WorldWideScience

Sample records for pseudo-toxoplasmosis rubella cytomegalovirus

  1. Seroepidemiology study of cytomegalovirus and rubella among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Both CMV and rubella are more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to investigate sero-prevalence of CMV and rubella infection and ...

  2. Is antenatal screening for rubella and cytomegalovirus justified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Altogether 2 250 asymptomatic pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic were investigated for serological evidence of past exposure to rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) as well as for active primary infection or reinfection/ reactivation. Only 7 (0,3%) active rubella infections were diagnosed, none of them primary.

  3. Is antenatal screening for rubella and cytomegalovirus justified?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. D. SCHOUB, S. JOHNSON, J. M. McANERNEY, N. K. BLACKBURN,. F. GUIDOZZI, D. BALLOT, A. ROTHBERG. Abstract Altogether 2 250 asymptomatic pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic were investigated for serological evidence of past exposure to rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) as well as for active.

  4. Seroprevalence of Rubella and Cytomegalovirus Among Childbearing Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Pekinturk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV infection during pregnancy, can lead congenital infections causing serious abnormalities of fetus. Seronegative women%u2019s babies are under risk of congenital infections, for both of virus. In this study, determination of rubella and CMV seroprevalence among childbearing aged women who presented to our hospital%u2019s clinics is aimed. Material and Method: Rubella IgG antibodies were investigated in 5415 sera and CMV IgG in 576 sera of women between 15-49 ages, in our hospital central laboratory, between 1 November 2008 and 31 August 2010. Results: 5085 (93.9% of seras tested detected positive for Rubella IgG antibodies and 562 (97.6% seras were positive for CMV IgG. Discussion: It has been determined that, 6.1% of childbearing aged women whose test results are evaluated, are susceptible to rubella, 2.4% are susceptible to CMV and their babies are at risk group for congenital infections. Childbearing aged women must be screened for rubella and CMV antibodies, and seronegative ones must be instructed about congenital infections and precautions decreasing risk and vaccined for rubella.

  5. Seroepidemiology of Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex & Varicella zoster virus in college women of Bushehr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Barazesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acute viral infections such as cytomegalovirus, Rubella, Herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus in pregnant women can cause congenital infection with increased risk of developing congenital anomalies and morbidity. We aimed to identify young women susceptible to these viral infections in Bushehr. Materials and Methods: In 2009, 180 female were randomly selected from high schools and college students who were been assisted in marriage consulting clinics. In this cross sectional study, IgG antibodies against varicella zoster virus (VZV, Herpes simplex virus I,II (HSV I,II , Rubella & cytomegalovirus (CMV were determined by indirect enzyme immunoassay (ELISA technique. Results: Mean age of the participants was 18.72 years old. %99.4 and %95 of sera were positive for cytomegalovirus & Rubella respectively and also Antibodies against VZV & HSV were detected in %74.5 & %69.4 of samples. There were no significant correlation between antibody seropositivity and education level, living places (rural or urban and occupation. (P<0/05. Conclusion: Although, The findings of this study indicated that high prevalence rate of VZV &HSV 1,2 in child bearing age women, but 1/3 -1/4 of them, are still susceptible to these infections, so routine screening of these viruses is suggested in antenatal care.

  6. The assessment of affected factors on cytomegalovirus and rubella virus prevalence in females in Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Habibi, Haleh; Yousefi, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella are considered as dangerous viral infections to the fetus. The findings of this research can clear the possible progress made thus far toward prevention in this part of the country. The data of all referees to genetic center of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, including the rubella and CMV tests were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by logistic regression models. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to assess the affected factors on CMV and Rubella separately. STATA and SPSS16 statistical software were used with setting P-value as 0.05. Logistic regression analysis indicates a statistically significant relationship between CMV IgM and on occupation (P=0.045), pregnancy (P=0.03) and years of referring the patients (Ppregnancy (P=0.03), the marital status (P=0.022) and years of referring the patients (Prubella IgG. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that residential status (OR=1.77) and age (OR=0.63) were significantly affected on the Rubella infection. The high level of IgG positivity against rubella in females may highlight the considerable impact of increasing public vaccination in this part of Iran. Also, the current data demonstrating frequency of primary infections with CMV in females which support the conclusion that regular prenatal screening tests is justified.

  7. The assessment of affected factors on cytomegalovirus and rubella virus prevalence in females in Hamadan, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Sabouri Ghannad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV and rubella are considered as dangerous viral infections to the fetus. The findings of this research can clear the possible progress made thus far toward prevention in this part of the country. The data of all referees to genetic center of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, including the rubella and CMV tests were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by logistic regression models. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to assess the affected factors on CMV and Rubella separately. STATA and SPSS16 statistical software were used with setting P-value as 0.05. Logistic regression analysis indicates a statistically significant relationship between CMV IgM and on occupation (P=0.045, pregnancy (P=0.03 and years of referring the patients (P<0.001. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that job was significantly affected on the CMV infection [OR (95% C.I = 1.71(1.1-2.83]. Univariate logistic regression showed that age (P=0.001, the residential area (P=0.03, pregnancy (P=0.03, the marital status (P=0.022 and years of referring the patients (P<0.0001 has a significant effect on rubella IgG. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that residential status (OR=1.77 and age (OR=0.63 were significantly affected on the Rubella infection. The high level of IgG positivity against rubella in females may highlight the considerable impact of increasing public vaccination in this part of Iran. Also, the current data demonstrating frequency of primary infections with CMV in females which support the conclusion that regular prenatal screening tests is justified.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in congenital rubella virus and cytomegalovirus infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, K.; Ando, M.; Makino, M.; Takanashi, J.; Fujimoto, N.; Niimi, H. (Chiba Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1991-06-01

    Two children with congenital rubella virus and six with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, were examined by magnetic resonance (MR) and CT. Cranial MR imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and inversion recovery (IR) sequences demonstrated the following: Periventricular hyperintensity (4), subcortical hyperintensity (5), delayed myelination (4), oligo/pachygyria (2), cerebellar hypoplasia (2). This study showed that the more-disabled children had more marked abnormal MRI findings. MRI was more effective in the detection of parenchymal lesion than was CT, although intraventricular calcification was better visualized with CT. (orig.).

  9. Screening cytomegalovirus, rubella and toxoplasma infections in pregnant women with unknown pre-pregnancy serological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Meric; Batukan, Melike; Cebi, Ziya; Berberoglugil, Munip; Levent, Semra; Kır, Mustafa; Baksu, Alpaslan; Ozel, Emine; Camlıbel, Teksen

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of acute cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella and T. gondii infections among pregnant women who had no serological status tested for these microorganisms prior to pregnancy in a metropolitan area. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between January 2009 and January 2013 in 1,258 women presenting for their first antenatal visit (between 6 and 11 weeks of gestation). All women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies. Subsequently, avidity test was utilized for inconclusive results. They were followed until delivery and all newborns were examined by a pediatrician. Presence of IgM antibody positivity alone was not detected in any women. Avidity test excluded primary infection in 15 out of 16 (93.7 %) women who were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Amniocentesis was performed in one case with borderline IgG avidity for T. gondii. No primary infections were detected in any newborn for the infections screened. The prevalences of IgG antibodies were 95 % for rubella, 84.1 % for CMV and 23.1 % for T. gondii. Assessment of IgG and IgM antibodies followed by IgG avidity testing for inconclusive results may be an acceptable approach in pregnant women with unknown serological status prior to pregnancy. Utilization of IgG avidity as a supplemental test prevented unnecessary intervention in IgG and IgM antibodies positive patients. No primary infection was detected for CMV, rubella and T. gondii infections in the urban population screened.

  10. Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash. When a woman is infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy, she has a 90% chance of passing the virus on to her fetus. This can cause miscarriage, stillbirth or severe birth defects ... rubella syndrome Children with CRS can suffer hearing impairments, ...

  11. Seroepidemiology Study of Cytomegalovirus and Rubella among Pregnant Women at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshwondm, Mamuye; Balkachew, Nigatu; Delayehu, Bekele; Mekonen, Getahun

    2016-09-01

    Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Both CMV and rubella are more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to investigate sero-prevalence of CMV and rubella infection and associated possible risk factors. Using cross sectional study design a total of 200 pregnant women were consecutively recruited starting from June and July 2014. Blood samples were collected, and structured questions were used to gather socio-demographic and risk factor related data. ELISA was used to detect CMV (IgG, IgM) and rubella IgM. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data, and regression was also performed. Out of 200 pregnant women, 88.5%, 30(15.5%) and 4(2.0%) were CMV-IgG, CMV-IgM, and rubella-IgM positive, respectively. Women who were immune/positive only for IgG were 73.5%. The second group was those with primary infection [IgG (+) plus IgM (+)] and this consisted of 15.0% participants. Eleven percent of the participants were at high risk for primary infection during their pregnancy. One pregnant woman was identified as having a recent primary infection. In this study, no statistically significant association was detected between CMV infection with idependent factors (p-value>0.05). In addition to detection of high prevalence of CMV, detecting recent infection of rubella worsens the outcome of the disease. Rubella vaccine should be taken into consideration after large scale surveillance. However, screening of all pregnant women for CMV infection may not be cost-effective as in the countries with high seropositivity.

  12. Susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and age-dependent differences in levels of rubella antibodies among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlinn, Regine; Vainio, Kirsti; Samdal, Helvi Holm; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Nøkleby, Hanne; Dudman, Susanne G

    2014-05-01

    Infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19), and rubella can lead to serious complications in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to CMV, B19, and rubella antibodies in pregnant women in Norway. Consecutive sera samples were collected from pregnant women in two different regions in Norway. Sera were collected from age groups; ≤19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years old. Of the 2,000 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG was positive in 62.8% anti-parvovirus B19 IgG in 59.7% and anti-rubella IgG in 94.4%. CMV IgG susceptibility has decreased in pregnant women less than 30 years of age, from 60% in a study conducted in 1973-1974 to 37.2% in present study. There was a significant difference in CMV IgG seropositivity rate between the two regions (58.6% and 67.1%). Serum levels of rubella IgG was lowest in age group 25-29 years with a positivity rate of 91.0%. Women born before vaccination with two doses of MMR started, had both a higher positivity rate and significantly higher levels of rubella antibody titre, 96.1% and 82.2 IU/ml compared to those born after 92.9% and 41.7 IU/ml. Significantly lower anti-rubella IgG titre found in the youngest age groups highlights the need for continued antenatal screening. A considerable increase in anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity rate was observed and might be associated with higher rate of breastfeeding and a higher percentage attending day-care centres. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and hepatitis B, seroprevalences rate in the pregnant population in İstanbul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Keziban; Güraslan, Hakan; Özel, Gül; Aydan, Zerrin; Yaşar, Levent

    2014-12-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the rate of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B in Istanbul to compare these results with those of other literature and to contribute to the national screening program. The study was conducted in 2011 with women in the first trimester of pregnancy, with ages ranging between 16 and 48 years, in Bakırköy Training and Research Hospital's outpatient pregnancy clinic between January 2008 and January 2013. The mean age of pregnant women was 28.12±5.53, and the mean gravidity was 1.76+0.84.The seropositivities of T. gondii IgM and IgG, cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG, rubella IgM and IgG, VDRL (syphilis), HbsAg, anti-HBsAg were evaluated by ELISA method and evaluated in relation with age and parity. The seropositivity rates were as follows: T. gondii IgM: 0.8%, T. gondii IgG: 31.4%, cytomegalovirus IgM: 0.8%, cytomegalovirus IgG: 99.3%, rubella IgM: 0.2%, rubella IgG: 95.7%, VDRL: 0%, HbsAg: 1.2%, and anti-HbsAg: 26.3%. Also, pregnant women with T. gondii IgG(+) were older than pregnant women with T. gondii IgG(-), and this was statistically significant (pPregnant women with anti-HbsAg(+) were older than pregnant women with anti-HbsAg IgG(-), and this was statistically significant (ppregnant women with anti-HbsAg(+) had higher gravidity rates than pregnant women with anti-HbsAg(-), and this was statistically significant (phepatitis B should be extended, and educational programs including the whole country should be arranged. Screening of high-risk pregnant women will be more appropriate when considering the financial charges of screening programs performed for early detection of perinatal infections and for protecting the fetus.

  14. Cytomegalovirus and rubella seroprevalence in pregnant women in Izmir/Turkey: follow-up and results of pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Taner, Cüneyt Eftal; Cüce, Mete; Atalay, Sabri; Göl, Basak; Köse, Sükran; Uysal, Fatma

    2012-09-01

    It is aimed to determine the Rubella and CMV prevalence in the pregnant women in Izmir and to research the effect of these infections on the course of pregnancy in the pregnant women exposed to infection during pregnancy. The pregnant women applied to pregnancy outpatient department during 2001-2008 have been examined with enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (VIDAS; bioMérieux) method in terms of Rubella and CMV IgM and IgG antibodies and CMV IgG avidity test. Totally 5,959 pregnant women were included in the study. The seropositivity rates for Rubella and CMV were found as 97.8 and 98.3 %, IgM positivity rates were found as 0.37 and 0.18 %, respectively. Curettage was recommended to the pregnant women in which Rubella IgM positivity was detected in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Eight of the pregnant women in which IgM was found as positive after the 20th week of pregnancy were examined and three intrauterine growth retardation, one hypospadias and three normal deliveries were seen in these pregnant women. Any congenital anomaly finding was not detected in the pregnant women with positive CMV IgM. Seroprevalence values are high for Rubella and CMV in our region. It can be recommended not to check the pregnant women routinely for this purpose with the good implementation of Rubella vaccine programs.

  15. Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Paul; Lumley, Sheila

    2014-12-01

    To consider new treatment options for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, review recent trials, and anticipate their use in clinical practice, focussing on bone marrow transplantation, congenital infection, and intervention during pregnancy. Three double-blind randomized placebo-controlled phase 2 proof-of-concept studies have each identified a novel antiviral drug with activity against CMV infection in bone marrow transplant patients. One of these (brincidofovir) inhibits the DNA polymerase that is the target of the currently licensed drug ganciclovir. Another new drug (maribavir) inhibits a protein kinase which, coincidentally, is the enzyme responsible for activating ganciclovir through phosphorylation. The third drug (letermovir) inhibits the terminase enzyme complex responsible for packaging unit length DNA into assembling virions.In addition, in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in neonates with symptomatic congenital CMV infection, a 6-month course of valganciclovir was superior to the standard 6-week course of the same drug. In pregnant women with primary CMV infection, administration of hyperimmune immunoglobulin did not significantly reduce transmission of CMV across the placenta. The ability to diagnose CMV infections reliably in different clinical settings through application of molecular laboratory methods has ushered in new ways of evaluating potential new treatments for CMV. Several of these may help control the diseases caused by this important human pathogen.

  16. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA, RUBELLA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS -2 IN WOMEN WITH BAD OBSTETRIC HISTORY. PART I: TOXOPLASMA AND RUBELLA INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bad obstetric history (BOH is associated with social and psychological impacts on society worldwide. The causes of BOH may be genetic, hormonal, abnormal maternal immune response, and maternal infection. In women with bad obstetric history (BOH, Toxoplasma (T IgG high rate has been reported for Nepal (55.2%, while high (42.5% and lowest (6.97% active toxoplasma infections has been reported for India. In Arab countries, IgG and IgM higher and lowest seroprevalence rates were for Iraq. The higher susceptibility rates for Rubella in Arab countries excluding Iraq were reported in Morocco (83.4%, Sudan (34.7%, Qatar (25.1%, and Tunisia (20.3%. The lowest susceptibility was reported for Saudi Arabia (6.7%. In Iraq, studies indicate a high susceptibility rates in Thi Qar (98.05%, Kirkuk (91%, Baghdad (79%, and Waset (45.7%. The lowest susceptibility rates were reported for Diyala (0% in women with previous abortion, and 3.9% in pregnant women without history of BOH.

  17. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA, RUBELLA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS -2 IN WOMEN WITH BAD OBSTETRIC HISTORY. PART II. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bad obstetric history (BOH is reported worldwide and is associated with social and psychological impacts. Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus play an important role in the induction of adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Highest CMV IgG prevalence rate was reported for India (91.05%, while the lowest rate was reported for Iran (14.28%. Unfortunately, six studies in Iraq reported a high prevalence of CMV IgM in non-married, pregnant and women with BOH. The range of recent CMV infection in pregnant women with BOH was from 1.4% in Jordan to 60.2% in Iraq. In women with BOH, the highest HSV 2 prevalence (16.8% was noted in India, while the lowest rate (1.69% was reported in India also. In Arab countries, among women with BOH, HSV 2 IgG and IgM seroprevalence higher rates were reported for Iraq. This literature review highlights the high bacterial and viral maternal infection rate in the developing world. Urgent, concerted action is required to reduce the burden of these infections. In addition to raising awareness about the severity of the problem of maternal infections in the developing world, data from this review will be beneficial in guiding public health policy, research interests and donor funding towards achieving improvement in health care delivery.

  18. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Rubella Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Three-day Measles; 3-day Measles Formal name: Rubella Antibodies, IgM and IgG Related tests: TORCH ; Measles ...

  19. Seropositivity rates for toxoplasmosis, rubella, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis and HIV among pregnant women receiving care at a public health service, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida dos Santos Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Infectious and parasitic diseases affecting women during their reproductive age may result in vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for TORSCH among pregnant women receiving care at a university hospital. Records of 574 pregnant women who received medical attention from January 2006 to December 2007 were assessed. The mean age was 27.2 ± 6.5 years ranging from 13 to 44. The results of the immunodiagnostic tests were: 62.0% (345/556 for IgG and 3.4% (19/556 for IgM anti-T. gondii; 93.1% (433/465 for IgG and 0.6% (3/465 for IgM anti-rubella; 0.9% (5/561 for VDRL; 1.8% (10/554 for HBsAg; 0.7% (4/545 for anti-HCV and 2.1% (11/531 for HIV. In conclusion, the results of immunodiagnostic tests for the TORSCH panel among pregnant women attending a perinatal service of a university hospital are in agreement with those reported by previous studies and by governmental sources.

  20. Cytomegalovirus retinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a viral infection of the ... need treatment to prevent its return. Alternative Names Cytomegalovirus retinitis Images Eye CMV retinitis CMV (cytomegalovirus) References ...

  1. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preteen cold, ice Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  2. [Rubella: a current issue?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Bouthry, Elise; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle

    2014-06-01

    Sporadic cases of rubella infection are reported each year in France due to insufficient vaccination coverage. Rubella virus is a very unstable enveloped RNA virus. For this reason, transportation and storage of samples collected for its detection require particular conditions. The genetic stability of rubella virus has allowed the development of very effective vaccines. During the recent rubella outbreaks in Algeria and Tunisia, an unusual high rate of encephalitis was reported. The role of the laboratory is crucial in the management of rubella infection during pregnancy. Rubella serological results must be interpreted with caution. Congenital rubella is a severe disease that should already be eliminated thanks to a very effective vaccine that has been developed. All women of childbearing age should be vaccinated. Rubella vaccination of an unknowingly pregnant woman is not an indication for abortion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Seroprevalence of CMV and Rubella in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion in Comparison with Normal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ebadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Recurrent spontaneous abortion occurs by different etiological causes including viral infections. Cytomegalovirus and rubella infections can cause or promote the recurrent fetal loss. Cytomegalovirus is one of the important viral infections which may play a role in recurrent spontaneous abortion. Also, rubella virus infection can induce abortion especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. Thus, in this study the prevalence of anti-cytomegalovirus and rubella IgG antibody are measured in both pregnant women with and without recurrent spontaneous abortion. Materials & Methods: A case-control study was carried out on 120 women who had a history of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion and 120 pregnant women with normal delivery as controls. Serum samples from each group were collected and anti-cytomegalovirus and rubella IgG antibody were assayed by ELISA methods. Results: Anti-cytomegalovirus antibody was diagnosed in 94 and 75 of each group of patients or controls respectively. The Significant differences are as follows (P=0.007; OR=2.17; 95%CI=1.18-4.00. Also, Anti-rubella antibody was diagnosed in 90 and 65 of 120 patients or controls, respectively. The significant differences are (P=0.00004; OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.69-5.33 when compared with each other. Conclusion: Based on the high prevalence of cytomegalovirus and rubella infection in our community, especially in pregnant women, also according to this study, the significant differences were found between the prevalence of these viruses in pregnant women with recurrent abortion and pregnant women without the history of abortion. To reach to a concrete conclusion, further studies with larger population should be carried out.

  4. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus; CMV; Human cytomegalovirus; HCMV ... Crumpacker CS. Cytomegalovirus (CMV). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  5. Targeting rubella for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Davendra K; Sharma, Pragya

    2012-01-01

    Rubella is an acute, usually mild viral disease. However, when rubella infection occurs just before conception or during the first 8-10 weeks of gestation, it causes multiple fetal defects in up to 90% of cases, known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). It may result in fetal wastage, stillbirths and sensorineural hearing deficit up to 20 weeks of gestation. Rubella vaccine (RA 27/3) is highly effective and has resulted in elimination of rubella and CRS from the western hemisphere and several European countries. Review of several studies documents the duration of protection over 10-21 years following one dose of RA27/3 vaccination, and persistent seropositivity in over 95% cases. Studies in India show seronegativity to rubella among adolescent girls to vary from 10% to 36%. Although due to early age of infection resulting in protection in the reproductive age group, incidence of rubella in India is not very high. However, due to severity of CRS coupled with introduction of RCV in private sector and in some of the states which is likely to lead to sub-optimal coverage and resulting higher risk of rubella during pregnancy in the coming decades, it is imperative to adopt the goal of rubella elimination. As in order to control measles, the country has adopted strategy of delivering second dose of measles through measles campaigns covering children 9 months to 10 years of age in 14 states, it is recommended to synergize efforts for elimination of rubella with these campaigns by replacing measles vaccine by MR or MMR vaccine. Other states which are to give second dose of measles through routine immunization will also have to adopt campaign mode in order to eliminate rubella from the country over 10-20 years. Subsequently, measles vaccine can be replaced by MR or MMR vaccine in the national schedule.

  6. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead Sick While Traveling Know and Share ... PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0149160. World Health Organization. Rubella vaccines: WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. ...

  7. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Rubella fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/rubella.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  8. Measles, mumps, and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah J; Boldt, Kristi L; Holditch, Sara J; Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Measles, mumps, and rubella are viral diseases that may adversely affect nonimmune pregnant women and their fetuses/neonates. Prevention of these diseases and their complications can be achieved through measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination before pregnancy. The vaccine is contraindicated during pregnancy, because it contains live, attenuated viruses that pose a theoretical risk to the fetus. However, accidental receipt of MMR vaccination is not known to cause maternal/fetal complications. MMR immunization is recommended to nonimmune obstetric patients upon completion or termination of pregnancy.

  9. Rubella outbreak investigation, Gokwe North District, Midlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Rubella is a contagious disease, caused by rubella virus and transmitted via the respiratory route. Rubella in pregnancy may cause Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), characterized by multiple defects to the brain, heart, eyes and ears. Gokwe North experienced an increase in rubella cases from 6 cases (24 ...

  10. Congenital rubella syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar Hasan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS can be prevented with appropriate vaccination programs. The prevalence rates of rubella and CRS in Iran are unknown; therefore, the risk of exposure in pregnant women is not clear. The prevalence of CRS in the pre-vaccine period can be estimated by evaluating the proportion of children in the population with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. Methods This was a case-control study to estimate prevalence of CRS in Tehran (Iran by evaluating the proportion of children with sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella. The study used rubella antibody titer as an indicator, and compared the prevalence of rubella antibody between children with and without sensorineural hearing loss. Using these findings, the proportion of cases of sensorineural hearing loss attributable to rubella was estimated. Results A total of 225 children aged 1 to 4 years were entered into the study (113 cases and 112 controls. There was a significant difference between cases and controls with regard to rubella antibody seropositivity (19.5% vs. 8.9%, respectively, odds ratio = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.04–5.97. The proportion of sensorineural hearing loss cases attributable to rubella was found to be 12%, corresponding to a CRS prevalence of 0.2/1000. Conclusion The prevalence of CRS was approximately 0.2/1000 before rubella vaccination in Iran, Moreover; the results suggest that implementation of appropriate rubella vaccination programs could potentially prevent about 12% of cases of sensorineural hearing loss in Iranian children. This data could potentially be used as baseline data, which in conjunction with an appropriate method, to establish a surveillance system for rubella vaccination in Iran. An appropriate surveillance system is needed, because the introduction of a rubella vaccine without epidemiological data and an adequate monitoring program could result in the shifting of rubella cases to higher

  11. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  12. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jerking and staring), brain damage, and death. Mumps:Mumps virus causes fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, ... ovaries, and rarely sterility. Rubella (German Measles):Rubella virus causes rash, ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and ...

  13. Freqüência das infecções pelo HIV-1, rubéola, sífilis, toxoplasmose, citomegalovírus, herpes simples, hepatite B, hepatite C, doença de Chagas e HTLV I/II em gestantes, do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Frequency of HIV-1, rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, simple herpes virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas’ disease and HTLV I/II infection in pregnant women of State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Figueiró-Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a freqüência das infecções por sífilis, rubéola, hepatite B, hepatite C, toxoplasmose, doença de Chagas, HTLV I/II, herpes simples, HIV-1 e citomegalovírus em gestantes e relacionar a faixa etária das pacientes com a freqüência das infecções. Estudo transversal de 32.512 gestantes submetidas à triagem pré-natal no período de novembro de 2002 a outubro de 2003. As freqüências encontradas foram de 0,2% para infecção pelo vírus HIV-1, 0,03% para rubéola, 0,8% para sífilis, 0,4% para toxoplasmose, 0,05% para infecção aguda pelo citomegalovírus, 0,02% pelo vírus herpes simples, 0,3% para hepatite B (HBsAg, 0,1% para hepatite C, 0,1% para HTLV I/II e 0,1% para doença de Chagas. Houve associação significativa entre faixa etária e infecções por rubéola, citomegalovírus, doença de Chagas e herpes vírus. As freqüências de rubéola, sífilis, toxoplasmose, doença de Chagas e citomegalovírus nas gestantes encontram-se abaixo dos valores descritos na literatura.It was aimed to estimate the frequency of syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, toxoplasmosis, Chagas’ disease, HTLV I/II, simple herpes virus, HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and to evaluate the relationship between age and the frequency of the infections studied. A transversal study of 32,512 pregnant women submitted to pre-natal sreening in the period of November 2002 to October 2003. The frequency of the tried infections among the pregnant women were 0.2% of HIV-1, 0.03% of rubella, 0.8% of syphilis, 0.4% of toxoplasmosis, 0.05% of cytomegalovirus, 0.02% of simple herpes virus, 0.3% of HBsAg, 0.1% of hepatitis C, 0.1% of HTLV and 0.1% of Chagas’ disease. There was significative statistical association between age and prenatal infection of rubella, cytomegalovirus, Chagas’ disease and herpes virus. The rates of frequency of rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Chagas’ disease and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women

  14. Prevalence of specific IGM due to toxoplasma, rubella, CMV and c.trachomatis infections during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasodhara P

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seventy five apparently normal asymptomatic pregnant women were studied prospectively and 247 women with different complications of pregnancy were screened at the time of delivery for infections like Chlamydia trachomatis, Toxoplasma, Rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV. One hundred and forty two women with normal outcome of pregnancy served as controls. Specific IgM due to these agents were determined in the sera using commercial diagnostic kits. Results of the study showed that chlamydial infection was the most prevalent (29.8% followed by Toxoplasmosis (13.1, Rubella (6.5% and CMV (5.8%. Adverse outcome was seen among those seropositive for Chlamydia, Toxoplasmosis and Rubella. CMV showed no association with adverse outcome of pregnancy. Since Chlamydia and Toxoplasmosis are amenable to treatment with antibiotics, screening for these infections and appropriate treatment would improve outcome of pregnancy.

  15. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV) can increase the risk for birth defects ...

  16. Cytomegalovirus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important? Top 10 Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Cytomegalovirus (CMV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Print A A A What's in this ... Diagnosis & Treatment Prevention en español Citomegalovirus About CMV Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common infection that can affect ...

  17. Facts about Rubella for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of an infected person. If a woman gets rubella during pregnancy, particularly during the first three months, her baby ... exhibit symptoms. FACT: If a pregnant woman gets rubella during the first three months of pregnancy, her baby has a good chance of having ...

  18. Rubella and pregnancy: diagnosis, management and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthry, Elise; Picone, Olivier; Hamdi, Ghada; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle

    2014-12-01

    Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in childhood. Rubella infection during pregnancy causes congenital rubella syndrome, including the classic triad of cataracts, cardiac abnormalities and sensorineural deafness. Highly effective vaccines have been developed since 1969, and vaccination campaigns have been established in many countries. Although there has been progress, the prevention and diagnosis of rubella remain problematic. This article reviews the implications and management of rubella during pregnancy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shipment Sample Submission Q&A References & Resources About Rubella Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rubella in ... Shows photos of rubella and people with rubella… Rubella Factsheet for Parents In English En Español File ...

  20. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rubella Home About Rubella Rubella in the U.S. Signs & ...

  1. [Epidemiologic control for rubella in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, N S; Tsvirkun, O V; Gerasimova, A G; Tikhonova, N T; Mamaeva, T A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate effectiveness of measures specified by epidemiologic control for rubella in pregnant women. 585 pregnant women with suspected measles were laboratory examined in 10 Regional Centers of Control for Measles and Rubella by EIA. 24 rubella infected pregnant women aged 16-36 years were detected among the examined pregnant women, most of those (91.7%) were either not immunized against rubella or had unknown immunization anamnesis: 16 women terminated pregnancy, in 8 women pregnancy ended with delivery at term. Of the 8 newborns only a single child had innate rubella infection (the child was clinically healthy). Epidemiologic investigation of each rubella case in pregnant women with obligatory laboratory examination of women and source of infection revealed a significant number of women at childbearing age susceptible to rubella virus that retains the possibility of birth of children with innate rubella syndrome.

  2. Serological diagnosis of infections sustained by Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Citomegalovirus, a comparison between two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Moretti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The serological diagnosis of infections from Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus is of a great importance especially during pregnancy for the risk of maternal-fetal infections. Serological testing have evolved with time and are many on the market with different levels of specificity and sensivity. The aim of the study was to determine the analytical and clinical concordance between two methods for the determination of specific IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus. The total numbers of samples evaluated for T. gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM were 124 and 127, 83 and 87, 129 and 103, respectively. The comparison methods used for this study were Diamedix® enzime imunoassay run in MAGO-Plus Delta Biologicals® Immunodiagnostics System (routinely used and Vitros© Eci chemiluminescence immunoassay run in Vitros ECiQ Immunodiagnostics System ORTHO-Clinical Diagnostics Johnson & Johnson company.Vidas bioMérieux was take as referee method to evaluate discrepant results. Analytical concordance ranged between 87 and 97%, clinical concordance ranged between 93 and 99%. Despite differences in detection antibodies (specific IgG and IgM and revelation of signal the methods evaluated show generally good levels of clinical concordance.The results are consistent with references and External Quality Assurance Programs.

  3. Health economics of rubella: a systematic review to assess the value of rubella vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Morgan, Ian; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the ...

  4. Rubella Virus Replication and Links to Teratogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jia-Yee; Bowden, D. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Rubella virus (RV) is the causative agent of the disease known more popularly as German measles. Rubella is predominantly a childhood disease and is endemic throughout the world. Natural infections of rubella occur only in humans and are generally mild. Complications of rubella infection, most commonly polyarthralgia in adult women, do exist; occasionally more serious sequelae occur. However, the primary public health concern of RV infection is its teratogenicity. RV infection of women during...

  5. Rubella, the Trojan horse of obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, J R

    1981-10-01

    Documentation has been provided that health care personnel working in prenatal clinics have exposed their patients to the rubella virus. Various states have instituted rules and regulations toward the prevention of spread of rubella to pregnant women. These regulations have been ineffectual as rubella antibody testing and immunization programs do not include all health care providers. Cogent reasons for rubella antibody testing and immunization of all susceptible health care providers, whether they are physicians, nurses, or students, are presented.

  6. Association between rubella seropositivity and parity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rubella virus infection in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy causes miscarriages, stillbirths or fetal anomalies known as congenital rubella syndrome. Factors associated with rubella immunity include age and parity. No studies have been done to isolate the association of parity independent of age. Objective: To ...

  7. seroprevalence survey of rubella antibodies among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    capable of causing spectrum of birth defects described as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the pregnant mother is infected within ... This result highlights the consequence of rubella infection and confirms continuous circulation of rubella virus in the study area. .... control, positive control and calibrator were prepared by ...

  8. [Mononucleosis caused by cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajo Plaza, A; del Castillo Martín, F; Martínez Zapico, R

    1990-01-01

    Sixteen cases of mononucleosis due to cytomegalovirus, are presented. The selection of patients was based on clinical criteria. Symptoms are compared with another series of patients affected with mononucleosis by Epstein-Barr virus. We have not found differences comparing the fever, cervical adenopathies and faringoamigdalitis. Differences were significant in hepatomegaly. We conclude that the clinical picture of cytomegalovirus mononucleosis is very similar to those of the Epstein-Barr mononucleosis.

  9. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oronzio, U; Arlettaz, R.; Hagmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical details of 50 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified in a prospective study are reported. The mean birthweight, gestational age, and head circumference of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection were not significantly different from those of controls. Three (6%) had symptoms at birth--two neurological and one pneumonitis. In the first four months of life transient hepatosplenomegaly occurred in two infected children and six suffered interstitial pneum...

  10. Nationwide rubella epidemic--Japan, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or an infant born with birth defects (i.e., congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]). As of 2013, goals to eliminate rubella have been established in two World Health Organization regions (the Region of the Americas by 2010 and the European Region by 2015), and targets for accelerated rubella control and CRS prevention have been established by the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In 1976, Japan introduced single-antigen rubella vaccine in its national immunization program, targeting girls in junior high school. In 1989, a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced, targeting children aged 12-72 months. However, adult males remain susceptible to rubella. From January 1 to May 1, 2013, a total of 5,442 rubella cases were reported through the rubella surveillance system in Japan, with the majority (77%) of cases occurring among adult males. Ten infants with CRS were reported during October 2012-May 1, 2013. Countries and regions establishing a goal of accelerated control or elimination of rubella should review their previous and current immunization policies and strategies to identify and vaccinate susceptible persons and to ensure high population immunity in all cohorts, both male and female.

  11. Cryo-Electron Tomography of Rubella Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Anthony J.; Yoder, Joshua D.; Plevka, Pavel; Winkler, Dennis C.; Mangala Prasad, Vidya; Kuhn, Richard J.; Frey, Teryl K.; Steven, Alasdair C.

    2012-01-01

    Rubella virus is the only member of the Rubivirus genus within the Togaviridae family and is the causative agent of the childhood disease known as rubella or German measles. Here, we report the use of cryo-electron tomography to examine the three-dimensional structure of rubella virions and compare their structure to that of Ross River virus, a togavirus belonging the genus Alphavirus. The ectodomains of the rubella virus glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are shown to be organized into extended rows of density, separated by 9 nm on the viral surface. We also show that the rubella virus nucleocapsid structure often forms a roughly spherical shell which lacks high density at its center. While many rubella virions are approximately spherical and have dimensions similar to that of the icosahedral Ross River virus, the present results indicate that rubella exhibits a large degree of pleomorphy. In addition, we used rotation function calculations and other analyses to show that approximately spherical rubella virions lack the icosahedral organization which characterizes Ross River and other alphaviruses. The present results indicate that the assembly mechanism of rubella virus, which has previously been shown to differ from that of the alphavirus assembly pathway, leads to an organization of the rubella virus structural proteins that is different from that of alphaviruses. PMID:22855483

  12. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in Immunocompetent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Inayat, Faisal; Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Tasleem, Syed H; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus colitis is common in immunocompromised patients, but rare in immunocompetent patients. The present study not only represents the colonoscopy and pathological findings, but also applies the method of diagnosing and treating cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent patients.

  13. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in Immunocompetent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Tasleem, Syed H; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus colitis is common in immunocompromised patients, but rare in immunocompetent patients. The present study not only represents the colonoscopy and pathological findings, but also applies the method of diagnosing and treating cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27980888

  14. Mass measles rubella immunization campaign: Bhutan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta R Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bhutan has attained universal child immunization since 1991. Since then, immunization coverage is maintained at high level through routine immunization, periodic National Immunization Days, and mop up campaigns. Despite high immunization coverage, every year, significant numbers of clinically suspected measles cases were reported. Objective: To assess the cause of continuing high "suspected measles cases" and take appropriate public health measures. Materials and Methods: Febrile rash outbreaks occurred in several districts in 2003. These episodes were investigated. Simultaneously, a retrospective data search revealed evidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in the country. Results: Thirty five percent of the tested samples were positive for rubella but none for measles. There were evidences of the presence of CRS. This was discussed in the annual health conference 2004, amongst health policy makers and district heads who recommended that a possibility of inclusion of rubella as an antigen be looked into. A nationwide measles and rubella immunization campaign was conducted in 2006 followed by introduction of rubella vaccine in the immunization schedule. Conclusion: Febrile rash can be caused by a host of viral infections. Following universal measles immunization, it is pertinent that febrile rash be looked in the light of rubella infections. Following the introduction of rubella vaccination in the national immunization schedule, there has been significant reduction of febrile rash episodes, cases of rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome.

  15. Further efforts in the achievement of congenital rubella syndrome/rubella elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Vanessa; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Tafuri, Silvio; Fortunato, Francesca; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The Italian National Plan of Measles and Rubella Elimination 2010-2015 has deferred the objective to reduce congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) to rubella among women in childbearing-age. In Puglia region, MMR vaccine coverage is 93% in newborns (cohort 2010; one dose), 85% in children 5-6 years old and 77% in adolescents (cohort 2005 and 1997, respectively; two doses). Combining available seroepidemiological data and results of a survey on the attitude towards rubella vaccination and rubella testing before pregnancy, we could estimate that 5.7% of Apulian women in childbearing-age are currently susceptible to rubella infection. The regional infectious disease routine notification system reported no cases of CRS and rubella in pregnancy in 2001-2010 period. The inconsistency among the mentioned data triggered the evaluation of the reliability of disease reporting. We performed a retrospective case-finding for the years 2003-2011. We scanned the regional hospital discharge registry to identify hospitalizations for rubella in pregnancy and CRS and retrieve individual records. We also searched for clinical history of CRS mothers in the delivery assistance certificate registry. We identified one CRS, two confirmed and four suspected congenital infections, and seven cases of rubella in pregnancy. Passive surveillance of CRS and rubella in pregnancy appears not to be reliable in the light of strengthening rubella elimination strategies.

  16. Rubella epidemic caused by genotype 1E rubella viruses in Beijing, China, in 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented to control rubella and prevent congenital rubella virus infection in Beijing, China. The rubella vaccine was available in 1995 in Beijing, and was introduced into the Beijing immunization program (vaccine recipients at their own expense vaccination) in 2000, and was introduced into the National Expanded Program on Immunization (vaccine recipients free vaccination) in 2006. Rubella virological surveillance started in Beijing in 2007. Results The reported rubella incidence rate has decreased dramatically due to the introduction of the vaccine in Beijing since 1995. However, rubella epidemics occurred regardless in 2001 and 2007. The incidence rate among the floating population has gradually increased since 2002, reaching 2 or more times that in the permanent resident population. The peak age of rubella cases gradually changed from rubella virus isolates. All Beijing rubella virus isolates belong to genotype 1E/cluster1 and were clustered interspersed with viruses from other provinces in China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2007 to 2011. Conclusions The proportion of rubella cases among the floating population has increased significantly in Beijing since 2002, and the disease burden gradually shifted to the older age group (15- to 39-year olds), which has become a major group with rubella infection since 2006. Genotype 1E rubella virus continuously caused a rubella epidemic in Beijing in 2007–2011 and was the predominant virus, and all Beijing genotype 1E viruses belong to cluster 1, which is also widely circulated throughout the country. PMID:23596982

  17. The evaluation of rubella and sitomegalovirus IgG avidity tests in pregnants: four-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aim to evaluate the retrospective IgG avidity index (AI test results of the pregnant, who have applied to our hospital and had pregnancy screening test and have been asked for rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests and IgG AI test in 4 year period. Methods: Anti-rubella IgM, anti-rubella IgG, anti-CMV IgM and anti-CMV antibodies were performed by IMMULITE 2000XPi™ Immunoassay System (Siemens, Germany whereas IgG AI tests were performed by commercial kits of rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests (Dia.Pro® Diagnostic, Milano-Italy. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 23 (7.32 % of 314 pregnant women tested rubella IgG AI had low AI, and 266 cases had high AI rate; 14 (17.28% of 81 pregnant women tested CMV IgG AI, had lower AI rate, 52 of them had high AI. 9 out of 23 pregnant women, who were detected low rubella were requested only AI without any IgM and IgG value; the IgG antibody of 13 pregnant was reactive, and IgM antibody was not requested; IgG and IgM antibody of 1 pregnant was detected positive. When 5 pregnant, who were detected low CMV AI were requested AI without IgG and IgM value; the IgG and IgM of 4 was reactive; 4 of them had IgG reactive but IgM negative; 1 had IgG and IgM negative. Conclusion: As a result, our low rubella AI rate has been detected lower than the rates in our country since our study population contains only the pregnant. Our low CMV AI rate varies due to the same reasons as literature data. During pregnancy scanning, performing of AI testing together with specific IgG and IgM will save both time and will be more meaningful in clinical evaluation for pregnant women. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 420-423

  18. Report on Rubella and Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Donald R.

    Symptoms and characteristics of rubella (German measles) are listed, including a brief history of the disease. Emphasized are the effects of maternal rubella, particularly if contracted during the first three months of pregnancy. Likelihood of abnormalities of the child are detailed, and resulting educational as well as medical problems are…

  19. Rubella-epidemie 2004-2005: surveillance van congenitale gevolgen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Y van der; Hahné, Susan J M; Ruijs, H; Timen, A; Binnendijk, R S van; Loon, T van; Melker, Hester E de

    2006-01-01

    In 2004-2005, the Netherlands experienced an outbreak of rubella. The Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM) monitors characteristics and the extent of the outbreak and reports on the disease-burden of rubella, congenital rubella-virus infection (CRI) and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).

  20. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  1. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  2. Cytomegalovirus en pericarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuis, Johan Willem

    1976-01-01

    Dit proefschrift beschrijft een onderzoek naar de aetiologische betekenis van enkele virussen, in het bijzonder van cytomegalovirus (CMV) voor verschillende vormen van pericarditis. CMV-infecties worden merendeels in de adolescentie en op volwassen leeftijd doorgemaakt en kunnen aanleiding geven tot

  3. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 371-374

  4. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 371-374

  5. Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the Philippines: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lena Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As part of regional elimination efforts, rubella-containing vaccines (RCV have recently been introduced in the Philippines, yet the true burden of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in the country is largely unknown. Objective. To provide baseline information on rubella and CRS prior to routine vaccine introduction in the Philippines. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature review on rubella and CRS in the Philippines, including a cross-sectional study conducted in 2002 among 383 pregnant women attending the obstetric outpatient clinic of the Philippine General Hospital to assess rubella susceptibility of women of childbearing age. Results. 15 locally published and unpublished studies were reviewed. Susceptibility to rubella among women of childbearing age was higher in rural communities. Retrospective reviews revealed congenital heart diseases, cataracts, and hearing impairments to be most common presentations in children of CRS. In the cross-sectional study, 59 (15.4% of the 383 pregnant women enrolled were seronegative for rubella IgG. Conclusion. Similar to other countries introducing RCV, it was only recently that surveillance for rubella has been established. Previous studies show substantial disabilities due to CRS and a substantial proportion of susceptible women who are at risk for having babies affected with CRS. Establishment of CRS surveillance and enhanced awareness on rubella case detection should be prioritized.

  6. Congenital rubella syndrome: a matter of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos; Torner, Nuria; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-03-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), an important cause of severe birth defects, remains a public health problem in a significant number of countries. Therefore, global health experts encourage use of rubella vaccination, with the primary aim of preventing CRS. While large-scale rubella vaccination during the last decade has drastically reduced or eliminated both the virus and CRS in Europe and the Americas, many countries in Africa, South-East Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Western Pacific have not yet incorporated any type of rubella-containing vaccine into their immunization schedule. As a result, through travel and migration, rubella has been imported into countries that had successfully eliminated the virus, leading to outbreaks and the reestablishment of endemic transmission. The objective of this study was to identify the key factors required for CRS elimination (prevalence reduction, vaccination strategies, and surveillance methods) by reviewing publications in PubMed on rubella and CRS (systematic reviews, country experiences, and position papers from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other intergovernmental organizations). Based on the results of the review, to eliminate rubella and CRS in endemic areas and reduce re-emergence in previously disease-free areas, all countries should carry out two types of mass rubella vaccination campaigns: 1) one single mass national immunization campaign targeting all men and women 5-39+ years old (with the upper age limit depending on the year in which the rubella-containing vaccine was introduced and the epidemiology of rubella in the country) and 2) incorporation of an rubella-containing vaccine in routine childhood immunization programs, including regular vaccination campaigns for 12-month-olds and measles follow-up campaigns. In addition to mass rubella immunization campaigns and routine childhood vaccination programs, the following measures should be taken to help fight rubella and CRS: 1) surveillance

  7. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination - global progress, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Rubella virus usually causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults. However, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or infants with congenital malformations, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the preferred strategy for introduction of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into national routine immunization schedules with an initial wide-age-range vaccination campaign that includes children aged 9 months-15 years. WHO also urged all member states to take the opportunity offered by accelerated measles control and elimination activities as a platform to introduce RCVs. The Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan (2012-2020) published by the Measles Rubella Initiative partners in 2012 and the Global Vaccine Action Plan endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012 include milestones to eliminate rubella and CRS in two WHO regions by 2015, and eliminate rubella in five WHO regions by 2020. This report summarizes the global progress of rubella and CRS control and elimination during 2000-2012. As of December 2012, a total of 132 (68%) WHO member states had introduced RCV, a 33% increase from 99 member states in 2000. A total of 94,030 rubella cases were reported to WHO in 2012 from 174 member states, an 86% decrease from the 670,894 cases reported in 2000 from 102 member states. The WHO Region of the Americas (AMR) and European Region (EUR) have established rubella elimination goals of 2010 and 2015, respectively. AMR has started to document the elimination of measles, rubella, and CRS; in EUR, rubella incidence has decreased significantly, although outbreaks continue to occur.

  8. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eHutton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiologic findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism.Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  9. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906

  10. Premarital rubella screening in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, E; Faich, G A; Simon, P R; Mullan, R J

    1981-04-03

    Rhode Island law requires that rubella serological screening be done for most female marriage license applicants. To evaluate the effect of the law, 203 rubella-susceptible women detected through premarital screening over a four-month period in 1978 were surveyed. Of those responding, 37% had been immunized, 21% were pregnant or infertile, and 42% were eligible for immunization but had not received vaccine. Premarital immunization occurred most frequently when physicians advised and directly offered vaccine. A survey of primary care physicians indicated that 24% immunized none of their rubella-susceptible patients detected by premarital screening.

  11. Rubella monitoring in pregnancy as a means for evaluating a possible reemergence of rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill; Rowan, Paul; Greisinger, Anthony; Mouzoon, Melanie

    2014-11-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that rubella is well-controlled, a recent reemergence of both pertussis and measles might also predict a reemergence of rubella. This study was designed to estimate the current incidence of rubella exposure in pregnancy. This was a prospective, descriptive study, conducted in Houston, TX, at The Woman's Hospital of Texas. Women are typically screened for rubella immunity at the beginning of pregnancy. Rubella nonimmunity is defined as a titer less than 10 IU/mL in the US. Women who were non-immune early in pregnancy (rubella immunity at the time of delivery. Of 298 women who were rubella nonimmune (IgG pregnancy, 19 converted to immune status (IgG >40 IU/mL, defined as at least a 4-fold increase) at time of delivery, a rate of 6.38% (4.12% to 9.75%; 95% Wilson-Score confidence interval). For the 19 patients who converted to immune status at time of delivery, 8 patients had levels of 40-150 IU/mL, 6 patients had levels of 151-300 IU/mL, 2 patients had levels of 301-500 IU/mL, and 3 patients had levels >500 IU/mL. Pregnancy is a critical time to evaluate rubella exposure. This study estimated the current incidence of rubella exposure in pregnancy to be 6.38%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Goodrum, Felicia; Caviness, Katie; Zagallo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Viral persistence is the rule following infection with all herpesviruses. The β-herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), persists through chronic and latent states of infection. Both the chronic and latent states of infection contribute to HCMV persistence and to the high HCMV seroprevalence worldwide. The chronic infection is poorly defined molecularly, but clinically manifests as low-level virus shedding over extended periods of time and often in the absence of symptoms. Latency requires ...

  13. Rubella immunity among pregnant women aged 15–44 years, Namibia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jonas

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of a routine rubella immunization program, the high level of rubella seropositivity suggests rubella virus transmission in Namibia, yet 15% of pregnant Namibian women remain susceptible to rubella. The introduction of rubella vaccine will help reduce the risk of rubella in pregnant women and CRS in infants.

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  16. Health economics of rubella: a systematic review to assess the value of rubella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Morgan, Ian; Levin, Ann

    2013-04-29

    Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the planned global expansion of rubella vaccination and efforts towards potential rubella elimination and eradication. We performed a systematic search of on-line databases and identified articles published between 1970 and 2012 on costs of rubella and CRS treatment and the costs, cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit of rubella vaccination. We reviewed the studies and categorized them by the income level of the countries in which they were performed, study design, and research question answered. We analyzed their methodology, data sources, and other details. We used these data to identify gaps in the evidence and to suggest possible future areas of scientific study. We identified 27 studies: 11 cost analyses, 11 cost-benefit analyses, 4 cost-effectiveness analyses, and 1 cost-utility analysis. Of these, 20 studies were conducted in high-income countries, 5 in upper-middle income countries and two in lower-middle income countries. We did not find any studies conducted in low-income countries. CRS was estimated to cost (in 2012 US$) between $4,200 and $57,000 per case annually in middle-income countries and up to $140,000 over a lifetime in high-income countries. Rubella vaccination programs, including the vaccination of health workers, children, and women had favorable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries. Treatment of CRS is costly and rubella vaccination programs are highly cost-effective. However, in order for research to support the

  17. Health economics of rubella: a systematic review to assess the value of rubella vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the planned global expansion of rubella vaccination and efforts towards potential rubella elimination and eradication. Methods We performed a systematic search of on-line databases and identified articles published between 1970 and 2012 on costs of rubella and CRS treatment and the costs, cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit of rubella vaccination. We reviewed the studies and categorized them by the income level of the countries in which they were performed, study design, and research question answered. We analyzed their methodology, data sources, and other details. We used these data to identify gaps in the evidence and to suggest possible future areas of scientific study. Results We identified 27 studies: 11 cost analyses, 11 cost-benefit analyses, 4 cost-effectiveness analyses, and 1 cost-utility analysis. Of these, 20 studies were conducted in high-income countries, 5 in upper-middle income countries and two in lower-middle income countries. We did not find any studies conducted in low-income countries. CRS was estimated to cost (in 2012 US$) between $4,200 and $57,000 per case annually in middle-income countries and up to $140,000 over a lifetime in high-income countries. Rubella vaccination programs, including the vaccination of health workers, children, and women had favorable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries. Conclusions Treatment of CRS is costly and rubella vaccination programs are highly cost-effective. However

  18. Global Progress Toward Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Control and Elimination - 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gavin B; Reef, Susan E; Dabbagh, Alya; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M

    2015-09-25

    Rubella virus usually causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults. However, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or a constellation of congenital malformations known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the preferred strategy for introduction of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into national routine immunization schedules, including an initial vaccination campaign usually targeting children aged 9 months-15 years . The Global Vaccine Action Plan endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012 and the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan (2012-2020) published by Measles and Rubella Initiative partners in 2012 both include goals to eliminate rubella and CRS in at least two WHO regions by 2015, and at least five WHO regions by 2020 (2,3). This report updates a previous report and summarizes global progress toward rubella and CRS control and elimination during 2000-2014. As of December 2014, RCV had been introduced in 140 (72%) countries, an increase from 99 (51%) countries in 2000 (for this report, WHO member states are referred to as countries). Reported rubella cases declined 95%, from 670,894 cases in 102 countries in 2000 to 33,068 cases in 162 countries in 2014, although reporting is inconsistent. To achieve the 2020 Global Vaccine Action Plan rubella and CRS elimination goals, RCV introduction needs to continue as country criteria indicating readiness are met, and rubella and CRS surveillance need to be strengthened to ensure that progress toward elimination can be measured.

  19. Rubella immunity in pregnant women in a north London practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, J

    1984-01-01

    Congenital malformations due to rubella embryopathy are preventable. All women embarking on pregnancy should be immune and know that they are immune to rubella to guard against the risk of contracting the disease during pregnancy. A previous history of clinical rubella or rubella vaccination is not reliable, and women should be screened for antibodies when possible before planning to conceive, and particularly before a first pregnancy. As general practitioners committed to the practice of pre...

  20. Vaccination in secondary school students expedites rubella control and prevents congenital rubella syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanqing; Yan, Rui; Tang, Xuewen; Zhou, Yang; Deng, Xuan; Xie, Shuyun

    2016-11-30

    In order to control the spread of rubella and reduce the risk for congenital rubella syndrome, an additional rubella vaccination program was set up for all secondary school students since 2008 in Zhejiang, China. We conducted a descriptive analysis of rubella incidence among different age groups from 2005 to 2015 and a serosurvey of female subjects aged 15-39 years to understand the possible effects of this immunization program. The average annual rubella incidence rate had decreased from 15.86 per 100,000 population (2005-2007) to 0.75 per 100,000 population (2013-2015) in Zhejiang. The decrease in the rate of rubella incidence in girls aged 15-19 years was more accelerated (from 138.30 to 0.34 per 100,000) than in the total population during 2008-2015 (from 32.20 to 0.46 per 100,000). Of 1225 female subjects in the serosurvey, 256 (20.9%) were not immune to rubella. The proportion of subjects immune to rubella was significantly different among different age groups (Wald χ2 = 22.19, p = 0.000), and subjects aged 15-19 years old had the highest immunity (88.0%). Rubella antibody levels were significantly lower in women aged 25-30 years with 26.7% of them not immune, followed by the group aged 20-24 years (25.0%) and 30-35 years (24.5%). Rubella vaccine included in the Expanded Program on Immunization together with vaccination activities for secondary school students can help in rubella control, particularly in targeted age groups in the program. Seroprevalence of antibodies to the rubella virus amongst the female population within childbearing age in Zhejiang, China, is still too low to provide immunity. In addition to vaccination programs in the secondary schools, rubella vaccination should also be encouraged in women of childbearing age, which can be done effectively combined with pre-marital examination in China.

  1. Rubella IgG Antibody among Nigerian Pregnant Women without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rubella IgG Antibody among Nigerian Pregnant Women without Vaccination History. ... A total of 273 consenting rubella vaccine naïve antenatal clinic attendees aged 15-42 years (Median age = 28 years) were randomly selected and their sera analyzed for qualitative and quantitative anti-rubella IgG detection. Overall ...

  2. Seroprevalence of Rubella Specific IgG Antibody among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rubella infection is generally mild in children. However, infection during pregnancy can leads to fetal death or congenital defects known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome. The seroprevalence of IgG to rubella virus was determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay among 400 pregnant women between the ages ...

  3. 134 original article prevalence of rubella virus-specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. Background: Rubella is a self-limiting disease that causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when rubella virus (RV) infects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: To assess a population of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two tertiary hospitals in southwestern. Nigeria for anti-RV ...

  4. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    failure to thrive, tachypnea and fever. On further investigations there was evidence of cataracts, patent ductus arteriosus. At eight weeks, she tested positive for rubella IgM antibodies. Conclusion: The clinical symptoms and laboratory evidence of rubella infection confirmed congenital rubella syndrome in the four patients.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  6. Rubella IgG Antibody among Nigerian Pregnant Women without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rubella is a vaccine-preventable viral infection, its aetiologic agent; rubella virus was identified as human teratogen capable of causing a spectrum of birth defects described as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, significant proportion of the population remains ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE RUBELLA IgG ANTIBODY AMONG NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    VACCINATION HISTORY. 1Adewumi, M.O. ... for rubella virus and the disease. Despite the reality of preventive rubella vaccine, routine screening and preventive vaccination against rubella virus for women and children have not been incorporated into the antenatal care ... reportable diseases in the country. Therefore, to.

  8. Epidemiological changes in rubella IgG antibody levels detected in antenatal women from a retrospective rubella seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ciara; Le Blanc, David; Drew, Richard J

    2017-12-05

    Rubella is caused by the rubella virus, a single-stranded RNA virus of the Togaviridae family. The most severe complications of rubella in adult women occur during pregnancy when infection can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth or congenital rubella syndrome. Antenatal rubella susceptibility screening is no longer performed in England, Scotland or Wales but continues in Northern Ireland. The aims of this seroprevalence study were to (1) determine amongst women presenting for antenatal care the percentage of women who are rubella susceptible, rubella immune and those with equivocal rubella antibody levels by year of birth and (2) to consider how rubella vaccination resources can best be utilised. A retrospective study was performed analysing all antenatal rubella IgG antibody tests performed between January 2015 and June 2017 inclusive (n = 19,000; excluding duplicate tests). All antenatal women were included regardless of the country of origin and age. From our analysis, 88.7% (n = 16,868) women had plasma concentrations of anti-rubella IgG > 10 IU/ml. 7.3% of women (n = 1403) had rubella IgG levels between 5 and 9.99 IU/ml, and 2.8% (n = 729) had IgG levels < 5 IU/ml. A decline in rubella immunity in younger women was evident. This study has identified an increase in women who are rubella susceptible and women with equivocal rubella antibody levels. International evidence suggests that rubella serology is unreliable and antenatal screening does not confer any benefit to women during their current pregnancy. Consideration should be given to re-direct resources currently utilised for antenatal screening to facilitate the vaccination of pre-pregnancy and postpartum women and also to opportunistically offer vaccination to all women of childbearing age.

  9. Progress in Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Control and Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gavin B; Reef, Susan E; Patel, Minal; Knapp, Jennifer K; Dabbagh, Alya

    2017-11-17

    Although rubella virus infection usually causes a mild fever and rash illness in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or infants with a constellation of congenital malformations known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (1). Rubella is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Preventing these adverse pregnancy outcomes is the focus of rubella vaccination programs. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the preferred strategy for introduction of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into national immunization schedules and recommended an initial vaccination campaign, usually targeting children aged 9 months-14 years (1). The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP), endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, includes goals to eliminate rubella in at least five of the six WHO regions by 2020 (2). This report updates a previous report (3) and summarizes global progress toward rubella and CRS control and elimination from 2000 to 2016. As of December 2016, 152 (78%) of 194 countries had introduced RCV into the national immunization schedule, representing an increase of 53 countries since 2000, including 20 countries that introduced RCV after 2012.

  10. The seroepidemiology of rubella in Amritsar (Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singla N

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of Rubella was determined in 580 women including 80 women of medical community of district Amritsar, by ELISA test. The overall Rubella IgG seropositivity was 68.8% while in women of medical community it was 80%. Maximum number of women were seropositive (77.2% in age group 26-35 years. Significantly higher rates were observed in women of urban areas and those belonging to lower socioeconomic class. Although the incidence of seropositivity was more in women with history of adverse pregnancy outcome than those with normal obstetric performance, the difference was statistically not significant (p > 0.05. Serologically, immune status showed poor correlation with history of past Rubella virus like infection.

  11. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Alexander D; Orlin, Anton; Kiss, Szilard; Patel, Sarju; D'Amico, Donald J; Gupta, Mrinali P

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous DNA herpes virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. CMV retinitis is a potentially blinding manifestation of CMV infection that was commonly seen in advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the era before modern combination antiretroviral therapy era, but is also recognized in patients with immune deficiency from multiple causes. The advent of and advances in antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus have decreased the incidence of CMV retinitis by over 90% among AIDS patients, and improved visual outcomes in those affected. The diagnosis is generally a clinical one, and treatment modalities include systemic and intravitreal antiviral medications. Retinal detachment and immune recovery uveitis are sight-threatening complications of CMV retinitis that require specific treatments.

  13. Comparing the rubella seronegativity in pregnant women who received one dose of rubella vaccine at different ages in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Tang; Chang, Yuan-Chun; Wang, Huey-Lan; Lin, Ching-Chiang

    2016-09-14

    Vaccination is the best strategy to prevent rubella and congenital rubella. The aim of our study was to assess the immunity to rubella and determine rubella virus antibody titers in pregnant women who were offered a single dose of rubella vaccine at different ages of their lives. A total 15,067 rubella IgG antibody test results for Taiwanese pregnant women who received routine prenatal checkup at Fooyin University Hospital from 1999 to 2014 were analyzed in this study. The women were divided into five birth cohorts in order to compare their rubella seronegativities and antibody titers according to the different period of rubella vaccination policy in Taiwan. The total rubella seronegativity rate was 11.2% (95% CI: 10.7-11.7%) and the mean rubella antibody titers was 51.0IU/mL (SD=54.7IU/mL). The junior school cohort has the lowest rubella seronegativity of 7.6% (95% CI: 6.9-8.2%). The seronegativities were significantly high in the preschool cohort and in the 15-month-old cohort, 14.9% (95% CI: 13.2-16.6%) and 14.8% (95% CI: 11.5-18.1%), respectively. The OR values were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.8-2.5, prubella IgG titer, 25.4IU/mL. The total rubella seronegativity rate was 11.2% in all native pregnant women. Women who received one dose rubella vaccine at preschool and 15-month-old have highest seronegativities. The 15-month-old cohort has the lowest average rubella IgG titer. We recommend a revised catch-up immunization policy to women who received one dose rubella vaccine at a younger age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategies to eradicate rubella in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, B; Lewis, M J; Dahl-Regis, M; Castillo-Solórzano, C; Carrasco, P A; de Quadros, C A

    2000-10-01

    This report presents the strategies used to eradicate rubella in the Caribbean region and the challenges faced by that effort. Using the surveillance system for measles cases that was instituted in all countries in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), 12 countries confirmed cases of rubella between 1992 and 1996. Rubella infections occurred in epidemic proportions in 6 countries during that period. On the basis of the rubella prevalence data, rubella-congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cost-benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness of the mass campaign, the Council for Human and Social Development of CARICOM resolved, on April 21, 1998, that every effort would be made to eradicate rubella, as well as to prevent the occurrence of new cases of CRS by the end of 2000. Using the Pan American Health Organization's template for measles eradication, CARICOM proposed and implemented the main strategies for rubella and CRS eradication, and rubella mass campaigns were conducted in 18 countries. The target population, which included males and females (aged 20-40 years), was approximately 2.2 million. The major challenges for rubella eradication are attaining high vaccine coverage in the adult population and maintaining an effective surveillance system able to detect rubella activity.

  15. Problem of rubella in Poland after compensatory outbreak in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczuk, Edyta; Częścik, Agnieszka; Pancer, Katarzyna; Gut, Włodzimierz

    The attempt to estimate the real number of rubella cases in the years 2015-2016 in Poland was presented in this paper. The relations between number of reported cases of measles in 2006-2015y., the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella among cases suspected of measles and the proportion of rubella among patients suspected of measles in the last 10 years as well as the results of serological examination in samples from 74 patients suspected of rubella collected in the first half of 2016 year were analysed. The sera from patients suspected of rubella were collected in cooperation with the State Sanitary Inspection. The analysis of data collected during the study-cases of suspected measles (2006-2016) and rubella infections (in 2016y.) indicated high over-registration of rubella in recent years in Poland, which is associated with a very low rate of laboratory confirmed cases.

  16. An outbreak of rubella in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhanraj, K; Singh, N; Gupta, M; Singh, M P; Ratho, R K

    2014-11-01

    To investigate an outbreak of fever with rash in an urbanized village in Chandigarh, India. Active case search was performed by house-to-house survey. The etiological agent of the outbreak was confirmed by serology. Spot map was done using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Out of 7742 persons screened, 12 were serologically confirmed rubella cases and 83 were epidemiologically linked cases. Overall attack rate was 1.1, more among the age group 1-4 years (4.9). An outbreak mimicking measles was investigated only to be confirmed as rubella.

  17. Cytomegalovirus in Immunosuppressed Patients: A Silent and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised individuals. This review will concentrate on understanding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnostic options for CMV infection. Keywords: Review, Cytomegalovirus, Immunosuppressed ...

  18. Influence of host genetic variation on rubella-specific T cell cytokine responses following rubella vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Ryan, Jenna E.; Robert A Vierkant; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of immune response modulated by immune response gene polymorphisms is a significant factor in the protective effect of vaccines. We studied the association between cellular (cytokine) immunity and HLA genes among 738 schoolchildren (396 males and 342 females) between the ages of 11 and 19 years, who received two doses of rubella vaccine (Merck). Cytokine secretion levels in response to rubella virus stimulation were determined in PBMC cultures by ELISA. Cell supernatants were ...

  19. Rubella seronegativity in antenatal screening - Is it influenced by the introduction of universal childhood rubella immunization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2015-09-11

    This study examined the impact of rubella immunization, implemented in Hong Kong in phases since 1978, on antenatal rubella serological status in Chinese women. In a retrospective cohort study, the incidence of antenatal rubella seronegative status in our parturients managed from 1998 to 2013 was analyzed by their year-of-birth as follows: Rubella seronegativity decreased from 12.9%, 10.5%, to 9.8% respectively, and correlated inversely (Prubella seronegativity (OR 0.73, 0.31 and 0.29 respectively) and HBsAg seropositivity (OR 1.09, 0.63 and 0.48 respectively) than China-born women. On regression analysis, rubella seronegativity was actually significantly increased following the implementation of immunization (aOR 1.20) while it was the reverse for non-residents (aOR 0.61). Although rubella seronegativity decreased with immunization, the effect was less than expected when adjusted for other risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital rubella syndrome and autism spectrum disorder prevented by rubella vaccination - United States, 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Saad B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS is associated with several negative outcomes, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. The objective of this study was to estimate the numbers of CRS and ASD cases prevented by rubella vaccination in the United States from 2001 through 2010. Methods Prevention estimates were calculated through simple mathematical modeling, with values of model parameters determined from published literature. Model parameters included pre-vaccine era CRS incidence, vaccine era CRS incidence, the number of live births per year, and the percentage of CRS cases presenting with an ASD. Results Based on our estimates, 16,600 CRS cases (range: 8300-62,250 were prevented by rubella vaccination from 2001 through 2010 in the United States. An estimated 1228 ASD cases were prevented by rubella vaccination in the United States during this time period. Simulating a slight expansion in ASD diagnostic criteria in recent decades, we estimate that a minimum of 830 ASD cases and a maximum of 6225 ASD cases were prevented. Conclusions We estimate that rubella vaccination prevented substantial numbers of CRS and ASD cases in the United States from 2001 through 2010. These findings provide additional incentive to maintain high measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccination coverage.

  1. Genotypes of rubella virus and the epidemiology of rubella infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukuta, Elizabeth; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Abernathy, Emily; Illunga, Benoit Kebela; Obama, Ricardo; Mondonge, Vital; Dahl, Benjamin A; Maresha, Balcha G; Icenogle, Joseph; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Rubella is a viral infection that may cause fetal death or congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), during early pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries assess the burden of rubella and CRS, including the determination of genotypes of circulating viruses. The goal of this study was to identify the genotypes of rubella viruses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Serum or throat swab samples were collected through the measles surveillance system. Sera that tested negative for measles IgM antibody were tested for rubella IgM antibody. Serum collected within 4 days of rash onset and throat swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR for rubella virus RNA. For positive samples, an amplicon of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. 11733 sera were tested for rubella IgM and 2816 (24%) were positive; 145 (5%) were tested for the presence of rubella RNA by real-time RT-PCR and 10 (7%) were positive. Seventeen throat swabs were analyzed by RT-PCR and three were positive. Sequences were obtained from eight of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DRC rubella viruses belonged to genotypes 1B, 1E, 1G, and 2B. This report provides the first information on the genotypes of rubella virus circulating in the DRC. These data contribute to a better understanding of rubella burden and the dynamics of rubella virus circulation in Africa. Efforts to establish rubella surveillance in the DRC are needed to support rubella elimination in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 88:1677-1684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Genotypes of Rubella Virus and the Epidemiology of Rubella Infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukuta, Elizabeth; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Abernathy, Emily; Illunga, Benoit Kebela; Obama, Ricardo; Mondonge, Vital; Dahl, Benjamin A.; Maresha, Balcha G.; Icenogle, Joseph; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Rubella is a viral infection that may cause fetal death or congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), during early pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries assess the burden of rubella and CRS, including the determination of genotypes of circulating viruses. The goal of this study was to identify the genotypes of rubella viruses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Serum or throat swab samples were collected through the measles surveillance system. Sera that tested negative for measles IgM antibody were tested for rubella IgM antibody. Serum collected within 4 days of rash onset and throat swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR for rubella virus RNA. For positive samples, an amplicon of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. 11733 sera were tested for rubella IgM and 2816 (24%) were positive; 145 (5%) were tested for the presence of rubella RNA by real-time RT-PCR and 10 (7%) were positive. Seventeen throat swabs were analyzed by RT-PCR and three were positive. Sequences were obtained from eight of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DRC rubella viruses belonged to genotypes 1B, 1E, 1G, and 2B. This report provides the first information on the genotypes of rubella virus circulating in the DRC. These data contribute to a better understanding of rubella burden and the dynamics of rubella virus circulation in Africa. Efforts to establish rubella surveillance in the DRC are needed to support rubella elimination in Africa. PMID:27479298

  3. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  4. Congenital rubella syndrome and delayed manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Several hypotheses of different medical and psychological delayed manifestations among people who have congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) have been discussed. This study tests some of these hypotheses of delayed manifestations. Methods: Gathering information about 35 individuals who hav...... which people with CRS face must primarily be understood in relation to congenital deafblindness and dual sensory and communicative deprivation....

  5. Inferring rubella outbreak risk from seroprevalence data in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven; Kourkouni, Eleni; Sabbe, Martine; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel

    2016-12-07

    Rubella is usually a mild disease for which infections often pass by unnoticed. In approximately 50% of the cases, there are no or only few clinical symptoms. However, rubella contracted during early pregnancy could lead to spontaneous abortion, to central nervous system defects, or to one of a range of other serious and debilitating conditions in a newborn such as the congenital rubella syndrome. Before the introduction of mass vaccination, rubella was a common childhood infection occurring all over the world. However, since the introduction of rubella antigen-containing vaccines, the incidence of rubella has declined dramatically in high-income countries. Recent large-scale mumps outbreaks, one of the components in the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, occurring in countries throughout Europe with high vaccination coverage, provide evidence of pathogen-specific waning of vaccine-induced immunity and primary vaccine failure. In addition, recent measles outbreaks affecting populations with suboptimal vaccination coverages stress the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverages. In this paper, we focus on the assessment of rubella outbreak risk using a previously developed method to identify geographic regions of high outbreak potential. The methodology relies on 2006 rubella seroprevalence data and vaccination coverage data from Belgium and information on primary and secondary vaccine failure obtained from extensive literature reviews. We estimated the rubella outbreak risk in Belgium to be low, however maintaining high levels of immunisation and surveillance are of utmost importance to avoid future outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jerking and staring), brain damage, and death. Mumps Mumps virus causes fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, ... ovaries, and rarely sterility. Rubella (German Measles) Rubella virus ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and ...

  7. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jerking and staring), brain damage, and death. Mumps • Mumps virus causes fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, ... ovaries, and rarely sterility. Rubella (German Measles) • Rubella virus causes rash, ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and ...

  8. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Kamble, Madhukar B; Chowdhury, Deepika T; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S

    2016-02-01

    Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.

  9. Human cytomegalovirus persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Felicia; Caviness, Katie; Zagallo, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    Viral persistence is the rule following infection with all herpesviruses. The β-herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), persists through chronic and latent states of infection. Both of these states of infection contribute to HCMV persistence and to the high HCMV seroprevalence worldwide. The chronic infection is poorly defined molecularly, but clinically manifests as low-level virus shedding over extended periods of time and often in the absence of symptoms. Latency requires long-term maintenance of viral genomes in a reversibly quiescent state in the immunocompetent host. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the biology of HCMV persistence, particularly with respect to the latent mode of persistence. Latently infected individuals harbour HCMV genomes in haematopoietic cells and maintain large subsets of HCMV-specific T-cells. In the last few years, impressive advances have been made in understanding virus-host interactions important to HCMV infection, many of which will profoundly impact HCMV persistence. We discuss these advances and their known or potential impact on viral latency. As herpesviruses are met with similar challenges in achieving latency and often employ conserved strategies to persist, we discuss current and future directions of HCMV persistence in the context of the greater body of knowledge regarding α- and γ-herpesviruses persistence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  11. Rational use of rubella vaccine for prevention of congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Hinman

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubella is a viral disease with minor morbidity and few complications unless it is contracted by a pregnant woman. Rubella infection during the first trimester of pregnancy often leads to fetal death or severe congenital defects (congenital rubella syndrome, CRS. Rubella remains endemic in many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. It has been estimated that 20000 or more infants are perhaps born with CRS each year in Latin American and Caribbean countries. While the inclusion of rubella vaccination into routine childhood immunization will decrease rubella virus circulation among young children, it will not have immediate impact on the transmission of rubella among adults or the occurrence of CRS. A one-time mass campaign targeting both males and females 5 to 39 years of age with measles-mumps-rubella or measles-rubella vaccine followed by the use of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in routine early childhood vaccination will prevent and control both rubella and CRS promptly. In April 1988, the Ministers of Health of the English-speaking Caribbean targeted rubella for elimination by the end of the year 2000 using the vaccination strategy outlined above. The rubella elimination experience of these countries will provide useful information for the eventual elimination of rubella virus from the Americas.La rubéola es una enfermedad vírica que produce poca morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, a no ser que la contraiga una mujer embarazada. La infección con rubéola durante el primer trimestre del embarazo a menudo termina en muerte fetal o en deformidades congénitas graves (síndrome de anomalías congénitas por rubéola, o SCR. La rubéola sigue siendo endémica en muchos países de América Latina y el Caribe. Se estima que quizá 20 000 niños o más nacen cada año con SCR en países latinoamericanos y caribeños. Si bien la adición de la vacuna contra la rubéola a los programas de inmunización infantil de rutina disminuirá la

  12. Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; Cripps, Allan W; Nimmo, Graeme R; van Driel, Mieke L

    2015-09-09

    Control of rubella is desired because infection in early pregnancy can result in miscarriage, foetal death or congenital abnormality. Primary studies examining the effectiveness of immunoglobulins for post-exposure prophylaxis of rubella have small sample sizes and varying results. National public health recommendations suggest a degree of effectiveness. To assess the effectiveness of intramuscular injection or intravenous infusion of polyclonal immunoglobulins of human sera or plasma origin for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome when administered to exposed susceptible people before the onset of disease. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to August week 2, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to August 2014), CINAHL (1981 to August 2014), LILACS (1982 to August 2014) and Web of Science (1955 to August 2014). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry on 16 October 2014. We searched the reference lists of relevant retrieved reviews and studies and identified national public health guidelines. For the outcome 'preventing cases of rubella', we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. We found several studies addressing this outcome where the design was a controlled clinical trial (CCT) (with exposure to rubella virus controlled by the investigators) but the method of allocation of participants to groups was not reported. We found an alternative report of one of these studies that indicated participants were assigned to groups randomly. We therefore included such studies as meeting criteria for RCTs or quasi-RCTs and undertook sensitivity analyses. For the outcomes, 'congenital rubella infection' and 'congenital rubella syndrome', we included RCTs, quasi-RCTs and prospective controlled (cohort) studies. Participants were necessarily susceptible and exposed to rubella. Polyclonal immunoglobulins derived from human sera or plasma must have been administered intramuscularly or

  13. Improving global virologic surveillance for measles and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Brown, Kevin E; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Icenogle, Joseph; Chen, Min-Hsin; Bankamp, Bettina; Kessler, Julia R; Brown, David W; Bellini, William J; Featherstone, David

    2011-07-01

    An important aspect of laboratory surveillance for measles and rubella is the genetic characterization of circulating wild-type viruses to support molecular epidemiologic studies and to track transmission pathways. Virologic surveillance that is sufficient to document the interruption of transmission of measles and rubella viruses will be an essential criterion for verification of elimination. Laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO) Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network have worked to improve and expand virologic surveillance as many regions move toward elimination of measles and rubella/congenital rubella syndrome. As countries approach elimination, it will be necessary to obtain genetic information from as many chains of transmission as possible. In addition, baseline virologic surveillance, especially for rubella, needs to be improved in many countries. This report contains a summary of recent improvements to the methods used for virologic surveillance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  14. Effectiveness of Rubella vaccine in a rubella outbreak in Guangzhou city, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caiyun; Mo, Xianghuan; Hu, Pei; Liang, Wenjia; Ma, Huilai; An, Zhijie; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Huizhen

    2015-06-22

    WHO recommends the use of rubella-containing vaccine (RCVs) to prevent rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Most licensed rubella vaccines in use globally are based on RA27/3 strains and have estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) rates of 95-100%. In contrast, China uses a BRD-II strain-based rubella vaccine. Few field studies have been conducted that estimate VE of China's RCV. On March 17, 2014, a rubella outbreak was reported in a middle school in Guangzhou city, China. We conducted an investigation to understand reasons for the outbreak, and we used that investigation to estimate vaccine effectiveness of China's rubella vaccine. To identify cases, investigators reviewed records kept by the school doctor and absentee records kept by teachers. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of all students to collect information about the students' symptoms, the results of any physician consultation, and disease history. We obtained demographic information and illness information for all students in the school; vaccination status was determined by inspection of official, parent-held vaccination records. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 13 classes that had secondary cases of rubella. Using the secondary attack rates, we evaluated VE by the number of RCV doses received and age at vaccination. During the period February 17-May 23, 2014, 162 students (50 suspected cases, 88 probable cases, 24 confirmed cases) were diagnosed with rubella, yielding an overall attack rate of 10% (162/1621). Cases occurred in 27 classes (73%) of 37 classrooms. Secondary cases occurred in 13 classes (35%) of 37 classrooms. A total of 1130 students (69.7%) have vaccination certificates; 419 (37%) students were record-confirmed to have received RCV. For those vaccinated using BRD-II strain vaccine, vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 94% (95%CI: 75-98). VE for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine which is based on either BRD-II or RA27/3 strain was 89% (95%CI: 56

  15. The epidemiology of rubella in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    1993-07-16

    The trend in notified cases of rubella in the Republic of Ireland from 1950 to 1990 has been downward, with a mean interval of four years between peak periods. Vaccine uptake and antenatal immunity levelled out in the 1980s at 85% and 87%, respectively. One hundred and six cases of congenital rubella were recorded between 1975 and 1990, 66 being reported by paediatricians. The fact that cases of congenital rubella still occur highlights the need for a continued and aggressive immunisation policy, up-to-date and cohort-based data on vaccine uptake, and the introduction of a congenital rubella register.

  16. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus. © The Author(s), 2015.

  17. Seroprevalence Survey of Rubella Antibodies among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Rubella virus, teratogen, antibodies, Maiduguri. La rubéole est une infection virale évitable par la vaccination. Son agent étiologique, virus de la rubéole a été identifié comme un tératogène humain capable de provoquer le spectre de malformation congénitale décrite comme le syndrome de rubéole congénitale ...

  18. Hospital-based surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herini, Elisabeth Siti; Gunadi; Triono, Agung; Mulyadi, Asal Wahyuni Erlin; Mardin, Niprida; Rusipah; Soenarto, Yati; Reef, Susan E

    2017-03-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and severe birth defects in infants, resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. However, rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in Indonesia. This study aimed (1) to estimate the incidence of CRS in Indonesia, (2) describe the clinical features of CRS at our referral hospital, and (3) pilot a CRS surveillance system to be extended to other hospitals. We conducted a 4-month prospective surveillance study of infants aged rubella-specific IgM antibody or rubella IgG antibody levels. Of 47 suspected cases of CRS, 11/47 (23.4%), 9/47 (19.1%), and 27/47 (57.5%) were diagnosed as laboratory-confirmed, clinically compatible, and discarded CRS, respectively. The most common defects among laboratory-confirmed CRS cases were hearing impairment (100%), congenital cataracts (72.7%), microcephaly (72.7%), and congenital heart defects (45.5%). The number of laboratory-confirmed CRS cases among Indonesian infants is high. Furthermore, hearing impairment is the most common clinical feature of CRS in infants. Our findings indicate the importance of implementation of rubella vaccine in Indonesia. Conducting hospital-based surveillance of CRS in other hospitals in Indonesia may be appropriate. What is Known: •Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences in infants resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. •The incidence of CRS in most developed countries has greatly decreased since implementation of rubella vaccination. •Rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in many developing countries. What is New: •The number of laboratory-confirmed CRS cases among Indonesian infants was high. •Implementation of rubella vaccine into immunization programs in Indonesia is important because of the high number of CRS cases. •Our study highlights the need for ongoing prospective surveillance of CRS in Indonesia.

  19. Cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotyping in ocular fluids and blood of AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, R.; Verbraak, F.; Bruinenberg, M.; van der Lelij, A.; van den Horn, G.; Kijlstra, A.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the frequency of cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B (gB) genotypes in clinical samples of ocular fluids of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who have cytomegalovirus retinitis and to compare these with the cytomegalovirus gB genotype in paired peripheral blood

  20. History of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinski, Mark F

    2014-01-01

    The history of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses from the purification of the virus and the viral DNA to the cloning and expression of the viral genes is reviewed. A key genetic element of cytomegalovirus (the CMV promoter) contributed to our understanding of eukaryotic cell molecular biology and to the development of lifesaving therapeutic proteins. The study of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses also contributed to the development of antivirals to control the viral infection.

  1. Sero-prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human rubella virus infection is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries. The virus may affect all organs and cause a variety of congenital defects. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of rubella in pregnant women in some part of Adamawa and Kaduna States of northern Nigeria ...

  2. Atherogenic index of plasma is higher in rubella positive than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atherogenic index of plasma is higher in rubella positive than rubella negative pregnant women in Benin City. B.I. Adejumo, C.A. Chukwuekezie, M.A. Emokpae, C.O. Ewenighi, M.A. Muibi, U Dimkpa, U.C. Odionyema, T.J.P. Ezimokhai ...

  3. Recent rubella infection among childbearing women in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Congenital Rubella Infection can be prevented and future generation saved from disability by protecting women of reproductive age through vaccination. The study is aimed at determining serological evidence of recent rubella infection among women of childbearing age. Method: A cross sectional study was ...

  4. Rubella virus-associated uveitis in a nonvaccinated child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Martin J.; Sijssens, Karen M.; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D. F.; de Boer, Joke H.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report presumed Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU) associated with Rubella virus (RV)-specific intraocular antibody production in a child who was not vaccinated against rubella. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: We examined a 13-year-old boy with chronic anterior uveitis

  5. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies among antenatal patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and methods One thousand two hundred provincial serum specimens from participants in the 2003 Department of Health antenatal HIV/syphilis serosurvey ... Further information is needed on rubella seroprevalence from the other provinces in South Africa as well as formal implementation of rubella and congenital ...

  6. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) caused by rubella infection in uterine, is a major public health problem among women of child bearing age as it causes serious complications including foetal death or abnormalities including cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, respiratory and hearing impairment. Though there ...

  7. Updating Standard Procedures for Diagnosis and Treatment of Congenital Rubella Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Buffolano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Rubella is the dramatic consequence of rubella during gestation. A combined strategy of Measles and Rubella universal vaccination on children and selective vaccination of susceptible women has been shown effective in the elimination of congenital rubella requiring an incidence of <1 case of CRS per 100,000 live births. Verification processes of rubella elimination require that physicians early and appropriately diagnose all cases of congenital rubella, including those unpatent at birth. The paper highlights clinical and laboratory aspects channeling diagnosis of congenital rubella infection or syndrome even after the first year of life, and the short- and long-term management criteria.

  8. Balancing Evidence and Uncertainty when Considering Rubella Vaccine Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a safe and effective vaccine, rubella vaccination programs with inadequate coverage can raise the average age of rubella infection; thereby increasing rubella cases among pregnant women and the resulting congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in their newborns. The vaccination coverage necessary to reduce CRS depends on the birthrate in a country and the reproductive number, R0, a measure of how efficiently a disease transmits. While the birthrate within a country can be known with some accuracy, R0 varies between settings and can be difficult to measure. Here we aim to provide guidance on the safe introduction of rubella vaccine into countries in the face of substantial uncertainty in R0. Methods We estimated the distribution of R0 in African countries based on the age distribution of rubella infection using Bayesian hierarchical models. We developed an age specific model of rubella transmission to predict the level of R0 that would result in an increase in CRS burden for specific birth rates and coverage levels. Combining these results, we summarize the safety of introducing rubella vaccine across demographic and coverage contexts. Findings The median R0 of rubella in the African region is 5.2, with 90% of countries expected to have an R0 between 4.0 and 6.7. Overall, we predict that countries maintaining routine vaccination coverage of 80% or higher are can be confident in seeing a reduction in CRS over a 30 year time horizon. Conclusions Under realistic assumptions about human contact, our results suggest that even in low birth rate settings high vaccine coverage must be maintained to avoid an increase in CRS. These results lend further support to the WHO recommendation that countries reach 80% coverage for measles vaccine before introducing rubella vaccination, and highlight the importance of maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage once the vaccine is introduced. PMID:23861777

  9. Balancing evidence and uncertainty when considering rubella vaccine introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a safe and effective vaccine, rubella vaccination programs with inadequate coverage can raise the average age of rubella infection; thereby increasing rubella cases among pregnant women and the resulting congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in their newborns. The vaccination coverage necessary to reduce CRS depends on the birthrate in a country and the reproductive number, R0, a measure of how efficiently a disease transmits. While the birthrate within a country can be known with some accuracy, R0 varies between settings and can be difficult to measure. Here we aim to provide guidance on the safe introduction of rubella vaccine into countries in the face of substantial uncertainty in R0. METHODS: We estimated the distribution of R0 in African countries based on the age distribution of rubella infection using Bayesian hierarchical models. We developed an age specific model of rubella transmission to predict the level of R0 that would result in an increase in CRS burden for specific birth rates and coverage levels. Combining these results, we summarize the safety of introducing rubella vaccine across demographic and coverage contexts. FINDINGS: The median R0 of rubella in the African region is 5.2, with 90% of countries expected to have an R0 between 4.0 and 6.7. Overall, we predict that countries maintaining routine vaccination coverage of 80% or higher are can be confident in seeing a reduction in CRS over a 30 year time horizon. CONCLUSIONS: Under realistic assumptions about human contact, our results suggest that even in low birth rate settings high vaccine coverage must be maintained to avoid an increase in CRS. These results lend further support to the WHO recommendation that countries reach 80% coverage for measles vaccine before introducing rubella vaccination, and highlight the importance of maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage once the vaccine is introduced.

  10. Cytomegalovirus Treatment Strategy After a Liver Transplant: Preemptive Therapy or Prophylaxis for Cytomegalovirus Seropositive Donor and Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Kirsten; Anthoni, Christoph; Beckebaum, Susanne; Senninger, Norbert; Hölzen, Jens Peter; Wolters, Heiner

    2016-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus infections cause the most frequent infection after solid-organ transplant. While Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis is established in high-risk patients (donor+/ recipient-), data on Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in other serostatus constellation are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Cytomegalovirus treatment strategy after a liver transplant (preemptive therapy vs general prophylaxis) in the largest group of patients: Cytomegalovirus seropositive donor and recipient. Forty-seven seropositive recipients of seropositive donor liver transplants (D+/R+, 2005-2012) were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-one patients received oral valganciclovir as Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis 100 days after transplant. Cytomegalovirus infection and Cytomegalovirus disease were monitored during the first 6 months. A Cytomegalovirus infection could be detected in 4 out of 47 patients (8.5%), including Cytomegalovirus disease in 2 patients (Cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus-CNS disease). Three of these patients received no Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis (P = .408). Eight patients developed a graft failure; this occurred more frequently among patients without Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis (P = .044). Patients receiving Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis more often developed leukopenia. No difference was seen regarding the number of platelets, hemoglobin, and creatinine. Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis can minimize the risk of Cytomegalovirus reactivation and graft failure. However, disadvantages of the prophylaxis as leukopenia should be considered.

  11. Congenital Rubella Syndrome With Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Jou Hwang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS consists of a group of abnormalities that develop in children as a result of maternal infection with rubella virus. CRS may lead to new physical symptoms during adolescence or adulthood, referred to as “late manifestations”. Psychiatric disorders are often seen among CRS patients, with an incidence of 4.12–7.3% for autism. We report a case of adolescent CRS with autism. A 20-year-old man had received treatment with antipsychotics and antidepressants since the age of 12 years because of unstable moods, violence, and stereotypic behavior. During follow-up, he developed some insidious-onset physical problems, including hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, constipation, torticollis and a tilted trunk. Under careful survey and evaluation, some physical problems were recognized as side effects of psychotropics, which gradually subsided after adjustment of the medications, and some of the problems were considered partially as manifestations of CRS, such as progressive pulmonary artery stenosis-related dyspnea. We managed some of the patient's physical problems and then he received catheterization for pulmonary artery stenosis. His general physical condition improved and some further improvement in psychiatric status was noted thereafter. Because of a high comorbidity rate for patients with autistic disorder, the clinician should be aware of the possibility of CRS if the patient has multiple congenital physical abnormalities with a history of maternal rubella infection. If patients develop physical symptoms in adolescence, awareness of late manifestations of CRS and differentiation from the adverse effects of psychotropic medications are essential. In addition to psychiatric treatment, management of physical problems associated with CRS would be beneficial for the patients' psychiatric condition.

  12. The Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Antibodies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human cytomegalovirus, otherwise called human herpes virus type 5, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy, and among immunocompromised patients like recipients of organ transplants. Cytomegalovirus is transmissible via blood transfusion, among other parenteral routes. This study ...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175... Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Cytomegalovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to cytomegalovirus in...

  14. The end of measles and congenital rubella: an achievable dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, G; Sturabotti, G; D'Andrea, E; Baccolini, V; Romano, F; Iannazzo, S; Marzuillo, C; Villari, P

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial progress towards measles and rubella control, outbreaks continue to threaten elimination goals worldwide. This paper aims to document progress towards the global eradication of measles and rubella. In particular, it investigates the major challenges faced by Italy in reaching the elimination goals. A review of the most important literature was carried out. Furthermore, a systematic review of the scientific literature on measles and rubella in the Italian setting was performed for the period 2000-2016. In the National Plan 2010-2015, Italy renewed its commitment to eliminate measles and rubella by 2015. However, Italy recently experienced a high measles burden (2,205 cases in 2013, 1,694 in 2014). Between June 2015 and May 2016, 515 cases were reported, accounting for 28% all cases in Europe. Immunization coverage decreased in recent years, with no Region reaching the 95% target. The systematic review included a total of 175 papers, with an upward trend in the number of published articles, which demonstrates an increasing interest in the field of measles and rubella. The review highlights the need to improve the commitment of the Italian Regions to the elimination goals; to promote Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs); to improve the communication skills of health care workers; to improve the health literacy of citizens; and to enhance integrated measles and rubella surveillance. Elimination of measles and rubella in Italy will require a substantial improvement in both commitment of the 21 Regions and activity of the whole country towards the WHO goals.

  15. Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus in Iraqi Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevan Najem Alwan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of children with congenital cytomegalovirus are born to cytomegalovirus seropositive women. However, the likelihood of congenital infection with disability is highest for children whose mothers were cytomegalovirus seronegative acquired infection during pregnancy. Objectives: to provide first nationally estimate of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among Iraqi children under five years of age. Materials and Methods was used total of 1000 hospitalized children under five years of age form different geographical area in Iraq were enrolled in this study. The numbers of children were collected by proportional allocation for each selected governorate according to total number of participant children. Kuppuswamy scale has been used to measure the socioeconomic status for children. Serum samples were obtained from each subject participate in this study, cytomegalovirus infection was defined as IgM antibody positive by electro-chemiluminescence Immunoassay techniques. The results show that the current study revealed a prevalence of cytomegalovirus specific IgM as a serum marker was 5.4% among children under five years of age. Positive cytomegalovirus was associated with low socioeconomic status, maternal bad obstetric history, and lower age of children, while the infection was not associated to geographical distribution and gender. By stratified the children into symptomatic and asymptomatic according to the signs and symptoms of cytomegalovirus congenital and acquired infection at time of sample collection, 15% and 0.9% proved to have positive specific IgM among symptomatic and asymptomatic children, respectively. Jaundice was the most predominant clinical sign 56% among symptomatic infected children, followed by hepatosplenomegaly 41.7%. Conclusion: The data provide in the current study strongly encourage routine testing for cytomegalovirus Antibodies among pregnant women in Iraq. Infants diagnosed to be sub-clinically infected with

  16. Rubella vaccination of unknowingly pregnant women during mass campaigns for rubella and congenital rubella syndrome elimination, the Americas 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos; Reef, Susan E; Morice, Ana; Vascones, Nancy; Chevez, Ana Elena; Castalia-Soares, Rosa; Torres, Carlos; Vizzotti, Carla; Ruiz Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2011-09-01

    Due to the significant teratogenicity of rubella virus and the use of a live-attentuated vaccine, pregnancy is a contraindication of receipt of rubella vaccine (RCV). Data collected from several countries that have observed susceptible women who had received RCV during pregnancy documented that no infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has been born, so the risk is theoretical. As part of the regional initiative to eliminate rubella and CRS in the Americas, one of the key strategies was the vaccination of women of childbearing age. The implementation of mass vaccination campaigns targeting women of childbearing age in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay provided an opportunity to further increase the body of knowledge on the safety of rubella vaccine if an unknowingly pregnant woman is vaccinated in early pregnancy. Using a standard protocol, women who were unknowingly pregnant or become pregnant ≤ 30 days after receiving RCV were evaluated to determine immunity status (eg, susceptible, immune, and unknown) at the time of vaccination. Susceptible pregnant women were observed to determine the outcome of the pregnancy. For pregnancies that resulted in live births, serum samples were obtained from the newborn for rubella immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody testing. If the newborn's serum sample was IgM positive, the infant was evaluated for manifestations of CRS. During the period 2001-2008, 48748253 women of childbearing age were vaccinated in the region of the Americas, 39542253 (81%) of whom were vaccinated in the 6 selected countries. Of these women, 30139 (0.07%) were pregnant or became pregnant ≤1 month after receiving vaccine and were followed up. On the basis of serological evaluation, 2894 (10%) women were classified as susceptible at the time of vaccination; of their pregnancies, 1980 (90%) resulted in a live birth. Sera from 70 (3.5%) of these infants were rubella IgM antibody positive, but none of the infants had

  17. Detection of measles, mumps, and rubella viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Graham; Hiebert, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Measles, mumps, and rubella are infections caused by RNA viruses of the same name and are vaccine preventable. The vaccines are frequently administered in a trivalent form. Laboratory diagnostic methods can include indirect detection via antibody (IgM and IgG) detection methods and direct detection by viral culture or viral genome detection. There are challenges for the laboratory in areas with low prevalence due to high vaccine uptake. In those areas, routine serological methods such as IgM detection may have a reduced positive predictive value and thus require confirmation by other methods. Direct detection of viral genomic material using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodologies can play an important role for laboratory confirmation of acute infections. Furthermore, genotyping of these three viruses provides useful molecular epidemiological data for differentiating vaccine from wild-type strains, linking cases and outbreaks, and tracking geographic spread and elimination. The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance for the laboratory diagnosis of measles, mumps, and rubella virus infections. Where assays are commercially available or previously published, the appropriate references are provided as well as brief comments on the interpretation of results. Detailed protocols are provided for the molecular assays which have been developed and more commonly applied in recent years.

  18. Seroepidemiology of Rubella in Mozambique, 2006-2014: Implications for Rubella Immunization in Settings With High Fertility Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amade, Nádia Alves; Sultane, Thebora; Augusto, Orvalho; Ali, Sádia; Jani, Ilesh V; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2016-10-01

    Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome are highly underreported and neglected in most sub-Saharan countries and vaccination has not yet been incorporated into their national immunization schedules. In this study, we investigated the frequency of immunoglobulin M antibodies against rubella and examined correlations with fertility rates during the period from 2006 to 2014 in Mozambique. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected through the routine case-based surveillance system for measles in Mozambique. A total of 7312 serum samples from suspected cases of measles were tested between 2006 and 2014. The median age was 4 years (interquartile range: 1-8 years). Of these, 1331 (18.2%) were positive for immunoglobulin M anti-rubella. The highest frequency of rubella was observed within the 5-9-year-old age group (32.6%). The frequency in the age groups rubella is frequent among women of childbearing age in Mozambique. Considering that early pregnancy is common in Mozambique, this suggests that, in settings such as ours, the introduction of routine rubella vaccination in children should be accompanied by repeated vaccination campaigns targeting older children and adolescents.

  19. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Laurent; Hraiech, Sami; Lehingue, Samuel; Roch, Antoine; Chiche, Laurent; Wiramus, Sandrine; Forel, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20 years have passed since we reported our results of histologically proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in non-immunocompromised ICU patients. Even if there are more recent reports suggesting that CMV may worsen the outcomes for ICU patients, there is no definite answer to this question: is CMV a potential pathogen for ICU patients or is it simply a bystander? We will describe the pathophysiology of active CMV infection and the most recent insights concerning the epidemiological aspects of these reactivations. Cytomegalovirus can be pathogenic by a direct organ insult (such as for the lung), by decreasing host defences against other microorganisms and/or by enhancing the body's inflammatory response (as in acute respiratory distress syndrome). The incidence of active CMV infection is dependent on the diagnostic method used. Using the most sophisticated available biological tools, the incidence can reach 15-20% of ICU patients (20-40% in ICU patients with positive CMV serology). In adequately powered cohorts of patients, active CMV infection appears to be associated with worse outcomes for mechanically ventilated ICU patients. There is no absolute direct proof of a negative impact of active CMV infection on the health outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. Prospective randomized trials are lacking. Future trials should examine the potential benefits for health outcomes of using antiviral treatments. Such treatments could be prophylactic, pre-emptive or used only when there is an end-organ disease. Cytomegalovirus infection may affect health outcomes for ICU patients. Additional prospective trials are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Influence of host genetic variation on rubella-specific T cell cytokine responses following rubella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Ryan, Jenna E; Vierkant, Robert A; O'Byrne, Megan M; Pankratz, V Shane; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2009-05-26

    The variability of immune response modulated by immune response gene polymorphisms is a significant factor in the protective effect of vaccines. We studied the association between cellular (cytokine) immunity and HLA genes among 738 schoolchildren (396 males and 342 females) between the ages of 11 and 19 years, who received two doses of rubella vaccine (Merck). Cytokine secretion levels in response to rubella virus stimulation were determined in PBMC cultures by ELISA. Cell supernatants were assayed for Th1 (IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-12p40), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10), and innate/proinflammatory (TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and IL-6) cytokines. We found a strong association between multiple alleles of the HLA-DQA1 (global p-value 0.022) and HLA-DQB1 (global p-value 0.007) loci and variations in rubella-specific IL-2 cytokine secretion. Additionally, the relationships between alleles of the HLA-A (global p-value 0.058), HLA-B (global p-value 0.035), and HLA-C (global p-value 0.023) loci and TNF-alpha secretion suggest the importance of HLA class I molecules in innate/inflammatory immune response. Better characterization of these genetic profiles could help to predict immune responses at the individual and population level, provide data on mechanisms of immune response development, and further inform vaccine development and vaccination policies.

  1. Seroprevalence of Rubella Specific IgG Antibody among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABCCAFE7

    rubella vaccine to be part of national immunization programme and screening of women of childbearing age so as to ... calculated at 95% confidence interval and p-value <. 0.05 was considered .... milestone on the road to global elimination.

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  4. Prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rubella IgG antibody of the women was detected in sera using the RUB IgG Test kit. This is a quantitative ELISA technique. Result:- The prevalence of rubella antibody in 159 pregnant women that participated in this study was 68.5% with a confidence interval of 64.8% - 72.2%. Women living in rural -urban areas have ...

  5. RC-IAL cell line: sensitivity of rubella virus grow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Cristina A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The rapid growth of the rubella virus in RC-IAL² with development of cytopathic effect, in response to rubella virus infection, is described. For purposes of comparison, the rubella virus RA-27/3 strain was titered simultaneously in the RC-IAL, Vero, SIRC and RK13 cell lines. METHODS: Rubella virus RA-27/3 strain are inoculated in the RC-IAL cell line (rabbit Kidney, Institute Adolfo Lutz. Plates containing 1.5x10(5 cells/ml of RC-IAL line were inoculated with 0.1ml s RA-27/3 strain virus containing 1x 10(4TCID50/0.1ml. A 25% cytopathic effect was observed after 48 hours and 100% after 96 hours. The results obtained were compared to those observed with the SIRC, Vero and RK13 cell lines. Rubella virus was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: With the results, it was possible to conclude that the RC-IAL cell line is a very good substrate for culturing rubella virus. The cells inoculated with rubella virus were examined by phase contrast microscopy and showed the characteristic rounded, bipolar and multipolar cells. The CPE in RC-IAL was observed in the first 48 hours and the curve of the increased infectivity was practically the same as observed in other cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are important since this is one the few cell lines described in the literature with a cytopathic effect. So it can be used for antigen preparation and serological testing for the diagnosis of specific rubella antibodies.

  6. Rubella outbreak in the union territory of Chandigarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mini P; Kumar, Archit; Gautam, Neha; Khurana, Jasmine; Gupta, Madhu; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus outbreaks usually occur when a large numbers of susceptible individuals accumulate. The disease presents clinically with fever and maculopapular rash. The present study reports the investigation of rubella outbreak in a modern and well-planned village near Chandigarh, North India. The blood samples were collected from 39 cases with febrile rash and from 15 age and sex matched healthy controls residing in the same locality and subjected for the detection of Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The throat swabs, urine and blood samples from acute cases were also collected and subjected to RT-PCR using the primers targeting the E1 region. The genetic characterization of the rubella virus was carried out to identify the circulating genotypes. In the present outbreak, 13 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. Rubella IgM antibodies were detected in 12/39 (30.7%) patients. Rubella RNA could be detected in 83.3% (5/6) of urine, 22.2% (2/9) of throat swabs, and 8.3% (1/12) of blood samples. The rubella genotype responsible for the present outbreak was identified as genotype 1a. This outbreak highlights the need for the introduction of rubella vaccine in the National Immunization Programme of India to prevent outbreaks and to aim towards the eradication of this disease. This study reports the presence of genotype 1a in North India for the first time and stresses the need for further molecular work to identify the circulating strains of the virus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The “Silent” Global Burden of Congenital Cytomegalovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Vincent C.; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of congenital infections worldwide. In the developed world, following the virtual elimination of circulating rubella, it is the commonest nongenetic cause of childhood hearing loss and an important cause of neurodevelopmental delay. The seroprevalence of CMV in adults and the incidence of congenital CMV infection are highest in developing countries (1 to 5% of births) and are most likely driven by nonprimary maternal infections. However, reliable estimates of prevalence and outcome from developing countries are not available. This is largely due to the dogma that maternal preexisting seroimmunity virtually eliminates the risk for sequelae. However, recent data demonstrating similar rates of sequelae, especially hearing loss, following primary and nonprimary maternal infection have underscored the importance of congenital CMV infection in resource-poor settings. Although a significant proportion of congenital CMV infections are attributable to maternal primary infection in well-resourced settings, the absence of specific interventions for seronegative mothers and uncertainty about fetal prognosis have discouraged routine maternal antibody screening. Despite these challenges, encouraging results from prototype vaccines have been reported, and the first randomized phase III trials of prenatal interventions and prolonged postnatal antiviral therapy are under way. Successful implementation of strategies to prevent or reduce the burden of congenital CMV infection will require heightened global awareness among clinicians and the general population. In this review, we highlight the global epidemiology of congenital CMV and the implications of growing knowledge in areas of prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and management for both low (50 to 70%)- and high (>70%)-seroprevalence settings. PMID:23297260

  8. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rubella immunity among pregnant women aged 15-44 years, Namibia, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Anna; Cardemil, Cristina V; Beukes, Anita; Anderson, Raydel; Rota, Paul A; Bankamp, Bettina; Gary, Howard E; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gerber, Sue; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-01

    The level of rubella susceptibility among women of reproductive age in Namibia is unknown. Documenting the risk of rubella will help estimate the potential burden of disease in Namibian women and the risk of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in infants, and will guide strategies for the introduction of rubella vaccine. A total of 2044 serum samples from pregnant Namibian women aged 15-44 years were tested for rubella immunoglobulin G antibody; the samples were obtained during the 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey. The proportion of women seropositive for rubella was determined by 5-year age strata, and factors associated with seropositivity were analyzed by logistic regression, including age, gravidity, HIV status, facility type, and urban/rural status. Overall rubella seroprevalence was 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83-86%). Seroprevalence varied by age group (83-90%) and health district (71-100%). In the multivariable model, women from urban residences had higher odds of seropositivity as compared to women from rural residences (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.81). In the absence of a routine rubella immunization program, the high level of rubella seropositivity suggests rubella virus transmission in Namibia, yet 15% of pregnant Namibian women remain susceptible to rubella. The introduction of rubella vaccine will help reduce the risk of rubella in pregnant women and CRS in infants. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection amongst pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    were collected from 330 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 33 non pregnant women attending the Outpatient. Department in three ... Keywords: Seroprevalence, Cytomegalovirus, IgG, Pregnant women, Kaduna, Nigeria. SEROPREVALENCE ... thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal ulceration, hepatitis and ...

  11. Oncogenic role of cytomegalovirus in medulloblastoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, Alejandro M; Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Van Hecke, Wim; Bovenschen, Niels

    2017-11-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common solid tumor among children. Current therapeutic strategies for this malignancy include surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, these treatments are accompanied with serious side effects such as neurological complications and psychosocial problems, due to the severity of treatment on the developing nervous system. To solve this problem, novel therapeutic approaches are currently being investigated. One of them is targeting human cytomegalovirus in medulloblastoma cancer cells. However, this approach is still under debate, since the presence of cytomegalovirus in medulloblastomas remains controversial. In this review, we discuss the current controversies on the role of cytomegalovirus in medulloblastoma oncogenesis and the potential of cytomegalovirus as a novel (immuno)therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of immunity against rubella among Italian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Gallone Maria; Filomena, Gallone Maria; Vittoria, Larocca Angela Maria; Cinzia, Germinario; Silvio, Tafuri

    2017-03-07

    To support the evaluation of the 2010-15 National Plan for Measles and Congenital Rubella Elimination, the authors designed and performed a serosurveillance survey to verify the immunity/susceptibility rate against rubella among Apulian young adults. The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 in the Department of Transfusion Medicine/Blood Bank of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sampling. For each enrolled patient a 5 ml serum sample was collected and tested for anti-rubella IgG. The geometrical means (GMT) of anti-rubella IgG was calculated. T student test or ANOVA test, when appropriate, was used to compare the means of age per gender and GMT of anti-rubella IgG titres per age classes. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of anti-rubella IgG positive subjects per gender and per age classes. For all tests, a p value rubella IgG. GMT of anti-rubella IgG titre was 4.3. The proportion of positive subjects was of 76.8% (n = 279/363; 95% CI = 72.2-81.1) in persons aged 18-26 years; 88.1% (n = 310/352; 95% CI = 84.2-91.3) in 27-35 year-old people; 88.5% (n = 464/524; 95% CI = 85.5-91.1) in 36-45 year-old people; 90.7% (n = 350/386; 95% CI = 87.3-93.4) among people aged 46-55 years and 90.6% (n = 126/139; 95% CI = 84.5-94.9) in 55-65 year-old people (Chi-square = 39.7; p rubella IgG titre was 4.3 (4.3 in male and 4.2 in female, t = 2.2; p = 0.03) and seems to differ dividing the enrolled subjects by age group (F = 14.3; p rubella in the elimination era and in this scenario the public health efforts should be oriented to catch-up activities.

  13. Disseminated Cytomegalovirus: Report of a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Klinger, Gabriel Alonso; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Guevara Pulido, Fredy Orlando; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Álvarez Moreno, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case of a man without previous history of disease, which initially consulted for abdominal pain. Acute cholecystitis is documented in findings of cytomegalovirus disease. In addition, it has many manifestations, including respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal bleeding, pancytopenia. Was documented HIV infection, and serological and histological signs of cytomegalovirus, citomegalovirus diagnosis is made in the context of widespread HIV infection. El artículo presen...

  14. Cytomegalovirus Infection and Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rădulescu Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation and proteinuria. It is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia is not completely understood. In our study we investigated if there is a potential link between cytomegalovirus infection and pre-eclampsia and if cytomegalovirus infection is the triggering factor of pre-eclampsia.

  15. MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine What You Need to Know (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... Visite www. immunize. org/ vis 1 MVaeraicselellsa, Mumps, Rubella and M easles, M umps, R ubella, and ...

  16. Sociodemographic and economic characteristics of susceptibility to rubella among women preparing for pregnancy in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangchao Liu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: There is a clear difference in rubella-specific susceptibility among rural women preparing for pregnancy of different sociodemographic and economic backgrounds. The number of rubella-susceptible rural women preparing for pregnancy, especially in relatively low GDP per capita regions in China, was high. Offering rubella vaccination to women who are rubella-susceptible and who plan to become pregnant should become one of the priorities in the field of public health work in China.

  17. Rubella Virus-associated Anterior Uveitis in a Vaccinated Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Berge, Josianne C E M; van Daele, Paul L A; Rothova, Aniki

    2016-01-01

    Rubella virus is involved in the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic uveitis and almost all cases in Europe show an active antibody production in the aqueous humor against rubella virus. Herein we report a case of a fully vaccinated patient with common variable immunodeficiency who developed unilateral Fuchs heterochromic uveitis secondary to rubella virus which was proven by intraocular fluid examination. Awareness of rubella associated anterior uveitis should remain also in vaccinated patients, especially those without a fully competent immune system.

  18. Prevalence of Rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin-g and -m in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rubella is a self-limiting disease that causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when rubella virus (RV) infects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: To assess a population of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria for anti-RV IgG and IgM in ...

  19. Sero-prevalence of IgM antibody to Rubella Virus in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rubella is a contagious viral infection, which in pregnant women leads to infection of a developing fetus causing fetal death or Congenital Rubella Syndrome. A cross-sectional study involving 180 women was carried out between June and August 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of IgM antibody to rubella in their ...

  20. Rubella immune status of neonates - a window towards seroprevalence among childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Iris; Rankovic Janevski, Milica; Knezevic, Aleksandra; Jevtovic, Djordje; Stanojevic, Maja

    2016-08-19

    When contracted in pregnancy, rubella may cause serious chronic infection of the fetus and development of Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Despite widespread application of rubella vaccination, periodical outbreaks are still being reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine rubella seroprevalence and antibody levels in neonates in Serbia as a proxy of maternal serostatus. ELISA based serological testing for rubella was done in 599 neonates treated at the Institute of Neonatology in Belgrade, from January 2010 to December 2011. All individuals with rubella IgG concentration ≥10 IU/ml were considered seropositive for rubella. The mean age of enrolled neonates was 18 ± 6 days. The overall seroprevalence of rubella IgG antibodies among the tested neonates was 540/599(90.2 %, 95 % CI: 87.5-92.3). Seropositivity rate among sera of the neonates enrolled in 2010 was significantly higher than those collected in 2011 (p 30 as compared to those from mothers aged rubella seroprevalence among newborns in Serbia, as a proxy of rubella serostatus of childbearing aged women. Notably, declining trend of rubella antibodies toward diminishing titers suggest the importance of sustained rubella serosurvey and antenatal screening at the national level.

  1. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in a Canadian Provincial Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Kearns

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are limited recent data on rubella immunity in women of childbearing age in Canada. In the present paper, the proportion of rubella seroreactivity and redundant testing (testing of women previously seropositive when tested by the same physician in the Alberta prenatal rubella screening program were studied.

  2. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies in blood donars at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in susceptible patients is associated with serious morbidity and a high mortality. Transmission of cytomegalovirus infection through blood transfusion is markedly reduced by transfusion of CMV seronegative blood products, or by transfusion of leucodepleted blood products.

  3. Pregnancy outcomes of women with failure to retain rubella immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzenburg, Christopher J; Gilmandyar, Dzhamala; Thornburg, Loralei L; Hackney, David N

    2014-12-01

    We sought to explore the clinical variables associated with the loss of rubella immunity during pregnancy and to determine if these changes are linked to obstetrical complications. This is a case-control study in which women were identified whose rubella antibody titers were equivocal or non-immune and compared to those who had retained immunity. Two hundred and eighty-five cases were identified and compared to the same number of controls using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U-test or Fisher's exact test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed. Subjects with diminished immunity were more likely to have public insurance and higher gravidity with a trend toward increased tobacco use. Diminished rubella immunity was not associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, including preterm birth and pre-eclampsia and is likely not a risk factor for these pregnancy outcomes. While no adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with a loss of rubella immunity, women with greater number of pregnancies appear to lose their immunity to rubella. This relationship needs to be explored further and if proven, revaccination prior to pregnancy may need to be addressed.

  4. Seroprevalance of rubella in women with bad obstetric history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Ramana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubella is a common cause of rash and fever during childhood. However, its public health importance relates to the teratogenic effects of primary rubella infection occurring in pregnant women, which can lead to fetal death with spontaneous abortion or to congenital defects in surviving infants. Most of the cases are asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds. Detection of specific IgM antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique is a useful method for diagnosis.The present study was conducted on 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati. All the serum samples were tested for Rubella-specific IgM antibodies. A seropositivity of 12.67% was observed among cases with bad obstetric history and 6.67% in normal pregnant women. Within the test group, high sero-positivity (13.33% was observed in women with repeated abortions followed by in cases of intrauterine death (12.73%. The results indicate high prevalence of rubella in our population. All antenatal cases should be routinely screened for rubella, so that early diagnosis will help in proper management and fetal outcome.

  5. MALATYA DA DOĞURGANLIK YAŞINDAKİ KADINLARDA RUBELLA SERO POZİTİFLİĞİ

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, Yunus; TEKEREKOĞLU, M. Sait; OTLU, Barış; DURMAZ, Bengül; ÖZEROL, İ. Halil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: : To determinated rubella IgG and IgM seropositivity in reproductive women. Material and method: Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies were determinated by ELISA in the sera of4042 reproductive women, 828pregnant. Results: Of the 4042 samples, 25 (0.6%) were positive for rubella IgM, 3314 (82.4%) for rubella IgM and 18 (0.4%) for rubella IgM+IgG. Rubella IgM seropositivity was not observed in the pregnant women between eighteen to thirty-five years of age, but rubella IgG sero...

  6. Immunolocalization and Distribution of Rubella Antigen in Fatal Congenital Rubella Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Mihaela; Perelygina, Ludmila; Martines, Roosecelis; Greer, Patricia; Paddock, Christopher D.; Peltecu, Gheorghe; Lupulescu, Emilia; Icenogle, Joseph; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur worldwide each year. The reported mortality rate for infants with CRS is up to 33%. The cellular mechanisms responsible for the multiple congenital defects in CRS are presently unknown. Here we identify cell types positive for rubella virus (RV) in CRS infants. Methods Cells and organs involved in RV replication were identified in paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues from three fatal case-patients by histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using a rabbit polyclonal RV antibody. Normal rabbit antisera and RV antisera preabsorbed with highly purified RV served as negative controls. Results RV antigen was found in interstitial fibroblasts in the heart, adventitial fibroblasts of large blood vessels, alveolar macrophages, progenitor cells of the outer granular layer of the brain, and in capillary endothelium and basal plate in the placenta. The antibody specificity was verified by IHC staining of multiple tissue sections from other infectious disease cases. RV infection of each cell type is consistent with abnormalities which have been identified in patients with CRS, in the heart, large blood vessels, and brain. Antigen distribution was consistent with inflammatory response to vascular injury and systemic spread of RV. Conclusions The identification of RV positive cell types in CRS is important to better understand the pathology and pathogenesis of CRS. PMID:26870820

  7. Epidemiology of rubella virus cases in the pre-vaccination era of Ethiopia, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Gallagher, Kathleen; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; Assefa, Esete; HaileMariam, Yoseph; HaileGiorgis, Yonas; Ketema, Hiwot; Shiferaw, Dejenie; Bekele, Ayenachew; Jima, Daddi; Kebede, Amha

    2016-11-18

    Rubella is a common mild rash illness caused by rubella virus. The majority of infections occur in children and young adults. The infection is the cause of a serious birth defect known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) when a woman acquires infection early in pregnancy. Ethiopia has not yet established rubella virus surveillance and has not yet introduced rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program. We characterize the epidemiology of laboratory confirmed rubella virus cases collected through measles surveillance from 2009 to 2015 to better understand the burden of the disease in the country. A descriptive analysis was made to characterize rubella cases reported through the national measles case based surveillance system. The measles case definition was used to capture potential rubella cases. A suspected measles case was a person with generalized rash and fever with cough, or coryza or conjunctivitis. Those cases whose sera were negative for measles IgM antibodies were tested for rubella IgM antibody. A confirmed rubella case was a person who tested positive for rubella IgM. Only laboratory confirmed rubella cases were analyzed in this article. Between 2009 and 2015, a total of 28,284 serum/plasma samples were collected and tested for measles IgM antibody and 11,151 (39.4%) were found positive. A total of 17,066 measles IgM negative or indeterminate samples were tested for rubella virus IgM and 2615 (15.3%) were found positive during the same period. Of 2615 confirmed rubella cases, 52.2% were females. The age of confirmed cases ranged from one month to 42 years with a mean age of 7.3 years. Three-fourth of all confirmed rubella cases were aged less than 10 years. The number of laboratory confirmed rubella cases linearly increased from 83 in 2009 to 856 in 2013 but dropped to 222 and 319 in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Higher number of cases occurred in the hot dry season (January through June) and in the central and western part of Ethiopia with

  8. Epidemiology of rubella virus cases in the pre-vaccination era of Ethiopia, 2009–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonen Getahun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rubella is a common mild rash illness caused by rubella virus. The majority of infections occur in children and young adults. The infection is the cause of a serious birth defect known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS when a woman acquires infection early in pregnancy. Ethiopia has not yet established rubella virus surveillance and has not yet introduced rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program. We characterize the epidemiology of laboratory confirmed rubella virus cases collected through measles surveillance from 2009 to 2015 to better understand the burden of the disease in the country. Methods A descriptive analysis was made to characterize rubella cases reported through the national measles case based surveillance system. The measles case definition was used to capture potential rubella cases. A suspected measles case was a person with generalized rash and fever with cough, or coryza or conjunctivitis. Those cases whose sera were negative for measles IgM antibodies were tested for rubella IgM antibody. A confirmed rubella case was a person who tested positive for rubella IgM. Only laboratory confirmed rubella cases were analyzed in this article. Results Between 2009 and 2015, a total of 28,284 serum/plasma samples were collected and tested for measles IgM antibody and 11,151 (39.4% were found positive. A total of 17,066 measles IgM negative or indeterminate samples were tested for rubella virus IgM and 2615 (15.3% were found positive during the same period. Of 2615 confirmed rubella cases, 52.2% were females. The age of confirmed cases ranged from one month to 42 years with a mean age of 7.3 years. Three-fourth of all confirmed rubella cases were aged less than 10 years. The number of laboratory confirmed rubella cases linearly increased from 83 in 2009 to 856 in 2013 but dropped to 222 and 319 in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Higher number of cases occurred in the hot dry season (January through June and

  9. Rubella vaccination of unknowingly pregnant women: the São Paulo experience, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Helena K; Sanajotta, Andrea Torres; Moraes, José Cássio; Andrade, Joelma Queiróz; Duarte, Geraldo; Cervi, Maria Célia; Curti, Sueli P; Pannuti, Cláudio Sérgio; Milanez, Helaine; Pessoto, Mônica; Flannery, Brendan; Oselka, Gabriel W

    2011-09-01

    Rubella vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy. During mass immunization of women of childbearing age against rubella, women unknowingly pregnant may be vaccinated. To evaluate the effects of rubella vaccination during pregnancy, the Brazilian state of São Paulo conducted a follow-up study of pregnant women vaccinated during a rubella campaign in 2001. Women vaccinated during pregnancy were reported to a national surveillance system. In the state of São Paulo, follow-up of vaccinated women included household interviews. Serum samples from vaccinated women were tested for antirubella antibodies to classify susceptibility to rubella infection. Children born to susceptible mothers were tested for evidence of congenital rubella infection and evaluated for signs of congenital rubella syndrome. The São Paulo State Health Department received 6473 notifications of women vaccinated during pregnancy. Serology performed for 5580 women identified 811 (15%) that were previously susceptible. Incidence of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth among previously susceptible vaccinated women was similar to women with prior immunity. Twenty-seven (4.7%) of 580 newborns tested had evidence of congenital rubella infection; none had congenital rubella syndrome. Mass rubella vaccination of women of childbearing age was not associated with adverse birth outcomes or congenital rubella syndrome among children born to women vaccinated during pregnancy.

  10. Characterization of Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Rubella Vaccine in Four Distinct Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathaniel; Haralambieva, Iana; Ovsyannikova, Inna; Larrabee, Beth; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Although vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced the global burden of rubella disease, there are still regional outbreaks and cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Rubella vaccination elicits a strong humoral, as well as cellular, response. The relationship between these two measures in response to rubella vaccine is poorly understood. We have previously reported no correlation between rubella virus-specific cytokine secretion and IgG antibody levels after rubella vaccination. In the current study, we extend our previous work to report correlations between secreted cytokines and functional neutralizing antibodies after rubella vaccination in four distinct cohorts. There was evidence of significant differences (p rubella virus-specific humoral and cellular responses between cohorts. When investigating relationships between rubella vaccine-specific humoral and cellular immunity, we observed a significant correlation between neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ (rs = 0.21, p = 0.0004). We also observed correlations in subjects with extreme humoral immune phenotypes and IFN-γ levels in two of the four cohorts (rs = 0.32, p = 0.01; rs = 0.36, p = 0.01, respectively). These findings indicate that there is a high level of heterogeneity in rubella-specific immune responses between study populations. We believe that the novel correlation discovered between IFN-γ and neutralizing antibody titers will give future insight into the functional mechanisms of immunity induced by rubella virus and other live viral vaccines. PMID:24375276

  11. Sero-Surveillance to assess immunity to rubella and assessment of immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of rubella vaccine in school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Hitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubella vaccination is not yet included in National Immunization Schedule in India. Serosurvey is frequently used to assess epidemiologic pattern of Rubella in a community. Serosurveys in different parts of India have found that 6-47% of women are susceptible for Rubella infection. The present serosurveillance was conducted in Jammu, India, in two public schools. Objective: To determine serological status of Rubella antibodies of school girls and assessment of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Rubella immunization in seronegative girls. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted to determine Rubella serostatus in peripubertal schoolgirls aged 11-18 years and also to assess immunogenicity and safety of Rubella vaccine (R-Vac of Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune, in seronegative girls. For screening, pre-vaccination serum Rubella IgG antibodies were determined and to assess immunogenicity of the vaccine, post-vaccination IgG antibodies were compared with pre-vaccination levels. Safety assessment was done for a period of 8 weeks, post-vaccination. Results: A total of 90 (32.7% seronegative girls were vaccinated. All girls (100% became seropositive, post-vaccination. Clinically relevant and statistically significant increase in anti-Rubella IgG titres was observed. The adverse events were mild and self-limiting. Conclusions: R-Vac vaccine used in the study demonstrated an excellent safety and immunogenicity profile.

  12. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults.

  13. Rubella Virus Genotypes in the People's Republic of China between 1979 and 2007: a Shift in Endemic Viruses during the 2001 Rubella Epidemic▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Abernathy, Emily; Cui, Aili; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Shujie; Zhang, Zhenying; Wang, Changyin; Wang, Tongzhan; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Chen, Yingqiong; He, Jilan; Sun, Li; Chen, Xia; Tang, Jihai; Feng, Daxin; Wang, Yan; Ba, Zhuoma; Fan, Lixia; Chen, Haiyun; Pan, Zhengfan; Zhan, Jun; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Shunde; Zheng, Lei; Gao, Hui; Liang, Yong; Dai, Defang; Icenogle, Joseph; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of rubella cases in China from 1991 to 2007 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 123 rubella viruses collected during 1999 to 2007 and 4 viral sequences previously reported from 1979 to 1984 were phylogenetically analyzed. Rubella vaccination was not included in national immunization programs in China before 2007. Changes in endemic viruses were compared with incidences of rubella epidemics. The results showed that rubella epidemics occur approximately every 6 to 8 years (1993/1994, 2001, and 2007), and a shift of disease burden to susceptible young adults was observed. The Chinese rubella virus sequences were categorized into 5 of the 13 rubella virus genotypes, 1a, 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B; cocirculations of these different genotypes were found in China. In Anhui province, a shift in the predominant genotype from 1F and 2B to 1E coincided with the 2001 rubella epidemic. This shift may have occurred throughout China during 2001 to 2007. This study investigated the genotype distribution of rubella viruses in China over a 28-year period to establish an important genetic baseline in China during its prevaccination era. PMID:20351211

  14. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  15. Mood stabilizers inhibit cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Sara; Davis, John N; Gorres, Kelly L; Miller, George; Paidas, Michael J; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2016-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can generate debilitating disease in immunocompromised individuals and neonates. It is also the most common infectious cause of congenital birth defects in infected fetuses. Available anti-CMV drugs are partially effective but are limited by some toxicity, potential viral resistance, and are not recommended for fetal exposure. Valproate, valpromide, and valnoctamide have been used for many years to treat epilepsy and mood disorders. We report for the first time that, in contrast to the virus-enhancing actions of valproate, structurally related valpromide and valnoctamide evoke a substantial and specific inhibition of mouse and human CMV in vitro. In vivo, both drugs safely attenuate mouse CMV, improving survival, body weight, and developmental maturation of infected newborns. The compounds appear to act by a novel mechanism that interferes with CMV attachment to the cell. Our work provides a novel potential direction for CMV therapeutics through repositioning of agents already approved for use in psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the β-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. A range of HCMV features like its lytic replication in multiple tissues, the lifelong persistence through periods of latency and intermitting reactivation, the extraordinary large proteome, and extensive manipulation of adaptive and innate immunity make HCMV a high profile candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders. We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. A causative linkage between HCMV and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), diabetes mellitus type 1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suggested by the literature. However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. For convincing conclusions population-based prospective studies must be performed in the future. Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28− T-cells in RA patients. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to lay the grounds for targeted therapeutic intervention. PMID:24967373

  17. Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Halenius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the β-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. A range of HCMV features like its lytic replication in multiple tissues, the lifelong persistence through periods of latency and intermitting reactivation, the extraordinary large proteome, and extensive manipulation of adaptive and innate immunity make HCMV a high profile candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders. We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. A causative linkage between HCMV and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, diabetes mellitus type 1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA is suggested by the literature. However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. For convincing conclusions population-based prospective studies must be performed in the future. Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28− T-cells in RA patients. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to lay the grounds for targeted therapeutic intervention.

  18. Characterization of the Risks of Adverse Outcomes Following Rubella Infection in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Simons, Emily A; Badizadegan, Kamran; Reef, Susan E; Cooper, Louis Z

    2016-07-01

    Although most infections with the rubella virus result in relatively minor sequelae, rubella infection in early pregnancy may lead to severe adverse outcomes for the fetus. First recognized in 1941, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can manifest with a diverse range of symptoms, including congenital cataracts, glaucoma, and cardiac defects, as well as hearing and intellectual disability. The gestational age of the fetus at the time of the maternal rubella infection impacts the probability and severity of outcomes, with infection in early pregnancy increasing the risks of spontaneous termination (miscarriage), fetal death (stillbirth), birth defects, and reduced survival for live-born infants. Rubella vaccination continues to change the epidemiology of rubella and CRS globally, but no models currently exist to evaluate the economic benefits of rubella management. This systematic review provides an overall assessment of the weight of the evidence for the outcomes associated with rubella infections in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. We identified, evaluated, and graded 31 studies (all from developed countries) that reported on the pregnancy outcomes of at least 30 maternal rubella infections. We used the available evidence to estimate the increased risks of spontaneous termination, fetal death, infant death, and CRS as a function of the timing of rubella infection in pregnancy and decisions about induced termination. These data support the characterization of the disability-adjusted life years for outcomes associated with rubella infection in pregnancy. We find significant impacts associated with maternal rubella infections in early pregnancy, which economic analyses will miss if they only focus on live births of CRS cases. Our estimates of fetal loss from increased induced terminations due to maternal rubella infections provide context that may help to explain the relatively low numbers of observed CRS cases per year despite potentially large burdens of disease. Our

  19. Seroprevalence of rubella in the cord blood of pregnant women and congenital rubella incidence in Nha Trang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Masami; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Vynnycky, Emilia; Motomura, Hideki; Tho, Le Huu; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Ariyoshi, Koya; Anh, Dang Duc; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-26

    To investigate susceptibility to and factors associated with rubella infection among pregnant mothers and to estimate the burden of congenital rubella infection (CRI) in Vietnam where rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) is not included in the routine immunization program, we conducted a prospective cohort study in Nha Trang, Vietnam between 2009 and 2010. Rubella-specific immunoglobulin-M and immunoglobulin-G were investigated in cord blood samples by enzyme immunoassay. Corresponding clinical-epidemiological data were analyzed and the national congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence was estimated using modeling. We enrolled 1988 pairs of mothers aged 17-45 years and their newborn babies. No mothers had received RCV. Multivariate analysis revealed that mothers aged 17-24 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.8) or 25-34 (1.4, 1.0-2.1) years were more likely to be susceptible than those aged 35-45 years. Overall 28.9% (574/1988, 95% CI: 26.9-30.9%) of mothers were seronegative. The CRI rate was 151 (95% CI: 0-322) per 100,000 live births. Modeling estimated that 3788 babies (95% CI: 3283-4143) were born with CRS annually in Vietnam with an overall CRS incidence of 234 (95% CI: 207-262) cases per 100,000 live births. A substantial proportion of women of childbearing age (WCBA) are at risk of rubella infection during pregnancy and this can result in a high frequency of miscarriage or burden of CRS across Vietnam. Prompt introduction of RCV into national immunization program with catch-up vaccination to children and WCBA will reduce CRI in Vietnam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rubella Epidemics and Genotypic Distribution of the Rubella Virus in Shandong Province, China, in 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Xu, Aiqiang; Fang, Xueqiang; Song, Lizhi; Li, Weixiu; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Background The rubella vaccine was introduced into the immunization program in 1995 in the Shandong province, China. A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented at different stages of measles control in Shandong province. Methodology/Principal Findings The average reported incidence rate of rubella cases remained at a low level in Shandong province after 1999. However, rubella epidemics occurred repeatedly in 2001/2002, 2006, and 2008/2009. The age of the onset of rubella cases gradually increased during 1999–2010, which showed that most cases were found among the 10 years old in 1999 and among the 17 years old in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All rubella viruses isolated in Shandong province were divided into 4 genotypes: 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B. Genotype 1E viruses accounted for the majority (79%) of all these viruses. The similarity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences among genotype 1E viruses was 98.2–100% and 99.1–100%, respectively. All Shandong genotype 1E strains, differed from international genotype 1E strains, belonged to cluster 1 and interdigitated with the viruses from other provinces in mainland China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2001 to 2009. Conclusions/Significance The gradual shift of disease burden to an older age group occurred after a rubella-containing vaccine was introduced into the childhood immunization schedule in 1995 in Shandong province. Four genotypes, including 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B, were found in Shandong province during 2000–2009. Genotype 1E, rather than genotype 1F, became the predominant genotype circulating in Shandong province from 2001. All Shandong genotype 1E viruses belong to the genotype 1E/cluster 1; they have constantly circulated, and co-evolved and co-circulated, with those from

  1. The etiology of Rubella IgM positivity in patients with rubella-like illness in Iran from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Seyed Mahmood Seyed; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Yavarian, Jila; Nasab, Gazal Sadat Fatemi; Naseri, Maryam; Jandaghi, Nazanin Zahra Shafiei

    2015-11-01

    Rubella is a mild self-limiting contagious viral disease caused by the rubella virus (RV). Although symptoms are often mild, the concern is centralized around the possible effect on a fetus growth and development in case of primary infection during early months of pregnancy. Recently acquired rubella is commonly confirmed by RV-specific IgM antibody detection in the serum. However, rubella primary infection is not always the only cause of IgM positivity. Other possible causes of rubella IgM positivity may include IgM persistence following vaccination or naturally acquired infection or even re-infection. Moreover, nonspecific IgM reactivity can cause false-positive results. There are few articles to differentiate the aetiology of rash in rubella-like illnesses. However, limited studies have been conducted on clarifying the source of IgM positivity in these cases. This article reports the study of 10,896 clinical cases demonstrating rubella-like illness between 2011 and 2013 in Iran. The rate of IgM positivity among these cases was 0.52% (57 cases). As predicted based on the high coverage of vaccination in Iran fewer than 16% of cases with ELISA IgM positive result, were due to current rubella primary infections. The greater part of the positive IgM reactions occurred in cross reactivity with other viruses (31.6%) or in prolonged IgM response post vaccination (24.6%). This research confirmed that the positive result of rubella IgM assay in vaccinated individuals is mainly caused by prolonged IgM production, rubella re-infection, and false positivity due to infection with other viruses, rather than the rubella primary infection itself. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE RUBELLA IgG ANTIBODY AMONG NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Revista Panamericana de Salud. Publica 2003; 14(5). 13. Böttiger M., Forsgren M. Twenty years' experience of rubella vaccination in sweden: 10 years of selective vaccination. (of 12-year-old girls and of women postpartum) and 13 years of a general two-dose vaccination. Vaccine, 1997;. 15(14):1538-44. 14. Cutts F.T. ...

  3. Seroprevalence survey of rubella infection in pregnancy at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the serosusceptibility of rubella infection in pregnancy and the feasibility of establishing an organized prevention program in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional, laboratory-based study involved 300 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed ...

  4. Symptomatic rubella re-infection in early pregnancy and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-10-20

    Oct 20, 1990 ... A case of serologically proven symptomatic rubella re-infection in early pregnancy in a healthy multigravida who had been successfully vaccinated is reported to illustrate that the risk to the fetus is considerably less than with primary infection. The infant was infected, as evidenced by specific IgM in cord.

  5. Symptomatic rubella re-infection in early pregnancy and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of serologically proven symptomatic rubella re-infection in early pregnancy in a healthy multigravida who had been successfully vaccinated is reported to illustrate that the risk to the fetus is considerably less than with primary infection. The infant was infected, as evidenced by specific IgM in cord blood, but had no ...

  6. Prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women in lbadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :- The prevalence of rubella antibody in 159 pregnant women that participated in this study was 68.5% with a confidence interval of 64.8% - 72.2%. Women living in- rural -urban areas have statistically significant higher prevalence of antibody ...

  7. Large choroidal excavation in a patient with rubella retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Romano, Francesco; Montagna, Marco; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-10-17

    To describe a case of rubella retinopathy complicated by bilateral choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and late development of large choroidal excavation (LCE). A 19-year-old woman with a diagnosis of rubella retinopathy underwent her annual ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity testing and slit-lamp biomicroscopy with dilated fundus examination. Color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans, and optical coherence tomography angiography were acquired to complete the investigation of her ocular condition. The main findings are described in this case report. This woman came to our attention in 2010 with a history of rubella retinopathy, complicated by bilateral CNV and treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) in 2006. After 6 years of annual follow-up examinations, her visual acuity remained stable in both eyes (20/100), whereas SD-OCT scans uncovered the development of a bilateral LCE in the macular area, associated with a macular hole in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed a vascular network surrounding the choroidal excavation. Large choroidal excavation is a rare finding that has been described in few chorioretinal diseases, e.g., North Carolina macular dystrophy and toxoplasmosis. We propose to include rubella retinopathy complicated by CNV in the differential diagnosis of LCE, although we recognize the possibility that PDT might have induced or facilitated its formation.

  8. Measles, Mumps, Rubella and the MMR Vaccine during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash or joint aches. I had the MMR vaccine as a child, but was recently exposed to rubella while traveling. ... the recommended ages. I am pregnant. Can my child receive the MMR vaccine? Yes. There is no known risk to others ...

  9. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies among antenatal patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection among antenatal patients aged between 15 and 45 years in the Western Cape province of South Africa, in order to provide data to determine the need for vaccination to protect women of childbearing age. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting Virology ...

  10. Rubella in South Africa: An impending Greek tragedy? | Schoub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The incidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is unknown in South Africa. There is evidence that it may be significant and largely undetected, particularly in the upper socio-economic group. This may be due to incomplete routine administration of MMR vaccine in infancy and a build-up of susceptible ...

  11. 79 original article clinical studies on seroprevalence of rubella virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    CLINICAL STUDIES ON SEROPREVALENCE OF RUBELLA VIRUS IN. PREGNANT WOMEN OF CAMEROON REGIONS. *Fokunang .... According to the World. Health Organization, in 1996, two thirds of the world's population live in countries ..... Immunisation Handbook. Ministry of. Health, Wellington, NZ. Smith, J. L. 1981.

  12. Neurologic Damage and Behavior Disorder in Rubella Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Stella; Fernandez, Paulina

    1980-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 214 rubella deaf children (13 to 14 years old) revealed a low incidence (10%) of neurologica damage among those with normal intelligence, but a high incidence (51% to 70%) among those who were mentally retarded or blind. (Author)

  13. Seroprevalence of Rubella Viral Infection in Women of Childbearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (p=0.694). In addition to other risk factors, parity also plays a role in exposure to the virus because it increases frequency of contact with the environment and although immunity is high among the subjects. It is therefore imperative to advocate for Rubella vaccination to avoid near miss or near death experience of the fetus.

  14. Clinical studies on seroprevalence of rubella virus in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of the rubella virus amongst pregnant women and the relationship it has with the duration of pregnancy, premature delivery, and past history of abortion in pregnant women visiting the Yaoundé Gynecological, Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (HGOPY). 211 pregnant ...

  15. 79 original article clinical studies on seroprevalence of rubella virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    women and the relationship it has with the duration of pregnancy, premature delivery, and past history of abortion in pregnant women ... The most susceptible women to rubella infection were in the age group 26-30 years while women in the age .... blood specimens were analyzed at the Center for the Study and control of.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Pires Curti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: rubella during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to severe birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS. Samples collected from pregnant women with symptoms and suspected of congenital rubella infection between 1996 and 2008 were analyzed. Methods: a total of 23 amniotic fluid samples, 16 fetal blood samples, 1 product of conception and 1 placenta were analyzed by serology and RT-PCR. Results: all patients presented positive serology for IgG / IgM antibodies to rubella virus. Among neonates, 16 were IgG-positive, 9 were IgM-positive and 4 were negative for both antibodies. Of the 25 samples analyzed in this study, 24 were positive by RT-PCR. Changes in ultrasound were found in 15 (60% of 25 fetuses infected with rubella virus. Fetal death and miscarriage were reported in 10 (40% of the 25 cases analyzed. The rubella virus was amplified by PCR in all fetuses with abnormal ultrasound compatible with rubella. Fetal death and abortion were reported in 10 of 25 cases analyzed. Conclusion: this study, based on primary maternal rubella infection definitely confirms the good sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR using amniotic fluid and ultrasound. The results showed that molecular assays are important tools in the early diagnosis of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome.

  17. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella in pregnant women attending antenatal private clinic at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Bisseye, Cyrille; Kagoné, Thérése S; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Tao, Issoufou; Benao, Victoire; Simporé, Jacques; Koné, Bibiane

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (Platelia™ Rubella IgG and Platelia™ Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3% and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7% to 12.1% and 84.6% to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. RUBELLA--SHOULD IT BE A PRIORITY IN THE NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMMES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Mohammad Salim; Iqbal, Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is a mild infection of childhood and young adults with 75% of cases occurring in age group 15-45 years. In unvaccinated populations, rubella usually occurs in spring with epidemics in 6-9 years cycles. Rubella has devastating effects on growing foetus if contracted by women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Perinatal infection of Rubella contributes to 2-3% of all congenital anomalies. Over the past three decades many resource risk countries have introduced universal or selective immunization programs against rubella with evidence that such interventions reduce the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. In Pakistan the schedules of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) do not include immunization against rubella and evidence is needed to estimate the risk of congenital rubella with a view to start immunization programmes to combat the menace of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Logistically it is easy to add rubella vaccine to the already existing EPI schedules as measles is given on 9th and 15 month with little implications for cost, resulting in great reduction in CRS.

  19. Prevalence and associated characteristics of cytomegalovirus (CMV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The screening for cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific antibodies is not routine in our setting, thus the transfusion of blood portends high risk for susceptible individuals. Objective: To determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM specific antibodies and associated characteristics in blood donors seen at a referral ...

  20. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... Seroprevalence of CMV-IgG antibodies amongst normal pregnant women in Nigeria. IntJ Womens Health 2011;3:423-8. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S24850. 18. Zhang LJ, Hanpf P, Rutherford C, Churchill WH,. Crumpacker CS. Detection of human cytomegalovirus. DNA, RNA, and antibody in normal donor blood J.

  1. prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... 86 (Supplement) December 2009. PREVALENCE OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ANTIBODIES IN BLOOD DONORS AT THE NATIONAL BLOOD. TRANSFUSION CENTRE, NAIROBI. D. G. Njeru, MBChB, MMed (Path), Dip. Forensic Med (SA), Registrar, Department of Human Pathology, W. O. Mwanda,. MBChB ...

  2. Overlapping transcription structure of human cytomegalovirus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-21

    Jan 21, 2013 ... Transcription of human cytomegalovirus UL/b′ region has been studied extensively for some genes. In this study, transcripts of the UL140 and UL141, two of the UL/b′ genes, were identified in late RNAs of three HCMV isolates using Northern blot hybridization, cDNA library screening and RACE-PCR.

  3. Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.

    2013-01-01

    A postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in very low birth weight infants with an estimated prevalence of 6–59%. Breast milk from CMV seropositive mothers is the main source of postnatal CMV infection. Ninety-six percent of these mothers shed CMV in their breast milk after delivery due

  4. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is a frequent and serious threat to the fetus. There is no vaccine as such alternative measures are needed to prevent congenital CMV infection. Objective: This study determined CMV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody among pregnant women in order ...

  5. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among some voluntary blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most significant pathogens infecting immuno-suppressed individuals. CMV is transmissible through transfusion of blood components. Aim: The goal of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to CMV among blood donors seen at the 37 Military Hospital ...

  6. A novel polyclonal antibody against human cytomegalovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no vaccine available for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and the treatment is very limited; therefore, it is still an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality in transplant recipients. An HCMV peptide was selected based on the GenBank sequence M60929. The peptide was conjugated with ...

  7. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection amongst Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty three (363) blood samples were collected from 330 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 33 non pregnant women attending the Outpatient ...

  8. Overlapping transcription structure of human cytomegalovirus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transcription of human cytomegalovirus UL/b′ region has been studied extensively for some genes. In this study, transcripts of the UL140 and UL141, two of the UL/b′ genes, were identified in late RNAs of three HCMV isolates using Northern blot hybridization, cDNA library screening and RACE-PCR. At least three ...

  9. Systemic lupus erythematous revealed by cytomegalovirus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been described as exacerbing systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). The role of CMV in starting off SLE remains object of debate. We report a severe presentation of SLE revealed by CMV infection with hemophogocytic syndrome. A 22 old women without a history of systemic disease ...

  10. Surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in tertiary care hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam during a rubella epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bang, Nguyen; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi; Van, Vu Thi Tuong; Thai, Trieu Thi Hong; Van Thuong, Nguyen; Khandaker, Gulam; Elliott, Elizabeth

    2014-12-12

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Prospective surveillance of CRS between May 2011 and March 2012 in Hanoi, Vietnam. CRS burden was assessed by clinical examination and collection of serum samples from infants in neonatology, cardiology and pediatric departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Hanoi. All infants born during the study period with clinical manifestations of CRS and seropositivity (IgM) for rubella were included in this study. During the surveillance period 113 infants were identified with confirmed CRS (clinical features and positive rubella IgM). Their mean age at diagnosis was 38.4 days (range 1-152 days) and 61% were female. Clinical manifestations of CRS included low birth weightrubella vaccine in the past and 88.4% gave a history of rubella contact during the pregnancy under study. In most cases (84.1%) maternal infection occurred in the first trimester. During the surveillance period the estimated annual incidence of CRS was 1.13/1000 live births (95% CI 0.92-1.34). These preliminary baseline data show a high burden of CRS in Hanoi, Vietnam and the urgent need for universal vaccination. Surveillance to determine and monitor the national burden of CRS is essential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies and determinants of susceptibility to rubella in a cohort of pregnant women in Canada, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Rotondo, Jenny; Shapiro, Janna; Sherrard, Lindsey; Fraser, William D; Ward, Brian J

    2017-05-25

    Long term control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome relies on high population-level immunity against rubella, particularly among women of childbearing age. In Canada, all pregnant women should be screened so that susceptible new mothers can be offered vaccination for rubella before discharge. This study was undertaken to estimate rubella susceptibility in a cohort of pregnant women in Canada and to identify associated socio-economic and demographic factors. Biobanked plasma samples were obtained from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study, in which pregnant women were recruited between 2008 and 2011. Socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric histories were collected. Second trimester plasma samples (n=1,752) were tested for rubella-specific IgG using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of women with IgG titers rubella. Further research is needed to understand inequalities in vaccine uptake or access, and more effort is needed to promote catch-up measles-mumps-rubella vaccination among socioeconomically disadvantaged and immigrant women of childbearing age. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of the two-dose rubella vaccination regimen on incidence of rubella seronegativity in gravidae aged 25 years and younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Shuk Yi Annie; Sahota, Daljit S; Lao, Terence T

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the incidence of rubella seronegativity among gravidae of 25 year-old and younger, between those born in Hong Kong after 1983 when the two-dose rubella vaccination was implemented, versus gravidae born before, to examine the impact of the two-dose regimen. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence of antenatal rubella seronegativity in our parturients managed in1997-2015 was analysed by their age from ≤16 to 25 years, and the effect of year of birth was determined adjusting for confounding factors including teenage status, obstetric history, anthropometric factors, and health parameters including anaemia, thalassaemia trait and hepatitis B carrier status. Among the 12743 gravidae, the 6103 gravidae born after 1983 had overall higher rubella seronegativity (9.1% versus 4.4%, OR 2.061, 95% CI 1.797-2.364), with significant difference (p = 0.006) and inverse correlation (prubella seronegativity except for those of ≤16 years. Regression analysis confirmed that birth after 1983 was independently associated with rubella seronegativity (aOR 2.207, 95% CI 1.902-2.562). There was a significant trend between rubella seronegativity with age in young gravidae, but the pattern was opposite between gravidae born after versus in/before 1983, with the former having a higher incidence of seronegativity at all ages. Young women covered by the two-dose rubella immunisation programme have a paradoxically higher incidence of rubella seronegativity.

  13. Awareness of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Pregnant Women in Geneva, Switzerland: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Willame

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland. Methods: The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528 of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314 knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314 had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%; human immunodeficiency virus (99%; syphilis (85.5%; rubella (92.3%; and group B Streptococcus (63%. Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%. Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6% knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable. Conclusions: Most women were unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn.

  14. Awareness of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Pregnant Women in Geneva, Switzerland: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willame, Alexia; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Combescure, Christophe; Irion, Olivier; Posfay-Barbe, Klara; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña

    2015-12-02

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland). The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period. The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528) of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314) knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314) had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%); human immunodeficiency virus (99%); syphilis (85.5%); rubella (92.3%); and group B Streptococcus (63%). Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%). Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6%) knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable. Most women were unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn.

  15. Immunity status against rubella in 15-30 years old women during

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poopak Izadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubella is an acute viral infection. There are disastrous malformations in fetus (congenital rubella syndrome (when pregnant women expose to the virus, especially in the first trimester. Affected or vaccinated people have permanent immunity. Measurement of IgM and IgG serum titer against rubella is the most reliable indicator of immunity status and is helful for finding of nonimmune people.Materials and Method: In this study we selected 427 women (age range: 15-30 who were referred to our center for anti-rubella IgG, IgM measurement during 1386 and 138. Rubella antibodies were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test.Results: Immunity of women against rubella in Kermanshah was 83.66% which was lower than the mean rate reported in Iran.Conclusion: We recommend vaccination of susceptible women before marriage

  16. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka Anthony Umeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria.Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system.Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7% tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM. New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28] times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91] as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years.Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.

  17. Rubella and pregnancy - What you need to know (English and two translations)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This leaflet for women provides updated information on rubella and how to get vaccinated so it is not passed on during pregnancy.Rubella, otherwise known as German measles, can be very serious for the unborn baby in the first three months of pregnancy and can cause damage to the sight, hearing, heart and brain, a condition known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).Infection can be prevented by the MMR vaccine, which protects the mother and her unborn baby.

  18. Rubella immune status of neonates – a window towards seroprevalence among childbearing women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Pejcic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When contracted in pregnancy, rubella may cause serious chronic infection of the fetus and development of Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Despite widespread application of rubella vaccination, periodical outbreaks are still being reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine rubella seroprevalence and antibody levels in neonates in Serbia as a proxy of maternal serostatus. Methods ELISA based serological testing for rubella was done in 599 neonates treated at the Institute of Neonatology in Belgrade, from January 2010 to December 2011. All individuals with rubella IgG concentration ≥10 IU/ml were considered seropositive for rubella. Results The mean age of enrolled neonates was 18 ± 6 days. The overall seroprevalence of rubella IgG antibodies among the tested neonates was 540/599(90.2 %, 95 % CI: 87.5–92.3. Seropositivity rate among sera of the neonates enrolled in 2010 was significantly higher than those collected in 2011 (p 30 as compared to those from mothers aged <20 years (p = 0.02. Significant difference was also found between average IgG titers in the two study years (79 IU/mL in 2010 vs. 46 IU/mL in 2011, p < 0.0001. Conclusion We report on high rubella seroprevalence among newborns in Serbia, as a proxy of rubella serostatus of childbearing aged women. Notably, declining trend of rubella antibodies toward diminishing titers suggest the importance of sustained rubella serosurvey and antenatal screening at the national level.

  19. Evolution and Use of Dynamic Transmission Models for Measles and Rubella Risk and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-07-01

    The devastation caused by periodic measles outbreaks motivated efforts over more than a century to mathematically model measles disease and transmission. Following the identification of rubella, which similarly presents with fever and rash and causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in infants born to women first infected with rubella early in pregnancy, modelers also began to characterize rubella disease and transmission. Despite the relatively large literature, no comprehensive review to date provides an overview of dynamic transmission models for measles and rubella developed to support risk and policy analysis. This systematic review of the literature identifies quantitative measles and/or rubella dynamic transmission models and characterizes key insights relevant for prospective modeling efforts. Overall, measles and rubella represent some of the relatively simplest viruses to model due to their ability to impact only humans and the apparent life-long immunity that follows survival of infection and/or protection by vaccination, although complexities arise due to maternal antibodies and heterogeneity in mixing and some models considered potential waning immunity and reinfection. This review finds significant underreporting of measles and rubella infections and widespread recognition of the importance of achieving and maintaining high population immunity to stop and prevent measles and rubella transmission. The significantly lower transmissibility of rubella compared to measles implies that all countries could eliminate rubella and CRS by using combination of measles- and rubella-containing vaccines (MRCVs) as they strive to meet regional measles elimination goals, which leads to the recommendation of changing the formulation of national measles-containing vaccines from measles only to MRCV as the standard of care. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Prevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies in unimmunized young female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rubella is a mild self-limiting disease all over the world; nevertheless, it is of significant public health importance due to its teratogenic effect of congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella vaccine is currently not included in the national immunization program in India. Rubella-specific IgG in the unvaccinated population is a marker of previous rubella infection. Rubella IgG estimation in children will provide data for initiation and necessary modification to the immunization strategy. Aims: In this background, this study was conducted with an aim to know the age-specific susceptibility of acquiring rubella infections and future risk of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS among girls. Settings and Design: This was a community-based, observational study. Participants and Methods: The study was conducted at a randomly selected rural area Mavoor Panchayath of Kozhikode District, Kerala, among adolescent girls. The estimation of rubella-specific IgG antibody was done by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. IgG titer value of >15 IU was taken positive, 8-15 IU as equivocal, and <8 IU as negative. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical program for Social science version 16 for Windows. Chi-square test was applied to find out significant difference and Fisher′s exact test wherever applicable. Results: The data and blood sample collection was done from 250 girls. The mean IgG titer was 151.93 ± 128.78 IU, and as per the criteria, 68.3% were positive, 28.5% were negative, and 3.2% were equivocal. At this age, majority (68.3% of the girls get protection by natural infection without any vaccine. Some girls (32% may remain susceptible to infection during adulthood and pregnancy. Conclusions: Natural rubella infection was widely prevalent among child population and at this age. An immunization policy recommending rubella-containing vaccine is highly desirable to prevent rubella and CRS.

  1. [Study on the epidemiological characteristics of rubella from 1990-2006 in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-Yu; Tao, Li-Na; Shen, Jie; Wang, Yu-Chao

    2007-07-01

    This paper analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of rubella in Shanghai from 1990 to 2006. Descriptive epidemiological study was applied to analyze the cases from infectious diseases reported system on rubella during 1990-2006 in Shanghai. Excel was used for data analysis. The reported rubella incidence rate in Shanghai was 0.15-451.57 per 100,000 during the period from 1990 to 2006. A rubella epidemic happened in 1993, with the number of reported cases as 58,104. The year 1998 was the low year on rubella with only 19 reported cases. In the years without rubella vaccine (RV), that was, from 1990 to 1994, the annual reported incidence rate of rubella was 93 per 100,000, and there was a distinct characteristic of seasonal difference, with peak in march through June each year. Rubella cases mostly affected children aged 5-9 and adolescent of 10-14 years old. Since the wide use of RV in Shanghai since 1995, RV and measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) had been widely accepted by parents. The vaccination rate of MMR reached up to 85 percent. The incidence of rubella was descending as year went by. The annual reported cases were less than 100 since then (with exception in the year 1995). Local outbreaks were further reduced and the age group structure had also changed since the adoption of RV. Patients with RV fallen into the age group of 0-4 were increasing quickly, accounting for 21.00% percent of all the patients and the age become older. 31.62% of the patients fell into 20 years of age and above. During 1995-2006, the incidence rates of rubella in age 25-29 and 30-34 were both much higher than that in the year without vaccine. The trend of older age among patients wilt Rubella increased the risk on fertile woman and geting congenital rebella syndrome.

  2. Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Measles and Rubella in a Rural Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwang Yan

    2005-12-01

    Conclusion: Measles and rubella are 2 common communicable diseases in the children of Jingzhou District, with outbreaks being the main epidemic form. Some clinical features such as temperature, duration of the prodromal stage and exanthema are different in measles and rubella, and they can be useful in distinguishing between the 2 diseases. Accuracy in the clinical diagnosis of measles should be improved by enhancing serologic testing for measles and rubella, and by identifying patients' specific clinical characteristics.

  3. Screening for potential susceptibility to rubella in an antenatal population: A multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Luke Blagdon; Smith, Colette; Chaytor, Shelley; McRae, Kathryn; Patel, Mauli; Griffiths, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Rubella causes disease in the fetus. Immunity to rubella is therefore, routinely screened in pregnant women. In this retrospective observational study, we assessed the levels of potential susceptibility to rubella in the population of a north London antenatal clinic. Risk factors for potential susceptibility to rubella and changes in potential susceptibility to rubella over time were studied. Almost all women were screened for potential susceptibility to rubella (99.8%). The majority were predicted to be immune (96.8%). Women booking in later years within the study period showed higher levels of potential susceptibility to rubella. Booking during each subsequent year in the study gave women an odds ratio of 0.91 (CI:0.84, 0.98, P = 0.009) of being predicted to have immunity against rubella. Age was associated with predicted immunity to rubella, with a 5.1% (CI:3.3%, 6.9%, P < 0.001) increased likelihood for every year older. Previous pregnancy was predictive of immunity against rubella with an odds ratio of 1.41 (CI 1.21, 1.61, P = 0.001). Those from a non-white ethnicity were less likely to have antibodies predictive of immunity (OR: 0.730, CI: 0.581, 0.879 P < 0.001). Country of birth was associated with differences in potential susceptibility, with those being born outside of the British Isles having an odds ratio for predicted immunity of 0.63 (CI:0.35,0.91, P = 0.001). Being born in a high-risk country for rubella non-immunity was also a risk factor, giving an odds ratio of predicted immunity to rubella of 0.55 (CI:0.32, 0.77, P < 0.001). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Epidemiological Evaluation of Rubella Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Olubusuyi M; Olayinka, Oluseyi A; Olusola, Babatunde A; Faleye, Temitope O C; Sule, Waidi F; Adesina, Olubukola

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is a vaccine-preventable, mild rash-inducing viral disease with complications that include a spectrum of birth defects in the developing fetus, especially if the infection is acquired in the early months of pregnancy. Consequently, the primary objective of global rubella control programs is prevention of congenital rubella infection and associated birth defects. Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, and the elimination of the rubella virus in many developed countries, substantial commitment to rubella control has not been demonstrated in developing countries. This study appraises immunity to rubella, and consequently makes appropriate recommendations aimed at facilitating effective control. A cross-sectional sero-surveillance study was carried out among defined 272 consenting ante-natal clinic attendees in south-western, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 91.54% and 1.84% were recorded for the anti-rubella virus (anti-RV) IgG and IgM, respectively. Also, 90.7% and 92.3% of the women aged ≤30 years and >30 years, respectively, had detectable anti-RV IgG. No significant association (p = 0.94) was recorded between anti-RV IgG detection and age of the women. Previous exposure and susceptibility of significant fraction of the population to rubella infection were confirmed. Considerable political commitment and promotion of free rubella immunization specifically for women with childbearing potential were recommended.

  5. Prevalence of Rubella Antibodies Among Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Vivian H; Doshi, Reena H; Mukadi, Patrick; Higgins, Stephen G; Hoff, Nicole A; Bwaka, Ado; Mwamba, Guillaume Ngoie; Okitolonda, Emile; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2018-01-01

    While generally mild in children, rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella vaccination is not yet available as a part of routine immunization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and the burden of infection is unknown. In collaboration with the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey, a serosurvey was carried out to assess population immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases. Dry blood spot samples collected from children 6-59 months of age were processed using the Dynex Technologies Multiplier FLEX chemiluminescent immunoassay platform (Dynex Technologies, Chantilly, VA). Among the 7195 6- to 59-month-old children, 33% were positive and rubella antibodies in weighted analyses. Seroprevalence was positively associated with age of the child and province, with seropositivity highest in Bandundu (53%) and lowest in Kasai-Oriental (20%). In multivariate analyses, serologic evidence of infection was associated with age of the mother and child, socioeconomic status and geographic location. Rubella infection is prevalent among children in the DRC, and while most seroconversion occurs in young children, a significant proportion of children remain at risk and may enter reproductive age susceptible to rubella infection. While not currently in place, implementation of a surveillance program will provide improved estimates of both rubella virus circulation and the burden of congenital rubella syndrome. Such information will play an important role in future policy decisions, vaccine delivery strategies and may provide a basis upon which the effectiveness of rubella antigen introduction may be assessed.

  6. Seroprevalence and incidence of rubella in and around Delhi (1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhoke I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD has been engaged in rubella testing for serodiagnosis of the infection and screening for immunity status. The compiled and evaluated data of the work done on rubella testing for the past fifteen years has been presented here to show the trend and changing scenario of the disease in Delhi. Blood samples were from 7424 patients referred to NICD, Delhi for serodiagnosis of congenital Rubella s yndrome (CRS in malformed babies, in utero rubella infection in women and immunity status of pregnant women and women with bad obstetric history. They were tested for rubella IgG and/or rubella IgM antibodies using commercially available reagents and kits. The data from the 15 years of testing was then compiled and evaluated. From the available data it was seen that immunity status against rubella in childbearing age group of women increased steadily from 49% in 1988 to 87% in 2002. Reported cases of CRS at NICD are also on the decline over the time period. There is periodic indication of high incidence of rubella in the year 1988; 1991and 1998 as the reported cases of acute rubella infection in childbearing age group is high during these years.

  7. Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhu

    Full Text Available A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

  8. Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Pan, Guixia; Zhou, Shujie; Dai, Jingjing; Chen, Xia; Tang, Jihai; Chen, Shuping; Zheng, Yilun; Song, Jie; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV) was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

  9. External Quality Assessment for Rubella Virus RNA Detection Using Armored RNA in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Lin, G; Yi, L; Hao, M; Fan, G; Yang, X; Peng, R; Ding, J; Zhang, K; Zhang, R; Li, J

    2017-02-01

    Although tremendous efforts have been made to reduce rubella incidence, there are still 300 new cases of congenital rubella syndrome daily; thus, rubella infections remain one of the leading causes of preventable congenital birth defects. An effective surveillance system, which could be achieved and maintained by using an external quality assessment program, is critical for prevention and control of this disease. Armored RNAs, which are noninfectious and RNase-resistant, were used for encapsulation of the E1 gene of rubella virus and for preparation of a 10-specimen panel for external quality assessment. Thirty-two laboratories across mainland China that used nucleic acid tests for rubella virus RNA detection were included in the external quality assessment program organized by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of China. Different kinds of commercial kits were used by the laboratories for nucleic acid extraction and TaqMan real-time reverse-transcription PCR for rubella virus RNA detection; 99.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity were achieved in this external quality assessment program. Most of the participating laboratories obtained accurate results for rubella nucleic acid tests, thereby achieving the quality required for regional rubella and congenital rubella syndrome elimination.

  10. Development of an improved RT-LAMP assay for detection of currently circulating rubella viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, H; Okamoto, K; Anraku, M; Otsuki, N; Sakata, M; Icenogle, J; Zheng, Q; Kurata, T; Kase, T; Komase, K; Takeda, M; Mori, Y

    2014-10-01

    Rubella virus is the causative agent of rubella. The symptoms are usually mild, and characterized by a maculopapular rash and fever. However, rubella infection in pregnant women sometimes can result in the birth of infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Global efforts have been made to reduce and eliminate CRS. Although a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detection of rubella virus has been reported, the primers contained several mismatched nucleotides with the genomes of currently circulating rubella virus strains. In the present study, a new RT-LAMP assay was established. The detection limit of this assay was 100-1000PFU/reaction of viruses for all rubella genotypes, except for genotype 2C, which is not commonly found in the current era. Therefore, the new RT-LAMP assay can successfully detect all current rubella virus genotypes, and does not require sophisticated devices like TaqMan real-time PCR systems. This assay should be a useful assay for laboratory diagnosis of rubella and CRS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and mumps, 2013: summary recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Huong Q; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Temte, Jonathan L; Wallace, Gregory S

    2013-06-14

    This report is a compendium of all current recommendations for the prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), and mumps. The report presents the recent revisions adopted by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on October 24, 2012, and also summarizes all existing ACIP recommendations that have been published previously during 1998-2011 (CDC. Measles, mumps, and rubella--vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 1998;47[No. RR-8]; CDC. Revised ACIP recommendation for avoiding pregnancy after receiving a rubellacontaining vaccine. MMWR 2001;50:1117; CDC. Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] for the control and elimination of mumps. MMWR 2006;55:629-30; and, CDC. Immunization of healthcare personnel: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 2011;60[No. RR-7]). Currently, ACIP recommends 2 doses of MMR vaccine routinely for children with the first dose administered at age 12 through 15 months and the second dose administered at age 4 through 6 years before school entry. Two doses are recommended for adults at high risk for exposure and transmission (e.g., students attending colleges or other post-high school educational institutions, healthcare personnel, and international travelers) and 1 dose for other adults aged ≥18 years. For prevention of rubella, 1 dose of MMR vaccine is recommended for persons aged ≥12 months. At the October 24, 2012 meeting, ACIP adopted the following revisions, which are published here for the first time. These included: • For acceptable evidence of immunity, removing documentation of physician diagnosed disease as an acceptable criterion for evidence of immunity for measles and mumps, and including laboratory confirmation of disease as a criterion for

  12. Cytomegalovirus Colitis: An Uncommon Mimicker of Common Colitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniak, Nick; Kanthan, Rani

    2016-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus latency, though ubiquitous in the human population, is known to cause colitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Furthermore, the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic appearance of cytomegalovirus colitis can mimic that of inflammatory bowel disease, an extremely well-documented disease. In this context, though many reports have looked at inflammatory bowel disease with superimposed cytomegalovirus infection, less attention has been paid to cytomegalovirus as a primary cause of isolated colitis. Owing to the rarity of this phenomenon, it is important to consider this diagnosis and implement proper testing to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement.

  13. 134 original article prevalence of rubella virus-specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Serological analysis of samples. The sera of the pregnant women were tested for anti-. RV IgG and IgM using commercial ELISA kits - RUB. IgG ELISA for the quantitative/qualitative determination of IgG antibodies and RUB IgM. “Capture” for the determination of IgM antibodies to rubella virus in human serum and plasma ...

  14. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  15. "Rubella seroprevalence in pregnant women in Shariatti hospital, Tehran, Iran "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslamian L

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubella a benign viral and modestly contagious illness in children, becomes a very dangerous story when acquired by pregnant women. The potential of its teratogenicity is obvious. Since prevention is preferred to treatment, diagnosis of rubella infection syndrome being difficult in early stages of pregnancy, the uncertainly about fetuses being really infected and therapeutic abortion because of fetal indication being prohibited by law in our country in a descriptive study, the rubella antibody titer (IgG-HI assay was measured in 500 pregnant women referred to the prental clinic, shariatti Hospital. 76% of women were immune. The immune status improved with advancing age (P<0.01. More than half of these women had no information regarding their previous vaccination status. Only 25 percent reported of being vaccinated, of which, 40 percent was done at 1.5 years of age. No one had been vaccinate in postpartum period. With regard to the results , it is proposed to immunize all children in the second year of life, at preschool ently or high school, screen women in prepubertal, premarried, prenatal period, in the family planning centers and health care places and vaccinate them at appropriae time.

  16. Development of a highly specific and sensitive rubella immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme immunoassay that uses enzyme-labeled antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Seppänen, H

    1990-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to rubella virus based on enzyme labeling of viral antigen was developed. The sensitivity of the EIA for the detection of recent rubella virus infection was evaluated by using 115 rubella-IgM-antibody-positive serum specimens, which were confirmed as positive by Rubazyme M (Abbott Diagnostics). In addition, 12 individuals, 2 of whom were exposed to rubella through vaccination and 10 of whom were exposed through natural in...

  17. Cytomegalovirus myelitis in perinatally acquired HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, T; Funk, M; Linde, R; Jacobi, G; Horn, M; Kreuz, W

    1993-01-01

    A 7 year old child perinatally infected with HIV who died from progressive muscular paralysis and central nervous respiratory failure is described. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis with a special intravenous CMV hyper-immunoglobulin had been successfully conducted for more than four years. Macroscopic and microscopic immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord revealed a diffuse CMV infiltration of the entire myelon. CMV infected cells were identified as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ...

  18. Women's attitudes toward practicing cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descr...

  19. Surveillance for congenital rubella in Australia since 1993: cases reported between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Gulam; Zurynski, Yvonne; Jones, Cheryl

    2014-11-28

    To describe the epidemiology of congenital rubella infections notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) from 2004 to 2013 and compare that with previously published APSU data for 1993-2003. Active national surveillance for congenital rubella infection has been conducted through the APSU since 1993. Monthly reporting by child health clinicians according to pre-defined case criteria triggers requests for clinicians to provide de-identified clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory information. Data were extracted for cases reported between January 2004 and December 2013 and compared with previous years. Five cases of confirmed congenital rubella infection were identified during the reporting period. All five infants had defects consistent with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Four of the infants were born in Australia during the study period, and all were born to mothers born overseas. Three of the five mothers had not had rubella vaccination, and in two vaccination status was unknown, although both were from countries without routine rubella immunization programmes. Since 1993, there have been 57 notifications of congenital rubella infection to the APSU; 40 of these infants were born between January 1993 and December 2013, of whom 34 had confirmed CRS. Congenital rubella infection in Australia is predominantly among children born to unimmunized immigrant mothers. Migrant women born in rubella endemic countries without routine immunization remain an important group to target for vaccination. Rubella-susceptible women, especially those in the early stages of pregnancy, should also carefully consider the risks of travelling to rubella endemic countries. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439

  1. Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimpa Mengouo, Marcellin; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Baonga, Frangy; Kobela, Marie; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. Design This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. Setting Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. Participants All persons with rash and fever within 14 days of onset of rash according to the standard WHO African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) case definition for a suspected measles case. Outcome measures Descriptive analyses and simple logistic regressions were performed. OR were estimated. Results A total of 9907 serum samples from people with fever and rash were received in the laboratory from 2008 to 2014. A total of 7489 (75.59%) measles-negative samples were tested for rubella; 699 (9.3%) were positive for rubella IgM antibodies. Logistic regression analysis was done using IgM antibodies detection as the outcome variable. Age, sex and setting were explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, comparing the proportion of rubella IgM seropositivity status by age, the association to a positive rubella IgM increased with age from 1 to 4 years (OR 7.11; 95% CI 4.35 to 12.41; prubella infection than children under one (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.85 to 7.48; p=0.0001). There were also significant associations with sex, with males being less associated to a positive rubella serology than females (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56; p=0.0001). No statistically significant difference in proportion of rubella cases was observed between urban and rural populations (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31; p=0.208). Conclusions This study reveals that rubella virus circulates in Cameroon, with important number of cases in children under 15

  2. Evaluation of rubella igg antibodies among women at marriage in kermanshah city, before and after mass vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hatami

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In our previous study, we had recommended to screen for susceptibility to rubella before marriage, which is no longer required since more than 99% of vaccinated girls showed immunity at the time of marriage. However, as sustainability of immunity after rubella vaccination is usually less than immunity due to illness, we recommend screening for rubella protective antibody every few years.

  3. Occupational risk for cytomegalovirus, but not for parvovirus B19 in child-care personnel in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villemeur, Agathe Billette; Gratacap-Cavallier, Bénédicte; Casey, Romain; Baccard-Longère, Monique; Goirand, Laurence; Seigneurin, Jean-Marie; Morand, Patrice

    2011-12-01

    Studies assessing the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19V), rubella and varicella infections in female child-care personnel may help define appropriate preventive strategies during pregnancy. Serologic testing for all four viruses and a self-administered questionnaire to identify risk factors were conducted on child-care staff aged 20-50 years old and on a reference group of women. In 395 exposed and 382 reference women, CMV, B19V, rubella and varicella seroprevalence were 69.4, 79.4, 98.7, 100% for exposed women, and 41.1, 68.0, 98.2, 99.7% for reference women, respectively. For CMV, the adjusted seroprevalence ratio (PR) of exposed versus reference workers, (PR, 1.43 [95% IC, 1.22-1.69]) was observed as of the first year of exposure. The risk attributed to occupation was 30.1%. Identified risk factors included exposure duration, past employment in maternity hospital, and participation in cleaning tasks. The risk attributable to personal factors ranged from 14.5% to 32.4%. The adjusted B19V PR was not significant (PR, 1.05 [95% IC, 0.94-1.16]). French female child-care staff runs an occupational risk for CMV infection, but not for B19V infection. The fraction attributable to this CMV occupational risk was not higher than the risk associated with personal factors. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rubella outbreak investigation, Gokwe North District, Midlands province, Zimbabwe, 2014 - a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Annamercy Chenaimoyo; Chemhuru, Milton; Bangure, Donewell; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is a contagious disease, caused by rubella virus and transmitted via the respiratory route. Rubella in pregnancy may cause Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), characterized by multiple defects to the brain, heart, eyes and ears. Gokwe North experienced an increase in rubella cases from 6 cases (24 June 2014) to 374 cases (12 August 2014). The study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with contracting rubella. A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a child 3 children in a household (AOR 2.59; 95%CI (1.23-5.42)). Only 10.2% and 6.8% of the caregivers' cases and controls respectively, knew rubella is spread through contact with an infected person (p = 0.57). Majority of caregivers (97.8%) reported to the health facility within two days of onset of rash. Outbreak was driven by contact at school and was spread into the community through school children. Screening and isolation of the sick controlled the outbreak. Routine rubella vaccination could be considered to prevent similar outbreaks.

  5. Characterization of rubella seronegative females in the zambian blood donor community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaba, Mazyanga L; Monze, Mwaka; Babaniyi, Olusegun A; Siziya, Seter; Michelo, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection caused by a teratogenic enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, rubella virus, a member of the togaviridae family. Though causing generally mild infections in children and adults, it is a disease of public health importance in pregnant women causing major problems including abortions, miscarriages, and congenital rubella syndrome in more than 20% of the susceptible population. This study was carried out to determine the characteristics associated with rubella seronegativity among female blood donors in Zambia. Rubella-specific IgG antibody levels were measured in the blood serum. Proportions were compared using the Chi-squared test at the 5% significance level, and magnitudes of associations were determined using the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Of the 124 female blood donors tested for rubella IgG 46.0% were aged total of 10 (8.1%) participants were seronegative to rubella IgG antibodies. No factors were associated with seronegativity. Protection against rubella through natural infection appears inadequate to protect the population, increasing the risk of CRS.

  6. Prevalence of serum anti-rubella virus antibodies among pregnant women in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calimeri, Sebastiano; Capua, Adele; La Fauci, Vincenza; Squeri, Raffaele; Grillo, Orazio C; Lo Giudice, Daniela

    2012-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of anti-rubella virus antibodies and the level of knowledge about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) among pregnant women living in southern Italy. A seroepidemiologic study was conducted between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007. Five-hundred women resident in Messina were enrolled in the study; the participants were in the 4th to 39th week of pregnancy. Anti-rubella virus antibodies were assayed using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Demographic details, vaccination history, and participants' knowledge of the potential risks of rubella infection during pregnancy were assessed via questionnaire. On the basis of the questionnaire results, 70.4% of women were classed as immune to rubella virus infection; however, the prevalence of IgG anti-rubella virus antibodies measured in the participants' serum was 85.8%. Although 55.2% of women had undergone pre-pregnancy rubella screening, only 81 participants reported that they had been vaccinated before becoming pregnant. The participants' general knowledge about CRS was poor, as was their understanding of the importance of undergoing screening. The number of women at risk of rubella infection fell short of the national target set for elimination of CRS. Increased involvement and collaboration by all healthcare workers are, therefore, required to disseminate the information necessary to prevent CRS. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seroprevalence of Rubella antibodies among pregnant women with bad obstetric history in tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection with rubella virus can be disastrous in early gestation. Rubella is a major cause of birth defects in infants and the risk of having congenital rubella in seronegative pregnant women is more in developing countries. Aim This study was carried to determine the seroprevalence of rubella antibodies in pregnant women. Setting and Design Three years retrospective study in the department of Microbiology, PIMS, Jalandhar. Material and method This study comprised of 250 pregnant women, whose blood samples were collected, sera were screened for rubella specific IgM and IgG antibodies by RecomLine ToRCH Result Out of 250 samples (Study group, 53% (n=132 were seropositive for IgG antibodies and 4.5% (n=9 were seropositive for IgM antibodies. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a strong association between rubella infection and BOH in women. Serosurveillance of Rubella among adolescent girls and women of child bearing age should be considered at a national level to prevent innumerable abortions, stillbirth and congenital anomalies due to rubella.

  8. Seroprevalence of rubella in infertile women and the need for preconceptional vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeela Ishrat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a pregnant woman gets rubella infection in early months of pregnancy, there is risk of severe and multiple fetal defects ( congenital rubella syndrome, abortion and stillbirth. Screening of reproductive age women for susceptibility to rubella infection and vaccinating them can prevent this situation.Objective: The objective of the study was to find out the proportion of infertile women who are seronegative for rubella infection and to assess the need for vaccination against rubella before pregnancy.Methods: The observational study included three hundred and eighty infertile women who had their venous blood tested for anti-rubella antibodies as part ofpreconceptional preparation. Data was analyzed to estimate seronegativity and the need for vaccination.Results: A total of 55 (14.4% women were seron­egative for rubella and had to be vaccinated. The seronegativity decreased with age . The proportion of seronegativity was higher in those women who were professionals, had higher level of education and monthly income.Conclusion: A significant proporion of women in reproductive age does not acquire natural immunity against rubella and needs vacci­nation before pregnancy.

  9. Evaluation of the World Health Organization global measles and rubella quality assurance program, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambos, Vicki; Leydon, Jennie; Riddell, Michaela; Clothier, Hazel; Catton, Mike; Featherstone, David; Kelly, Heath

    2011-07-01

    During 2001-2008, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) prepared and provided a measles and rubella proficiency test panel for distribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) measles and rubella network laboratories as part of their annual laboratory accreditation assessment. Panel test results were forwarded to VIDRL, and results from 8 consecutive years were analyzed. We assessed the type of assays used and results achieved on the basis of the positive and negative interpretation of submitted results, by year and WHO region, for measles and rubella. Over time, there has been a noticeable increase in laboratory and WHO regional participation. For all panels, the proportion of laboratories in all WHO regions using the WHO-validated Dade Behring assay for measles and rubella-specific IgM antibodies ranged from 35% to 100% and 59% to 100%, respectively. For all regions and years, the proportion of laboratories obtaining a pass score ranged from 87% to 100% for measles and 93% to 100% for rubella. During 2001-2008, a large proportion of laboratories worldwide achieved and maintained a pass score for both measles and rubella. Measles and rubella proficiency testing is regarded as a major achievement for the WHO measles and rubella laboratory program. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. A cost-utility analysis of antenatal screening to prevent congenital rubella syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugner, A.K.; Mollema, L.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hahne, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In low vaccination coverage regions (LVR) in The Netherlands people often reject participation in the National Immunization Programme for religious reasons. During a rubella epidemic in 2004-2005, 32 pregnant women were notified with rubella, and 11 babies were born with defects related to maternal

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of Rubella Viruses Identified in Uganda, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuwulya, Prossy; Abernathy, Emily; Bukenya, Henry; Bwogi, Josephine; Tushabe, Phionah; Birungi, Molly; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Alibu, Vincent P.; Kayondo, Jonathan K.; Rivailler, Pierre; Icenogle, Joseph; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas

    2014-01-01

    Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes. PMID:24700073

  12. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Titers in Air Force Recruits: Below Herd Immunity Thresholds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul E; Burnett, Daniel G; Costello, Amy A; Olsen, Cara H; Tchandja, Juste N; Webber, Bryant J

    2015-11-01

    Preventable diseases like measles and mumps are occurring with increasing frequency in the U.S. despite the availability of an effective vaccine. Given concern that an outbreak may occur among military recruits, we compared serologic evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella among military recruits with known herd immunity thresholds and determined whether the current Department of Defense policy of presuming mumps immunity based on measles and rubella titers is reliable. Serum antibody levels for measles, mumps, and rubella were obtained from all new recruits upon arrival at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas, from 25 April 2013 through 24 April 2014. Seroprevalence of each disease was assessed by age and sex, and concordance between mumps titers and measles and rubella titers was calculated. Data analysis was performed in 2014-2015. Among 32,502 recruits, seroprevalences for measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies were 81.6%, 80.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Of the 22,878 recruits seropositive for both measles and rubella antibodies, 87.7% were also seropositive for mumps. Seroprevalences for measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies among a large cohort of recruits entering U.S. Air Force basic training were generally lower than levels required to maintain herd immunity. In order to reduce the incidence of mumps infections, the Department of Defense should consider obtaining antibody titers for measles, mumps, and rubella and vaccinating all individuals susceptible to one or more of the viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Feasibility of a rubella screening and vaccination programme for unvaccinated young women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Hahne, S.J.; Binnendijk, R.S. van; Velden, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of a rubella screening and vaccination programme for unvaccinated young women was assessed after the 2004/2005 epidemic in The Netherlands. All 640 young women in two villages with low vaccination coverage were invited for a rubella seroprevalence test. Information on vaccination

  14. Characterization of rubella seronegative females in the Zambian blood donor community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyanga Lucy Mazaba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection caused by a teratogenic enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, rubella virus, a member of the togaviridae family. Though causing generally mild infections in children and adults, it is a disease of public health importance in pregnant women causing major problems including abortions, miscarriages and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in more than twenty per cent of the susceptible population. This study was carried out to determine the characteristics associated with rubella seronegativity amongst female blood donors in Zambia. Rubella-specific IgG antibody levels were measured in the blood serum. Proportions were compared using the Chi-squared test at the 5% significance level, and magnitudes of associations were determined using the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Of the 124 female blood donors tested for rubella IgG 46.0% were aged less than 20 years. Overall, 66.7% of the participants had never been married. More than half (62.1% of the participants resided in rural areas of the country. Of the 114 participants with recorded level of education, 50.1% had at–least completed secondary school. Out of 43 participants with recorded current employment status, 44.2% were not working for pay. A total of 10 (8.1% participants were sero-negative to rubella IgG antibodies. No factors were associated with seronegativity. Protection against rubella through natural infection appears inadequate to protect the population, increasing the risk of CRS.

  15. Seroprevalence of rubella IgG antibody in pregnant women in osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Olatunji Mathew; Anjorin, Ekuntoye O; Adekanle, Daniel A; Kolawole, Caroline Folashade; Durowade, Kabir Adekunle

    2014-03-01

    Infection of mothers with Rubella virus during pregnancy can be serious; if the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy she is likely to have miscarriage, stillbirth, or baby with congenital rubella syndrome. This study was carried out to define Rubella virus seroprevalence in pregnancy in Osogbo, Nigeria. This study is a cross-sectional sero-survey of rubella IgG antibody among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Socio-demographic information on participants was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire while venous samples were collected, stored at -20°C and serum samples were screened for detection of rubella IgG antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 200 sample evaluated for rubella Immunoglobulin G antibody, 175 (87.5%) were positive and 25 (12.5%) were negative. The result indicated prevalence of 85.7% in 15-19 year age group, 86.8% in 20-24 year age group, 89.6% in 25-29 year group, and 100% in greater than 40 year age group. Rubella IgG seroprevalence was not associated with age, gestational age, gravidity, vaccination, occupation and education. As the immunity gap in the studied population was high, rubella vaccination should be provided for all women of child-bearing age and children.

  16. Serologic Survey of Specific Rubella Virus IgM in the Sera of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    real susceptible population in Nigeria. There was no significant correlations between rubella infection and age (p>0.05). Although the incidence of rubella is low we suggest the antenatal screening and vaccination of all females of child bearing ...

  17. Serological makers of rubella infection in Africa in the pre vaccination era: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirambo, Mariam M; Majigo, Mtebe; Aboud, Said; Groß, Uwe; Mshana, Stephen E

    2015-11-25

    Rubella infections in susceptible women during early pregnancy often results in congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that countries without vaccination programmes to assess the burden of rubella infection and CRS. However; in many African countries there is limited data on epidemiology of rubella infection and CRS. This review was undertaken to assess the serological markers and genotypes of rubella virus on the African continent in order to ascertain the gap for future research. A systematic search of original literatures from different electronic databases using search terms such as 'rubella' plus individual African countries such as 'Tanzania', 'Kenya', 'Nigeria' etc. and different populations such as 'children', 'pregnant women' etc. in different combinations was performed. Articles from countries with rubella vaccination programmes, outbreak data and case reports were excluded. Data were entered in a Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed. A total of 44 articles from 17 African countries published between 2002 and 2014 were retrieved; of which 36 were eligible and included in this review. Of all population tested, the natural immunity of rubella was found to range from 52.9 to 97.9 %. In these countries, the prevalence of susceptible pregnant women ranged from 2.1 to 47.1 %. Rubella natural immunity was significantly higher among pregnant women than in general population (P rubella infection was observed to be as low as 0.3 % among pregnant women to 45.1 % among children. All studies did not ascertain the age-specific prevalence, thus it was difficult to calculate the rate of infection with increase in age. Only two articles were found to report on rubella genotypes. Of 15 strains genotyped; three rubella virus genotypes were found to circulate in four African countries. Despite variations in serological assays, the seroprevalence of IgG rubella antibodies in Africa is high with a substantial number of women of childbearing

  18. Rubella susceptibility in pregnant women and results of a postpartum immunization strategy in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu, Alba; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Valencia, Salomé; Barreales, Saul; Oliveras, Laura; Calvente, Valentín; Goncé, Anna; Bayas, José M

    2015-04-08

    Elimination of congenital rubella syndrome depends not only on effective childhood immunization but also on the identification and immunization of rubella susceptible women. We assessed rubella susceptibility among pregnant women and evaluated the adherence and response to postpartum immunization with measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Cross-sectional study of women who gave birth at the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona (Spain) between January 2008 and December 2013. Antenatal serological screening for rubella was performed in all women during pregnancy. In rubella-susceptible women, two doses of MMR vaccine were recommended following birth. We evaluated rubella serological response to MMR vaccination in mothers who complied with the recommendations. A total of 22,681 pregnant women were included in the study. The mean age was 32.3 years (SD 5.6), and 73.6% were primipara. The proportion of immigrants ranged from 43.4% in 2010 to 38.5% in 2012. The proportion of women susceptible to rubella was 5.9% (1328). Susceptibility to rubella declined with increasing maternal age. Immigrant pregnant women were more susceptible to rubella (7.6%) than women born in Spain (4.6%). Multivariate analyses showed that younger age (≤19 years) aOR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5), primiparas aOR 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5) and immigrant women aOR 1.6 (95% CI 1.4-1.8) were more likely to be susceptible. The second dose of MMR vaccine was received by 57.2% (718/1256) of rubella-susceptible women, with the highest proportion being immigrant women compared with women born in Spain. After vaccination, all women showed rubella immunity. The higher rubella susceptibility found in the three youngest age groups and in immigrant women highlights the relevance of antenatal screening, in order to ensure identification and postpartum immunization. The postpartum immunization strategy is an opportunity to protect women of childbearing age and consequently prevent occurrence of CRS, and to increase vaccination

  19. [The very severe sensorineural deafness patients caused by rubella virus infection: two cases report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Wan, Lang; Xu, Fen

    2015-09-01

    To explore the audiological features in children who were sever sensorineural hearing loss infected with rubella virus. There were two cases of rubella virus infection in children who were deaf, they conducted the distortion product otoacoustic emission, ABR and auditory steady-state evoked response (ASSR) examination, then analyzed the results comprehensively. Two patients' mothers were prompted to have infected rubella virus during the early three months pregnant period by history and laboratory tests. The two patients were not detected deafness gene mutation. Audiology results implied the two patients were very severe binaural sensorineural deafness, so they were recommended to equipped with hearing aids and cochlear implant surgery. Early pregnancy women infected with rubella virus can cause very severe offspring sensorineural deafness. The crowd whose mother were suspected to infect with rubella virus in early pregnancy, that should be tracked and detected hearing in order to achieve early detection, early intervention and early treatment.

  20. Rubella-related intermediate uveitis in pregnancy--a rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirupathy, Annamalai; Tajunisah, Iqbal

    2011-06-01

    To report a rare case of intermediate uveitis following rubella infection in pregnancy. Case report. A 35-year-old pregnant woman, at 24 weeks of gestation, presented with sudden floaters and blurring of vision of the left eye. Ocular examination revealed vitritis 1-2+ with no retinal involvement. Rubella serology showed a high IgG titr eof 268 IU/mL. Treatment with periocular steroids (posterior subtenon triamcinalone) injection into the left eye was initiated. Improvement of vision with resolution of the vitritis was seen after 3 weeks. Repeat rubella IgG titer dropped to 20.4 IU/mL. Obstetrics evaluation of the fetus remained normal. Rubella-related intermediate uveitis is a very rare presentation during pregnancy. It is worthwhile to investigate for rubella infections in pregnant patients complaining of recent onset of visual disturbances. This type of intermediate uveitis can be treated successfully with minimal ocular complications if recognized early.

  1. Global and national laboratory networks support high quality surveillance for measles and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Huiling; Zhu, Zhen; Mao, Naiying; Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory networks are an essential component of disease surveillance systems because they provide accurate and timely confirmation of infection. WHO coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases, including measles and rubella. The more than 700 laboratories within the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) supports surveillance for measles, rubella and congenial rubella syndrome in 191 counties. This paper describes the overall structure and function of the GMRLN and highlights the largest of the national laboratory networks, the China Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in serum correlates with clinical cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K K; Ricksten, A; Hofmann, B

    1994-01-01

    The high sensitivity of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers the possibility of rapid detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in serum. Five consecutive serum samples were examined from 52 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients (19 of whom had clinically presumed diagnosis...

  3. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Absence of Maternal Cytomegalovirus-IgM Antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunkel, Julia; van der Knoop, Bloeme J; Nijman, Joppe; De Vries, Linda S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072995408; Manten, Gwendolyn T.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/261633325; Nikkels, Peter G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074234692; Murk, Jean Luc; de Vries, Johanna I P; Wolfs, Tom F.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/096507497

    2017-01-01

    Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections are the most prevalent intrauterine infections worldwide and are the result of maternal primary or non-primary infections. Early maternal primary infections are thought to carry the highest risk of fetal developmental abnormalities as seen by

  4. Evaluation of Rubella Immunity in Women before Marriage and Pregnancy in Isfahan During 1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Allameh

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital Rubella syndrome is a public health problem in many developing countries which has not yet been sufficiently put into account. There is an urgent need for collecting appropriate data to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential global Rubella control program. This study was conducted to determine susceptibility to Rubella in women who are going to marry or consult for pregnancy. Methods: This study began in 1997 and ended in 2000. The study was analytic descriptive and prospective. Eight hundred and thirty eight women who referred for premarriage tests or counselling for conception were included. According to antibody levels, test results were reported as immune and non-immune (susceptible for every individual. Results: Among 838 cases, 253 women (30.1% were non-immune (susceptible and 585 women (69.9% were immune. The educational status of the two groups were recorded. Analysis of data showed that the higher the educational level (62.2% for University degree holder, the lower the immunity against Rubella would be (75.2% for unfinished high school individuals. Furthermore, immunity in the younger group was higher (73.9% in <20 years than in the older group(61% in >30 years. Conclusion: More than one third of pre marriage and pre conceptional women were non-immune (susceptible to Rubella, so health providers should be aware of Rubella prevention and control in childbearing age via screening and vaccination. Immunity against Rubella can vary over time and the socioeconomic status is believed to play an important role in the level of immunity. Keywords: Congenital Rubella Syndrome, Rubella immunity, Rubella non-immunity.

  5. Informing rubella vaccination strategies in East Java, Indonesia through transmission modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Wood, James; Khandaker, Gulam; Waddington, Claire; Snelling, Thomas

    2016-11-04

    An estimated 110,000 babies are born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) worldwide annually; a significant proportion of cases occur in Southeast Asia. Rubella vaccine programs have led to successful control of rubella and CRS, and even the elimination of disease in many countries. However, if vaccination is poorly implemented it might increase the number of women reaching childbearing age who remain susceptible to rubella and thereby paradoxically increase CRS. We used an age-structured transmission model to compare seven alternative vaccine strategies for their impact on reducing CRS disease burden in East Java, a setting which is yet to implement a rubella vaccine program. We also investigated the robustness of model predictions to variation in vaccine coverage and other key epidemiological factors. Without rubella vaccination, approximately 700 babies are estimated to be born with CRS in East Java every year at an incidence of 0.77 per 1000live births. This incidence could be reduced to 0.0045 per 1000 live births associated with 99.9% annual reduction in rubella infections after 20 years if the existing two doses of measles vaccine are substituted with two doses of measles plus rubella combination vaccine with the same coverage (87.8% of 9-month-old infants and 80% of 6-year-old children). By comparison a single dose of rubella vaccine will take longer to reduce the burden of rubella and CRS and will be less robust to lower vaccine coverage. While the findings of this study should be informative for settings similar to East Java, the conclusions are dependent on vaccine coverage which would need consideration before applying to all of Indonesia and elsewhere in Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Features of laboratory tests for diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Grigor’eva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite on mandatory vaccination against rubella, the amount of pregnant women without immunity to rubella may exceed 20%. These women represent a risk group for the rubella disease.Objectives: The goals of the presented work are to analyze the cases of anti-rubella IgM detection in pregnant women, and to develop an algorithm for management of such patients.Materials and Methods: Screening has been performed by ELISA test systems company Radim (Italy. In total 799 patients were examined for rubella in 2013, 56 of them were pregnant women.Results. Positive IgM antibodies to rubella in 2013 have been identified in 5 cases, including 4 pregnant women. A detailed analysis of medical history, clinical and laboratory data has been done. In none of these cases the diagnosis of rubella has been confirmed.Conclusions. The main criterion for the diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women with rubella markers in the absence of clinical symptoms must be a dynamic examination, including study on IgM- and IgG-antibodies to rubella virus. The study must be conducted in the same laboratory at intervals of 10–14 days. In most cases, determination of IgG-antibodies avidity helps to estimate the time of infection. In complicated cases it is recommended to use PCR and immunoblot.

  7. Surveillance of congenital rubella and rubella infections in pregnancy in EU/EEA countries, 2012: Current status and future perspective to monitor elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, C; Montaño-Remacha, C; Celentano, L Pastore; Derrough, T

    2015-09-11

    Rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention are targets for achievement by 2015 in the WHO-EURO Region. This paper describes the existing surveillance systems for CRS and rubella in pregnancy in order to critically interpret the findings in relation to the 2012 WHO-EURO surveillance guidelines. In 2012 we conducted a survey to collect information on surveillance of CRS and rubella in pregnancy in 29 EU/EEA countries. Questionnaires explored the characteristics of the surveillance systems, case definition, epidemiological investigation and follow-up of cases, reference laboratories and types of tests performed. Twenty-eight countries had surveillance systems for CRS, mostly nationwide, mandatory, passive and case-based; 23 collected information on the origin of the infection; 11 reported asymptomatic infections; 6 required zero-reporting. Case definitions varied among countries, although 24 used the EU definition. Laboratories reported cases in 18 countries. Twenty countries collected information on pregnancy within the rubella surveillance system and 5 had specific surveillance for rubella in pregnancy. Two countries did not monitor outcomes of suspected infections in pregnancy; infants with CRS were monitored in all the remaining countries; asymptomatic infected infants in 15; stillbirths and fetal deaths in 13; therapeutic and spontaneous abortions in 8 and 7. Twenty-seven countries had a national reference laboratory for CRS and rubella in pregnancy; genotyping was performed in 15. The current surveillance systems allow adequate CRS monitoring in EU. Further efforts are needed to improve their quality, including uniform case definitions, collection of information on the origin of infection, and promotion of reporting from laboratories. Follow-up of pregnant women with suspected infection should be strengthened because it is an entry point for CRS, including detection of fetal deaths, stillbirths and abortions. Laboratory capacity for

  8. Essential oils from Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida and C. rubella (Myrtaceae Óleos essenciais de Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida and C. rubella (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira Limberger

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida and C. rubella, collected in Southern Brazil, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing about 98% of the oil contents. All samples were rich in cyclic sesquiterpenes (more than 90 %, mainly those from cadinane, bisabolane and germacrane cyclization pathway. The mainly components characterized were bicyclogermacrene (22.1% in C. concinna;11.7% in C. rubella, cis-calamenene (10.3% in C. concinna, beta-caryophyllene (16.5% in C. rubella; 9.4% in C. lucida, beta-bisabolene (25.5% in C. lucida, spathulenol (15.4% in C. rubella and caryophyllene oxide (7.6% in C. concinna.Os óleos essenciais de Calyptranthes concinna, C. lucida e C. rubella, coletadas no sul do Brasil, foram analisados por GC/FID e GC/MS. Sessenta e dois constituintes foram identificados representando cerca de 98% do óleo. Todas as amostras mostraram-se ricas em sesquiterpenos cíclicos (mais de 90%, principalmente aquelas da via de ciclização dos cadinanos, bisabolanos e germacranos. Os principais constituintes caracterizados foram biciclogermacreno (22,1% em C. concinna; 11,7% em C. rubella, cis-calameneno (10,3% em C. concinna, betacariofileno (16,5% em C. rubella; 9,4% em C. lucida, beta-bisaboleno (25,5% em C. lucida, espatulenol (15,4% em C. rubella e óxido de cariofileno (7,6% em C. concinna.

  9. Reducing global disease burden of measles and rubella: report of the WHO Steering Committee on research related to measles and rubella vaccines and vaccination, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Claude P; Kremer, Jacques R; Best, Jennifer M; Dourado, Ines; Triki, Henda; Reef, Susan

    2007-01-02

    The WHO Steering Committee reviewed and evaluated the progress towards global control of measles and rubella and provided guidelines for future research activities concerning both diseases during its meeting in New Delhi, in April 2005. Global measles vaccination coverage increased from 71% in 1999 to 76% in 2004 and indigenous transmission was interrupted or kept at very low levels in many countries. However, Africa and Southeast Asia continue to experience endemic transmission and high mortality rates, despite a global mortality reduction of 39% between 1999 and 2003. On the basis of reports from countries with continued indigenous measles virus transmission, future control strategies as well as advantages and potential drawbacks of global measles eradication were discussed. Similarly the burden of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) as well as the cost-effectiveness of rubella vaccination was assessed using different methods in several countries without vaccination programs. As measles and rubella viruses continue to circulate surveillance and control strategies need further optimization. RT-PCR was considered as an alternative method for laboratory diagnosis of CRS. The value of dried blood spots and oral fluid as alternative samples for measles and rubella IgG and IgM detection and genotype determination was evaluated. However further validation of these methods in different settings is required before their routine use can be recommended.

  10. Genomic characterization of a persistent rubella virus from a case of Fuch' uveitis syndrome in a 73 year old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Emily; Peairs, Randall R; Chen, Min-hsin; Icenogle, Joseph; Namdari, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Many cases of Fuchs' uveitis have been associated with persistent rubella virus infection. A 73-year-old male patient with typical Fuchs' Uveitis Syndrome (FUS) first experienced heterochromia of the left eye at the age fourteen, when rubella was endemic in the US. The purposes of this report are to describe the patient's FUS clinical presentations and to characterize the virus detected in the vitreous fluid. The patient underwent a therapeutic pars plana vitrectomy in May 2013. A real-time RT-PCR assay for rubella virus was performed on the vitreous fluid by Focus Diagnostics. Additional real-time RT-PCR assays for rubella virus detection and RT-PCR assays for generation of templates for sequencing were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The results from Focus Diagnostics were positive for rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR assays at CDC were also positive for rubella virus. A rubella virus sequence of 739 nucleotides was determined and phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus was the sole member of a new phylogenetic group when compared to reference virus sequences. While FUS remains a clinical diagnosis, findings in this case support the association between rubella virus and the disease. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that this rubella virus was likely a previously undetected genotype which is no longer circulating. Since the patient had rubella prior to 1955, this sequence is from the earliest rubella virus yet characterized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome Combined with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatehi Elnour Elzein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT patients, where figures may reach up to 50–85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated. We here describe a patient who survived SHS with recurrent Escherichia coli (E. coli urosepsis and CMV infection.

  12. Rubella in Sub-Saharan Africa and sensorineural hearing loss: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroça, Cristina; Vicente, Vera; Campelo, Paula; Chasqueira, Maria; Caria, Helena; Silva, Susana; Paixão, Paulo; Paço, João

    2017-02-01

    Rubella infection can affect several organs and cause birth defects that are responsible for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Congenital hearing loss is the most common symptom of this syndrome, occurring in approximately 60% of CRS cases. Worldwide, over 100 000 babies are born with CRS every year. There is no specific treatment for rubella, but the disease is preventable by vaccination. Since 1969, the rubella vaccine has been implemented in many countries, but in Africa, only a few countries routinely immunize against rubella. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of infection from the wild-type rubella virus in São Tomé and Príncipe by determining rubella seroprevalence with a DBS method. The goal of this study was to reinforce the need for implementation of the rubella vaccine in this country. As secondary objectives, the validation of a DBS method was first attempted and an association between seroprevalence and hearing loss was assessed. We collected samples from individuals observed during humanitarian missions in São Tomé and Príncipe. All individuals underwent an audiometric evaluation, and a drop of blood was collected for the dried blood spot (DBS). We define two groups: the case group (individuals with unilateral or bilateral hearing loss (HL)) and the control group (individuals with two normal ears). Patients were excluded if they suffered from conductive HL, if they showed evidence of possible causes of HL, if they had developmental delay or if they refused to participate in the study. Among the 315 subjects, we found 64.1% individuals with IgG for the rubella virus, 32.1% without immunity for the rubella virus and 3.8% who were borderline. In the control group, 62.6% were positive for the rubella IgG, whereas in the case group, 72% were positive. Analyzing both groups, with ages ranging from 2 to 14 years of age and from 15 to 35 years of age, we found a seroprevalence of 50.3% to rubella in the younger group and 82.1% in the

  13. Rubella in Sub-Saharan Africa and sensorineural hearing loss: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Caroça

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rubella infection can affect several organs and cause birth defects that are responsible for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS. Congenital hearing loss is the most common symptom of this syndrome, occurring in approximately 60% of CRS cases. Worldwide, over 100 000 babies are born with CRS every year. There is no specific treatment for rubella, but the disease is preventable by vaccination. Since 1969, the rubella vaccine has been implemented in many countries, but in Africa, only a few countries routinely immunize against rubella. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of infection from the wild-type rubella virus in São Tomé and Príncipe by determining rubella seroprevalence with a DBS method. The goal of this study was to reinforce the need for implementation of the rubella vaccine in this country. As secondary objectives, the validation of a DBS method was first attempted and an association between seroprevalence and hearing loss was assessed. Methods We collected samples from individuals observed during humanitarian missions in São Tomé and Príncipe. All individuals underwent an audiometric evaluation, and a drop of blood was collected for the dried blood spot (DBS. We define two groups: the case group (individuals with unilateral or bilateral hearing loss (HL and the control group (individuals with two normal ears. Patients were excluded if they suffered from conductive HL, if they showed evidence of possible causes of HL, if they had developmental delay or if they refused to participate in the study. Results Among the 315 subjects, we found 64.1% individuals with IgG for the rubella virus, 32.1% without immunity for the rubella virus and 3.8% who were borderline. In the control group, 62.6% were positive for the rubella IgG, whereas in the case group, 72% were positive. Analyzing both groups, with ages ranging from 2 to 14 years of age and from 15 to 35 years of age, we found a seroprevalence of 50.3% to

  14. [Hot spot: epidemiology of measles and rubella in Germany and the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak-Klose, D

    2013-09-01

    The elimination of measles and rubella by 2015 is an important goal set by the World Health Organization European Region (WHO/Europa). Since 1991, the incidence of measles in WHO/Europa declined owing to routine childhood vaccination and supplementary immunization activities in the region. However, in many countries of Western Europe elimination of measles and rubella remains a challenge, and every year there are outbreaks with partly long-lasting transmission chains and dissemination of the virus internationally. In Germany, outbreaks occur because of the high proportion of susceptible individuals in specific population groups. In 2011, over 1,600 cases were reported (19.7 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, data from the Robert Koch Institute) whereas in 2012 only 167 cases were reported to the Robert Koch Institute (2 per 1,000,000 inhabitants). It is unclear whether the declining trend will continue in the following years due to improved vaccination coverage or whether number of cases will rise again because of the accumulation of susceptible groups. In Germany, there are currently no representative, country-wide data on rubella; however, data from the eastern federal states provide important epidemiological insights. Outbreaks are seldom reported, but statutory notification of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome was implemented in March 2013. As a result, it will be possible to better assess the epidemiology of rubella in Germany, although a considerable underreporting of rubella cases is anticipated.

  15. Standardization of Assays That Detect Anti-Rubella Virus IgG Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Rubella virus usually causes a mild infection in humans but can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Vaccination programs have significantly decreased primary rubella virus infection and CRS; however, vaccinated individuals usually have lower levels of rubella virus IgG than those with natural infections. Rubella virus IgG is quantified with enzyme immunoassays that have been calibrated against the World Health Organization (WHO) international standard and report results in international units per milliliter. It is recognized that the results reported by these assays are not standardized. This investigation into the reasons for the lack of standardization found that the current WHO international standard (RUB-1-94) fails by three key metrological principles. The standard is not a pure analyte but is composed of pooled human immunoglobulin. It was not calibrated by certified reference methods; rather, superseded tests were used. Finally, no measurement uncertainty estimations have been provided. There is an analytical and clinical consequence to the lack of standardization of rubella virus IgG assays, which leads to misinterpretation of results. The current approach to standardization of rubella virus IgG assays has not achieved the desired results. A new approach is required. PMID:26607813

  16. Estimating the burden of rubella virus infection and congenital rubella syndrome through a rubella immunity assessment among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Potential impact on vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Mary M; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hao, Lijuan; Perelygina, Ludmila; Icenogle, Joseph P; Vynnycky, Emilia; Fwamba, Franck; Edidi, Samuel; Mulumba, Audry; Sidibe, Kassim; Reef, Susan E

    2016-12-12

    Rubella-containing vaccines (RCV) are not yet part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC) vaccination program; however RCV introduction is planned before 2020. Because documentation of DRC's historical burden of rubella virus infection and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has been minimal, estimates of the burden of rubella virus infection and of CRS would help inform the country's strategy for RCV introduction. A rubella antibody seroprevalence assessment was conducted using serum collected during 2008-2009 from 1605 pregnant women aged 15-46years attending 7 antenatal care sites in 3 of DRC's provinces. Estimates of age- and site-specific rubella antibody seroprevalence, population, and fertility rates were used in catalytic models to estimate the incidence of CRS per 100,000 live births and the number of CRS cases born in 2013 in DRC. Overall 84% (95% CI 82, 86) of the women tested were estimated to be rubella antibody seropositive. The association between age and estimated antibody seroprevalence, adjusting for study site, was not significant (p=0.10). Differences in overall estimated seroprevalence by study site were observed indicating variation by geographical area (p⩽0.03 for all). Estimated seroprevalence was similar for women declaring residence in urban (84%) versus rural (83%) settings (p=0.67). In 2013 for DRC nationally, the estimated incidence of CRS was 69/100,000 live births (95% CI 0, 186), corresponding to 2886 infants (95% CI 342, 6395) born with CRS. In the 3 provinces, rubella virus transmission is endemic, and most viral exposure and seroconversion occurs before age 15years. However, approximately 10-20% of the women were susceptible to rubella virus infection and thus at risk for having an infant with CRS. This analysis can guide plans for introduction of RCV in DRC. Per World Health Organization recommendations, introduction of RCV should be accompanied by a campaign targeting all children 9months to 14years of age as well as

  17. Report from the second cytomegalovirus and immunosenescence workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills Mark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Second International Workshop on CMV & Immunosenescence was held in Cambridge, UK, 2-4th December, 2010. The presentations covered four separate sessions: cytomegalovirus and T cell phenotypes; T cell memory frequency, inflation and immunosenescence; cytomegalovirus in aging, mortality and disease states; and the immunobiology of cytomegalovirus-specific T cells and effects of the virus on vaccination. This commentary summarizes the major findings of these presentations and references subsequently published work from the presenter laboratory where appropriate and draws together major themes that were subsequently discussed along with new areas of interest that were highlighted by this discussion.

  18. Rubella Immunity in Pregnant Native Taiwanese and Immigrants from Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Yeong-Hwa; Shih, Ching-Tang; Kung, Wan-Ju; Lee, Chien-Hung; Lin, Ching-Chiang

    2017-02-08

    Vaccination is considered the most effective method to prevent rubella spread and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the rubella immunity among native and immigrant pregnant women in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2014, a total of 16,879 pregnant women who received routine prenatal examinations were recruited in this study. The rubella IgG antibodies were assayed using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay or chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Subjects were categorized by nationality and subcategorized by specific periods of time for comparison. The rubella susceptibility was 12.7% in total, 11.1% in Taiwanese and 20.3% in immigrant population from 2000 to 2014. Among the immigrant women, those from Vietnam had the highest susceptibility (22.3%) and those from Thailand had the lowest susceptibility (3.8%). The immigrant women from Vietnam and China showed a significantly higher susceptibility compared with the native Taiwanese women in which the odds ratio was 2.30 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.04-2.60), 1.96 (95% CI: 1.59-2.41), respectively (P rubella susceptibility and related CRS sequela than native women. From 2000-2004 to 2010-2014 cohort, there was no obvious change in rubella susceptibility in native women, which varied between 10.0% and 11.9%. However, there was a decreasing trend of rubella susceptibility in the immigrant women overall, from 24.5% to 11.5% (P rubella in Taiwan, additional catch-up immunization strategies are needed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Letermovir for the management of cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Lyndsey J; Melaragno, Jennifer Iuppa; Brennan, Daniel C

    2017-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Available antivirals are fraught with adverse effects and risk for the development of CMV resistance. Letermovir is a novel antiviral in the late stages of drug development for the treatment and prevention of CMV. Areas covered: A MEDLINE search of the MeSH terms 'letermovir,' 'cytomegalovirus,' 'hematopoietic stem cell transplant,' and 'solid organ transplant,' was last conducted on 15 August 2016. Articles were selected on the basis of their contribution to current knowledge about letermovir. Expert opinion: Letermovir's mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, and favorable efficacy and safety make it an attractive option for both the prevention and treatment of CMV in immunocompromised patients. The lack of cross-resistance with other antivirals and the absence of myelosuppression are two prominent characteristics of letermovir that could support broad use of this product following FDA-approval. One major limitation is its lack of activity against other herpesviruses, which are commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. We believe that with additional clinical efficacy data, this medication could emerge as a primary option for the prevention and treatment of CMV in the immunocompromised patient population.

  20. Role of breast milk in acquisition of cytomegalovirus infection: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, Mark R

    2006-02-01

    Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus is a major cause of disability in newborns. Recently, there has been increased emphasis on the study of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection. One route by which cytomegalovirus infections are acquired in newborns is via consumption of breast milk from cytomegalovirus-seropositive, lactating mothers. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent studies of breast-milk-acquired cytomegalovirus infections in newborns, particularly in low-birth-weight premature infants. Nearly all cytomegalovirus-seropositive women will reactivate and shed cytomegalovirus during lactation, as demonstrated by sensitive polymerase chain reaction techniques, as well as by viral culture of breast milk. A substantial proportion of infants exposed to cytomegalovirus in breast milk will acquire a primary cytomegalovirus infection. Although acquisition of cytomegalovirus by this route is seldom of consequence in healthy term infants, cytomegalovirus infections in low-birth-weight premature infants have been demonstrated to cause symptomatic illness, including hepatitis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and a 'sepsis-like' state. Cytomegalovirus is commonly shed in human milk, and cytomegalovirus-seropositive women can transmit this infection via breast-feeding. The benefits of breast-feeding greatly outweigh the minimal risk, if any, of infections transmitted to term infants. Caution is warranted, however, in low-birth-weight premature infants, who are at increased risk of cytomegalovirus disease. Interventions to screen breast milk, or to attempt to render breast milk noninfectious through treatments such as freezing, may be warranted in high-risk premature infants.

  1. Infectivity of wild-type rubella virus in fibrochondrocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Figueiredo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the rapid growth of the rubella virus in samples of a primary fibrochondrocyte cell culture with the development of a cytopathic effect (CPE, in response to infection by the rubella virus. The cells were isolated from the meniscus joint of a rabbit after enzymatic extraction and incubated at 37°C with a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. A total of six clinical samples from urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were inoculated in the fibrochondrocyte and the cell lines of the African green monkey kidney - ATCC CCL-81 (Vero. The fibrochondrocyte cell showed CPE after 24 hours and virus growth was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Nested PCR. The cells inoculated with samples were examined by phase contrast microscopy and showed characteristic rounding, along with bipolar and multipolar cells. The infection curve increased during the five days of observation, showing that the titers in fibrochondrocyte cells were then higher than those observed in Vero cell lines.

  2. The utility of measles and rubella IgM serology in an elimination setting, Ontario, Canada, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Shelly; Lim, Gillian; Dang, Vica; Crowcroft, Natasha; Gubbay, Jonathan; Mazzulli, Tony; Schabas, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In Canada, measles was eliminated in 1998 and rubella in 2000. Effective measles and rubella surveillance is vital in elimination settings, hinging on reliable laboratory methods. However, low-prevalence settings affect the predictive value of laboratory tests. We conducted an analysis to determine the performance of measles and rubella IgM testing in a jurisdiction where both infections are eliminated. 21,299 test results were extracted from the Public Health Ontario Laboratories database and 1,239 reports were extracted from the Ontario Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS) from 2008 and 2010 for measles and rubella, respectively, to 2014. Deterministic linkage resulted in 658 linked measles records (2009-2014) and 189 linked rubella records (2010-2014). Sixty-six iPHIS measles entries were classified as confirmed cases, of which 53 linked to laboratory data. Five iPHIS rubella entries were classified as confirmed, all linked to IgM results. The positive predictive value was 17.4% for measles and 3.6% for rubella. Sensitivity was 79.2% for measles and 100.0% for rubella. Specificity was 65.7% for measles and 25.8% for rubella. Our study confirms that a positive IgM alone does not confirm a measles case in elimination settings. This has important implications for countries that are working towards measles and rubella elimination.

  3. Cytomegalovirus as a cause of anterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, Lonneke A. A.; van der Lelij, Allegonda; van der Meer, Johannes; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To describe 7 cases of unilateral, chronic and/or recurrent anterior uveitis caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) in immunocompetent patients; to identify specific ophthalmologic characteristics; and to evaluate the clinical effect of valganciclovir treatment. Design: Retrospective observational

  4. Cytomegalovirus, inflammatory bowel disease, and anti-TNFα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sara T; Portela, Francisco A; Tomé, Luís

    2017-05-01

    Anti-TNFα agents emerged in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as an effective option in situations that, otherwise, would be refractory to medical therapy. Cytomegalovirus infection may present with a high spectrum of manifestations and lead to high morbidity and mortality. However, its clinical significance in IBD course remains unknown and data on its association with anti-TNFα are limited. This study aims to evaluate cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/disease in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα; if possible, possible risk factors associated with CMV infection/disease in IBD patients under anti-TNFα as well as the influence of CMV infection/disease in IBD course would be determined. During three consecutive years, all IBD patients starting infliximab in our department were included. Cytomegalovirus status before anti-TNFα was evaluated. Data regarding IBD, therapeutic and IBD course after infliximab, were recorded. CMV analysis was performed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood and colonoscopy with biopsies (histopathology/immunohistochemistry). We included 29 patients: female-83%; Crohn's disease-51.8%, ulcerative colitis-44.8%, non-classified colitis-3.4%; 23 cytomegalovirus seropositive. Median follow-up: 19 months (3-36). During follow-up, 14 patients were under combination therapy with azathioprine and 5 did at least 1 cycle of corticosteroids. Twenty-one patients responded to infliximab. We registered 8 exacerbations of IBD. Four patients discontinued infliximab: none had CMV infection. We documented 1 case of intestinal cytomegalovirus infection-detected in biopsies performed per protocol in an asymptomatic UC patient, who responded to valganciclovir without infliximab discontinuation. Infliximab, with/without immunosuppression, does not confer an increased risk of (re)activation of cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus was not responsible neither for significant morbidity nor mortality in IBD.

  5. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren

    2016-02-01

    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rubella Seropositivity in Pregnant Women After Vaccination Campaign in Brazil's Federal District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Yanna K M; de Carvalho, Bruna C; Nitz, Nadjar; Vital, Tamires E; Leite, Franco B; Sequeira, Inês J; Moreira, Elsa E; de Andrade, Juliana K B; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; Hecht, Mariana M

    2017-11-01

    Rubella is an acute viral disease that usually does not generate sequels; however, in pregnant women the infection can cause serious abnormalities to fetuses, which are collectively called congenital rubella syndrome. In Brazil, population immunization was started in 1992, but few epidemiological studies have been conducted to assess vaccination coverage and seroconversion since then. The aim of this work is to evaluate the seropositivity of pregnant women to rubella virus after vaccination campaign was carried out in 2008. Serological tests for rubella diagnosis were performed in 87 pregnant women who attended the University of Brasilia Hospital, Federal District, Brazil. Antirubella IgG antibodies were detected in 83 out of 87 pregnant women (95.4%), with an age-independent seroprevalence. Only one woman was positive in IgM serological tests. Our data suggest high levels of vaccination coverage and antirubella immunization in the Brazil Federal District population.

  7. Fetal and neonatal abnormalities due to congenital rubella syndrome: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazigi, Alexandre; De Pecoulas, Aurelia Eldin; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Picone, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Rubella virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). We aimed to describe the abnormalities in order to define the ultrasound features to look for when performing prenatal scans. The goal of this review is to focus specifically on the signs of CRS accessible to prenatal diagnosis. We analyzed every case of CRS described before and/or after birth that we identified in the Pubmed database and classified them as accessible or not to prenatal diagnosis. The most frequently reported malformations accessible to prenatal diagnosis were: cardiac septal defects, pulmonary artery stenosis, microcephaly, cataract, microphtalmia, and hepatosplenomegaly. This extensive literature review shows that the ultrasound features of CRS are not well known, even though rubella was the first teratogenic virus described. This review will help clinicians in the management of rubella during pregnancy by clarifying the findings to be sought.

  8. Rubella vaccination during the preconception period or in pregnancy and perinatal and fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenoğlu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgür; Yildirim, Nuri; Kazandi, Mert; Akercan, Fuat; Sağol, Sermet

    2012-01-01

    The rubella vaccine is contraindicated in pregnancy. Between July and August 2009, the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health implemented a vaccine program to eradicate rubella in women in the reproductive period. In this program, many pregnant women were also vaccinated inadvertently. In this study, 62 pregnant women applied to our clinic who were vaccinated either during pregnancy or within one month before the last menstrual period. Seventeen of them were followed until the end of the pregnancy by fetal echocardiography and detailed ultrasonography. Rubella immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies were studied in the cord blood obtained at birth. All fetuses were examined by a pediatrician, an ophthalmologist and a pediatric cardiologist. A hearing test was also performed on all neonates. No signs of congenital rubella syndrome could be found.

  9. Genetic diversity of currently circulating rubella viruses: a need to define more precise viral groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivailler, P; Abernathy, E; Icenogle, J

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that the currently circulating rubella viruses are mostly members of two genotypes, 1E and 2B. Also, genetically distinct viruses of genotype 1G have been found in East and West Africa. This study used a Mantel test to objectively include both genetic diversity and geographic location in the definition of lineages, and identified statistically justified lineages (n=13) and sub-lineages (n=9) of viruses within genotypes 1G, 1E and 2B. Genotype 2B viruses were widely distributed, while viruses of genotype 1E as well as 1G and 1J were much more geographically restricted. This analysis showed that more precise groupings for rubella viruses are possible, which should improve the ability to track rubella viruses worldwide. A year-by-year analysis revealed gaps in surveillance that need to be resolved in order to support the surveillance needed for enhanced control and elimination goals for rubella.

  10. Economic Benefits of a Routine Second Dose of Combined Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rivière

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential economic benefits of a program for a second routine dose of combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine, administered to children in Canada.

  11. Sociodemographic and economic characteristics of susceptibility to rubella among women preparing for pregnancy in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Zhang, Shikun; Liu, Jue; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-09-01

    Infection with rubella virus during pregnancy can result in congenital defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The risk of rubella infection is greatly determined by the level of rubella antibodies in the serum. A survey of rubella antibody seronegativity rates was conducted in 780 000 women in rural China who were planning a pregnancy, in order to evaluate the herd susceptibility in different age groups and by high, middle, and low GDP per capita regions. In order to evaluate the herd susceptibility to rubella, a nationwide population-based study of rural Chinese women who were planning to have a baby and who were aged 21-49 years was instigated. As a part of the National Free Pre-conception Health Examination Project covering 29 provinces in 2012, a physical check-up program was provided to women who planned to become pregnant within the next 6 months. All medical data were from serological samples tested by ELISA, and the participants' immunity status was categorized based on levels of rubella antibodies. Economic data were also collected to explore the association between herd susceptibility and socioeconomic characteristics in the women of childbearing age. A total 264 306 of 782 293 recruited women preparing for pregnancy tested susceptible to rubella (33.79%). The seronegativity rate in women with a history of vaccination was significantly lower than that in women who had not received the vaccination or did not know their vaccination history (23.76%, 33.70%, and 35.68%, respectively). The seronegativity rates were 26.89%, 37.86%, and 32.61% in high, middle, and low GDP per capita areas, respectively. After stratified analysis and adjusting for other factors by multiple logistic regression, the lower seronegativity rates in women in high GDP per capita regions compared to women in middle and low GDP per capita regions remained in the different age groups and subgroups of immunization history. There is a clear difference in rubella-specific susceptibility

  12. The history of vaccination against cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2015-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus vaccine development started in the 1970s with attenuated strains. In the 1980s, one of the strains was shown to be safe and effective in renal transplant patients. Then, attention switched to glycoprotein gB, which was shown to give moderate but transient protection against acquisition of the virus by women. The identification of the pp65 tegument protein as the principal target of cellular immune responses resulted in new approaches, particularly DNA, plasmids to protect hematogenous stem cell recipients. The subsequent discovery of the pentameric protein complex that generates most neutralizing antibodies led to efforts to incorporate that complex into vaccines. At this point, there are many candidate CMV vaccines, including live recombinants, replication-defective virus, DNA plasmids, soluble pentameric proteins, peptides, virus-like particles and vectored envelope proteins.

  13. [Respiratory infections associated with a cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicó, I; Moraga Llop, F A; Español, T; Bertrán Sangués, J M; Fernández Pérez, F

    1985-11-15

    We report 27 children with respiratory tract disease in whom cytomegalovirus was isolated. These group excludes transplant patients and those on hemodialysis and mononucleosis. At the time of virus studies 7 had pneumonia, 3 chronic bronchopneumopathy, 2 bronchopneumonia, 8 pertussoid syndrome, 6 bronchitis or bronchiolitis and 1 laryngitis with glottic oedema. Virus studies consisted in cell cultures of biological products (pharyngeal exudates and urine). They were positive in 18 pharyngeal exudates, 24 urines, 2 bronchial brushings and 1 bronchoaspiration. In only 5 patients a complete serologic study was performed, with 3 seroconversions and one case of persistent high titers. Three patients had severe immune disease (2 hipogammaglobulinemias) and 1 dysgammaglobulinemia. These findings are discussed.

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus Latency: Approaching the Gordian Knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Felicia

    2016-09-29

    Herpesviruses have evolved exquisite virus-host interactions that co-opt or evade a number of host pathways to enable the viruses to persist. Persistence of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), the prototypical betaherpesvirus, is particularly complex in the host organism. Depending on host physiology and the cell types infected, CMV persistence comprises latent, chronic, and productive states that may occur concurrently. Viral latency is a central strategy by which herpesviruses ensure their lifelong persistence. Although much remains to be defined about the virus-host interactions important to CMV latency, it is clear that checkpoints composed of viral and cellular factors exist to either maintain a latent state or initiate productive replication in response to host cues. CMV offers a rich platform for defining the virus-host interactions and understanding the host biology important to viral latency. This review describes current understanding of the virus-host interactions that contribute to viral latency and reactivation.

  15. Antiviral treatment of cytomegalovirus infection: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härter, Georg; Michel, Detlef

    2012-04-01

    This editorial summarizes recent developments in the management of ganciclovir-resistant human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. All current drugs available for systemic treatment, including ganciclovir (GCV), valganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir, target the viral polymerase. However, all such compounds are hampered by dose-related toxicities and the emergence of resistance. Different approaches (e.g., PCR-based direct sequencing, pyrosequencing, mass spectrometry-based comparative sequencing) allow the fast detection of resistant HCMV and are well suited to therapy monitoring. However, more studies are required on the dynamic of mixed HCMV populations under drug pressure. Alternate antiviral compounds with new mechanisms of action, such as artesunate, leflunomid, letermovir and maribavir, are now being investigated in clinical studies. An advantage of some of the new substances is lesser toxicity issues, which might lead to new prophylactic and treatment strategies.

  16. Neuroimaging findings (ultrasonography, CT, MRI) in 3 infants with congenital rubella syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Matsuishi, T.; Murakami, Y. (Kurume Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics and Child Health); Shoji, H. (Kurume Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Otolaryngology); Hashimoto, T. (St. Mary' s Hospital, Kurume (Japan). Dept. of Neonatology); Utsunomiya, H. (St. Mary' s Hospital, Kurume (Japan). Dept. of Neuroradiology); Araki, H. (Iizuka Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1991-12-01

    Neuroimaging observations of three infants with congenital rubella syndrome are reported. We have observed congenital rubella syndrome lesions in the subependymal area, the basal ganglia and the deep white matter. Cranial ultrasonography defines subependymal cysts, calcification and possible vascular changes in the basal ganglia while MRI is the most sensitive to minor atrophic changes and white matter lesions. Although CT defines calcification, it is less sensitive than MRI to white matter changes and does not demonstrate subependymal cysts. (orig.).

  17. Emergence and Continuous Evolution of Genotype 1E Rubella Viruses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Cui, Aili; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chunyu; Wang, Changyin; Zhou, Shujie; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Zhenying; Feng, Daxin; Wang, Yan; Chen, Haiyun; Pan, Zhengfan; Zeng, Xiangjie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Chang, Xin; Lei, Yue; Tian, Hong; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Shunde; Zhan, Jun; Chen, Hui; Gu, Suyi; Tian, Xiaoling; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Fu, Hong; Yang, Xiuhui; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Zheng, Lei; Gao, Hui; He, Jilan; Sun, Li

    2012-01-01

    In China, rubella vaccination was introduced into the national immunization program in 2008, and a rubella epidemic occurred in the same year. In order to know whether changes in the genotypic distribution of rubella viruses have occurred in the postvaccination era, we investigate in detail the epidemiological profile of rubella in China and estimate the evolutionary rate, molecular clock phylogeny, and demographic history of the predominant rubella virus genotypes circulating in China using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo phylodynamic analyses. 1E was found to be the predominant rubella virus genotype since its initial isolation in China in 2001, and no genotypic shift has occurred since then. The results suggest that the global 1E genotype may have diverged in 1995 and that it has evolved at a mutation rate of 1.65 × 10−3 per site per year. The Chinese 1E rubella virus isolates were grouped into either cluster 1 or cluster 2, which likely originated in 1997 and 2006, respectively. Cluster 1 viruses were found in all provinces examined in this study and had a mutation rate of 1.90 × 10−3 per site per year. The effective number of infections remained constant until 2007, and along with the introduction of rubella vaccine into the national immunization program, although the circulation of cluster 1 viruses has not been interrupted, some viral lineages have disappeared, and the epidemic started a decline that led to a decrease in the effective population size. Cluster 2 viruses were found only in Hainan Province, likely because of importation. PMID:22162559

  18. Genomic Identification of Founding Haplotypes Reveals the History of the Selfing Species Capsella rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Slotte, Tanja; Hazzouri, Khaled M.; Wright, Stephen I.; Coop, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. Until recently, however, a genome-wide view of this transition has been obscured by both a dearth of appropriate data and the lack of appropriate population genomic methods to interpret such data. Here, we present a novel population genomic analysis detailing the origin of the selfing species, Capsella rubella, which recently split from its outcrossing sister, Capsella grandiflora. Due to the recency of the split, much of the variation within C. rubella is also found within C. grandiflora. We can therefore identify genomic regions where two C. rubella individuals have inherited the same or different segments of ancestral diversity (i.e. founding haplotypes) present in C. rubella's founder(s). Based on this analysis, we show that C. rubella was founded by multiple individuals drawn from a diverse ancestral population closely related to extant C. grandiflora, that drift and selection have rapidly homogenized most of this ancestral variation since C. rubella's founding, and that little novel variation has accumulated within this time. Despite the extensive loss of ancestral variation, the approximately 25% of the genome for which two C. rubella individuals have inherited different founding haplotypes makes up roughly 90% of the genetic variation between them. To extend these findings, we develop a coalescent model that utilizes the inferred frequency of founding haplotypes and variation within founding haplotypes to estimate that C. rubella was founded by a potentially large number of individuals between 50 and 100 kya, and has subsequently experienced a twenty-fold reduction in its effective population size. As population genomic data from an increasing number of outcrossing/selfing pairs are generated, analyses like the one developed here will facilitate a fine-scaled view of the evolutionary and demographic impact of the transition to self

  19. Determination of Rubella Antibody Titer in Women of Reproductive Age, Birjand, 2001-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s M Hossaini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rubella infection in pregnancy results in abortion, fetal death or Congenital Rubella Syndrome. It has been since many years that the titer of rubella antibody in children and women in the reproductive age group is measured in order to have a proper vaccination program for the control of rubella and its complications. The aim was to study the immunity of women in the reproductive age group in Birjand so as to apply the obtained data for the health program. Material and methods: This research was a descriptive study done on 271 women referring to the treatment and health center for routine pre-marriage tests. The antibody titer was detected by the ELISA method using an American23 kit (Trinity Biotech. The results were statistically evaluated with SPSS program. Results: This study showed that of the 271 case, 95.2% were immune and 4.8% were sensitive to rubella. There was no significant relationship with age, living place, parent’s education, level of education and number of children in the family. Conclusion: Considering the lack of immunity against rubella in 4.8% of women at reproductive age, vaccination for girls at the age of marriage seems to be necessary.

  20. Rubella and measles seroprevalence among women of childbearing age, Argentina, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, G H; Panero, M S; Urquiza, A; Molina, M; Prieto, S; Del Carmen Perego, M; Scagliotti, G; Galimberti, D; Carroli, G; Wolff, C; Bi, D; Bellini, W; Icenogle, J; Reef, S

    2005-10-01

    To assess rubella and measles susceptibility among women of childbearing age we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in four cities and one rural area in Argentina. A convenience sample of women aged 15-49 years seeking care in public health-care institutions was selected (n=2804). Serum specimens were tested for rubella and measles IgG antibody titres. The overall susceptibility to rubella and measles was 8.8 and 12.5% respectively. Seroprevalence differences were found for both rubella (Por=40 years than in younger women (P=0.04). Measles seroprevalence tended to increase with age (P<0.001). Approximately 15% of women aged 15-29 years were not immune to measles. No risk factors were associated with rubella seronegativity; however, age (P<0.001) and having less than four pregnancies (P<0.001) were factors associated with measles seronegativity. Our findings support the introduction of supplemental immunization activities targeting adolescents and young adults to prevent congenital rubella syndrome and measles outbreaks over time.

  1. Intravitreal ganciclovir in the management of non-AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langner-Wegscheider, Beate J.; ten Dam-van Loon, Ninette; Mura, Marco; Faridpooya, Koorosh; de Smet, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    To report and evaluate intravitreal ganciclovir injections in non-AIDS patients with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis. Retrospective chart review. Two SLE patients and one patient post chemotherapy for a non Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with myelosuppression and persistent cytomegalovirus

  2. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection: A Guide for Patients and Families After Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infection: A Guide for Patients and Families after Stem Cell Transplant What is cytomegalovirus (CMV)? Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ... weakened by medicines that you must take after stem cell transplant and by the transplant itself. Your body ...

  3. Congenital rubella still a public health problem in Italy: analysis of national surveillance data from 2005 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, C; Filia, A; Rota, M C; Del Manso, M; Declich, S; Nacca, G; Rizzuto, E; Bella, A

    2015-04-23

    In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian national measles and rubella elimination plan aims to reduce the incidence of congenital rubella cases to less than one case per 100,000 live births by the end of 2015. We report national surveillance data for congenital rubella and rubella in pregnancy from 2005 to 2013. A total of 75 congenital rubella infections were reported; the national annual mean incidence was 1.5/100,000 live births, including probable and confirmed cases according to European Union case definition. Two peaks occurred in 2008 and 2012 (5.0 and 3.6/100,000 respectively). Overall, 160 rubella infections in pregnancy were reported; 69/148 women were multiparous and 38/126 had had a rubella antibody test before pregnancy. Among reported cases, there were 62 infected newborns, 31 voluntary abortions, one stillbirth and one spontaneous abortion. A total of 24 newborns were unclassified and 14 women were lost to follow-up, so underestimation is likely. To improve follow-up of cases, systematic procedures for monitoring infected mothers and children were introduced in 2013. To prevent congenital rubella, antibody screening before pregnancy and vaccination of susceptible women, including post-partum and post-abortum vaccination, should be promoted. Population coverage of two doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of ≥ 95% should be maintained and knowledge of health professionals improved.

  4. Recombinant rubella vectors elicit SIV Gag-specific T cell responses with cytotoxic potential in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Margherita; Alicea, Candido; Kulkarni, Viraj; Virnik, Konstantin; Hockenbury, Max; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Pavlakis, George N; Valentin, Antonio; Berkower, Ira; Felber, Barbara K

    2015-04-27

    Live-attenuated rubella vaccine strain RA27/3 has been demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in millions of children. The vaccine strain was used to insert SIV gag sequences and the resulting rubella vectors were tested in rhesus macaques alone and together with SIV gag DNA in different vaccine prime-boost combinations. We previously reported that such rubella vectors induce robust and durable SIV-specific humoral immune responses in macaques. Here, we report that recombinant rubella vectors elicit robust de novo SIV-specific cellular immune responses detectable for >10 months even after a single vaccination. The antigen-specific responses induced by the rubella vector include central and effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with cytotoxic potential. Rubella vectors can be administered repeatedly even after vaccination with the rubella vaccine strain RA27/3. Vaccine regimens including rubella vector and SIV gag DNA in different prime-boost combinations resulted in robust long-lasting cellular responses with significant increase of cellular responses upon boost. Rubella vectors provide a potent platform for inducing HIV-specific immunity that can be combined with DNA in a prime-boost regimen to elicit durable cellular immunity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Susceptibility of Rubella Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Jabalpur, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, Bhupesh K; Singh, Kavita N; Sharma, Ravendra K; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Badkur, Poorva; Barde, Pradip V

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rubella susceptibility of pregnant women from central India as rubella infection can be devastating for the newborn if it occurs in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, which may lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). There are very few studies about seroprevalence of rubella from India and none from central India. The study was conducted among women attending the obstetric department of a tertiary care hospital, in which 369 antenatal cases were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody for rubella and its titer. Data were analyzed using statistical tests. A total of 141 (38.2%) women were found susceptible to rubella. There was no significant difference in rubella susceptibility among different socioeconomic classes, ages, and gravidity. A large proportion of pregnant women were found to be rubella susceptible, posing immense threat of CRS to their newborns. A robust program for rubella immunization targeting young adult women is needed to avoid CRS.

  6. 76 FR 69743 - The Development and Evaluation of Human Cytomegalovirus Vaccines; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Development and Evaluation of Human Cytomegalovirus... Development and Evaluation of Human Cytomegalovirus Vaccines.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to identify and discuss key issues related to the development and evaluation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV...

  7. [Surveillance Plan on Recent Outbreak of Measles and Rubella in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Torner, Nuria; Vidal, Ma José

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are two immuno-preventive illnesses. In Catalonia, since 1988 all children are given two doses of measles and rubella vaccine with high levels of vaccination coverage. The measles elimination programme has been carried out since 1990 in Catalonia. This programme includes achieving and keeping high immunization levels among population with high vaccination coverage, intense epidemiological surveillance and an immediate response to the appearance of a case or outbreak. In 2014, the measles incidence rate was 1.9 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. There were 4 recent outbreaks in 2006, 2011, 2013 and 2014 that affected 381, 289, 31 and 124 people respectively. All outbreaks were triggered by an imported case. In 2011 and 2014 measles outbreaks, 6% and 5.5% of affected people were health care workers. All outbreaks presented a great variety of measles genotypes. Concerning rubella elimination programme, since 2002, 68 cases of postnatal rubella and 5 cases of congenital rubella were confirmed. Regarding measles and rubella surveillance and control, in addition to strengthen vaccination coverage, it is essential immediate notification, within the first 24 hours since suspicion and laboratory confirmation. In addition there is a need to enforce vaccination among health care workers as well as in other susceptible and unvaccinated people. It is recommended to vaccinate all people who were born after 1966 and who have not been vaccinated with two doses of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Furthermore, we have to emphasize that the progress concerning genotypes study allows identifying various imported cases from other European countries with active outbreaks, aspect that makes easier the surveillance of these illnesses.

  8. Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K; Greenman, Michelle P; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-03-01

    Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5-15 years) in these studies from 2009 to 2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naive youth and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. A total of 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naive and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in this study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity after measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced.

  9. A 16-year review of seroprevalence studies on measles and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimech, Wayne; Mulders, Mick N

    2016-07-29

    The determination of the seroprevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases is critical in monitoring the efficacy of vaccination programmes and to assess the gaps in population immunity but requires extensive organisation and is time and resource intensive. The results of the studies are frequently reported in peer-reviewed scientific, government and non-government publications. A review of scientific literature was undertaken to advise the development of WHO guidelines for the assessment of measles and rubella seroprevalence. A search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed online publications using key words of 'measles', 'rubella', combined with 'serosurvey', 'seroprevalence', 'immunity' and 'population immunity' was conducted. A total of 97 articles published between January 1998 and June 2014 were retrieved, 68 describing serosurveys for measles and 58 serosurveys for rubella, conducted in 37 and 36 different countries respectively. Only 13 (19%) and 8 (14%) respectively were UN classified "least developed countries". The study sample varied markedly and included combinations of male and female infants, children, adolescents and adults. The study sizes also varied with 28% and 33% of measles and rubella studies respectively, having greater than 2000 participants. Microtitre plate enzyme immunoassays were used in 52 (76%) measles studies and 40 (69%) rubella studies. A total of 39 (57%) measles and 44 (76%) rubella studies reported quantitative test results. Seroprevalence ranged from 60.8% to 95.9% for measles and 53.0% to 99.3% for rubella studies. The review highlighted that infants lost maternally-acquired immunity within 9months of birth and were unprotected until vaccination. Two groups at higher risk of infection were identified: young adults between the ages of 15 and 30years and immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-rubella, Mumps and Measles IgG Antibodies in Medical Students of Tehran University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Tebyanian, Majid; Shahkarami, Mohammad Kazem; Izad, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are viral infectious diseases that may result in serious complications. Since the production of vaccines, the number of cases of these diseases has been dropped. Nevertheless, these infectious diseases are still one of the major health problems in developing countries. In this study, in order to evaluate the protective responses against measles, mumps and rubella, the level and avidity of virus-specific IgG antibodies were measured in 53 medical students of Tehran University, aged between 20-30 years. Except for mumps vaccine, all the students had been vaccinated against measles and rubella according to Iran's nationwide mass vaccination protocol for all persons aged 5-25 in 2003. Our results showed that 96.2% of the volunteers had a protective level (>15 IU/ml) of IgG against rubella, 79.2% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against measles and 64.16% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against mumps. Over ten years after nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign, most young adults aged 20-30 had protective levels of humoral immunity against measles and rubella. However, Iranian young population is still unvaccinated against mumps, and therefore relatively large number of young adults had no protective level of IgG against it. This finding may be due to reduction in circulating of wild strain. We recommend screening of medical students for immunity against infectious agents such as measles, mumps, rubella, because they are at a high risk of these infectious agents.

  11. Rubella Seroprevalence and real-time PCR detection of RUBV among Congolese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanga, Josue; Mbanzulu, Makola Kennedy; Kabasele, Arnold-Freddy; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Wumba, Dimosi Roger

    2017-04-05

    Rubella is an acute infectious disease caused by Rubella virus (RUBV). RUBV remains an important pathogen worldwide, causing approximately 100 000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) every year; and the most severe consequence of rubella is teratogenicity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RUBV IgG antibodies and determine RUBV genotypes in Congolese pregnant women in Kongo central province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This was a prospective cross-sectional study that consisted of a laboratory analysis of blood samples from 78 pregnant women to check for the presence of RUBV IgG antibodies, and also determine RUBV genotypes in seropositive samples (using primers targeting RUBV nucleoprotein), with the use of serological and molecular methods, respectively. Participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics (ANC) at two health zones of Kisantu town in DRC. They were followed-up from the first to third trimester. Those who were negative for RUBV antibodies at the initial assay (first trimester) were tested in the second and, eventually, the third trimester. An overall rubella seroprevalence of 58.97% was observed, whereas RUBV nucleoprotein was detected in 60% of randomly selected 30 blood samples among the 46 RUBV seropositive pregnant women. Five (27.77%) of positive samples were positive for both RUBV genotypes (RV8633/9112 and RV8945/9577), whereas 11 (61.11%) of them were positive for RV8633/9112 and two (11.11%) were positive for RV8945/9577 only. Regarding rubella clinical signs and complications, two subjects (2.56%) presented with fever, whereas five pregnant women (6.41%) had experienced abortion. None (0%) of the participants has been vaccinated against RUBV. Findings from this study suggest that RUBV is prevalent in Congolese pregnant women. Further research is required to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of RUBV in order to design a rational rubella surveillance and control program in DRC.

  12. Measles, Rubella, Mumps and Hepatitis B Seroprevalence among the Female Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhusen Kutlu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: Measles, rubella, mumps and viral hepatitis is still a considerable health problem around the world. The risk of contamination of health care workers is higher related to occupational causes. The aim of the study was to research the measles, rubella, mumps and hepatitis B seroprevalence among the female students of Medical Faculty and to apply the vaccines whom need the vaccination. METHOD: This descriptive study was conducted among female students attending Meram Medical Faculty of Selcuk University. Age and sociodemographic characteristics of 351 female students who participated in the study were recorded on the prepared forms. Serum specific IgG levels for measles, rubella, mumps, HBsAg and anti HBs levels were measured in the serum patterns of the participants. Statistical analyses were perfor¬med using SPSS version 13.0. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 20.5 years (min=16.0, max=29.0. Measles, rubella, and mumps seropositivity were 91.6%, 97.2% and 93.5% respectively. Of the students, 0.7% (n=2 had HBs Ag seropositivity, 42.4% (n=149 had antiHBs seronegativity. The rates of the measles, rubella, and mumps seropositivity were very high among the female students. Sixty two female students (17.7% required the measles mumps rubella vaccine (MMR. One hundred forty nine female students who have antiHBs seronegativity needed hepatitis B vaccination. CONCLUSION: In order to eradicate measles, mumps, rubella it is necessary that use of MMR vaccine should be expanded nationwide rapidly by the Ministry of Health; the regulation should be revised to include the children born before 2005. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 549-556

  13. Measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccine responses in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Boohene, Paulina A; Mowrer, Anne; Audet, Susette; Menegus, Marilyn A; Schmid, D Scott; Beeler, Judy A

    2007-03-01

    Extremely preterm infants mount lower antibody responses than term infants to several vaccines. The objective of this study was to measure the immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines in preterm and term children. Immune status before immunization and immune response after immunization with measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines at 15 months of age were compared in 32 infants, 16 of whom were preterm ( or = 37 weeks' gestation) at birth. Blood was drawn before vaccination and 3 to 6 weeks thereafter. Measles antibody was measured by plaque reduction neutralization assay. Mumps and rubella immunoglobulin G were measured in available sera by enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay. Varicella immunoglobulin G was measured in available sera by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Values that were above or below the assay limits were assigned values double or half those limits, respectively. The primary outcome was the geometric mean antibody titer. Preterm children had lower mumps and rubella geometric mean titers than did term children before vaccine, and nearly all children were seronegative for each of the 4 vaccine antigens before immunization. Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella geometric mean titers were similar between groups after vaccine. All children were seropositive for measles after vaccine, whereas 13 of 14 preterm and 11 of 13 term children were seropositive for mumps, 13 of 14 preterm and 13 of 13 term children were seropositive for rubella, and 11 of 16 preterm and 9 of 15 term children were seropositive for varicella. Preterm children mounted antibody responses that were similar to those of term children after measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines at 15 months of age.

  14. Biology and pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Adolfo; Botero, Javier Enrique; Slots, Jørgen

    2014-02-01

    Human periodontitis is associated with a wide range of bacteria and viruses and with complex innate and adaptive immune responses. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses are major suspected pathogens of periodontitis, and a combined herpesvirus-bacterial periodontal infection can potentially explain major clinical features of the disease. Cytomegalovirus infects periodontal macrophages and T-cells and elicits a release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. These proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the host defense against the virus, but they also have the potential to induce alveolar bone resorption and loss of periodontal ligament. Gingival fibroblasts infected with cytomegalovirus also exhibit diminished collagen production and release of an increased level of matrix metalloproteinases. This article reviews innate and adaptive immunity to cytomegalovirus and suggests that immune responses towards cytomegalovirus can play roles in controlling, as well as in exacerbating, destructive periodontal disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Infection by cytomegalovirus in patients with neonatal cholestasis Infecção por cytomegalovirus em pacientes com colestase neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Léia Gelle de OLIVEIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Neonatal cholestasis syndrome with an intra or extrahepatic origin has been associated to viral infections. The participation of the cytomegalovirus in the etiopathogenesis of neonatal hepatitis has been already known for some time, but only recently there have been indications that this virus may be one of the possible etiological factors for extrahepatic biliary atresia. Aims - To assess the prevalence of infection by cytomegalovirus in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis. To compare the clinical characteristics of the intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis groups with the cytomegalovirus serological results. Patients and Methods - This study consisted of 76 patients with neonatal cholestasis who were admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 when they underwent a cytomegalovirus serologic study using the ELISA method. A case note was kept on each patient with the following data: age of patient at admission, serologic result for cytomegalovirus, history of maternal infection, prematurity, fetal distress, birth weight, ponderal gain, choluria and fecal acholia. The final anatomic diagnosis of cholestasis was based on the results of an abdominal ultrasonography, a liver biopsy and its evolution. The patients were then divided into two groups: group I - intrahepatic cholestasis and group II - extrahepatic cholestasis. Each of these groups were then divided into two subgroups: subgroup A - positive serology (IgM for cytomegalovirus and subgroup B - negative serology (IgM for cytomegalovirus. Results - The frequency of positive serology (IgM for cytomegalovirus was 29.4% in children with intrahepatic cholestasis and 28.5% in children with extrahepatic cholestasis. In comparison with group IIB, group IIA presented a higher rate of maternal infection history. The patients in group IIA demonstrated a delayed access to the service in comparison with group IA. The groups did not

  16. Women's attitudes toward practicing cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M

    2016-12-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18-40 years of age, who had a child < 5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1%) reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.

  17. Women's attitudes toward practicing cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Thackeray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18–40 years of age, who had a child <5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1% reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.

  18. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin After Thoracic Transplantation: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo; Mohacsi, Paul; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Potena, Luciano

    2016-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly complex pathogen which, despite modern prophylactic regimens, continues to affect a high proportion of thoracic organ transplant recipients. The symptomatic manifestations of CMV infection are compounded by adverse indirect effects induced by the multiple immunomodulatory actions of CMV. These include a higher risk of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation, and potentially bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients, with a greater propensity for opportunistic secondary infections. Prophylaxis for CMV using antiviral agents (typically oral valganciclovir or intravenous ganciclovir) is now almost universal, at least in high-risk transplants (D+/R-). Even with extended prophylactic regimens, however, challenges remain. The CMV events can still occur despite antiviral prophylaxis, including late-onset infection or recurrent disease, and patients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection or who are intolerant to antiviral therapy require alternative strategies. The CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and antiviral agents have complementary modes of action. High-titer CMVIG preparations provide passive CMV-specific immunity but also exert complex immunomodulatory properties which augment the antiviral effect of antiviral agents and offer the potential to suppress the indirect effects of CMV infection. This supplement discusses the available data concerning the immunological and clinical effects of CMVIG after heart or lung transplantation.

  19. Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderholm, KM; Bierle, CJ; Schleiss, MR

    2017-01-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can result in in severe and permanent neurological injury in newborns, and vaccine development is accordingly a major public health priority. HCMV can also cause disease in solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, and a vaccine would be valuable in prevention of viremia and end-organ disease in these populations. Currently there is no licensed HCMV vaccine, but progress toward this goal has been made in recent clinical trials. A recombinant HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) vaccine has been shown to have some efficacy in prevention of infection in young women and adolescents, and provided benefit to HCMV-seronegative SOT recipients. Similarly, DNA vaccines based on gB and the immunodominant T-cell target, pp65 (ppUL83), have been shown to reduce viremia in HSCT patients. This review provides an overview of HCMV vaccine candidates in various stages of development, as well as an update on the current status of ongoing clinical trials. Protective correlates of vaccine-induced immunity may be different for pregnant woman and transplant patients. As more knowledge emerges about correlates of protection, the ultimate licensure of HCMV vaccines may reflect the uniqueness of the target populations being immunized. PMID:27882457

  20. Human Cytomegalovirus Manipulation of Latently Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, John H.; Reeves, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in the establishment of a lifelong infection of the host which is aided by the ability of HCMV to undergo a latent infection. One site of HCMV latency in vivo is in haematopoietic progenitor cells, resident in the bone marrow, with genome carriage and reactivation being restricted to the cells of the myeloid lineage. Until recently, HCMV latency has been considered to be relatively quiescent with the virus being maintained essentially as a “silent partner” until conditions are met that trigger reactivation. However, advances in techniques to study global changes in gene expression have begun to show that HCMV latency is a highly active process which involves expression of specific latency-associated viral gene products which orchestrate major changes in the latently infected cell. These changes are argued to help maintain latent infection and to modulate the cellular environment to the benefit of latent virus. In this review, we will discuss these new findings and how they impact not only on our understanding of the biology of HCMV latency but also how they could provide tantalising glimpses into mechanisms that could become targets for the clearance of latent HCMV. PMID:24284875

  1. Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Udenenwu, Henry Chukwuebuka

    2016-01-01

    Rubella cases are often under-reported, especially in many developing countries, owing to inadequate attention and weak funding of elimination strategies, despite being an epidemic-prone disease. Based on available data, this paper, therefore, seeks to bring the attention of public health practitioners, researchers and policy makers to threats of rubella in our environment, and also recommend measures to mitigate the threats. The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which the laboratory results of febrile-rash-illness cases in Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were analysed, using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. We obtained the data set through the routine Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Response being conducted in Nigeria. A total of 413 febrile-rash-illness cases were reported and investigated in Kebbi State from 2014 to 2015, 5 (3.5%) tested positive for rubella IgM in 2014 while 7(2.6%) tested positive in 2015. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella between 2014 and 2015 (p> 0.05). Rubella infection was mainly found in children less than 5 years of age with peak incidence period during the hot season (between February and April). There was no significant sex bias in this study. However, our practice experiences in this environment suggest a systematic under-reporting and under-diagnosis of febrile- rash-illnesses. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella in children in our setting for the 2-years studied. However, there is a potential for increase in the transmission of the disease due to non-availability of routine childhood vaccination against rubella and the systematic under-reporting of suspected cases and weak laboratory support. In order to better appreciate the burden of rubella infection, there may be a need to undertake a prevalence survey, and simultaneously, strengthening case

  2. Premorbid Anomalies and Risk of Schizophrenia and Depressive Disorders in a Birth Cohort Exposed to Prenatal Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Justin D.; Brown, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    In a birth cohort prenatally exposed to rubella, we assessed whether prospectively documented premorbid neuromotor dysfunction, mannerisms, deviant behaviors, and temperament during childhood and adolescence were impaired in cases who developed depressive disorder (DD) relative to rubella-exposed controls and cases who developed schizophrenia…

  3. Is birth cohort 1985/9–1990/8 a susceptibility window for congenital rubella syndrome in Taiwan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Li Lin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The previous vaccination policy in Taiwan has created a susceptibility window for rubella and congenital rubella syndrome over the past decades. We recommend having the antibody test before pregnancy for women born between September 1985 and August 1990, and implement a catch-up vaccine for those who were either seronegative or equivocal to prevent reinfection during their childbearing period.

  4. De eerste pasgeborene met congenitaal rubellasyndroom tijdens de rubella-epidemie in Nederland in 2004-'05

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.C. de; Vrancken, S.L.A.G.; Eggink, A.J.; Verduyn Lunel, F.M.; Warris, A.

    2006-01-01

    A newborn male was diagnosed with congenital rubella syndrome. His 31-year-old mother had had erythematous exanthema during a period of amenorrhea lasting 7 weeks; she was not vaccinated and had never had a rubella infection. The infection was confirmed serologically. The mother gave birth to an

  5. Characterization of rubella-specific humoral immunity following two doses of MMR vaccine using proteome microarray technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Gibson, Michael J.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Warner, Nathaniel D.; Grill, Diane E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction//Background The lack of standardization of the currently used commercial anti-rubella IgG antibody assays leads to frequent misinterpretation of results for samples with low/equivocal antibody concentration. The use of alternative approaches in rubella serology could add new information leading to a fuller understanding of rubella protective immunity and neutralizing antibody response after vaccination. Methods We applied microarray technology to measure antibodies to all rubella virus proteins in 75 high and 75 low rubella virus-specific antibody responders after two MMR vaccine doses. These data were used in multivariate penalized logistic regression modeling of rubella-specific neutralizing antibody response after vaccination. Results We measured antibodies to all rubella virus structural proteins (i.e., the glycoproteins E1 and E2 and the capsid C protein) and to the non-structural protein P150. Antibody levels to each of these proteins were: correlated with the neutralizing antibody titer (prubella virus-specific neutralizing antibody titers (misclassification error = 0.2). Conclusion Our study supports the use of this new technology, as well as the use of antibody profiles/patterns (rather than single antibody measures) as biomarkers of neutralizing antibody response and correlates of protective immunity in rubella virus serology. PMID:29145521

  6. Transitioning Lessons Learned and Assets of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to Global and Regional Measles and Rubella Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L

    2017-07-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Characterizing the dynamics of rubella relative to measles: the role of stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnova, Ganna; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2013-11-06

    Rubella is a completely immunizing and mild infection in children. Understanding its behaviour is of considerable public health importance because of congenital rubella syndrome, which results from infection with rubella during early pregnancy and may entail a variety of birth defects. The recurrent dynamics of rubella are relatively poorly resolved, and appear to show considerable diversity globally. Here, we investigate the behaviour of a stochastic seasonally forced susceptible-infected-recovered model to characterize the determinants of these dynamics and illustrate patterns by comparison with measles. We perform a systematic analysis of spectra of stochastic fluctuations around stable attractors of the corresponding deterministic model and compare them with spectra from full stochastic simulations in large populations. This approach allows us to quantify the effects of demographic stochasticity and to give a coherent picture of measles and rubella dynamics, explaining essential differences in the recurrent patterns exhibited by these diseases. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of vaccination and changing birth rates as well as the persistence of these two childhood infections.

  8. Rubella antibody screening during pregnancy in an urban area of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Paschale

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Various countries have implemented anti-rubella vaccination campaigns with the main aim of preventing congenital infection. In 2003, Italy joined the European WHO programme for the elimination of congenital rubella and issued a special healthcare plan, one of the objectives of which was to reduce the proportion of rubella-susceptible pregnant women to less than 5% by 2005. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of seronegative pregnant women after the implementation of this plan. Anti-rubella IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 2385 pregnant women who attended our hospital for serological screening between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2010. They included 750 women of foreign origin (31.4%. Eight percent of the women were anti-rubella seronegative: 6.2% of the Italians and 11.7% of the non-Italians. Among the women of foreign origin, the percentage of seronegativity ranged from 5.6% of those coming from Eastern Europe to 17.7% of those coming from Latin America. The level of seropositivity among women of Italian origin is high, although the objective of ensuring less than 5% of susceptible pregnant women has not yet been quite reached in our area. However, particular attention needs to be given to women coming from geographical areas characterised by different epidemiologies and vaccination strategies because the percentage of seronegativity is in some cases double that of Italian women.

  9. Characterizing the dynamics of rubella relative to measles: the role of stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnova, Ganna; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2013-01-01

    Rubella is a completely immunizing and mild infection in children. Understanding its behaviour is of considerable public health importance because of congenital rubella syndrome, which results from infection with rubella during early pregnancy and may entail a variety of birth defects. The recurrent dynamics of rubella are relatively poorly resolved, and appear to show considerable diversity globally. Here, we investigate the behaviour of a stochastic seasonally forced susceptible–infected–recovered model to characterize the determinants of these dynamics and illustrate patterns by comparison with measles. We perform a systematic analysis of spectra of stochastic fluctuations around stable attractors of the corresponding deterministic model and compare them with spectra from full stochastic simulations in large populations. This approach allows us to quantify the effects of demographic stochasticity and to give a coherent picture of measles and rubella dynamics, explaining essential differences in the recurrent patterns exhibited by these diseases. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of vaccination and changing birth rates as well as the persistence of these two childhood infections. PMID:24026472

  10. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa A. Alsibiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM, rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6% were immune (IgG positive; the remaining 866 (8.4% were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years and the oldest age group (40–49 years (P=0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7. Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6% but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection.

  11. [Simulating measles and rubella elimination levels according to social stratification and interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina-Giraldo, Juan; Gómez-Arias, Rubén D; Uyi-Afuwape, Anthony; Chowell-Puente, Gerardo

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed at comparing measles and rubella disease elimination levels in a homogeneous and heterogeneous population according to socioeconomic status with interactions amongst low- and high-income individuals and diversity in the average number of contacts amongst them. Effective reproductive rate simulations were deduced from a susceptibleinfected- recovered (SIR) mathematical model according to different immunisation rates using measles (1980 and 2005) and rubella (1998 and 2005) incidence data from Latin-America and the Caribbean. Low- and high-income individuals' social interaction and their average number of contacts were analysed by bipartite random network analysis. MAPLE 12 (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada) software was used for making the simulations. The progress made in eliminating both diseases between both periods of time was reproduced in the socially-homogeneous population. Measles (2005) would be eliminated in high- and low-income groups; however, it would only be achieved in rubella (2005) if there were a high immunity rate amongst the low-income group. If the average number of contacts were varied, then rubella would not be eliminated, even with a 95 % immunity rate. Monitoring the elimination level in diseases like measles and rubella requires that socio-economic status be considered as well as the population's interaction pattern. Special attention should be paid to communities having diversity in their average number of contacts occurring in confined spaces such as displaced communities, prisons, educational establishments, or hospitals.

  12. Difficulties in eliminating measles and controlling rubella and mumps: a cross-sectional study of a first measles and rubella vaccination and a second measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage of the measles-rubella (MR or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine is greater than 99.0% in Zhejiang province. However, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella remains high. In this study, we assessed MMR seropositivity and disease distribution by age on the basis of the current vaccination program, wherein the first dose of MR is administered at 8 months and the second dose of MMR is administered at 18-24 months. METHODS: Cross-sectional serological surveys of MMR antibodies were conducted by collecting epidemiological data in Zhejiang province, China in 2011. In total, 1015 participants were randomly selected from two surveillance sites. Serum MMR-specific immunoglobulin G levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The geometric mean titers and seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by age and gender. Proportions of different dose of vaccine by age by vaccine were also identified. Statistically significant differences between categories were assessed by the Chi-square test. RESULTS: Over 95% seroprevalence rates of measles were seen in all age groups except <7 months infants. Children aged 5-9 years were shown lower seropositivity rates of mumps while elder adolescences and young adults were presented lower rubella seroprevalence. Especially, rubella seropositivity was significantly lower in female adults than in male. Nine measles cases were unvaccinated or unknown vaccination history. Among them, 66.67% (6/9 patients were aged 20-29 years while 33.33% (3/9 were infants aged 8-12 months. In addition, 57.75% (648/1122 patients with mumps were children aged 5-9 years, and 50.54% (94/186 rubella cases were aged 15-39 years. CONCLUSIONS: A timely two-dose MMR vaccination schedule is recommended, with the first dose at 8 months and the second dose at 18-24 months. An MR vaccination speed-up campaign may be necessary for elder adolescents and young adults, particularly

  13. Rubella seroprevalence among primary and pre- primary school pupils at Moi's Bridge location, Uasin Gishu District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukei Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rubella is an infectious and generally mild childhood viral disease. The disease is of public health importance because infection acquired during early pregnancy often results in foetal abnormalities that are classified as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS. The burden of rubella infection in most developing countries in not well documented because of limited epidemiological data. However, availability of an effective vaccine has made it necessary to have all the countries with no routine vaccination schedule to evaluate the burden of disease in order to make informed decisions on rubella vaccination and strategy. To address this gap we conducted a study to determine age-specific rubella seroprevalence rates and related risk factors among primary and pre-primary school children in Uasin Gishu district, Moi's Bridge location of Kenya. Methods Subjects of the study were 498 pupils from seven primary schools aged 4–20 years. Questionnaire surveys with blood sampling were conducted between January to July 2005. Samples were tested for rubella specific IgG antibody using ELISA test kit (Enzygnost® Behring, Germany. Results Overall, rubella seropositivity rate was 80% and it increased with age from 59% (among ages 4–6 years to 94% (ages 14–20 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model, showed that age of child and ownership of a television set which is a proxy measure of socio-economic status of family were significantly associated with rubella seropositivity. The odds of rubella seropositivity in a child older than 13 years was more than that in children younger than 7 years (OR = 3.8 95% CI 2.56–5.78. The odds of rubella seropositivity in a child whose family did not own a television set was 3 times higher than that of child whose family owned a set (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.17–7.97. Conclusion The study provides important and highly useful information on rubella age specific seroprevalence rates in Kenya. Advancing

  14. Sero-positivity rate of rubella and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambe, Berno; Mirambo, Mariam M; Mshana, Stephen E; Massinde, Anthony N; Kidenya, Benson R; Michael, Denna; Morona, Domenica; Majinge, Charles; Groß, Uwe

    2014-03-03

    Sero-positivity rates of the rubella virus among pregnant women vary widely throughout the world. In Tanzania, rubella vaccination is not included in the national immunization schedule and there is therefore no antenatal screening for this viral disease. So far, there are no reports on the sero-prevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Tanzania. As a result, this study was undertaken to establish the sero-positivity rate of rubella and rubella risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. From November 2012 to May 2013 a total of 350 pregnant women were enrolled and their serum samples collected and analyzed using the AXSYM anti-rubella virus IgG/IgM-MEIA test. Demographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Data analysis was done using STATA version 12. Of 342 pregnant women tested for rubella antibodies, 317 (92.6%) were positive for anti-rubella IgG while only 1 (0.3%) was positive for IgM. Higher sero-positivity rates were found in the age group of 25-44 years. Furthermore, it was observed that with each year increase in age, the risk of contracting rubella increases by 12% (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22, P = 0.019). Women involved in farming and business women were at a higher risk of contracting rubella infection compared to formally employed women (OR: 4.9, P = 0.011; OR 7.1, p = 0.003 respectively). In univariate analysis, the risk of contracting rubella virus infection was found to increase with gestational age with a statistical significance. Sero-positivity rates of rubella are high in Mwanza and are significantly associated with an increase in age and being a farmer or a business woman. Screening of rubella and immunization of women at risk are highly recommended in this area with a high non-immune rate against rubella virus.

  15. Acute cytomegalovirus infection complicated by venous thrombosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parola Philippe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CMV-induced vasculopathy and thrombosis have been reported, but they are rare conditions usually encountered in immunocompromised patients. However more and more complications of CMV infections are recognized in immunocompetent patients. Case presentation We present a case report of a previously healthy adult with cytomegalovirus infection that was complicated by tibiopopliteal deep venous thrombosis and in whom Factor V Leiden heterozygous mutation was found. Conclusion This new case report emphasizes the involvement of cytomegalovirus in induction of vascular thrombosis in patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombosis. It is necessary to screen for CMV infection in patients with spontaneous thrombosis and an history of fever.

  16. Acute cytomegalovirus infection complicated by venous thrombosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovery, Clarisse; Granel, Brigitte; Parola, Philippe; Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background CMV-induced vasculopathy and thrombosis have been reported, but they are rare conditions usually encountered in immunocompromised patients. However more and more complications of CMV infections are recognized in immunocompetent patients. Case presentation We present a case report of a previously healthy adult with cytomegalovirus infection that was complicated by tibiopopliteal deep venous thrombosis and in whom Factor V Leiden heterozygous mutation was found. Conclusion This new case report emphasizes the involvement of cytomegalovirus in induction of vascular thrombosis in patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombosis. It is necessary to screen for CMV infection in patients with spontaneous thrombosis and an history of fever. PMID:16098229

  17. [Immunomonitoring for cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplantation: Development and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Hannah; Couzi, Lionel; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Merville, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplantation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality through direct and indirect effects. International guidelines had been recently updated, focusing on diagnostic, prevention strategies and curative treatment. Cytomegalovirus-specific immune response plays also an important function in controlling the virus. Here, we propose to present the different components of this specific immune response and the advantages of immune monitoring for patient's management: identification of patients who require a treatment, adaptation of curative treatment length, guidance for resistance genotypic testing. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of measles-rubella combined vaccine in school-entry-aged subjects with naturally acquired measles immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takuji; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nagata, Nobuo; Kamiya, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The reintroduction of measles-rubella combined (MR) vaccination to Japan raised concerns about adverse events as well as immunogenicity related to booster immunization in subjects with naturally acquired immunity to measles or rubella. The time course of reactogenicity and antibody responses in recipients with pre-existing immunity to measles through natural infection was observed. Eighteen children aged 80-104 months received MR booster vaccination; 16 of them had had previous rubella vaccination. There were virtually no clinical reactions related to booster vaccination, and a highly significant antibody response to rubella antigen, whereas the antibody rise to measles was statistically significant but poor. Vaccination of individuals already immune is not harmful. Booster immunization to rubella for Japanese children is vitally important. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  20. Assembly, maturation and three-dimensional helical structure of the teratogenic rubella virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Mangala Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections during pregnancy are a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Of these, rubella virus infection is a well-substantiated example that leads to miscarriages or severe fetal defects. However, structural information about the rubella virus has been lacking due to the pleomorphic nature of the virions. Here we report a helical structure of rubella virions using cryo-electron tomography. Sub-tomogram averaging of the surface spikes established the relative positions of the viral glycoproteins, which differed from the earlier icosahedral models of the virus. Tomographic analyses of in vitro assembled nucleocapsids and virions provide a template for viral assembly. Comparisons of immature and mature virions show large rearrangements in the glycoproteins that may be essential for forming the infectious virions. These results present the first known example of a helical membrane-enveloped virus, while also providing a structural basis for its assembly and maturation pathway.

  1. Assembly, maturation and three-dimensional helical structure of the teratogenic rubella virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala Prasad, Vidya; Klose, Thomas; Rossmann, Michael G

    2017-06-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy are a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Of these, rubella virus infection is a well-substantiated example that leads to miscarriages or severe fetal defects. However, structural information about the rubella virus has been lacking due to the pleomorphic nature of the virions. Here we report a helical structure of rubella virions using cryo-electron tomography. Sub-tomogram averaging of the surface spikes established the relative positions of the viral glycoproteins, which differed from the earlier icosahedral models of the virus. Tomographic analyses of in vitro assembled nucleocapsids and virions provide a template for viral assembly. Comparisons of immature and mature virions show large rearrangements in the glycoproteins that may be essential for forming the infectious virions. These results present the first known example of a helical membrane-enveloped virus, while also providing a structural basis for its assembly and maturation pathway.

  2. Prevalence of rubella IgG antibodies among pregnant women in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amina, Mohammed-Durosinlorun; Oladapo, Shittu; Habib, Sadauki; Adebola, Olayinka; Bimbo, Kolawole; Daniel, Adejo

    2010-06-01

    Rubella is a vaccine-preventable viral infection which in pregnancy can lead to foetal wastage and congenital malformations. A rubella IgG serosurvey of 430 consenting pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic was conducted at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria between 1 May 2007 and 29 February 2008. Questionnaires were also used to assess their level of awareness and pregnancy outcomes noted. Of the 430 serum samples tested, 421 (97.9%) were positive and 9 (2.1%) were negative for rubella IgG antibody. Differences in sociodemographic factors were of little significance between the groups and awareness of the infection was low. This high prevalence suggests that a sustained viral circulation exists in children and infection occurs early in infancy hence a high level of immunity exists in pregnant women with low levels of complications. In the absence of mass vaccination, all seronegative women should be vaccinated after delivery.

  3. Rubella associated with hemophagocytic syndrome. First report in a male and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram Koubaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever, skin rash and epistaxis. Physical examination revealed fever (39.5°C, generalized purpura, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Blood tests showed pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hemophagocytosis with no evidence of malignant cells. Anti rubella IgM antibody were positif and the IgG titers increased from 16 to 50 UI/mL in 3 days. Therefore, he was diagnosed to have rubella-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. We report herein the first case in a man and the sixth case of rubella-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature by search in Pub Med till March 2012.

  4. Rat pancreatic beta cells and cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelt, Maaike J; Faas, Marijke M; de Haan, Bart J; Hofstede, Jeroen; Cheung, Chi-Wai; van der Iest, Hanna; de Haan, Aalzen; de Vos, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been suggested to accelerate beta-cell destruction and thereby to contribute to new-onset diabetes and failure of islet allografts in both humans and rodents. Surprisingly, direct CMV infection of beta cells has received only minor attention. Therefore, we investigated the susceptibility of rat beta cells for rat CMV (RCMV) infection and the direct effects on the regulation of immune cell-activating ligands. Primary rat beta cells, the rat beta-cell line Rin-m5F, and fibroblasts were RCMV-infected in vitro. The viral gene and protein expression levels were determined as a measure for RCMV susceptibility. Gene expression levels of intracellular adhesion molecule 1, lymphocyte function associated antigen 3, rat major histocompatibility complex region A, rat major histocompatibility complex region E, toll like receptor 2, and clustered domain 14 were determined as a measure for cellular immunogenicity. We demonstrate that beta cells are susceptible for RCMV infection but allow only low levels of viral gene expression. In contrast, infected fibroblasts demonstrated productive viral infection and formation of viral progeny. After RCMV infection, beta-cell immunogenicity was markedly increased, as demonstrated by the increased cellular expression of immune cell-activating ligands. Direct beta-cell infection by RCMV and subsequent low-grade viral gene expression may lead to increased immunogenicity of native or transplanted beta cells in vivo. An infection-induced enhanced beta-cell recognizability may have important consequences for beta-cell survival and the development of diabetes or rejection of islet grafts.

  5. Results of the rubella elimination program in Catalonia (Spain), 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabeig, Irene; Torner, Nuria; Martínez, Ana; Carmona, Gloria; Ciruela, Pilar; Batalla, Joan; Costa, Josep; Hernández, Sergi; Salleras, Luis; Domínguez, Angela

    2013-03-01

    Rubella is usually a mild disease with nonspecific symptoms, but can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when infection occurs during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and positive predictive value of different data sources used for surveillance purposes in the Rubella Elimination Program of Catalonia between 2002 and 2011. The Urgent Notification to the Statutory Disease Reporting System, the Individualized Disease Reporting System, screening for other viruses included in the Measles Elimination Program, the Microbiological Reporting System and the Minimum Hospital Discharge Data were evaluated. 100 suspected cases of postnatal rubella and 6 suspected cases of CRS were detected. For postnatal rubella, Urgent Notification had the highest sensitivity (32.5%; 95%CI 18.6-49.1), followed by the Virus screening in Measles Elimination Program (25%; 95%CI 12.7-41.2). Virus screening in the Measles Elimination Program had the highest PPV (76.9%; 95%CI 46.1-94.9), followed by the Individualized Disease Reporting System (57.1%; 95%CI 28.9-82.3). For CRS cases, the Individualized Disease Reporting System had the highest sensitivity (100%, 95%CI 29.2-100) and the highest PPV (60%; 95%CI 14.7-100). Most confirmed postnatal cases (25 cases, 48.1%) were in the 25-44 y age group followed by the 15-24 y age group (11 cases, 21.2%). The highest values of sensitivity and PPV for the detection of confirmed cases corresponded to activities that were specifically introduced in the measles and rubella elimination programs.

  6. Results of the rubella elimination program in Catalonia (Spain), 2002–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabeig, Irene; Torner, Nuria; Martínez, Ana; Carmona, Gloria; Ciruela, Pilar; Batalla, Joan; Costa, Josep; Hernández, Sergi; Salleras, Luis; Domínguez, Angela; Group of Catalonia, the Rubella Surveillance

    2013-01-01

    Rubella is usually a mild disease with nonspecific symptoms, but can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when infection occurs during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and positive predictive value of different data sources used for surveillance purposes in the Rubella Elimination Program of Catalonia between 2002 and 2011. The Urgent Notification to the Statutory Disease Reporting System, the Individualized Disease Reporting System, screening for other viruses included in the Measles Elimination Program, the Microbiological Reporting System and the Minimum Hospital Discharge Data were evaluated. 100 suspected cases of postnatal rubella and 6 suspected cases of CRS were detected. For postnatal rubella, Urgent Notification had the highest sensitivity (32.5%; 95%CI 18.6–49.1), followed by the Virus screening in Measles Elimination Program (25%; 95%CI 12.7-41.2). Virus screening in the Measles Elimination Program had the highest PPV (76.9%; 95%CI 46.1–94.9), followed by the Individualized Disease Reporting System (57.1%; 95%CI 28.9–82.3). For CRS cases, the Individualized Disease Reporting System had the highest sensitivity (100%, 95%CI 29.2–100) and the highest PPV (60%; 95%CI 14.7–100). Most confirmed postnatal cases (25 cases, 48.1%) were in the 25–44 y age group followed by the 15–24 y age group (11 cases, 21.2%). The highest values of sensitivity and PPV for the detection of confirmed cases corresponded to activities that were specifically introduced in the measles and rubella elimination programs. PMID:23299566

  7. Associations between SNPs in candidate immune-relevant genes and rubella antibody levels: a multigenic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsyannikova Inna G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms of immune response are structured within a highly complex regulatory system. Genetic associations with variation in the immune response to rubella vaccine have typically been assessed one locus at a time. We simultaneously assessed the associations between 726 SNPs tagging 84 candidate immune response genes and rubella-specific antibody levels. Blood samples were obtained from 714 school-aged children who had received two doses of MMR vaccine. Associations between rubella-specific antibody levels and 726 candidate tagSNPs were assessed both one SNP at a time and in a variety of multigenic analyses. Results Single-SNP assessments identified 4 SNPs that appeared to be univariately associated with rubella antibody levels: rs2844482 (p = 0.0002 and rs2857708 (p = 0.001 in the 5'UTR of the LTA gene, rs7801617 in the 5'UTR of the IL6 gene (p = 0.0005, and rs4787947 in the 5'UTR of the IL4R gene (p = 0.002. While there was not significant evidence in favor of epistatic genetic associations among the candidate SNPs, multigenic analyses identified 29 SNPs significantly associated with rubella antibody levels when selected as a group (p = 0.017. This collection of SNPs included not only those that were significant univariately, but others that would not have been identified if only considered in isolation from the other SNPs. Conclusions For the first time, multigenic assessment of associations between candidate SNPs and rubella antibody levels identified a broad number of genetic associations that would not have been deemed important univariately. It is important to consider approaches like those applied here in order to better understand the full genetic complexity of response to vaccination.

  8. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella - Vaccine Use and Strategies for Elimination of Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome and Control of Mumps: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Vol. 47/No. RR-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-22

    might present a barrier to timely vaccination. Routine testing for rubella antibody during clinic visits for routine health care, premarital 18...MMWR May 22,1998 evaluation, family planning, or diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted dis- eases may identify women who are not immune to... relationship be- tween MMR vaccination and various adverse events (149,150). The IOM determined that evidence establishes a causal relation between

  9. Modified measles versus rubella versus atypical measles: One and same thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In outbreak settings, more than one virus may be infecting the given population. In twin or triple outbreak of measles, German measles (rubella, and varicella in highly immunized hilly areas, maximal number of the case patients in all the hilly villages belonged to the older age group. It suggested an obvious shift to the higher age group, warranting second dose opportunity in such case scenario. The clinical presentations of viral diseases are too similar to differentiate. The aim is to clearly categorize the case patients of modified measles, rubella, and atypical measles in outbreak settings. Results: Four outbreaks are listed. In the first one, sixty case patients were identified from 1026 people in 5 villages. Of these, 41 were diagnosed by clinically, 8 were laboratory confirmed as measles and 11 were epidemiologically linked German measles case patients. Seventy percent of the cases were vaccinated for measles. In second case, we identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. In third one, we identified 116 cases in eight villages (112/116 clinically and 04/116 laboratory confirmed. Majority of cases were immunized against measles, but only minor cases for rubella. In fourth case, we identified 505 case patients from mixed outbreaks of varicella, measles and rubella (30/505 clinically, 467/505 epidemiologically linked and 8/505 laboratory confirmed case patients from a study population of 3280. In all the four outbreaks, prima facie, the clinical presentations of both rubella and modified measles were difficult to differentiate. Discussion: On the basis of outbreak investigation and analytical inference, it has been observed that the symtomatology of modified measles and laboratory confirmed rubella case patients/epidemiologically linked cases are so similar placed that many a time, it becomes much difficult to line list the cases in one section of modified

  10. Incidence and risk of primary cytomegalovirus infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy remains a leading cause of congenital hearing loss and mental retardation worldwide. Most women acquired CMV infection horizontally from their infected children or younger children who were cross- infected at school or day care facilities. Over 90% of infected ...

  11. Cytomegalovirus infection in NICU admitted neonates in Boushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sanjideh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytomegalovirus is the most prevalent cause of congenital infections and the most important cause of congenital deafness. Which it's spread is about 0.64% of all birth which differ based on geolocation, race and socioeconomically situations. This proposal accomplished in the end of July until middle of February 2014 with the goal of studying Cytomegalovirus infection distribution among newborns who are hospitalized in Bushehr Shohadaye Khalij Fars hospital NICU. Material & Method: 80 urine samples were collected between July until February 2014 in NICU of Bushehr Khalij Fars hospitalized neonates. Samples were tested by PCR method on urine samples to find if they are infected by cytomegalovirus. Results: Mean age of neonates was 30.59±9.30 days. Only one newborn under 30 days had Cytomegalovirus and 11 cases older than 30 days had positive reaction. The relation between age and CMV seropositivity was statistically valid (p<0.05.this means only 1.2% of newborns are CMV and 55% are older than 1 month. Conclusion: The pattern of CMV seropositivity shows that most infections may be acquired from environment. According to low prevalence of congenital CMV infection, there is no need to introduce preventive methods and following present guidelines is enough.

  12. Molecular diagnostic of cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in most developing countries, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) are not diagnosed in blood donors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of these viruses in blood donors from the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods: the study included 198 ...

  13. Cytomegalovirus antibodies among healthy blood donors at Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is found worldwide in all geographical locations and socio-economic groups and is the virus most frequently transmitted to a developing child before birth. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for CMV antibodies among healthy blood donors at Lagos University ...

  14. Summary of the II International Symposium on Cytomegalovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M. D.; Galasso, G. J.; Gazzard, B.; Griffiths, P. D.; Jabs, D. A.; Kern, E. R.; Spector, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a highly species-specific DNA virus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily of the herpesviridae family. Like other herpesviruses, primary infection with HCMV is followed by persistence of the virus in a latent form. The sites of latency are still largely

  15. Cytomegalovirus : a culprit or protector in multiple sclerosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanheusden, Marjan; Stinissen, Piet; 't Hart, Bert A.; Hellings, Niels

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a beta herpes virus, may have a detrimental or beneficial role in MS pathology. Accumulating evidence indicates that CMV contributes to MS disease via interplay of different

  16. Prevalence and detection of cytomegalovirus by polymerase chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 327 women were screened, amongst them, 7 (2.14%) were cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibodies against toxoplasma were also detected in 106 (32.41%) women, while 54 (16.51%) were anti CMV positive. Eleven (3.36%) and thirteen (3.97%) women were anti HSV ...

  17. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: review of the epidemiology and outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaytant, M.A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Semmekrot, B.A.; Merkus, J.M.W.M.; Galama, J.M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common viral causes of congenital infection. A future decision to lower its incidence by vaccination will depend on epidemiological conditions within a country and on the safety of the vaccine to be used, because a life vaccine may cause latency and

  18. Successful treatment of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus, the largest in the Herpesvirus family. CMV disease in adults usually arises from reactivation of latent infection acquired in childhood, individuals with impaired cell mediated immunity are at risk: organ transplant recipients, individuals on chemotherapy or other ...

  19. Cytomegalovirus infections among low birth weight infants in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of congenital infections, which can lead to severe foetal anomalies or even foetal loss. In order to determine the incidence of congenital HCMV infection in low birth weight neonates and the most prevalent genotype, cord blood samples were collected from a ...

  20. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicki-Deverts, D.; Cohen, S.; Doyle, W.J.; Marsland, A.L.; Bosch, J.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different

  1. Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with intravitreal ganciclovir: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 60-year-old male on chemotherapy for multiple myeloma developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in one eye. He was commenced on intravenous ganciclovir. This regime had to be modified, however, in view of the fact that he had bone marrow neoplasia (multiple myeloma) and was on chemotherapy.

  2. Severe neonatal cytomegalovirus infection: about a case | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... organs of the reticulo endothelial and haematological system were reached while nervous system was spared, and CMV PCR was very positive. indicating an antiviral treatment for 6 weeks based on ganciclovir. Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, congenital infection, petechiae, intrauterine growth retardation, ganciclovir ...

  3. Sero-Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection among New -Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in newborn babies in our environment and hence the suitability of cord blood for stem cell transplantation. Methodology: Cord blood sera of 212 babies in the labour room of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) ...

  4. Topical ganciclovir treatment in patients with cytomegalovirus endotheliitis receiving penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chien-Chia; Wang, I-Jong; Chen, Wei-Li; Lin, Chang-Pin; His, Brian; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2013-01-01

    To report seven cases diagnosed as cytomegalovirus endotheliitis and treated with topical 2% ganciclovir following penetrating keratoplasty. A retrospectively comparative case series. A retrospective interventional case series, including seven eyes of seven patients with cytomegalovirus endotheliitis after penetrating keratoplasty. Clinical and immunological characteristics were studied in seven penetrating keratoplasty cases with positive quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for cytomegalovirus DNA from aqueous taps and treated with topical 2% ganciclovir. Clinical features and responses to topical 2% ganciclovir. Seven immunocompetent patients experienced acute anterior inflammation with graft oedema and pigmented keratic precipitates after penetrating keratoplasty. Their immunological profiles showed immunoglobulin G cytomegalovirus (+) and immunoglobulin M cytomegalovirus (-) in all cases. Topical 2% ganciclovir was prescribed every 2 to 3 h daily as induction therapy and every 4 h as long-term maintenance therapy. All cases had undetectable cytomegalovirus DNA after follow-up aqueous taps. Topical 2% ganciclovir preserved endothelium of cytomegalovirus-infected grafts at early stage and also provided a steady anticytomegalovirus environment for further regrafting in failed grafts at late stage. Acute inflammation reactivated in two cases and was suppressible by steroid under topical ganciclovir. No delayed re-epithelialization and any toxicity were observed. To date, no case treated in this way had displayed cytomegalovirus recurrence. Continuous topical 2% ganciclovir and a topical steroid adjusted by anterior inflammation are suggested after penetrating keratoplasty in all cases with cytomegalovirus endotheliitis to prevent cytomegalovirus recurrence. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  6. Seroprevalence of Anti-Rubella and Anti-Measles IgG Antibodies in Pregnant Women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: Outcomes of a Nationwide Measles-Rubella Mass Vaccination Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Behnam; Moghadami, Mohsen; Moattari, Afagh; Emami, Amir; Odoomi, Neda; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. Method This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran). Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. Result Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42) years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1–15.5), and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13–14.5). One hundred sixty-eight women (96%) had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL) of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7%) had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women’s age (P = 0.01), immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25). Conclusion Nearly a decade after Iran’s nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5–25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age. PMID:23383049

  7. Photodynamic inactivation of rubella virus enhances recombination with a latent virus of a baby hamster kidney cell line BHK21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro (Hahnemann Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Rubella virus is very sensitive to photodynamic action. When tested with 1.2 x 10{sup -5} M toluidine blue and 8 W fluorescent lamp at a fluence of 11 W/m{sup 2}, inactivation kinetics showed a linear single hit curve with a k value of 1.48 min{sup -1}. Photodynamic inactivation of rubella virus greatly enhanced recombination with a latent virus (R-virus) of baby hamster kidney BHK21 cells. In contrast, no hybrids were detected in lysates of the cells infected with either UV-treated or untreated rubella virus. Therefore, hybrid viruses were readily detected only in lysates of BHK21 cells infected with photodynamically treated rubella virus. Photodynamic damage of rubella virus genomes generated a new hybrid type (hybrid type 3) in addition to a previously described type 2 hybrid (formerly designated as HPV-RV variant). Although both of these hybrid types carry the CF antigens of rubella virus, plaque forming ability of type 3 hybrid is neutralized neither by anti-rubella serum nor by anti-latent virus serum while type 2 hybrid is neutralized by anti-latent virus serum. (author).

  8. Seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infections in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kolaric, Branko; Beader, Natasa; Vrtar, Izabela; Tabain, Irena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana

    2017-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is endemic worldwide, with marked differences in the seroprevalence rates between countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the seroprevalence of CMV infections in Croatia. During a 3-year period (2013-2015) 2438 consecutive serum samples collected from Croatian residents were tested for the presence of CMV IgM and IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The IgM/IgG positive samples were further tested for IgG avidity. The overall seroprevalence rates for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were 74.4 % and 4.3 %, respectively. The IgG seroprevalence showed significant differences between population groups: children/adolescents 54.6 %, general adult population 77.2 %, hemodialysis patients 91.4 % (p < 0.001). Seropositivity of CMV was strongly age-dependent with prevalences ranging from 53.0 % in children less than 10 years old to 93.8 % in persons above 60 years (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the prevalence rate between women with normal pregnancy and women with poor obstetric history. Gender and place of residence were not associated with CMV seropositivity. Using IgG avidity, current/recent primary CMV infection was confirmed by a low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 46.7 % participants, while in 53.3 % a high AI indicated CMV reactivation or reinfection. Primary infections were detected mainly in children and adolescents (83.2 % and 70.5 %, respectively), while reactivation/reinfection was common in persons older than 40 (77.0-100 %). Reactivation/reinfection was most commonly detected in hemodialysis patients (92.3 %). Logistic regression showed that older age and being on hemodialysis were significant predictors of CMV seropositivity. Infections with CMV are widespread in the Croatian population. Older age and being on hemodialysis appear to be the main risk factors for CMV infection.

  9. Topical Ganciclovir in Cytomegalovirus Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoun, Joelle; Willermain, François; Makhoul, Dorine; Motulsky, Elie; Caspers, Laure; Relvas, Lia Judice

    2017-05-01

    To study the effects of topical ganciclovir 0.15% gel on cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis in a tertiary uveitis referral center in Brussels, Belgium. A retrospective study of patients with a clinical diagnosis of CMV anterior uveitis/endotheliitis demonstrated by a positive polymerase chain reaction and/or Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWc). We report a series of 15 patients presenting clinical characteristics of CMV anterior uveitis. Patients had a pretreatment follow-up of 13.00 ± 12.78 months and a posttreatment follow-up of 42.64 ± 31.23 months. The 14 non-Asian patients (93.3%) had clinical characteristics of Posner-Schlossman syndrome, and the only Asian patient (6.7%) had keratic precipitates like Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. At presentation, uveitis was unilateral in all patients, visual acuity (VA) was 0.91 ± 0.25, and all patients had an increased intraocular pressure (IOP), with a mean IOP of 41.40 ± 10.35 mmHg. At the end of the follow-up, 5 patients (33.3%) had glaucoma, 2 needed glaucoma surgery (13.3%). The mean final VA was 0.93 ± 0.11; 13 patients (86.5%) reached a final VA of 0.7 to 1. Patients had a significantly lower number of recurrences/year posttreatment (0.76 ± 0.57) than in the pretreatment period (3.76 ± 2.44) (P = 0.001). The mean time to recurrence increased from 4.03 months before treatment to 12.58 months after treatment (P = 0.003). Our results suggest that patients treated with 0.15% topical ganciclovir have a decreased frequency of CMV anterior uveitis recurrences, most preserve a relatively good central vision over time. However, glaucoma is a frequent and severe complication.

  10. Valganciclovir for symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W; Jester, Penelope M; Sánchez, Pablo J; Ahmed, Amina; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Michaels, Marian G; Ashouri, Negar; Englund, Janet A; Estrada, Benjamin; Jacobs, Richard F; Romero, José R; Sood, Sunil K; Whitworth, M Suzanne; Abzug, Mark J; Caserta, Mary T; Fowler, Sandra; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge; Storch, Gregory A; DeBiasi, Roberta L; Han, Jin-Young; Palmer, April; Weiner, Leonard B; Bocchini, Joseph A; Dennehy, Penelope H; Finn, Adam; Griffiths, Paul D; Luck, Suzanne; Gutierrez, Kathleen; Halasa, Natasha; Homans, James; Shane, Andi L; Sharland, Michael; Simonsen, Kari; Vanchiere, John A; Woods, Charles R; Sabo, Diane L; Aban, Inmaculada; Kuo, Huichien; James, Scott H; Prichard, Mark N; Griffin, Jill; Giles, Dusty; Acosta, Edward P; Whitley, Richard J

    2015-03-05

    The treatment of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease with intravenous ganciclovir for 6 weeks has been shown to improve audiologic outcomes at 6 months, but the benefits wane over time. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of valganciclovir therapy in neonates with symptomatic congenital CMV disease, comparing 6 months of therapy with 6 weeks of therapy. The primary end point was the change in hearing in the better ear ("best-ear" hearing) from baseline to 6 months. Secondary end points included the change in hearing from baseline to follow-up at 12 and 24 months and neurodevelopmental outcomes, with each end point adjusted for central nervous system involvement at baseline. A total of 96 neonates underwent randomization, of whom 86 had follow-up data at 6 months that could be evaluated. Best-ear hearing at 6 months was similar in the 6-month group and the 6-week group (2 and 3 participants, respectively, had improvement; 36 and 37 had no change; and 5 and 3 had worsening; P=0.41). Total-ear hearing (hearing in one or both ears that could be evaluated) was more likely to be improved or to remain normal at 12 months in the 6-month group than in the 6-week group (73% vs. 57%, P=0.01). The benefit in total-ear hearing was maintained at 24 months (77% vs. 64%, P=0.04). At 24 months, the 6-month group, as compared with the 6-week group, had better neurodevelopmental scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition, on the language-composite component (P=0.004) and on the receptive-communication scale (P=0.003). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 19% of the participants during the first 6 weeks. During the next 4.5 months of the study, grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 21% of the participants in the 6-month group and in 27% of those in the 6-week group (P=0.64). Treating symptomatic congenital CMV disease with valganciclovir for 6 months, as compared with 6 weeks, did not improve hearing in the short term

  11. Peptide inhibition of human cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Cindy A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most prevalent congenital viral infection in the United States and Europe causing significant morbidity and mortality to both mother and child. HCMV is also an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- infected patients with AIDS, and solid organ and allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. Current treatments for HCMV-associated diseases are insufficient due to the emergence of drug-induced resistance and cytotoxicity, necessitating novel approaches to limit HCMV infection. The aim of this study was to develop therapeutic peptides targeting glycoprotein B (gB, a major glycoprotein of HCMV that is highly conserved across the Herpesviridae family, that specifically inhibit fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane preventing HCMV entry and infection. Results Using the Wimley-White Interfacial Hydrophobicity Scale (WWIHS, several regions within gB were identified that display a high potential to interact with lipid bilayers of cell membranes and hydrophobic surfaces within proteins. The ability of synthetic peptides analogous to WWIHS-positive sequences of HCMV gB to inhibit viral infectivity was evaluated. Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF were infected with the Towne-GFP strain of HCMV (0.5 MOI, preincubated with peptides at a range of concentrations (78 nm to 100 μM, and GFP-positive cells were visualized 48 hours post-infection by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed quantitatively by flow cytometry. Peptides that inhibited HCMV infection demonstrated different inhibitory concentration curves indicating that each peptide possesses distinct biophysical properties. Peptide 174-200 showed 80% inhibition of viral infection at a concentration of 100 μM, and 51% and 62% inhibition at concentrations of 5 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. Peptide 233-263 inhibited infection by 97% and 92% at concentrations of 100

  12. Reducing global disease burden of measles and rubella: Report of the WHO Steering Committee on research related to measles and rubella vaccines and vaccination, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Claude P.; Best, Jennifer M.; Dourado, Maria Inês Costa; Triki, Henda; Reef, Susan

    2007-01-01

    RESTRITO The WHO Steering Committee reviewed and evaluated the progress towards global control of measles and rubella and provided guidelines for future research activities concerning both diseases during its meeting in New Delhi, in April 2005. Global measles vaccination coverage increased from 71% in 1999 to 76% in 2004 and indigenous transmission was interrupted or kept at very low levels in many countries. However, Africa and Southeast Asia continue to experience endemic trans...

  13. Effects of campaign for postpartum vaccination on seronegative rate against rubella among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Mochizuki, Junko; Hanaoka, Masachi; Hashimoto, Eriko; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Ito, Mika; Kubo, Takahiko; Nakai, Akihito; Saito, Shigeru; Unno, Nobuya; Matsubara, Shigeki; Minakami, Hisanori

    2014-03-21

    Japan experienced two rubella outbreaks in the past decade (2004 and 2012-2013), resulting in 10 and 20 infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), respectively. This study was performed to determine whether the seronegative rate was lower in multiparous women than in primiparous women in Japan. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test results during pregnancy were analyzed retrospectively in 11048 primiparous and 9315 multiparous women who gave birth at six hospitals in northern Japan in the 5-year study period (January 2008 through December 2012). Women with HI titer rubella. The seronegative rate was significantly lower in multiparous than primiparous women aged 30 - 31 years (2.3% [22/967] vs. 4.5% [66/1454], P  =  0.0036), 36 - 37 years (3.4% [55/1601] vs. 5.7% [79/1389], P  =  0.0030), and overall women (3.8% [350/9315] aged 34.7  ±  5.2 vs. 5.4% [597/11048] for 33.2  ±  5.9, P  rubella vaccination programs were insufficient to eliminate CRS.

  14. Serologic survey of rubella virus igG in an African obstetric population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of rubella infection in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 345 consecutive and consenting antenatal attendees at Aba, Southeastern Nigeria over the period 1 June – 1 September, 2012. A structured pretested questionnaire was used to collect and ...

  15. Lower transplacental antibody transport for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella zoster in very preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; Smits, Gaby P.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies, transported over the placenta during pregnancy, contribute to the protection of infants from infectious diseases during the first months of life. In term infants, this protection does not last until the first recommended measles-mumps-rubella vaccination at 14 months in the

  16. [Rubella seroprevalence in Tunisian childbearing women two years after vaccination program introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, M; Messadi, F; Fki, L; M, Zribi; Hammami, A; Karray, H

    2012-06-01

    Acquiring rubella during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy can lead to teratogenic effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of rubella vaccination strategy two years after its introduction in Tunisia in 2005. This study was conducted over two periods, 2000 and 2007-2008. A total of 15,776 childbearing women were enrolled in the sample. Serological studies were performed by using the ELISA method. Overall, rubella infection seroprevalence did not increase between 2000 and 2007-2008. Nevertheless, a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 78.2% in 2000 to 92% in 2007-2008 (P=0.006), was especially noted in the age group under 20 years. Seroprevalence did also statistically increase with parity in 2007-2008 from 77.4% in women without any parity to 89.8% in women with over three parities (P=0.01). Results improvements seem most likely due to mass vaccination campaign for girls aged from 13 to 18 years in 2005, and also routinely post-partum vaccination of seronegative pregnant women or women ignoring their rubella status. In the coming years, systematic selective immunization of 12-year-old schoolgirls who are not yet entering their prime childbearing years will achieve female population sufficient immunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The burden of congenital rubella syndrome in the Philippines: results from a retrospective assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lena Lopez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In line with the regional aim of eliminating rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, phased introduction of rubella-containing vaccines (RCV in the Philippines’ routine immunization programme began in 2010. We estimated the burden of CRS in the country before widespread nationwide programmatic RCV use. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review in four tertiary hospitals. Children born between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014 and identified as possible CRS cases based on the presence of one or more potential manifestations of CRS documented in hospital or clinic charts were reviewed. Cases that met the clinical case definition of CRS were classified as either confirmed (with laboratory confirmation or probable (without laboratory confirmation. Cases that did not fulfil the criteria for either confirmed or probable CRS were excluded from the analysis. Results: We identified 18 confirmed and 201 probable cases in this review. Depending on the hospital, the estimated incidence of CRS ranged from 30 to 233 cases per 100 000 live births. The estimated national burden of CRS was 20 to 31 cases per 100 000 annually. Discussion: This is the first attempt to assess the national CRS burden using in-country hospital data in the Philippines. Prospective surveillance for CRS and further strengthening of the ongoing measles-rubella surveillance are necessary to establish accurate estimates of the burden of CRS and the impact of programmatic RCV use in the future.

  18. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN RUBELLA RETINOPATHY: Correlation With Photoreceptor Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Danuta M; Wan, Sue Ling; Chew, Avenell L; Chelva, Enid; Tang, Ivy; Mackey, David A; Chen, Fred K

    2017-01-01

    To illustrate altered fundus autofluorescence in rubella retinopathy and to investigate their relationships with photoreceptor structure and function using multimodal imaging. The authors report four cases of rubella retinopathy aged 8, 33, 42, and 50 years. All patients had dilated clinical fundus examination; wide-field color photography; blue, green, and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Two patients also underwent microperimetry and adaptive optics imaging. En face optical coherence tomography, cone mosaic, and microperimetry were coregistered with autofluorescence images. The authors explored the structure-function correlation. All four patients had a "salt-and-pepper" appearance on dilated fundus examination and wide-field color photography. There were variable-sized patches of hypoautofluorescence on both blue and near-infrared excitation in all four patients. Wave-guiding cones were visible and retinal sensitivity was intact over these regions. There was no correlation between hypoautofluorescence and regions of attenuated ellipsoid and interdigitation zones. Hyperautofluorescent lesions were also noted and some of these were pseudo-vitelliform lesions. Patchy hypoautofluorescence on near-infrared excitation can be a feature of rubella retinopathy. This may be due to abnormal melanin production or loss of melanin within retinal pigment epithelium cells harboring persistent rubella virus infection. Preservation of the ellipsoid zone, wave-guiding cones, and retinal sensitivity within hypoautofluorescent lesions suggest that these retinal pigment epithelium changes have only mild impact on photoreceptor cell function.

  19. Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: rubella cases are often under-reported, especially in many developing countries, owing to inadequate attention and weak funding of elimination strategies, despite being an epidemic-prone disease. Based on available data, this paper, therefore, seeks to bring the attention of public health practitioners, ...

  20. Identification of Ocular and Auditory Manifestations of Congenital Rubella Syndrome in Mbingo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Jivraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS is a global cause of preventable hearing impairment, blindness, and intellectual impairment. The present study sought to identify ocular and auditory manifestations of CRS in school-aged children in Mbingo, Cameroon. Design. Cross sectional study. Subjects. Students at two schools, one for children with hearing impairment, were screened for cataract, congenital glaucoma, and pigmentary retinopathy. Methods. Students underwent seven-field digital fundus photography through a dilated pupil using a Topcon NW200 nonmydriatic camera. Images were assessed by retina specialists in Canada via teleophthalmology. Clinical evidence was integrated to form case definitions for CRS based on Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Serological evidence of rubella infection was obtained using standardized IgG antibody titers. Main Outcome Measure. Number of probable and suspicious cases of CRS. Results. Between September 2009 and May 2010, 320 students participated. There were 28 (10.2% probable cases, 104 (37.8% suspects, and 143 (52.0% unaffected. Rubella IgG serology was positive in 79 (48.7% of children with hearing impairment and 11 (7.4% of children with normal hearing. Conclusions. The present study identified 28 probable cases of CRS. Furthermore, 92.6% of students with normal hearing did not possess rubella IgG antibodies making future cases of CRS likely without intervention.

  1. Safety of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Pileggi, Gecilmara C S; Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Evelien; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A H; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Kuis, Wietse; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: A retrospective observational multicentre cohort study was performed in 314 patients with JIA, born between 1989 and 1996. Disease

  2. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T

  3. Analysis of the Diluents Used for Rubella Virus Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition Tests1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, H. J.; Northrop, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    A new diluent (ADGP) for the rubella virus hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests is described. It was found that the HA and HI titers and the erythrocyte agglutination pattern were improved in ADGP compared to previously described diluents. The influence of the components of ADGP and of various test conditions on optimal HA and HI results were examined. PMID:5807157

  4. Measles and rubella vaccination coverage in Haiti, 2012: progress towards verifying and challenges to maintaining measles and rubella elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A.; François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Magloire, Roc; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Flannery, Brendan; Cavallaro, Kathleen F.; Fitter, David L.; Purcell, Nora; Dismer, Amber; Tappero, Jordan W.; Vertefeuille, John F.; Hyde, Terri B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a nationwide survey to assess measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverage among children aged 1–9 years in Haiti and identify factors associated with vaccination before and during the 2012 nationwide supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). Methods Haiti was stratified into five geographic regions (Metropolitan Port-au-Prince, North, Centre, South and West), 40 clusters were randomly selected in each region, and 35 households were selected per cluster. Results Among the 7000 visited households, 75.8% had at least one child aged 1–9 years; of these, 5279 (99.5%) households consented to participate in the survey. Of 9883 children enrolled, 91% received MCV before and/or during the SIA; 31% received MR for the first time during the SIA, and 50.7% received two doses of MCV (one before and one during the 2012 SIA). Among the 1685 unvaccinated children during the SIA, the primary reason of non-vaccination was caregivers not being aware of the SIA (31.0%). Children aged 1–4 years had significantly lower MR SIA coverage than those aged 5–9 years (79.5% vs. 84.8%) (P < 0.0001). A higher proportion of children living in the West (12.3%) and Centre (11.2%) regions had never been vaccinated than in other regions (4.8–9.1%). Awareness, educational level of the mother and region were significantly associated with MR vaccination during and before the SIA (P < 0.001). Conclusions The 2012 SIA successfully increased MR coverage; however, to maintain measles and rubella elimination, coverage needs to be further increased among children aged 1–4 years and in regions with lower coverage. PMID:25041586

  5. Measles and rubella vaccination coverage in Haiti, 2012: progress towards verifying and challenges to maintaining measles and rubella elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Magloire, Roc; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Flannery, Brendan; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Fitter, David L; Purcell, Nora; Dismer, Amber; Tappero, Jordan W; Vertefeuille, John F; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a nationwide survey to assess measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverage among children aged 1-9 years in Haiti and identify factors associated with vaccination before and during the 2012 nationwide supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). Haiti was stratified into five geographic regions (Metropolitan Port-au-Prince, North, Centre, South and West), 40 clusters were randomly selected in each region, and 35 households were selected per cluster. Among the 7000 visited households, 75.8% had at least one child aged 1-9 years; of these, 5279 (99.5%) households consented to participate in the survey. Of 9883 children enrolled, 91% received MCV before and/or during the SIA; 31% received MR for the first time during the SIA, and 50.7% received two doses of MCV (one before and one during the 2012 SIA). Among the 1685 unvaccinated children during the SIA, the primary reason of non-vaccination was caregivers not being aware of the SIA (31.0%). Children aged 1-4 years had significantly lower MR SIA coverage than those aged 5-9 years (79.5% vs. 84.8%) (P < 0.0001). A higher proportion of children living in the West (12.3%) and Centre (11.2%) regions had never been vaccinated than in other regions (4.8-9.1%). Awareness, educational level of the mother and region were significantly associated with MR vaccination during and before the SIA (P < 0.001). The 2012 SIA successfully increased MR coverage; however, to maintain measles and rubella elimination, coverage needs to be further increased among children aged 1-4 years and in regions with lower coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prophylactic acyclovir and preemptive ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavil, Betul; Azik, Fatih Mehmet; Bozkaya, Ikbal; Gokcebay, Dilek Gurlek; Tezer, Hasan; Tunc, Bahattin; Uckan, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acyclovir prophylaxis and preemptive ganciclovir treatment in preventing cytomegalovirus disease in children who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant. We reviewed the clinical records of 66 children (36 boys, 30 girls; mean age, 9 ± 5 y; age range, 2-20 y) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant at Ankara Children's Hematology and Oncology Hospital, Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, between April 2010 and March 2012. In these 66 children, 61 children (92.4%) received allogeneic transplant; 50 children (76.9%) received a myeloablative regimen; and 14 children (21.2%) received anti-thymocyte globulin as part of the conditioning regimen. All children received acyclovir prophylaxis from the beginning of conditioning regimen until 100 days after transplant, and children received preemptive treatment with ganciclovir when cytomegalovirus DNAemia ≥ 400 copies/mL on 2 tests or ≥ 1000 copies/mL on 1 test. There were 19 children (28.8%) who had cytomegalovirus reactivation during median follow-up 381 days (range, 100-720 d). Cytomegalovirus disease was observed in only 2 patients (10.5%); 1 patient had cytomegalovirus hepatitis and 1 patient had cytomegalovirus gastrointestinal disease. Both patients were cured of cytomegalovirus with treatment for 1 month. There was no death attributable to cytomegalovirus reactivation and/or disease. Febrile neutropenia, acute graft-versus-host disease, and steroid use were more frequent in patients who had cytomegalovirus than did not have cytomegalovirus reactivation. The risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation was increased 5-fold in patients who used steroids. Acyclovir prophylaxis and preemptive treatment with ganciclovir may be effective in preventing cytomegalovirus disease in most children who have hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

  7. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. Results A majority of the women (66.6%) had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4%) of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4%) and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5%) respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5%) and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%). Conclusions A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test) is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint. PMID:23368977

  8. Properties of virion transactivator proteins encoded by primate cytomegaloviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus that causes severe disease in situations where the immune system is immature or compromised. HCMV immediate early (IE gene expression is stimulated by the virion phosphoprotein pp71, encoded by open reading frame (ORF UL82, and this transactivation activity is important for the efficient initiation of viral replication. It is currently recognized that pp71 acts to overcome cellular intrinsic defences that otherwise block viral IE gene expression, and that interactions of pp71 with the cell proteins Daxx and ATRX are important for this function. A further property of pp71 is the ability to enable prolonged gene expression from quiescent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 genomes. Non-human primate cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of pp71, but there is currently no published information that addresses their effects on gene expression and modes of action. Results The UL82 homolog encoded by simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV, strain Colburn, was identified and cloned. This ORF, named S82, was cloned into an HSV-1 vector, as were those from baboon, rhesus monkey and chimpanzee cytomegaloviruses. The use of an HSV-1 vector enabled expression of the UL82 homologs in a range of cell types, and permitted investigation of their abilities to direct prolonged gene expression from quiescent genomes. The results show that all UL82 homologs activate gene expression, and that neither host cell type nor promoter target sequence has major effects on these activities. Surprisingly, the UL82 proteins specified by non-human primate cytomegaloviruses, unlike pp71, did not direct long term expression from quiescent HSV-1 genomes. In addition, significant differences were observed in the intranuclear localization of the UL82 homologs, and in their effects on Daxx. Strikingly, S82 mediated the release of Daxx from nuclear domain 10 substructures much more rapidly than pp71 or the other proteins tested. All

  9. Surveillance and vaccination coverage of measles and rubella in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bubba, Laura; Piralla, Antonio; Binda, Sandro; Zanetti, Alessandro; Pariani, Elena; Ranghiero, Alberto; Premoli, Marta; Pellegrinelli, Laura; Coppola, Liliana; Gramegna, Maria; Baldanti, Fausto; Zanetti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are infectious diseases and humans are the only reservoir of these infections. Effective vaccines are available with the potential for measles (MV) and rubella (RuV) virus eradication. According to the World Health Organisation guidelines, a national plan was approved in Italy in 2013 to achieve the MV/RuV elimination by 2015, and active MV/RuV integrated surveillance initiated. Towards this purpose, a regional laboratory centre was set up on 1 September 2013 in Lombardy, Northern Italy. This paper aimed at: (1) evaluating measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage and MV/RuV notified cases retrospectively; and (2) presenting the results of MV/RuV integrated surveillance (laboratory confirmed and viral genetic profiles).   The 95% target for MMR vaccine coverage was achieved in 2001, and coverage increased until 2007 (96.6%), but then a decreasing trend was observed. Since 2000 to 2014, 3026 rubella cases were notified, with nearly 58% of them in the 2002 epidemic. From 2009, less than 45 RuV cases per year were reported. From 2000 to 2014, 5024 measles cases were notified. Since 2008, three large outbreaks (in 2008, 2011, and 2013) were observed. From data obtained during our surveillance activity, there were no rubella cases, and 57.5% (46/80) collected samples were MV-positive by real-time RT-PCR. A fragment of the MV N gene was sequenced from 37 MV-positive samples; D8, D9, and B3 genotypes were detected. Data obtained retrospectively and from active surveillance underline the necessity to achieve and maintain high vaccination coverage and to improve surveillance and the effectiveness of healthcare actions.

  10. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  11. Rubella outbreak and outbreak management in a school setting, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caiyun; Ma, Huilai; Liang, Wenjia; Hu, Pei; Mo, Xianghuan; An, Zhijie; Zheng, Huizhen

    2017-04-03

    An active response to a rubella outbreak may interrupt disease transmission, and outbreak response immunization (ORI) can increase immunity among persons who might otherwise not be protected. On March 17, 2014, a rubella outbreak was reported in a middle school in Guangzhou city, China. We conducted an investigation to assess impact of a policy of exclusion of cases from school and of ORI. Active surveillance was used to find cases of rubella. Investigators interviewed teachers and reviewed the absentee records to determine implementation details of school exclusion. ORI was recommended on 2 occasions during the outbreak, one small-scale and one large-scale. Laboratory confirmation tests included serum IgM and IgG measurements to distinguish between acute infection and immunity. A serological survey in 4 classes was used to determine immunity status and identify symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. From February 17 to May 23, 2014, 162 rubella cases (24 laboratory-confirmed and 138 epidemiologically linked) were detected among 1,621 students. Cases ultimately occurred in 27 classes (72.97%) across 37 classes. In 11 classes in which exclusion from school was delayed by 1 or more days, the secondary attack rate was 12.30%, compared with 2.35% in 15 classes with immediate exclusion. ORI increased vaccine coverage from 25.83 % to 86.92%, and the final case of the epidemic was reported one month later. A serological survey of 91 students in 4 classes identified 15 cases, 6 of which were asymptomatic. The outbreak happened in school with low rubella-containing vaccination coverage. Exclusion from school upon rash/fever onset was associated with lowering the secondary attack rate, but school exclusion alone was not able to stop this outbreak - a large ORI was needed. Assuring complete vaccination upon entry to school is likely to be necessary to ensure coverage is above the herd immunity threshold and prevent outbreaks from happening.

  12. The importance of fundus eye testing in rubella-induced deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Marta L; García, Natalia; Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Morales, Lisbeth; Flórez, Silvia; Varón, Clara; Gelvez, Nancy

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new approach to improve detection of deafness due to rubella. Colombian institutes for the deaf were visited by a medical team to perform in all enrolled individuals an ophthalmological examination with emphasis in fundus eye by a retina specialist. In cases where ocular alterations compatible with CRS were found, a medical interview by a clinical geneticist analyzing pre-and postnatal history and a thorough medical examination was done. A total of 1383 deaf institutionalized individuals were evaluated in 9 Colombian cities in the period of 2005 to 2006, finding a total of 463 positive cases for salt-and-pepper retinopathy (33.5%), in which rubella could be the etiology of deafness. Medellin, Cartagena, Bucaramanga and Barranquilla were the cities with the highest percentage of Congenital rubella, corresponding to 22.8% of analyzed population. The analysis performed on cases in which reliable prenatal history was obtained in a second appointment (n=88) showed association between positive viral symptoms during pregnancy and salt-and-pepper retinopathy in 62.5% of cases, while both (retinopathy and viral symptoms) were absent in 29.5% of cases; showing a correlation in 92% of cases. The frequency of deafness by rubella obtained by this study is significantly high compared with previous Colombian studies and with international reports. It was possible to correlate the antecedent of symptoms during pregnancy with the presence of salt-and-pepper retinopathy in this deaf population when reliable prenatal history was available, therefore eye testing with emphasis in fundus examination is a good indicator of rubella induced deafness. We propose a new approach in the search of deafness causes, based on a thorough ophthalmologic examination in all deaf people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded Receptor US28 Is Expressed in Renal Allografts and Facilitates Viral Spreading In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lollinga, Wouter T; de Wit, Raymond H; Rahbar, Afsar; Vasse, Gwenda F; Davoudi, Belghis; Diepstra, Arjan; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Harmsen, Martin C; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; van Son, Willem J; Smit, Martine J; Sanders, Jan-Stephan; van den Born, Jacob

    BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) activation is associated with decreased renal graft function and survival. Human cytomegalovirus encodes several immune modulatory proteins, including the G

  14. Cytomegalovirus Infection in a Patient with Crohn’s Ileocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Coban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegaloviral enterocolitis is an uncommon infection that can complicate inflammatory bowel disease. A case of a patient with a three-year history of Crohn's disease is reported. He had been in a stable condition on mesalamine 4 g/day and methylprednisolone 10 mg/day for three years until four weeks before admission. The patient was admitted with complaints of fever, abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. A diagnosis of an exacerbation of Crohn's disease was established. The radiological examination revealed narrowing of the terminal ileum. Multiple fistulas and abscess-like images were observed. The patient then underwent ileocolic resection and ileostomy. The histopathological examination revealed Crohn's ileocolitis with superimposed cytomegalovirus infection. In patients with rapidly deteriorating inflammatory bowel disease, cytomegalovirus infection should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses.

  15. Cytomegalovirus retinitis treated with valganciclovir in Wegener’s granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabata Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kabata1, Genichiro Takahashi1, Hiroshi Tsuneoka21Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Katsushika Medical Center, Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A case of cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis in a patient with Wegener’s granulomatosis treated with oral valganciclovir as maintenance therapy is reported. A 68-year-old male patient with anti-proteinase-3 ANCA-positive Wegener’s granulomatosis who was receiving immunosuppressive therapy with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and azathioprine developed CMV retinitis. The patient received intravenous ganciclovir as induction therapy and oral valganciclovir as maintenance therapy. The patient responded to treatment and showed no recurrence for 8 months. There were no serious adverse effects associated with oral valganciclovir. Oral valganciclovir is convenient and effective for the management of CMV retinitis in the patient with Wegener’s granulomatosis.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, Wegener’s granulomatosis, valganciclovir, ganciclovir, maintenance therapy

  16. [Pulmonary infectious complications caused by cytomegalovirus in clinical kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, D; Berloco, P; Brenciaglia, M I; Cipriani, P; Cortesini, R; Famulari, A; Filadoro, F; Mancini, C; Renna Molajoni, E; Romanzi, A

    1984-01-01

    Infections constitute one of the main complications in organ allografts because of the immunosuppression status of the patient due to the own disease and the reduction of the immunoresponse dealing with the immunosuppressive therapy. Moreover the bacterial, micotic and parasitic infections show a lower incidence while viral infections affect more frequently the patients. On these basis the AA, report their experience on 162 kidney allografts with particular reference to cytomegalovirus pulmonary infections observed in nine patients. Five patients died of acute respiratory insufficiency while in three cases a complete resolution of the clinical picture has been observed. Finally one case underwent the association of pulmonary infection and irreversible graft failure due to rejection. The AA. conclude that the cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection is particularly riskfull in the non immunocompetent patients and stress the potent effect of the high titer specific immunoglobulins to prevent such often lethal complication.

  17. Serological Status of Rubella Virus in Cord Blood Samples of Newborn in Hospitals Affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Monavari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rubella is a disease caused by the rubella virus and is usually mild and self-limiting. Infection of a developing fetus is serious and important because the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome. Its symptoms include mental retardation, heart defects, cataract, etc. In 2003, mass vaccination against measles and rubella in individuals 5-25 years old was done. One of the main objectives of this study was to survey congenital rubella infection status with the presence of IgM antibodies against rubella virus in cord blood samples and also the immunity assessment of maternal IgG antibodies against rubella virus in the samples.Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 358 cord blood samples were collected in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed by two ELISA methods for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and RT-nested PCR tests on samples of IgG–negative and IgM-positive. In this study two groups of mothers were tested, one consisted of the ones29 with the frequency of 29.1%.Results: The mean age of subjects was 22.6 years old. Out of 358 samples, 326 (91.1% were IgG positive, and 10 (2.8% were IgM positive against rubella virus. All of the samples with negative result for IgG antibody, and positive result for IgM antibody against rubella virus were tested for the presence of rubella genome with RT-nested PCR method. None of these samples were positive according to the presence of the virus genome.Conclusion: According to the high immunity of mothers, the probability of congenital rubella transmission is low, but because of low immunity of mothers being >29 years old, it is highly reccommended to upgrade the age of vaccination to 28.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:16-21

  18. Cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplant recipients: Updates on clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelin, Jasmine Riviere; Beam, Elena; Razonable, Raymund R

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication after liver transplantation, and it is associated with multiple direct and indirect effects. Management of CMV infection and disease has evolved over the years, and clinical guidelines have been recently updated. Universal antiviral prophylaxis and a pre-emptive treatment strategy are options for prevention. A currently-recruiting randomized clinical trial is comparing the efficacy and safety of the two prevention strategies in the high...

  19. Letermovir Treatment of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Antiinfective Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Verghese, Priya S.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Novel therapies are urgently needed for the management of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in high-risk patients. Currently licensed agents target the viral DNA polymerase, and although they are effective, they are fraught with toxicities to patients. Moreover, emergence of antiviral resistance is an increasing problem, particularly for patients on long-term suppressive therapy. A new agent, letermovir (AIC246), shows great promise for the management of CMV infection. Advantages include its good...

  20. A young patient with multisystem complications after cytomegalovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; Gurram, Murali Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We are describing a case of an 18-year-old male patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) associated guillain-barre syndrome (GBS) who presented with an acute onset of generalized weakness and numbness in the extremities, dysphagia, and facial diplegia, followed by respiratory failure, which led to mechanical ventilation. He had positive immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies against CMV, and CMV polymerase chain reaction was positive with

  1. Optimization and Validation of a Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction with RNA Internal Control to Detect Rubella RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to a report from WHO, cases of rubella infection in Indonesia has increased up to 10-fold from 2007 to 2011. Despite no data of congenital rubella syndrome in the report, there are approximately 45,000 cases of babies born with heart failure and 0.1-0.3% live births with congenital deafness in Indonesia. Allegedly, rubella infection during pregnancy may play a role in this condition. This study aimed to optimize and validate a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR method to detect rubella virus RNA as an aid for the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection. METHODS: Method optimization was conducted using nucleic acids extracted from Trimovax Merieux vaccine with the High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit. One step RT-qPCR was performed with Quantifast Multiplex RTPCR+R Kit. Target synthetic DNA was designed and used to determine the sensitivity of the method. RNA internal control was synthesized to control the process of extraction and amplification. RESULTS: The analytical sensitivity of this method was as low as 5 copies target synthetic DNA/μl. The mean Coefficient of Variation (CV % of the critical threshold (Ct obtained were 2.71%, 1.20%, 1.62%, and 1.59% for within run, between run, between kit lots, and between operators, respectively. Recovery of the target synthetic DNA from amniotic fluid was 100.51% (by the log copies/μl at the concentration of 1,000,000 copies/μl. CONCLUSIONS: RT-qPCR is successfully used for the detection of rubella virus RNA in vaccine and synthetic nucleic acid. With its high sensitivity, good precision and recovery, this method offers a means to improve the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in developing countries like Indonesia. KEYWORDS: congenital rubella, RT-qPCR, prenatal diagnosis, amniotic fluid.

  2. Cytomegalovirus as an occupational risk in daycare educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serene A; Béliveau, Claire; Muecke, Cristin J; Rahme, Elham; Soto, Julio C; Flowerdew, Gordon; Johnston, Lynn; Langille, Donald; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2006-09-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection continues to be an important occupational risk in the daycare setting. A comprehensive update of scientific evidence is timely to inform and promote appropriate preventive measures. A review of the literature was conducted to examine the evidence for an occupational risk of CMV infection in daycare educators. Sources included Medline, government documents and additional references from published bibliographies. The key words used for searches were 'child day care centres' or 'nurseries' and 'cytomegalovirus' or 'cytomegalovirus infection'. EIGHT CMV SEROPREVALENCE STUDIES ON DAYCARE EDUCATORS IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES WERE FOUND: four in the United States, three in Canada and one in Italy. Risk factors for seropositivity were older age, nonwhite race, foreign birth, birth in a low- or middle-income country, diaper changing, having children at home, and a child to educator ratio greater than 6:1 in children 18 to 35 months of age. Risk factors for seroconversion were younger age and working with young children. These studies suggest that daycare centres may be a high-risk setting for CMV infection. Recommendations to prevent CMV infection in this setting include handwashing, selective serological screening, avoiding work with younger children if pregnant and, in some cases, preventive leave from work. Evaluation and expert opinion of the effectiveness of various preventive options for CMV acquisition are needed to ensure that recommendations are evidence-based.

  3. Cytomegalovirus infection and cervical cancer: from past doubts to present questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho-Dias, Joana; Sousa, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Since early 60's that Cytomegalovirus was studied for its possible role in cervical cancer development. Despite several decades of studies and the description of CMV DNA in cervical samples, it is still doubtful what is the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus in cervix and if CMV can act as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis. In this Systematic Review we intend to summarize the frequency of Cytomegalovirus in cervical samples by revising all published studies between 1980 and 2011 regarding the detection of Cytomegalovirus in cervical samples and the development of lesions/ invasive cervical cancer. Crude and adjusted frequencies of Cytomegalovirus infection were calculated according to country and world region. This study revealed that the worldwide crude frequency of Cytomegalovirus infection in the cervix was 18.9% in all cervical samples and 36.5% in HPV positive women. Cytomegalovirus infection was present in all different types of lesions: 17.4% in normal/ cervicitis, 28.0% in LSIL, 19.7% in HSIL and 44.4% in CIS/ICC. The overall rate of Cytomegalovirus infection varied from 1.58% to 61.0% with an increased incidence in less developed countries. In this study we described a high frequency of positive Cytomegalovirus cases in all types of cervical samples, with increased incidence in both HPV-infected women and CIS/ICC cases. Hence, despite results showed that Cytomegalovirus shedding in cervical samples is frequent more studies should be performed to clarify if Cytomegalovirus infection is an opportunistic infection in HPV-infected cases, or if it contributes for cervical immunosuppression that will favor HPV-associated carcinogenesis.

  4. Pregnancy outcomes following rubella vaccination: a prospective study in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva e Sá, Gloria Regina; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Stavola, Mônica Santos; Lemos, Xênia Rawena; Basílio de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça

    2011-09-01

    A rubella mass vaccination campaign targeting 15-29-year-old women was performed in Brazil in 2001-2002. Rubella vaccination was contraindicated during pregnancy. A follow-up protocol was implemented for pregnant women who were vaccinated as well as their newborns. The risks of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and congenital rubella infection (CRI) after vaccination were assessed according to the pregnant women's immune status. This was a prospective, noncontrolled study of pregnancy outcomes in women vaccinated against rubella in the state of Rio de Janeiro, including clinical and laboratory evaluations. Of 2292 reported pregnant women who were vaccinated, 1636 had known outcomes: there were 1577 newborns (96.4%), 52 miscarriages (3.2%), and 7 stillbirths (0.4%). Gestational age at vaccination was ≤ 5 weeks in 75% of the susceptible, vaccinated pregnant women. Nine newborns were positive for immunoglobulin M; 4 were born to susceptible pregnant women, for a 2.0% CRI rate (95% confidence interval, .5%-4.9%); 4 were born to vaccinated pregnant women with indeterminate or unknown status; and 1 had CRS, with a wild-type virus infection. The absence of vaccine-related CRS cases further supports recommendations to not interrupt a pregnancy exposed to rubella vaccine virus. Monitoring pregnancy outcomes and CRI with vaccine virus can distinguish between wild-type and vaccine virus infections, especially in situations of viral circulation.

  5. Seroprevalence survey of rubella infection in pregnancy at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakewhor, J U; Chiwuzie, J

    2011-01-01

    To determine the serosusceptibility of rubella infection in pregnancy and the feasibility of establishing an organized prevention program in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. This prospective, cross-sectional, laboratory-based study involved 300 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and were screened for rubella immunoglobulins G (IgG) and M (IgM), using the ELISA-based quantitative assay at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of the cohort, 30 women later withdrew. IgG seropositive samples were screened for IgM antibodies. The mean age and parity of the women were 30.0 ± 4.8 years, 95% CI 29.727-30.873 and 2.0 ± 1.4; 95% CI 1.317-1.661, respectively. IgG seroprevalence was 53%, while 10.0% of all IgG seropositive women were IgM seropositive. Most infections were acquired before the age of 35. None of the women ever had previous rubella vaccination. Rubella vaccine is scarce in Nigeria. Prevalence of rubella seromarkers for previous and current infection is high. Facilities for routine diagnosis and vaccination are lacking. Initiation of organized screening and vaccination programs is limited by lack of vaccine. We recommend immunization of children and women of child-bearing age as a cost-effective public health intervention strategy for managing the sequelae of the congenital rubella syndrome.

  6. Evaluation of Rubella IgG Antibodies Among Women at Marriage in Kermanshah City, Before and After Mass Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Mansouri, Feizollah; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Namdari, Hengameh; Hatami, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rubella is a mild viral infectious disease, usually occurs subclinically without a serious complication. But if occurs during pregnancy, specially the first trimester, it can transmit and invade to fetus causing congenital rubella syndrome or fetal death. In 2003, nearly all Iranians at the age of 5 to 25 years old were vaccinated against rubella and the vaccine was included in the compulsory immunization, MMR afterwards. Methods: This study was carried out on girls attended at a marriage consultancy center in Kermanshah city (West of Iran) in 2006. Considering 95% of confidence, the sample size was estimated at 140. All samples were tested using ELISA serologic method and compared with similar study conducted on 240 unvaccinated girls at the same place in 1999. Results: Antibody positivity was observed in 99.3%, compared to 79.58% of the previous study. A rise of 19.72% (95% CI 12.7%-26.7%) of seropositivity was observed in vaccinated girls versus unvaccinated ones (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In our previous study, we had recommended to screen for susceptibility to rubella before marriage, which is no longer required since more than 99% of vaccinated girls showed immunity at the time of marriage. However, as sustainability of immunity after rubella vaccination is usually less than immunity due to illness, we recommend screening for rubella protective antibody every few years. PMID:24049618

  7. Symptomatic Cytomegalovirus Infections in the First Year of Life: When Is Antiviral Therapy Conceived to Be Justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Katharina; Goelz, Rangmar; Speckmann, Carsten; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    All infants treated with antiviral medication for symptomatic congenital (diagnosis 3 weeks) cytomegalovirus infection were characterized with the help of a survey covering all German Pediatric hospitals between 2012 and 2013. We found that >50% of infants treated for cytomegalovirus were classified as probably postnatal cytomegalovirus infection, which was associated with preterm birth and underlying diseases of the immune system, heart or lung.

  8. Symptomatic primary cytomegalovirus infection in a HIV-positive pregnant woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergin, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    We describe a case of symptomatic primary Cytomegalovirus infection in a HIV-positive pregnant woman on antiretroviral treatment with a CD4 count >200 × 10(6)\\/l requiring intravenous ganciclovir. No adverse consequences from ganciclovir or evidence of congenital Cytomegalovirus infection were found.

  9. Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections in mothers and newborns in a Havana maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festary, Aimée; Kourí, Vivian; Correa, Consuelo B; Verdasquera, Denis; Roig, Tania; Couret, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus are associated with congenital or perinatal infection, causing potential damage to the newborn. Determine the prevalence of active or latent infection by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in a population of mothers, congenital infection by these agents in their infants, and association between prevalence of virus infection in mothers and in their newborns. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in a population of 95 pregnant women admitted to the Dr Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital during the third trimester of pregnancy, and their infants (98). Patients were tested for antibodies specific to these viruses; vaginal swabs and urine from the women and serum and urine from the newborns were tested for viral genome. The Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval was used for comparisons. Of the women studied, 89.5% tested positive for cytomegalovirus and 83.2% for herpes simplex. Active infection from cytomegalovirus was detected in 16.7%, and from herpes simplex in 3.2%. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection was detected in 4.1% of newborns; no herpes simplex virus infection was found in this group. Two newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection were congenitally infected. Serology demonstrated that most of the women were immune to both viruses. Active cytomegalovirus infections are common in this population, and newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy are at increased risk of congenital infection.

  10. Mesenteric vein thrombosis associated with primary cytomegalovirus infection : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijfering, Willem M.; Sprenger, Herman G.; van Son, Willem J.; van der Meer, Jan

    In the past few years several studies have supported an interplay between cytomegalovirus infections and a prothrombotic state. We describe a case of primary cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent adult that was complicated with mesenteric vein thrombosis. Transient protein C deficiency,

  11. [Syphilis in a patient with the primary diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus and herpes infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, B P; Sorokina, A A; Koroleva, m A

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports a case of fresh secondary syphilis affecting oral cavity and lips in a 25 year old woman. The primary diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus and herpes infection proved erroneous. Retrospective differential diagnostics of infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus and herpes infection from fresh secondary syphilis was performed This case suggests the absence of vigilance with respect to venereal diseases in the medical personnel.

  12. Ganciclovir penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid of an infant with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Fabio; Bizzarri, Bianca; Cardi, Veronica; Gaeta, Aurelia; Villani, Paola; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; De Curtis, Mario

    2015-03-31

    Currently, there is no evidence whether ganciclovir, or its oral prodrug valganciclovir, penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid of human infants treated for congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we report a case study providing evidence that ganciclovir, administered as valganciclovir, reaches the infant's cerebrospinal fluid when used at the currently recommended dose for congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

  13. Bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia while on maintenance chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi S. Dedania

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis in a 12 year-old with neutropenic fever after maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ophthalmologic examination for photophobia prompted a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus retinitis. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, this patient had a favorable visual outcome.

  14. Early Onset Optic Neuritis Following Measles-Rubella Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moradian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of optic neuritis with onset less than 24 hours following measles-rubella (MR vaccination. CASE REPORT: Two teenage patients developed acute optic neuritis 6 to 7 hours after MR booster vaccination. The first patient demonstrated bilateral papillitis and severe visual loss but improved significantly with pulse intravenous steroid therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/day. The second patient had unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and demonstrated excellent visual recovery without intervention. CONCLUSION: Acute optic neuritis is a rare complication of MR vaccination and may occur early after immunization.

  1. Progress in the elimination of measles and congenital rubella in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bonanni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the launch of a WHO European Region strategic plan 2005–2010 for eliminating measles and rubella and preventing congenital rubella (CR) infection, measles and rubella are still circulating in Europe. Increased transmission and outbreaks of measles in Europe were still observed in 2011. In Italy, the objectives of the National Plan (2003–2007) for measles elimination have not yet been achieved. The goal of measles elimination and incidence reduction of CR cases has been postponed to 2015 by the Italian Ministry of Health through the implementation of the new National Plan 2010–2015 which will require (1) the achievement of more than 95% coverage with 1 dose and two doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV), respectively, within 24 mo and within 12 y of age; (2) supplementary vaccination activities aimed at susceptible populations including adolescents, young adults and those at risk (health care and educational workers, military, groups “hard to reach” like nomads); and in addition, (3) reduction to less than 5% in the proportion of susceptible women of childbearing age (especially immigrant women). Experiences at regional level, like in Tuscany, have shown promising results in order to create an integrated surveillance system between regional and local health authorities, university and laboratory and in the future, to validate elimination. Moreover, the evaluation of all preventive activities performed in Tuscany during the last decade, immunization coverage data, sero-epidemiological population profile and incidence of measles and rubella cases has highlighted critical points which should be improved and good practices already implemented which should be maintained in the future in order to reach the new goals. PMID:23292174

  2. Rubella virion polypeptides. Characterization by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and peptide mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho-Terry, L.; Cohen, A. (University Coll. Hospital Medical School, London (UK))

    1982-01-01

    Four polypeptides with molecular weights of 55K, 47K, 45K, and 33K have been resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immune precipitated rubella virus. The 47K and 45K components have similar peptide maps but different isoelectric points so that the same polypeptide may exist in more than one charged form. The 55K and 45K components have similar isoelectric points but different peptide maps showing that similarity of isoelectric point is not evidence of identity.

  3. Institution of a Rubella Screening and Immunization Program at Tripler Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    to accomplish the same goal of protecting the best interest of mother , child and Tripler Army Medical Center. 59 HST-CPOH (26 Oct 78) SUBJECT: TAC...person who is infected doughs , sneezes or speaks. Symptoms of the disease are characterized by a mild upper respiratory illness with a low fever and a...children being born with congenital birth defects to mothers inadvertently exposed to rubella virus during pregnancy. 3. The health records of

  4. Preliminary multiplex microarray IgG immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschirotto, Priscila T; Krieger, Marco A; Foti, Leonardo

    2017-06-01

    During pregnancy, toxoplasmosis and rubella can cause serious damage to the mother and the foetus through vertical transmission. Early diagnosis enables implementation of health measures aimed at preventing vertical transmission and minimising damage caused by these diseases. Here, we report the development of a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies produced during toxoplasmosis and rubella infection. This assay is based on xMap technology. Initially, by singleplex assays, we evaluated the following antigens: one Toxoplasma gondii lysate; two antigenic extracts of T. gondii (TOX8131 and TOX8122); fragments of T. gondii antigens [SAG-1 (amino acids 45-198), GRA-7 (24-100), GRA-1 (57-149), ROP-4, and MIC-3 (234-306)]; two chimeric antigens composed of fragments of SAG-1, GRA-7, and P35 (CTOX and CTOXH); and fragments of Rubella virus antigens [E-1 (157-176, 213-239, 374-390), E-2 (31-105), and C (1-123)]. A multiplex assay to simultaneously diagnose toxoplasmosis and rubella was designed with the best-performing antigens in singleplex and multiplex assays, which included CTOXH, T. gondii lysate, TOX8131, E-1, and E-2. The multiplex assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for anti-T. gondii IgG detection and 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity for anti-R. virus IgG detection. We found that, despite the difficulties related to developing multiplex systems, different types of antigens (extracts and recombinant proteins) can be used to develop high-performance diagnostic tests. The assay developed is suitable to screen for prior T. gondii and R. virus infections, because it is a rapid, high-throughput, low-cost alternative to the current standard diagnostic tools, which require multiple individual tests.

  5. Susceptibility to measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella-zoster viruses among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypak, Cenk; Bayram, Yasemin; Eren, Hayriye; Altunsoy, Adalet; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify and immunize susceptible healthcare workers to prevent and control hospital infections. Our aim was to evaluate the specific antibodies against the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and the varicella zoster virus among healthcare workers in a tertiary-care hospital. A total of 284 healthcare workers (89 men and 195 women; mean age, 33.5 ± 11 years), including 111 nurses, 87 physicians, 34 laboratory technicians, and 52 members of the housekeeping staff, of Van Training and Research Hospital were enrolled in this study. Antibodies were detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The numbers of workers with serological susceptibility to mumps, measles, rubella, or chicken pox were 26 (9.2%), 18 (6.3%), 7 (2.5%), and 5 (1.8%), respectively. Although the difference was not statistical significant, the rate of seroprevalence of antibodies was lowest for measles (90.8%; p>0.05). Susceptibility to measles, mumps, and rubella, and chicken pox was more prevalent among young healthcare workers (p<0.001). Not all healthcare workers born before 1957 were immune to these vaccine-preventable diseases. These data confirm that screening and vaccination of susceptible healthcare workers is essential regardless of age.

  6. Characterization of rubella virus genotypes among pregnant women in northern Vietnam, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Son; Le, Duc Hoang; Hoang, Huong Thi; Hoang, Ha; Nguyen, Nam Trung; Chu, Ha Hoang

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus (RV) infection is an unresolved clinical complication that affects children in developing countries including Vietnam. RV infection during the first trimester of pregnancy causes severe birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome. This study reports on the genomic characterization of RV strains circulating in northern Vietnam during 2011-2013. RV-IgM positive amniotic fluid specimens were collected from 38 women from northern Vietnam who presented with clinical rubella at the National Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Hanoi, Vietnam. The RV genes were determined by nested PCR with primers amplifying the 739-nucleotide coding region of the E1 gene. The sequences from the amplified DNA fragments were phylogenetically analyzed and compared to reference RV strains. Seventeen out of 38 samples are positive for RV detecting. All new RV isolates are clustered to genotype 2B. Eighteen amino acid mutations were found in the T and B cell epitopes. These results suggest that genotype 2B RV strains frequently circulate in northern Vietnam. These data describe the RV genotype in Vietnam with the aim of improving maternal and child health in this country. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Lower transplacental antibody transport for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella zoster in very preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolice P van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal antibodies, transported over the placenta during pregnancy, contribute to the protection of infants from infectious diseases during the first months of life. In term infants, this protection does not last until the first recommended measles-mumps-rubella vaccination at 14 months in the Netherlands, while these viruses still circulate. The aim of the study was to investigate the antibody concentration against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV in mothers and preterm infants or healthy term infants at birth. METHODS: Antibody concentrations specific for MMRV were measured in cord blood samples from preterm (gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 g and term infants, and matched maternal serum samples, using a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immune-assay. RESULTS: Due to lower placental transfer ratios of antibodies against MMRV in 96 preterm infants (range 0.75-0.87 compared to 42 term infants (range 1.39-1.65, the preterm infants showed 1.7-2.5 times lower geometric mean concentrations at birth compared to term infants. Maternal antibody concentration is the most important determinant of infant antibody concentration against MMRV. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm infants benefit to a lesser extent from maternal antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella than term infants, posing them even earlier at risk for infectious diseases caused by these still circulating viruses.

  8. Systemic Comorbidity in Children with Cataracts in Nigeria: Advocacy for Rubella Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Duke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital and developmental cataracts are leading causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment. They may be associated with systemic diseases including congenital heart diseases which are among the major causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood. The pattern of systemic comorbidities seen in children diagnosed with cataract in Calabar, Nigeria, was studied. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on the children who had cataract surgery between 2011 and 2012. Diagnosis of the systemic condition was documented. Results. A total of 66 children were recruited for the study. Cardiac disease was seen in 26 children (39.9%, followed by delayed milestone in 16 (24.2%, intellectual disability in 14 (21.2%, deafness in 11 (16.7%, epilepsy in 4 (6.1%, and physical handicap in 3 (4.5% of them. Clinically confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome was seen in 30 (45% of the children. The pattern of CHD seen was as follows: patent ductus arteriosus in 16 (24.2% followed by ventricular-septal defect in 5 (7.6%, atrial-septal defect in 3 (4.5%, and pulmonary stenosis in 2 (3%. Conclusion. Systemic comorbidities, especially cardiac anomalies, are common among children with cataract in Nigeria. Congenital Rubella Syndrome may be a prominent cause of childhood cataract in our environment. Routine immunization of school girls against rubella is advocated as a measure to mitigate this trend.

  9. Expansion of the global measles and rubella laboratory network 2005-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, David A; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph; Mulders, Mick N; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Ramamurty, Nalini; Gavrilin, Eugene; Byabamazima, Charles; Dosseh, Annick; Xu, Wenbo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Tashiro, Masato; Brown, David; Bellini, William J; Strebel, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Enhancing measles surveillance with integration of epidemiologic and laboratory information is one of the key strategies for accelerated measles control and elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet) has been developed since 2000 to currently include 690 laboratories serving 183 countries. The LabNet testing strategy follows well-validated, standardized procedures for confirming suspected cases and for monitoring measles and rubella virus transmission patterns. The strength of the LabNet is a strong quality assurance program that monitors the performance of all laboratories through annual proficiency testing and continuous assessment. In the 5-year period 2005-2009, the results of >1 million measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests have been reported by the LabNet and, in addition, sequence information on >7000 measles and 600 rubella viruses has been shared. Progress with the development of the LabNet during 2005-2009 is discussed. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Sentinel phenotype for rubella embryopathy: time-space distribution in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iêda Maria Orioli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The dyad comprising eye anomalies and congenital heart defects in the same newborn has been proposed as the best sentinel phenotype for the early detection of rubella embryopathy. Time-space birth prevalence distributions of the eye-heart dyad were described in 36 Brazilian hospitals from the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies - ECLAMC network, for the period 1994-2008. Seventy dyad cases observed among 554,531 births showed seasonal variation (Χ2 = 5.84; p < 0.05, suggesting an environmental etiology, with an increase in cases in October-March and acrophase in December. The secular distribution of dyad prevalence rates was consistent with the distribution of rubella cases in Brazil, showing a decrease from 1994 to 2004, followed by an increase until 2008. Two geographic clusters were identified, one with high and the other with low dyad prevalence. In the high prevalence cluster, a secular increase was observed, starting in 1999, matching the rubella epidemic waves observed in Brazil in 1998-2000 and 2006.

  11. An outbreak investigation of congenital rubella syndrome in Solomon Islands, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara N Durski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During May 2012, a rubella outbreak was declared in Solomon Islands. A suspected case of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS was reported from one hospital 11 months later in 2013. This report describes the subsequent CRS investigation, findings and measures implemented. Methods: Prospective CRS surveillance was conducted at the newborn nursery, paediatric and post-natal wards, and the paediatric cardiology and ophthalmology clinics of the study hospital from April to July 2013. Retrospective case finding by reviewing medical records was also undertaken to identify additional cases born between January and March 2013 for the same wards and clinics. Cases were identified using established World Health Organization case definitions for CRS. Results: A total of 13 CRS cases were identified, including two laboratory-confirmed, four clinically confirmed and seven suspected cases. Five CRS cases were retrospectively identified, including four suspected and one clinically confirmed case. There was no geospatial clustering of residences. The mothers of the cases were aged between 20 and 36 years. Three of the six mothers available for interview recalled an acute illness with rash during the first trimester of pregnancy. Discussion: Additional CRS cases not captured in this investigation are likely. Caring for CRS cases is a challenge in resource-poor settings. Rubella vaccination is safe and effective and can prevent the serious consequences of CRS. Well-planned and funded vaccination activities can prevent future CRS cases.

  12. Staphylococcal protein A in the serologic diagnosis of congenital rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Powell, K R; Menegus, M A

    1982-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) has been used to remove maternal IgG from cord or neonatal sera to make serologic testing for congenital infection more IgM specific. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of this procedure, sera sent for TORCH titers that had rubella hemagglutination inhibition (RHI) reciprocal titers greater than or equal to 8 or toxoplasmosis indirect fluorescent antibody (TFA) titers greater than or equal to 16 were adsorbed with SPA and retested. Nine of 109 sera were TFA positive by routine testing, and all but one from an infant with congenital toxoplasmosis became negative after SPA adsorption. A repeat TFA at 4 to 26 months of age was negative in all six children without evidence of toxoplasmosis who returned for follow-up. Fifty of 55 sera were RHI positive by routine testing, and all but one from an infant with congenital rubella became negative after SPA adsorption. The repeat routine RHI was negative in 32 of 35 children whose sera were initially negative after SPA adsorption. SPA adsorption greatly increased the specificity of routine RHI and TFA tests in the diagnosis of congenital rubella and toxoplasmosis.

  13. A Socio-Demographic Examination of Adults Responding to Governmental Vaccination Recommendations during the Japanese Rubella Outbreak of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ai; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 a rubella outbreak occurred among Japanese people of working-age which resulted in 14,357 reported cases. The Japanese government subsequently recommended voluntary vaccination or rubella antibody testing for young women (15-49 years of age) who were planning to conceive and for adult men, children, and other persons in potential contact with pregnant women at home. However, the expense and time involved for vaccination, antibody testing and visiting a clinic may represent a major barrier to voluntary compliance among this busy demographic. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to examine potential relationships between the social background of Japanese working-age individuals affected by the 2013 voluntary vaccination campaign. A web-based survey of 1,889 Japanese men and women aged 20-49 years was conducted in early 2014. Statistical analyses were used to explore the associations between social background and testing for rubella antibody and / or vaccination uptake during the previous year. Twenty-four percent of respondents who were planning a pregnancy had been tested for rubella antibody or vaccinated in 2013. However, among those without a current desire for pregnancy, 3% of men and 7% of women, respectively, were tested or vaccinated. Regardless of whether they were planning to conceive, testing for rubella antibodies or vaccination was statistically associated with having acquaintances who had been vaccinated, understanding the government recommendations, and being able to confirm their lack of rubella vaccination history using Maternal and Child Health Handbook records in both men and women. To help eliminate rubella in Japan, additional initiatives need to target Japanese individuals who cannot envisage a direct benefit from vaccination. The results of this study suggest that disseminating the government recommendation to all potentially affected subpopulations, along with maintaining life-time vaccination records might offer a solution to

  14. A Socio-Demographic Examination of Adults Responding to Governmental Vaccination Recommendations during the Japanese Rubella Outbreak of 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Hori

    Full Text Available In 2013 a rubella outbreak occurred among Japanese people of working-age which resulted in 14,357 reported cases. The Japanese government subsequently recommended voluntary vaccination or rubella antibody testing for young women (15-49 years of age who were planning to conceive and for adult men, children, and other persons in potential contact with pregnant women at home. However, the expense and time involved for vaccination, antibody testing and visiting a clinic may represent a major barrier to voluntary compliance among this busy demographic. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to examine potential relationships between the social background of Japanese working-age individuals affected by the 2013 voluntary vaccination campaign.A web-based survey of 1,889 Japanese men and women aged 20-49 years was conducted in early 2014. Statistical analyses were used to explore the associations between social background and testing for rubella antibody and / or vaccination uptake during the previous year.Twenty-four percent of respondents who were planning a pregnancy had been tested for rubella antibody or vaccinated in 2013. However, among those without a current desire for pregnancy, 3% of men and 7% of women, respectively, were tested or vaccinated. Regardless of whether they were planning to conceive, testing for rubella antibodies or vaccination was statistically associated with having acquaintances who had been vaccinated, understanding the government recommendations, and being able to confirm their lack of rubella vaccination history using Maternal and Child Health Handbook records in both men and women.To help eliminate rubella in Japan, additional initiatives need to target Japanese individuals who cannot envisage a direct benefit from vaccination. The results of this study suggest that disseminating the government recommendation to all potentially affected subpopulations, along with maintaining life-time vaccination records might

  15. A Socio-Demographic Examination of Adults Responding to Governmental Vaccination Recommendations during the Japanese Rubella Outbreak of 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ai; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2013 a rubella outbreak occurred among Japanese people of working-age which resulted in 14,357 reported cases. The Japanese government subsequently recommended voluntary vaccination or rubella antibody testing for young women (15–49 years of age) who were planning to conceive and for adult men, children, and other persons in potential contact with pregnant women at home. However, the expense and time involved for vaccination, antibody testing and visiting a clinic may represent a major barrier to voluntary compliance among this busy demographic. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to examine potential relationships between the social background of Japanese working-age individuals affected by the 2013 voluntary vaccination campaign. Methods A web-based survey of 1,889 Japanese men and women aged 20–49 years was conducted in early 2014. Statistical analyses were used to explore the associations between social background and testing for rubella antibody and / or vaccination uptake during the previous year. Results Twenty-four percent of respondents who were planning a pregnancy had been tested for rubella antibody or vaccinated in 2013. However, among those without a current desire for pregnancy, 3% of men and 7% of women, respectively, were tested or vaccinated. Regardless of whether they were planning to conceive, testing for rubella antibodies or vaccination was statistically associated with having acquaintances who had been vaccinated, understanding the government recommendations, and being able to confirm their lack of rubella vaccination history using Maternal and Child Health Handbook records in both men and women. Conclusion To help eliminate rubella in Japan, additional initiatives need to target Japanese individuals who cannot envisage a direct benefit from vaccination. The results of this study suggest that disseminating the government recommendation to all potentially affected subpopulations, along with maintaining life

  16. Clinical epidemiological and molecular aspects of rubella outbreak with high number of neurological cases, Tunisia 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messedi, Emna; Fki-Berrajah, Lamia; Gargouri, Saba; Chouikha, Anissa; Chaari, Anis; Bouaziz, Mounir; Jallouli, Hajer; Yahia, Ahlem Ben; Hammami, Adnene; Triki, Henda; Karray-Hakim, Héla

    2014-10-01

    A large and unusually prolonged rubella outbreak occurred in Tunisia from April 2011 to July 2012 and was characterized by a high number of neurological cases. To describe the outbreak and to perform virus genotyping of isolated virus strains. From January 2011 to December 2012, 5000 sera for serological diagnosis of acute rubella and 31 cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological symptoms were tested for the presence of rubella immunoglobulins G and M. Real-time PCR was performed on 49 throat swabs, 21 cerebrospinal fluid and 27 serum samples. Positive samples were assessed for virus genotyping by sequencing and the obtained sequences were compared to those previously isolated in the country. Acute rubella was confirmed in 280 patients including 15 neonates, 217 children and adults with mild rash and 48 patients with severe rubella (mainly encephalitis, n = 39). Most of acquired rubella cases (60.7%) were aged over 12 years with a male predominance observed in the age group 12-25 years (79%). Females belonged essentially to the unvaccinated age groups under 12 and over 25 years. Among the 23 samples tested positive by real-time PCR, six could be genotyped and clustered with either the 1E genotype, previously detected in Tunisia, or the 2B genotype which has never been isolated in Tunisia before. Gender and age distributions of the patients reflect the impact of the selective rubella vaccination program adopted in Tunisia since 2005. Genotype 1E continues to circulate and genotype 2B was probably recently introduced in Tunisia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytomegalovirus Colitis and Subsequent New Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Study and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tipu V; Toms, Carla

    2016-07-27

    BACKGROUND Infection with gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus in an immunocompetent host is a rather rare occurrence in the literature. There are a few reports of gastrointestinal infection in the immunocompetent who are then subsequently given a new diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. It is speculated that the initial cytomegalovirus colitis infection triggers the onset of inflammatory bowel disease. CASE REPORT Herein we report a case of cytomegalovirus colitis and new diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease identified in a 40-year-old immunocompetent adult man who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms and disseminated cytomegalovirus infection requiring anti-viral therapy, which successfully treated the episode of cytomegalovirus infection. He then went on to have persistent symptomatic inflammatory bowel disease confirmed by pathology. CONCLUSIONS In this paper we will review the literature and explore the rare case of cytomegalovirus colitis in the immunocompetent host and discuss the pathology, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cytomegalovirus colitis.

  18. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-Independent Rubella Infection of Keratinocytes and Resistance of First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells to Rubella Virus In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Duy Trinh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubella virus (RuV, which belongs to the family Togaviridae and genus Rubivirus, causes systemic infection in children and young adults and congenital rubella syndrome in developing fetuses if the infection occurs during pregnancy. The mechanisms of fetal infection by RuV are not completely understood. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG is reported to be a cellular receptor for RuV; however, it is mainly expressed in the central nervous system. Therefore, it is thought that other receptors are also responsible for virus entry into susceptible cells. In this study, we found that first-trimester trophoblast cells were resistant to RuV. In addition, we showed that HaCaT cells (an immortalized keratinocyte cell line that did not express MOG on their surface were infected with RuV. This finding is one of the first demonstrations of MOG-independent RuV infection of susceptible host cells and suggests that it is important to continue searching for alternative RuV receptors. In addition, this study reports the resistance of first-trimester trophoblast cells to RuV and suggests that utilizing an epithelial–mesenchymal transition approach to study the mechanisms of transplacental vertical RuV infection.

  19. The prevalence and efficacy of ganciclovir on steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis with cytomegalovirus infection: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Sun; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Joo Sung; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ye, Byong Duk; Jung, Sung-Ae; Park, Young Sook; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jang, Byung Ik; Han, Dong Soo; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Won Ho

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether or not cytomegalovirus infection in patients with active ulcerative colitis reflects a nonpathogenic colonization or a pathogenic disease warranting antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with active ulcerative colitis and the therapeutic efficacy of ganciclovir against cytomegalovirus infection in patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted in 72 patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis who were treated with intravenous steroids. The presence of cytomegalovirus was evaluated serologically and histopathologic examination, including immunohistochemical staining. In patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis, cytomegalovirus infections were treated with intravenous ganciclovir. In patients with steroid-responsive ulcerative colitis, steroid therapy was continued irrespective of cytomegalovirus infection. The evidence of cytomegalovirus infection was found in 31 patients (43%) with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis. In patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis, the cytomegalovirus infection rate increased to 67% (14 of 21). No significant clinical and endoscopic differences existed between patients with and without a cytomegalovirus infection; however, the amount of steroids used during the flare-up period was significantly higher in patients with a cytomegalovirus infection (P = 0.013). Eleven of 14 patients (79%) with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis and a cytomegalovirus infection improved with ganciclovir treatment. Cytomegalovirus infections in the steroid-responsive group (17 of 31) did not require ganciclovir therapy. Cytomegalovirus infections are frequently observed in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis, especially steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. Ganciclovir was effective in patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis who

  20. Pneumonitis due to cytomegalovirus during chronic methotrexate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Huaranga, Marco Aurelio; Bencosme de Mendez, Erika; Cuadra Díaz, José Luis; Lázaro Polo, Javier; Bujalance Cabrera, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Although hypersensitivity pneumonitis is the most common pulmonary complication described during treatment with methotrexate, other complications like lymphoproliferative and infectious disease may be considered in the study of respiratory disease associated to methotrexate. The existence of an increased risk to developing infectious diseases may be similar to that observed during treatment with antagonists of tumor necrosis factor and corticosteroids, where Cytomegalovirus pneumonia is a serious complication; early diagnosis and treatment will prevent a potentially fatal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Bronchial atresia in a neonate with congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia (BA is characterized by a mucus-filled bronchocele in a blind-ending segmental or lobar bronchus with hyperinflation of the obstructed segment of the lung. We describe a neonate who presented on his 9 th day of life with respiratory distress. Chest computed tomography showed a soft tissue density involving the right middle lobe (RML. RML lobectomy confirmed the diagnosis of BA. Cytomegalovirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and tracheal aspirates which may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of BA.

  2. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in an Immunocompetent Patient: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Imanzade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a virus that can be consider as invasive infection after transplantation or chemotherapy, long-term corticosteroid users or in immunodeficient patients such as HIV. Different complications were seen in immunocompetent patients but colitis rarely occurs. The diagnosis of CMV was based on pathology by colonoscopy, positive CMV antigen and high CMV-IgM titer serum samples and a good response to systemic gancyclovir treatment. In this study we reported a 20 month girl with bloody diarrhea that her colonoscopy showed CMV ulceration.

  3. A Role for Myosin Va in Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Adrian R; Sharma, Mayuri; Pesola, Jean M; Ericsson, Maria; Fernandez, Rosio; Coen, Donald M

    2018-03-15

    Herpesviruses replicate and package their genomes into capsids in replication compartments within the nuclear interior. Capsids then move to the inner nuclear membrane for envelopment and release into the cytoplasm in a process called nuclear egress. We previously found that nuclear F-actin is induced upon infection with the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and is important for nuclear egress and capsid localization away from replication compartment-like inclusions toward the nuclear rim. Despite these and related findings, it has not been shown that any specific motor protein is involved in herpesvirus nuclear egress. In this study, we have investigated whether the host motor protein, myosin Va, could be fulfilling this role. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation, we observed associations between a nuclear population of myosin Va and the viral major capsid protein, with both concentrating at the periphery of replication compartments. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that nearly 40% of assembled nuclear capsids associate with myosin Va. We also found that myosin Va and major capsid protein colocalize with nuclear F-actin. Importantly, antagonism of myosin Va with RNA interference or a dominant negative mutant revealed that myosin Va is important for the efficient production of infectious virus, capsid accumulation in the cytoplasm, and capsid localization away from replication compartment-like inclusions toward the nuclear rim. Our results lead us to suggest a working model whereby human cytomegalovirus capsids associate with myosin Va for movement from replication compartments to the nuclear periphery during nuclear egress. IMPORTANCE Little is known regarding how newly assembled and packaged herpesvirus capsids move from the nuclear interior to the periphery during nuclear egress. While it has been proposed that an actomyosin-based mechanism facilitates intranuclear movement of alphaherpesvirus capsids, a functional role for

  4. Polymorphisms in HLA-DPB1 are associated with differences in rubella virus-specific humoral immunity after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathaniel D; Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, Vernon Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2015-03-15

    Vaccination with live attenuated rubella virus induces a strong immune response in most individuals. However, small numbers of subjects never reach or maintain protective antibody levels, and there is a high degree of variability in immune response. We have previously described genetic polymorphisms in HLA and other candidate genes that are associated with interindividual differences in humoral immunity to rubella virus. To expand our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to discover single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with rubella virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. We identified rs2064479 in the HLA-DPB1 genetic region as being significantly associated with humoral immune response variations after rubella vaccination (P = 8.62 × 10(-8)). All other significant SNPs in this GWAS were located near the HLA-DPB1 gene (P ≤ 1 × 10(-7)). These findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in HLA-DPB1 are strongly associated with interindividual differences in neutralizing antibody levels to rubella vaccination and represent a validation of our previous HLA work. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evaluation of the immune status against measles, mumps, and rubella in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Koji; Yamazaki, Rie; Akahoshi, Yu; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Ishihara, Yuko; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kanda, Junya; Kako, Shinichi; Tanihara, Aki; Nishida, Junji; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that most patients lose immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) during long-term follow-up after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and immunizations against them have been investigated. However, these previous studies mainly targeted pediatric patients and information in adult patients is still insufficient. We evaluated the immunity to MMR in 45 adult allogeneic HSCT patients. None of these patients received vaccination after HSCT. The seropositive rates at six years after allogeneic HSCT were estimated to be less than 44% for measles, less than 10% for mumps, and less than 36% for rubella. Thirteen of the 16 female patients who were 16-39 years old were negative or equivocal for rubella. Patients who developed grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease tended to become seronegative for measles and rubella at two years after HSCT, although the difference was not statistically significant. This study showed that most adult patients lost immunity to MMR after allogeneic HSCT. Although we did not evaluate the safety and efficacy of vaccination in this study, most HSCT guidelines recommend vaccination for HSCT recipients without active chronic graft-versus-host disease or ongoing immunosuppressive therapy at 24 months after HSCT. Immunization against rubella is especially important for female patients of reproductive age. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate the effect of vaccination on the antibody response in adult allogeneic HSCT recipients.

  6. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF ELISA TESTING FOR THE LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF MEASLES AND RUBELLA INFECTIONS AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES/ RUBELLA ELIMINATION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mamaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate ELISA serological studies results of IgM and IgG specific Measles and Rubella Viruses (MRV antibodies detection the “in-house” laboratory controls (ILC including the specific markers of MRV infections were for the first time commercially prepared by the Vector Best PLC (Russia: “Measles-IgM, ser.1”, “Measles-IgM, ser.2”, “Rubella-IgM”, Measles-IgG” and “Rubella-IgG”. This task was realized under the special Executive Order of the Government of Russia N 523-r, 2014, April, 4. According to passport characteristics ILC samples are the lyophilized human sera, inactivated by heating (1 hour at 56°C and stabilized by the mixture of sucrose (5% and ProClin-3000 as the conservation agent. Samples are free of HBs Ag, anti-HVC, T.Pallidum, HIV-1/2, HIV-1Ag р24.The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using the ILC for detection of the MRV IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA with commercial ELISA kits used in Russia and CIS countries. In the process of detecting the specific activity of “Measles-IgM, ser.1”, “Measles-IgM, ser.2” and “Rubella-IgM” by ELISA kits of different formats (Vector Best, EcoLab and Siemens Companies the statistically different results were received (p < 0.05. The optical density (OD values of IgM in the “Measles-IgM, ser.1” and “Measles-IgM, ser.2” ILC, obtained by ELISA “VectoMeasles IgM” (Vector Best were significantly higher than those obtained by ELISA IgEnzygnost®Anti-MeaslesVirus/IgМ. These values consisted for the ser. 1–1.33±0.02 о.u. vs. 0.18±0.01 о.u. (р < 0.05 and for the ser. 2–2.83±0.03 о.u. vs. 0.7±0.02 о.е. (р < 0.05 in the Vector Best and Siemens ELISA kits correspondently. In the “Rubella-IgM” ILC the OD values of the specific IgM by the “ELISA-Rubella IgM” EcoLab were also higher than those obtained by IgEnzygnost®Anti-RubellaVirus/IgМ ELISA kit. These values consisted 2.92±0.04 о.u. vs. 0.88±0.03

  8. Effect of incubation temperature on isolation of cytomegalovirus from fresh clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, W W; Menegus, M A

    1983-10-01

    The sensitivity of WI-38 cell monolayers for the isolation of cytomegalovirus from fresh clinical specimens was reduced by 41% when cultures were incubated at 33 rather than at 36 degrees C. The mean time to initial detection of cytomegalovirus cytopathic effects in cultures incubated at 33 degrees C was 4.3 days later than in cultures incubated at 36 degrees C (4.0 and 5.4 days later for saliva and urine cultures, respectively). Thus, incubation of cultures at 33 degrees C seriously compromises the efficiency with which cytomegalovirus can be isolated from clinical specimens.

  9. Intelligence and Academic Achievement With Asymptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adriana S; Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Claussen, Angelika H; Vinson, Sherry S; Turcich, Marie R; Iovino, Isabella R; Voigt, Robert G; Caviness, A Chantal; Miller, Jerry A; Williamson, W Daniel; Hales, Craig M; Bialek, Stephanie R; Demmler-Harrison, Gail

    2017-11-01

    To examine intelligence, language, and academic achievement through 18 years of age among children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through hospital-based newborn screening who were asymptomatic at birth compared with uninfected infants. We used growth curve modeling to analyze trends in IQ (full-scale, verbal, and nonverbal intelligence), receptive and expressive vocabulary, and academic achievement in math and reading. Separate models were fit for each outcome, modeling the change in overall scores with increasing age for patients with normal hearing ( n = 78) or with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) diagnosed by 2 years of age ( n = 11) and controls ( n = 40). Patients with SNHL had full-scale intelligence and receptive vocabulary scores that were 7.0 and 13.1 points lower, respectively, compared with controls, but no significant differences were noted in these scores among patients with normal hearing and controls. No significant differences were noted in scores for verbal and nonverbal intelligence, expressive vocabulary, and academic achievement in math and reading among patients with normal hearing or with SNHL and controls. Infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through newborn screening with normal hearing by age 2 years do not appear to have differences in IQ, vocabulary or academic achievement scores during childhood, or adolescence compared with uninfected children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Cytomegalovirus in inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römkens, Tessa E H; Bulte, Geert J; Nissen, Loes H C; Drenth, Joost P H

    2016-01-21

    To identify definitions of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and intestinal disease, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to determine the prevalence associated with these definitions. We conducted a systematic review and interrogated PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane for literature on prevalence and diagnostics of CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients. As medical headings we used "cytomegalovirus" OR "CMV" OR "cytomegalo virus" AND "inflammatory bowel disease" OR "IBD" OR "ulcerative colitis" OR "colitis ulcerosa" OR "Crohn's disease". Both MeSH-terms and free searches were performed. We included all types of English-language (clinical) trials concerning diagnostics and prevalence of CMV in IBD. The search strategy identified 924 citations, and 52 articles were eligible for inclusion. We identified 21 different definitions for CMV infection, 8 definitions for CMV intestinal disease and 3 definitions for CMV reactivation. Prevalence numbers depend on used definition, studied population and region. The highest prevalence for CMV infection was found when using positive serum PCR as a definition, whereas for CMV intestinal disease this applies to the use of tissue PCR > 10 copies/mg tissue. Most patients with CMV infection and intestinal disease had steroid refractory disease and came from East Asia. We detected multiple different definitions used for CMV infection and intestinal disease in IBD patients, which has an effect on prevalence numbers and eventually on outcome in different trials.

  11. Rubella virus immunization status in preconception period among Chinese women of reproductive age: A nation-wide, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Zhang, Shikun; Li, Xiaotian; Acharya, Ganesh

    2017-05-25

    Population-based studies on sero-epidemiology of Rubella in women before conception are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the sero-prevalence of Rubella in a nationwide survey among Chinese women planning to get pregnant within six months. This population-based, cross-sectional, sero-survey of Rubella virus infection was a part of the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project covering all 31 provinces in Mainland China. Women intending to get pregnant within six months was enrolled between 2010 and 12. Information on demographic characteristics (age, residence status, race, education and occupation) and vaccination history was obtained by interviews. Rubella virus IgG sero-positivity was determined using venous blood samples. Of 2,120,131 women recruited to the study, Rubella virus IgG serology was available in 1,974,188 (99.3%). Participating women were of young age (median=28years), mostly engaged in agricultural activities (78%), and the majority (90%) had high school education or lower. The overall prevalence of Rubella virus IgG sero-positivity was 58.4% (1,161,129); geographical variation ranged from 92.5% in Jilin to 20.1% in Qinghai and 0.0% in Tibet. Only 4.6% (n=91,604) women reported to have had Rubella virus vaccination, and it varied from 18.6% (Guangdong) to 0.2% (Qinghai). Self-reported vaccination status did not correlate with Rubella virus IgG seropositivity. Prevalence of Rubella sero-positivity is low among Chinese women of reproductive age and there are significant regional differences. Over 40% of women being susceptible to Rubella in preconception period calls for a targeted screening and vaccination strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Hepatitis B and Varicella Zoster Antibodies in Medical and Dental Students in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afagh Moattari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available  Measles, rubella, mumps, hepatitis B virus (HBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV cause infectious diseases that can be effectively prevented by vaccination. Vaccination of medical students is important, because they are more likely to become exposed and infected by these viruses. A total of 180 students, consisting of 90 women and 90 men, were serologically screened for measles, rubella and mumps, HBV and VZV antibodies. Their sera were examined for Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody against these viruses by using ELISA IgG kits. Total antibody against measles, rubella, mumps, HBV and VZV were 52%, 100%, 76%, 68% and 15% respectively. There was no significant difference in antibodies level according to gender.The results of this study indicate vaccination is vital for medical student prior to hospital training.

  13. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Giacinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS.

  14. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Measles, Rubella and Varicella among Asylum Seekers Arriving in Lower Saxony, Germany, November 2014-October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toikkanen, Salla E; Baillot, Armin; Dreesman, Johannes; Mertens, Elke

    2016-06-30

    The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres.

  15. Performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG Assay in the Diagnostic Laboratory Setting for Assessment of Immune Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Uwe; Knotek, Frank; Bunn, Kristina; Strobel, Sirpa; Dietz, Klaus; Enders, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Rubella in early pregnancy bears a high risk for congenital defects (e.g., cataracts, hearing loss, and heart disease) and for long-term sequelae in the newborn. Despite implementation of vaccination programs in many regions, the threat of devastating consequences from congenital rubella virus infection remains and careful screening of maternal immune status before and during pregnancy helps to reduce the risk. This study compared the performance of the Elecsys Rubella IgG assay with that of other assays routinely used for screening. Samples from 1,090 women undergoing routine antenatal care were tested using the Elecsys and Enzygnost Rubella IgG assays and the hemagglutination inhibition test. Samples with hemagglutination inhibition titers of Rubella IgG assays. Agreement of qualitative results from the Elecsys, Enzygnost, and hemagglutination inhibition assays was good in all samples. All assays showed 100.0% specificity. In samples with hemagglutination inhibition titers of 90.0%) than the other immunoassays (78.6 to 82.4%). The Elecsys assay reported significantly higher rubella virus IgG levels than the other immunoassays across the whole set of 1,090 samples, with the largest bias and deviation from limits of agreement in Bland-Altman analysis. In conclusion, the Elecsys assay is highly sensitive and specific with regard to qualitative results and suitable for routine automated screening. However, given the considerable variation between quantitative results from different immunoassays, testing methods should be documented and the same assay used throughout an individual's antenatal follow-up wherever possible. PMID:23345585

  16. Live attenuated rubella vectors expressing SIV and HIV vaccine antigens replicate and elicit durable immune responses in rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Live attenuated viruses are among our most potent and effective vaccines. For human immunodeficiency virus, however, a live attenuated strain could present substantial safety concerns. We have used the live attenuated rubella vaccine strain RA27/3 as a vector to express SIV and HIV vaccine antigens because its safety and immunogenicity have been demonstrated in millions of children. One dose protects for life against rubella infection. In previous studies, rubella vectors replicated to high titers in cell culture while stably expressing SIV and HIV antigens. Their viability in vivo, however, as well as immunogenicity and antibody persistence, were unknown. Results This paper reports the first successful trial of rubella vectors in rhesus macaques, in combination with DNA vaccines in a prime and boost strategy. The vectors grew robustly in vivo, and the protein inserts were highly immunogenic. Antibody titers elicited by the SIV Gag vector were greater than or equal to those elicited by natural SIV infection. The antibodies were long lasting, and they were boosted by a second dose of replication-competent rubella vectors given six months later, indicating the induction of memory B cells. Conclusions Rubella vectors can serve as a vaccine platform for safe delivery and expression of SIV and HIV antigens. By presenting these antigens in the context of an acute infection, at a high level and for a prolonged duration, these vectors can stimulate a strong and persistent immune response, including maturation of memory B cells. Rhesus macaques will provide an ideal animal model for demonstrating immunogenicity of novel vectors and protection against SIV or SHIV challenge. PMID:24041113

  17. Investigation of Rubella antibodies among women of childbearing age in Sanliurfa province: An evaluation of three years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet Duygu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate seroprevalanceof antibodies against rubella virus that maylead to congenital infection among women of fertility ageas a risk group that referred to Şanlıurfa Women’s Healthand Maternity Hospital in the period between 01.01.2007and 31.12.2009.Materials and methods: The results of 13.037 of rubellaIgM and 12.134 of rubella IgG antibodies that investigatedin the sera samples, by using the methods chemiluminescenseimmunoassay and electrochemiluminescence, obtainedfrom the women in fertility age that referred to thehospital with various complaints. Results were evaluatedby classifying in five age subgroups in terms of negative,border line and positive according to the manufacturer’sdescription.Results: Totally, 13.037 women in the age range of 15-49 years (average age 28.35±7.48 years were evaluated.Negative, positive and border line ratios of therubella IgM antibodies were found as 98.1%, 1.7% and0.2%, respectively. Rubella IgG seropositivity was 94.1%whereas its seronegativity rate was 5.9%. The highestrate of rubella IgG seropositivity was found in the 35-44years age group. In comparison to the other age groups,this would be considered significantly high except up to49 age group (p<0.001. Rubella IgG seropositivity wasfound only in 221 patients (1.7%. The highest seropositivityrate was found in the age range of 35-44, and thishigh rate was statically significant except that in the agegroup of 25-34 (p<0.001.Conclusion: Because of the rubella seropositivity washigh in this province, it might be concluded that scanningof the antibodies to rubella in women living in Şanlıurfawas unnecessary. However, considering of the problemsdue to the infection during pregnancy, antibodies to rubellashould be scanned in women that not vaccinated inthe childhood age or previously not have the disease, andthey should be offered the vaccination.

  18. Comparison of Rubazyme-M and MACRIA for the detection of rubella-specific IgM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.M.; Palmer, S.J.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Hodgson, J. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK))

    1984-02-01

    One hundred and eighty-six carefully selected sera were tested for rubella-specific IgM by Rubazyme-M (Abbott Diagnostics) and an M-antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). Eleven of these sera were from cases of infectious mononucleosis, six of which gave positive results in MACRIA, while one gave a positive result in Rubazyme-M. Of the remaining 175 sera, 158 gave concordant results whilst 17 sera gave discordant results; these 17 were also tested by serum fractionation. Problems were encountered with all assay systems used. It is therefore recommended that the results of all tests for rubella-specific IgM should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Lymphotropic Herpesvirus infection and malignant lymphoma, immunological aspects of cytomegalovirus and Epstein- Barr virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, Christianus Hubertus Henricus ten

    1979-01-01

    In de voorgaande hoofdstukken van dit proefschrift werd de oorspronkelijke chronologische volgorde van het onderzoek aangehouden. Maar in dit deel wordt hiervan afgeweken en zullen de resultaten worden samengevat en besproken volgens onderstaande indeling: 1. Cytomegalovirus( CMV)-specifieke

  20. Clinical Trials Using Adenovirus/Cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr Virus-specific Allogeneic Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus/cytomegalovirus/epstein-barr virus-specific allogeneic cytotoxic t lymphocytes.

  1. Observational study to assess pregnant women's knowledge and behaviour to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Spelten, E.R.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but can be prevented by simple precautions of pregnant women. Literature suggests that pregnant women are not always adequately informed by their care provider about preventable infectious

  2. Therapy for cytomegalovirus polyradiculomyelitis in patients with AIDS: treatment with ganciclovir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gans, J.; Portegies, P.; Tiessens, G.; Troost, D.; Danner, S. A.; Lange, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Six AIDS patients with progressive cytomegalovirus (CMV) polyradiculomyelitis were treated with ganciclovir in an open study. The diagnosis was based on the presence of a distinct clinical syndrome with progressive flaccid paraparesis, preserved proprioception and urinary retention with specific

  3. Congenital Rubella Syndrome: An Overview of Clinical Presentations in Bangladeshi Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nure Ishrat Nazme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS has long been characterized by the triad of deafness, cataract and cardiovascular malformations with or without mental retardation. Objective: This study was conducted to observe the clinical manifestations of CRS in children of Bangladesh. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in Dhaka Shishu (Children Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh and National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 40 cases of CRS were enrolled from indoor and outpatient departments of these two hospitals, who were diagnosed according to standard case definition. Serological test for rubella antibody, chest X-ray, colour Doppler echocardiography, visual examination and hearing assessment were done in relative specialised centres. Results: The mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 6.6(±5.7 months (range: 0-24 months. Among the subjects, 68% were male and 32% were female. Serum for rubella specific antibody revealed positive IgG in 60% cases and IgM in 28% cases. Neurological problem was the most frequently observed (90% systemic complication followed by visual problem (83%, congenital hearing loss (80% and congenital heart disease (78%. Cataract was the commonest (55% among visual problems and microcephaly (62% among neurological manifestations. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA was the most common (37.5% isolated structural cardiac defect. Maximum (62.5% children came from poor socioeconomic status. Maternal onset of infection was commonly detected in 1st trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion: Diagnosis of CRS and recognition of its versatile pattern of clinical presentation are crucial for better prognosis of the affected children.

  4. Cytomegalovirus Peritonitis Without Gut Perforation But With Concomitant Colitis After a Liver Allograft Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Pahlavan Sabbagh, Mohammad Reza; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2017-02-01

    We present a 24-year-old man who developed primary cytomegalovirus peritonitis without gut perforation, but with concomitant colitis 6 weeks after liver transplant from a deceased donor for end-stage liver disease because of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The patient was treated only medically, with no need for surgery, and is well at 12 months. This case represents the need for suspicious for cytomegalovirus peritonitis in the appropriate setting in post liver transplant even in the absence of perforation.

  5. Clinical and morphological characteristics of malformations in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and congenital toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barycheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of following up infants with intrauterine infections and malformations were retrospectively analyzed. Infants with malformations were diagnosed as having congenital cytomegalovirus infection and congenital toxoplasmosis in 127 and 69 cases, respectively. The aim of the study was to characterize malformations in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus and congenital Toxoplasma infections. The infants with malformations in congenital cytomegalovirus infection were found to have higher mortality rates (61,4% than those with congenital toxoplasmosis (34,8%. Postmortem analysis indicated that there was a predominance of embryopathies in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and that of fetopathies in those with congenital toxoplasmosis. The dead infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection had more commonly developed visceral defects, including heart diseases, pneumopathies, gastrointestinal and genitourinary abnormalities; fetopathies of the central nervous system and eye were prevalent in congenital toxoplasmosis. The surviving children with congenital toxoplasmosis were more frequently observed to have disabling CNS and ocular sequels as obstructive hydrocephalus, infantile cerebral palsy, complete or partial blindness, and cerebrasthenic disorders than those with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. 

  6. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy and the neonate: consensus recommendations for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, William D; Boppana, Suresh B; Fowler, Karen B; Kimberlin, David W; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Alain, Sophie; Daly, Kate; Doutré, Sara; Gibson, Laura; Giles, Michelle L; Greenlee, Janelle; Hamilton, Stuart T; Harrison, Gail J; Hui, Lisa; Jones, Cheryl A; Palasanthiran, Pamela; Schleiss, Mark R; Shand, Antonia W; van Zuylen, Wendy J

    2017-06-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus is the most frequent, yet under-recognised, infectious cause of newborn malformation in developed countries. Despite its clinical and public health importance, questions remain regarding the best diagnostic methods for identifying maternal and neonatal infection, and regarding optimal prevention and therapeutic strategies for infected mothers and neonates. The absence of guidelines impairs global efforts to decrease the effect of congenital cytomegalovirus. Data in the literature suggest that congenital cytomegalovirus infection remains a research priority, but data are yet to be translated into clinical practice. An informal International Congenital Cytomegalovirus Recommendations Group was convened in 2015 to address these questions and to provide recommendations for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. On the basis of consensus discussions and a review of the literature, we do not support universal screening of mothers and the routine use of cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin for prophylaxis or treatment of infected mothers. However, treatment guidelines for infected neonates were recommended. Consideration must be given to universal neonatal screening for cytomegalovirus to facilitate early detection and intervention for sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delay, where appropriate. The group agreed that education and prevention strategies for mothers were beneficial, and that recommendations will need continual updating as further data become available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Letermovir and inhibitors of the terminase complex: a promising new class of investigational antiviral drugs against human cytomegalovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Melendez DP; Razonable RR

    2015-01-01

    Dante P Melendez,1,2 Raymund R Razonable1,2 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2William J von Liebig Center for Transplantation and Clinical Regeneration, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Infection with cytomegalovirus is prevalent in immunosuppressed patients. In solid organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, cytomegalovirus infection is associated with high morbidity and preventable mortality. Prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus with currently app...

  8. Dual Intravitreal Injections With Foscarnet and Ganciclovir for Ganciclovir-Resistant Recurrent Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in a Congenitally Infected Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Joseph D; Rosenberg, Kevin; Shah, Rajiv

    2016-10-22

    Resistant strains of cytomegalovirus can be difficult to treat in cases of congenital cytomegalovirus retinitis. The authors describe a case of recurrent bilateral congenital cytomegalovirus retinitis in an immunocompetent newborn with ganciclovir resistance successfully treated uniquely with dual therapy of intravenous ganciclovir and foscarnet and dual intravitreal injections with ganciclovir and foscarnet. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e58-e60.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Knowledge and Awareness of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Among Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a leading cause of disabilities in children, yet the general public appears to have little awareness of CMV. Methods. Women were surveyed about newborn infections at 7 different geographic locations. Results. Of the 643 women surveyed, 142 (22% had heard of congenital CMV. Awareness increased with increasing levels of education (P<.0001. Women who had worked as a healthcare professional had a higher prevalence of awareness of CMV than had other women (56% versus 16%, P <.0001. Women who were aware of CMV were most likely to have heard about it from a healthcare provider (54%, but most could not correctly identify modes of CMV transmission or prevention. Among common causes of birth defects and childhood illnesses, women's awareness of CMV ranked last. Conclusion. Despite its large public health burden, few women had heard of congenital CMV, and even fewer were aware of prevention strategies.

  10. Growth in Agarose of Human Cells Infected with Cytomegalovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David J.; Montagnier, Luc; Latarjet, Raymond

    1974-01-01

    After infection by human cytomegalovirus (CMV), human diploid fibroblasts could grow in agarose medium for several generations. Clones of infected cells grew for weeks, although in every case they ultimately underwent lysis owing to the cytopathic effect of the virus. Virus was inoculated at high dilution and after UV irradiation in an effort to derive cells infected with noninfectious defective particles still capable of inducing cell stimulation. Dilute or irradiated virus occasionally yielded large colonies of replicating cells, although permanent transformation was not observed. One clone derived from UV-CMV-infected cells was passaged four times before undergoing lysis. During these passages the cells exhibited alterations in morphology and orientation. Images PMID:4367907

  11. Dynamics of the cellular metabolome during human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Munger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication requires energy and macromolecular precursors derived from the metabolic network of the host cell. Despite this reliance, the effect of viral infection on host cell metabolic composition remains poorly understood. Here we applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 63 different intracellular metabolites at multiple times after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection of human fibroblasts. Parallel microarray analysis provided complementary data on transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways. As the infection progressed, the levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis markedly increased. HCMV-induced transcriptional upregulation of specific glycolytic and citric acid cycle enzymes mirrored the increases in metabolite levels. The peak levels of numerous metabolites during infection far exceeded those observed during normal fibroblast growth or quiescence, demonstrating that HCMV markedly disrupts cellular metabolic homeostasis and institutes its own specific metabolic program.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, C.; Issakainen, J.; Kewitz, G.; Kikinis, R.; Martin, E.; Boltshauser, E.

    1989-01-01

    The children (age 2 months to 8 years) with a congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 2.35 Tesla magnet. CMV infection was confirmed by serological investigations and virus culture in the neonatal period. Nine children had severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy, 1 patient suffered from microcephaly, ataxia and deafness. The cranial MRI examination showed the following abnormalities (N): Dilated lateral ventricles (10) and subarachnoid space (8), oligo/pacgyria (8), delayed/pathological myelination (7), paraventricular cysts (6), intra-cerebral calcification (1). This lack of sensitivity for calcification is explainable by the basic principles of MRI. The paraventricular cystic lesions were adjacent ot the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles and separated only by a thin membrane. This finding might represent a 'new sign' for congenital CMV infection in MRI examinations, being characteristic but nevertheless nonspecific, like calcification in CT.

  13. Role of Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Proteins in Virion Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca Marie; Kosuri, Srivenkat; Kerry, Julie Anne

    2014-01-01

    Like other herpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contains a unique proteinaceous layer between the virion envelope and capsid, termed the tegument. Upon infection, the contents of the tegument layer are delivered to the host cell, along with the capsid and the viral genome, where they facilitate the initial stages of virus replication. The tegument proteins also play important roles in virion assembly and this dual nature makes them attractive potential targets for antiviral therapies. While our knowledge regarding tegument protein function during the initiation of infection has been the subject of intense study, their roles in assembly are much less well understood. In this review, we will focus on recent studies that highlight the functions of HCMV tegument proteins during assembly, and pose key questions for further investigation. PMID:24509811

  14. Cytomegalovirus as an oncomodulatory agent in the progression of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gabriel P; McDermott, Ryan; Baryshnikova, Maria A; Cobbs, Charles S; Ulasov, Ilya V

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive neoplastic brain tumor in humans with a median survival of less than 2 years. It is therefore critical to understand the mechanism of glioma progression and to identify future targets for intervention. We investigate the mechanisms of cytomegalovirus as an oncomodulatory agent implicated in glioma progression, as well as immunosuppression. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of recent investigative developments concerning the role of CMV in cellular processes during glioma growth. The manners in which CMV and its viral products interact with regulatory cellular signaling pathways in the host are of primary interest. Here, we examine some of the most significant oncomodulatory effects that CMV can confer in brain tumors, including the inhibition of apoptosis and promoting the growth of glioma stem cells, which are tightly linked to tumor survival and recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus-mediated immunomodulation: Effects on glioblastoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Haidn; Ulasov, Ilya V; Cobbs, Charles S

    2017-08-01

    The presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), first established in 2002, has developed into an area of considerable interest and controversy. Numerous studies have found evidence of possible HCMV infection of GBM tumor cells as well as myriad onco- and immunomodulatory properties exhibited by HCMV antigens and transcripts, while recent reports have failed to detect HCMV particles in GBM and question the virus' role in tumor progression. This review highlights the known immunomodulatory properties of HCMV, independent of GBM infection status, that help drive the virus from peripheral blood into the vital tissues and subsequently dampen local immune response, assisting GBM tumors in evading immune surveillance and contributing to the disease's poor prognosis. Emerging antiviral approaches to treating GBM, including antiviral drugs and immunotherapies directed against HCMV, are also examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytomegalovirus Kinetics Following Primary Infection in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael S; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Diener-West, Marie; Pass, Robert F; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2017-05-15

    The kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in infected asymptomatic hosts are largely unknown. We measured viral load (VL) in 124 fluid samples (oral, urine, vaginal, blood) collected from 21 women who acquired CMV. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of US17, which correlated with clinical assays, was used. VL decreased following primary infection in all fluids. The geometric mean VL of vaginal fluid was significantly higher than that of other sources: oral (3.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-10.57), urine (6.36; 95% CI, 2.48-16.32), and whole blood (11.88; 95% CI, 4.12-34.20). Vaginal CMV shedding may provide a route for sexual and possibly perinatal transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cytomegalovirus-induced immunopathology and its clinical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous DNA virus that causes severe disease in patients with immature or impaired immune systems. During active infection, CMV modulates host immunity, and CMV-infected patients often develop signs of immune dysfunction, such as immunosuppression and autoimmune phenomena. Furthermore, active viral infection has been observed in several autoimmune diseases, and case reports have linked primary CMV infection and the onset of autoimmune disorders. In addition, CMV infection promotes allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease in solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients, respectively, further implicating CMV in the genesis and maintenance of immunopathological phenomena. The mechanisms by which CMV could induce inhibition of host defense, inflammation, and autoimmunity are discussed, as is the treatment of virus-induced immunopathology with antivirals. PMID:21473750

  18. Letermovir Treatment of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Antiinfective Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Priya S; Schleiss, Mark R

    2013-05-01

    Novel therapies are urgently needed for the management of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in high-risk patients. Currently licensed agents target the viral DNA polymerase, and although they are effective, they are fraught with toxicities to patients. Moreover, emergence of antiviral resistance is an increasing problem, particularly for patients on long-term suppressive therapy. A new agent, letermovir (AIC246), shows great promise for the management of CMV infection. Advantages include its good oral bioavailability, its lack of toxicity, and the apparent absence of drug-drug interactions. Letermovir has a novel mechanism of action, exerting its antiviral effect by interfering with the viral pUL56 gene product and in the process disrupting the viral terminase complex. This agent demonstrates substantial promise as an alternative to more toxic antivirals in patients at high risk for CMV disease, particularly in the transplantation setting.

  19. Cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplant recipients: updates on clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Jasmine Riviere; Beam, Elena; Razonable, Raymund R

    2014-08-21

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication after liver transplantation, and it is associated with multiple direct and indirect effects. Management of CMV infection and disease has evolved over the years, and clinical guidelines have been recently updated. Universal antiviral prophylaxis and a pre-emptive treatment strategy are options for prevention. A currently-recruiting randomized clinical trial is comparing the efficacy and safety of the two prevention strategies in the highest risk D+R- liver recipients. Drug-resistant CMV infection remains uncommon but is now increasing in incidence. This highlights the currently limited therapeutic options, and the need for novel drug discoveries. Immunotherapy and antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are being investigated, including letermovir (AIC246) and brincidofovir (CMX001). This article reviews the current state of CMV management after liver transplantation, including the updated practice guidelines, and summarizes the data on investigational drugs and vaccines in clinical development.

  20. Synchronous cytomegalovirus infection in a newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yu Chieng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old Punjabi female patient presented with six months history of mild abdominal discomfort with bloody diarrhea. She did not have underlying chronic medical illness; she neither took steroid nor immunosuppressant. She was found anemic, thrombocytosis, and elevated C-reactive protein. Colonoscopy showed moderate left sided colitis, with histopathology evidence of ulcerative colitis (UC with cytomegalovirus (CMV infection. Her serum anti-CMV IgM antibody was detected. She was treated with intravenous ganciclovir, together with 5-ASA and tapering dose of steroid. Anemia was corrected. Subsequent clinic reviews and follow up endoscopies showed dramatically improvement. CMV colitis should be considered for the patients presenting with moderate to severe UC. Early prescription of antiviral would be beneficial in the treatment of flare of UC.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravender, Terrill

    2010-08-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome that is common in adolescents and young adults and is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, and fatigue. IM is most commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which case laboratory findings include a lymphocytosis with an elevated number of atypical lymphocytes seen on peripheral smear and a heterophile or EBV-specific antibody response. Approximately 10% of those with IM will not be acutely infected with EBV. Many of these individuals will have their symptoms attributed to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This chapter reviews the history, diagnosis, clinical management, and potential complications of both EBV- and CMV-associated IM in adolescents and young adults.

  2. Hemorrhagic Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Postoperative Colon Cancer Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motonobu Saito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hemorrhagic cytomegalovirus (CMV colitis, occurring in a postoperative patient due to a weakened immune system. An 85-year-old woman with a medical history, including chronic renal failure treated with oral administration of prednisolone, underwent colectomy due to an ascending colon cancer. While the postoperative course was favorable, she exhibited acute severe abdominal pain and massive bloody discharge after 11 days of surgery. Her colonoscopic examination showed multiple longitudinal ulcers on the anastomosis. In addition to these endoscopic findings, her past medical history helped suggest CMV colitis. Because serological testing revealed positive CMV antigen, she was finally given a diagnosis of CMV colitis and received intravenous ganciclovir for the initial treatment. Hemorrhagic CMV colitis after colectomy is an important postoperative complication; we therefore present our case with diagnosis and treatment experience.

  3. Trends in the treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in oncohematological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Balashov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV-related complications remain an extremely serious and urgent problem in immunocompromised patients. Ganciclovir (GCV is efficient for the treatment of CMV-infection, but myelotoxicity limits the possibilities of their application. In addition, prolonged or intermittent courses of antiviral drugs predispose to the development of CMV drug-resistant strains. Valganciclovir is a safe and effective alternative to intravenous GCV. Despite the well-spread application of effective methods of early detection and pre-emptive treatment, the issue of the control of CMV-infection is not resolved. High intensive immunoablative therapy (alemtuzumab, ATG, еtс. and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT from alternative donors greatly increase the risk of life-threatening visceral CMV-infections in patients. Thereby, studies of new therapeutic approaches (for example, transfusion of CMV-specific T-cells are actually in process.

  4. Modulation of the NFκb Signalling Pathway by Human Cytomegalovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Meaghan H; Nelson, Jay A

    2017-01-01

    Many viruses trigger innate and adaptive immune responses and must circumvent the negative consequences to successfully establish infection in their hosts. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no exception, and devotes a significant portion of its coding capacity to genes involved in immune evasion. Activation of the NFκB signalling pathway by viral binding and entry results in induction of antiviral and pro-inflammatory genes that have significant negative effects on HCMV infection. However, NFκB signalling stimulates transcription from the Major Immediate Early Promoter (MIEP) and pro-inflammatory signalling is crucial for cellular differentiation and viral reactivation from latency. Accordingly, HCMV encodes proteins that act to both stimulate and inhibit the NFκB signalling pathway. In this Review we will highlight the complex interactions between HCMV and NFκB, discussing the known agonists and antagonists encoded by the virus and suggest why manipulation of the pathway may be critical for both lytic and latent infections. PMID:29082387

  5. Hearing Loss in Children With Asymptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Chung, Winnie; Flores, Marily; Blum, Peggy; Caviness, A Chantal; Bialek, Stephanie R; Grosse, Scott D; Miller, Jerry A; Demmler-Harrison, Gail

    2017-03-01

    To assess the prevalence, characteristics, and risk of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through hospital-based newborn screening who were asymptomatic at birth compared with uninfected children. We included 92 case-patients and 51 controls assessed by using auditory brainstem response and behavioral audiometry. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate the prevalence of SNHL, defined as ≥25 dB hearing level at any frequency and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to compare SNHL risk between groups. At age 18 years, SNHL prevalence was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17%-36%) among case-patients and 8% (95% CI: 3%-22%) in controls (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.0; 95% CI: 1.2-14.5; P = .02). Among children without SNHL by age 5 years, the risk of delayed-onset SNHL was not significantly greater for case-patients than for controls (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.4-6.1; P = .5). Among case-patients, the risk of delayed-onset SNHL was significantly greater among those with unilateral congenital/early-onset hearing loss than those without (HR: 6.9; 95% CI: 2.5-19.1; P < .01). The prevalence of severe to profound bilateral SNHL among case-patients was 2% (95% CI: 1%-9%). Delayed-onset and progression of SNHL among children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection continued to occur throughout adolescence. However, the risk of developing SNHL after age 5 years among case-patients was not different than in uninfected children. Overall, 2% of case-patients developed SNHL that was severe enough for them to be candidates for cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Cytomegalovirus-Specific T-Cell Transfer for Refractory Cytomegalovirus Infection After Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation: The Quantitative and Qualitative Immune Recovery for Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xu-Ying; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Chang, Ying-Jun; Liu, Jing; Xu, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Han, Wei; Chen, Yu-Hong; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-15

    The efficiency and mechanisms of adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus (CMV)specific T cells for refractory CMV infection after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) remain largely unknown. Thirty-two patients with refractory CMV infection who accepted treatment with adoptive CMV-specific T-cell infusion following haplo-SCT were prospectively enrolled. Another 32 patients with nonrefractory CMV infection after haplo-SCT were selected as control subjects. The phenotypical and functional characteristics of CMV-specific T cells were analyzed before and after cellular therapy in the refractory cohort, as well as in the nonrefractory cohort. In the refractory cohort, 27 of the 32 treated patients exhibited CMV clearance within 4 weeks after adoptive T-cell transfer without recurrence. The in vivo expansion of CMV-specific T cells and improvements in the cytokine production and proliferation ability of the CMV-specific T cells were observed after cellular therapy. Moreover, a reduced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) on CMV-specific T cells was observed. However, in the remaining 5 patients who showed CMV recurrence 4 weeks after transfer, neither the quantity nor the function of CMV-specific T cells was restored. The adoptive transfer of CMV-specific T cells promotes quantitative and functional recovery of CMV-specific T cells to guard against refractory CMV infection after haplo-SCT.

  7. Decay of Passively Acquired Maternal Antibodies against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoara, Corina; Zäch, Kristina; Trachsel, Daniel; Germann, Daniel; Matter, Lukas

    1999-01-01

    The decay of maternally derived antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses in Swiss infants was studied in order to determine the optimal time for vaccination. A total of 500 serum or plasma samples from infants up to 2 years of age were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent-antibody testing. The decline of antibody prevalence was slowest against the measles virus. By 9 to 12 months of age, only 5 of 58 (8.6%; 95% CI, 2.9 to 19.0) infants were antibody positive for the measles virus, and only 2 had levels above 200 mIU/ml. Mumps and rubella virus antibody seropositivity was lowest at 9 to 12 months of age with 3 of 58 (5.2%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.4) infants and at 12 to 15 months with 1 of 48 (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 11.1) infants, respectively. Concentrations of passively acquired antibodies decreased rapidly within the first 6 months of life. We observed no significant differences in antibody prevalence or concentration according to gender in any age group. In conclusion, MMR vaccination at 12 instead of 15 months of age could reduce the pool of susceptible subjects in infancy and support the efforts to eliminate these infections, particularly in combination with a second vaccine dose before school entry. PMID:10548578

  8. Molecular evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of genotypes 1G and 2B of rubella virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Padhi

    Full Text Available Rubella Virus (RV, which causes measles-like rashes in children, puts millions of infants at risk of congenital defects across the globe. Employing phylogenetic approaches to the whole genome sequence data and E1 glycoprotein sequence data, the present study reports the substitution rates and dates of emergence of all thirteen previously described rubella genotypes, and gains important insights into the epidemiological dynamics of two geographically widely distributed genotypes 1G and 2B. The overall nucleotide substitution rate of this non-vector-borne RV is in the order of 10-3 substitutions/site/year, which is considerably higher than the substitution rates previously reported for the vector-borne alphaviruses within the same family. Currently circulating strains of RV share a common ancestor that existed within the last 150 years, with 95% Highest Posterior Density values ranging from 1868 to 1926 AD. Viral strains within the respective genotypes began diverging between the year 1930 s and 1980 s. Both genotype 1G and 2B have shown a decline in effective number of infections since 1990 s, a period during which mass immunization programs against RV were adapted across the globe. Although both genotypes showed some extent of spatial genetic structuring, the analyses also depicted an inter-continental viral dispersal. Such a viral dispersal pattern could be related to the migration of infected individuals across the regions coupled with a low coverage of MMR vaccination.

  9. [Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome revealing rubella meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, A; Mansour, M; Messelmani, M; Riahi, A; Derbali, H; Bedoui, I; Zaouali, J; Mrissa, R

    2016-12-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMS) is a rare clinical syndrome, of paraneoplastic infectious, post-infectious, post-vaccinal or idiopathic origin. We report a 24-year-old young man who presented with gait disorder preceded by a febrile rash and retroauricular lymph nodes. Three days before admission, he had headache, vertigo, nausea and vomiting followed by gait unsteadiness and movement disorders of limbs and eyes. On examination, he had OMS syndrome. Brain MRI, total body scan, MIBG scintigraphy, tumor markers and onconeural antibodies were normal. Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed lymphocytic meningitis. Positive serum and CSF immunoglobulin M antibody against rubella virus was demonstrated. He received acyclovir with full recovery within two weeks. We discuss the peculiarities of this association with a literature review. This observation enlarges the spectrum of neurological manifestations of rubella as well as that of OMS etiologies. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying seasonal population fluxes driving rubella transmission dynamics using mobile phone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Metcalf, C J E; Eagle, Nathan; Kombich, Janeth; Grenfell, Bryan T; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Lessler, Justin; Tatem, Andrew J; Buckee, Caroline O

    2015-09-01

    Changing patterns of human aggregation are thought to drive annual and multiannual outbreaks of infectious diseases, but the paucity of data about travel behavior and population flux over time has made this idea difficult to test quantitatively. Current measures of human mobility, especially in low-income settings, are often static, relying on approximate travel times, road networks, or cross-sectional surveys. Mobile phone data provide a unique source of information about human travel, but the power of these data to describe epidemiologically relevant changes in population density remains unclear. Here we quantify seasonal travel patterns using mobile phone data from nearly 15 million anonymous subscribers in Kenya. Using a rich data source of rubella incidence, we show that patterns of population travel (fluxes) inferred from mobile phone data are predictive of disease transmission and improve significantly on standard school term time and weather covariates. Further, combining seasonal and spatial data on travel from mobile phone data allows us to characterize seasonal fluctuations in risk across Kenya and produce dynamic importation risk maps for rubella. Mobile phone data therefore offer a valuable previously unidentified source of data for measuring key drivers of seasonal epidemics.

  11. Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. C. Maple

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended.

  12. An Improved Diluent for Rubella Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletta, Angela E.; Gitnick, Gary L.; Whitmire, Carrie E.; Sever, John L.

    1968-01-01

    Rubella hemagglutinating (HA) antigen was prepared in BHK-21 tissue as 5% cell suspensions and from unconcentrated and 20× concentrated infected supernatant fluids. In some instances, unconcentrated fluids were treated with Tween 80 and ether; cell suspensions were treated with ether alone. Preparations were tested for HA activity in dextrose-gelatin-Veronal (DGV) buffer solutions; 0.85% NaCl; Sorenson's phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.2; and a diluent of 0.9% NaCl, 0.1% CaCl2 (anhydrous), and 0.1% MgSO4·7H2O. HA titers were consistently two- to fourfold higher in the saline with added Ca++ and Mg++ than in DGV. Hemagglutination-inhibition titers of paired human sera were the same in either diluent. It is suggested that the interaction between rubella HA antigen and the red cells of young (less than 1-day-old) chicks may be at least partially ion dependent and that titers are enhanced by increased quantities of divalent cations. PMID:5659363

  13. Prevalence and clinical management of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients in shanghai, china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ying

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a common AIDS-associated illness, leading to blindness in up to 30% of patients. This study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical management of the cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with AIDS in a large municipality of China. Methods Clinical and laboratory data from 23 cytomegalovirus retinitis patients (35 eyes out of 303 hospitalized AIDS individuals in a single medical center were analyzed retrospectively. Two of 23 patients were diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis just before hospitalization without anti-CMV therapy. Ganciclovir combined with the high active anti-retroviral therapy was installed for treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis after diagnosis was confirmed. The data were analyzed by specialists and statistics was also applied. Results The prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis in hospitalized AIDS patients was 7.6% in this study. The level of CD4+ T lymphocytes was correlated well with the occurrence of cytomegalovirus retinitis, showing 16.8% (19/113 (95% confidence interval: 10.4,25.0, 5.4% (3/56 (95% confidence interval: 1.1,14.9, and 1.4% (1/69 (95% confidence interval: 0.0,7.8 occurrence in the patients with CD4+ T lymphocyte counts 4+ T lymphocyte counts was 31.7 ± 38.6 cells/μl in 23 AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Median CD4+ T lymphocyte count is 20 cells/μl with inter-quartile range as (5, 36. Seven patients died (11 eyes and 16 patients (24 eyes survived. The proportion of blindness and low vision in eyes infected with cytomegalovirus retinitis respectively was 20.8% (5/24 and 29.2% (7/24 when they were diagnosed in survivors. The ganciclovir therapy was effective in 16 patients (24 eyes. Clinical recovery of cytomegalovirus retinitis was 41.7% (10/24 and clinical improvement 58.3% (14/24. After anti-CMV treatment, the proportion of blindness or low vision was 16.7% (4/24. Conclusions The AIDS patients with CD4+ T lymphocyte 4+ T lymphocyte

  14. [Evaluation of the seroprotection against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children under 5 years of age in Peru, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiestas Solórzano, Víctor; Gonzáles Noriega, Marco; Fiestas, Fabián; Cabezudo, Edwin; Suárez, Magna; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children aged between 1 and 4 years in Peru. A national survey was conducted based on a questionnaire and capillary blood sample taken on filter paper in order to study antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children from 1 to 4 years of age. A stratified, multistage, probability sampling design was used to be representative at the national level and at level of seven ambits, including the Metropolitan Lima Area, the rest of the urban coast, the rural coast, the urban highlands, the rural highlands, the urban jungle and the rural jungle. The capillary blood samples were processed according to the standardized protocols for detection of antibodies using the ELISA technique and commercial reagents. The survey showed a national prevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B of 91.6% (CI 95%: 90.6%; 92.7%), 91.3% (CI 95%: 90.3%; 92.4%) and 95.9% (CI 95%: 95.0%; 96.8%) respectively. There was no evidence of significant differences in the prevalence among the ambits of study or among the socioeconomic strata of the conglomerates for any of the three types of antibodies. In children from 1 to 4 years of age, the national prevalence of antibodies against measles and Rubella was between 90-93%, while the prevalence of antibodies against Hepatitis B (anti-HBsAg) was between 95-97%.

  15. Estimation of the Cultured Cells' Volume and Surface Area: Application of Stereological Methods on Vero Cells Infected by Rubella Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2016-01-01

    Morphological changes of the cells infected with rubella virus cannot be observed easily. Estimation of the size of the cultured cells can be a valuable parameter in this condition. This study was conducted to find answers to the following questions: How much time after infection with rubella virus, the volume and surface area of the Vero cells and their nuclei get started to change?How is it possible to apply stereological methods to estimate the volume and surface area of the cultured cells using the invariator, nucleator, and surfactor techniques? The cultured Vero cells were infected with rubella virus. The cells of the control and experimental groups were harvested at 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours following the incubation period. The cells were processed and embedded in paraffin. Invariator, nucleator, and surfactor were applied to estimate the size of the Vero cells and their nuclei. The cell volume was decreased by 15-24%, 48 hours after the infection in comparison to the non-infected cells. Besides, the cell surface area was decreased by 13%, 48 hours after the infection. However, no changes were detected in the nuclei. The values of the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the cells, estimated by invariator, were lower compared to those measured by the nucleator or surfactor. In this study, the volume and surface area of the Vero cells were reduced by rubella virus 48 hours after infection. Invariator is a more precise method compared to nucleator or surfactor.

  16. [The evaluation of susceptibility to rubella in women of childbearing age; the experience of the Asl Roma C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Andreina; Vazzoler, Cristiana; Arrivi, Fabiana; Pettinicchio, Valentina; Marzani, Stefano; Trinito, Massimo O

    2014-01-01

    The new Plan for Elimination of Measles and Congenital Rubella 2010-15 recommends the local health unit (ASL) to analyze the immunization coverage data available in the adult population cohorts, in order to identify susceptible people. The aim of this paper is to estimate the susceptibility to rubella in resident women of childbearing age, through integration of all ASL data sources, in order to implement the most appropriate vaccination strategy for susceptible women. In ASL Roma C, the "PASSI" surveillance system estimates a 53% prevalence of childbearing age women immune to rubella; as many as 43 % is not aware of her immune status and 4% is certainly susceptible because of reporting a negative result "rubeotest" (years 2008-10). The data extracted from the database of the ASL Roma C laboratory (year 2010) estimate a prevalence of approximately 20% of susceptibility among women who spontaneously perform a rubeotest at the hospital laboratory for any reason (control or pregnancy). Childbearing age women susceptible to rubella, residing in the territory of our ASL, are definitely more than 5%, ranging from 4% estimated by the "PASSI" surveillance system to 20% detected by hospital laboratory.

  17. Contrasting demographic history and population structure in Capsella rubella and Capsella grandiflora, two closely related species with different mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Onge, Kate R; Källman, Thomas; Slotte, Tanja; Lascoux, Martin; Palmé, Anna E

    2011-08-01

    Both mating system and population history can have large impacts on genetic diversity and population structure. Here, we use multilocus sequence data to investigate how these factors impact two closely related Brassicaceae species: the selfing Capsella rubella and the outcrossing C. grandiflora. To do this, we have sequenced 16 loci in approximately 70 individuals from 7 populations of each species. Patterns of population structure differ strongly between the two species. In C. grandiflora, we observe an isolation-by-distance pattern and identify three clearly delineated genetic groups. In C. rubella, where we estimate the selfing rate to be 0.90-0.94, the pattern is less clear with some sampling populations forming separate genetic clusters while others are highly mixed. The two species also have divergent histories. Our analysis gives support for a bottleneck approximately 73 kya (20-139 kya) in C. rubella, which most likely represents speciation from C. grandiflora. In C. grandiflora, there is moderate support for the standard neutral model in 2 of 3 genetic clusters, while the third cluster and the total data set show evidence of expansion. It is clear that mating system has an impact on these two species, for example affecting the level of genetic variation and the genetic structure. However, our results also clearly show that a combination of past and present processes, some of which are not affected by mating system, is needed to explain the differences between C. rubella and C. grandiflora. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  19. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  20. Project Word-Back: Exploratory Follow-Up Study on Deaf-Blind (Rubella) Children in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffelin, Edward J.

    Project Word-Back, an exploratory followup study of 21 young deaf-blind (Rubella) children (6 to 9 years old), was conducted to establish a tentative reference source of information, obtain teacher estimates on selected aspects of the current functioning level of a sample of children, and provide basic data from which hypotheses may be formulated…