area in the 0.2 - 12 keV band with an angular resolution better than 5''. After developing the technology for 50 m and 20 m focal length, this year has witnessed the first 12 m focal length mirror modules being produced. The technology development is also gaining momentum with three different radii under study: mirror modules for the inner radii (Rmin = 250 mm), outer radii (Rmax = 1500 mm) and middle radii (Rmid = 737 mm) are being developed in parallel.

  3. CLIC Quadrupole Module final report

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.

  4. Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

  5. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  6. Social modulators of social attention

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmaso, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Social attention refers to the ability, which generally characterizes human beings as well as other animal species, to orient attentional resources in response to spatial cues provided by other individuals. These spatial cues are typically represented by gaze direction, head direction, and body orientation. This thesis focused mainly on the role that some social variables play in modulating this ability. In Chapter 1, the concept of social attention and its relevance in regulating social i...

  7. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  8. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  9. Last ATLAS TRT module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker (TRT) consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. Images with the team responsible for assembly : Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  10. Tabletability Modulation Through Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-08-01

    Poor powder tabletability is a common problem that challenges the successful development of high-quality tablet products. Using noncompressible microcrystalline cellulose beads, we demonstrate that surface coating is an effective strategy for modulating tabletability, almost at will, through judicious selection of coating material. This strategy has broad applicability as tabletability of such particles is dictated by the properties of the outermost layer coat regardless the nature of the core. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  12. Relative injectivity and CS-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a direct decomposition of modules M⊕N, with N homologically independent to the injective hull of M, is a CS-module if and only if N is injective relative to M and both of M and N are CS-modules. As an application, we prove that a direct sum of a non-singular semisimple module and a quasi-continuous module with zero socle is quasi-continuous. This result is known for quasi-injective modules. But when we confine ourselves to CS-modules we need no conditions on their socles. Then we investigate direct sums of CS-modules which are pairwise relatively inective. We show that every finite direct sum of such modules is a CS-module. This result is known for quasi-continuous modules. For the case of infinite direct sums, one has to add an extra condition. Finally, we briefly discuss modules in which every two direct summands are relatively inective.

  13. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  14. Electronic modules easily separated from heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Metal heat sink and electronic modules bonded to a thermal bridge can be easily cleaved for removal of the modules for replacement or repair. A thin film of grease between a fluorocarbon polymer film on the metal heat sink and an adhesive film on the modules acts as the cleavage plane.

  15. 47 CFR 73.755 - Modulation monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation monitors. 73.755 Section 73.755... International Broadcast Stations § 73.755 Modulation monitors. The licensee of each international broadcast station shall have a modulation monitor in operation at the transmitter. ...

  16. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing digital modulation techniques and operating below 25.25 GHz (except for MVDDS stations in the 12,200-12,700 MHz band...

  17. 47 CFR 95.637 - Modulation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation standards. 95.637 Section 95.637... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.637 Modulation standards. (a) A GMRS transmitter... paragraphs of § 95.631 (without filtering.) The filter must be between the modulation limiter and the...

  18. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  19. New Technologies for Managing Cotton Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of RFID transponders in the module tags on round modules formed by John Deere harvesters has opened up new possibilities for managing modules and harvest data. Tools are needed to help integrate this new technology and provide additional value to growers and ginners. A mobile application w...

  20. Being Fit. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module provides information on the many physical and psychological benefits of…

  1. The Scophony Spatial Light Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. V.; Guerin, J. M.; Swanberg, M. E.

    1984-08-01

    The Scophony scanner uses the same optical elements as the more familiar flying spot scanner: a rotating polygon mirror, an acoustooptic (A/0) modulator, and a laser light source. The flying spot scanner is designed to construct its image a pixel at a time; no more than one pixel is illuminated at any given instant. The Scophony scanner is designed to image a broad swath of the A/0 modulator's acoustic pulses onto the photoreceptor. Many pixels are illuminated at any given instant in the Scophony scanner. The acoustic pulse image motion is frozen in place by a compensating scanning action. The result is a scanner with a coherent imaging response. This coherent response implies that the optical phase of a given pixel profoundly influences the formation of neighboring pixels. The optical phase at the scanner image plane is driven by the electronic phase of the video signal applied to the A/0 modulator. This coherent response enables electronic manipulation of the video drive signal to have significant impact on the optical imaging performance of the scanner. Two electronic manipulation schemes are proposed for doubling the resolution of the Scophony scanner, one scheme for analog video signals, and one scheme for binary digital video signals. Each scheme gives superior contrast ratio performance compared with the flying spot scanner.

  2. Solar Modulation of Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius S. Potgieter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of the solar modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. It is a broad topic with numerous intriguing aspects so that a research framework has to be chosen to concentrate on. The review focuses on the basic paradigms and departure points without presenting advanced theoretical or observational details for which there exists a large number of comprehensive reviews. Instead, emphasis is placed on numerical modeling which has played an increasingly significant role as computational resources have become more abundant. A main theme is the progress that has been made over the years. The emphasis is on the global features of CR modulation and on the causes of the observed 11-year and 22-year cycles and charge-sign dependent modulation. Illustrative examples of some of the theoretical and observational milestones are presented, without attempting to review all details or every contribution made in this field of research. Controversial aspects are discussed where appropriate, with accompanying challenges and future prospects. The year 2012 was the centennial celebration of the discovery of cosmic rays so that several general reviews were dedicated to historical aspects so that such developments are briefly presented only in a few cases.

  3. Quantum systems under frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, M. P.; Tuorila, J. A.; Thuneberg, E. V.; Paraoanu, G. S.

    2017-05-01

    We review the physical phenomena that arise when quantum mechanical energy levels are modulated in time. The dynamics resulting from changes in the transition frequency is a problem studied since the early days of quantum mechanics. It has been of constant interest both experimentally and theoretically since, with the simple two-state model providing an inexhaustible source of novel concepts. When the transition frequency of a quantum system is modulated, several phenomena can be observed, such as Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference, motional averaging and narrowing, and the formation of dressed states with the appearance of sidebands in the spectrum. Adiabatic changes result in the accumulation of geometric phases, which can be used to create topological states. In recent years, an exquisite experimental control in the time domain was gained through the parameters entering the Hamiltonian, and high-fidelity readout schemes allowed the state of the system to be monitored non-destructively. These developments were made in the field of quantum devices, especially in superconducting qubits, as a well as in atomic physics, in particular in ultracold gases. As a result of these advances, it became possible to demonstrate many of the fundamental effects that arise in a quantum system when its transition frequencies are modulated. The purpose of this review is to present some of these developments, from two-state atoms and harmonic oscillators to multilevel and many-particle systems.

  4. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  5. Cross-Modulation Interference with Lateralization of Mixed-Modulated Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Petrosyan, Agavni; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Hickok, Gregory; Saberi, Kourosh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the ability to use spatial information in mixed-modulated (MM) sounds containing concurrent frequency-modulated (FM) and amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds by exploring patterns of interference when different modulation types originated from different loci as may occur in a multisource acoustic field. Method:…

  6. Complex wavefront modulation and holographic display using single spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dezhao; Cao, Liangcai; Shen, Xueju; Zhang, Hao; Zong, Song; Jin, Guofan

    2017-08-01

    A holographic display method based on complex wavefront modulation using single spatial light modulator is proposed. The holographic display is achieved from complex wavefront encoded by double phase hologram. The modulated beam by single phase-only spatial light modulator passes through a 4f optical system to synthesize the expected complex modulated wavefront on the output plane, with a low-pass filter in the Fourier plane. The performance of holographic display is also improved by complex wavefront modulation, compared with the holographic display based on phase-only wavefront modulation. The proposed encoding and display technique is theoretically demonstrated, as well as validated in numerical simulations.

  7. Model Development of Degradation of PV Modules Backsheet with Locating Place of Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Yu [Case Western Reserve University; Fairbrother, Andrew [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Merzlic, Sebastien [Arkema; Julien, Scott [Northeastern University; Fridman, Lucas S. [Case Western Reserve University; Loyer, Camille [Arkema; Lefebvre, Amy L. [Arkema; O' Brien, Gregory [Arkema; Gu, Xiaohong [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Ji, Liang [Underwriters Laboratories; Boyce, Kenneth P. [Underwriters Laboratories; Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern University; French, Roger H. [Case Western Reserve University; Bruckman, Laura S. [Case Western Reserve University

    2017-08-23

    Performance of a photovoltaic (PV) module is related to the micro-environment around the module. The position of photovoltaic modules in an array row have a large effect on the yellowing and gloss of PV module backsheet exposed in Dfa climatic zone (Gaithersburg, MD) with a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) outer layer. Stress/Response models of yellowing and gloss-losing as function of location parameters of module, including the shed, row, measurement position in a same module and the distance of module location to the row center, are under development. The module installation height had the greatest influence on degradation of PEN PV backsheet in the Dfa climatic zone. The module backsheets at the end of an array have higher degradation rate (edge effect). The edge effect decreases with increasing of module installation heights.

  8. Detection of combined frequency and amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B C; Sek, A

    1992-12-01

    This article is concerned with the detection of mixed modulation (MM), i.e., simultaneously occurring amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). In experiment 1, an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice task was used to determine thresholds for detecting AM alone. Then, thresholds for detecting FM were determined for stimuli which had a fixed amount of AM in the signal interval only. The amount of AM was always less than the threshold for detecting AM alone. The FM thresholds depended significantly on the magnitude of the coexisting AM. For low modulation rates (4, 16, and 64 Hz), the FM thresholds did not depend significantly on the relative phase of modulation for the FM and AM. For a high modulation rate (256 Hz) strong effects of modulator phase were observed. These phase effects are as predicted by the model proposed by Hartmann and Hnath [Acustica 50, 297-312 (1982)], which assumes that detection of modulation at modulation frequencies higher than the critical modulation frequency is based on detection of the lower sideband in the modulated signal's spectrum. In the second experiment, psychometric functions were measured for the detection of AM alone and FM alone, using modulation rates of 4 and 16 Hz. Results showed that, for each type of modulation, d' is approximately a linear function of the square of the modulation index. Application of this finding to the results of experiment 1 suggested that, at low modulation rates, FM and AM are not detected by completely independent mechanisms. In the third experiment, psychometric functions were again measured for the detection of AM alone and FM alone, using a 10-Hz modulation rate. Detectability was then measured for combined AM and FM, with modulation depths selected so that each type of modulation would be equally detectable if presented alone. Significant effects of relative modulator phase were found when detectability was relatively high. These effects were not correctly predicted by either a

  9. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  10. Laser space communication experiment: Modulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of a contractual program to develop the modulator technology necessary for a 10.6 micron laser communication system using cadmium telluride as the modulator material. The program consisted of the following tasks: (1) The growth of cadmium telluride crystals of sufficient size and purity and with the necessary optical properties for use as laser modulator rods. (2) Develop a low loss antireflection coating for the cadmium telluride rods. (3) Design and build a modulator capable of 300 MHz modulation. (4) Develop a modulator driver capable of a data rate of 300 MBits/sec, 12 W rms output power, and 40 percent efficiency. (5) Assemble and test the modulator system. All design goals were met and the system was built and tested.

  11. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  12. G2 Flywheel Module Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a flywheel module, designated the G2 module, is described. The G2 flywheel is a 60,000 RPM, 525 W-hr, 1 kW system designed for a laboratory environment; it will be used for component testing and system demonstrations, with the goal of applying flywheels to aerospace energy storage and integrated power and attitude control (IPACS) applications. G2 has a modular design, which allows for new motors, magnetic bearings, touchdown bearings, and rotors to be installed without a complete redesign of the system. This design process involves several engineering disciplines, and requirements are developed for the speed, energy storage, power level, and operating environment. The G2 rotor system consists of a multilayer carbon fiber rim with a titanium hub on which the other components mount, and rotordynamics analysis is conducted to ensure rigid and flexible rotor modes are controllable or outside of the operating speed range. Magnetic bearings are sized using 1-D magnetic circuit analysis and refined using 3-D finite element analysis. The G2 magnetic bearing system was designed by Texas A&M and has redundancy which allows derated operation after the loss of some components, and an existing liquid cooled two pole permanent magnet motor/generator is used. The touchdown bearing system is designed with a squeeze film damper system allowing spin down from full operating speed in case of a magnetic bearing failure. The G2 flywheel will enable module level demonstrations of component technology, and will be a key building block in system level attitude control and IPACS demonstrations.

  13. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. WEBSITE EXECUTION OF CAD MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lyalinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based interface of modules that are part of the computer-aided design system in microelectronics is considered. The influence of several factors (available computer  memory, maximum allowed run time, degree of homogeneity of the software on the structure of the created system is investigated. Synchronous and asynchronous variants of interaction between control and executive parts are described. References on the systems that allow an access to applications in CAD microelectronics and are based on the principles discussed in this article are given.

  15. Modulation of Current Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct torque control with Current Source Inverter (CSI instead of voltage source inverter is so appropriate because of determining the torque of induction motor with machine current and air gap flux. In addition, Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is a more proper method for CSI because of low order harmonics reduction, lower switching frequency and easier implementation. This paper introduces the SVM method for CSI and uses the proposed inverter for vector control of an induction motor. The simulation results illustrate fast dynamic response and desirable torque and speed output. Fast and accurate response to changes of speed and load torque reference completely proves the prominence of this method.

  16. Highly Sensitive Electro-Optic Modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, Peter S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    There are very important diagnostic and communication applications that receive faint electrical signals to be transmitted over long distances for capture. Optical links reduce bandwidth and distance restrictions of metal transmission lines; however, such signals are only weakly imprinted onto the optical carrier, resulting in low fidelity transmission. Increasing signal fidelity often necessitates insertion of radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers before the electro-optic modulator, but (especially at high frequencies) RF amplification results in large irreversible distortions. We have investigated the feasibility of a Sensitive and Linear Modulation by Optical Nonlinearity (SALMON) modulator to supersede RF-amplified modulators. SALMON uses cross-phase modulation, a manifestation of the Kerr effect, to enhance the modulation depth of an RF-modulated optical wave. This ultrafast process has the potential to result in less irreversible distortions as compared to a RF-amplified modulator due to the broadband nature of the Kerr effect. Here, we prove that a SALMON modulator is a feasible alternative to an RFamplified modulator, by demonstrating a sensitivity enhancement factor greater than 20 and significantly reduced distortion.

  17. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  18. Offset sideboard modulation for FTTx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Jamie D.; Krause, David J.; Cartledge, John C.; Roberts, Kim

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the ability of offset sideband modulation (OSBM) to alleviate problems pertaining to the electrical crosstalk between upstream and downstream signals in a transceiver used in the optical network unit of a FTTx system. The OSBM signal consists of an optical carrier and an offset modulated sideband that are created using arbitrary optical waveform generation. The performance of OSBM is investigated in the context of an inline transceiver, which is a very simple, next generation, FTTx transceiver. The downstream OSBM bit rate was 2.5 Gbit/s and the upstream OOK bit rate was 1.25 Gbit/s. A power penalty of only 0.2 dB with respect to an interference free system was observed with an optical signal to interference ratio (OSIR) as small as -8 dB (the interfering signal power is 8 dB larger than the signal power). This was the minimum OSIR available with the experimental setup, and it is expected that lower OSIRs can be tolerated.

  19. Towards selective lysophospholipid GPCR modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, Julia K; Martin, Jennifer L; Sweet, Matthew J

    2014-05-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that recognize the lysophospholipids (LPLs) are grouped into two phylogenetically distinct families: the endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) and non-Edg GPCRs. Owing to their more recent identification, and hindered by a lack of selective pharmacological tools, our understanding of the functions and signaling pathways of the non-Edg GPCRs is still in its infancy. Targeting the non-conserved allosteric binding sites of the LPL GPCRs shows particular promise for the development of selective modulators by structure-based drug design. However, only one Edg GPCR (S1PR1) structure has been determined to date, and it has low sequence identity with the non-Edg GPCRs (structure of a non-Edg GPCR remains a pressing objective for selective structure-based drug design. Obtaining selective modulators targeting the non-Edg receptors would help to unravel the biology behind these novel GPCRs and potentially will support therapeutic treatment of diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. All-integrated terahertz modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Kindness, Stephen J.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (0.1-10 THz corresponding to vacuum wavelengths between 30 μm and 3 mm) research has experienced impressive progress in the last few decades. The importance of this frequency range stems from unique applications in several fields, including spectroscopy, communications, and imaging. THz emitters have experienced great development recently with the advent of the quantum cascade laser, the improvement in the frequency range covered by electronic-based sources, and the increased performance and versatility of time domain spectroscopic systems based on full-spectrum lasers. However, the lack of suitable active optoelectronic devices has hindered the ability of THz technologies to fulfill their potential. The high demand for fast, efficient integrated optical components, such as amplitude, frequency, and polarization modulators, is driving one of the most challenging research areas in photonics. This is partly due to the inherent difficulties in using conventional integrated modulation techniques. This article aims to provide an overview of the different approaches and techniques recently employed in order to overcome this bottleneck.

  1. Probiotics as an Immune Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-Ji; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic live microorganism that can provide a diverse health benefits on the host when consumed in adequate amounts. Probiotics are consumed in diverse ways including dairy product, food supplements and functional foods with specific health claims. Recently, many reports suggest that certain probiotic strains or multi strain mixture have potent immunomodulatory activity in diverse disorders including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, underlying mechanism of action is still unclear and efficacy of probiotic administration is quite different depending on the type of strains and the amounts of doses. We and others have suggested that live probiotics or their metabolites could interact with diverse immune cells (antigen presenting cells and T cells) and confer them to have immunoregulatory functions. Through this interaction, probiotics could contribute to maintaining immune homeostasis by balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses. However, the effect of probiotics in prevention or modulation of ongoing disease is quite diverse even within a same species. Therefore, identification of functional probiotics with specific immune regulatory property is a certainly important issue. Herein, we briefly review selection methods for immunomodulatory probiotic strains and the mechanism of action of probiotics in immune modulation.

  2. ATLAS SCT Endcap Module Production

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A

    2006-01-01

    The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 ?s buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4×1014 cm-2 in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area ? 70 cm2, each having 2×768 strips read out by 6 ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500 e- equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800 e-ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both high...

  3. Module-theoretic properties of reachability modules for SRIQ

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . Amongst other things, the depleting and self-contained nature of mod- ules are utilised in order to find all MinAs (justifications) for an entailment [6]. Definition 12. Let T be a SRIQ Tbox and M ⊆ T . M is a MinA (justifica- tion) for T |= C v D if M... |= C v D and there exists no M1 ⊂ M such that M1 |= C v D. We show that although our modules do not share these properties they do contain all MinAs for a given signature. Theorem 2. Let T be a normalized SRIQ TBox and Σ a signature such that Σ ⊆ Sig...

  4. 40 Gbps modulation of transverse coupled cavity VCSEL with push-pull modulation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-09-01

    The push-pull modulation of a transverse coupled cavity VCSEL with a bow-tie-shaped oxide aperture is demonstrated. We experimentally show the transverse-mode switching of laterally coupled VCSELs, which potentially offers a novel push-pull modulation concept. The calculated results of small-signal responses indicate an extreme expansion of the modulation bandwidth regardless of the relaxation oscillation frequency. The small-signal response was measured by tuning the RF phase of the modulation current in one cavity. A clear eye opening up to 40 Gbps with push-pull modulation has been obtained, whereas the eye pattern with the single-cavity modulation is completely closed.

  5. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards...... effectively increase the available capacity. Advanced modulation formats however require digitalization of the signals and digital signal processing blocks to both generate and recover the data. There is therefore a trade-off in terms of efficiency gain vs. complexity. Poly binary modulation, a generalized...... form of partial response modulation, employs simple codification and filtering at the transmitter to drastically increase the spectral efficiency. At the receiver side, poly binary modulation requires low complexity direct detection and very little digital signal processing. This talk will review...

  6. SUPPORT CARD FOR THE FORWARD SCT MODULE

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, A

    2002-01-01

    Previously in the development and testing stage of ATLAS SCT Forward modules support cards have been used which interface the module to the DAQ by using only the Redundant inputs for the module configuration and the 'spying' of the ABCD Master chip(s) data. As module development has matured there is now a necessity to be able to test modules in the laboratory using also their Primary input/output data routes i.e. using the optical chips DORIC [1] and VDC [2] but without the need of optical fibres. A Forward Kapton Support Card, FKSC, has been developed so that both Primary and Redundant data routes can be used for module testing.

  7. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  8. KNN BASED CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL MODULATED SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmed Ghauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Demodulation process without the knowledge of modulation scheme requires Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC. When receiver has limited information about received signal then AMC become essential process. AMC finds important place in the field many civil and military fields such as modern electronic warfare, interfering source recognition, frequency management, link adaptation etc. In this paper we explore the use of K-nearest neighbor (KNN for modulation classification with different distance measurement methods. Five modulation schemes are used for classification purpose which is Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. Higher order cummulants (HOC are used as an input feature set to the classifier. Simulation results shows that proposed classification method provides better results for the considered modulation formats.

  9. Spatial light modulation in compound semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor); Gheen, Gregory O. (Inventor); Partovi, Afshin (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Spatial light modulation (22) in a III-V single crystal (12), e.g., gallium arsenide, is achieved using the photorefractive effect. Polarization rotation created by beam coupling is utilized in one embodiment. In particular, information (16)on a control beam (14) incident on the crystal is transferred to an input beam (10), also incident on the crystal. An output beam (18) modulated in intensity is obtained by passing the polarization-modulated input beam through a polarizer (20).

  10. On A Generalization of Semisimple Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    NAZIM AGAYEV, CES˙IM C¸EL˙IK, AND TAH˙IRE ¨OZEN. Abstract. Let R be a ring with identity. A module MR is called an r-semisimple module if for any right ideal I of R, MI is a direct summand of MR which is a generalization of semisimple and second modules. We investigate when an r-semisimple ring is semisimple.

  11. Binaural processing of modulated interaural level differences

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are presented that measure the acuity of binaural processing of modulated interaural level differences ILDs using psychoacoustic methods. In both experiments, dynamic ILDs were created by imposing an interaurally antiphasic sinusoidal amplitude modulation AM signal on high-frequency carriers, which were presented over headphones. In the first experiment, the sensitivity to dynamic ILDs was measured as a function of the modulation frequency using puretone, and interaurally corr...

  12. Twisted Cyclic Cohomology and Modular Fredholm Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rennie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Connes and Cuntz showed in [Comm. Math. Phys. 114 (1988, 515-526] that suitable cyclic cocycles can be represented as Chern characters of finitely summable semifinite Fredholm modules. We show an analogous result in twisted cyclic cohomology using Chern characters of modular Fredholm modules. We present examples of modular Fredholm modules arising from Podleś spheres and from SU_q(2.

  13. Encapsulated Thermoelectric Modules for Advanced Thermoelectric Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Jinushi, Takahiro; Ishijima, Zenzo

    2014-06-01

    An encapsulated thermoelectric (TE) module consists of a vacuum-tight stainless-steel container in which an SiGe or BiTe TE module is encapsulated. This construction enables maximum performance and durability because: the thermal expansion mismatch between the hot and cold sides of the container can be accommodated by a sliding sheet in the container; the TE module inside is always kept in a vacuum environment, therefore no oxidation can occur; and the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the container reduces thermal contact resistance inside the container. Our encapsulated SiGe module features higher operating temperature—up to 650°C for both hot and cold sides. Other high-temperature modules and conventional BiTe modules, including both-sides and one-side skeleton types, have been encapsulated. Several variants of the encapsulated module are available. Encapsulated thermoelectric modules with integrated coolers contain cooling panels through which water can pass. If the module hot side is heated by a radiating heat source (radiation coupling) or convection of a hot gas or fluid (convection coupling), no pressing force on the module is necessary. It therefore features minimum contact resistance with the cooling duct, because no pressure is applied, maximum TE power, and minimum installation cost. Another, larger, variant is a quadruple flexible container in which four modules (each of maximum size 40 mm × 40 mm) are encapsulated. These encapsulated modules were used in a powder metallurgy furnace and were in use for more than 3000 h. Application to cryogenic temperatures simulating the liquid nitrogen gas vaporizer has been also attempted.

  14. Generalized module extension Banach algebras: Derivations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let A and X be Banach algebras and let X be an algebraic Banach A-module. Then the ℓ-1direct sum A x X equipped with the multiplication (a; x)(b; y) = (ab; ay + xb + xy) (a; b ∈ A; x; y ∈ X) is a Banach algebra, denoted by A ⋈ X, which will be called "a generalized module extension Banach algebra". Module extension ...

  15. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  16. ATLAS SCT - Progress on the Silicon Modules

    CERN Multimedia

    Tyndel, M.

    The ATLAS SCT consists of 4088 silicon modules. Each module is made up of 4 silicon sensors with 1536 readout strips. Individual strips are connected to FE amplifiers, discriminators and pipelines on the module, i.e. there are 12 radiation hard ASICs, each containing 128 channels on the module. The sensors and the ASICs were developed for the ATLAS experiment and production is proceeding smoothly with over half the components delivered. The components of a module - 4 silicon sensors, a Cu/polyimide hybrid and pitch adaptor, and 12 ASICs - need to be carefully and precisely assembled onto a carbon and ceramic framework, which supports the module and removes the heat. Eleven production clusters are preparing to carry this out over the next two years. An important milestone for the barrel modules has been passed with the first cluster (KEK) now in production (~40 modules produced). A second cluster UK-B has qualified by producing five modules within specification (see below) and is about to start production. T...

  17. Biglycan Modulates Osteoblast Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parisuthiman, Duenpim; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    .... The processes of cell differentiation and matrix mineralization were accelerated in S but delayed in AS, indicating that BGN modulates osteoblastic cell differentiation. Introduction : Biglycan (BGN...

  18. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  19. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  20. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  1. Twisting Functors for Quantum Group Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis Hasselstrøm

    We construct twisting functors for quantum group modules. First over the field Q(v) but later over any Z[v,v^{−1}]-algebra. The main results in this paper are a rigerous definition of these functors, a proof that they satisfy braid relations and applications to Verma modules.......We construct twisting functors for quantum group modules. First over the field Q(v) but later over any Z[v,v^{−1}]-algebra. The main results in this paper are a rigerous definition of these functors, a proof that they satisfy braid relations and applications to Verma modules....

  2. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  3. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  4. PV Cell and Module Calibrations at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2012-10-22

    NREL has equipment to measure any conceivable cell or module technology. The lack of standards for low concentration modules complicates matters. Spectrally adjustable simulators are critical for more than three junctions. NREL's 10-channel fiber optic simulator has shown that the light can be set for each junction within 1% of what it would be under the reference spectrum for up to a five-junction cell. Uncertainty in module simulators dominated by spatial nonuniformity for calibration labs. Manufacturers can mitigate this error by using matched reference modules instead of cells.

  5. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  6. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  7. Attention modulates emotional expression processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Walentowska, Wioleta

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the time course of emotional expression processing, we recorded ERPs to facial stimuli. The first task was to discriminate emotional expressions. Enhanced negativity of the face-specific N170 was elicited by emotional as opposed to neutral faces, followed by the occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). The second task was to classify face gender. Here, N170 was unaffected by the emotional expression. However, emotional expression effect was expressed in the anterior positivity (160-250 ms poststimulus) and subsequent occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). Results support the thesis that structural encoding relevant to gender recognition and simultaneous expression analysis are independent processes. Attention modulates facial emotion processing 140-185 ms poststimulus. Involuntary differentiation of facial expression was observed later (160-340 ms poststimulus), suggesting unintentional attention capture. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. ALICE Time of Flight Module

    CERN Multimedia

    The Time-Of-Flight system of ALICE consists of 90 such modules, each containing 15 or 19 Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) strips. This detector is used for identification of charged particles. It measures with high precision (50 ps) the time of flight of charged particles and therefore their velocity. The curvature of the particle trajectory inside the magnetic field gives the momentum, thus the particle mass is calculated and the particle is identified The MRPC is a stack of resistive glass plates, separated from each other by nylon fishing line. The mass production of the chambers (~1600, covering a surface of 150 m2) was done at INFN Bologna, while the first prototypes were bult at CERN.

  9. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  10. The striatum and pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Ana C; Filippini, Bárbara; Pazo, Jorge H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to give a general aspect of the sensorial function of the striatum related to pain modulation, which was intensively studied in our laboratory. We analyse the effect of electrical and chemical stimulation of the striatum on the orofacial pain, especially that produced by tooth pulp stimulation of the lower incisors. We demonstrated specific sites within the nucleus which electrical or chemical stimulation produced inhibition of the nociceptive jaw opening reflex. This analgesic action of the striatum was mediated by activation of its dopamine D(2) receptors and transmitted through the indirect pathways of the basal ganglia and the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (RVM) to the sensorial nuclei of the trigeminal nerve. Its mechanism of action was by inhibition of the nociceptive response of the second order neurons of the nucleus caudalis of the V par.

  11. Comparaison of Atlas Tilecal module

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov1, V; Gayde, J C; Khubua, J I; Lasseur, C; Lyablin, M V; Miralles-Verge, L; Nessi, Marzio; Rusakovitch, N A; Sissakian, A N; Topilin, N D

    2002-01-01

    The high precision assembly of a large experimental set-ups is of a principal necessity for the successful execution of the forthcoming LHC research program in the TeV-beams. The creation of an adequate Survey&Control METROLOGY METHODs are an essential part of the detector construction scenario. This work contains the dimension measurement data for ATLAS hadron calorimeter MODULE#8 (6m long, 22tons) which were obtained by LASER and by PHOTOGRAMMETRY methods. The comparative data analysis demonstrates the measurements agreement within ±70mm. It means these two clearly independent methods can be combined and lead to the rise of a new generation engineering culture: high precision metrology when precision assembly of large scale massive objects.

  12. Tic modulation using sensory tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca Wolf

    2013-01-01

    A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part) that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks. A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks. It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  13. Micro-modulated luminescence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Imaging depth of optical microscopy has been fundamentally limited to millimeter or sub-millimeter due to light scattering. X-ray microscopy can resolve spatial details of few microns deeply inside a sample but the contrast resolution is still inadequate to depict heterogeneous features at cellular or sub-cellular levels. To enhance and enrich biological contrast at large imaging depth, various nanoparticles are introduced and become essential to basic research and molecular medicine. Nanoparticles can be functionalized as imaging probes, similar to fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins. LiGa5O8:Cr3+ nanoparticles were recently synthesized to facilitate luminescence energy storage with x-ray pre-excitation and the subsequently stimulated luminescence emission by visible/near-infrared (NIR) light. In this paper, we suggest a micro-modulated luminescence tomography (MLT) approach to quantify a nanophosphor distribution in a thick biological sample with high resolution. Our numerical simulation studies demonst...

  14. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.

  15. Significantly High Modulation Efficiency of Compact Graphene Modulator Based on Silicon Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haowen; Su, Zhaotang; Huang, Le; Wu, Zhennan; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Zhiping

    2018-01-17

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a significantly large modulation efficiency of a compact graphene modulator based on a silicon waveguide using the electro refractive effect of graphene. The modulation modes of electro-absorption and electro-refractive can be switched with different applied voltages. A high extinction ratio of 25 dB is achieved in the electro-absorption modulation mode with a driving voltage range of 0 V to 1 V. For electro-refractive modulation, the driving voltage ranges from 1 V to 3 V with a 185-pm spectrum shift. The modulation efficiency of 1.29 V · mm with a 40-μm interaction length is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the first reported graphene phase modulator. The realisation of phase and intensity modulation with graphene based on a silicon waveguide heralds its potential application in optical communication and optical interconnection systems.

  16. Modulation Speed Enhancement of Directly Modulated Lasers Using a Micro-ring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Seoane, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A silicon micro-ring resonator is used to enhance the modulation speed of a 10-Gbit/s directly modulated laser to 40 Gbit/s, demonstrating a potentially integratable transmitter design for high-speed optical interconnects....

  17. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  18. Detection of modulation of a 4-kHz carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Viemeister, Neal F.; Stellmack, Mark A.; Byrne, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the processing of complex high-frequency sounds, modulation-detection thresholds were measured for sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM), quasi-frequency modulation (QFM), sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and random-phase FM (RPFM). At the lowest modulation frequency (5 Hz) modulation thresholds expressed as AM depth were similar for RPFM, SAM and QFM suggesting the predominance of envelope cues. At the higher modulation frequencies (20 and 40 Hz) thresholds express...

  19. Teller Training Module: Off-Line Banking System. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Candyce J.

    This teller training module on offline banking systems is intended to be part of a postsecondary financial applications course. The module contains the following sections: module objective; specific objective; content--electronic audit machine key functions, practice packet--sample bank transactions and practicing procedures, and…

  20. Pre-charging of module capacitors of MMC when the module ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is based on cascade connection of multiple identical modules using IGBTs as switching devices. Module switches of MMC are preferably driven by a source derived from the modulecapacitor. In each MMC module, the control circuit, consisting of gate drivers, is powered from a dc supply derived from the local capacitor.

  1. Double Modulation Scheme for Switching Mixers Controlled by Sigma-Delta Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck; Fallesen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    A new method of modulating a signal, using sigma delta modulation in conjunction with switching- and sub-sampling mixers, is presented. Besides the normal functionality provided by the mixer, an additional mixing or modulation function can be achieved with a small modification to the existing mixer...

  2. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Environmental Training Modules Module 1 - Good Environmental Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, nematicides, acaricides , as well as disinfectants, fumigants, and plant growth regulators. FIFRA requires...encountered in Module 1. Module 2 has a more comprehensive scope, in that a larger number of subjects are discussed that potentially pertain to a wide...that, when applied correctly, can minimize the potential for hazardous spills, chemical related accidents, and environmental harm. Applying Module 1

  3. Spectro-temporal modulation masking patterns reveal frequency selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Arne; Verhey, Jesko L

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the possibility that the human auditory system demonstrates frequency selectivity to spectro-temporal amplitude modulations. Threshold modulation depth for detecting sinusoidal spectro-temporal modulations was measured using a generalized masked threshold pattern paradigm with narrowband masker modulations. Four target spectro-temporal modulations were examined, differing in their temporal and spectral modulation frequencies: a temporal modulation of -8, 8, or 16 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 1 cycle/octave and a temporal modulation of 4 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 0.5 cycles/octave. The temporal center frequencies of the masker modulation ranged from 0.25 to 4 times the target temporal modulation. The spectral masker-modulation center-frequencies were 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times the target spectral modulation. For all target modulations, the pattern of average thresholds for the eight normal-hearing listeners was consistent with the hypothesis of a spectro-temporal modulation filter. Such a pattern of modulation-frequency sensitivity was predicted on the basis of psychoacoustical data for purely temporal amplitude modulations and purely spectral amplitude modulations. An analysis of separability indicates that, for the present data set, selectivity in the spectro-temporal modulation domain can be described by a combination of a purely spectral and a purely temporal modulation filter function.

  4. A nanoparticle-based epigenetic modulator for efficient gene modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkulapa, Thanapat

    Modulation of gene expression through chromatin remodeling involves epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone acetylation. Acetylation is tightly regulated by two classes of enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Molecules that can regulate these enzymes by altering (activating or inhibiting) their functions have become a valuable tool for understanding cell development and diseases. HAT activators, i.e. N-(4-Chloro-(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-ethoxybenzamide (CTB), have shown a therapeutic potential for many diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. However, these compounds encounter a solubility and a membrane permeability issue, which restricts their full potential for practical usage, especially for in vivo applications. To address this issue, in this work, we developed a nanoparticle-based HAT activator CTB, named Au-CTB, by incorporating a new CTB analogue onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) along with a poly(ethylene glycol) moiety and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide to assist with solubility and membrane permeability. We found that our new CTB analogue and Au-CTB could activate HAT activity. Significantly, an increase in potency to activate HAT activity by Au-CTB proved the effectiveness of using the nanoparticle delivery platform. In addition, the versatility of Au-CTB platform permits the attachment of multiple ligands with tunable ratios on the nanoparticle surface via facile surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. Due to its high delivery efficiency and versatility, Au-CTB can be a powerful platform for applications in epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  5. Evaluation. A Training Module. School Personnel Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. Brian; And Others

    A series of modules was prepared by the School Personnel Utilization Project to assist personnel in building the necessary skills for the development of organizational change strategies and collaborative, collegial educational problem solving capabilities. This module focuses on the evaluation process in the context of elementary and secondary…

  6. Flux Modulation in the Electrodynamic Loudspeaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Morten; Tinggaard, Carsten; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of flux modulation in the electrodynamic loudspeaker with main focus on the effect on the force factor. A measurement setup to measure the AC flux modulation with static voice coil is explained and the measurements shows good consistency with FEA simulations. Measu...

  7. Thermodynamic Efficiency. An Issue Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D.

    This module applies basic laws of thermodynamics to the study of the efficiency at which heat can be converted to other useful forms of energy, including heat at low temperatures. The module is divided into four major sections. Section I treats energy conversion efficiency and defines the concept of first-law efficiency, the most widely used…

  8. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation...

  9. Gerbes, Clifford modules and the index theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Michael K.; Singer, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of bundle gerbes and bundle gerbe modules is considered as a replacement for the usual theory of Clifford modules on manifolds that fail to be spin. It is shown that both sides of the Atiyah-Singer index formula for coupled Dirac operators can be given natural interpretations using this language and that the resulting formula is still an identity.

  10. ABOUT OPTIMIZATION FEATURE ON SOLIDWORKS SIMULATIONEXPRESS MODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the analysis steps to be taken in SolidWorks for conducting a preliminary study of parts designed, using SimulationExpress module. There are presented the module features and the settings that have to be done for such analysis and the results shown after analysis

  11. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  12. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  13. 2016 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology - both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  14. A learning development module to support academically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students believed that the LLLS module enhanced their generic skills, and that it was beneficial to them. Aspects such as motivation, time management and critical thinking improved. Furthermore, they indicated that the skills mastered during the module continued to be useful in the subsequent academic year. Conclusion.

  15. Fredholm Modules over Graph C∗-Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crisp, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    We present two applications of explicit formulas, due to Cuntz and Krieger, for computations in K-homology of graph C∗-algebras. We prove that every K-homology class for such an algebra is represented by a Fredholm module having finite-rank commutators, and we exhibit generating Fredholm modules...

  16. Modulating the level of components within plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, Steven Craig; Apuya, Nestor; Chiang, Karen; Doukhanina, Elena; Feldmann, Kenneth; Jankowski, Boris; Margolles-Clark, Emilio; Mumenthaler, Daniel; Okamuro, Jack; Park, Joon-Hyun; Van Fleet, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Ke

    2017-09-12

    Materials and Methods for identifying lignin regulatory region-regulatory protein associations are disclosed. Materials and methods for modulating lignin accumulation are also disclosed. In addition, methods and materials for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) the level of a component (e.g., protein, oil, lignin, carbon, a carotenoid, or a triterpenoid) in plants are disclosed.

  17. The dynamics of modulated wave trains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Doelman (Arjen); B. Sandstede; A. Scheel; G. Schneider

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the dynamics of weakly-modulated nonlinear wave trains. For reaction-diffusion systems and for the complex Ginzburg--Landau equation, we establish rigorously that slowly varying modulations of wave trains are well approximated by solutions to Burgers equation over the

  18. Pre-attentive and attentive vision module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.

    This paper introduces a new vision module, called PAAV, developed for the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Unlike ACT-R's default vision module that was originally developed for top-down perception only, PAAV was designed to model a wide range of tasks, such as visual search and scene viewing, where

  19. Auditory object formation affects modulation perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    the target sound in time determine whether or not across-frequency modulation effects are observed. The results suggest that the binding of sound elements into coherent auditory objects precedes aspects of modulation analysis and imply a cortical locus involving integration times of several hundred...

  20. Comparative evaluation of modified pulse width modulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative evaluation of modified pulse width modulation schemes of Z-source inverter for various applications and demands. ... In this paper, for the common boost factor and modulation index, the output voltage, output current, output line harmonics profile of the inverters with different PWM schemes powered by the ...

  1. Deformable Mirror Light Modulators For Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysel, R. Mark; Florence, James M.; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1990-02-01

    The operational characteristics of deformable mirror device (DMD) spatial light modulators for image processing applications are presented. The two DMD pixel structures of primary interest are the torsion hinged pixel for amplitude modulation and the flexure hinged or piston element pixel for phase modulation. The optical response characteristics of these structures are described. Experimental results detailing the performance of the pixel structures and addressing architectures are presented and are compared with the analytical results. Special emphasis is placed on the specification, from the experimental data, of the basic device performance parameters of the different modulator types. These parameters include modulation range (contrast ratio and phase modulation depth), individual pixel response time, and full array address time. The performance characteristics are listed for comparison with those of other light modulators (LCLV, LCTV, and MOSLM) for applications in the input plane and Fourier plane of a conventional coherent optical image processing system. The strengths and weaknesses of the existing DMD modulators are assessed and the potential for performance improvements is outlined.

  2. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  3. Research: Designing interprofessional modules for undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges included clashes in timetable schedules, financial constraints, administrative support, logistical issues and resistance to change. The designing and implementing of new modules were intense and time consuming, and required commitment. The development of the modules was an excellent example of ...

  4. Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

    Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

  5. Approximations and endomorphism algebras of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Göbel, Rüdiger

    2006-01-01

    This monograph provides a thorough treatment of module theory, a subfield of algebra. The authors develop an approximation theory as well as realization theorems and present some of its recent applications, notably to infinite-dimensional combinatorics and model theory. The book is devoted to graduate students interested in algebra as well as to experts in module theory.

  6. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Peter; de Clercq, Emeric

    2016-01-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple sevenlevel model explains the experimental observations. The double-modul...

  7. Binaural processing of modulated interaural level differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    -frequency carriers, which were presented over headphones. In the first experiment, the sensitivity to dynamic ILDs was measured as a function of the modulation frequency using puretone, and interaurally correlated and uncorrelated narrow-band noise carriers. The intrinsic interaural level fluctuations...... of the uncorrelated noise carriers raised the ILD modulation detection thresholds with respect to the pure-tone carriers. The diotic fluctuations of the correlated noise carriers also caused a small increase in the thresholds over the pure-tone carriers, particularly with low ILD modulation frequencies. The second...... experiment investigated the modulation frequency selectivity in dynamic ILD processing by imposing an interaurally uncorrelated bandpass noise AM masker in series with the interaurally antiphasic AM signal on a pure-tone carrier. By varying the masker center frequencies relative to the signal modulation...

  8. Comparison of Module Performance Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KROPOSKI,B.; MARION,W.; KING,DAVID L.; BOYSON,WILLIAM EARL; KRATOCHVIL,JAY A.

    2000-10-03

    The rating and modeling of photovoltaic PW module performance has been of concern to manufacturers and system designers for over 20 years. Both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed methodologies to predict module and array performance under actual operating conditions. This paper compares the two methods of determining the performance of PV modules, The methods translate module performance to actual or reference conditions using slightly different approaches. The accuracy of both methods is compared for both hourly, daily, and annual energy production over a year of data recorded at NREL in Golden, CO. The comparison of the two methods will be presented for five different PV module technologies.

  9. Reflectivity-modulated grating-mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to vertical cavity lasers (VCL) incorporating a reflectivity-modulated grating mirror (1) for modulating the laser output. A cavity is formed by a bottom mirror (4), an active region (3), and an outcoupling top grating mirror (1) formed by a periodic refractive index grating...... region in a layer structure comprising a p- and a n-doped semiconductor layer with an electrooptic material layer (12) arranged there between. The grating region comprises a grating structure formed by periodic perforations to change the refractive index periodically in directions normal...... to the oscillation axis. A modulated voltage (91) is applied in reverse bias between the n- and p-doped layers to modulate the refractive index of the electrooptic material layer (12) and thereby the reflectivity spectrum of the grating mirror (1). The reflectivity of the grating mirror (1) can be modulated between...

  10. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  11. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  12. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  13. Modulation effect in multiphoton pair production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Sitiwaldi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the electron–positron pair production process in an oscillating field with modulated amplitude in the quantum kinetic formalism. By comparing the number density in the oscillating field with and without modulation, we find that the pair production rate can be enhanced by several orders when the photon energy just reaches the threshold with the help of shifted frequency due to modulation. We also detect the same effect in a pulse train with subcycle structure. We demonstrate that the frequency threshold can be lowered by the frequency of the pulse train due to the modulation effect. We also find that the momentum distribution for a N-pulse train can reach N2 times the single pulse at the maximum value and the number density as a function of pulse number follows the power law with index 1.6 when the modulation effect is maximized.

  14. Applications of Slow Light in Telecommunications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Robert W; Gauthier, Daniel J; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Now, optical scientists are turning their attention toward developing useful applications of slow light, including controllable optical delay lines, optical buffers and true time delay methods...

  15. Modulation axis performs circular motion in a 45° dual-drive symmetric photoelastic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K W; Wang, L M; Zhang, R; Wang, Z B

    2016-12-01

    A 45° dual-drive symmetric photoelastic modulator is demonstrated. Two piezoelectric actuators are connected to a symmetric photoelastic crystal at an angle of 45°. When the amplitudes of the stress standing waves induced by the two piezoelectric actuators are equal and the phase difference between the two stress standing waves is π2, the modulation axis performs circular motion with a frequency of half of the photoelastic modulator's resonant frequency, while the retardation remains a constant that is determined at the driving voltage amplitudes. This reveals a new polarization modulation method. We have theoretically analyzed and experimentally observed the new polarization modulation, and the retardation calibration is also reported.

  16. Digital front-end module (DFEM) series; Digital front end module (DFEM) series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital front-end module (DFEM) is a module in which the processes ranging from the reception of digitally modulated radiofrequencies to the output of digital IF (Intermediate Frequency) signals or data streams are integrated. Beginning with a module for the MCNS (Multimedia Cable Network System) cable modem which was the first module in this business field approved by the Cable Labs, U.S., Toshiba has developed a series of DFEMs for various digital media for satellites, ground waves, and CATV (Cable Television) systems. The series is characterized by (1) the serialization of DFEMs compatible with various digital modulation techniques such as 8 PSK (Phase Shift Keying), OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), and 256 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation), (2) easy connection with digital circuits thanks to the high shielding effect, and (3) the achievement of smaller size, higher performance, and lower power consumption. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Perancangan dan Implementasi Modul Praktikum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Indah Hapsari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi berbasis komputer berkembang dengan sangat pesat. Seiring dengan perkembangan jaman, kemajuan  tersebut memberikan pengaruh  terhadap  perubahan cara penyampaian pengajaran yang mengarah pada penggunaan jenis media penyampaian. Praktikum merupakan salah satu bentuk pengajaran yang memberikan pengalaman belajar secara nyata terhadap kondisi sebenarnya di lapangan mengenai penggunaan dan implementasi alat praktek yang berhubungan dengan berbagai materi yang dipelajari oleh mahasiswa dan memiliki tujuan untuk memberikan keterampilan dan pengenalan terhadap mahasiswa/peserta didik. Penelitian ini melakukan implementasi teknologi augmented reality terhadap salah satu modul praktikum yaitu pengenalan tata letak hardware dan Port I/O pada motherboard dan bertujuan sebagai alat bantu penyampaian pengajaran praktikum. Pengimplementasian teknologi augmented reality melibatkan aksi oleh user terhadap media penangkapan gambar motherboard menggunakan web camera dan tampilan pemetaan tata letak hardware dan port i/o pada motherboard. Penelitian telah diimplementasikan dan diujicoba terhadap 3 kelas dengan 97 responder. Adapun hasil dari penelitiannya adalah 83% responder menyukai aplikasi, 77% memahami materi, 84,5% menginginkan aplikasi ini menjadi alat bantu ajar, 65,98% meminta materi untuk dilengkapi dan diperbanyak, 77,3% dapat belajar mandiri menggunakan aplikasi ini, tanpa bantuan dari dosen ataupun asisten.

  18. Modulation of Aromatase by Phytoestrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin D. Lephart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aromatase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in many human tissues. Estrogens are known to stimulate cellular proliferation associated with certain cancers and protect against adverse symptoms during the peri- and postmenopausal intervals. Phytoestrogens are a group of plant derived naturally occurring compounds that have chemical structures similar to estrogen. Since phytoestrogens are known to be constituents of animal/human food sources, these compounds have received increased research attention. Phytoestrogens may contribute to decreased cancer risk by the inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity and CYP19 gene expression in human tissues. This review covers (a the aromatase enzyme (historical descriptions on function, activity, and gene characteristics, (b phytoestrogens in their classifications and applications to human health, and (c a chronological coverage of aromatase activity modulated by phytoestrogens from the early 1980s to 2015. In general, phytoestrogens act as aromatase inhibitors by (a decreasing aromatase gene expression, (b inhibiting the aromatase enzyme itself, or (c in some cases acting at both levels of regulation. The findings presented herein are consistent with estrogen’s impact on health and phytoestrogen’s potential as anticancer treatments, but well-controlled, large-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness of phytoestrogens on breast cancer and age-related diseases.

  19. Antigenic modulation and rituximab resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald P; Lindorfer, Margaret A

    2010-04-01

    Several types of B-cell lymphoma have been successfully treated with rituximab, and approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for use of rituximab in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has increased interest in targeting CD20 on B cells for other indications. Although large amounts of rituximab can be infused into humans with no apparent dose-limiting toxicity, recent evidence suggests that the body's effector mechanisms, including complement-mediated cytotoxicity and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing, can be saturated or exhausted at high burdens of rituximab-opsonized B cells. One of the consequences of this saturation phenomenon is that the opsonized B cells are instead processed by a different pathway mediated by FcgammaR on effector cells. In this alternative pathway, both rituximab and CD20 are removed ("shaved") from the B cells and are taken up by monocytes/macrophages. This process, formerly called antigenic modulation, appears to occur in several compartments in the body and may play a key role in the development of resistance to rituximab therapy.

  20. POLYAMINES IN MODULATING PROTEIN AGGREGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimpy K. Chowhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines are ubiquitous aliphatic polycations with multiple molecular and cellular functions. They were first indentified by Leeuwenhoek in 1678. Since then many investigations had been done to understand the physiological significance of these molecules. Being cationic at physiologic pH, they interact with various biomolecules including DNA, RNA, proteins, and help in many cellular functions. Apart from their vast number of physiological functions, they are also implicated in modulation of protein aggregation or amyloid formation. It is now important to combine and analyze all of the findings on polyamine-induced aggregation, come to a conclusion, and relate the phenomenon of this protein aggregation to the physiology of the cellular function. Through this review, we had tried to cover almost all the investigations that had been done to-date, to explore the roles of polyamines in aggregation of various proteins. We have also incorporated future research avenues that might be of interest to many cellular biologist and protein chemists.

  1. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  2. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  3. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  4. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  5. In the mood for modules

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    When the going gets tough, the tough get going. This is especially true when it comes to safety: how can we improve our safety culture in the best possible way? The Safety Training section thinks the solution lies in better safety courses, so CERN's e-learning package is being redesigned. Future e-learning courses will be smaller but more efficient, covering all the specific risks present at the Laboratory.   The new Safety at CERN course available on SIR, featuring the new colour palette. Being able to communicate safety messages efficiently is crucial in order to have a safe work environment, especially here at CERN. This is not always an easy task and therefore a more educational approach is required. With this idea in mind, the Safety Training section is currently redesigning its e-learning courses to include a series of smaller risk-specific modules. “Currently, some risks, such as chemical- or electricity-related risks, are included in various courses,&am...

  6. Factors affecting the loudness of modulated sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B C; Vickers, D A; Baer, T; Launer, S

    1999-05-01

    Loudness matches were obtained between unmodulated carriers and carriers that were amplitude modulated either periodically (rates between 2 and 32 Hz, modulation sinusoidal either on a linear amplitude scale or on a dB scale; the latter is called dB modulation) or with the envelope of the speech of a single talker. The carrier was a 4-kHz sinusoid, white noise, or speech-shaped noise. Both normally hearing subjects and subjects with cochlear hearing loss were tested. Results were expressed as the root-mean-square (rms) level of the modulated carrier minus the level of the unmodulated carrier at the point of equal loudness. If this difference is positive, this indicates that the modulated carrier has a higher rms level at the point of equal loudness. For normally hearing subjects, the results show: (1) For a 4000-Hz sinusoidal carrier, the difference was slightly positive (averaging about 0.7 dB). There was no significant effect of modulation rate or level over the range 20-80 dB SL. (2) For a speech-shaped noise or white noise carrier, the difference was close to zero, although for large modulation depths it tended to be negative. There was no clear effect of level (over the range 35-75 dB SPL) or modulation rate. For the hearing-impaired subjects, the differences were small, but tended to be slightly negative for both the 4000-Hz carrier and the noise carriers, when the modulation rate was above 2 Hz. Again, there was no clear effect of overall level. However, for dB modulation, the differences became more negative with increasing modulation depth. For modulation rates in the range 4-32 Hz, the results could be fitted reasonably well using the assumption that the loudness of modulated sounds is based on the rms value of the time-varying intensity of the response of the basilar membrane (taking into account the compression that occurs in the normal cochlea). The implications of the results for the fitting of multi-band compression hearing aids and for the design of

  7. Precision displacement measurement using a modulating ESPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Kang, Young June; Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyung Suk; Park, Nak Kyu; Ryu, Weon Jae; Choi, Man Young

    2007-10-01

    Laser interferometry is widely used as a measuring system in many fields because of its high resolution and ability to measure a broad area in real-time all at once. In conventional LASER interferometry, for example Out-of-plane ESPI(Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry), In plane ESPI, Shearography and Holography, it uses PZT or other components as a phase shift instrumentation to extract 3D deformation data, vibration mode and others. However, in most cases PZT has some disadvantages, which include non-linear errors and limited time of use. In the present study, a new type of LASER interferometry using a laser diode is proposed. Using LASER Diode Sinusoidal Phase Modulating (LD-SPM) interferometry, the phase modulation can directly modulated by controlling the LASER Diode injection current thereby eliminating the need for PZT and its components. This makes the interferometry more compact. This paper reports on a new approach to the LD Modulating interferometry that involves four-bucket phase shift method. This study proposes a four-bucket phase mapping algorithm, which developed to have a guaranteed application, to stabilize the system in the field and to be a user-friendly GUI. In this paper, LD modulating interferometry had shown the theory for LD wavelength modulation and sinusoidal phase modulation. Four-bucket phase mapping algorithm then introduced.

  8. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  9. Binaural processing of modulated interaural level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric R; Dau, Torsten

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments are presented that measure the acuity of binaural processing of modulated interaural level differences (ILDs) using psychoacoustic methods. In both experiments, dynamic ILDs were created by imposing an interaurally antiphasic sinusoidal amplitude modulation (AM) signal on high-frequency carriers, which were presented over headphones. In the first experiment, the sensitivity to dynamic ILDs was measured as a function of the modulation frequency using puretone, and interaurally correlated and uncorrelated narrow-band noise carriers. The intrinsic interaural level fluctuations of the uncorrelated noise carriers raised the ILD modulation detection thresholds with respect to the pure-tone carriers. The diotic fluctuations of the correlated noise carriers also caused a small increase in the thresholds over the pure-tone carriers, particularly with low ILD modulation frequencies. The second experiment investigated the modulation frequency selectivity in dynamic ILD processing by imposing an interaurally uncorrelated bandpass noise AM masker in series with the interaurally antiphasic AM signal on a pure-tone carrier. By varying the masker center frequencies relative to the signal modulation frequency, broadly tuned, bandpass-shaped patterns were obtained. Simulations with an existing binaural model show that a low-pass filter to limit the binaural temporal resolution is not sufficient to predict the results of the experiments.

  10. Angular light modulator using optical blinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zichao; Alhudaithy, Soliman; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Zibang; Guo, Kaikai; Bian, Liheng; Tomizawa, Yuji; Satonick, Peter; Hoshino, Kazunori; Zheng, Guoan

    2016-12-12

    Spatial light modulator (SLM) is widely used in imaging applications for modulating light intensity and phase delay. In this paper, we report a novel device concept termed angular light modulator (ALM). Different from the SLM, the reported ALM employs a tunable blind structure to modulate the angular components of the incoming light waves. For spatial-domain light modulation, the ALM can be directly placed in front of an image sensor for selecting different angular light components. In this case, we can sweep the slat angle of the blind structure and capture multiple images corresponding to different perspectives. These images can then be back-projected for 3D tomographic refocusing. By using a fixed slat angle, we can also convert the incident-angle information into intensity variations for wavefront sensing or introduce a translational shift to the defocused object for high-speed autofocusing. For Fourier-domain light modulation, the ALM can be placed at the pupil plane of an optical system for reinforcing the light propagating trajectories. We show that a pupil-plane-modulated system is able to achieve a better resolution for out-of-focus objects while maintaining the same resolution for in-focus objects. The reported ALM can be fabricated on the chip level and controlled by an external magnetic field. It may provide new insights for developing novel imaging and vision devices.

  11. On the design of pole modules for inverse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, B. F.; Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    When a linear dynamical system admits more than one inverse, it is known that the pole module of any inverse must contain, either as a submodule or as a factor module, a module of fixed poles isomorphic to the zero module of the original system. Design of the pole module for such an inverse system is resolved by introducing a variable pole module for the inverse, by determining necessary and sufficient conditions for a desired module to be a variable pole module, and by studying the manner in which the fixed and variable modules assemble into the pole module of the inverse. If the fixed and variable pole spectra are disjoint, the pole module of the inverse system is a direct sum of the fixed- and variable-pole modules; if not, procedures for addressing the Jordan structure are presented.

  12. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... to previous studies, talkers raised the level of their voice in steady-state noise. While talkers also increased the level of their voice in amplitude-modulated noise, the increase was not as large as that observed in steady-state noise. Importantly, for the 2 and 4 Hz amplitude-modulated noise conditions...

  13. On intensities of modulated Cox measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni H. Dshalalow

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce and study functionals of the intensities of random measures modulated by a stochastic process ξ, which occur in applications to stochastic models and telecommunications. Modulation of a random measure by ξ is specified for marked Cox measures. Particular cases of modulation by ξ as semi-Markov and semiregenerative processes enabled us to obtain explicit formulas for the named intensities. Examples in queueing (systems with state dependent parameters, Little's and Campbell's formulas demonstrate the use of the results.

  14. The structure and stability of persistence modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chazal, Frédéric; Glisse, Marc; Oudot, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the theory of persistence modules over the real line. It presents a set of mathematical tools to analyse the structure and to establish the stability of such modules, providing a sound mathematical framework for the study of persistence diagrams. Completely self-contained, this brief introduces the notion of persistence measure and makes extensive use of a new calculus of quiver representations to facilitate explicit computations. Appealing to both beginners and experts in the subject, The Structure and Stability of Persistence Modules provides a purely algebraic presentation of persistence, and thus complements the existing literature, which focuses mainly on topological and algorithmic aspects.

  15. Temperature-independent broadband silicon modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. X.; Li, T. T.; Zhang, J. L.; Wang, X. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a 20 Gb/s temperature-independent silicon modulator based on symmetrical Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. The MMI coupler was used as splitter/combiner in symmetrical MZI for balanced propagation. The ±15 °C temperature-independent eye diagrams were measured at 10 Gb/s with over 15 dB extinction ratio. Based on over 30 nm flat optical bandwidth, the broadband modulation was demonstrated from 1530 nm to 1560 nm. The temperature-independent broadband silicon modulator is adaptable to interconnection and communication systems in practice.

  16. A Practical Module System for LF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Rabe, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Module Systems for proof assistants provide administrative support for large developments when mechanizing the meta-theory of programming languages and logics. In this paper we describe a module system for the logical framework LF. It is based on two main primitives: signatures and signature...... morphisms, which provide a semantically transparent module level and permit to represent logic translations as homomorphisms. Modular LF is a conser- vative extension over LF, and integrates an elaboration of modular into core LF signatures. We have implemented our design in the Twelf system and used...... it to modularize large parts of the Twelf example library....

  17. Modulation spectrometry of neutrons with diffractometry applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hiismäki, Pekka

    1997-01-01

    Modulation spectrometry of neutrons refers to a measuring principle, characterized by classification of neutron histories in a probabilistic way, not the usual deterministic way. In order to accomplish this, neutron beams entering the sample are modulated by high-transmission, white-beam selectors of the multislit type, such as Fourier or statistical choppers or high-frequency-modulated spin-flippers. In this scheme it is impossible to decide in a unique way through which particular slit any single neutron passed, but the distribution of histories for a large population of neutrons can neverth

  18. Computerized CAMAC and NIM module library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G.F.; McDonald, R.J.

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory owns a large number of CAMAC and NIM modules which can be connected together to form data acquisition systems used in experiments. Many of these modules are contained in pools'' for common usage. This paper describes a system of storage and inventory control that allows easy check-out and check-in of the modules utilizing networked Macintosh computers, FoxBase+/Mac software, and bar-code technology. It also provides search capability for the user and tracking capability for the pool administrator. This inventory system has applications to any pool of items that are routinely loaned. 8 figs.

  19. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  20. Trainer module for security control center operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    An operator trainer module has been developed to be used with the security control center equipment to be installed as part of a safeguards physical protection system. The module is designed to provide improved training and testing capabilities for control center operators through the use of simulations for perimeter equipment operations. Operators, through the trainer module, can be challenged with a variety of realistic situations which require responsive action identical to that needed in an actual system. This permits a consistent evaluation and confirmation of operator capabilities prior to assignment as an operator and allows for periodic retesting to verify that adequate performance levels are maintained.

  1. Force Factor Modulation in Electro Dynamic Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Tinggaard, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    that includes the frequency dependency and applies to coils with non-inductive (lossy) blocked impedance. The paper also demonstrates that Cunningham’s force can be explained physically as a modulation of the force factor which again is directly linked to modulation of the flux of the coil. A verification based...... on both experiments and simulations is presented along discussions of the impact of force factor modulation for various motor topologies. Finally, it is shown that the popular L2R2 coil impedance model does not correctly predict the force unless the new analysis is applied....

  2. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.

  3. Identification of unstable network modules reveals disease modules associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia, is associated with aging, and it leads to neuron death. Deposits of amyloid β and aberrantly phosphorylated tau protein are known as pathological hallmarks of AD, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been revealed. A high-throughput gene expression analysis previously showed that differentially expressed genes accompanying the progression of AD were more down-regulated than up-regulated in the later stages of AD. This suggested that the molecular networks and their constituent modules collapsed along with AD progression. In this study, by using gene expression profiles and protein interaction networks (PINs, we identified the PINs expressed in three brain regions: the entorhinal cortex (EC, hippocampus (HIP and superior frontal gyrus (SFG. Dividing the expressed PINs into modules, we examined the stability of the modules with AD progression and with normal aging. We found that in the AD modules, the constituent proteins, interactions and cellular functions were not maintained between consecutive stages through all brain regions. Interestingly, the modules were collapsed with AD progression, specifically in the EC region. By identifying the modules that were affected by AD pathology, we found the transcriptional regulation-associated modules that interact with the proteasome-associated module via UCHL5 hub protein, which is a deubiquitinating enzyme. Considering PINs as a system made of network modules, we found that the modules relevant to the transcriptional regulation are disrupted in the EC region, which affects the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  4. Direct modulation of 56 Gbps duobinary-4-PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, Bangning

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the direct modulation of externally modulated laser and transmission through single mode fiber of a 56 Gbps duobinary-4-pulse amplitude modulation signal through 10 GHz class optics.......This paper reports on the direct modulation of externally modulated laser and transmission through single mode fiber of a 56 Gbps duobinary-4-pulse amplitude modulation signal through 10 GHz class optics....

  5. Controlling the evolution of nondiffracting speckle by complex amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator to implement controlled ring-slit experiments for the generation of nondiffracting speckle fields. The structure of the nondiffracting speckle due to binary and continuous phase modulations...

  6. Comparison of Simple Self-Oscillating PWM Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Nicolai J.; Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Switch-mode power amplifiers has become the conventional choice for audio applications due to their superior efficiency and excellent audio performance. These amplifiers rely on high frequency modulation of the audio input. Conventional modulators use a fixed high frequency for modulation. Self......-oscillating modulators do not have a fixed modulation frequency and can provide good audio performance with very simple circuitry. This paper proposes a new type of self-oscillating modulator. The proposed modulator is compared to an already existing modulator of similar type and their performances are compared both...

  7. Radiation Hardened Turbo Coded OFDM Modulator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro Inc. proposes to develop an innovative Turbo-Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (TC-OFDM) ASIC device. The proposed device provides data...

  8. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Booysen, P. [Setsolar, P. O. Box 15934, Panorama 7506 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  9. Plasmonic solutions for coupling and modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu

    We present our design results for efficient coupling and modulation in plasmonic structures. Fiber coupling to a plasmonic slot waveguide is significantly increased by a metallic nanoantenna with additional reflectors or by the configuration of several connected antennas. We also show that the pl......We present our design results for efficient coupling and modulation in plasmonic structures. Fiber coupling to a plasmonic slot waveguide is significantly increased by a metallic nanoantenna with additional reflectors or by the configuration of several connected antennas. We also show...... that the plasmonic four-layer waveguide with patterned ITO layer can modulate light with higher transmission and the same modulation depth as a waveguide with a uniform ITO layer....

  10. Advanced modulation formats for transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokle, Torger; Serbay, M.; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    DQPSK has shown that multilevel modulation formats can enable new possibilities in optical communication systems. The paper presents several options to go to even more advanced formats using direct detection....

  11. Strichartz estimates on $alpha$-modulation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider some dispersive equations, including Schrodinger equations, nonelliptic Schrodinger equations, and wave equations. We develop some Strichartz estimates in the frame of alpha-modulation spaces.

  12. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, John V [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  13. Acquisition system for the CLIC Module

    CERN Document Server

    Vilalte, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The status of R&D activities for CLIC module acquisition are discussed [1]. LAPP is involved in the design of the local CLIC module acquisition crate, described in the document Study of the CLIC Module Front-End Acquisition and Evaluation Electronics [2]. This acquisition system is a project based on a local crate, assigned to the CLIC module, including several mother boards. These motherboards are foreseen to hold mezzanines dedicated to the different subsystems. This system has to work in radiation environment. LAPP is involved in the development of Drive Beam stripline position monitors read-out, described in the document Drive Beam Stripline BPM Electronics and Acquisition [3]. LAPP also develops a generic acquisition mezzanine that allows to perform all-around acquisition and components tests for drive beam stripline BPM read-out.

  14. Low Complexity Kolmogorov-Smirnov Modulation Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fanggang; Zhong, Zhangdui

    2011-01-01

    Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test-a non-parametric method to measure the goodness of fit, is applied for automatic modulation classification (AMC) in this paper. The basic procedure involves computing the empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) of some decision statistic derived from the received signal, and comparing it with the CDFs of the signal under each candidate modulation format. The K-S-based modulation classifier is first developed for AWGN channel, then it is applied to OFDM-SDMA systems to cancel multiuser interference. Regarding the complexity issue of K-S modulation classification, we propose a low-complexity method based on the robustness of the K-S classifier. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that compared with the traditional cumulant-based classifiers, the proposed K-S classifier offers superior classification performance and requires less number of signal samples (thus is fast).

  15. Chemical bonding technology for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, D. R.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Plueddeman, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Encapsulated photovoltaic modules must hold together for 20 years, reliably resisting delamination and separation of any of the component materials. Delamination of encapsulation materials from each other, or from solar cells and interconnects, can create voids for accumulation of water, promoting corrosive failure. Delamination of silicone elastomers from unprimed surfaces was a common occurrence with early modules, but the incidences of silicone delamination with later modules decreased when adhesion promoters recommended by silicone manufacturers were used. An investigation of silicone delamination from unprimed surfaces successfully identified the mechanism, which was related to atmospheric oxygen and moisture. This early finding indicated that reliance on physical bonding of encapsulation interfaces for long life in an outdoor environment would be risky. For long outdoor life, the material components of a module must therefore be held together by weather-stable adhesion promoters that desirably form strong, interfacial chemical bonds.

  16. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  17. Imaging of gossypibomas: self-assessment module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Adonis; Filho, Paulo Borba; Albuquerque, Eolo; Farias, Fabiana; Kaercher, João

    2009-12-01

    The educational objectives of this self-assessment module are for the participants to exercise, self-assess, and improve their understanding of the most important features of gossypibomas and the role of imaging in the diagnosis of these masses.

  18. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunberger, Erik A.; Laliberté, Victoria L. M.; Duong, Angela; Andreazza, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26640614

  19. Microfiltration : membrane development and module design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesink, Hendrik Dirk Willem

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a new type of hydrophilic microfiltration membranes and in addition some studies are presented, that may result in a completely new design of microfiltration modules containing capillary membranes.

  20. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and xerostomia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chambers, Mark S; Weber, Randal S; Garden, Adam S

    2006-01-01

    Conformal radiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, IMRT, is a radiation technique that potentially can minimize the dose to salivary glands and thereby decrease the incidence of xerostomia...

  1. Single waveguide silicon-organic hybrid modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Niklas; Rothe, Christian; Celik, Arda; Félix Rosa, María; Vogel, Wolfgang; Widmann, Daniel; Rathgeber, Lotte; Ruiz Delgado, M. Carmen; Villacampa, Belén; Ludwigs, Sabine; Berroth, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    We present a novel silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on an integrated dual-mode interferometer. The modulator offers a compact, simplified design and enhanced robustness to on-chip fluctuations of temperature compared to conventional Mach-Zehnder based systems. A prototype modulator showing a voltage dependent transmission spectrum is obtained by cladding a dual-mode waveguide in a 250 nm silicon-on-insulator technology with a customized organic electro-optic layer. Estimated phase shifts and corresponding figures of merit are discussed in this contribution. The used organic layer is based on the guest-host approach with customized donor-π-acceptor chromophore embedded and poled in a poly(methylmethacrylate) matrix. The presented prototype is to the best of the authors' knowledge the first integrated single waveguide silicon-organic hybrid modulator.

  2. Modeling of Carrier Dynamics in Electroabsorption Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Sune

    2002-01-01

    the influence that carrier recapture has on the device properties, and we discuss the recapture process on a more fundamental level. The model is also used to investigate in detail the carrier sweep-out process in electroabsorption modulators. We investigate how the intrinsic-region width, the separate......-out upon excitation with highly energetic pulses is investigated, and the influence of carrier recapture on the sweep-out process is modeled and discussed. From our results we draw a number of conclusions concerning the carrier sweep-out dynamics in electroabsorption modulators, and about the influence......This thesis is concerned with modeling of electroabsorption modulators. Electroabsorption modulators are expected to play an important role both in the coming 40-Gbit/s optical communication systems and in next-generation, all-optical communication systems. Understanding the dynamics...

  3. Single waveguide silicon-organic hybrid modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hoppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on an integrated dual-mode interferometer. The modulator offers a compact, simplified design and enhanced robustness to on-chip fluctuations of temperature compared to conventional Mach-Zehnder based systems. A prototype modulator showing a voltage dependent transmission spectrum is obtained by cladding a dual-mode waveguide in a 250 nm silicon-on-insulator technology with a customized organic electro-optic layer. Estimated phase shifts and corresponding figures of merit are discussed in this contribution. The used organic layer is based on the guest-host approach with customized donor-π-acceptor chromophore embedded and poled in a poly(methylmethacrylate matrix. The presented prototype is to the best of the authors' knowledge the first integrated single waveguide silicon-organic hybrid modulator.

  4. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented...

  5. Is DAMAs modulation amplitude changing with time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Chris

    2016-06-01

    If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion induces a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level (CL) such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with about 7 years of observations. We examine the nature of this modulation signal and find the modulation amplitude for the two detectors is inconsistent at the 3σ CL over 2-6 keVee. Such a time-dependence in the modulation amplitude is unexpected behavior for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. We also find unusual behavior over the 5-6 keVee energy range that might indicate problems with the data.

  6. Performance of Skutterudite-Based Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, G.; Suzuki, S.; Tomida, T.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Ochi, T.; Mukaiyama, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Guo, J. Q.; Yamamoto, A.; Obara, H.

    2017-05-01

    Due to their excellent thermoelectric (TE) performance, skutterudite materials have been selected by many laboratories and companies for development of TE modules to recover power from waste heat at high temperatures (300°C to 600°C). After years of effort, we have developed reliable n- and p-type skutterudite materials showing maximum figure of merit ( ZT) of 1.0 at 550°C and 0.75 at 450°C, respectively. In this work, we systematically investigated the performance of a module made using these two kinds of skutterudite. We demonstrate ˜7.2% conversion efficiency for temperature of 600°C at the hot side of the module and 50°C at the cold side, and show that the module had excellent stability in the high-temperature environment. Further improving the TE performance of our skutterudites, the conversion efficiency reached ˜8.5% under the same condition.

  7. Robust Reed Solomon Coded MPSK Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir M. Husni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, construction of partitioned Reed Solomon coded modulation (RSCM, which is robust for the additive white Gaussian noise channel and a Rayleigh fading channel, is investigated. By matching configuration of component codes with the channel characteristics, it is shown that this system is robust for the Gaussian and a Rayleigh fading channel. This approach is compared with non-partitioned RSCM, a Reed Solomon code combined with an MPSK signal set using Gray mapping; and block coded MPSK modulation using binary codes, Reed Muller codes. All codes use hard decision decoding algorithm. Simulation results for these schemes show that RSCM based on set partitioning performs better than those that are not based on set partitioning and Reed Muller Coded Modulation across a wide range of conditions. The novel idea here is that in the receiver, we use a rotated 2^(m+1-PSK detector if the transmitter uses a 2^m-PSK modulator.

  8. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    's work with switch mode audio power amplifiers, where linear tracking of the reference signal is of major importance. Use of the modulator topologies presented are not limited to this kind of equipment, but can be used in a very wide range of applications from very low to very high power levels....... or fs/ð range respectively, where fs is the switching frequency of the converter. For some applications this will require unacceptable high switching frequency to achieve enough control loop bandwidth for the desired dynamic performance. With self oscillating modulators, the open loop bandwidth is equal...... or by shaping the open loop function of the modulator so its gain and phase response causes a closed loop natural oscillation. The two main types of self oscillating modulators have many similarities, but differences in dynamic performance and linearity are present. The work presented is related to the author...

  9. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  10. Reachability modules for the description logic SRIQ

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning (LPAR) 19 Conference, 14-19 December 2013, Stellenbosch, South Africa Reachability modules for the Description Logic SRIQ Riku Nortje, Katarina Britz, and Thomas Meyer Center...

  11. Seeding Coherent Radiation Sources with Sawtooth Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Seed radiation sources have the ability to increase longitudinal coherence, decrease saturation lengths, and improve performance of tapering, polarization control and other FEL features. Typically, seeding schemes start with a simple sinusoidal modulation, which is manipulated to provide bunching at a high harmonic of the original wavelength. In this paper, we consider seeding from sawtooth modulations. The sawtooth creates a clean phase space structure, providing a maximal bunching factor without the need for an FEL interaction. While a pure sawtooth modulation is a theoretical construct, it is possible to approach the waveform by combining two or more of the composite wavelengths. We give examples of sawtooth seeding for HGHG, EEHG and other schemes, and note that the sawtooth modulation may aid in suppression of the microbunching instability.

  12. Symmetry, phase modulation and nonlinear waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear waves are pervasive in nature, but are often elusive when they are modelled and analysed. This book develops a natural approach to the problem based on phase modulation. It is both an elaboration of the use of phase modulation for the study of nonlinear waves and a compendium of background results in mathematics, such as Hamiltonian systems, symplectic geometry, conservation laws, Noether theory, Lagrangian field theory and analysis, all of which combine to generate the new theory of phase modulation. While the build-up of theory can be intensive, the resulting emergent partial differential equations are relatively simple. A key outcome of the theory is that the coefficients in the emergent modulation equations are universal and easy to calculate. This book gives several examples of the implications in the theory of fluid mechanics and points to a wide range of new applications.

  13. Rational orderliness of study course modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Domnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern electronic courses and textbooks are based, as a rule, on the separate educational modules, which are developed and tested in advance and intended for use in various educational situations. Numerous publications of domestic and foreign authors have discussed a task to form a module-based structure of study course. For its solution have been offered various methods of discrete mathematics, the theory of graphs, and artificial intelligence: semantic networks, ontologies, etc. The important problem that has been much less deeply studied is a rational orderliness of the study course modules.In the work this task is set as a problem to search the best linear approximation of the directed graph the tops of which are modules, while the arches are precedence relations between them. The directed graph is considered as a graphical representation of a binary precedence relation, which has been specified using a set of pairs of educational modules. This relation can be presented as a sum of two components of the symmetric and asymmetric sub-relations. The first sub-relation represents the tolerance relation, and the second one is preorder.To solve the task essentially various ways for processing these components must be used. If a sub-relation of the preorder can be transformed into serial structure, for tolerance any attempts of this kind are doomed to failure. Modules belonging to the relation of tolerance are expedient to merge in a separate educational component. The paper offers a mathematical model in which the problem of merging modules is formulated as a problem of discrete mathematical programming.The paper considers the structure of educational modules formed by hypertext references. It is shown that search of the best linear approximation of such structure is reduced to a classical task about the smallest covering in matrix statement.

  14. Intelligent Communication Module for Wireless Biosensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, R.; Singh, J.; Le, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presented a new paradigm of biosensors which have processing capability with an intelligent and adaptive wireless communication module. The adaptive communication module efficiently reconfigures its hardware components according to the changes in operating environment in order to reduce system power consumption and optimally utilise resources. The chapter presented several significant applications of wireless biosensor networks which hold enormous potential to benefit the communi...

  15. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  16. Profile Physical Education modules at medical universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov V.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article states the results of investigation in development and introduction into the medical educational practice of experimental educational modules of profile Physical Education. The research goal is the development and realization of the pedagogical process of medical specialists by means of profiled training modules. More than 1,000 people were involved in the research. The results of the survey assisted in preparing three educational methodical manuals, recommended for the use in the educational process of medical specialists

  17. Modulation de la phase postprandiale du glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of the postprandial glycemic excursions has been proposed as to limit risk of type 2 diabetes. There has been growing interest in the development of dietary ingredients that could potentially modulate carbohydrates bioavailability and thus their impact on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of the the modulation of glucose bioavailability by different ingredients on 2-hour glycemic response but also on glucose kinetics (total, exogenous a...

  18. Process of making solar cell module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  19. Simple trophic modules for complex food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Bascompte, Jordi; Carlos J. Melián

    2005-01-01

    There are two common approaches to food webs. On the one hand, empirical studies have described aggregate statistical measures of many-species food webs. On the other hand, theoretical studies have explored the dynamic properties of simple tri-trophic food chains (i.e., trophic modules). The question remains to what extent results based on simple modules are relevant for whole food webs. Here we bridge between these two independent research agendas by exploring the relative fr...

  20. Extending DUNE: The dune-xt modules

    OpenAIRE

    Leibner, Tobias; Milk, René; Schindler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We present our effort to extend and complement the core modules of the Distributed and Unified Numerics Environment DUNE (http://dune-project.org) by a well tested and structured collection of utilities and concepts. We describe key elements of our four modules dune-xt-common, dune-xt-grid, dune-xt-la and dune-xt-functions, which aim at further enabling the programming of generic algorithms within DUNE as well as adding an extra layer of usability and convenience.

  1. Microprocessor-controlled CAMAC data link module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    Communication between the central control computer and remote, satellite data-acquisition/control stations at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) is presently accomplished through the use of CAMAC-based Data Link modules. With the advent of the microprocessor, a new philosophy for digital data communications has evolved. Data Link modules containing microprocessor controllers provide link management and communication network protocol through algorithms executed in the Data Link microprocessor. 13 figures.

  2. Energy-efficient WDM-OFDM-PON employing shared OFDM modulation modules in optical line terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Kongtao; Su, Yikai

    2012-03-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to improve the energy efficiency of wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). By using an N × M opto-mechanic switch in optical line terminal (OLT), an OFDM modulation module is shared by several channels to deliver data to multiple users with low traffic demands during non-peak hours of the day, thus greatly reducing the number of operating devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. An experiment utilizing one OFDM modulation module to serve three optical network units (ONUs) in a WDM-OFDM-PON is performed to verify the feasibility of our proposal. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation show that the proposed scheme can achieve a saving of 23.6% in the energy consumption of the OFDM modulation modules compared to conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  3. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jonathan W; Poeta, Devon L; Jacobson, Tara K; Zolnik, Timothy A; Neske, Garrett T; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2015-09-30

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10-15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. Significance statement: Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that stimulation of

  4. Novel Modulation Method for Multidirectional Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC, based on the direct duty ratio pulse width modulation (DDPWM. In this study, a new structure of MDMC has been proposed to control the power flow direction through the stand-alone battery based system and hybrid vehicle. The modulation method acts based on the average voltage over one switching period concept. Therefore, in order to determine the duty ratio for each switch, the instantaneous input voltages are captured and compared with triangular waveform continuously. By selecting the proper switching pattern and changing the slope of the carriers, the sinusoidal input current can be synthesized with high power factor and desired output voltage. The proposed system increases the discharging time of the battery by injecting the power to the system from the generator and battery at the same time. Thus, it makes the battery life longer and saves more energy. This paper also derived necessary equation for proposed modulation method as well as detail of analysis and modulation algorithm. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in MATLAB simulation.

  5. Novel modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Saman; Misron, Norhisam; Hanamoto, Tsuyoshi; Bin Aris, Ishak; Radzi, Mohd Amran Mohd; Yamada, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC), based on the direct duty ratio pulse width modulation (DDPWM). In this study, a new structure of MDMC has been proposed to control the power flow direction through the stand-alone battery based system and hybrid vehicle. The modulation method acts based on the average voltage over one switching period concept. Therefore, in order to determine the duty ratio for each switch, the instantaneous input voltages are captured and compared with triangular waveform continuously. By selecting the proper switching pattern and changing the slope of the carriers, the sinusoidal input current can be synthesized with high power factor and desired output voltage. The proposed system increases the discharging time of the battery by injecting the power to the system from the generator and battery at the same time. Thus, it makes the battery life longer and saves more energy. This paper also derived necessary equation for proposed modulation method as well as detail of analysis and modulation algorithm. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in MATLAB simulation.

  6. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Peter, E-mail: enxue.yun@obspm.fr; Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2016-06-28

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here, we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple seven-level model explains the experimental observations. The double-modulation scheme yields a high contrast similar to the one of other high contrast configurations like push-pull optical pumping or crossed linear polarization scheme, with a setup allowing a higher compactness. The constructive polarization modulation is attractive for atomic clock, atomic magnetometer, and high precision spectroscopy applications.

  7. First modules of ATLAS's great accordion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first CERN-built module of the barrel section of ATLAS's electromagnetic calorimeter has just been completed. This is the second in a series of 32 modules that will make up the final detector. These accordion-shaped structures will give precise measurements of the energy of particles produced in the LHC. The first CERN-built module of the barrel section of ATLAS's electromagnetic calorimeter nearing completion. Behind the module, from left to right: Ralf Huber, Andreas Bies and Jorgen Beck Hansen. In front of the module, from left to right: Philippe Lançon and Edward Wood. The builders of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are masters in the art of folding! To find out why, just take a look inside Hall 184, where the first CERN-built module of ATLAS's electromagnetic calorimeter has just been completed. It is the second in a long series, the first having been completed at the Saclay Laboratory of France's Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique just a few weeks ago. Thirty more remain...

  8. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  9. Induced Modules for Affine Lie Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Futorny

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We study induced modules of nonzero central charge with arbitrary multiplicities over affine Lie algebras. For a given pseudo parabolic subalgebra P of an affine Lie algebra G, our main result establishes the equivalence between a certain category of P-induced G-modules and the category of weight P-modules with injective action of the central element of G. In particular, the induction functor preserves irreducible modules. If P is a parabolic subalgebra with a finite-dimensional Levi factor then it defines a unique pseudo parabolic subalgebra P^{ps}, P subset P^{ps}. The structure of P-induced modules in this case is fully determined by the structure of P^{ps}-induced modules. These results generalize similar reductions in particular cases previously considered by V. Futorny, S. König, V. Mazorchuk [Forum Math. 13 (2001, 641-661], B. Cox [Pacific J. Math. 165 (1994, 269-294] and I. Dimitrov, V. Futorny, I. Penkov [Comm. Math. Phys. 250 (2004, 47-63].

  10. Space-time-modulated stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano

    2017-10-01

    Starting from the physical problem associated with the Lorentzian transformation of a Poisson-Kac process in inertial frames, the concept of space-time-modulated stochastic processes is introduced for processes possessing finite propagation velocity. This class of stochastic processes provides a two-way coupling between the stochastic perturbation acting on a physical observable and the evolution of the physical observable itself, which in turn influences the statistical properties of the stochastic perturbation during its evolution. The definition of space-time-modulated processes requires the introduction of two functions: a nonlinear amplitude modulation, controlling the intensity of the stochastic perturbation, and a time-horizon function, which modulates its statistical properties, providing irreducible feedback between the stochastic perturbation and the physical observable influenced by it. The latter property is the peculiar fingerprint of this class of models that makes them suitable for extension to generic curved-space times. Considering Poisson-Kac processes as prototypical examples of stochastic processes possessing finite propagation velocity, the balance equations for the probability density functions associated with their space-time modulations are derived. Several examples highlighting the peculiarities of space-time-modulated processes are thoroughly analyzed.

  11. Photothermal speckle modulation for noncontact materials characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolyarov, Alexander M; Sullenberger, Ryan M; Crompton, David R; Jeys, Thomas H; Saar, Brian G; Herzog, William D

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a noncontact, photothermal materials characterization method based on visible-light speckle imaging. This technique is applied to remotely measure the infrared absorption spectra of materials and to discriminate materials based on their thermal conductivities. A wavelength-tunable (7.5-8.7 μm), intensity-modulated, quantum cascade pump laser and a continuous-wave 532 nm probe laser illuminate a sample surface such that the two laser spots overlap. Surface absorption of the intensity-modulated pump laser induces a time-varying thermoelastic surface deformation, resulting in a time-varying 532 nm scattering speckle field from the surface. The speckle modulation amplitude, derived from a series of visible camera images, is found to correlate with the amplitude of the surface motion. By tuning the pump laser's wavelength over a molecular absorption feature, the amplitude spectrum of the speckle modulation is found to correlate to the IR absorption spectrum. As an example, we demonstrate this technique for spectroscopic identification of thin polymeric films. Furthermore, by adjusting the rate of modulation of the pump beam and measuring the associated modulation transfer to the visible speckle pattern, information about the thermal time constants of surface and sub-surface features can be revealed. Using this approach, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish between different materials (including metals, semiconductors, and insulators) based on differences in their thermal conductivities.

  12. Single channel speech enhancement in the modulation domain: New insights in the modulation channel selection framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper B.; Bertelsen, Andreas Thelander; Gran, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the ideal binary mask has been introduced in the modulation domain by extending the ideal channel selection method to modulation channel selection [1]. This new method shows substantial improvement in speech intelligibility but less than its predecessor despite the higher complexity. Here......, we extend the previous finding from [1] and provide a more direct comparison of binary masking in the modulation domain with binary masking in the time-frequency domain. Subjective and objective evaluations are performed and provide additional insight into modulation domain processing....

  13. Inferring oscillatory modulation in neural spike trains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Arai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations are observed at various frequency bands in continuous-valued neural recordings like the electroencephalogram (EEG and local field potential (LFP in bulk brain matter, and analysis of spike-field coherence reveals that spiking of single neurons often occurs at certain phases of the global oscillation. Oscillatory modulation has been examined in relation to continuous-valued oscillatory signals, and independently from the spike train alone, but behavior or stimulus triggered firing-rate modulation, spiking sparseness, presence of slow modulation not locked to stimuli and irregular oscillations with large variability in oscillatory periods, present challenges to searching for temporal structures present in the spike train. In order to study oscillatory modulation in real data collected under a variety of experimental conditions, we describe a flexible point-process framework we call the Latent Oscillatory Spike Train (LOST model to decompose the instantaneous firing rate in biologically and behaviorally relevant factors: spiking refractoriness, event-locked firing rate non-stationarity, and trial-to-trial variability accounted for by baseline offset and a stochastic oscillatory modulation. We also extend the LOST model to accommodate changes in the modulatory structure over the duration of the experiment, and thereby discover trial-to-trial variability in the spike-field coherence of a rat primary motor cortical neuron to the LFP theta rhythm. Because LOST incorporates a latent stochastic auto-regressive term, LOST is able to detect oscillations when the firing rate is low, the modulation is weak, and when the modulating oscillation has a broad spectral peak.

  14. Optimal attentional modulation of neural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eBorji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Top-down attention has often been separately studied in the contexts of eitheroptimal population coding or biasing of visual search. Yet, both are intimatelylinked, as they entail optimally modulating sensory variables in neural populationsaccording to top-down goals. Designing experiments to probe top-down attentionalmodulation is difficult because non-linear population dynamics are hardto predict in the absence of a concise theoretical framework. Here, we describea unified framework that encompasses both contexts. Our work sheds light ontothe ongoing debate on whether attention modulates neural response gain, tuningwidth, and/or preferred feature. We evaluate the framework by conducting simulationsfor two tasks: 1 classification (discrimination of two stimuli sa and sband 2 searching for a target T among distractors D. Results demonstrate that allof gain, tuning, and preferred feature modulation happen to different extents, dependingon stimulus conditions and task demands. The theoretical analysis showsthat task difficulty (linked to difference D between sa and sb, or T and D is acrucial factor in optimal modulation, with different effects in discrimination vs.search. Further, our framework allows us to quantify the relative utility of neuralparameters. In easy tasks (when D is large compared to the density of the neuralpopulation, modulating gains and preferred features is sufficient to yield nearlyoptimal performance; however, in difficult tasks (smaller D, modulating tuningwidth becomes necessary to improve performance. This suggests that the conflictingreports from different experimental studies may be due to differences intasks and in their difficulties. We further propose future electrophysiology experimentsto observe different types of attentional modulation in a same neuron.

  15. Inferring oscillatory modulation in neural spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kensuke; Kass, Robert E

    2017-10-01

    Oscillations are observed at various frequency bands in continuous-valued neural recordings like the electroencephalogram (EEG) and local field potential (LFP) in bulk brain matter, and analysis of spike-field coherence reveals that spiking of single neurons often occurs at certain phases of the global oscillation. Oscillatory modulation has been examined in relation to continuous-valued oscillatory signals, and independently from the spike train alone, but behavior or stimulus triggered firing-rate modulation, spiking sparseness, presence of slow modulation not locked to stimuli and irregular oscillations with large variability in oscillatory periods, present challenges to searching for temporal structures present in the spike train. In order to study oscillatory modulation in real data collected under a variety of experimental conditions, we describe a flexible point-process framework we call the Latent Oscillatory Spike Train (LOST) model to decompose the instantaneous firing rate in biologically and behaviorally relevant factors: spiking refractoriness, event-locked firing rate non-stationarity, and trial-to-trial variability accounted for by baseline offset and a stochastic oscillatory modulation. We also extend the LOST model to accommodate changes in the modulatory structure over the duration of the experiment, and thereby discover trial-to-trial variability in the spike-field coherence of a rat primary motor cortical neuron to the LFP theta rhythm. Because LOST incorporates a latent stochastic auto-regressive term, LOST is able to detect oscillations when the firing rate is low, the modulation is weak, and when the modulating oscillation has a broad spectral peak.

  16. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  17. Report on the SCT Forward Electrical Module Program

    CERN Document Server

    Benes, J; Feld, L; Hornung, M; Joos, D; Ketterer, C; Kodys, P; Kubik, P; Ludwig, J; Modesto, P; Rieth, G; Runge, K; Smith, T; Snow, S W; Taylor, G; Webel, M

    1999-01-01

    IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ATLAS SCT FORWARD HYBRID PROGRAM, THREEELECTRICAL DETECTOR MODULES HAVE BEEN BUILT. THIS NOTE DESCRIBES THEASSEMBLY AND SUMMARISES THE MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OFTHESE MODULES. SOME COMMENTS ON THE SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF THEPRODUCTION OF A REAL MODULE AS COMPARED TO DUMMY MODULES ARE GIVEN.A LIST OF OPEN QUESTIONS ARISING FROM THIS ASSEMBLY RUN IS APPENDED.

  18. Circuit multiplies pulse width modulation, exhibits linear transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Furciniti, A.

    1967-01-01

    Modulation multiplier provides a simple means of multiplying the width modulation of a pulse train by a constant factor. It operates directly on a pulse width modulated input signal to generate an output pulse train having a greater degree of width modulation than the input signal.

  19. High-speed coherent silicon modulator module using photonic integrated circuits: from circuit design to packaged module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.

  20. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real

  1. Subpicosecond-pulse generation through cross-phase-modulation-induced modulational instability in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Neto, A S; Faldon, M E; Sombra, A S; Wigley, P G; Taylor, J R

    1988-10-01

    We report subpicosecond-pulse generation at 1.319 microm in a single-mode optical fiber by modulational instability induced through cross-phase modulation by 1.06-microm pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime. Pulse-repetition rates approaching 300 GHz were achieved.

  2. X-(2) Modulator With 40-GHz Modulation Utilizing BaTiO3 Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girouard, Peter David; Chen, Pice; Jeong, Young Kyu

    2017-01-01

    -optic (EO) coefficient in a.(2) ferroelectric waveguide at microwave modulation frequencies. This is demonstrated in a compact (1 mm) photonic crystal (PC) device with a voltage-length product (V pi . L) of 0.66 V-cm at 10 GHz and measured EO modulation out to 40 GHz. A local enhancement factor of 12...

  3. Getting Down to Business: Health Spa, Module 16. [Student Module]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, Jean

    This module on owning and operating a health spa is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are divided into…

  4. Experimental Investigations of 3-D-/4-D-CAP Modulation With Directly Modulated VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Othman, Maisara; Zhang, Xu; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we present experimental investigations of multidimensional multilevel carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) modulation with directly modulated vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers. The signals are transmitted over 20 km of standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). For multilevel 3-D-CAP, ...

  5. On the Matlis duals of local cohomology modules and modules of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ,. a a proper ideal of R and M a finitely generated R-module with aM = M. Let D(−) := HomR(−,E) be the Matlis dual functor, where E := E(R/m) is the injective hull of the residue field R/m. In this paper, by using a complex which involves modules ...

  6. Unstart coupling mechanism analysis of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin; Bao, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.

  7. Low irradiance losses of photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatakis, F.; Vignola, F.; Marion, B.

    2017-11-01

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic cell/module changes, as the intensity of incident irradiance decreases, in a non linear way and these changes are referred to as low irradiance losses. In this study data from field experiments, developed and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are used to evaluate the low irradiance losses for a variety of module technologies. The results demonstrate that the ratio of the normalized power divided by the normalized short circuit current provide a good measure of the module's low light efficiency losses after both the maximum power and the short circuit current are adjusted for temperature effects. The normalized efficiencies determined through the field data, spanning for several months, are in good agreement with those determined under controlled conditions in a solar simulator. An analytical relation for the normalized efficiency is proposed based on existing formulation for the fill factor. Despite the approximate nature of the fill factor relation, this approach produces reliable results. It will be shown that a normalized efficiency curve can be used to extract information on the series and shunt resistances of the PV module and that the shunt resistance as a function of solar irradiance can be studied. Alternately, this formulation can be used to study the low irradiance losses of a module when the internal resistances are known.

  8. Direct integrals and Hilbert W*-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, M

    1993-01-01

    Investigating the direct integral decomposition of von Neumann algebras of bounded module operators on self-dual Hilbert W*-moduli an equivalence principle is obtained which connects the theory of direct disintegration of von Neumann algebras on separable Hilbert spaces and the theory of von Neumann representations on self-dual Hilbert {\\bf A}-moduli with countably generated {\\bf A}-pre-dual Hilbert {\\bf A}-module over commutative separable W*-algebras {\\bf A}. Examples show posibilities and bounds to find more general relations between these two theories, (cf. R. Schaflitzel's results). As an application we prove a Weyl-Berg-Murphy type theorem: for each given commutative W*-algebra {\\bf A} with a special approximation property (*) every normal bounded {\\bf A}-linear operator on a self-dual Hilbert {\\bf A}-module with countably generated {\\bf A}-pre-dual Hilbert {\\bf A}-module is decomposable into the sum of a diagonalizable normal and of a "compact" bounded {\\bf A}-linear operator on that module.

  9. Designing Interactive Electronic Module in Chemistry Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwansyah, F. S.; Lubab, I.; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to design electronic module (e-module) oriented to the development of students’ chemical literacy on the solution colligative properties material. This research undergoes some stages including concept analysis, discourse analysis, storyboard design, design development, product packaging, validation, and feasibility test. Overall, this research undertakes three main stages, namely, Define (in the form of preliminary studies); Design (designing e-module); Develop (including validation and model trial). The concept presentation and visualization used in this e-module is oriented to chemical literacy skills. The presentation order carries aspects of scientific context, process, content, and attitude. Chemists and multi media experts have done the validation to test the initial quality of the products and give a feedback for the product improvement. The feasibility test results stated that the content presentation and display are valid and feasible to be used with the value of 85.77% and 87.94%. These values indicate that this e-module oriented to students’ chemical literacy skills for the solution colligative properties material is feasible to be used.

  10. On the frequency modulation of VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goncharova

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The VLF-wave frequency modulation efficiency as a function of magnetosphere plasma parameters under the weak pitch-angle diffusion regime is studied. The study is based on the VLF growth-rate modulation both in the magnetosphere equatorial plane and after integrating along the magnetic field line. It is shown that for the typical quiet magnetosphere plasma parameters the relative shift of the maximum intensity frequency ∆ωm/ωm is approximately equal to relative disturbance of the magnetic field in the magnetosphere equatorial plane, but may exceed it when both electron temperature anisotropy and the parameter αβ∥are small; here α is the total-to-warm electron content ratio and β∥ is the electron parallel beta. It is also shown that relative shift of the maximum intensity frequency ∆ωm/ωm after integrating along the field line is not less than 50% from its value at the equatorial plane, which allows the use of the equatorial-plasma-parameter data to estimate the VLF frequency modulation on the ground. The upper cut-off frequency modulation is considered as well. The calculated theoretical sonagrams show that this frequency modulation may be related to the non-dispersive and to the "inverted-V'' structures of QP hiss.

  11. Directly Phase-Modulated Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z. L.; Fröhlich, B.; Lucamarini, M.; Roberts, G. L.; Dynes, J. F.; Shields, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    The art of imparting information onto a light wave by optical signal modulation is fundamental to all forms of optical communication. Among many schemes, direct modulation of laser diodes stands out as a simple, robust, and cost-effective method. However, the simultaneous changes in intensity, frequency, and phase have prevented its application in the field of secure quantum communication. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a directly phase-modulated light source which overcomes the main disadvantages associated with direct modulation and is suitable for diverse applications such as coherent communications and quantum cryptography. The source separates the tasks of phase preparation and pulse generation between a pair of semiconductor lasers leading to very pure phase states. Moreover, the cavity-enhanced electro-optic effect enables the first example of subvolt half-wave phase modulation at high signal rates. The source is compact, stable, and versatile, and we show its potential to become the standard transmitter for future quantum communication networks based on attenuated laser pulses.

  12. Reducing Operating Temperature in Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deceglie, Michael G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Subedi, Indra [University of Toledo; Podraza, Nikolas J. [University of Toledo; Slauch, Ian M. [University of Minnesota; Ferry, Vivian E. [University of Minnesota

    2018-01-09

    Reducing the operating temperature of photovoltaic modules increases their efficiency and lifetime. This can be achieved by reducing the production of waste heat or by improving the rejection of waste heat. We tested, using a combination of simulation and experiment, several thermal modifications in each category. To predict operating temperature and energy yield changes in response to changes to the module, we implemented a physics-based transient simulation framework based almost entirely on measured properties. The most effective thermal modifications reduced the production of waste heat by reflecting unusable light from the cell or the module. Consistent with previous results and verified in this work through year-long simulations, the ideal reflector resulted in an annual irradiance-weighted temperature reduction of 3.8 K for crystalline silicon (c-Si). Our results illustrate that more realistic reflector concepts must balance detrimental optical effects with the intended thermal effects to realize the optimal energy production advantage. Methods improving thermal conductivity or back-side emissivity showed only modest improvements of less than 1 K. We also studied a GaAs module, which uses high-efficiency and high-subbandgap reflectivity to operate at an annual irradiance-weighted temperature 12 K cooler than that of a c-Si module under the same conditions.

  13. Directly Phase-Modulated Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The art of imparting information onto a light wave by optical signal modulation is fundamental to all forms of optical communication. Among many schemes, direct modulation of laser diodes stands out as a simple, robust, and cost-effective method. However, the simultaneous changes in intensity, frequency, and phase have prevented its application in the field of secure quantum communication. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a directly phase-modulated light source which overcomes the main disadvantages associated with direct modulation and is suitable for diverse applications such as coherent communications and quantum cryptography. The source separates the tasks of phase preparation and pulse generation between a pair of semiconductor lasers leading to very pure phase states. Moreover, the cavity-enhanced electro-optic effect enables the first example of subvolt half-wave phase modulation at high signal rates. The source is compact, stable, and versatile, and we show its potential to become the standard transmitter for future quantum communication networks based on attenuated laser pulses.

  14. Fast flux module detection using matroid theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Arne C; Bruggeman, Frank J; Olivier, Brett G; Stougie, Leen

    2015-05-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most often applied methods on genome-scale metabolic networks. Although FBA uniquely determines the optimal yield, the pathway that achieves this is usually not unique. The analysis of the optimal-yield flux space has been an open challenge. Flux variability analysis is only capturing some properties of the flux space, while elementary mode analysis is intractable due to the enormous number of elementary modes. However, it has been found by Kelk et al. (2012) that the space of optimal-yield fluxes decomposes into flux modules. These decompositions allow a much easier but still comprehensive analysis of the optimal-yield flux space. Using the mathematical definition of module introduced by Müller and Bockmayr (2013b), we discovered useful connections to matroid theory, through which efficient algorithms enable us to compute the decomposition into modules in a few seconds for genome-scale networks. Using that every module can be represented by one reaction that represents its function, in this article, we also present a method that uses this decomposition to visualize the interplay of modules. We expect the new method to replace flux variability analysis in the pipelines for metabolic networks.

  15. Optimization of Modulation Waveforms for Improved EMI Attenuation in Switching Frequency Modulated Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniss Stepins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic interference (EMI is one of the major problems of switching power converters. This paper is devoted to switching frequency modulation used for conducted EMI suppression in switching power converters. Comprehensive theoretical analysis of switching power converter conducted EMI spectrum and EMI attenuation due the use of traditional ramp and multislope ramp modulation waveforms is presented. Expressions to calculate EMI spectrum and attenuation are derived. Optimization procedure of the multislope ramp modulation waveform is proposed to get maximum benefits from switching frequency modulation for EMI reduction. Experimental verification is also performed to prove that the optimized multislope ramp modulation waveform is very useful solution for effective EMI reduction in switching power converters.

  16. Characteristics of complex light modulation through an amplitude-phase double-layer spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjae; Roh, Jinyoung; Kim, Soobin; Park, Juseong; Kang, Hoon; Hahn, Joonku; Jeon, Youngjin; Park, Shinwoong; Kim, Hwi

    2017-02-20

    The complex modulation characteristics of a light field through an amplitude-phase double-layer spatial light modulator are analyzed based on the wave-optic numerical model, and the structural conditions for the optimal double-layer complex modulation structure are investigated. The relationships of interlayer distance, pixel size, and complex light modulation performance are analyzed. The main finding of this study is that the optimal interlayer distance for the double-layer structure can be found at the Talbot effect condition. For validating the practical usefulness of our findings, a high quality reconstruction of the complex computer-generated holograms and the robustness of the angular tolerance of the complex modulation at the Talbot interlayer distance are numerically demonstrated.

  17. Optical phase modulation based on directly modulated reflection-mode OIL-VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Sun, Tao; Yang, Weijian; Parekh, Devang; Zhang, Cheng; Xie, Xiaopeng; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J; Xu, Anshi; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2013-09-23

    Optical phase modulation based on directly modulated reflection-mode optically injection-locked VCSEL is investigated based on standard OIL rate equations and reflection-mode OIL model. The phase information of both static and dynamic state is simulated. The difference of static state phase information between transmission- and reflection-mode OIL is numerically analyzed. With specific OIL parameters, the output power of directly modulated OIL-VCSEL remains constant and phase deviation of 0.934π rad is obtained. Results show that a directly modulated OIL-VCSEL can function as a key component in QPSK or 8PSK transmitters. Preliminary 2.5 Gb/s PSK modulation characteristic is demonstrated experimentally.

  18. Unstart Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Multiple-Modules Hypersonic Inlet

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin; Bao, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by cent...

  19. A Chaotic Pulse-Time Modulation Method for Digital Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Xuan Quyen; Vu Van Yem; Thang Manh Hoang

    2012-01-01

    We present and investigate a method of chaotic pulse-time modulation (PTM) named chaotic pulse-width-position modulation (CPWPM) which is the combination of pulse-position-modulation (PPM) and pulse-width modulation (PWM) with the inclusion of chaos technique for digital communications. CPWPM signal is in the pulse train format, in which binary information is modulated onto chaotically-varied intervals of position and width of pulses, and therefore two bits are encoded on a single pulse. The ...

  20. Rank Modulation for Translocation Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2012-01-01

    We consider rank modulation codes for flash memories that allow for handling arbitrary charge drop errors. Unlike classical rank modulation codes used for correcting errors that manifest themselves as swaps of two adjacently ranked elements, the proposed \\emph{translocation rank codes} account for more general forms of errors that arise in storage systems. Translocations represent a natural extension of the notion of adjacent transpositions and as such may be analyzed using related concepts in combinatorics and rank modulation coding. Our results include tight bounds on the capacity of translocation rank codes, construction techniques for asymptotically good codes, as well as simple decoding methods for one class of structured codes. As part of our exposition, we also highlight the close connections between the new code family and permutations with short common subsequences, deletion and insertion error-correcting codes for permutations and permutation arrays.

  1. Universal Reconfigurable Translator Module (URTM) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Edward; Machan, Roman; Jones, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Universal Reconfigurable Translation Module, or URTM. The URTM was developed by Sigma Space Corporation for NASA in order to translate specific serial protocols, both logically and physically. At present, the prototype configuration has targeted MIL-STD-1553B (RT and BC), IEEE 1394b (Firewire), and ECSS-E-50-12A (SpaceWire). The objectives of this program were to study the feasibility of a configurable URTM to translate serial link data as might be used in a space-flight mission and to design, develop, document, and deliver an engineering prototype model of the URTM with a path to spaceflight. By simply connecting two of the three Physical Interface Modules (PIM) on either end of the RPTM (Reconfigurable Protocol Translator Module), the URTM then self configures via a library of interface translation functions, thereby allowing the two data links to communicate seamlessly.

  2. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace , Li; Bo, [San Jose, CA

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  3. Space photovoltaic modules based on reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. M.; Larionov, V. R.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    1995-01-01

    The conceptual design and experimental results for two types of space application concentrator photovoltaic modules, employing reflective optical elements, are presented. The first type is based on the use of compound parabolic concentrators, the second type is based on the use of line-focus parabolic troughs. Lightweight concentrators are formed with nickel foil coated silver with a diamond-like carbon layer protection. Secondary optical elements, including lenses and cones, are introduced for a better matching of concentrators and solar cells. Both types of modules are characterized by concentration ratios in the range 20x to 30x, depending on the chosen range of misorientation angles. The estimated specific parameters of these modules operating with single junction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells are 240 W/sq m and 3 kg/sq m.

  4. Force Factor Modulation in Electro Dynamic Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Tinggaard, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the non-linear phenomenon of ’reluctance force’ and the position dependency of the voice coil inductance was established in 1949 by Cunningham, who called it ’magnetic attraction force’. This paper revisits Cunningham’s analysis and expands it into a generalised form...... that includes the frequency dependency and applies to coils with non-inductive (lossy) blocked impedance. The paper also demonstrates that Cunningham’s force can be explained physically as a modulation of the force factor which again is directly linked to modulation of the flux of the coil. A verification based...... on both experiments and simulations is presented along discussions of the impact of force factor modulation for various motor topologies. Finally, it is shown that the popular L2R2 coil impedance model does not correctly predict the force unless the new analysis is applied....

  5. Nanophotonic modal dichroism: mode-multiplexed modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susobhan; Fardad, Shima; Kim, Inki; Rho, Junsuk; Hui, Rongqing; Salandrino, Alessandro

    2016-09-15

    As the diffraction limit is approached, device miniaturization to integrate more functionality per area becomes more and more challenging. Here we propose a strategy to increase the functionality-per-area by exploiting the modal properties of a waveguide system. With such an approach the design of a mode-multiplexed nanophotonic modulator relying on the mode-selective absorption of a patterned indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is proposed. Full-wave simulations of a device operating at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm show that two modes can be independently modulated, while maintaining performances in line with conventional single-mode ITO modulators reported in the recent literature. The proposed design principles can pave the way to a class of mode-multiplexed compact photonic devices able to effectively multiply the functionality-per-area in integrated photonic systems.

  6. Coded Modulation in C and MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon; Andrews, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    This software, written separately in C and MATLAB as stand-alone packages with equivalent functionality, implements encoders and decoders for a set of nine error-correcting codes and modulators and demodulators for five modulation types. The software can be used as a single program to simulate the performance of such coded modulation. The error-correcting codes implemented are the nine accumulate repeat-4 jagged accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, which have been approved for international standardization by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, and which are scheduled to fly on a series of NASA missions in the Constellation Program. The software implements the encoder and decoder functions, and contains compressed versions of generator and parity-check matrices used in these operations.

  7. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  8. Impurity radiation modulations in an ergodic divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, F. E-mail: laugier@pegase.cad.cea.fr; Becoulet, M.; De Michelis, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gunn, J.P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C

    2001-03-01

    The 3-D geometry of radiation losses is investigated in the Tore Supra ergodic divertor. Measurements from passive bolometers located on the divertor coils show evidence of toroidal and poloidal radiation modulations. They were interpreted using a 3-D code solving heat transport equation that gives the whole geometry of plasma radiation in a divertor configuration close to Tore Supra. The results of the code are in qualitative agreement with the measurements and they show that the total radiated power is underestimated when inferred from standard bolometers located between divertor modules. Maximum of radiation in front of the modules is explained by the multiplication of radiative zones at this place due to the intersection of field lines with the vessel wall. This effect leads to non-monotonic temperature profiles along field lines in the boundary plasma.

  9. Theoretical Study of Semiconductor Laser under Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, O.; Hassine, L.; Dherbecourt, P.; Latry, O.; Ketata, M.; Bouchriha, H.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present a description of the chirp induced in a direct modulated DFB laser. Our study is follows two different approaches. The first approach is based on a resolution of the rate equations of laser; the second, on a simulation of a heterodyne system with the Optisystem software. This study enables us to visualize the chirp in the RF field. We also characterize it according to the injection current i(t) parameters, such as the amplitude and the frequency of the modulation. The aim of our study is to choose the appropriate values of these parameters, in order to use the direct modulated DFB laser as an optical tunable source for Coherent Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technique (C-OFDR). We demonstrate that the optical frequency of these lasers can be controlled via the injection current i(t) and it can be linearly swept (chirped) over some tens of gigahertz.

  10. Improved Thermal Modulator for Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbrink, Ernest Frederick, Jr.; Hunt, Patrick J.; Sacks, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    An improved thermal modulator has been invented for use in a variant of gas chromatography (GC). The variant in question denoted as two-dimensional gas chromatography (2DGC) or GC-GC involves the use of three series-connected chromatographic columns, in the form of capillary tubes coated interiorly with suitable stationary phases (compounds for which different analytes exhibit different degrees of affinity). The two end columns are relatively long and are used as standard GC columns. The thermal modulator includes the middle column, which is relatively short and is not used as a standard GC column: instead, its temperature is modulated to affect timed adsorption and desorption of analyte gases between the two end columns in accordance with a 2DGC protocol.

  11. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations....... In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures...

  12. Gestalt factors modulate basic spatial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, B; Westheimer, G; Herzog, M H

    2010-05-01

    Human perception of a stimulus varies depending on the context in which the stimulus is presented. Such contextual modulation has often been explained by two basic neural mechanisms: lateral inhibition and spatial pooling. In the present study, we presented observers with a vernier stimulus flanked by single lines; observers' ability to discriminate the offset direction of the vernier stimulus deteriorated in accordance with both explanations. However, when the flanking lines were part of a geometric shape (i.e., a good Gestalt), this deterioration strongly diminished. These findings cannot be explained by lateral inhibition or spatial pooling. It seems that Gestalt factors play an important role in contextual modulation. We propose that contextual modulation can be used as a quantitative measure to investigate the rules governing the grouping of elements into meaningful wholes.

  13. Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2011-05-25

    We develop a general perturbation theory to treat small parameter changes in dispersive plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. We specifically apply it to dielectric refractive index and metallic plasma frequency modulation in metal-dielectric nanostructures. As a numerical demonstration, we verify the theory\\'s accuracy against direct calculations for a system of plasmonic rods in air where the metal is defined by a three-pole fit of silver\\'s dielectric function. We also discuss new optical behavior related to plasma frequency modulation in such systems. Our approach provides new physical insight for the design of plasmonic devices for biochemical sensing and optical modulation and future active metamaterial applications. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  15. Infrared-sensitive spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Cardinal

    1987-11-01

    This final report summarizes a preliminary investigation of an infrared-sensitive spatial light modulator that is designed to respond to white light in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range. The device can be read out with visible light and, as such, is intended to function simultaneously as an image wavelength upconverter and light modulator. The device design employs a thin-film InSb photoconductor that addresses a DKDP crystal which is cooled near the Curie temperature (-51 degrees centigrade) of DKDP. Preliminary results are reported on: thin flash-evaporated films on InSb; the development of the cooled DKDP substrates; design and fabrication of the modulator vacuum cell; and theoretical modelling of the device performance.

  16. Supersymmetry breaking in spatially modulated vacua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Muneto; Sasaki, Shin; Yokokura, Ryo

    2017-11-01

    We study spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in spatially modulated stable or metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories. Such spatial modulation can be realized in a higher derivative chiral model for which vacuum energies are positive, negative, or zero, depending on the model parameters. There appears a Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with the spontaneous breaking of the translational and U (1 ) symmetries without the quadratic kinetic term and with a quartic derivative term in the modulated direction, and a gapless Higgs mode. We show that there appears a Goldstino associated with the supersymmetry breaking at a metastable vacuum, where energy is positive, while it becomes a fermionic ghost in the negative energy vacuum, and zero norm state and disappears from the physical sector in the zero energy vacuum.

  17. Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

  18. Spatially modulated thermal convection of viscoelastic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayodé, Séliatou; Khayat, Roger E

    2004-06-01

    The thermal convection of modulated viscoelastic flow is examined in this study. The modulation is assumed to be weak enough for a regular perturbation solution to be implemented. In addition to being more accurate, the second-order perturbation results reveal new physical phenomena that could not be predicted by the first-order analysis. Inertia was found to enhance globally the discrepancies between the first- and the second-order perturbation solution. A comparison between the Newtonian and the non-Newtonian solution is carried out and the influences of inertia, modulation amplitude, and wave number are emphasized. The present results show that elasticity has a marked effect on fluid patterns, especially regarding the roll structure and symmetry. The influence of elasticity is greater for larger Rayleigh number and aspect ratio.

  19. Annual modulation of cosmic relic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdi, Benjamin R.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Spitz, Joshua; Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2014-08-01

    The cosmic neutrino background (CνB), produced about one second after the big bang, permeates the Universe today. New technological advancements make neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (NCB) a clear path forward towards the detection of the CνB. We show that gravitational focusing by the Sun causes the expected neutrino capture rate to modulate annually. The amplitude and phase of the modulation depend on the phase-space distribution of the local neutrino background, which is perturbed by structure formation. These results also apply to searches for sterile neutrinos at NCB experiments. Gravitational focusing is the only source of modulation for neutrino capture experiments, in contrast to dark-matter direct-detection searches where the Earth's time-dependent velocity relative to the Sun also plays a role.

  20. A general approach for temperature modulated thermogravimetry: Extension to non-periodical and event-controlled modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schawe, J.E.K., E-mail: juergen.schawe@mt.com

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • The temperature modulated TGA technique is expanded to non-periodic modulation functions. • The use of a stochastic modulation function is tested. • The concept of the new technique, the event controlled temperature modulated TGA is introduced. • The event control adapted the intensity of the modulation function and the characteristic modulation time. The result is an optimized modulation. - Abstract: Sinusoidal temperature modulated thermogravimetric analysis (TMTGA) has been proposed to get kinetic data on reactions that were investigated by TGA 45 years ago by Flynn and later by Blaine and Hahn. Because of general uncertainties of this technique, we developed a generalized approach for TMTGA using any modulation function, i.e., periodic as well as non-periodic. As a consequence of an error discussion of a TMDSC experiment, we present a new concept of the event controlled modulation function.

  1. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  2. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  3. Lattice-induced modulators at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Guillermo A; Peralta, Xomalin G

    2017-12-01

    We measured the transmission spectra of an array of split-ring resonators (SRRs) up to 10 terahertz for parallel and perpendicular polarizations. Calculations of the lattice and plasmon mode dispersion relations, in combination with electromagnetic simulations, confirm the presence of multiple higher-order lattice and plasmon modes. We modify the quality factor of higher-order plasmon resonances by modulating the lattice-plasmon mode coupling via changes in the period of the array. We also propose single frequency switches and a broadband dual-state amplitude modulator based on structured illumination that actively modifies the period of the SRR array.

  4. Planar Silicon Optical Waveguide Light Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistiko, Otto; Bak, H.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of a new type of optical waveguide based on planar technology in which the liglht guiding and modulation are achieved by exploiting free carrier effects in silicon are presented. Light is guided between the n+ substrate and two p+ regions, which also...... that values in the nanosecond region should be possible, however, the measured values are high, 20 microseconds, due to the large area of the injector junctions, 1× 10¿2 cm2, and the limitations imposed by the detection circuit. The modulating properties of these devices are impressive, measurements...

  5. Modulated Field Synchronous Generator for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modern electromechanical conversion systemsolution as the modulated field synchronous generator, offering on theone hand, an output voltage with constant frequency in terms of speedvariation of the wind turbine and on the other hand an advantagepower / weight ratio due to the high frequency for which the magneticcircuit of the electric machine is sized. The mathematical model of the modulated field synchronous generator is implemented in MatLABmodeling language, highlighting the command structure on thetransistors bases of the inverter transistors, through which thefunctioning of the electric machine can be studied, especially in terms of the frequency of the delivered voltage.

  6. Nuclear structures: Twinning and modulation in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petříček, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Crystal structure analysis is a standard technique routinely applied to single crystals as well as powders. However the process is not so straightforward if the crystal sample is affected by twinning or if the structure is modulated. In such cases the standard procedures are not directly applicable. The main purpose of this contribution is to show how to solve and refine such difficult structures. While for twinned structures the basic property of crystal - translation symmetry in three dimensional space-remains valid, for modulated crystals a special superspace theory must be exploited in order to describe the atomic structure with crystallographic methods generalized for superspace.

  7. Testing Apache Modules with Python and Ctypes

    OpenAIRE

    Litz, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Writing tests for your Apache module is often a developer's least favourite task, especially if you don't like using the Perl Apache Testing Framework! One of the main reasons for this is that it's difficult to test your C code on-the-fly without a running Apache server. Using ctypes, you can test your modules without a running httpd, just by writing and using simple Python scripts! In this talk we will look at how to compile a specific version of the Apache webserver for testing, and how to ...

  8. Vagus nerve modulation of inflammation: Cardiovascular implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve modulates inflammatory responses in various organ systems. Emerging evidence indicates that the vagus can have profound and complex effects on cardiovascular function, remodeling, arrhythmias, and mortality by several mechanisms. In heart failure and during ischemia, an adverse inflammatory response can occur. The vagus nerve may modulate cardiovascular disease and outcomes by affecting inflammatory responses. Here, evidence for and components of the vagus inflammatory reflex are reviewed and evidence for and implications of effects of vagus activation on inflammation in the cardiovascular system are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  10. Analysis of Pulse Modulated Control Systems (Ⅲ) Stability of Systems with Pulse Frequency Modulation and Systems with Combined Pulse Frequency and Pulse Width Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    OI,Shigemitsu

    1993-01-01

    Sufficient conditions for finite pulse stability of interconnected systems with combined pulse frequency and pulse width modulation are developed in this paper using a direct method. The stability criteria established provide upper bounds on the number of pulses emitted by each modulator. The results are also applicable to those systems which contain a finite number of pulse frequency modulators and a finite number of combined pulse frequency and pulse width modulators

  11. Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, C.

    2008-06-15

    Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

  12. A design of optical modulation system with pixel-level modulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiwei; Qu, Xinghua; Feng, Wei; Liang, Baoqiu

    2018-01-01

    Vision measurement has been widely used in the field of dimensional measurement and surface metrology. However, traditional methods of vision measurement have many limits such as low dynamic range and poor reconfigurability. The optical modulation system before image formation has the advantage of high dynamic range, high accuracy and more flexibility, and the modulation accuracy is the key parameter which determines the accuracy and effectiveness of optical modulation system. In this paper, an optical modulation system with pixel level accuracy is designed and built based on multi-points reflective imaging theory and digital micromirror device (DMD). The system consisted of digital micromirror device, CCD camera and lens. Firstly we achieved accurate pixel-to-pixel correspondence between the DMD mirrors and the CCD pixels by moire fringe and an image processing of sampling and interpolation. Then we built three coordinate systems and calculated the mathematic relationship between the coordinate of digital micro-mirror and CCD pixels using a checkerboard pattern. A verification experiment proves that the correspondence error is less than 0.5 pixel. The results show that the modulation accuracy of system meets the requirements of modulation. Furthermore, the high reflecting edge of a metal circular piece can be detected using the system, which proves the effectiveness of the optical modulation system.

  13. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  14. A Comparison of Modulation Techniques for Modular Multilevel Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Moranchel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparison of three different modulation techniques applied to modular multilevel converters (MMCs. The three modulation strategies studied in this paper are the phase-shifted sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PS-SPWM, the space-vector modulation (SVM and the nearest level modulation (NLM. This paper focuses on analysing the particularities and implementation of each modulation technique. The modulation technique largely defines the generated harmonic content, making this is a key point that must be studied in depth. The paper briefly describes the three modulation techniques and analyses the harmonics generated by each one of the methods. In addition, the paper presents and compares the digital implementation of the three modulation methods in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The proposed approaches are validated using a real processing platform and experimentally evaluated in a real high-power six-level MMC.

  15. VME Data Acquisition Modules for MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, B.; /fermilab

    2010-01-01

    This document describes two VME modules developed for MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The Chain ReadOut Controller (CROC) module has four serial data channels and can interface with up to 48 front-ends using standard CAT5e networking cable. The data transmission rate of each channel is 160 Mbit/s. The maximum data transmission rate via VME bus is {approx}18 MB/s. The Chain Readout Interface Module (CRIM) is designed to provide various interface functions for the CROC module. It is compatible with MINOS MTM timing module and can be used to distribute timing signals to four CROC modules. The CRIM module also has a data port compatible with the CROC serial data interface. The data port can be used for diagnostic purpose and can generate triggers from front-end events. The CRIM module is a standard D08(O) interrupter module.

  16. Designing Online Learning Modules in Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Weintraub, Randi J.; Breslin, Whitney; Carpenter, Katie C.; Strohacker, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Online-learning environment can substantially improve student learning and retention of key health concepts. In this case report, we describe our approach for the design of online learning modules to teach concepts in an undergraduate health science/kinesiology curriculum. This report describes our use of these concepts in two lower division and…

  17. An Instructional Module on Mokken Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is a probabilistic-nonparametric approach to item response theory (IRT) that can be used to evaluate fundamental measurement properties with less strict assumptions than parametric IRT models. This instructional module provides an introduction to MSA as a probabilistic-nonparametric framework in which to explore…

  18. Orthonormal bases for α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    We construct an orthonormal basis for the family of bi-variate a-modulation spaces. The construction is based on local trigonometric bases, and the basis elements are closely related to so-called brushlets. As an application, we show that m-term nonlinear approximation with the system in an a...

  19. Structural Modules Would Contain Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal, originally suggested for Spacecraft, is a set of uniformly sized mass-producible modular structural elements that contain electric, fluid, and other transmission lines. Since lines are encapsulated, they are less likely to be damaged. Module shell could be solid metal, sheet metal, honeycomb, fiberglass, plastic, composites, or wood.

  20. Endocannabinoid modulation of dopaminergic motor circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eMorera-Herreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia, a forebrain system that integrates cortical information to coordinate motor activity regulating signals. In fact, the administration of plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous cannabinoids produces several effects on motor function. These effects are mediated primarily through the CB1 receptors that are densely located in the dopamine-enriched basal ganglia networks, suggesting that the motor effects of endocannabinoids are due, at least in part, to modulation of dopaminergic transmission.On the other hand, there are profound changes in CB1 receptor cannabinoid signaling in the basal ganglia circuits after dopamine depletion (as happens in Parkinson´s disease and following L-DOPA replacement therapy. Therefore, it has been suggested that endocannabinoid system modulation may constitute an important component in new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of motor disturbances. In this article we will review studies supporting the endocannabinoid modulation of dopaminergic motor circuits.

  1. Active strain modulation in field effect devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, T.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2012-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel feature for the transistor: a piezo-electric layer for strain modulation of the channel. The strain is formed at strong inversion only, to obtain a lower threshold voltage, but will be absent in the off-state to preserve the unstrained leakage current. Our results,

  2. Methods for Electrodepositing Composition-Modulated Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, Peter; Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Tang, Peter Torben

    1996-01-01

    Materials exhibiting unique mechanical, physical and chemical properties can be obtained by combining thin layers of different metals or alloys forming a multilayered structure. Two general techniques exist for electrodepositing composition-modulated alloy (CMA) materials; dual-bath and single...

  3. Markov-modulated and feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.

    1998-01-01

    In the last twenty years the field of Markov-modulated fluid queues has received considerable attention. In these models a fluid reservoir receives and/or releases fluid at rates which depend on the actual state of a background Markov chain. In the first chapter of this thesis we give a short

  4. Obliquity Modulation of the Incoming Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on a basic principle of orbital resonance, we have identified a huge deficit of solar radiation induced by the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity as possibly the causal mechanism for ice age glaciation. Including this modulation effect on solar radiation, we have performed model simulations of climate change for the past 2 million years. Simulation results show that: (1) For the past 1 million years, temperature fluctuation cycles were dominated by a 100-Kyr period due to amplitude-frequency resonance effect of the obliquity; (2) From 2 to 1 million years ago, the amplitude-frequency interactions. of the obliquity were so weak that they were not able to stimulate a resonance effect on solar radiation; (3) Amplitude and frequency modulation analysis on solar radiation provides a series of resonance in the incoming solar radiation which may shift the glaciation cycles from 41-Kyr to 100-Kyr about 0.9 million years ago. These results are in good agreement with the marine and continental paleoclimate records. Thus, the proposed climate response to the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity may be the key to understanding the glaciation puzzles in paleoclimatology.

  5. Spatial light modulation for mode conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    We demonstrate patented techniques for generating tuneable complex field distributions for controllable coupling to high-order guided modes of micro-structured fibres. The optical Fourier transform of binary phase-only patterns which are encoded on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator...

  6. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  7. Top-down modulation, emotion, and hallucination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, A; Kahn, RS

    2002-01-01

    We argue that the pivotal role assigned by Northoff to the principle of top-down modulation in catatonia might successfully be applied to other symptoms of schizophrenia, for example, hallucinations. Second, we propose that Northoffs account would benefit from a more comprehensive analysis of the

  8. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    -frequency adaptation, pharmacological modulation of SK channels may be of significant clinical importance. Here we report the functional expression of SK3 in HEK293 and demonstrate a broad pharmacological profile for these channels. Brain slice studies commonly employ 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to block voltage...

  9. Modulation of chromatin access during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    Cellular development requires reprogramming of the genome to modulate the gene program of the undifferentiated cell and allow expression of the gene program unique to differentiated cells. A number of key transcription factors involved in this reprogramming of preadipocytes to adipocytes have been...

  10. Spectrum-Modulating Fiber-Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Fritsch, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Family of spectrum-modulating fiber-optic sensors undergoing development for use in aircraft-engine control systems. Fiber-optic sensors offer advantages of small size, high bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and light weight. Furthermore, they reduce number of locations on aircraft to which electrical power has to be supplied.

  11. Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis) modulate the hepatic inflammatory and antioxidant metabolism activity in rats fed high-fat diets. Marcos Vidal Martins, Izabela Maria Montezano de Carvalho, Mônica Maria Magalhães Caetano, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Antônio Avelar Xavier, José Humberto de Queiroz ...

  12. Evaluation of PV Module Field Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, John; Silverman, Timothy; Miller, David C.; McNutt, Peter; Kempe, Michael; Deceglie, Michael

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes an effort to inspect and evaluate PV modules in order to determine what failure or degradation modes are occurring in field installations. This paper will report on the results of six site visits, including the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Hedge Array, Tucson Electric Power (TEP) Springerville, Central Florida Utility, Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), the TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification.

  13. Teaching Modules for Nine Plays by Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denzell

    The nine modules presented in this paper are designed to guide students in a one-semester Shakespeare Course through the reading of three Shakespearean tragedies ("Hamlet,""Othello," and "Macbeth"), three comedies ("Midsummer Night's Dream,""Merchant of Venice," and "The Tempest"), and…

  14. CALIBRATION ET VALIDATION DU MODULE PHOSPHORE DU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RECOMMANDATIONS SPECIFIQUES D'ENGRAIS: CALIBRATION ET VALIDATION DU MODULE PHOSPHORE DU MODELE NuMaSS. M. D. Doumbia, A. Sidibé, A. Bagayoko, M. A. Diarra, A. Bationo, R. A. Kablan, R. S. Yost, L. R. Hossner, F. M. Hons ...

  15. Incommensurate lattice modulations in Potassium Vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Banerjee, Arnab; Mark, Lumsden; Cao, Huibo; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hoffman, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping

    Potassium Vanadate (K2V3O8) is an S = 1/2 2D square lattice antiferromagnet that shows spin reorientation indicating a strong coupling between the magnetism and its dielectric properties with a promise of rich physics that promises multiferroicity. These tangible physical properties are strongly tied through a spin-lattice coupling to the underlying lattice and superlattice behavior. It has a superlattice (SL) onsetting below Tc = 115 K with an approximate [3 x 3 x 2] modulation. Here we present our recent experiments at TOPAZ beamline at SNS which for the first time proves conclusively that the lattice modulations are incommensurate, with an in-plane Q of 0.315. We will also show our attempts to refine the data using JANA which requires a redefinition of the lattice, as well as the temperature and Q dependence of the superlattice modulation measured using neutrons at HFIR and synchrotron x-rays at APS. Our results are not only relevant for the ongoing search of multifunctional behavior in K2V3O8 but also generally for the superlattice modulations observed in a large family of fresnoites. Work performed at ORNL and ANL is supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of User Facilities Division.

  16. Coherent pulse position modulation quantum cipher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    On the basis of fundamental idea of Yuen, we present a new type of quantum random cipher, where pulse position modulated signals are encrypted in the picture of quantum Gaussian wave form. We discuss the security of our proposed system with a phase mask encryption.

  17. Optimal Modulator with Loudspeaker Parameter Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Nicolai J.; Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Today, most class-D amplifier designs are able to deliver high efficiency and low distortion. However, the effect ofparasitic components and speaker dynamics are not taken into account, resulting in a degradation of the performance.This paper proposes a new PWM modulator which is able to capture ...

  18. Light Microscopy Module (LMM)-Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.; Richards, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is a microscope facility developed at Glenn Research Center (GRC) that provides researchers with powerful imaging capability onboard the International Space Station (ISS). LMM has the ability to have its hardware recongured on-orbit to accommodate a wide variety of investigations, with the capability of remotely acquiring and downloading digital images across multiple levels of magnication.

  19. A general-purpose VME module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. N.; Gao, Z. W.; Chang, M. C.; Li, H. H.; Wang, M. Z.

    2003-10-01

    A general-purpose Versa Module Europa (VME) module has been developed for trigger and DAQ application. It takes advantage of the flexibility of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and the modularity of personality cards. It can perform different functions without hardware modification simply by changing the design of the firmware in the FPGA. Higher gate-count FPGAs can also be used for more complex logic applications. The personality card is mainly used for adapting TTL to various level standards at the front panel. A personality card, featuring a 12-bit DAC and analog switch that generates calibration pulses, has also been designed. An example of FPGA program for a "4-channel 16-bit scaler" is also presented in this paper. The concept of a general-purpose VME module can also be extended to CAMAC, cPCI (compact peripheral component interconnect), or other modular standards. Several logic functions can be combined in one module, which is especially useful for trigger and DAQ control of a small experiment.

  20. Modulation of pancreatic carcinogenesis by antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen van -Hoetmer, A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously performed short-term (4-month) studies demonstrated that vitamins C and E, β-carotene and selenium modulate growth of early putative preneoplastic acinar lesions induced in rat pancreas by azaserine. The present paper summarizes the results of long-term studies performed with

  1. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  2. Wireline equalization using pulse-width modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-High-speed data links over copper cables can be effectively equalized using pulse-width modulation (PWM) pre-emphasis. This provides an alternative to the usual 2-tap FIR filters. The use of PWM pre-emphasis allows a channel loss at the Nyquist frequency of ~30dB, compared to ~20dB for a

  3. Electro-optic Charon polymeric microring modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Daniele; Jazbinsek, Mojca; Guarino, Andrea; Kwon, O-Pil; Günter, Peter

    2008-01-21

    We propose and demonstrate a new type of electro-optic polymeric microring resonators, where the shape of the transmission spectrum is controlled by losses and phase shifts induced at the asymmetric directional coupler between the cavity and the bus waveguide. The theoretical analysis of such Charon microresonators shows, depending on the coupler design, three different transmission characteristics: normal Lorentzian dips, asymmetric Fano resonances, and Lorentzian peaks. The combination of the active azo-stilbene based polyimide SANDM2 surrounded by the hybrid polymer Ormocomp allowed the first experimental demonstration of electro-optic modulation in Charon microresonators. The low-loss modulators (down to 0.6 dB per round trip), with a radius of 50 microm, were produced by micro-embossing and exhibit either highly asymmetric and steep Fano resonances with large 43-GHz modulation bandwidth or strong resonances with 11-dB extinction ratio. We show that Charon microresonators can lead to 1-V half wave voltage all-polymer micrometer-scale devices with larger tolerances to coupler fabrication limitations and wider modulation bandwidths than classical ring resonators.

  4. Positive Affect Modulates Flexibility and Evaluative Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The ability to interact with a constantly changing environment requires a balance between maintaining the currently relevant working memory content and being sensitive to potentially relevant new information that should be given priority access to working memory. Mesocortical dopamine projections to frontal brain areas modulate working memory…

  5. Improving microphage innate immunity by modulating protein ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving microphage innate immunity by modulating protein tyrosine phosphatases: The complete mouse and human PTPomes. Diseases that result from an infection are most often resolved by cells that use an immune response to clear foreign agents. These cells include macrophages, which are the predominant type of ...

  6. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  7. The Zig Zag Machine. Module 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the zig zag machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the zig zag machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  8. Students' perceptions on feedback module in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Varsha J; Malhotra, Supriya D; Rana, Devang A

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is an integral part of formative assessment though underutilized in medical education. The objective of this study was to review our feedback module through students' perceptions. We have developed a feedback module which is practiced by us for last 10 years for term ending examination that gives collective feedback to the whole class, followed by individual student-teacher interactions. Students were also exposed to 6-7 multiple choice questions (MCQs) based assessment during the course of pharmacology. Immediately after each MCQ test the answer keys is displayed along with an explanation. Two classes of students were requested to give their perceptions about the feedback by responding on Likert scale for the statements in the questionnaire. All the 206 students who volunteered for the study were enrolled in the study. Mann-Whitney test was used to calculate the difference in perceptions. Of 278 students of two classes, 206 responded (74%). Students' agreement varied from 93% to 98% for 5 items in the questionnaire for the feedback after term ending examinations. Perception of students attending one or more than one feedback session did not differ significantly. For MCQs, tests agreement was 91% to 98% for the 4 items. There was no significant difference between two classes in their perceptions regarding feedback practices (P feedback module. In the medical colleges with a large number of students, this module is feasible for feedback in formative assessment in the form of written tests.

  9. Public Transportation Pricing: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWha, Charley

    A concept-based introduction to public transportation pricing is presented in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business administration, and technology. After an introductory section on transportation pricing planning and the history of transportation system…

  10. Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

  11. Perceptual grouping determines haptic contextual modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, K.E.; Sayim, B.

    Since the early phenomenological demonstrations of Gestalt principles, one of the major challenges of Gestalt psychology has been to quantify these principles. Here, we show that contextual modulation, i.e. the influence of context on target perception, can be used as a tool to quantify perceptual

  12. Perceptual grouping determines haptic contextual modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, K. E.; Sayim, B.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early phenomenological demonstrations of Gestalt principles, one of the major challenges of Gestalt psychology has been to quantify these principles. Here, we show that contextual modulation, i.e. the influence of context on target perception, can be used as a tool to quantify perceptual

  13. Regulatory modules in the developing heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Petra E. M. H.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.

    2003-01-01

    Fragments of regulatory DNA of cardiac genes drive reporter gene expression in sometimes unexpected subdomains of the heart. These patterns have revealed that the regulatory DNA of genes consists of distinct subfragments (regulatory modules) that are active in different regions of the developing

  14. Quantum Cascade Lasers Modulation and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzhansky, Edward

    The mid-wave IR (MWIR) spectral band, extending from 3 to 5 microns, is considered to be a low loss atmospheric window. There are several spectral sub-bands with relatively low atmospheric attenuation in this region making it popular for various commercial and military applications. Relatively low thermal and solar background emissions, effective penetration through the natural and anthropogenic obscurants and eye safety add to the long list of advantages of MWIR wavelengths. Quantum Cascade Lasers are compact semiconductor devices capable of operating in MWIR spectrum. They are based on inter-subband transitions in a multiple-quantum-well (QW) hetero-structure, designed by means of band-structure engineering. The inter-subband nature of the optical transition has several key advantages. First, the emission wavelength is primarily a function of the QW thickness. This characteristic allows choosing well-understood and reliable semiconductors for the generation of light in a wavelength range of interest. Second, a cascade process in which tens of photons are generated per injected electron. This cascading process is behind the intrinsic high-power capabilities of QCLs. This dissertation is focused on modulation properties of Quantum Cascade Lasers. Both amplitude and phase/frequency modulations were studied including modulation bandwidth, modulation efficiency and chirp linearity. Research was consisted of the two major parts. In the first part we describe the theory of frequency modulation (FM) response of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers (DFB QCL). It includes cascading effect on the QCL's maximum modulation frequency. The "gain levering" effect for the maximum FM response of the two section QCLs was studied as well. In the second part of research we concentrated on the Pulse Position Amplitude Modulation of a single section QCL. The low complexity, low size, weight and power Mid-Wavelength Infra-Red optical communications transceiver concept is

  15. Transporting the last superconducting module to be removed from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    All 72 of LEP's superconducting modules have now been raised to the surface. Some 80% will be preserved at CERN, with 10% being reused for the LHC and a further 10% of obsolete non-radioactive material destined for recycling. These pictures show the last of these modules on its journey from PM18 to the old ISR tunnel where the modules will be stored in the short term. Photo 01: The Ansaldo 1020 module leaves PM18 by lorry. Photo 03: The module on the SM18 site. Photos 06, 08: The module on the road.

  16. 2D Finite Element Model of a CIGS Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Slooff, L.H.; Bende, E.E. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O.Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    The performance of thin-film CIGS (Copper indium gallium selenide) modules is often limited due to inhomogeneities in CIGS layers. A 2-dimensional Finite Element Model for CIGS modules is presented that predicts the impact of such inhomogeneities on the module performance. Results are presented of a module with a region of poor diode characteristics. It is concluded that according to this model the effects of poor diodes depend strongly on their location in the module and on their dispersion over the module surface. Due to its generic character the model can also be applied to other series connections of photovoltaic cells.

  17. Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Elisabetta; Travaglione, Antonella; Chaurasia, Gautam; Futschik, Matthias; Capobianco, Enrico

    2010-07-23

    The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated) data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.

  18. Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia Gautam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. Results We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Conclusions Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.

  19. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars; Dotter, Aaron; Herwig, Falk; Lesaffre, Pierre; Timmes, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Stellar physics and evolution calculations enable a broad range of research in astrophysics. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is a suite of open source, robust, efficient, thread-safe libraries for a wide range of applications in computational stellar astrophysics. A one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESAstar, combines many of the numerical and physics modules for simulations of a wide range of stellar evolution scenarios ranging from very low mass to massive stars, including advanced evolutionary phases. MESAstar solves the fully coupled structure and composition equations simultaneously. It uses adaptive mesh refinement and sophisticated timestep controls, and supports shared memory parallelism based on OpenMP. State-of-the-art modules provide equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, element diffusion data, and atmosphere boundary conditions. Each module is constructed as a separate Fortran 95 library with its own explicitly defined public interface to facilitate independent development. Several detailed examples indicate the extensive verification and testing that is continuously performed and demonstrate the wide range of capabilities that MESA possesses. These examples include evolutionary tracks of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets to very old ages; the complete evolutionary track of a 1 M sun star from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to a cooling white dwarf; the solar sound speed profile; the evolution of intermediate-mass stars through the He-core burning phase and thermal pulses on the He-shell burning asymptotic giant branch phase; the interior structure of slowly pulsating B Stars and Beta Cepheids; the complete evolutionary tracks of massive stars from the PMS to the onset of core collapse; mass transfer from stars undergoing Roche lobe overflow; and the evolution of helium accretion onto a neutron star. MESA can be downloaded from the project Web site (http://mesa.sourceforge.net/).

  20. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Note: Demodulation of spectral signal modulated by optical chopper with unstable modulation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhao; Li, Gang; Wang, Jiexi; Wang, Donggen; Han, Ying; Cao, Hui; Lin, Ling; Diao, Chunhong

    2017-10-01

    When an optical chopper is used to modulate the light source, the rotating speed of the wheel may vary with time and subsequently cause jitter of the modulation frequency. The amplitude calculated from the modulated signal would be distorted when the frequency fluctuations occur. To precisely calculate the amplitude of the modulated light flux, we proposed a method to estimate the range of the frequency fluctuation in the measurement of the spectrum and then extract the amplitude based on the sum of power of the signal in the selected frequency range. Experiments were designed to test the feasibility of the proposed method and the results showed lower root means square error than the conventional way.

  2. The modulation and demodulation module of a high resolution MOEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xufen; Bai, Jian; Lu, Qianbo; Lou, Shuqi

    2016-02-01

    A MOEMS accelerometer with high precision based on grating interferometer is demonstrated in this paper. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and accuracy, a specific modulator and an orthogonal phase-lock demodulator are proposed. Phase modulation is introduced to this accelerometer by applying a sinusoidal signal to a piezoelectric translator (PZT) amounted to the accelerometer. Phase demodulation module consists of a circuit design and a digital design. In the circuit design, the modulated light intensity signal is converted to a voltage signal and processed. In the digital part, the demodulator is mainly composed of a Band Pass Filter, two Phase-Sensitive Detectors, a phase shifter, and two Low Pass Filters based on virtual instrument. Simulation results indicate that this approach can decrease the noise greatly, and the SNR of this demodulator is 50dB and the relative error is less than 4%.

  3. Efficient Implementation of Complex Modulated Filter Banks Using Cosine and Sine Modulated Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viholainen Ari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB is a -channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR property if the prototype filter of an -channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.

  4. 40 Gbaud binary phase shift keying signal modulation using a substrate removed silicon modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaofeng; Xiao, Xi; Yang, Qi; Yu, Shaohua

    2017-07-01

    Substrate removing technique is proposed in silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) to improve the electro-optic bandwidth. Based on this technique, a silicon MZM with 3 dB electro-optical bandwidth of 55 GHz is achieved at 5 V reverse bias for the first time. The Vπṡ L of the modulator is 1.3 Vṡcm with an on-chip insertion loss of 5.4 dB. The substrate removing technique reduces the electrode transmission loss, achieves the electro-optical group index matching and realizes 50 Ω impedance matching, simultaneously. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate BPSK modulation based on this modulator at the baud rate up to 56 Gb/s.

  5. Characteristics of spectro-temporal modulation frequency selectivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Arne; Verhey, Jesko L

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that the auditory system shows frequency selectivity for spectro-temporal modulations. A recent study of the authors has shown spectro-temporal modulation masking patterns that were in agreement with the hypothesis of spectro-temporal modulation filters in the human auditory system [Oetjen and Verhey (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137(2), 714-723]. In the present study, that experimental data and additional data were used to model this spectro-temporal frequency selectivity. The additional data were collected to investigate to what extent the spectro-temporal modulation-frequency selectivity results from a combination of a purely temporal amplitude-modulation filter and a purely spectral amplitude-modulation filter. In contrast to the previous study, thresholds were measured for masker and target modulations with opposite directions, i.e., an upward pointing target modulation and a downward pointing masker modulation. The comparison of this data set with previous corresponding data with the same direction from target and masker modulations indicate that a specific spectro-temporal modulation filter is required to simulate all aspects of spectro-temporal modulation frequency selectivity. A model using a modified Gabor filter with a purely temporal and a purely spectral filter predicts the spectro-temporal modulation masking data.

  6. Optical spectral reshaping for directly modulated 4-pulse amplitude modulation signals

    OpenAIRE

    Ozolins, Oskars; Da Ros, Francesco; Cristofori, Valentina; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard; Chaibi, Mohamed; Bramerie, Laurent; Popov, Sergei; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Peucheret, Christophe; Jacobsen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The tremendous traffic growth in intra/inter-datacenters requires low-cost high-speed integrated solutions. To enable a significantly reduced footprint directly modulated lasers (DMLs) have been proposed instead of large external modulators. However, it is challenging to use DMLs due to their low dispersion tolerance and limited achievable extinction ratio (ER). A promising solution to this problem is optical spectral reshaping (OSR) since it is possible to increase th...

  7. Research on Transmission Performance of Different Modulation Formats Based on Re-modulation WDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, He

    2017-05-01

    Dispersion and nonlinear effects will increase the effect on the system when the optical information transmits in high speed and long distance. The new optical modulation technology can reduce the attenuation caused by transmission procedure. In this paper, OptiSystem and Matlab were combined to set a model by comparing the dispersion tolerance and nonlinear effect of different code modulation formats. After that, the better performance code of IRZ (Inverse Return-to-Zero) and DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shifted Keying) will be used to study their properties in 10Gbit/s re-modulation WDM-PON access model. The DQPSK was used in downlink, IRZ modulation was used in uplink adopts the IRZ modulation was used in 10 Gbit/s re-modulation WDM passive optical network access model uplink on the basis of the above method. A simulation analysis is also made between the different duty ratios of the DQPSK and IRZ. Compared with the NRZ type, the IRZ has a better anti-dispersion property, channel crosstalk suppression ability and higher spectrum efficiency although it costs 3 dB powers. At the same time, it simplifies the structure of the ONU on the premise of not increasing the power and the cost. So, it fits the large capacity requirements between user stations and the central office in the future.

  8. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  9. Debris Impact Detection Instrument for Crewed Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiela, J.; Corsaro, R.; Giovanes, F.; Lio, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    When micrometeoroid or debris impacts occur on a space habitat, crew members need to be quickly informed of the likely extent of damage, and be directed to the impact location for possible repairs. This is especially important because the outer walls of pressurized volumes are often not easily accessible, blocked by racks or cabinets. The goal of the Habitat Particle Impact Monitoring System (HIMS) is to develop a fully automated, end-to-end particle impact detection system for crewed space exploration modules. The HIMS uses multiple passive, thin film piezo-polymer vibration sensors to detect impacts on a surface, and computer processing of the acoustical signals to characterize the impacts. Development and demonstration of the HIMS is proceeding in concert with NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Project. The HDU Project is designed to develop and test various technologies, configurations, and operational concepts for exploration habitats. This paper describes the HIMS development, initial testing, and HDU integration efforts. Initial tests of the system on the HDU were conducted at NASA s 2010 and 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (Desert-RATS or D-RATS). The HDU lab module, as seen from above, has an open circular floorplan divided into eight wedge-shaped Segments. The side wall of the module -- the surface used for this technology demonstration -- is a hard fiberglass composite covered with a layer of sprayed-on foam insulation. Four sensor locations were assigned near the corners of a rectangular pattern on the wall of one segment of the HDU lab module. The flat, self-adhesive sensors were applied to the module during its initial outfitting. To study the influence of the wall s construction (thickness and materials), three sets of four sensors were installed at different layer depths: on the interior of the module s wall, on the exterior of the same wall, and on the exterior of the foam insulation. The signal produced when a vibration passes

  10. Tuning of human modulation filters is carrier-frequency dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J R Simpson

    Full Text Available Recent studies employing speech stimuli to investigate 'cocktail-party' listening have focused on entrainment of cortical activity to modulations at syllabic (5 Hz and phonemic (20 Hz rates. The data suggest that cortical modulation filters (CMFs are dependent on the sound-frequency channel in which modulations are conveyed, potentially underpinning a strategy for separating speech from background noise. Here, we characterize modulation filters in human listeners using a novel behavioral method. Within an 'inverted' adaptive forced-choice increment detection task, listening level was varied whilst contrast was held constant for ramped increments with effective modulation rates between 0.5 and 33 Hz. Our data suggest that modulation filters are tonotopically organized (i.e., vary along the primary, frequency-organized, dimension. This suggests that the human auditory system is optimized to track rapid (phonemic modulations at high sound-frequencies and slow (prosodic/syllabic modulations at low frequencies.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 3: Special Issues, Page 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module further describes and provides strategies for reviewing some of the label parts introduced in Module 2 of the pesticide label training, such as precautionary statements, directions for use, worker protection labeling, and more.

  12. Man and Energy, Module C. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module investigates solar energy, ecology, and fossil fuels. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  13. The benefits of multibit chaotic sigma delta modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, J. D.; Sandler, M. B.

    2001-06-01

    Sigma delta modulation is a popular technique for high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion and digital-to-analog conversion. We investigate chaotic phenomena in multibit first-order sigma-delta modulators. Particular attention is placed on the occurrence of periodic orbits or limit cycles. These may result in idle tones audible to the listener when sigma-delta modulation is used for audio signal processing. One suggested method of eliminating idle tones is the operation of a sigma delta modulator in the chaotic regime. Unfortunately, chaotic modulation of a first order sigma delta modulator is a poor system for signal processing. We show that minor variations on a traditional first order sigma-delta modulator, together with a multibit implementation, may be used to produce an effective, stable chaotic modulator that accurately encodes the input and helps remove the presence of idle tones. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Active terahertz wave modulator based on molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Guocui; Wang, Wei; Ji, Hongyu; Shen, Jingling

    2017-11-01

    A high-efficiency active terahertz wave modulator based on a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/germanium (Ge) structure was investigated. Spectrally broadband modulation of the THz transmission was obtained using optical control over the frequency range from 0.2 to 2.6 THz. The MoS2 monolayer structure on germanium demonstrated enhancement of the terahertz modulation depth when compared with those of bare Ge and the graphene/Ge structures. The results show that the MoS2-based modulator demonstrated even higher modulation efficiency than the graphene-based device. The modulation enhancement mechanism that originated from increased conductivity was analyzed. The optical modulation properties of the MoS2/Ge device show tremendous promise for applications in terahertz modulation and switching.

  15. Tuning of Human Modulation Filters Is Carrier-Frequency Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Reiss, Joshua D.; McAlpine, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies employing speech stimuli to investigate ‘cocktail-party’ listening have focused on entrainment of cortical activity to modulations at syllabic (5 Hz) and phonemic (20 Hz) rates. The data suggest that cortical modulation filters (CMFs) are dependent on the sound-frequency channel in which modulations are conveyed, potentially underpinning a strategy for separating speech from background noise. Here, we characterize modulation filters in human listeners using a novel behavioral method. Within an ‘inverted’ adaptive forced-choice increment detection task, listening level was varied whilst contrast was held constant for ramped increments with effective modulation rates between 0.5 and 33 Hz. Our data suggest that modulation filters are tonotopically organized (i.e., vary along the primary, frequency-organized, dimension). This suggests that the human auditory system is optimized to track rapid (phonemic) modulations at high sound-frequencies and slow (prosodic/syllabic) modulations at low frequencies. PMID:24009759

  16. Module-Integrated Power Converters Based on Universal Dock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Patrick; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-03-13

    Solar power installations using alternating current photovoltaic (ACPV) modules have significant cost and performance advantages over systems using conventional solar modules and string inverters. ACPV modules have improved energy harvest due to module-level power point tracking and redundancy. More importantly, ACPV modules are easier and cheaper to install, lowering the total installed cost, indirect costs, and barriers to market entry. Furthermore, ACPV modules have communications and data logging capability, yielding module-level telemetry data that is useful in site diagnostics and other data applications. The products of these efforts were threefold. First, an advanced microinverter power topology was developed, modeled, simulated, and tested. Second, new microinverter enclosure concepts were developed and tested. Third, a new ACPV module prototype was constructed, combining the power topology and the enclosure concepts. SolarBridge filed for patents in each of these areas and is transitioning the project from a concept phase to full development.

  17. Efficient and Compact Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continue development of a Compact Transmitter Module (CTM). Modules will be voltage controlled to adjust wavlength using temperature and drive current settings. The...

  18. CMS Silicon Tracker Module Assembly and Testing at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Coppage, Don; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Kahl, William E; Medel, E; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Sogut, Kenan; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Spiegel, Leonard; Ten, Timour Borisovich

    2005-01-01

    This note is intended to provide details on a recent activity at FNAL in which CMS Tracker Outer Barrel modules were assembled and tested as part of a qualification of some of the sensor fabrication lines. At the same time the note serves to document the assembly and testing operations at FNAL for CMS silicon tracker modules. Of the 88 modules produced fo the qualification study at FNAL, one module was outside the mechanical alignment specification. For module bonding an introduced failure rate of 4.0x10^-4 faults per channel was observed. Eighty-five of the modules passed the full set of electrical tests. Two of the failures could be attributed to the sensors and one to a problem with the front-end hybrid. Additionally, a couple of the passed modules drew unusually high leakage currents. The high current modules are discussed in some detail.

  19. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Yeol Wan [Ammunition Engineering Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hoon [Aerodynamics Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji Young [Transportation Environmental Research Team, Green Transport and Logistics Institute, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.

  20. Code division multiple access signaling for modulated reflector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briles, Scott D [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing code division multiple access in modulated reflectance transmissions comprises the steps of generating a phase-modulated reflectance data bit stream; modifying the modulated reflectance data bit stream; providing the modified modulated reflectance data bit stream to a switch that connects an antenna to an infinite impedance in the event a "+1" is to be sent, or connects the antenna to ground in the event a "0" or a "-1" is to be sent.