Sample records for pseudo-response regulator belonging

  1. Interaction of a plant pseudo-response regulator with a calmodulin-like protein

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    Perochon, Alexandre; Dieterle, Stefan; Pouzet, Cecile; Aldon, Didier; Galaud, Jean-Philippe [UMR 5546 CNRS/Universite Toulouse 3, Pole de Biotechnologie vegetale, BP 42617 Auzeville, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France); Ranty, Benoit, E-mail: [UMR 5546 CNRS/Universite Toulouse 3, Pole de Biotechnologie vegetale, BP 42617 Auzeville, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France)


    Research highlights: {yields} The pseudo-response regulator PRR2 specifically binds CML9, a calmodulin-like protein {yields} The interaction is confirmed in plant cell nuclei {yields} The interaction requires an intact PRR2 protein. -- Abstract: Calmodulin (CaM) plays a crucial role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes by modulating the activities of numerous target proteins. Plants possess an extended CaM family including numerous CaM-like proteins (CMLs), most of which appear to be unique to plants. We previously demonstrated a role for CML9 in abiotic stress tolerance and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. We report here the isolation of PRR2, a pseudo-response regulator as a CML9 interacting protein by screening an expression library prepared from Arabidopsis seedlings with CML9 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system. PRR2 is similar to the response regulators of the two-component system, but lacks the invariant residue required for phosphorylation by which response regulators switch their output response, suggesting the existence of alternative regulatory mechanisms. PRR2 was found to bind CML9 and closely related CMLs but not a canonical CaM. Mapping analyses indicate that an almost complete form of PRR2 is required for interaction with CML9, suggesting a recognition mode different from the classical CaM-target peptide complex. PRR2 contains several features that are typical of transcription factors, including a GARP DNA recognition domain, a Pro-rich region and a Golden C-terminal box. PRR2 and CML9 as fusion proteins with fluorescent tags co-localized in the nucleus of plant cells, and their interaction in the nuclear compartment was validated in planta by using a fluorophore-tagged protein interaction assay. These findings suggest that binding of PRR2 to CML9 may be an important mechanism to modulate the physiological role of this transcription factor in plants.

  2. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

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    Saito Shigeru


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  3. Comparative mapping, genomic structure, and expression analysis of eight pseudo-response regulator genes in Brassica rapa. (United States)

    Kim, Jin A; Kim, Jung Sun; Hong, Joon Ki; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Beom-Soon; Seol, Young-Joo; Jeon, Chang Hoo


    Circadian clocks regulate plant growth and development in response to environmental factors. In this function, clocks influence the adaptation of species to changes in location or climate. Circadian-clock genes have been subject of intense study in models such as Arabidopsis thaliana but the results may not necessarily reflect clock functions in species with polyploid genomes, such as Brassica species, that include multiple copies of clock-related genes. The triplicate genome of Brassica rapa retains high sequence-level co-linearity with Arabidopsis genomes. In B. rapa we had previously identified five orthologs of the five known Arabidopsis pseudo-response regulator (PRR) genes that are key regulators of the circadian clock in this species. Three of these B. rapa genes, BrPRR1, BrPPR5, and BrPPR7, are present in two copies each in the B. rapa genome, for a total of eight B. rapa PRR (BrPRR) orthologs. We have now determined sequences and expression characteristics of the eight BrPRR genes and mapped their positions in the B. rapa genome. Although both members of each paralogous pair exhibited the same expression pattern, some variation in their gene structures was apparent. The BrPRR genes are tightly linked to several flowering genes. The knowledge about genome location, copy number variation and structural diversity of these B. rapa clock genes will improve our understanding of clock-related functions in this important crop. This will facilitate the development of Brassica crops for optimal growth in new environments and under changing conditions.

  4. Circadian waves of expression of the APRR1/TOC1 family of pseudo-response regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana: insight into the plant circadian clock. (United States)

    Matsushika, A; Makino, S; Kojima, M; Mizuno, T


    The Arabidopsis pseudo-response regulator, APRR1, has a unique structural design containing a pseudo-receiver domain and a C-terminal CONSTANS motif. This protein was originally characterized as a presumed component of the His-to-Asp phosphorelay systems in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recently, it was reported that APRR1 is identical to the TOC1 gene product, a mutational lesion of which affects the periods of many circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis plants. TOC1 is believed to be a component of the presumed circadian clock (or central oscillator). Based on these facts, in this study four more genes, each encoding a member of the APRR1/TOC1 family of pseudo-response regulators were identified and characterized with special reference to circadian rhythms. It was found that all these members of the APRR1/TOC1 family (APRR1, APRR3, APRR5, APRR7, and APRR9) are subjected to a circadian rhythm at the level of transcription. Furthermore, in a given 24 h period, the APRR-mRNAs started accumulating sequentially after dawn with 2-3 h intervals in the order of APRR9-->APRR7-->APRR5-->APRR3-->APRR1. These sequential events of transcription, termed 'circadian waves of APRR1/TOCI', were not significantly affected by the photoperiod conditions, if any (e.g. both long and short days), and the expression of APRR9 was first boosted always after dawn. Among these APRRs, in fact, only the expression of APRR9 was rapidly and transiently induced also by white light, whereas such light responses of others were very dull, if any. These results collectively support the view that these members of the APRR1/TOC1 family are together all involved in an as yet unknown mechanism underlying the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Here we propose that the circadian waves of the APRR1/TOC1 family members are most likely a molecular basis of such a biological clock in higher plants.

  5. A stress-induced calcium-dependent protein kinase from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum phosphorylates a two-component pseudo-response regulator. (United States)

    Patharkar, O R; Cushman, J C


    McCDPK1 is a salinity- and drought-induced calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) isolated from the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. A yeast two-hybrid experiment was performed, using full-length McCDPK1 and truncated forms of McCDPK1 as baits, to identify interacting proteins. A catalytically impaired bait isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel protein, CDPK substrate protein 1 (CSP1). CSP1 interacted with McCDPK1 in a substrate-like fashion in both yeast two-hybrid assays and wheat germ interaction assays. Furthermore, McCDPK1 was capable of phosphorylating CSP1 in vitro in a calcium-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the use of catalytically impaired and unregulated CDPKs with the yeast two-hybrid system can accelerate the discovery of CDPK substrates. The deduced CSP1 amino acid sequence indicated that it is a novel member of a class of pseudo-response regulator-like proteins that have a highly conserved helix-loop-helix DNA binding domain and a C-terminal activation domain. McCDPK1 and CSP1 co-localized to nuclei of NaCl-stressed ice plants. Csp1 transcript accumulation was not regulated by NaCl or dehydration stress. Our results strongly suggest that McCDPK1 may regulate the function of CSP1 by reversible phosphorylation.

  6. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

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    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M; Horer, S; Clancy, S; Moy, S; Volkart, LL; Sassoon, J; Baumann, U; Joachimiak, A (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Berne)


    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representing a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.

  7. Differential belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene


    This paper explores suburban middle-class residents’ narratives about housing choice, everyday life and belonging in residential areas of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, to understand how residential processes of social differentiation are constituted. Using Savage et al.’s concepts of discursive re...

  8. Ambiguous Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    in Tanzania since the Independence, should be viewed not only as generating anxiety but also potentiality, I suggest that there is a need for new metaphors to think with in the examination of certain kinds of migrant minorities. Ambiguous Belongings denotes a way of being in the world. Throughout the thesis...... of borders and walls in the contemporary world leave no space for people whose life worlds are stretched across nation-states....

  9. piR_015520 belongs to Piwi-associated RNAs regulates expression of the human melatonin receptor 1A gene.

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    Teresa Esposito

    Full Text Available Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs are a distinct class of 24- to 30-nucleotide-long RNAs produced by a Dicer-independent mechanism, and are associated with Piwi-class Argonaute proteins. In contrast to the several hundred species of microRNAs (miRNAs identified thus far, piRNAs consist of more than 30,000 different species in humans. Studies in flies, fish and mice implicate these piRNAs in regulating germ line development, the silencing of selfish DNA elements, and maintaining germ line DNA integrity. Most piRNAs map to unique sites in the human genome, including intergenic, intronic, and exonic sequences. However, the role of piRNAs in humans remains to be elucidated. Here, we uncover an unexpected function of the piRNA pathway in humans. We show for the first time, that the piRNA_015520, located in intron 1 of the human Melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A gene, is expressed in adult human tissues (testes and brain and in the human cell line HEK 293. Although the role of piR_015520 expression in brain tissue remains unknown, the testes-specific expression is consistent with previous findings in several species. Surprisingly, in contrast to the mechanism known for miRNA-mediated modulation of gene expression, piRNA_015520 negatively regulates MTNR1A gene expression by binding to its genomic region. This finding suggests that changes in individual piRNA levels could influence both autoregulatory gene expression and the expression of the gene in which the piRNA is located. These findings offer a new perspective for piRNAs functioning as gene regulators in humans.

  10. The two-component response regulator Skn7 belongs to a network of transcription factors regulating morphogenesis in Candida albicans and independently limits morphogenesis-induced ROS accumulation. (United States)

    Basso, Virginia; Znaidi, Sadri; Lagage, Valentine; Cabral, Vitor; Schoenherr, Franziska; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bachellier-Bassi, Sophie


    Skn7 is a conserved fungal heat shock factor-type transcriptional regulator. It participates in maintaining cell wall integrity and regulates the osmotic/oxidative stress response (OSR) in S. cerevisiae, where it is part of a two-component signal transduction system. Here, we comprehensively address the function of Skn7 in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We provide evidence reinforcing functional divergence, with loss of the cell wall/osmotic stress-protective roles and acquisition of the ability to regulate morphogenesis on solid medium. Mapping of the Skn7 transcriptional circuitry, through combination of genome-wide expression and location technologies, pointed to a dual regulatory role encompassing OSR and filamentous growth. Genetic interaction analyses revealed close functional interactions between Skn7 and master regulators of morphogenesis, including Efg1, Cph1 and Ume6. Intracellular biochemical assays revealed that Skn7 is crucial for limiting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in filament-inducing conditions on solid medium. Interestingly, functional domain mapping using site-directed mutagenesis allowed decoupling of Skn7 function in morphogenesis from protection against intracellular ROS. Our work identifies Skn7 as an integral part of the transcriptional circuitry controlling C. albicans filamentous growth and illuminates how C. albicans relies on an evolutionarily-conserved regulator to protect itself from intracellular ROS during morphological development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases belonging to the thymidine kinase 2 (TK2)-like group vary significantly in substrate specificity, kinetics and feed-back regulation. (United States)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Petersen, Gitte Ebert; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Piskur, Jure


    In eukaryotic cells deoxyribonucleoside kinases belonging to three phylogenetic sub-families have been found: (i) thymidine kinase 1 (TK1)-like enzymes, which are strictly pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside-specific kinases; (ii) TK2-like enzymes, which include pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinases and a single multisubstrate kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK); and (iii) deoxycytidine/deoxyguanosine kinase (dCK/dGK)-like enzymes, which are deoxycytidine and/or purine deoxyribonucleoside-specific kinases. We cloned and characterized two new deoxyribonucleoside kinases belonging to the TK2-like group from the insect Bombyx mori and the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The deoxyribonucleoside kinase from B. mori (Bm-dNK) turned out to be a multisubstrate kinase like Dm-dNK. But uniquely for a deoxyribonucleoside kinase, Bm-dNK displayed positive cooperativity with all four natural deoxyribonucleoside substrates. The deoxyribonucleoside kinase from X. laevis (Xen-PyK) resembled closely the human and mouse TK2 enzymes displaying their characteristic Michaelis-Menten kinetic with deoxycytidine and negative cooperativity with its second natural substrate thymidine. Bm-dNK, Dm-dNK and Xen-PyK were shown to be homodimers. Significant differences in the feedback inhibition by deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates between these three enzymes were found. The insect multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinases Bm-dNK and Dm-dNK were only inhibited by thymidine triphosphate, while Xen-PyK was inhibited by thymidine and deoxycytidine triphosphate in a complex pattern depending on the deoxyribonucleoside substrate. The broad substrate specificity and different feedback regulation of the multisubstrate insect deoxyribonucleoside kinases may indicate that these enzymes have a different functional role than the other members of the TK2-like group. Copyright 2002 Academic Press.

  12. Ambiguity in urban belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten


    Being a ‘stranger’ has become increasingly difficult on the European continent during the latest decades. Populist racism and anti-immigration attitudes have made life difficult, and Denmark has taken the position as one of the iconic cases of this development. But how is that reflected in the ci......Being a ‘stranger’ has become increasingly difficult on the European continent during the latest decades. Populist racism and anti-immigration attitudes have made life difficult, and Denmark has taken the position as one of the iconic cases of this development. But how is that reflected...... in the cities? Does the character of the city as ‘a world of strangers’ open up special possibilities of coexistence? These are the questions addressed in this paper using material from an interpretative analysis conducted among Copenhagen citizens of Pakistani origin. The analysis aims to construe an affective...... mapping of life as an ethnic minority in the city. It revolves around three issues. First, it focuses on the narrators’ experiences of exclusions and blockages in everyday life. This is followed by a focus on urban belonging emphasizing its differential character. Finally, the ambiguity of experiences...

  13. Back where we belong. (United States)

    Critelli, Michael J


    If you were the CEO of Pitney Bowes, the postage meter maker, how would you envision the future of the business? The company has an undeniable core competence in the solutions it provides to high-volume postal service users. But with snail mail on the decline, some would say that core has about as much future as the buggy whip. In this article, Pitney Bowes chairman and CEO Michael Critelli gives us a glimpse of how he leads his company's strategy development--and how that development has supported a counterintuitive return to the company's core after decades of diversification. He and others in the company begin the process by tapping into deeply knowledgeable people and organizations to understand key trends in the business and the rate at which change is occurring. Then, it's a question of the firm reshaping the environment in which it does business, whether through R&D investments or work with regulators and policy makers who influence market forces; this is especially important in emerging markets. Focusing on a core business area enables a company to find adjacent high-margin opportunities and to offer comprehensive solutions to customers. What stands out most sharply in this account, however, is the importance of having a strategist's mind-set. Whether Critelli is reading the day's news, visiting a key account, or spending an hour with his own people working in the context of a customer mail room, he is constantly extrapolating possible long-term competitive implications from the immediate facts. Often inspired by strategic thinkers, Critelli believes that the greatest thing he can do for his organization is to shift the terms of the debate. "Rarely am I credited with sterling words or bold, symbolic actions", he writes. "Instead, I help people to see the business we are in differently and to reach a shared vision as to where we want to end up. And, little by little, things move in the right direction".

  14. How to Understand Custodial Belonging

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    Ann Game


    Full Text Available Debates about ecological responsibility are interested in different forms of belonging. This article develops an understanding of a custodial form of belonging based on the logic of relation, which we distinguish from a proprietorial form of belonging based on the logic of identity. Theorists working on questions of belonging use a language of custodianship when describing a sense of responsibility and care that arises through connection or relation. We argue, however, that the full significance of custodial belonging cannot be appreciated when understandings of connection are derived from within the terms of identity logic. In other words, when belonging is understood in terms of identity and identification, custodianship is inadvertently reduced to a proprietorial form of responsibility and care. We develop this argument by addressing Australian research on custodial belonging. Focusing on the influential work of Deborah Bird Rose, we argue that there are tensions between, on the one hand, her attempts to recognise connected forms of belonging, and, on the other, her conceptual reliance on the assumptions of identity logic. Our primary concern here is to indicate relational possibilities in her work precluded by the language of identity. In particular, we suggest that the concept of ecological being allows for a specificity and inclusiveness that are not recognised by Rose’s concept of the ‘ecologically emplaced self’.

  15. ETL, a novel seven-transmembrane receptor that is developmentally regulated in the heart. ETL is a member of the secretin family and belongs to the epidermal growth factor-seven-transmembrane subfamily. (United States)

    Nechiporuk, T; Urness, L D; Keating, M T


    Using differential display of rat fetal and postnatal cardiomyocytes, we have identified a novel seven-transmembrane receptor, ETL. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence of ETL indicated that it encodes a 738-aa protein composed of a large extracellular domain with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a seven-transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. ETL belongs to the secretin family of G-protein-coupled peptide hormone receptors and the EGF-TM7 subfamily of receptors. The latter are characterized by a variable number of extracellular EGF and cell surface domains and conserved seven transmembrane-spanning regions. ETL mRNA expression is up-regulated in the adult rat and human heart. In situ hybridization analyses revealed expression in rat cardiomyocytes and abundant expression in vascular and bronchiolar smooth muscle cells. In COS-7 cells transfected with Myc-tagged rat ETL, rat ETL exists as a stable dimer and undergoes endoproteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. The proteolytic activity can be abolished by a specific mutation, T455A, in this domain. In transfected mammalian cells, ETL is associated with cell membranes and is also observed in cytoplasmic vesicles. ETL is the first seven-transmembrane receptor containing EGF-like repeats that is developmentally regulated in the heart.

  16. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.


    the marginalised groups as contained in local neighbourhoods,while ascribing freedom and reflexivity exclusively to the middle and upper classes.The study of local communities in urban environments has a long tradition in the science of sociology and it is concluded that revitalizing and methodologically updating...... the classic Chicago school of sociology can create a productive approach to the study of local community, mobility and belonging.......The purpose of this article is to pose some theoretical questions to the relations between local community, mobility and belonging.In continuation the methodological implications of the theoretical debate are discussed.The article also outlines different perspectives on local neighbourhoods...

  17. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....

  18. Coincident light and clock regulation of pseudoresponse regulator protein 37 (PRR37) controls photoperiodic flowering in sorghum (United States)

    Variation in flowering time was essential during widespread crop domestication and optimal timing of reproduction remains critical to modern agriculture. Ma1, the major repressor of flowering in sorghum in long days, was identified as the pseudo-response regulator protein PRR37. Three prr37 allele...

  19. Subdimensions of Adolescent Belonging in High School (United States)

    Wallace, Tanner LeBaron; Ye, Feifei; Chhuon, Vichet


    Adolescents' sense of belonging in high school may serve a protective function, linking school-based relationships to positive youth outcomes. To advance the study of sense of belonging, we conducted a mixed method, factor analytic study (Phase 1 focus groups, N = 72; Phase 2 cross-sectional survey, N = 890) to explore the multidimensionality of…

  20. Belonging and Unbelonging from an Intersectional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte


    lives and local communities. The three levels are explained and illustrated with empirical examples from a Nordic context, all based on the perspective of intersectionality between gender, class, race, and ethnicity. Finally, the article discusses some challenges for further research on belonging......The article is primarily theoretical and conceptual. It focuses on the notion of belonging from an intersectional perspective. The purpose is to discuss different dimensions of the concept of ‘belonging' and its rooting at different analytical levels. The first part of the article outlines......, for instance how to combine analysis of model citizenship/migration regimes with perspectives on everyday life. Another question relates to dilemmas within studies of everyday life. On the one hand, these studies are based on voices from below and a high degree of authenticity, but on the other hand, they tend...

  1. We All Belong! The Tecumseh Mural Project (United States)

    Lukawecky, Kristine


    The author of this article describes how as the visual-arts teacher of Tecumseh Public School, she brought the entire school and community together by creating a mural that promoted belonging. The mural involved tapping into the the creativity of all 400 students from kindergarten through eighth grade at Tecumseh while creating a work of art with…

  2. Refugee youth, belonging and community sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.


    This article examines community sport as a site where refugee youth negotiate belonging, which is conceptualised as a dynamic dialectic of ‘seeking’ and ‘granting’. Drawing on three years of ethnographic fieldwork among Somali Australian youth at community football (soccer) clubs in Melbourne, the

  3. Multiple Religious Belonging: Hermeneutical Challenges for Theology of Religions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, D.F.


    The phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is studied from different perspectives, each of which reveals a different understanding of religion, religious diversity and religious belonging. This shows that the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is challenging the applicability of these

  4. The Need of Belonging and Sense of Belonging versus Effectiveness of Coping

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    Wilczyńska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the dependence between the need for and sense of belonging and symptoms of depression vs. one’s capacity to cope effectively. Using path analysis of our data (N = 178, we found direct patterns, in which both depression symptoms and life satisfaction depend to a considerable degree on the sense of belonging. The belonging need influences, in a direct way, the coping focused on the search for social support. Undertaking active techniques of coping, including confrontation with a stressful situation and its negative controlling impact, depends on having a high level of the sense of belonging. In contrast, individuals who cope by means of taking psychoactive drugs show the symptoms of depression.

  5. A Conceptual Shift in Studies of Belonging and the Politics of Belonging

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    Eva Youkhana


    Full Text Available The study of belonging, its underlying notions, and the politics of belonging shows that social, political, and territorial demarcations are still based on essentialist conceptions of the collective. These are often applied and reproduced in the social sciences as a result of methodological nationalism. Space-sensitive studies of migration and globalization and a return to the material have recently challenged social constructivist lines of argumentation and have provoked a conceptual shift from analytical categories with inherent spatiality, territoriality, and boundary marking to concepts based on movement and flow. In this paper the analysis of belonging and the related politics of belonging in migration studies incorporates space as an analytical category that cross-cuts established categorizations such as race, class, gender, and stage in the life cycle, and integrates a material semiotic perspective more systematically into the study of social relations at the intersection of the social categories mentioned. A new concept of belonging is defined which reflects the complex relations that individuals have with other people, circulating objects, artefacts, and changing social, political, and cultural landscapes, thus mirroring both the material conditions and the underlying power relations. Such an understanding of belonging proceeds from social naturalizations and fixations to the multiplicity and situatedness of individual attachments, which entangle social, imagined, and sensual-material relations that are constantly re-articulated and re-negotiated by actors in their day-to-day practices. In such a reading, belonging comes into being as a result of individual life stories, versatile contexts, and situated experiences and acts. In times of constant exchange through travel, mass media, and communication technologies, the conceptualization of belonging questions established sociocultural and political demarcations, indicates the

  6. To belong or not to belong: nursing students? interactions with clinical learning environments ? an observational study


    Liljedahl, Matilda; Bj?rck, Erik; Kal?n, Susanne; Ponzer, Sari; Bolander Laksov, Klara


    Background Belongingness has been argued to be a prerequisite for students? learning in the clinical setting but making students feel like they belong to the workplace is a challenge. From a sociocultural perspective, workplace participatory practices is a framework that views clinical learning environments to be created in interaction between students and the workplace and hence, are dependent on them both. The aim of this study was to explore the interdependence between affordances and enga...

  7. To belong or not to belong: nursing students' interactions with clinical learning environments - an observational study. (United States)

    Liljedahl, Matilda; Björck, Erik; Kalén, Susanne; Ponzer, Sari; Bolander Laksov, Klara


    Belongingness has been argued to be a prerequisite for students' learning in the clinical setting but making students feel like they belong to the workplace is a challenge. From a sociocultural perspective, workplace participatory practices is a framework that views clinical learning environments to be created in interaction between students and the workplace and hence, are dependent on them both. The aim of this study was to explore the interdependence between affordances and engagement in clinical learning environments. The research question was: How are nursing students influenced in their interactions with clinical learning environments? An observational study with field observations and follow-up interviews was performed. The study setting comprised three academic teaching hospitals. Field observations included shadowing undergraduate nursing students during entire shifts. Fifty-five hours of field observations and ten follow-up interviews with students, supervisors and clinical managers formed the study data. A thematic approach to the analysis was taken and performed iteratively with the data collection. The results revealed that students strived to fill out the role they were offered in an aspirational way but that they became overwhelmed when given the responsibility of care. When students' basic values did not align with those enacted by the workplace, they were not willing to compromise their own values. Workplaces succeeded in inviting students into the community of nurses and the practice of care. Students demonstrated hesitance regarding their desire to belong to the workplace community. The results imply that the challenge for clinical education is not to increase the experience of belongingness but to maintain students' critical and reflective approach to health care practice. Additionally, results suggest students to be included as an important stakeholder in creating clinical learning environments rather than being viewed as consumer of clinical

  8. Friends, family and social belonging as we age

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    Aims: This study investigated if perceptions of social belonging in late adulthood are differentiated by the quality of family and friend relationships. Method:  The study consisted of two phases.  In Phase 1, 260 university staff and students, aged 18 to 75, completed an online survey investigating the quality of family and friend relationships and their association with social belonging.  In Phase 2, 88 older adults completed a refined print version of the survey.   Results:  Multiple regression was used to analyse the predictive ability of family and friend relationships on social belonging. In Phase 1, significant associations were found between both family and friend relationships and social belonging, with friendship yielding the strongest relationship.  Interestingly, in Phase 2 the association between quality of family and friend relationships and social belonging was mediated by age. Those aged 65 to 74 reported a significant relationship between friends and social belonging, which contrasted with those aged over 75.  A significant association between social belonging and family relationships was also found for the entire cohort aged over 65, while high quality friend relationships enhanced social belonging when family relationships were not strong. Conclusions: These results are tentative, but suggest that future research should consider the role that both friendships and family play in promoting social belonging in older adults.

  9. Belonging as a Guiding Principle in the Education of Adolescents (United States)

    Allen, Kelly A.; Bowles, Terence


    Belonging has been shown to have a significant impact on a range of factors associated with wellbeing. These areas include life satisfaction, general wellbeing, clinical depression, cognitive performance, academic outcomes, and physical health. Belonging is an important aspect of psychological functioning. Schools offer unique opportunities for…

  10. Social inhibition sense of belonging and vulnerability to internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, E.L.; Denollet, J.; Laceulle, O.M.


    Background The aim of this study was to provide a conceptual test of how social inhibition, sense of belonging and internalizing problems are related, and whether sense of belonging moderates or mediates the relation between social inhibition and internalizing problems. Methods Data were used from

  11. Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth (United States)

    Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.


    Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…

  12. The interconnection between mental health, work and belonging: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well-known that a sense of belonging is crucial in relation to gaining and maintaining sound mental health. Work is also known to be an essential aspect of recovery from mental health problems. However, there is scant knowledge of what a sense of belonging in the workplace represents. This study explores the nature ...

  13. Social Class and Belonging: Implications for Graduate Students' Career Aspirations (United States)

    Ostrove, Joan M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Curtin, Nicola L.


    We examined the role that social class background plays in graduate students' career goals. Class background was significantly related to the extent to which students struggled financially in graduate school, which related to their sense of belonging in graduate school. Sense of belonging related to academic self-concept, which predicted students'…

  14. Multiple Religious Belonging: Hermeneutical Challenges for Theology of Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostveen Daan F.


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is studied from different perspectives, each of which reveals a different understanding of religion, religious diversity and religious belonging. This shows that the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is challenging the applicability of these central notions in academic enquiry about religion. In this article, I present the different perspectives on multiple religious belonging in theology of religions and show how the understanding of some central scholarly notions is different. In Christian theology, the debate on multiple religious belonging is conducted between particularists, who focus on the uniqueness of religious traditions, and pluralists, who focus on the shared religious core of religious traditions. Both positions are criticized by feminist and post-colonial theologians. They believe that both particularists and pluralists focus too strongly on religious traditions and the boundaries between them. I argue that the hermeneutic study of multiple religious belonging could benefit from a more open understanding of religious traditions and religious boundaries, as proposed by these feminist and post-colonial scholars. In order to achieve this goal we could also benefit from a more intercultural approach to multiple religious belonging in order to understand religious belonging in a nonexclusive way.

  15. Hybrid Citizenship: Latina Youth and the Politics of Belonging (United States)

    Bondy, Jennifer M.


    Drawing from interview data collected from high school students in Broward County, Florida, this article explores how eight adolescent Latinas understand citizenship and belonging vis-à-vis circulating images and discourses on Latina/o immigration, immigrant, and Latina. The author examines Latina youths' citizenship identities and belonging using…

  16. 'Belonging before believing': Some missiological implications of membership and belonging in a Christian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Weyers


    Full Text Available In the final stages of the modern period the power of hegemonic ideologies is coming to an end as people identify less with grand ideologies and more with subcultures related to technology and social and economic networks of different kinds. The post-Christendom phase has begun and is radically challenging Christendom notions of membership and ministry. We have to assume that in a post-Christendom society, the familiarity with Christian concepts will fade as the decline of Christendom has meant that Christian discourse has been losing its status as a lingua franca. It is therefore important that the church will anticipate longer journeys towards faith and not move on to disciple new converts too quickly. Post-Christendom evangelisation will consequently take longer, start further back and move more slowly. For these reasons the authors propose that the question of standards for membership be reconsidered where churches are planted in postmodern contexts. They propose that the old order of �believing before belonging� be replaced by �belonging before believing�.

  17. Sense of belonging and indicators of social and psychological functioning. (United States)

    Hagerty, B M; Williams, R A; Coyne, J C; Early, M R


    Sense of belonging has recently been described and defined as one specific interpersonal process that influences health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sense of belonging and personal characteristics and selected indicators of social and psychological functioning in men and women. Using a sample of 379 community college students, sense of belonging was examined in relation to social support, conflict, involvement in community activities, attendance at religious services, loneliness, depression, anxiety, history of psychiatric treatment, and suicidality. Results indicated that sense of belonging is closely related to indicators of both social and psychological functioning. These relationships were generally stronger for women than for men. It appears that sense of belonging is a useful concept pertinent to exploration of social and psychological functioning.

  18. It Feels Good to Learn Where I Belong: School Belonging, Academic Emotions, and Academic Achievement in Adolescents (United States)

    Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting


    This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…

  19. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter? (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L; Brown, Sandra A

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence.

  20. 'Gender nationalism': The new (old) politics of belonging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leila Hadj Abdou


    This contribution takes a look at the phenomenon of 'gender-nationalism'. It argues that references about gender equality and women's rights play an important role in contemporary politics of belonging...

  1. Female narratives of 'new' citizen's belonging(s) and identities in Europe: case studies from the Netherlands and Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorashi, H.; Vieten, U.M.G.


    Public discourses on citizenship, identity and nationality, which link geographical borders and the political boundaries of a community, are infused with tensions and contradictions. This paper illustrates how these tensions are interwoven with multilayered notions of home, belonging, migration,

  2. Welcome to Country: Acknowledgement, Belonging and White Anti-racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Kowal


    Full Text Available The Welcome to Country (WTC ceremony and its twin, the Acknowledgement of Traditional Owners, have become prominent anti-racist rituals in the post-settler society of Australia. These rituals are rich in meaning. They are simultaneously emblems of colonisation and dispossession; of recognition and reconciliation; and a periodic focus of political posturing. This article analyses the multiple meanings of WTC ceremonies. In particular, I explore the politics of belonging elicited by WTC and Acknowledgement rituals. Drawing on ethnography of non-Indigenous people who work in Indigenous affairs, I argue that widespread enjoyment of these rituals among White anti-racists is explained because they paradoxically experience belonging through a sense of not belonging.

  3. Creating a hybrid sense of belonging in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    to local products and culturally by enacting the competition (Coupland 2014). Yet, I argue that the participants do not create a copy of the activity as it is played out in its original setting, rather it is ascribed a certain urban coolness, which might be a way of demonstrating hybrid senses of belonging...

  4. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schools are seen as im portant vehicles for driving social cohesion amongst learners and it is therefore important that all learners, irrespective of their race, experience a sense of belonging in the school. Using a case study and an interactive qualitative analysis research methodology, we explored the experiences of black ...

  5. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    we socialise; tender loving care; motivation; and freedom) to the study of racial integration and social cohesion. .... about their participation and level of acceptance in the group influences their sense of belonging and therefore ... particular sport or music as “belonging” to a certain racial group. Dolby. (2001) found that ...

  6. Gazing on xenophobia: issues of foreigness and (non)belonging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings reveal that personal experiences of xenophobic violence have created lingering disillusionment about the so called Rainbow Nation, robbing many foreigners of any real sense of belonging in the host space, as well as emphasising the temporariness of the 'borrowed' home. Findings also show that this entrenched ...

  7. Bullying May Be Fueled by the Desperate Need to Belong (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.


    Human beings have a fundamental need to belong, for ongoing positive interactions with others who provide companionship and caring (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Children may hit, exclude, or harass others electronically because when their own needs for belongingness are threatened, or when they want to enhance their own status, they lash out and…

  8. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael


    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  9. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds (United States)

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha


    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  10. The politics of identity, belonging and the integration of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of migrants' belonging and integration, the outcomes usually do not resonate with such policies or structures. Most migrants regardless of whether they are citizens, permanent residents or are on work permit, still face resistance from local South Africans who see them as a threat, and above all as strangers in the land.

  11. Discrimination and Sleep: The Protective Role of School Belonging (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia W.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari


    Ethnic minority adolescents experience certain sleep problems, yet factors that affect their sleep are poorly understood. This study examined the association between ethnic discrimination and sleep during adolescence and the extent to which perceived stress mediated these associations. This study also examined whether school belonging can protect…

  12. Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation of trade, finance and production as well as the on going processes of political and economic integration has led to an unprecedented increase in international migration. Increased mobilities in the current global state have led to a need for new understandings of identity and belonging as mobile subjects ...

  13. Multiculturalism, Mauritian Style : Cultural Diversity, Belonging, and a Secular State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuijten, Maykel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073378542


    Multiculturalism is on the retreat in many Western countries. As an ideology, it is criticized for failing to engender national belonging and social cohesion and thereby to encourage groups of citizens to have parallel lives. In this article, we present the case of Mauritius that is often viewed as

  14. How the Host Nation's Boundary Drawing Affects Immigrants' Belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær


    is the informal boundary drawing produced in the majority population’s conception of what is important for being part of the national “us”. Thus, immigrants’ belonging is significantly greater when the majority population prioritizes attainable criteria of national membership. In addition, these priorities...

  15. Belongings: Oral History, Objects and an Online Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wilton


    Full Text Available The New South Wales Migration Heritage Centre was established in 1998. Since 2003 its physical presence has been located within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum and it has had the strategic brief to record the memories of ageing migrants before their stories are lost. The Centre is, however, a museum without a collection; a heritage authority without heritage sites; a cultural institution whose main presence is in cyberspace. Among its high profile projects is one entitled Objects through time and another Belongings. Both focus on the ways in which objects can convey aspects of the migration experience. Belongings, the focus of this article, presents the remembered experiences of people who migrated to Australia after World War II, and seeks to highlight significant features of their experiences through asking them to share their memories and to nominate and talk about significant objects. As a project it grew out of movable heritage policy work within state government agencies, and its initiators – John Petersen, Kylie Winkworth and Meredith Walker – were central players in this development. It was also inspired by the National Quilt Register of the Pioneer Women’s Hut at Tumbarumba. With its object-centred approach and accompanying edited interview transcripts, Belongings provides a focus for exploring the messages and emphases that emerge when oral history interviews concerned with migration have the specific brief to ask about material culture and its significance. Belongings also enables an exploration of the layering of those messages that emerges when object captions are located back in the context of the oral history interviews from which they were extracted. As a virtual exhibition, Belongings also provides the opportunity to consider the challenges for museums (virtual and real when they need to condense the richness of migrant oral histories and life stories to captioned objects that can be put on display.

  16. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth


    of the participants and how meaning making connected to social categories express themselves in language. Two different methodological approaches were in play; Memory Work (Haug 1987, 1992, Haug et al 1994, Hee Pedersen 2008, Hyle et. al 2008, Wiederberg 2011) and Collective Biographies (Davies 2000a, 2000b, Davies...... and consequently widen and/or diminish possibilities for legitimate belonging to society (Anthias, 2005:17). Each memory becomes an opportunity to collectively critically deconstruct naturalised processes of interpretation. It invites the participants to explore human dialogues, mediated by texts, as a way......This presentation analyses the complex workings of social categories in constructions of (be)longing in memories of young university students in Bolivia and Peru. In a methodology course the participants explored how socio economic and socio cultural differences had affected the lives...

  17. Homegrown religious radicalization and the quest for belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    this seemingly religious radicalization, from the point of view of the youngsters, by drawing on a study of young Muslims in religious communities in Copenhagen and combining it with existing blogs, twitter profiles etc. of youngsters sympathizing with Islamic radicalized movements. What are the youngsters...... seeking when they orientate themselves towards religious communities- and especially the radicalized forms of communities? What do they gain? And how are we to understand the power of community in this process? The social psychological process of radicalization will be discussed and a theoretical...... framework based on a focus on belonging, self-construction and the sense of community will be proposed. The framework will be utilized in an analysis of narratives from youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging...

  18. Sedentary behavior among adults: The role of community belonging


    Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L.; Copeland, Jennifer L.


    Sedentary behavior is a modifiable determinant of health. Little is known about the ways in which contextual factors may influence this behavior. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the association between community belonging and adult sedentary behavior during leisure; (2) determine if this association was explained by perceived health. Data were derived from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (N?=?11,494 adults). Multinomial regression models and 99% confidence interval...

  19. Oggetti Spaesati, Unhomely Belongings: Objects, Migrations and Cultural Apocalypses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vanni


    Full Text Available This article analyses first person memories in relation to objects as documented in Belongings, an online exhibition curated through the NSW Migration Heritage Centre. It explores the role of objects in recreating domestic geographies in the process of migration, using the Italian anthropologist Ernesto De Martino’s notion of  ‘crisis of presence’ as the moment when familiar objects become unfamiliar or uncanny by losing their relation with the web of domestic uses, habits, sense of belonging, and cultural memories. In this crisis, objects acquire new layers of meaning entangled in the loss and re-creation of entire life-worlds, relational universes, senses of place, ‘homes’. Taking Belongings as its case study, this article argues that objects enable the telling and performance of displacement from one place and regrounding in another one as a continuum of affective, embodied and political experiences that question the separation between being at home and being a migrant.

  20. Novel magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. (United States)

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Viloria, Nathan; Schmidt, Marian L; Pósfai, Mihály; Frankel, Richard B; Bazylinski, Dennis A


    Two novel magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from sediment and water collected from the Badwater Basin, Death Valley National Park and southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, respectively, and were designated as strains BW-2 and SS-5, respectively. Both organisms are rod-shaped, biomineralize magnetite, and are motile by means of flagella. The strains grow chemolithoautotrophically oxidizing thiosulfate and sulfide microaerobically as electron donors, with thiosulfate oxidized stoichiometrically to sulfate. They appear to utilize the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for autotrophy based on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity and the presence of partial sequences of RubisCO genes. Strains BW-2 and SS-5 biomineralize chains of octahedral magnetite crystals, although the crystals of SS-5 are elongated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains are phylogenetically affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria class. Strain SS-5 belongs to the order Chromatiales; the cultured bacterium with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to SS-5 is Thiohalocapsa marina (93.0%). Strain BW-2 clearly belongs to the Thiotrichales; interestingly, the organism with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to this strain is Thiohalospira alkaliphila (90.2%), which belongs to the Chromatiales. Each strain represents a new genus. This is the first report of magnetite-producing MTB phylogenetically associated with the Gammaproteobacteria. This finding is important in that it significantly expands the phylogenetic diversity of the MTB. Physiology of these strains is similar to other MTB and continues to demonstrate their potential in nitrogen, iron, carbon and sulfur cycling in natural environments.

  1. Apoptosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. (United States)

    Baig, Abdul M; Lalani, Salima; Khan, Naveed A


    Here we describe features of apoptosis in unicellular Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. When exposed to apoptosis-inducing compounds such as doxorubicin, A. castellanii trophozoites exhibited cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing as observed microscopically, DNA fragmentation using agarose gel electrophoresis, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization using annexin V immunostaining. Overall, these findings suggest the existence of apoptosis in A. castellanii possibly mediated by intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Further research in this field could provide avenues to selectively induce apoptosis in A. castellanii by triggering intrinsic apoptotic cascade. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Identities, Aspirations and Belonging of Cosmopolitan Youth in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a survey of the attitudes, aspirations and belonging of mainly immigrant minority youth living in Western and south western Sydney conducted in 2007 to provide some evidence to contest the populist view of immigrant youth as being a threat to Australian society. Rather the survey points to the very positive aspirations of Sydney’s immigrant youth, their strong sense of having a positive future role in Australian society, their sense of belonging and ownership of their neighbourhood. They live connected lives, with multicultural friendship networks rather than living their lives parallel to and separate from other youth. Only one in three surveyed identify as ‘Australian’, with most offering some hybrid-Australian identity. This finding worried the Australian government, who did not give publication approval of the research until late 2010. The paper argues that a more cosmopolitan approach to multiculturalism would assist in valuing the globalised, fluid, hybrid identities of immigrant youth and assist in relieving the nationalist anxieties about Australian cultural, linguistic and cultural diversity.

  3. Experiencing Place: An Auto-Ethnography on Digging and Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Brown


    Full Text Available This article is concerned with personal heritage and the role of material things in the construction of place-attachment. My interest lies in interrogating my own sense of place-attachment (or belonging to my home. I argue that personal experience can provide comparative information for investigating other peoples’ experiences of their ‘special places’. That is, by critically reflecting on my own connectivity to place I aim to gain a base-level of data that informs my understandings of other peoples’ experiences of place; that is, the social values of heritage places and/or archaeological sites. I argue that self-awareness and reflexivity are important tools in the work of archaeologists who seek to recognise and respect personal and communal place-attachments.

  4. Mobility aspirations and indigenous belonging among Chakma students in Dhaka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Jacco; Gerharz, Eva


    In recent decades, indigenous people from the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in South-east Bangladesh have experienced increased social and spatial mobility. This article investigates how indigenous students from the CHT region who have migrated to Dhaka redefine indigenous belonging. By highlighting...... as well as the strategies employed by the students to counter them. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how indigenous students negotiate urban lifestyles and redefine modernity and indigeneity simultaneously and how migrants face exclusion based on static interpretations of people from the CHT as put...... for higher education to fulfil their aspirations for a better future. The paper also reveals the obstacles students experience in their everyday lives, mainly in the form of stereotypical, often racist talk. It discusses the structural disadvantages indigenous students face as members of ethnic minorities...

  5. The need to belong can motivate belief in God. (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R


    The need to belong can motivate belief in God. In Study 1, 40 undergraduates read bogus astrophysics articles "proving" God's existence or not offering proof. Participants in the proof-for-God condition reported higher belief in God (compared to control) when they chronically imagined God as accepting but lower belief in God when they imagined God as rejecting. Additionally, in Study 2 (72 undergraduates), these effects did not occur when participants' belongingness need was satisfied by priming close others. Study 3 manipulated 79 Internet participants' image of God. Chronic believers in the God-is-rejecting condition reported lower religious behavioral intentions than chronic believers in the God-is-accepting condition, and this effect was mediated by lower desires for closeness with God. In Study 4 (106 Internet participants), chronic believers with an accepting image of God reported that their belief in God is motivated by belongingness needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Identity and belonging: Are you a physicist (chemist)? (United States)

    Li, Sissi L.; Loverude, Michael E.


    When science undergraduates begin their upper-division coursework, their declaration of major becomes more concrete and meaningful as they have opportunities to interact more deeply with the community of their chosen discipline. In the process of completing a major, students transition their identity towards being a member of their field. In Wenger's community of practice framework, community membership is built on alignment of common goals, participation in social interactions, and perception of belonging in the community. But what does it mean to be a chemist or physicist from the students' perspective? In this study, we examine junior-level chemistry and physics majors' ideas about their science identity through semi-structured interviews and prompted reflective journals. We compare and contrast how chemistry and physics students negotiate their identity as members in their disciplinary field in terms of practice, qualifications, attitude, and in relation to other STEM communities.

  7. Biogeography of thermophilic phototrophic bacteria belonging to Roseiflexus genus. (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Grouzdev, Denis S; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B


    Isolated environments such as hot springs are particularly interesting for studying the microbial biogeography. These environments create an 'island effect' leading to genetic divergence. We studied the phylogeographic pattern of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, belonging to the Roseiflexus genus. The main characteristic of the observed pattern was geographic and geochronologic fidelity to the hot springs within Circum-Pacific and Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian orogenic belts. Mantel test revealed a correlation between genetic divergence and geographic distance among the phylotypes. Cluster analysis revealed a regional differentiation of the global phylogenetic pattern. The phylogeographic pattern is in correlation with geochronologic events during the break up of Pangaea that led to the modern configuration of continents. To our knowledge this is the first geochronological scenario of intercontinental prokaryotic taxon divergence. The existence of the modern phylogeographic pattern contradicts with the existence of the ancient evolutionary history of the Roseiflexus group proposed on the basis of its deep-branching phylogenetic position. These facts indicate that evolutionary rates in Roseiflexus varied over a wide range. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. National and transnational belonging among Turkish and Moroccan older migrants in the Netherlands: protective against loneliness? (United States)

    Klok, Jolien; van Tilburg, Theo G; Suanet, Bianca; Fokkema, Tineke; Huisman, Martijn


    This research investigates how a sense of belonging functions as protective mechanism against loneliness. Inspired by the work of Berry (1980) on acculturation strategies (i.e. integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization), we distinguish migrants who feel a relatively strong or weak sense of belonging to larger society and those who feel a strong or weak belonging to the "own group." We expect that more national belonging contributes to less loneliness. We add a transnational perspective by arguing that feelings of belonging to the own group can take place in the country of settlement, but can also be transnational, i.e. a feeling of belonging to the country of origin. Transnational belonging can protect against loneliness, as it acknowledges the importance of place attachment. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam on older migrants aged 55-66, we employ latent class analysis and find five national belonging clusters, interpretable in terms of Berry's acculturation strategies. Further analyses reveal mixed evidence: some aspects of transnational belonging vary with belonging to the own group, but other aspects point to a third dimension of belonging. Regression analysis shows that those marginalized are loneliest and that a transnational sense of belonging contributes to more loneliness. We conclude that Berry's (1980) typology is useful for interpreting older migrants' national belonging and that a transnational sense of belonging is apparent among older migrants, but needs to be explored further.

  9. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong. (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana


    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Assemblages of Desire: Infants, Bear Caves and Belonging in Early Childhood Education and Care (United States)

    Stratigos, Tina


    Belonging is emerging as an important concept in contemporary early childhood curricula, and calls have recently been made for belonging to be critically interrogated and further theorized. This article explores how belonging was operating for an infant in Australian family day care by looking at an episode that took place between the infant, a…

  11. School Belonging, Ethnic Identity, and Psychological Adjustment among Ethnic Minority College Students (United States)

    Gummadam, Praveena; Pittman, Laura D.; Ioffe, Micah


    This study considers how the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority college students may be linked to a sense of school belonging and ethnic identity, two constructs related to individuals feeling like they belong to a larger group. Using self-reports from 311 undergraduates from ethnic minority backgrounds, school belonging was found to be…

  12. Teacher and Peer Support for Young Adolescents' Motivation, Engagement, and School Belonging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiefer, Sarah M; Alley, Kathleen M; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R


    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within...

  13. The Relationship between Middle Grade Student Belonging and Middle Grade Student Performance (United States)

    Faust, Phyllis B.; Ennis, Leslie S.; Hodge, William M.


    This study examined the relationship between a middle school initiative to develop student voice, interpersonal relationships, and intrapersonal relationships and students' sense of belonging. The literature indicated a strong connection between students' sense of belonging in school and positive outcomes in and out of the classroom (Deci &…

  14. An Investigative Case Study into Early Childhood Educators' Understanding about "Belonging" (United States)

    Tillett, Valerie; Wong, Sandie


    This paper presents findings from a small exploratory study examining eight diversely qualified early childhood (EC) educators' understandings about belonging. Data from interviews were analysed drawing on 10 dimensions and 3 axes of belonging. Findings from this study demonstrate that educators had a strong sense of social, emotional, spatial and…

  15. Ethnically Diverse Faculty in Higher Ed: Belonging, Respect, and Role as Cultural Broker (United States)

    Vázquez-Montilla, Elia; Wilder, Lynn K.; Triscari, Robert


    The authors have completed a pilot study of the state of diverse faculty in higher education in the United States. Inquiries included the areas of belonging (if and how they developed a sense of belonging), professional respect (how colleagues regarded their achievements), and the role of cultural broker (how they functioned as cultural brokers in…

  16. A Sense of Belonging among College Students with Disabilities: An Emergent Theoretical Model (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Daly-Cano, Meada; Newman, Barbara M.


    Higher education research suggests that the development of a sense of belonging is key to academic success and persistence, yet we know little about how first-year students with disabilities develop a sense of belonging as they transition into and through their first year in postsecondary environments. Themes from a grounded theory study of 8…

  17. School Belonging: Listening to the Voices of Secondary School Students Who Have Undergone Managed Moves (United States)

    Craggs, Holly; Kelly, Catherine


    A sense of school belonging has a powerful effect on students' emotional, motivational, and academic functioning, yet there have been few attempts to listen to students' views on school belonging, or to seek their opinions on how best to promote it. Managed move protocols to facilitate a move to an alternative school were developed in the UK as a…

  18. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery (United States)

    Niland, Amanda


    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  19. An Assessment of School Belonging and Academic Motivation among Latino Middle School Students (United States)

    Santos, Juan Manuel


    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate and examine the self-reported feelings of school belonging and academic motivation among seventh and eighth grade students in a suburban setting, with a specific focus on the Latino subgroup. A corollary purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between school belonging and…

  20. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations : The relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P. Marijn

    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for

  1. A Pilot Study of Motor Disturbances in Children with ADHD Belonging to Chilean Schools (United States)

    Ancatén González, Carlos; Montes, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian


    The present pilot study aimed to determine motor control alterations in children with ADHD belonging to public schools, using Da Fonseca's Psychomotor Battery (BPM). This was a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study. The sample consisted of two groups, each group composed of 15 children between 7 and 9 years old belonging to public…

  2. The Need To Belong: A Theory of the Therapeutic Function of the Black Church Tradition. (United States)

    Thompson, Delores A.; McRae, Mary B.


    A theory of belonging is used as a framework for analyzing and interpreting focus group data from seven congregations in the Black church tradition. Findings suggest that church membership reflects the need to belong with a group rather than to a group. Within this context multiple dimensions of the self find opportunities for expression. (Author)

  3. Exploring the Contributions of School Belonging to Complete Mental Health Screening (United States)

    Moffa, Kathryn; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.


    Considering the many positive outcomes associated with adolescents' sense of school belonging, including psychological functioning, it is possible that including an assessment of school belonging within a complete mental health screening process could contribute to the prediction of students' future mental health status. This exploratory study…

  4. From the Outside Looking In: Sense of Belonging, Depression, and Suicide Risk. (United States)

    Fisher, Lauren B; Overholser, James C; Ridley, Josephine; Braden, Abby; Rosoff, Cari


    Sense of belonging has demonstrated significant relationships with depression and suicidal thoughts, highlighting its potential utility in refining assessment of suicide risk. Structured clinical interviews and self-report measures were used to assess depression, suicidal behaviors, hopelessness, life stress, social support, and sense of belonging in a sample of 116 depressed psychiatric patients. Lower sense of belonging was significantly associated with greater severity of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and history of prior suicide attempt(s). However, sense of belonging did not predict suicidal ideation and history of prior suicide attempt(s) beyond the association between suicidal behaviors and established risk factors. Sense of belonging displayed a significant relationship with depression and hopelessness and is likely to play a critical role in both the development of and recovery from depression. Sense of belonging is directly related to depression and hopelessness, while indirectly related to suicidal ideation. Low sense of belonging provides an important target for assessment and intervention in the treatment of depression. Cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal interventions may help improve an individual's sense of belonging and decrease symptoms of depression and hopelessness.

  5. A Sense of Belonging through the Eyes of First-Year LGBPQ Students (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Newman, Barbara M.


    Using grounded theory methods, the authors examined how LGBPQ students developed a sense of belonging during the first year of college. Sense of belonging transformed and deepened over the year and was fostered in three different contexts: university, group, and friendship. It was influenced by sexual identity and outness, university messaging,…

  6. University Belonging, Friendship Quality, and Psychological Adjustment during the Transition to College (United States)

    Pittman, Laura D.; Richmond, Adeya


    The authors collected questionnaire data from college students (N = 79) at 2 time points during their freshman year to examine how changes in a sense of university belonging, quality of friendships, and psychological adjustment were associated. Students who had positive changes in university belonging had corresponding positive changes in…

  7. Internalized Homonegativity, Sense of Belonging, and Depressive Symptoms Among Australian Gay Men. (United States)

    Davidson, Kenneth; McLaren, Suzanne; Jenkins, Megan; Corboy, Denise; Gibbs, Petah M; Molloy, Mari


    Internalized homonegativity has been directly linked to depression among gay men. The aim of the study was to test whether internalized homonegativity is indirectly related to depressive symptoms via a sense of belonging to the broad gay community, gay groups, gay friends, and the general community. A sample of 246 self-identified Australian gay men, aged 18-82 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Sense of Belonging Within Gay Communities Scale, and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that the final model was an excellent fit to the data. Internalized homonegativity was indirectly related to depressive symptoms via sense of belonging to gay groups, with gay friends, and to the general community. Interventions aimed at reducing internalized homonegativity among gay men have the potential to enhance sense of belonging and, in turn, decrease depressive symptoms.

  8. A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school. (United States)

    Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew


    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. How a gender gap in belonging contributes to the gender gap in physics participation (United States)

    Stout, Jane G.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Pollock, Steven J.


    A great deal of research indicates that feeling a secure sense of belonging in academic settings is critical to students' achievement. In the current work, we present data collected over multiple semesters of a calculus-based introductory physics class indicating that women feel a lower sense of belonging than men in physics. This finding is important because our data also indicate that having a strong sense of belonging in physics positively predicts the degree to which all students see the value of physics in their daily life (an outcome that predicts motivation and persistence in achievement settings) as well as performance on exams in the course. We identify one potential antecedent of women's relatively lower sense of belonging in physics, namely, negative cultural stereotypes about women's inferior ability in physics compared to men. We then discuss pedagogical strategies that might be employed to enhance women's sense of belonging in physics.

  10. Perceived stress and sense of belonging in doctor of nursing practice students. (United States)

    Reilly, Janet E Resop; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J


    There is little research among doctor of nursing practice (DNP) students, a fast-growing population of nurses engaged in doctoral study. In this descriptive correlational study, levels of perceived stress, sense of belonging, and the relationship between these variables were examined. The sample included 89 female, predominantly White, post-master's DNP students from a Midwest university. A statistically significant inverse relationship (r = -.49, P stress and sense of belonging was found. Recommendations for future research include additional studies of perceived stress and sense of belonging in diverse DNP student populations and in various DNP education models.

  11. Fitting in to Move Forward: How Belonging Affects Women in Physics (United States)

    Ito, Tiffany


    This talk will consider different factors that have been shown to negatively affect women in physics and other STEM fields by decreasing their subjective sense of belonging, fit, and acceptance. I will discuss recent studies documenting gender disparities in belonging and the negative effect this has on women's persistence. I will also consider the effects of gender composition within group problem-solving tasks on women's belonging, behavior, and perceived competency. Finally, I will discuss potential interventions and changes in classroom context that may serve to encourage women and members of other underrepresented groups.

  12. The effects of sense of belonging, social support, conflict, and loneliness on depression. (United States)

    Hagerty, B M; Williams, R A


    A number of interpersonal phenomena have been linked to depression, including sense of belonging, social support, conflict, and loneliness. To examine the effects of the interpersonal phenomena of sense of belonging, social support, loneliness, and conflict on depression, and to describe the predictive value of sense of belonging for depression in the context of other interpersonal phenomenon. A sample of clients with major depressive disorder and students in a midwestern community college participated in the study by completing questionnaires. Path analysis showed significant direct paths as postulated, with 64% of the variance of depression explained by the variables in the model. Social support had only an indirect effect on depression, and this finding supported the buffer theory of social support. Sense of belonging was a better predictor of depression. The study findings emphasize the importance of relationship-oriented experiences as part of assessment and intervention strategies for individuals with depression.

  13. Relations of perceived motivational climate and feelings of belonging in physical education in urban schools. (United States)

    Wright, Paul M; Li, Weidong; Ding, Sheng


    The current pilot study examined the relationship between feelings of belonging and perceptions of motivational climate in physical education classes among 87 African-American, inner-city high school students (41 boys, 46 girls). Motivational climate was assessed by the Perceived Motivational Climate Questionnaire and feelings of belonging were assessed by the Belonging Scale. Contrary to the hypothesis, scores for both the task- and ego-involved subscales of the Perceived Motivational Climate Questionnaire had moderate positive correlations with scores on the Belonging Scale, indicating the relationship between these specific motivational climates and social-emotional outcomes in physical education is not clear and direct. Further research is warranted to assess these findings and to identify what experiences and instructional strategies are most effective in promoting social-emotional outcomes in physical education in urban schools.

  14. Belonging and quality of life as perceived by people with advanced cancer who live at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Nissen, Nina; Brandt, Åse

    Purpose: In previous research (Peoples, Nissen, Brandt, & la Cour, 2017), we explored how people with advanced cancer who live at home perceive quality of life. Findings from our previous study indicate that dimensions of belonging in various ways may be connected to quality of life when living...... with an impending death. These findings prompted our curiosity to further explore, how perceived quality of life may be linked to belonging when living with advanced cancer. By drawing on our findings and the theoretical concept of belonging within occupational science, the purpose of this study was to gain....... The findings furthermore indicate that objects such as personal items and everyday technology may serve as means through which people with advanced cancer may experience dimensions of belongings. Implications in relation to OS: This study adds to knowledge within occupational science of how quality of life...

  15. Exploring Sense of Belonging among Black International Students at an HBCU

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chrystal A George Mwangi


    .... The purpose is to examine Black HBCU international students' sense of belonging on campus. This study engages qualitative individual interviews with ten Black international HBCU students and utilizes the constant comparative analytic process...

  16. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations: the relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors. (United States)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P Marijn


    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for demographic variables, job type, justice constructs, and trust in organization in a multilevel regression analysis using data from 130 employees of a clinical chemical laboratory and their supervisors, the authors found that employees who perceive greater levels of desired coworker belonging than actual levels of coworker belonging were more likely to engage in interpersonally harmful and less likely to engage in interpersonally helpful behaviors. Implications for the application of belongingness theory to explain self-defeating behaviors in organizations are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved



    Shanayda M.I.; Pokryshko O.V.


    Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial ...

  18. Ethnic pride, self-esteem, and school belonging: A reciprocal analysis over time. (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D


    School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations between school belonging and two self-affirmation beliefs-self-esteem and ethnic pride-using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin students followed from fifth to ninth grade (N = 674, Mage at Wave 1 = 10.4 years, 50% girls). Furthermore, we evaluated whether the associations were stronger for boys than girls. Using multiple group analysis in a structural equation modeling framework, results indicate that, among boys, ethnic pride was prospectively associated with increases in self-esteem, self-esteem was associated with increases in school belonging, and the direct association between ethnic pride and school belonging was bidirectional. For girls, ethnic pride was prospectively associated with later school belonging. Discussion focuses on the gender differences in observed effects and implications for school programs and interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. 50 CFR 19.2 - Scope of regulations. (United States)


    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) AIRBORNE HUNTING Introduction § 19.2 Scope of regulations. The regulations contained... seas or on board aircraft in flight over the high seas, and to all persons on board aircraft belonging...

  20. Impact on community organisations that partnered with the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign. (United States)

    Jalleh, Geoffrey; Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert J; Laws, Amberlee


    A primary aim of the pilot phase of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign was to form partnerships with community organisations. As a component of the broader campaign strategy, collaborating organisations promoted their activities under the Act-Belong-Commit banner in exchange for resources, promotional opportunities and capacity building in event management and funding. The impact of the Act-Belong-Commit campaign on the capacity and activities of collaborating organisations during the pilot phase was evaluated using self-completed mail surveys in 2006 and 2008. Collaboration with the campaign had a positive impact on community organisations' capacity, including staff expertise, media publicity and funding applications. Collaborating organisations had strong positive perceptions of Act-Belong-Commit officers and all expressed a willingness to collaborate in future events and activities. The partnership model used during the pilot phase of the Act-Belong-Commit campaign was successful in creating mutually beneficial exchanges with collaborating organisations. So what? Community partnerships are necessary for the effective delivery of mental health promotion campaigns at a local level. Successful partnerships involve the provision of real and valuable benefits to collaborating organisations in return for their cooperation in promoting health messages.

  1. Pectate lyase PelI of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 belongs to a new family. (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Robert-Baudouy, J; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N


    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pel4, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE genes and a set of secondary pectate lyases, two of which, pelL and pelZ, have been already identified. We cloned the pelI gene, encoding a ninth pectate lyase of E. chrysanthemi 3937. The pelI reading frame is 1,035 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 344 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 19 amino acids. The purified mature PelI protein has an isoelectric point of about 9 and an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa. PelI has a preference for partially methyl esterified pectin and presents an endo-cleaving activity with an alkaline pH optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+ ions. PelI is an extracellular protein secreted by the Out secretory pathway of E. chrysanthemi. The PelI protein is very active in the maceration of plant tissues. A pelI mutant displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence did not appear to be affected on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants. The pelI gene constitutes an independent transcriptional unit. As shown for the other pel genes, the transcription of pelI is dependent on various environmental conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation, temperature, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite repression. Regulation of pelI expression appeared to be dependent on the three repressors of pectinase synthesis, KdgR, PecS, and PecT, and on the global activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. A functional KdgR binding site was identified close to the putative pelI promoter. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PelI revealed high homology with a pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (65% identity) and low homology with pectate lyases of the phytopathogenic fungus Nectria haematococca (Fusarium solani). This finding indicates that PelI belongs to pectate lyase class

  2. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten


    to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted...... of 3611 adults aged ≥50years. A validated scale for problem drinking was used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used as an indicator of Act, social network integration as an indicator of Belong, and frequency of participation in these social/recreational activities...... as an indicator of Commit. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between baseline indicators of Act-Belong-Commit and the development of problem drinking at two-year follow-up. Each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted...

  3. Effects of social belonging on homesickness: an application of the belongingness hypothesis. (United States)

    Watt, Susan E; Badger, Alison J


    Belongingness theory proposes that humans possess an innate drive for a minimum number of lasting interpersonal relationships. On geographic relocation, people leave their existing social networks. This greatly threatens belongingness needs, and the authors propose this is one cause of homesickness. Two studies investigated whether homesickness arises in the need to belong. Study 1 used a correlational design to test the relationship between need to belong and homesickness while controlling for other variables. A significant positive relationship was found. Study 2 then used an experimental design to test for a causal effect of need to belong on homesickness, and a significant effect was found. An additional finding showed that individuals who felt accepted in the community were less homesick. This was independent of number of friends and demonstrates an important link between community attitudes and adjustment. Implications for belongingness theory are discussed.

  4. [Chemotaxonomic characteristics of bacteria belonging to the genus Nocardia isolated from Ukrainian SSR soils]. (United States)

    Nesterenko, O A; Kasumova, S A; Kvasnikov, E I; Shkaruba, V V


    From soils of the Ukrainian SSR bearing oil and without it, 241 strains of Nocardia were isolated on mineral media containing n-alkanes C12-C22. The strains were divided into two groups: actinoid (N. asteroides, N. flavescens) and bacterium-like (N. rubropertincta, N. flava, N. ucrainica, N. salmonicolor, N. rubra, N. erythropolis, Nocardia ssp). Chemotaxonomic characteristics (the presence in the cells of galactose, arabinose, mesodiaminopimelic acid, lipid LCN-A) were used to differentiate Nocardia from other genera of actinomycetes and coryneforms and to confirm the taxonomy of museum strains. The majority of the Nocardia cultures belongs to the groups "asteroides" and "rhodochrous" according to location of spots of lipid LCN-A on chromatograms. The strains of N. asteroides and complex "M." rhodochrous may belong to both groups. A small number of strains belongs to the group which is represented by N. calcarea 41 (NCIB 8863).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Maric


    Full Text Available The article explores the phenomenon of electronic sport (e-sport, which refers to organised and competitive video gaming. It is approached as a 'social world' and a specific culture of gaming, which produces organised groups, events and broadcasting. Located at the intersection of gaming and sports, e-sport adopts elements from both areas. From a grounded theory perspective, the article discusses the contexts, meanings and practices of pro-gaming within e-sport as researched in a study consisting of semi-structured interviews with e-sport fans, gamers, journalists and team managers and observation of e-sport events and clubhouses. The results point out that territorial belonging and gender remain relevant for pro-gaming. Both can inspire belonging and result in exclusions or inclusions. But while territorial belonging is adopted as a flexible practice, gender is structuring gaming within e-sport.

  6. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment. (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma


    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  7. The origins of belonging: social motivation in infants and young children (United States)


    Our reliance on our group members has exerted a profound influence over our motivation: successful group functioning requires that we are motivated to interact, and engage, with those around us. In other words, we need to belong. In this article, I explore the developmental origins of our need to belong. I discuss existing evidence that, from early in development, children seek to affiliate with others and to form long-lasting bonds with their group members. Furthermore, when children are deprived of a sense of belonging, it has negative consequences for their well-being. This focus on social motivation enables us to examine why and in what circumstances children engage in particular behaviours. It thus provides an important complement to research on social cognition. In doing so, it opens up important questions for future research and provides a much-needed bridge between developmental and social psychology. PMID:26644591

  8. Demystifying values-affirmation interventions: writing about social belonging is a key to buffering against identity threat. (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Cook, Jonathan E; Garcia, Julio; Cohen, Geoffrey L


    Two experiments examined for the first time whether the specific content of participant-generated affirmation essays-in particular, writing about social belonging-facilitated an affirmation intervention's ability to reduce identity threat among negatively stereotyped students. Study 1, a field experiment, revealed that seventh graders assigned to a values-affirmation condition wrote about social belonging more than those assigned to a control condition. Writing about belonging, in turn, improved the grade point average (GPA) of Black, but not White students. In Study 2, using a modified "belonging-affirmation" intervention, we directly manipulated writing about social belonging before a math test described as diagnostic of math ability. The more female participants wrote about belonging, the better they performed, while there was no effect of writing about belonging for males. Writing about social belonging improved performance only for members of negatively stereotyped groups. Implications for self-affirmation theory and practice are discussed.

  9. How Do My Friends Matter? Examining Latino Adolescents' Friendships, School Belonging, and Academic Achievement. (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Ettekal, Andrea Vest; Simpkins, Sandra D; Schaefer, David R


    Are Latino adolescents' friendships an untapped resource for academic achievement or perhaps one of the reasons why these youth struggle academically? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6782; 7th through 12th graders; 52.9 % female), we examined whether the process of Latino students' school belonging mediated the relationships between the context of friendships (i.e., friendship network indicators) and their academic outcomes (i.e., a context-process-outcomes model), and tested whether the process-context link varied by friends' characteristics (i.e., GPA and problem behavior; social capital). Moreover, we tested whether all relationships varied across the four largest Latino subgroups in the U.S. (i.e., Mexican, Central/South American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban). Our findings indicate that being nominated as a friend by peers and perceiving to have friends exerted both direct effects on school belonging in all but one of the Latino ethnic samples (i.e., Puerto Rican samples) and indirect effects on academic achievement in the full Latino, Mexican, and Central/South American samples. As such, school belonging was more likely to explain the links between academic achievement with nominations by peers as a friend and perceived friends than with having close-knit friendship groups. However, having a close-knit group of average or low-achieving friends predicted more school belonging for Mexican youth, but less school belonging for Cubans. Our findings suggest that friendships may be particularly beneficial for the school belonging process of highly marginalized groups in the U.S. (i.e., Mexican-origin).

  10. Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging. (United States)

    Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa


    Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Zen-Christian Dual Belonging and the Practice of Apophasis: Strategies of Meeting Rose Drew's Theological Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Braak, A.F.M.


    An important subset of the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is that of Buddhist-Christian belonging: people who claim to belong to, owe allegiance to or believe in both the Buddhist and Christian faiths. This phenomenon has not yet been the subject of much normative theological

  12. Zen-Christian Dual Belonging and the Practice of Apophasis : Strategies of Meeting Rose Drew's Theological Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Braak, A.F.M.


    An important subset of the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is that of Buddhist-Christian belonging: people who claim to belong to, owe allegiance to or believe in both the Buddhist and Christian faiths. This phenomenon has not yet been the subject of much normative theological

  13. Sex and the regulation of belonging. Dutch family migration policies in the context of changing family norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walsum, S.K.; Kraler, A.; Kofman, E.; Kohli, M.; Schmoll, C.


    In recent years, the Netherlands has drawn international attention by introducing language and integration tests that must be passed abroad before a foreign family member can join his or her spouse, parent or child in the Netherlands. A few decades back, preserving the unity of the family and

  14. Playing Many Religion-Games: a Wittgensteinian Approach to Multiple Religious Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Rhiannon


    Full Text Available Using resources from Ludwig Wittgenstein and George Lindbeck, this paper develops a new conceptual tool for the understanding of religious identity: the ‘religion-game’. Although related to Wittgenstein’s language-games and drawing on Lindbeck‘s cultural-linguistic model of religion, this conceptual tool produces new results when applied to examples of multiple religious belonging. Drawing on the existing literature about the practice of multiple religious participation in Western countries, two realistic examples are developed at length and it is shown that the concept of a religion-game can help people to express their religious belonging in more positive ways. In particular, the many everyday choices made by people with more than one religious affiliation are clarified as choices to participate in some religion-games but not others. This de-emphasises the role of identity, often assumed to be singular, in religious belonging and enables an emphasis on behaviour which both fits with the turn towards ‘lived religion’ and permits a vivid and accurate account of the experience of at least two common paths to multiple religious belonging.

  15. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.


    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  16. Predicting Social Responsibility and Belonging in Urban After-School Physical Activity Programs with Underserved Children (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Byrd, Brigid; Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel; Centeio, Erin


    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on the motivational climate perceptions and contingent self-worth of children participating in urban after-school physical activity programs. Three-hundred and four elementary school students from a major Midwestern city participated.…

  17. Campus Racial Climate Perceptions and Overall Sense of Belonging among Racially Diverse Women in STEM Majors (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn R.


    This study examined the contributions of campus racial climate perceptions and other college environments to overall sense of belonging among racially diverse women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. The sample included 1,722 women from the 2004 National Study of Living-Learning Programs. Using a conceptual…

  18. Applying visual methods in the study of place affiliation, mobility, and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Møller, Karina Torp; Pristed Nielsen, Helene


    In this short essay we present a Danish research project called ‘Images of the Global Periphery’. Through the use of visual methodologies, the project focuses on belonging and home-making among newcomers, thereby addressing how geographic mobility is implicated in ‘everyday belonging’ and people...

  19. Sense of Community Belonging and Health in Canada: A Regional Analysis (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James


    This article investigates the association between sense of community belonging and health among settlements of different size and across the urban to rural continuum in Canada. Using data from the recent 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), the objective is to identify the major health, social and geographic determinants of sense of…

  20. White Voice in Multiculturalism: Belonging, Professional Respect, and Role as Cultural Broker (United States)

    Wilder, Lynn K.


    Dr. Wilder retraces the steps of a personal journey as a White faculty member researching, publishing, and presenting at conferences in the field of multiculturalism. She shares insight into her experiences--while advocating for diversity--of overcoming the challenge to belong in collegial circles, to give and receive professional respect, and to…

  1. School-Based Interpersonal Relationships: Setting the Foundation for Young Adolescents' Belonging in Middle School (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.


    This qualitative case study (N = 24) analyzed in what ways school-based interpersonal relationships may have helped to set the foundation for young adolescents' belonging within 1 large, diverse urban sixth through eighth grade middle school. Eighteen students (11-14 years old), 5 teachers, and 1 administrator were individually interviewed in the…

  2. Support, Belonging, Motivation, and Engagement in the College Classroom: A Mixed Method Study (United States)

    Zumbrunn, Sharon; McKim, Courtney; Buhs, Eric; Hawley, Leslie R.


    This explanatory sequential mixed methods study examined how belonging perceptions, academic motivation, and engagement might mediate the relationship between academic contextual characteristics and achievement using structural equation modeling and qualitative follow-up interviews with college students from a large, Midwestern university. In the…

  3. "In Your Face" Democracy: Education for Belonging and Its Challenges in Israel (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Mustafa, Muhanad; Jabareen, Yousef T.


    This article will juxtapose the goals and implications of two pedagogical programmes that promote education for belonging in Israel. Representing the official knowledge of the Ministry of Education, the first is the "100 Concepts in Heritage, Zionism and Democracy" curriculum. The second, which embodies the counter knowledge produced and…

  4. Length of gestation periods of horses and ponies belonging to different breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Mey, G.J.W. van der

    The mean gestation periods of mares belonging to different horse and pony breeds common in The Netherlands have been calculated using data from the birth registers of five stud-book societies. The following mean values have been determined: Fjord pony: 342.2; Haflinger pony: 341.3; Draught horse:

  5. A new serovar and a new serological variant belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Solari


    Full Text Available Description of a new serovar (S. IIIb 16:k:e,n,x,z15 and a new serological variant (S. IIIb 42:z10:e,n,x,z15:z60 belonging to the genus Salmonella isolated from stool specimens of Brazilian snakes (Crotalus durissus.

  6. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents (United States)

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross


    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  7. Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.; Schneider, J.


    Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in eight European countries the authors propose a new perspective on integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context theory argues that participation in social organizations and belonging to local

  8. Preference Reasons for Recreational Areas Which Belongs to the Local Administrations (United States)

    Kirtepe, Abdurrahman; Altungul, Oguzhan; Karahuseyinoglu, M. Fatih


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effective factors of people choosing outdoor recreation areas, which is belonging to local government in Elazig Province Center, for feel comfortable in social, cultural and physiological aspects where they can evaluate their free time and benefit from different purposes according to different…

  9. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.


    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  10. Factorial Structure and Invariance Analysis of the Sense of Belonging Scales (United States)

    Tovar, Esau; Simon, Merril A.


    Using a diverse sample of university students, this article describes outcomes of a confirmatory factor analysis and a group invariance analysis conducted to validate the factorial structure of the Sense of Belonging Scales. Accordingly, a modified factor structure departing significantly from that of the original authors is proposed. (Contains 5…

  11. The village as a ‘community of practice’ Constitution of village belonging through leisure sociality

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    Fausto Barlocco


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the formation and display of a form of identification alternative to the national one, the belonging to the village, within the leisure practices of Kadazan villagers in Sabah, East Malaysia, both constituted by the regular meetings of peer groups and by festive events. The analysis of the paper applies the concept of ‘community of practice’ to the group of villagers who regularly invest most of their resources of free time, but also money, in interacting between themselves and in organising celebrations for various life-cycle events or for other occasions, and argues that a strong sense of belonging to the village is developed through this engagement. These practices are informed by a powerful and widely spread local ideology, positing the village as the central point of reference for its inhabitants’ sense of belonging and as the locus of a traditionalist ‘way of life’, based on cooperation, sharing and egalitarian principles, and rejecting the modern, multi-ethnic urban world from which the majority of the villagers derive their livelihood. This ideology defines the village as Kadazan and Christian, determining a rootedness in everyday life of ethnic identity as well as a general rejection of government-led nationalist propaganda and of its policies. This ideology is an essential part of the affirmation by the villagers of the primacy of the local and of direct involvement and participation over their sense of belonging to collective categories.

  12. Synthesis of insect pheromones belonging to the group of (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes (United States)

    Grigorieva, Natalia Ya; Tsiklauri, Paata G.


    Stereo- and regiocontrolled methods for the construction of a (Z)-trisubstituted C=C bond and for the regiospecific introduction of a chiral fragment are exemplified in total syntheses of insect pheromones belonging to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  13. Asserting the Right to Belong: Feminist Co-Mentoring among Graduate Student Women (United States)

    Godbee, Beth; Novotny, Julia C.


    This empirical case study aims to identify how graduate student women mentor each other when tutoring writing and, through doing so, assert their right to belong in the academy. Much existing literature on feminist mentoring emphasizes the need for better mentoring for women, whether in work or school environments, in current or future faculty…

  14. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright


    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  15. Science as national belonging: The construction of Svalbard as a Norwegian space. (United States)

    Roberts, Peder; Paglia, Eric


    This article examines how science has been employed to establish, maintain, and contest senses of belonging on Svalbard, an Arctic archipelago administered by Norway since 1925 under an international treaty. Our central argument is that the process of constructing Svalbard as a space belonging to Norway has long been intertwined with the processes of describing and representing the archipelago and that participating in those processes has also permitted other states to articulate their own narratives of belonging - on Svalbard in particular and in the Arctic more generally. We deploy the concept of belonging to capture a sense of legitimate presence and stakeholdership that we do not believe can be adequately captured by narrow concepts of sovereignty. Norway's historic and current use of science validates (and even naturalizes) its rule over Svalbard. At the same time, other states use science on Svalbard to articulate geopolitical scripts that portray them as stakeholders in an Arctic that is of transregional relevance due to the effects of climate change.

  16. Beyond Delinquent Citizenships: Immigrant Youth's (Re)Visions of Citizenship and Belonging in a Globalized World (United States)

    Rios-Rojas, Anne


    Using ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a public high school located in the greater Barcelona area, Anne Rios-Rojas focuses on the experiences of immigrant youth as they negotiate a sense of belonging in an ever more globalized society. Rios-Rojas pays particular attention to the multiple and at times contradictory ways in which youth maneuver…

  17. Measuring Social Support and School Belonging in Black/African American and White Children (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.


    Objective: To determine the suitability of the Elementary School Success Profile for Children (ESSP-C) for assessment and comparison of social support and school belonging between Black/African American and White students. Methods: Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing were conducted to determine the ESSP-C's validity…

  18. A Sense of Belonging: How Student Feelings Correlate with Learning about Race (United States)

    Kernahan, Cyndi; Zheng, Wei; Davis, Tricia


    Learning about race and racism can be a difficult process. Previous work has shown that courses in this area can help to increase awareness of racial bias and discrimination, but less work has focused on how that change occurs. We hypothesized that feelings of belonging within the classroom could correlate with student learning and our results…

  19. Crime and insurgent citizenship: extra-state rule and belonging in urban Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffe, R.


    Through an analysis of the ‘don’ system in Jamaica, Rivke Jaffe explores alternatives concepts of citizenships. She argues that new definitions of belonging to a political community, and the rights and responsibilities associated with these memberships, can take shape within a shifting spatial logic

  20. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten


    to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted...

  1. School Values: A Comparison of Academic Motivation, Mental Health Promotion, and School Belonging with Student Achievement (United States)

    Allen, Kelly-Ann; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea


    School vision and mission statements are an explicit indication of a school's priorities. Research has found academic motivation, mental health promotion, and school belonging to be the most frequently cited themes in these statements. The present study sought to examine whether these themes relate to student academic achievement, as indicated by…

  2. Students’ sense of belonging at school in 41 countries: cross-cultural variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, M.M.; Chow, B.W.Y.; McBride, C.; Mol, S.T.


    This study examined whether students’ sense of belonging at school (SOBAS) differed across attributes of countries, families, schools, teachers, or students. Multilevel analyses of survey and test data from 193,073 15-year-old students in 41 countries yielded four main findings. First, students in

  3. Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, J.


    Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in eight European countries the authors propose a new perspective on integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context theory argues that participation in social organizations and belonging to local

  4. "Yo Pertenezco Aquí": Academic Identities, Formal Spanish, and Feelings of Belonging (United States)

    Minor, Denise


    This study examines the impact that membership in a Spanish language theater and poetry troupe had upon a group of Mexican and Chicano university students in terms of the development of academic identities, feelings of belonging, connections with friends and family, and other factors that correlate with academic perseverance. Also examined was the…

  5. The relationship between media discourses and experiences of belonging : Dutch Somali perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassaye, A.; Ashur, I.; van Heelsum, A.


    This article explores the relationship between media discourses and experiences of belonging. Studies on Muslims and the media have suggested that there is a largely negative discourse about Muslims in Western countries. As a result, the ‘othering’ processes that occur in the media may impact how

  6. Teaching through an Ethics of Belonging, Care and Obligation as a Critical Approach to Transforming Education (United States)

    Macartney, Bernadette Christine


    This paper considers the experiences of a New Zealand family and their "disabled" daughter Clare's "inclusion" and "exclusion" in her early childhood centre and the implications of these experiences for shifting from a discourse of "inclusion" to "belonging" based on "an ethics of care and…

  7. Does Hamlet Belong in Freshman Composition? The Debatable Role of Canonical Literature in Composition (United States)

    Fitzwilliam, Marie A.


    The question of whether "Hamlet" belongs in a freshman composition classroom is one that institutions are making easier to answer, though perhaps for political rather than pedagogical reasons. This article describes a project in which Marie Fitzwilliam and her colleagues were asked to engage in a dialogue with the administration on…

  8. Peer Group Membership and a Sense of Belonging: Their Relationship to Adolescent Behavior Problems (United States)

    Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.


    This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…

  9. Hip-Hop Is the Healer: Sense of Belonging and Diversity among Hip-Hop Collegians (United States)

    Sulé, V. Thandi


    Sense of belonging is recognized as a factor contributing to persistence to graduation. Furthermore, interactional diversity is associated with learning and civic outcomes--touted higher education goals. Hip-hop culture, one of the most influential cultural creations of the mid-20th century, has succeeded in attracting devotees from diverse…

  10. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds (United States)

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.


    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  11. Quetzaltenango's First Mayan Mayor: Transforming Political Culture and the Politics of Belonging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, E.D.


    Against the backdrop of ethnic political mobilisation in Latin America, this article examines how, as Quetzaltenango's first Mayan mayor, Rigoberto Quemé Chay transformed two interrelated dimensions of citizenship: political culture and the politics of belonging. It analyses the way in which

  12. Belonging, believing, bonding, and behaving: the relationship between religion and business ownership at the country level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Hoogendoorn (Brigitte); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); A.J. van Stel (André)


    textabstractThis cross-country study adopts a competing theories approach in which both a value perspective and a social capital perspective are used to understand the relation between religion and a country’s business ownership rate. We distinguish among four dimensions of religion: belonging to a

  13. The Importance of Belonging: Learning from the Student Experience of Democratic Education (United States)

    Hope, Max A.


    This article grew out of an extensive piece of grounded theory research that explored students' experiences of democratic education. A small democratic school in the south of England is used as a case study. Students in this school experienced a strong sense of belonging--to the school itself, with teachers, and with peers. This appeared to make a…

  14. Positive Development, Sense of Belonging, and Support of Peers among Early Adolescents: Perspectives of Different Actors (United States)

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle


    Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…

  15. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former House of Delegates school

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    Ramodungoane Tabane


    Full Text Available The ideal of creating a non-racial and equitable school environment is embedded in the South African Constitution. This ideal is informed by a desire to overcome the divisions of the apartheid past by pursuing policies and strategies that will promote the achievement of social cohesion, without denying space for various identities. Schools are seen as important vehicles for driving social cohesion amongst learners and it is therefore important that all learners, irrespective of their race, experience a sense of belonging in the school. Using a case study and an interactive qualitative analysis research methodology, we explored the experiences of black and Indian learners in a desegregated former House of Delegates school to determine the successes and possible challenges of ensuring racial integration at the school level and therefore its contribution to social cohesion. The study demonstrates the importance of eight concepts (namely, the school as a welcoming space; belonging; respect; security; equality in the way we socialise; tender loving care; motivation; and freedom to the study of racial integration and social cohesion. This article focuses on the contribution that sense of belonging has on creating a school environment that is enabling, contributing to learner achievement and concludes that sense of belonging, integration, and social cohesion are intertwined and important in creating an environment that is welcoming and a "home" to diverse learners and educators.

  16. "Sentido de Pertenencia": A Hierarchical Analysis Predicting Sense of Belonging among Latino College Students (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell Lamont


    The present study estimated the influence of academic and social collegiate experiences on Latino students' sense of belonging, controlling for background differences, using hierarchical analysis techniques with a nested design. In addition, results were compared between Latino students and their White counterparts. Findings reveal that grades,…

  17. Language Learning as a Site for Belonging: A Narrative Analysis of Korean Adoptee-Returnees (United States)

    Higgins, Christina; Stoker, Kim


    Through analyzing narratives of Korean heritage language (HL) users, this article explores whether and to what degree these language users experience social inclusion and a sense of belonging in Korean society. We expand the field of HL research by investigating the experiences of four Korean-born, US-raised adoptee-returnees who currently reside…

  18. School Belonging: A Review of the History, Current Trends, and Future Directions (United States)

    Slaten, Christopher D.; Ferguson, Jonathan K.; Allen, Kelly-Ann; Brodrick, Dianne-Vella; Waters, Lea


    School belonging, at both a school and university level, has been well documented as a predictor of academic and psychosocial success. The construct has been examined by scholars in a variety of different professional disciplines (e.g., education, psychology, sociology) and continues to be consistently researched. Although significant…

  19. British Citizenship, Gender and Migration: The Containment of Cultural Differences and the Stratification of Belonging (United States)

    Morrice, Linda


    Debates about integration, British values and identity, who can belong and who can become a citizen, have been fuelled by concerns about growing cultural diversity in the United Kingdom. To promote a shared sense of national identity and claim a universal and normative citizen subject, the UK government, along with many other western nations, has…

  20. Library Informational Technology Workers: Their Sense of Belonging, Role, Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Lim, Sook


    This study examines the characteristics of library information technology (IT) workers using a mail survey. The IT workers showed a moderate level of a sense of belonging, playing the broker's role, job autonomy, and job satisfaction. There were differences between librarian IT workers and non-librarian IT workers regarding most of these…

  1. A Pedagogy of Belonging: Troubling Encounters with Ethnic and Religious Difference (United States)

    Edgeworth, Kathryn; Santoro, Ninetta


    Understanding the construction of belonging, and how unbelonging might be troubled, is critical work. For schools in many parts of the world one of the many challenges of globalisation is the task of teaching with, and for, ethnic and cultural diversity. This paper examines the exclusionary practices of teaching that construct ethnic and religious…

  2. A study of the helminth fauna of birds belonging to the Passeriformes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Okulewicz, A.; Okulewicz, J.


    In this study, 210 birds belonging to 47 species and 15 families of the Passeriformes collected during the period 1970-1986, were investigated for the presence of helminths. Of these birds, 138 (65.7%) were infected: 47 (22.4%) with digeneans, 82 (39.0%) with cestodes, 95 (45.2%) with nematodes and

  3. Privilege and Belonging: The Quest to Make the Society of Counseling Psychology More Welcoming (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant; Levy, Jacob J.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.


    In this rejoinder, we advance the dialogue stimulated by our major contribution (Smith et al., 2012) in which we present the findings from a survey of early career professionals (ECPs) in Division 17, the Society of Counseling Psychology. We respond to the reactants' concerns and observations using the lenses of privilege and belonging to guide…

  4. Work-Integrated Learning and the Importance of Peer Support and Sense of Belonging (United States)

    McBeath, Margaret; Drysdale, Maureen T. B.; Bohn, Nicholas


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between peer support and sense of belonging on the mental health and overall well-being, with a specific focus on comparing the perceptions of students in a work-integrated learning (WIL) program to those in a traditional non-WIL program. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured…

  5. Synthesis of insect pheromones belonging to the group of (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorieva, Natalia Ya; Tsiklauri, Paata G [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Stereo- and regiocontrolled methods for the construction of a (Z)-trisubstituted C=C bond and for the regiospecific introduction of a chiral fragment are exemplified in total syntheses of insect pheromones belonging to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  6. Black Undergraduate Women and Their Sense of Belonging in STEM at Predominantly White Institutions (United States)

    Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag


    Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…

  7. Improving the School Context of Early Adolescence through Teacher Attunement to Victimization: Effects on School Belonging (United States)

    Norwalk, Kate E.; Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Barnes, Kathryn L.


    The present study examined the effects of teacher attunement to victimization on student perceptions of the bullying culture of their schools as a means of fostering a sense of belonging among early adolescents. Participants (n = 1,264) in sixth grade reported on the frequency that they had been bullied, and teachers were asked to report students…

  8. School Belonging of Adolescents: The Role of Teacher-Student Relationships, Peer Relationships and Family Involvement (United States)

    Uslu, Fatma; Gizir, Sidika


    This study examines the extent to which teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and family involvement can be used to predict a sense of school belonging among adolescents, according to gender. The sample of the study consists of 815 students enrolled in nine state primary schools in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. The data was…

  9. Belonging and adapting: mental health of Bosnian refugees living in the United States. (United States)

    Keyes, Emily F; Kane, Catherine F


    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the experience of Bosnian refugees currently living in the United States. Using a phenomenological method, seven adult female Bosnian refugees each participated in an audio-recorded interview lasting from one to two hours. Two major themes emerged from the analyses of the text: belonging and adapting. Belonging included concepts of cultural memory, identity and difference, empathy and reciprocity, and perfection of speech. Adapting focused on coping with transitions, coping with memories of past and attendant losses, coping with accepting a new culture while trying to fit into the new culture, and learning the new language perfectly. Implicit in the refugees' experiences were states of culture shock, loneliness, psychic numbness, grief, nostalgia, and feelings of dejection, humiliation, inferiority, and feeling as if they belonged nowhere. Simultaneously, the refugees reported feelings of relief and safety after leaving behind the threat of death in their old homes, feelings of gratefulness for their new freedom to hope for a better life, and their restored ability to notice beauty, as well as a sense of normalcy in their new lives. Recommendations for nursing research include the need to identify additional factors promoting successful belonging and adapting in refugees. Recommendations for nursing practice include the importance of adopting a perspective that is respectful of the uniqueness of each refugee and the necessity for recognizing the normal processes of refugee adaptation.

  10. Social cohesion and belonging predict the well-being of community-dwelling older people. (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P


    The neighborhood social environment has been identified as an important aspect of older people's well-being. Poor neighborhood conditions can pose difficulties in obtaining support, especially for older people who live alone. Although social environments have been found to be related to well-being among older people, the longitudinal relationship between the social environment and well-being remains poorly undestood. Research on the effects of changes in neighborhood characteristics, such as social cohesion and social belonging, on well-being is lacking. Therefore, the study aims are (i) describe social cohesion, social belonging, and instrumental goals to achieve well-being among community-dwelling older people, (ii) determine whether these factors varied according to neighborhood social deprivation and compare these findings to those from chronically ill/previously hospitalized older people, and (iii) identify longitudinal relationships between social cohesion and belonging and well-being. Independently living Dutch older adults (aged ≥ 70 years) were asked to complete questionnaires in 2011 (T0) and 2013 (T1). Response rates at T0 and T1 were 66% (945/1440) and 62% (588/945), respectively. Descriptive statistics, paired sample t-tests, analysis of variance, univariate analyses and multilevel regression analyses controlling for background characteristics and baseline well-being were performed. Of 945 respondents [43% male; mean age, 77.5 ± 5.8 (range, 70-101) years], 34.7% were married and 83.3% were Dutch natives. Social cohesion remained constant over time, whereas social belonging improved (p ≤ 0.05). Older people living in socially deprived neighborhoods report poorer overall well-being and instrumental goals to achieve well-being. Baseline social cohesion, changes therein (both p ≤ .001), baseline social belonging, and changes therein (both p ≤ .05) predicted well-being at T1. This study showed that social cohesion, belonging

  11. A sense of belonging and perceived stress among baccalaureate nursing students in clinical placements. (United States)

    Grobecker, Patricia A


    The rigorous efforts students put into baccalaureate nursing programs to become a professional nurse is compounded by their need to have a sense of belonging in their clinical placements. In addition, the students' perceived stress may contribute to their physiological and psychological wellbeing undermining academic achievements and confidence. A sense of belonging and perceived stress have research history in psychological and sociological realms; but not used together in the nursing profession as applied in clinical placements. The Perceived Stress Scale is a psychological instrument used globally; however, the Belongingness Scale-Clinical Placement Experience (BES-CPE) measurement tool has not been used in published research in the United States. A descriptive correlational research design examining the relationship between a sense of belonging and perceived stress among baccalaureate nursing students in clinical placements. Three measurement tools were used for data collection: BES-CPE, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and demographic questionnaire. Students were able to access the online survey through SurveyMonkey®. A national study was conducted using 1296 volunteer nursing students from the National Student Nurses Association (NSNA) database. These nursing students were currently enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program, 18years of age and completed at least one clinical experience. The findings from this study revealed a statistically significant low inverse relationship (r=-.277) between a sense of belonging and perceived stress among baccalaureate nursing students in their clinical placements. The findings also supported the use of BES-CPE as a reliable and valid measurement tool for nursing students in clinical placements. The results of this study supported the concept of a sense of belonging as a fundamental human need, having a positive influence and impact on students' learning, motivation and confidence. In contrast, perceived stress has

  12. The Portrait of Market Leader in Flower Market Vendors at Pasar Rawa Belong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Aryanti W. Puspokusumo


    Full Text Available A good prospect in flowers’ business has made many newcomers from different cities interested in trying the opportunity to become a succesful florist. Since Pasar Rawa Belong has grown up and become more well-known as the marketing and promotion center for flowers, it creates a conducive and atmospheric place to start the business. Many florists in Pasar Rawa Belong have made big profits from the businesses. It can be said that they all are successful florists. However, there will be barely a single florist who is considerately leading forward in the competitive environment. An observation through population of all florists in Pasar Rawa Belong and samples of 50 florists was done in order to find the forthcoming market leader. The method used in observing florists in Pasar Rawa Belong was survey and interview. Next, the results were summarized and analyzed based on certain theoremes from textbooks, articles, and online documents. The theorems are mostly related to management aspects of a competitive and conducive environment while operating a business. According to the data, Yurie Florist, Kusumawardani, and Anadisha come out as the market leaders in 2011 since they have the highest sales per month or beyond 100 million. Meanwhile, no more than 16 percent of florists in Pasar Rawa Belong are able to gain profit of more than 100 million rupiahs per month. Yurie Florist, Kusumawardani, and Anadisha have wide-scale of distribution channels and sells imported flowers which support their high sales. The sales become indicator to determine market share of the shops. The market share itself is decisive indicator to determine the market leader

  13. Empty Selves and Multiple Belonging: Gadamer and Nāgārjuna on Religious Identity’s Hidden Plurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hustwit J. R.


    Full Text Available The reaction to multiple religious belonging has been fraught with anxiety in the monotheistic traditions. Nevertheless, increasing numbers of people report belonging to multiple religions. I propose that it is most useful to think of multiple religious belonging not so much as an expression of choice, but just the opposite. Multiple religious belonging is best explained as the ontological condition of two or more religious traditions constituting the self, so that the self’s possibilities are constrained by those religions. Furthermore, I argue that multiple religious belonging per se does not threaten traditional religious communities. Threats are by definition future possibilities, and ontologically speaking, we always already belong to multiple religions. We belong to multiple religions because every religious tradition is an amalgam of earlier distinct traditions. There is nothing new about multiple religious belonging. It is nearly unremarkable. Two philosophers in particular-one a twentieth-century German phenomenologist, the other a second-century Indian Buddhist-have given particularly careful examination of the phenomenon of belonging. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s concept of Wirkungsgeschichte [history of effects] and Nāgārjuna’s teaching of śūnyatā [emptiness] both imply that multiple religious belonging is the ontological condition of all human beings, and that producing any monolithic religious identity requires significant mental gymnastics.

  14. Latinos' Changing Ethnic Group Representation From Elementary to Middle School: Perceived Belonging and Academic Achievement. (United States)

    Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Graham, Sandra


    This study examined the association between change in ethnic group representation from elementary to middle school and Latino students' school belonging and achievement. The ethnic diversity of students' middle school was examined as a moderator. Participants were 1,825 Latino sixth graders from 26 ethnically diverse urban middle schools. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a change in ethnic representation toward fewer Latinos in middle school than elementary school was related to less perceived belonging and lower achievement in schools with low ethnic diversity. There were no mean differences as a function of declining representation in more diverse middle schools, suggesting that greater school diversity was protective. Findings highlight the importance of examining school ethnic context, especially across the middle school transition. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso


    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  16. The financial performance of hospitals belonging to health networks and systems. (United States)

    Bazzoli, G J; Chan, B; Shortell, S M; D'Aunno, T


    The U.S. health industry is experiencing substantial restructuring through ownership consolidation and development of new forms of interorganizational relationships. Using an established taxonomy of health networks and systems, this paper develops and tests four hypotheses related to hospital financial performance. Consistent with our predictions, we find that hospitals in health systems that had unified ownership generally had better financial performance than hospitals in contractually based health networks. Among health network hospitals, those belonging to highly centralized networks had better financial performance than those belonging to more decentralized networks. However, health system hospitals in moderately centralized systems performed better than those in highly centralized systems. Finally, hospitals in networks or systems with little differentiation or centralization experienced the poorest financial performance. These results are consistent with resource dependence, transaction cost economics, and institutional theories of organizational behavior, and provide a conceptual and empirical baseline for future research.


    CERN Multimedia


    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  18. Exploring masculinity and marginalization of male undergraduate nursing students' experience of belonging during clinical experiences. (United States)

    Sedgwick, Monique G; Kellett, Peter


    Aggressive recruitment strategies used in Canadian undergraduate nursing programs have enjoyed only moderate success, given that male students represent a small percentage of the student population. To determine whether there were gender differences in their sense of belonging, undergraduate nursing students (n = 462) in southern Alberta were surveyed using the Belongingness Scale-Clinical Placement Experience questionnaire. No significant gender differences were found on two of the subscales. However, male students demonstrated significantly lower scores on the efficacy subscale (p = 0.02). This finding suggests that some men experience feelings of marginalization and discrimination. Nurse educators and students are encouraged to explore their worldviews related to gendered performances and teaching practices that create bias. Practice environments are encouraged to deinstitutionalize policies and procedures that accentuate femininities of care. Finally, men entering into the nursing profession are encouraged to reflect on how their gender performance may facilitate or detract from their feelings of belonging. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Constructions of Collective Belongings through Art by Migrants from Cuba in Germany and South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Köttig


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on Cuban immigration to South Florida and Germany. Focusing on two biographies, this essay shall introduce the migration backgrounds and living conditions in the countries of immigration. The construction of ethnic belonging for migrants from Cuba is unquestioningly self-evident for migrants from Cuba both in Germany and Florida. In creating this ethnic belonging, immigrants refer to Cuba's history, culture and art. Strong similarities can be found in these constructions despite the rather different circumstances that the migrants face in their countries of immigration. In terms of the use of art in these constructions, a biographical empirical approach can show how occupation as an artist can either help individuals find solutions for contradictory aspects of life in the country of immigration or help create continuity with the migrants' past prior to their migration. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903318

  20. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni


    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  1. Increasing the emotional engagement of first year mature-aged distance students: Interest and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Kahu


    Full Text Available This research followed 19 mature-aged distance students through their first semester of undergraduate study. The analysis of interviews and video diaries presented in this paper focuses on two key elements of emotional engagement: interest and belonging. Findings highlight the importance of interest triggered by personal preferences and experiences. Interest led to enjoyment, increased behavioural engagement with greater time and effort expended, and improved cognitive engagement in terms of depth and breadth of learning. In contrast, there was less evidence of the social side of emotional engagement, belonging. Participants felt little connection to the university, but connecting with fellow students through face-to-face courses and online forums was important for some to reduce their sense of isolation. However, distance study was not for all. The findings highlight the need for staff to consider emotional engagement when designing and delivering the curriculum and when interacting with students, particularly in the all-important first year.

  2. Species belonging to the "Streptococcus milleri" group: antimicrobial susceptibility and comparative prevalence in significant clinical specimens. (United States)

    Bantar, C; Fernandez Canigia, L; Relloso, S; Lanza, A; Bianchini, H; Smayevsky, J


    The association between the three species belonging to the "Streptococcus milleri" group and different sites of isolation was examined for 73 successive strains recovered from clinically significant, purulent infections. Susceptibility testing was performed on 64 of these strains. The present study supports the association of particular species with different clinical sources. Susceptibility data suggest that emerging penicillin resistance among Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius isolates may represent a potential clinical problem in the therapeutic management of infections caused by these species. PMID:8818904

  3. A journey of negotiation and belonging: understanding students' transition to science and engineering in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars


    The paper presents results from a longitudinal study of students’ decisions to enrol on a higher education science programme and their experiences of it. The aim is to give insights into students’ transition process and negotiation of identity. This is done by following a cohort of 38 students...... time reflects the students’ negotiations in terms of belonging to higher education and their coping strategies when their expectations of their new programme interact with their first-year experiences....

  4. Contested Spaces. Meaningful Places. Contemporary Performances of Place and Belonging in Spain and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. C. Krom


    Full Text Available This essay aims to contribute to current anthropological debate on space and place, analysing in two instances of festival performance how, on the one hand the politics of appropriation of space contributes to the configuration of power relations, and how on the other hand, participants in these festivals engage individually and collectively with physical space(s to create places which they experience as meaningful in terms of identity and belonging.

  5. Oncological management of pediatric cancer patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses: a two-institutional experience report. (United States)

    Tenenbaum, T; Hasan, C; Kramm, C M; Janssen, G; Laws, H-J; Wessalowski, R; Bode, U; Göbel, U


    Aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of oncological treatment in pediatric patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses and to describe the changing policy in performing transfusions and supportive care measures at two German pediatric cancer institutions. Over a period of 16 years 21 treatments according to the current cooperative protocols were performed in 14 children of Jehovah's Witnesses. Various hematological supportive care measures such as supplementation with iron, human erythropoietin, interleukin 11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and autologous or allogeneic stem cell rescue had been applied. For comparison matched pairs treated in our hospitals not belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses and 50 pediatric and adult oncological patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses reviewed from the international literature were analyzed with respect to transfusions and outcome. So far, 9 of 14 children are surviving 16-195 months (median 26 months). During the primary therapy they received markedly less transfusions than the control cohort (-39,1% red blood cell transfusions and -37,5% platelet transfusions). The review of 50 reported cases showed that oncological therapy can also be successfully performed with a restricted transfusion regimen in children and particularly in adults. Pediatric cancer patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses can be treated similarly to other patients. A restrictive transfusion policy and the broad application of hematopoietic supportive care measures may reduce transfusions. This treatment policy and a continuous collaboration with the Hospital Liaison Committee for Jehovah's Witnesses appears to create an oncological treatment situation with a high compliance of patients and parents where court orders may not be necessary. Copyright 2004 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  6. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania


    Špakaitė, Ina


    The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania. The detailed research of freshwater and terrestrial Nostoc and Desmonostoc species provided new data on taxonomy, biology and ecology of these cyanobacteria and the overall diversity of algae in Lithuania. 20 Nostoc species and two intraspecific taxa, and 18 taxa to the Nostoc genus level were identified. Twelve Nostoc species and intraspecifi...

  7. Belonging, believing, bonding, and behaving: the relationship between religion and business ownership at the country level


    Hoogendoorn, Brigitte; Rietveld, Niels; Stel, André


    textabstractThis cross-country study adopts a competing theories approach in which both a value perspective and a social capital perspective are used to understand the relation between religion and a country’s business ownership rate. We distinguish among four dimensions of religion: belonging to a religious denomination, believing certain religious propositions, bonding to religious practices, and behaving in a religious manner. An empirical analysis of data from 30 OECD countries with multi...

  8. Perils and Possibilities of Multiple Religions Belonging: Test Case in Roman Catholicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldmeier Peter


    Full Text Available After reviewing various forms of multiple religious belonging, the author argues for the necessity of preliminary first principles, primarily coming from a considered form of a theology of religions. While an exclusivist theology would not allow multiple belongings, forms of inclusivism, pluralism, and postmodern mutualism provide possibilities. Since Roman Catholicism takes the most typical inclusivist position and has documented authoritative magisterial texts regarding Christianity and the religious other, the author makes a test case from the official Roman Catholic position. These he uses to guide theological possibilities and limitations. Ultimately, what he argues is that the Catholic position is not completely coherent and itself weaves some pluralist and postmodern principles into its supposedly rigid inclusivist position. As a test case, it shows the problems in creating a complete and absolute paradigm regarding Christianity‘s relationship with other religions. He finally argues for a modestly faithful form of Catholic theology that allows for some forms of multiple religious belonging, but also shows how full-fledged multiple identities are fraught.

  9. Benefits of belonging: experimental manipulation of social inclusion to enhance psychological and physiological health parameters. (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M


    Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.

  10. Transcultural and Imagological Figures: Disenchantment, Allophilia, and Belonging in Enrique Vila-Matas and Antonio Tabucchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Simões


    Full Text Available In some contemporary literary works, the presence of the ‘other’ and the representation of the ‘foreigner’ emphasize the problematic ways by which human beings relate to foreign people, revealing how those issues are pressing concerns in modern society. This study questions how the shift in the way we perceive identity and belonging are depicted in Enrique Vila-Matas and Antonio Tabucchi’s fictions. Both authors aesthetically represent episodes and situations where characters’ relation to space is problematic, showing how the idea of belonging can be related not only to a specific country or a special space, but also to a desired space.  Furthermore, based  on the pregnancy of the notion of ‘dwelling’ theorized by Emmanuel Levinas, this study  analyses how characters and narrators aesthetically represent the complexity of belonging and examines some of the transnational transfers and multicultural connexions displayed by both autors, mainly in Never Any End to Paris and It’s Getting Later All the Time.

  11. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M; Cohen, Geoffrey L


    A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.

  12. Sense of Belonging and Youth Suicidal Behaviors: What Do Communities and Schools Have to Do with It? (United States)

    Olcoń, Katarzyna; Kim, Yeonwoo; Gulbas, Lauren E


    Situating Thomas Joiner's concept of belonging within an ecological perspective, this study examined the associations between school and community belonging and suicidal ideation and attempts among high school students. The study used data from the 2013 Texas Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 2,560). Results demonstrated that community belonging reduced the odds of youth suicidal behaviors. School bullying, feeling unsafe at school, and being threatened or injured at a school increased the odds of suicidal behaviors. Findings suggest that fostering safe and inclusive environments and strengthening youth's experiences of school and community belonging may reduce suicidal behaviors in high school youth.

  13. Regulating the regulators : accountability of Australian regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bird, Joanna


    Accountability of Australian regulators - Australian Securities and Investments Commission - Australian Prudential Regulation Authority - concept of 'accountability' - mechanisms for accountability...

  14. The Stars Belong to Everyone: Astronomer and Science Writer Dr. Helen Sawyer Hogg (1905-1993) (United States)

    Cahill, Maria J.


    University of Toronto astronomer and science writer Helen Sawyer Hogg (President of the AAVSO 1939-41) served her field through research, teaching, and administrative leadership. Additionally, she reached out to students and the public through her Toronto Star newspaper column entitled "With the Stars" for thirty years; she wrote The Stars Belong to Everyone, a book that speaks to a lay audience; she hosted a successful television series entitled Ideas; and she delivered numerous speeches at scientific conferences, professional women's associations, school programs, libraries, and other venues. This paper will illumine her life and the personal and professional forces that influenced her work.

  15. Length of gestation periods of horses and ponies belonging to different breeds


    Bos, H.; Mey, G.J.W. van der


    The mean gestation periods of mares belonging to different horse and pony breeds common in The Netherlands have been calculated using data from the birth registers of five stud-book societies. The following mean values have been determined: Fjord pony: 342.2; Haflinger pony: 341.3; Draught horse: 343.3; Shetland pony: 337.2; and Frisian horse: 337.7 days. The variation in the mean gestation period is greater in horses than in cows, sheep or pigs. Colts are carried a little longer than fillies...

  16. Chicken soup really is good for the soul: "comfort food" fulfills the need to belong. (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira


    Theories of social surrogacy and embodied cognition assume that cognitive associations with nonhuman stimuli can be affectively charged. In the current research, we examined whether the "comfort" of comfort foods comes from affective associations with relationships. Two experiments support the hypotheses that comfort foods are associated with relationships and alleviate loneliness. Experiment 1 found that the consumption of comfort foods automatically activates relationship-related concepts. Experiment 2 found that comfort foods buffer against belongingness threats in people who already have positive associations with relationships (i.e., are secure in attachment style). Implications for social surrogacy, need to belong, embodied cognition, and eating behavior are discussed.

  17. Four New Ladybug Species Belonging to Decadiomus Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Puerto Rico. (United States)

    Segarra-Carmona, A E; Otero, M


    While searching for native natural enemies attacking invasive insect pests in Puerto Rico, we found four undescribed ladybug species belonging to the Caribbean ladybug genus Decadiomus Chapin. In this article, we describe the following species from Puerto Rico: Decadiomus seini n. sp., Decadiomus ramosi n. sp., Decadiomus hayuyai n. sp., and Decadiomus martorelli n. sp. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus, shape of prosternal carinae, and drawings of male and female genitalia are presented. We also present a key for Diomini of Puerto Rico and discuss their importance as potential biocontrol agents.

  18. Erratum to: Editorial: Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Belong on the Sidelines at American Football Games? (United States)

    Leopold, Seth S; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gebhardt, Mark C; Gioe, Terence J; Rimnac, Clare M; Wongworawat, Montri D


    In the November Editorial, "Editorial: Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Belong on the Sidelines at American Football Games?" a statistic was attributed to a JAMA study (Ref. 10) that should have been attributed to an article from the New York Times (Ref. 16). The sentence in question should read: "We accept that critique, provided that the skeptics acknowledge that the best-case estimate in support of the safety of football would result in a CTE prevalence estimate of 9%, since only another 1200 ex-NFL players have died [16] since this research group [10] began studying football players' brains."

  19. Healing and Belonging: Godly Play in Pediatric Medicine and the Theology of Disability. (United States)

    Eddins, Sharon Lynn; Grogan, Nancy; Frick, Brandon


    Godly Play can serve as an effective therapeutic and spiritual intervention for children experiencing physical, emotional, and/or spiritual stress. As many pediatric healthcare providers note, this type of intervention is an important component to a child's healing. This article situates Wolfson Children's Hospital's practice of Godly Play within two larger discussions that advocate for improved care for children with mental and physical impairments and concludes that this practice provides insight for the church and society to create a world in which children with mental and physical impairments belong. © 2014 Journal of Pastoral Care Publications Inc.

  20. Belonging to and in the Shale Gas Fields. A Case-Study of the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhne, Michiel; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm


    This article analyses how belonging becomes articulated in relation to large-scale extractive projects. It does so through an ethnographic analysis of the construction of belonging expressed in languages of valuation (the meanings that people give to natural resources discursively and in practice)

  1. Does Students' Machismo Fit in School? Clarifying the Implications of Traditional Gender Role Ideology for School Belonging (United States)

    Huyge, Ellen; Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke


    How much students feel at home in school predicts academic outcomes. In view of the gender achievement gap, it is worth examining the gendered pattern of this school belonging. Studies on school belonging, however, have barely acknowledged possible obstructive effects of traditional gender role attitudes of individual students and student…

  2. Lactobacillus strains belonging to Casei group display various adherence to enterocytes and mucus. (United States)

    Markowicz, Corinna; Schmidt, Marcin T


    The ability of lactobacilli to adhere to the surface of the intestine is an important functional characteristic which can largely determine the effective colonization of the intestinal tract by probiotics. The following study compares the adhesion efficiency of the twenty strains of Lactobacillus genus belonging to Casei group to the Caco-2 cells and gastrointestinal mucus. Twenty isolates of lactobacilli belonging to Casei group were tested. The ability of bacterial cells to adhere to mucus was examined using adhesion assay to gastrointestinal mucus. Obtained results were compared with adhesion efficiency to Caco-2 cells. Phylogenetic relationship between isolates was analysed by rep-PCR. The results showed large differences in adhesion efficiency between strains, as well as differences in the efficiency of adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells and mucus. Group similarity highlighted by a rep-PCR technique does not correspond with groups of similarity in terms of the characteristics of the ability to adhere to mucus or the epithelial cells of intestinal tract. Strains having a high adhesion efficiency to enterocytes do not always show a high adhesion efficiency to the mucus. This may indicate the presence of different and multiple factors responsible for adhesion efficiency of Lactobacillus group Casei strains to epithelial cells and mucus.

  3. Transnationalism among Second-Generation Muslim Americans: Being and Belonging in Their Transnational Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Byng


    Full Text Available An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity.

  4. Rapid identification of Australian bunyavirus isolates belonging to the Simbu serogroup using indirect ELISA formats. (United States)

    Blacksell, S D; Lunt, R A; White, J R


    The Bunyavirus genus, belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, is comprised of a large group of antigenically and geographically disparate arthropod-borne viruses of medical and veterinary significance. In Australia, viruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup of the Bunyavirus genus, Akabane, Tinaroo, Peaton, Aino, Douglas, Thimiri and Facey's Paddock have been isolated. In this communication we describe two indirect ELISAs, referred to as the Simbu serogroup ELISA (SG-ELISA), and the Simbu typing ELISA (ST-ELISA), for the identification of these Simbu serogroup viruses. Infected cell lysate antigens prepared from Simbu serogroup virus isolates were assessed in the SG-ELISA for reactivity with a mouse monoclonal antibody (4H9/B11/F1). The monoclonal antibody reacted strongly with all Australian members of Simbu serogroup reference viruses and is proposed for use as a serogrouping reagent for Simbu viruses. Furthermore, the ST-ELISA enabled specific identification of viruses from within this group by recognition of characteristic reaction patterns between infected cell lysate antigens and a panel of polyclonal antisera raised to Simbu serogroup viruses.

  5. International Doctoral Students’ Navigations of Identity and Belonging in a Globalizing University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Phelps


    Full Text Available This article draws on findings from a broad study on the influences of globalization on the experiences of international doctoral students at a large, research intensive Canadian university. It focuses specifically on these students’ lived experiences of change in their national identities and senses of belonging in a globalizing world. Using a qualitative, multiple case narrative approach, students’ experiences were collected via in-depth interview and analyzed through a theoretical lens of transnational social fields. The study found that international doctoral students experienced multiplicity, ambiguity, and flux in their senses of self, belonging, and educational purposes as they engaged in the transnational academic and social spaces of the university. Their narratives are revealing of the ways that international doctoral students consciously construct identities that traverse national affiliations as they engage in higher levels of mobility and interact with highly internationalized environments and networks. The study contributes insight into the transformative nature of international doctoral study and identifies specific ways in which processes of globalization influence the international doctoral student experience.

  6. Against the odds: foster carers' perceptions of family, commitment and belonging in successful placements. (United States)

    Oke, Nicholas; Rostill-Brookes, Helen; Larkin, Michael


    This study examines carer attributes associated with placement stability for teenagers growing up in long term foster care, focusing on unexpected placement success. We explored experiences and perceptions relating to family, belonging and commitment in a group of foster carers providing a stable placement for a young person who had not been expected to settle. These placements showed positive outcome, despite factors in the child's history that might have predicted otherwise. Seven foster carers were interviewed following a semi-structured guide, which covered their ideas about their relationship with the child in question, about the foster family, and the child's sense of belonging in foster and birth family. Analysis of carers' accounts of placements which had succeeded 'against the odds' revealed four major themes, described under the headings My Child--emotional bonding, the carers' enlarged view of family and their parental regard for the young person; Jam in the Sandwich--working within a 'compromised space' between Local Authority and birth family; Repair and Rebuild--the craft of fostering including managing the foster/birth family boundary; Sticking with It--resilience, tenacity and maintaining hopefulness. The carers' accounts offer pointers towards the ingredients of successful placements and prompt reflection on how these may be supported and promoted. They also highlight tensions inherent in the foster carer task relating to carers' parental functioning for young people in long-term foster care.

  7. BOX-PCR-based identification of bacterial species belonging to Pseudomonas syringae: P. viridiflava group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi S.A. Marques


    Full Text Available The phenotypic characteristics and genetic fingerprints of a collection of 120 bacterial strains, belonging to Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato group, P. viridiflava and reference bacteria were evaluated, with the aim of species identification. The numerical analysis of 119 nutritional characteristics did not show patterns that would help with identification. Regarding the genetic fingerprinting, the results of the present study supported the observation that BOX-PCR seems to be able to identify bacterial strains at species level. After numerical analyses of the bar-codes, all pathovars belonging to each one of the nine described genomospecies were clustered together at a distance of 0.72, and could be separated at genomic species level. Two P. syringae strains of unknown pathovars (CFBP 3650 and CFBP 3662 and the three P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were grouped in two extra clusters and might eventually constitute two new species. This genomic species clustering was particularly evident for genomospecies 4, which gathered P. syringae pvs. atropurpurea, coronafaciens, garçae, oryzae, porri, striafaciens, and zizaniae at a noticeably low distance.

  8. Strain-dependent production of selected bioactive compounds by Cyanobacteria belonging to the Arthrospira genus. (United States)

    Satora, P; Barwińska-Sendra, A; Duda-Chodak, A; Wajda, Ł


    To investigate the synthesis of selected bioactive compounds in various strains belonging to the Arthrospira genus. The synthesis of vitamin C, polyphenols, vitamin B12, fatty acids and selected volatile compounds (acetone and acetaldehyde) was investigated in six strains belonging to the Arthrospira genus. Among all studies strains, Arthrospira maxima 84·79 was found to be a good producer of fatty acids, whereas strains of Arthrospira platensis demonstrated greater biomass yield and vitamins content. The synthesis of acetaldehyde and acetone may suggest that all the micro-organisms have the ability to carry out dark fermentation, with A. platensis 85·79 producing the greatest quantities of volatile compounds. In our study principal component analysis (PCA) did not indicate any strain-dependent correlations in the synthesis of fatty acids. A significant correlation between strains and synthesized bioactive compounds, except for fatty acids, was observed. There are very little data on the production of described bioactive compounds in Arthrospira genus. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating differences in the synthesis of bioactive compounds which occur in smaller quantities in Cyanobacteria biomass but are also important due to their health-promoting properties. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Belonging, believing, bonding, and behaving: the relationship between religion and business ownership at the country level. (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, Brigitte; Rietveld, Cornelius A; van Stel, André


    This cross-country study adopts a competing theories approach in which both a value perspective and a social capital perspective are used to understand the relation between religion and a country's business ownership rate. We distinguish among four dimensions of religion: belonging to a religious denomination, believing certain religious propositions, bonding to religious practices, and behaving in a religious manner. An empirical analysis of data from 30 OECD countries with multiple data points per country covering the period 1984-2010 suggests a positive relationship between religion and business ownership based on those dimensions that reflect the internal aspects of religiosity (i.e., believing and behaving). We do not observe a significant association for those dimensions that reflect more external aspects of religion (i.e., belonging and bonding). These results suggest that the social capital perspective prevails the value perspective, at least when internal aspects of religiosity are concerned. More generally, our study demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between different dimensions of religion when investigating the link between religion and entrepreneurship.

  10. Depression, anxiety and stress among adolescent students belonging to affluent families: a school-based study. (United States)

    Bhasin, Sanjiv K; Sharma, Rahul; Saini, N K


    To study depression, anxiety and stress (DAS) among adolescent school students belonging to affluent families and the factors associated with high levels of DAS. 242 adolescent students belonging to class 9-12th selected for the study. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for assessing DAS. The scores in the three domains (DAS) were found to be remarkably correlated. It was seen that depression was significantly more among the females (mean rank 132.5) than the males (mean rank 113.2), p=0.03. Depression (p=0.025), Anxiety (0.005) and Stress (pstudents. Depression and Stress were found to be significantly associated with the number of adverse events in the student's life that occurred in last one year. A significant proportion of the students were found to be having high levels of DAS and several important factors were found to be associated with them. Proactive steps at the school-level and community-level and steps for improved parent-adolescent communication are needed for amelioration of the problem.

  11. Skirting the issue: finding queer and geopolitical belonging at the Eurovision Song Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Carniel


    Full Text Available This article examines how the ideological boundaries of East and West are built, maintained and challenged through the performance of sexual and other politics in the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC. It argues that the contest is a useful prism through which to examine and understand contemporary European debates about sexual politics, and the role that this plays in defining the borders of modern Europe and its conditions of belonging. The contest itself offers an important site for belonging to the European community both to states on the eastern margins and to queer communities throughout Europe. It examines examples of performances that have challenged sexual politics, such as the Finnish entry from 2013, as well as state responses to the queer dimensions of the contest, such as those from Russia and Azerbaijan. It concludes that different states may challenge the ESC rules on political gestures depending on their own status within the European community as well as the extent to which that gesture challenges or reaffirms “European” ideology.

  12. Characterization of Teicoplanin Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates Belonging Predominantly to ST267. (United States)

    Liu, Cailin; Zhang, Fushan; Chen, Chunguang; Feng, Xianju; Xu, Min; Guo, Xiaobing; Sun, Jingjing; Li, Guanli; Zhu, Pengfei; Zeng, Li; Xu, Hui; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Xiaogai; Ming, Liang


    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the main cause of bacteremia and infections of indwelling catheters, glycopeptide antibiotics are often considered as the choice of empirical drugs for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. In the present study, 12 teicoplanin nonsusceptible S. epidermidis isolates were collected between January and October 2013. All strains carried the mecA gene, displayed multiple drug resistance, and showed heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin using the population analysis profiling/area under the curve method. Multilocus sequence typing revealed four different sequence types among these isolates; eight isolates belonged to the same ST type (ST267). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI endonuclease showed four distinct pulsotypes. Six isolates that belonged to ST267 shared the same PFGE bands, indicating that they were clonally related. In addition, cell wall thickening and decreased autolysis were found in these isolates. Our study demonstrated that ST267 was the most epidemic clone among teicoplanin nonsusceptible S. epidermidis and identified a potential endemic clone in this region, which was believed to be the first report that the ST267 clone has spread in China. Our findings revealed that strengthened monitoring of S. epidermidis for drug resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics is urgently needed, and heightened measures should be taken to control the further spread of the ST267 clone.

  13. A journey of negotiation and belonging: understanding students' transitions to science and engineering in higher education (United States)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars


    The paper presents results from a longitudinal study of students' decisions to enrol on a higher education science programme and their experiences of it. The aim is to give insights into students' transition process and negotiation of identity. This is done by following a cohort of 38 students in a series of qualitative interviews during a 3-year period starting as they were about to finish upper secondary school. We find that the students' choice of study is an ongoing process of meaning-making, which continues when the students enter higher education and continuously work on their identities to gain a sense of belonging to their science or engineering programme. The use of a narrative methodology provides understanding of choice of study as involving changes in future perspectives and in the interpretation of past experiences. Further, we gain access into how this meaning-making process over time reflects the students' negotiations in terms of belonging to higher education and their coping strategies when their expectations of their new programme interact with their first-year experiences.

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of Selected Menthol-Producing Species Belonging to the Lamiaceae Family. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Motahareh; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Bagherian, Ali; Masoud Khoi, Mohammad Jaber; Reza Mirzaei, Hamid; Salehi, Rasoul; Reza Jaafari, Mahmoud; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza


    Menthol is an organic compound with diverse medicinal and commercial applications, and is made either synthetically or through extraction from mint oils. The aim of the present study was to investigate menthol levels in selected menthol-producing species belonging to the Lamiaceae family, and to determine phylogenetic relationships of menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence among these species. Three genus of Lamiaceae, namely Mentha, Salvia, and Micromeria, were selected for phytochemical and phylogenetic analyses. After identification of each species based on menthol dehydrogenase gene in NCBI, BLAST software was used for the sequence alignment. MEGA4 software was used to draw phylogenetic tree for various species. Phytochemical analysis revealed that the highest and lowest amounts of both essential oil and menthol belonged to Mentha spicata and Micromeria hyssopifolia, respectively. The species Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita, which were assigned to one cluster in the dendrogram, contained the highest amounts of essential oil and menthol while Micromeria species, which was in the distinct cluster and placed in the farther evolutionary distance, contained the lowest amount of essential oil and menthol. Phylogenetic and phytochemistry analyses showed that essential oil and menthol contents of menthol-producing species are associated with menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence.

  15. Amongst rulemakers : Conceptualizing the role of intermediaries for co-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Voort, H.G.


    Public regulators are increasingly accepting helping hands for carrying out their regulatory activities – such as standard setting, information gathering, and enforcement. These helping hands often belong to private actors that also regulate businesses for their own compliance programs, like

  16. SUMO: regulating the regulator

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    Bossis Guillaume


    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanayda M.I.


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial properties of essential oils of Lamiaceae Family representatives. Material and methods.The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of investigated plants was studied with using in vitro condition. The essential oils derived from the aerial parts of cultivated plants of Ocimum, Hyssopus, Dracocephalum, Lophanthus, Monarda and Satureja genus harvested during flowering period (in terms of Ternopil region. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils studied plants was studied by serial dilution method and disk diffusion assay. It has been applied on standard microorganism test strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and discussion. It was conducted a comparative study of the influence of some essential oils of cultivated plants belonging to Lamiaceae family on microorganisms in conditions in vitro. It was found that essential oils of the studied plants were most effective in the maximum concentration (1:10. Gram-positive cocci S. aureus and yeast C. albicans were the most sensitive to influence of investigated essential oils. It was analyzed the relationship of the biological activity with the component composition of essential oils of plants. Essential oils of L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis characterized by the dominance of aromatic compounds and had shown stronger antimicrobial activity than essential oils of

  18. Effect of silver nanoparticles on marine organisms belonging to different trophic levels. (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Costa, Elisa; Piazza, Veronica; Fabbrocini, Adele; Magi, Emanuele; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca


    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are increasingly used in a wide range of consumer products and such an extensive use raises questions about their safety and environmental toxicity. We investigated the potential toxicity of Ag-NPs in the marine ecosystem by analyzing the effects on several organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Skeletonema costatum), cnidaria (Aurelia aurita jellyfish), crustaceans (Amphibalanus amphitrite and Artemia salina) and echinoderms (Paracentrotus lividus) were exposed to Ag-NPs and different end-points were evaluated: algal growth, ephyra jellyfish immobilization and frequency of pulsations, crustaceans mortality and swimming behavior, and sea urchin sperm motility. Results showed that all the end-points were able to underline a dose-dependent effect. Jellyfish were the most sensitive species, followed by barnacles, sea urchins, green algae, diatoms and brine shrimps. In conclusion, Ag-NPs exposure can influence different trophic levels within the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Naturally Transformable Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1 Belongs to the Newly Described Species Acinetobacter baylyi (United States)

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Young, David M.; Ornston, L. Nicholas; De Baere, Thierry; Nemec, Alexandr; Van Der Reijden, Tanny; Carr, Emma; Tjernberg, Ingela; Dijkshoorn, Lenie


    Genotypic and phenotypic analyses were carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the naturally transformable Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Transfer tDNA-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selective restriction fragment amplification (amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) indicate that strain ADP1 and a second transformable strain, designated 93A2, are members of the newly described species Acinetobacter baylyi. Transformation assays demonstrate that the A. baylyi type strain B2T and two other originally identified members of the species (C5 and A7) also have the ability to undergo natural transformation at high frequencies, confirming that these five strains belong to a separate species of the genus Acinetobacter, characterized by the high transformability of its strains that have been cultured thus far. PMID:16391138

  20. Belonging in the first year: A creative discipline cohort case study

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    Natalie Araújo


    Full Text Available Drawing on contemporary transition pedagogy, this paper provides a case study of a suite of transition activities piloted by The Belonging Project in collaboration with a creatively oriented academic program in the School of Media and Communication at RMIT University.  Through qualitative research, this case study demonstrates the importance of adopting Kift, Nelson and Clarke’s (2010, p. 6 notion of transition “as a process, not an event.” This paper argues that a sustained program of low cost transition activities that bridge the formal and informal curriculum fosters an essential ”sense of belonging” among first year students. It provides a successful example of an approach that embeds essential social and academic literacies while facilitating positive social, cultural, and academic transitions.

  1. Belonging to the Land in Tura: Reforms, Migrations, and Indentity Politics in Evenkia

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    Olga Povoroznyuk


    Full Text Available Tura is a mixed community where Evenks live alongside other indigenous groups and Russians. The establishment of Evenk autonomy, with the centre in Tura, in 1930 strengthened Evenk ethnic identity and unity through increased political and cultural representation, as well as through the integration of migrants from other regions. In the post-Soviet period, the community witnessed a population loss, a declining socio-economic situation, and the abolition of autonomy. In the long course of reforms and identity construction, the indigenous intelligentsia has manipulated the concept of belonging to the land either to stress or to erase cultural differences, and thus, to secure the access of the local elite to valuable resources. currently, the most hotly debated boundaries are those dividing Evenks into local and migrant, authentic and unauthentic, urban and rural. The paper illustrates the intricate interrelations between ethnic, indigenous, and territorial identities from an identity politics perspective.

  2. Managing acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients belonging to the Jehovah’s Witness congregation

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    Anand P. Jillella


    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a hyper-acute leukemia and presents with cytopenias and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Jehovah’s Witnesses with APL offer a unique challenge during induction by refusing transfusion and pose a difficult challenge in this curable disease. Our focus over the last 8 years has been decreasing early deaths in APL in both academic and community centers. As a result we have extensive experience in APL induction with a proven improvement in early deaths. Three patients with APL belonging to the Jehovah’s Witness congregation were treated in our practice and published literature in treating Witnesses with APL was reviewed. It is highly imperative to prevent induction mortality in this patient population. The goal of treatment among the Witnesses is to prevent death during induction and subsequently cure them. We discuss the management and proactive measures to prevent induction mortality in this most curable blood cancer.

  3. Local Community, Mobility and Belonging. Identification of and Socio- demographic Characteristics of Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Arp Fallov, Mia; Jørgensen, Anja


    of the research question for an ongoing study on ‘Local community, mobility and belonging’ in Aalborg, from which we report. Contemporary municipality of Aalborg, which is the third largest in Denmark, comprises many various types of communities – from partly segregated neighbourhoods in the City, through...... the surrounding villages’ more mixed populations to depopulated small towns in the periphery. We are exploring the association between characteristics of the local communities and the inhabitants’ sense of belonging. As characteristics of the areas is included information on mobility (moving in-and out......In a perspective of socio-geographic segregation and it’s socio-demographic consequences, depopulation of specific rural areas in the outskirts of Denmark has become an issue of increasing importance in public debate and in part of the research community. The question of depopulation is also part...

  4. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis shows that the basidiomycete C30 belongs to the genus Trametes. (United States)

    Klonowska, Agnieszka; Gaudin, Christian; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Colao, Maria Chiara; Tron, Thierry


    The basidiomycete C30 was considered as an isolate of a population of Marasmius quercophilus collected on evergreen oak litter from the Mediterranean forest. Recent phenotypic studies have clearly shown that it differs from newly characterized M. quercophilus isolates. Subsequent analysis of laccase genes revealed that C30 sequences are similar to laccase encoding sequences from organisms belonging to the polyporoid clade. Comparison of sequences of the C30 ITS regions, including 5.8S rDNA, with those found in databanks confirmed that C30 is not a Marasmius. Finally, 25S rDNA analysis revealed that C30 is closely related to the Coriolaceae and, in particular, to Trametes trogii.

  5. Plants belonging to the genus Thymus as antibacterial agents: from farm to pharmacy. (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Marchese, Anna; Izadi, Morteza; Curti, Valeria; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel


    In traditional medicine, plants have been used since ancient times for the prevention and/or protection against infectious diseases. In recent years, the use of herbal medicines and food supplements containing botanical ingredients, as alternative therapy for infectious diseases, has been intensified due to their high content of antimicrobial agents such as polyphenols, i.e. flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids. Plants from the genus Thymus are important medicinal herbs, which are known to contain antimicrobial agents, and are rich in different active substances such as thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and terpinene. In this review, we summarise the available literature data about the in vitro antibacterial effects of the main plants belonging to the genus Thymus. We also provide information about cultivation, chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from these plants, and their use for medicinal purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bollywood of India: Geopolitical Texts of Belonging and Difference and Narratives of Mistrust and Suspicion

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    Iqbal Shailo


    Full Text Available A number of Bollywood films create meaning and geopolitical narratives through dialogue, raw images, settings, costumes and historical contexts. This study examines three contemporary Indian films —Earth (Deepa Mehta, 1998, Lagaan (Ashutosh Gowariker, 2001 and Sarfarosh (John Matthew Matthan, 1999 — that explore sub-continental history with a particular focus on insecurity, mistrust and suspicion.  It discusses how socio-cultural and regional differences are (reproduced and how geopolitical meanings of ‘we’ and ‘they’ are narrated and constructed through Bollywood. These films construct an image of identity, belonging and difference, emphasizing that Hindus and Muslims are Indians however some legacies and suffering brought on during the partition of British India are still alive in memories when discrimination and exclusion are practiced in their ancestral homelands.

  7. Belonging to the Land in Tura: Reforms, Migrations, and Indentity Politics in Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Povoroznyuk


    Full Text Available Tura is a mixed community where Evenks live alongside other indigenous groups and Russians. The establishment of Evenk autonomy, with the centre in Tura, in 1930 strengthened Evenk ethnic identity and unity through increased political and cultural representation, as well as through the integration of migrants from other regions. In the post-Soviet period, the community witnessed a population loss, a declining socio-economic situation, and the abolition of autonomy. In the long course of reforms and identity construction, the indigenous intelligentsia has manipulated the concept of belonging to the land either to stress or to erase cultural differences, and thus, to secure the access of the local elite to valuable resources. currently, the most hotly debated boundaries are those dividing Evenks into local and migrant, authentic and unauthentic, urban and rural. The paper illustrates the intricate interrelations between ethnic, indigenous, and territorial identities from an identity politics perspective.

  8. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner


    launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support...... mechanisms for young trainees, and ideas on how to improve them. Overall, 24 of 29 Friends answered the survey (83%). Among the Societies surveyed, only half have a young section. Typically, YGIS are supported, but not influenced, by National Societies through several initiatives. Results of the survey...... suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes...

  9. Becoming, belonging and sharing: Striving to live in the spirit of Ubuntu in Portugal

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    Paula Horta


    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the non-formal education programme of the Ubuntu Academy in Portugal, a non-profit organisation that aims to empower and train young adults with strong leadership potential. The participants, who come mostly from African immigrant communities and contexts of social exclusion, are trained to develop and implement social entrepreneur and outreach projects in their communities. I explore the Ubuntu Academy’s use of the Southern African communitarian philosophy of ubuntu and draw on ubuntu literature to argue that this specific education programme’s focus on the notions of humaneness and interdependence encapsulated in the concept of ubuntu has introduced a paradigm shift from an individualistic worldview prevalent in the West to a communitarian form of becoming, belonging and sharing. In this context, I consider the role of testimony and narrative in both promoting personal growth and developing a sense of interdependence and connectedness among people of diverse backgrounds and identities.

  10. 'We're it', 'we're a team', 'we're family' means a sense of belonging. (United States)

    Sedgwick, Monique G; Yonge, Olive


    'Belonging' is a universal characteristic of human beings and is a basic human need. Rural nurses describe the nature of their practice as being embedded in working as a team where belonging is central to the success of the team and the individual nurse. As a result they form close professional and personal ties. The challenge for nursing students is to develop a sense of belonging to the rural hospital team so that preceptorship is successful. To describe the cultural theme of a sense of belonging that nursing students develop during a rural hospital preceptorship. Using a focused ethnographic method, a purposive sample of fourth year nursing students and nurse preceptors was drawn from 11 rural communities across central and northern Alberta and Yukon, Canada. Individual interviews and a focus group interview, as well as student journals were analyzed. Ethnographic analysis was used to uncover the system of cultural meaning, 'a sense of belonging' which was the foundation for a successful rural hospital-based preceptorship for the fourth year nursing students. Nurse preceptors assist students to become members of the team and foster the development of feeling as if they belong by building bridges among the staff and students. For students, the work of being preceptored is developing a sense of belonging. Students feel they belong and are part of the team when they are known personally and professionally. Identifying and describing factors that influence students' sense of belonging enhances the effectiveness of the preceptorship model, and increases the potential of recruiting and retaining competent health professionals in the rural hospital setting.


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    Satpal Yadav


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the selected physiological variables namely; maximum oxygen consumption, vital capacity, resting heart rate and hemoglobin content among various distance runners. Thesubjects were selected from the male athlete’s of Gwalior district of various distance runners i.e. short, middle and long distance runners for this study. Ten (10 male athletes from each groups namely short, middle and long distance groups were selected as the subject for the study. Selected physiological variables such as maximum oxygen consumption, vital capacity, resting heart rate and hemoglobin content were presented to compare the players belonging to various distance runners namely short, middle and long distance. To see the significant difference of selected physiological variables among the players belonging to various distance runners the analysis of variance “F-ratio” was applied at.05 level of significance. For further analysis “Post-Hoc Test” (LSD Test was applied. The short distance runners had shown significantly different level of VO2 max (72.727 in comparison to middle distance (75.854 and long distance (77.094 runners. However, the middle and long distance runners had shown more or less same level of VO2. Further long distance runners had shown better efficiency of heart as its mean value (56.3 was lowest among all the three groups in relation to resting heartrate. On the other hand long, middle and short distance runners had shown more or less same vital capacity and hemoglobin content with a small range of variation.

  12. Between difference and belonging: configuring self and others in inpatient treatment for eating disorders.

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    Karin Eli

    Full Text Available Dedicated inpatient care for eating disorders has profound impact on patients' embodied practices and lived realities. Analyses of inpatients' accounts have shown that participants endorse complex and conflicting attitudes toward their experiences in eating disorders wards, yet the apparent ambivalence that characterizes inpatient experiences has not been subject to critical examination. This paper examines the narrated experiences of 13 participants (12 women and one man; age 18-38 years at first interview with past or present anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified, who had been hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders ward for adults in central Israel. The interviews, which took place in 2005-2006, and again in 2011, were part of a larger longitudinal study exploring the subjective experiences of eating disorders and recovery among Israeli adults. Employing qualitative analysis, this study finds that the participants' accounts were concerned with dynamics of difference and belonging, as they played out in various aspects of inpatient care, including diagnosis, treatment, relationships with fellow patients and staff, and everyday life in hospital. Notably, participants simultaneously defined themselves as connected to, but also distinct from, the eating disordered others who formed their reference group at the ward. Through negotiating a protectively ambivalent positioning, participants recognized their eating disordered identities and connected with others on the ward, while also asserting their non-disordered individuality and distancing themselves from the potential dangers posed by 'excessive' belonging. The paper suggests that this ambivalent positioning can usefully be understood through the anthropological concept of liminality: being both a part of and apart from one's community.

  13. Expression of genes belonging to the interacting TLR cascades, NADPH-oxidase and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in septic patients.

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    Laura A Nucci

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a complex disease that is characterized by activation and inhibition of different cell signaling pathways according to the disease stage. Here, we evaluated genes involved in the TLR signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative metabolism, aiming to assess their interactions and resulting cell functions and pathways that are disturbed in septic patients.Blood samples were obtained from 16 patients with sepsis secondary to community acquired pneumonia at admission (D0, and after 7 days (D7, N = 10 of therapy. Samples were also collected from 8 healthy volunteers who were matched according to age and gender. Gene expression of 84 genes was performed by real-time polymerase chain reactions. Their expression was considered up- or down-regulated when the fold change was greater than 1.5 compared to the healthy volunteers. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.Twenty-two genes were differently expressed in D0 samples; most of them were down-regulated. When gene expression was analyzed according to the outcomes, higher number of altered genes and a higher intensity in the disturbance was observed in non-survivor than in survivor patients. The canonical pathways altered in D0 samples included interferon and iNOS signaling; the role of JAK1, JAK2 and TYK2 in interferon signaling; mitochondrial dysfunction; and superoxide radical degradation pathways. When analyzed according to outcomes, different pathways were disturbed in surviving and non-surviving patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation and superoxide radical degradation pathway were among the most altered in non-surviving patients.Our data show changes in the expression of genes belonging to the interacting TLR cascades, NADPH-oxidase and oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, distinct patterns are clearly observed in surviving and non-surviving patients. Interferon signaling, marked by changes in JAK-STAT modulation, had prominent changes in

  14. “I Like to Play with My Friends”: Children with Spina Bifida and Belonging in Uganda

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    Femke Bannink


    Full Text Available This paper describes experiences of living and belonging from the perspectives of Ugandan children with spina bifida and their siblings and parents. We explored belonging at micro, meso and macro level taking into consideration African Childhood Disability Studies, central concepts of family, cultural conceptions of disability, poverty, and the notion of ‘ubuntu’, and using child-friendly culturally adjusted interview methods including play. Whilst children with spina bifida had a strong sense of belonging at household level, they experienced more difficulties engaging in larger social networks, including school. Poverty and stigma were important barriers to inclusion. We propose strengthening the network at family level, where the environment is more enabling for the children to find a place of belonging and support, and expanding investment and awareness at community and national level.

  15. Transnational aging among older Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands: Determinants of transnational behavior and transnational belonging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, J.; Tilburg, T.G. van; Suanet, B.; Fokkema, T.


    This study investigates how resources and constraints (location of family, gender, income, cultural distance to society of settlement, and health) impact the experience of two interrelated dimensions of transnational aging: transnational behavior and transnational belonging. We specify transnational

  16. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage KPP21 belonging to family Podoviridae genus N4-like viruses isolated in Japan. (United States)

    Shigehisa, Ryu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Shin-Ichiro; Takemura-Uchiyama, Iyo; Yamaguchi, Kotoe; Miyata, Reina; Ujihara, Takako; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Daibata, Masanori; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Shigenobu


    Bacteriophages (phages) belonging to the family Podoviridae genus N4-like viruses have been used as therapeutic agent in phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. P. aeruginosa phage KPP21 was isolated in Japan, and phylogenetically investigated the phages belonging to this viral genus. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that phage KPP21 belongs to the family Podoviridae genus N4-like viruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses based on putative DNA polymerase and major virion protein showed that P. aeruginosa phages belonging to the genus N4-like viruses are separated into two lineages and that phage KPP21 is in the same clade as phage LUZ7. © 2015 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Political Socialization of Right-Wing Conservative Politicians in Turkey: On The Factors of Their Political Belonging and Political Background


    Suveren, Yaşar


    The understanding of the processes which shape the political belonging and political socialization of the right-wing conservative politicians in Turkey is crucial for clarifying right wing political tradition and the series of factors influencing political views of the politicians who belonged to this specific tradition. Figuring out these factors would at least make it possible to explain and evaluate the political culture in Turkey by focusing on a single dimension constituted by the politi...

  18. Connecting past to present: Louisiana cajuns and their sense of belonging to an Acadian diaspora

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    Sara Le Menestrel


    Full Text Available Many Cajuns claim their Acadian ancestry, despite the fact that their culture is mixed, originating from the different immigrant groups which have settled in Louisiana (French, Acadian, Spanish, Irish, Black and White Creoles…. This sense of belonging appears through the enhancement of a “blood” filiation with the Acadians from the Canadian Maritimes Provinces, of a common historic memory based on the “Grand Dérangement” experience (the expulsion of the Acadians by the British in 1755 and of the survival theme. The bond felt with the Canadian Acadians is also based on the sharing of common language and values and goes to the perception of physical resemblance. The notion of Acadian Diaspora has grown these last years within the Louisiana French revival Movement, and has been fortified  by the World Acadian Congresses (in 1994 in New Brunswick and in 1999 in Lafayette. Even though this sense of belonging is not expressed by Cajuns as a whole, it represents a criterion of definition increasingly widespread, and has given rise to several recent initiatives in “Cajun Country” (located around Lafayette, such as the creation of the Acadian Memorial, the increase of genealogical societies, the setting of exhibitions about Acadian history, and the development of tourism between Louisiana-French and Canadian-French. However, this identity marker never comes into conflict with Cajuns’ American identity. Just like the Louisiana culture as a whole, the origins of Cajun culture are multiple. The metaphor most often employed to illustrate this process of creolization is of culinary nature. It uses a local specialty, gumbo, from which almost every ingredient reveals a different origin : the basic element, roux, comes from a French technique ; okra is a vegetable imported from Africa ; filé has an Native American origin ; finally, rice and the diverse ingredients incorporated (seafood, poultry, pork or wild game are local products. Cajun

  19. In Vitro Assessment of Plants Growing in Cuba Belonging to Solanaceae Family Against Leishmania amazonensis. (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Jiménez, Jenny; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez, Ingrid; Gutiérrez, Yamile; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; Marchi, Mary; Setzer, William N; Vilegas, Wagner


    In this study, an in vitro antileishmanial assessment of plant extracts from 12 genera and 46 species growing in Cuba belonging to Solanaceae family was performed. A total of 226 extracts were screened against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, and cytotoxicity of active extracts [median inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) promastigotes 5 were then assayed against intracellular amastigote. Metabolomics analysis of promissory extracts was performed using chemical profile obtained by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Only 11 extracts (4.9%) from nine plants were selected as potentially actives: Brunfelsia cestroides A. Rich, Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense Jacq., Cestrum nocturnum L., Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv., Solanum havanense Jacq., Solanum myriacanthum Dunal, Solanum nudum Dunal and Solanum seaforthianum And., with IC 50  5. Metabolomics analysis demonstrated significant differences in the chemical profiles with an average of 42.8 (range 31-88) compounds from m/z 104 to 1477, which demonstrated the complex mixture of compounds. In addition, no common markers among active extracts were identified. The results demonstrate the importance of the Solanaceae family to search new antileishmanial agents, particularly in unexplored species of this family. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A key to larvae of species belonging to the genus Diamesa from Alps and Apennines (Italy

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    Bruno Rossaro


    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Alps and Apennines (Italy is presented using characters observable in the fourth-instar larva. The larvae are separated on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. At present fifteen species from the Italian Alps are described in all three life stages, but only twelve species groups can be separated as larvae. The separation is based on the length and thickness of anal setae, antennal ratio, head capsule color and few other characters of the labrum and mentum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth is still a valid taxonomic character, but unfortunately these characters can be rarely used because teeth are often excessively worn in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the duration of larval development and must be used with caution. The species groups which can be separated in the larval stage are: the dampfi group, which includes D. dampfi and D. permacra, the latitarsis group including D. modesta and D. latitarsis, the zernyi group including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. The species within each of these groups at present cannot be separated. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage.

  1. Deviant Citizenship: DREAMer Activism in the United States and Transnational Belonging

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    Joaquina Weber-Shirk


    Full Text Available My analysis places the assertions of political presence by non-citizen immigrant youth in the U.S. (often referred to as DREAMers within a rapidly globalizing world; this placement re-frames the DREAMers’ movement from a fight for U.S. citizenship to a broader critique of the limits and impossibility of liberal democratic citizenship, which claims to be all-inclusive. Increased transnational migration has brought into stark relief the inequality that current frameworks of nation-state citizenship, as a caste-system of rights, have codified. I am interested in the activism of immigrant youth as a place to explore where immigrants themselves are reasserting the right to politics. This reassertion privileges the social embeddedness of family ties and community above the notion of individual choice or individual rationality. In doing so, this articulation of politics is a critique of the liberal order by forcing the consideration of the contexts and structures that create migration, exploitation, and transnational communities of belonging.

  2. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women’s Autonomy in Mozambique (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.


    Women’s autonomy has frequently been linked with women’s opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women’s autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition—Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women’s religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women’s empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings. PMID:26973353

  3. Cultural safety and belonging for refugee background women attending group pregnancy care: An Australian qualitative study. (United States)

    Riggs, Elisha; Muyeen, Sumaiya; Brown, Stephanie; Dawson, Wendy; Petschel, Pauline; Tardiff, Waan; Norman, Fiona; Vanpraag, Dannielle; Szwarc, Jo; Yelland, Jane


    Refugee women experience higher incidence of childbirth complications and poor pregnancy outcomes. Resettled refugee women often face multiple barriers accessing pregnancy care and navigating health systems in high income countries. A community-based model of group pregnancy care for Karen women from Burma was co-designed by health services in consultation with Karen families in Melbourne, Australia. Focus groups were conducted with women who had participated to explore their experiences of using the program, and whether it had helped them feel prepared for childbirth and going home with a new baby. Nineteen women (average time in Australia 4.3 years) participated in two focus groups. Women reported feeling empowered and confident through learning about pregnancy and childbirth in the group setting. The collective sharing of stories in the facilitated environment allowed women to feel prepared, confident and reassured, with the greatest benefits coming from storytelling with peers, and developing trusting relationships with a team of professionals, with whom women were able to communicate in their own language. Women also discussed the pivotal role of the bicultural worker in the multidisciplinary care team. Challenges in the hospital during labor and birth were reported and included lack of professional interpreters and a lack of privacy. Group pregnancy care has the potential to increase refugee background women's access to pregnancy care and information, sense of belonging, cultural safety using services, preparation for labor and birth, and care of a newborn. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In A Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010 (United States)

    Atwood, Christopher Burke

    In a Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010 maps the "elsewheres"---spatial, temporal and intertextual--- that authorize same-sex desire in modern Italy. Tracing a genealogy that spans from nineteenth century travel writing about Italy to contemporary Italian novels, I argue that texts exported from the Northern Europe and the U.S. function as vital site of affiliation and vexing points of discrepancy for Italy's queers. Pier Vittorio Tondelli's Camere separate (1989), for instance, cites the British novelist Christopher Isherwood as proof that -- somewhere else -- silence did not yoke homosexuality. Rather than defining sexuality as a constant set of desires, I demonstrate it to be a retroactive fiction. It is the fleeting affinity that the reading of inherited texts can evoke. In examining the reception of transnational gay narratives in the national context of Italy, this dissertation argues that the concept of "Western" homosexuality is internally riven. Ultimately, In a Queer Place in Time illuminates how local histories -- including affective differences like shame, estrangement and backwardness -- continue to haunt gay culture's global fictions. !

  5. Ambient belonging: how stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science. (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C; Davies, Paul G; Steele, Claude M


    People can make decisions to join a group based solely on exposure to that group's physical environment. Four studies demonstrate that the gender difference in interest in computer science is influenced by exposure to environments associated with computer scientists. In Study 1, simply changing the objects in a computer science classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek poster, video games) to objects not considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., nature poster, phone books) was sufficient to boost female undergraduates' interest in computer science to the level of their male peers. Further investigation revealed that the stereotypical broadcast a masculine stereotype that discouraged women's sense of ambient belonging and subsequent interest in the environment (Studies 2, 3, and 4) but had no similar effect on men (Studies 3, 4). This masculine stereotype prevented women's interest from developing even in environments entirely populated by other women (Study 2). Objects can thus come to broadcast stereotypes of a group, which in turn can deter people who do not identify with these stereotypes from joining that group.

  6. Whiteness as an Act of Belonging: White Turks Phenomenon in the post 9/11 World

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    Ilgin Yorukoglu


    Full Text Available Turks, along with other people of the Middle East, retain a claim to being “Caucasian”. Technically white, Turks do not fit neatly into Western racial categories especially after 9/11, and with the increasing normalization of racist discourses in Western politics, their assumed religious and geographical identities categorise “secular” Turks along with their Muslim “others” and, crucially, suggest a “non-white” status. In this context, for Turks who explicitly refuse to be presented along with “Islamists”, “whiteness” becomes an act of belonging to “the West” (instead of the East, to “the civilised world” instead of the world of terrorism. The White Turks phenomenon does not only reveal the fluidity of racial categories, it also helps question the meaning of resistance and racial identification “from below”. In dealing with their insecurities with their place in the world, White Turks fall short of leading towards a radical democratic politics.

  7. Citizen or Subordinate: Permutations of Belonging in the United States and the Dominican Republic

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    Shaina Aber


    Full Text Available The Dominican Republic and the United States have both experienced tensions arising from migratory flows from poorer, less stable neighbors. Until recently, both countries had constitutions which conferred citizenship by birth with very limited exceptions. Despite these similarities, their respective discourses around jus soli citizenship, particularly for the children of unauthorized migrants from the poorer neighboring countries, have manifested in different ways. The identity of the United States as a nation of immigrants has limited the success of campaigns to revoke jus soli citizenship for the children of unauthorized immigrants, but the persistent articulation of this idea as a response to illegal migration has shifted the parameters of the immigration debate. In the Dominican Republic, the historical construction of national identity and anti-Haitian discourse has led to an evolution in Dominican law which codifies already established practices that deny citizenship to children of Haitian migrants. In both cases, movements that support more inclusive understandings of societal belonging, like the DREAMers in the United States and youth movements in the Dominican Republic, may offer the most effective way of protecting universal jus soli citizenship regimes. 

  8. Nationality, Citizenship and Ethno-National Belonging: Preferential Membership Policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumbrava, C.


    This book investigates the legal rules of acquisition and loss of citizenship in Europe. Challenging mainstream arguments about the de-ethnicization of citizenship in Europe, Dumbrava identifies and analyses citizenship regulations that differentiate people on ethno-cultural grounds. Providing a

  9. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre


    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  10. Characterization of an outer membrane protein of Pasteurella multocida belonging to the OmpA family. (United States)

    Marandi, M; Mittal, K R


    The outer membrane vesicle and N-lauroylsarcosine-insoluble protein preparations of Pasteurella multocida 656 were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A major outer membrane protein (OMP) was found to be heat-modifiable, having a molecular mass of 28 kDa when the OMP preparation was solubilized at 60 degrees C and a molecular mass of 37 kDa when it was solubilized at 100 degrees C. A monoclonal antibody, designated mAb MT4.1, was generated against heat-modifiable OMP of P. multocida. This mAb reacted with the heat-modifiable OMP irrespective of the temperature at which it was solubilized, as demonstrated by immunoblot results. The heat-modifiable OMP of P. multocida showed a significant N-terminal amino acid sequence homology with OmpA family. Immunoelectron microscopic study revealed that the mAb Mt4.1 epitope was not surface exposed on the intact bacterium. The mAb MT4.1 reacted with all the reference strains of 5 capsular and 16 somatic serotypes, as well as with 75 field strains of P. multocida in immunoblot assay. This mAb MT4.1 also reacted with strains of various other Pasteurella species such as P. stomatis, P. aerogenes P. gallinarum, P. betti, P. sp, B, P. SP-g and P. canis, but not with strains of 12 other Gram-negative bacteria. These results indicated that this protein carried a genus-specific epitope and mAb MT4.1 may be useful for identification of Pasteurella species. This is the first report in which a major heat-modifiable OMP has been identified and characterized using a mAb, and has been shown belonging to the OmpA family.

  11. Die mediale Konstruktion von Zugehörigkeit The Media Construction of Belonging

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    Martin Spetsmann-Kunkel


    Full Text Available In dem Sammelband Medien – Diversität – Ungleichheit. Zur medialen Konstruktion sozialer Differenz, herausgegeben von Ulla Wischermann und Tanja Thomas, werden die Darstellung und Reproduktion sozialer Ungleichheit oder Zugehörigkeit durch Medien thematisiert. Die dreizehn Beiträge des Bandes gewähren Einblicke in laufende und abgeschlossene Forschungsarbeiten, die theoretisch und empirisch fundiert am Beispiel einzelner Medieninhalte Prozesse der medialen Konstruktion sozialer Differenz analysieren. Der theoretische Hintergrund erstreckt sich von den Postcolonial Studies über die Critical Whiteness Studies bis hin zu den Queer Studies. Die Beiträge veranschaulichen die ungebrochene Vormachtstellung des weißen, männlichen, heteronormativen und homophoben Blicks in der gegenwärtigen Gesellschaft. Der Band leistet damit einen wichtigen Beitrag bei der Analyse medialer Strategien sozialer Ausgrenzung.The collected volume Media—Diversity—Difference. On the Media Construction of Social Difference (Medien—Diversität—Ungleichheit. Zur medialen Konstruktion sozialer Differenz edited by Ulla Wischermann and Tanja Thomas, thematizes the representation and reproduction of social inequality or belonging in the media. The thirteen essays of the volume offer insight into ongoing and completed research projects that analyze processes of the media construction of social difference through the theoretically and empirically founded example of individual media contents. The theoretical background spans Postcolonial Studies, Critical Whiteness Studies, and even Queer Studies. The essays illuminate the continuing position of dominance taken up by the white, male, heteronormative and homophobic gaze in today’s society. The volume thus makes an important contribution to the analysis of media strategies of social exclusion.

  12. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae. (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S


    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative fermentation studies of industrial strains belonging to four species of solvent-producing clostridia. (United States)

    Shaheen, R; Shirley, M; Jones, D T


    Industrial and culture collection strains of solvent-producing clostridia, classified as Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium saccharobutylicum, and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum were utilised in a comparative study of fermentation performance in a laboratory fermentation medium, a molasses fermentation medium, and a maize fermentation medium under standardised culture conditions. At least one representative strain was selected from each of the sub-groups within the four species. Preliminary evaluations were first undertaken for the three different fermentation media to determine the most appropriate media formulations, carbohydrate concentrations, and culture conditions for comparison of the solvent-producing ability of these strains. Standardised fermentation media and culture conditions were then selected for each of the comparative fermentation studies. These included TYA medium containing 4% glucose, a supplemented molasses medium containing 6% fermentable sugars, and a supplemented maize mash medium containing 8% maize. Additional comparative fermentation studies on industrial strains belonging to two species of solvent-producing clostridia were carried out in molasses containing higher concentrations of fermentable sugars, and the sugar concentrations supporting maximum levels of solvent production were determined. Although all the strains tested grew in the maize fermentation medium and degraded starch, only a few strains produced consistently high solvent levels. Optimum starch utilisation and solvent production was obtained at a maize concentration of 80 g/l. Pretreatment of the maize by milling or saccharification decreased the buffering capacity of the medium and resulted in decreased solvent production. Decreasing the time used to gelatinise the starch had little effect. Solvent yields and concentrations obtained in this study were compared with various published data in the scientific and patent literature and

  14. A Potential New Human Pathogen Belonging to Helicobacter Genus, Identified in a Bloodstream Infection

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    Nathalie L. van der Mee-Marquet


    Full Text Available We isolated from aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles from a febrile patient, a Helicobacter-like Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium that MALDI-TOF MS failed to identify. Blood agar cultures incubated in a microaerobic atmosphere revealed a motile Gram negative rod, which was oxidase, catalase, nitrate reductase, esterase, and alkaline phosphatase positive. It grew at 42°C with no detectable urease activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the organism was susceptible to beta-lactams, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline but resistant to ciprofloxacin. Electronic microscopy analysis revealed a 3 × 0.5 μm curved rod bacterium harboring two sheathed amphitrichous flagella. Whole genome sequencing revealed a genome 1,708,265 base-pairs long with a GC content of 37.80% and a total of 1,697 coding sequences. The genomic analyses using the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, hsp60 and gyrB genes, as well as the GyrA protein sequence, and the results of Average Nucleotide Identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization suggest evidence for a novel Helicobacter species close to Helicobacter equorum and belonging to the group of enterohepatic Helicobacter species. As soon as the particular peptide mass fingerprint of this pathogen is added to the spectral databases, MALDI-TOF MS technology will improve its identification from clinical specimens, especially in case of “sterile infection”. We propose to associate the present strain with the Latin name of the place of isolation; Caesarodunum (Tours, France and suggest “Helicobacter caesarodunensis” for further description of this new bacterium.

  15. The Effect of Religiosity on Life Satisfaction in a Secularized Context: Assessing the Relevance of Believing and Belonging. (United States)

    Ten Kate, Josje; de Koster, Willem; van der Waal, Jeroen


    The positive relationship between religiosity and life satisfaction is well-established. This relationship is, however, likely to vary across cultural contexts and different religious affiliations. Furthermore, research is needed to uncover why religion is relevant for life satisfaction. Addressing these issues, we investigate what dimensions of being religious play a role in the life satisfaction of individuals with different religious affiliations, including the understudied Muslim category, in the highly secularized Dutch context. We examine 'believing', which captures how religion provides meaning and a coherent worldview, and 'belonging', which comprises both cultural benefits of being embedded in a congregation with a shared framework of meaning and structural benefits due to more social ties. Analyses of the NEtherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (n = 5312) first indicate that Muslims display significantly lower life satisfaction than the non-religious, which appears to be due to their underprivileged social position rather than intra-religious factors of believing and belonging. Second, we find that Catholics experience significant life satisfaction benefits compared to those who are not religious, and that only belonging plays a role in this association. Next to the beneficial effect of the structural aspect of belonging, which revolves around social ties, a cultural aspect of religious belonging appears to be salient, suggesting that an important life satisfaction advantage of religious communities lies in their ability to foster a sense of solidarity and commitment through a shared framework of meaning. We make several recommendations for further research based on these findings.

  16. Transcriptional profiling of UlaR-regulated genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafeeq, Sulman; Afzal, Muhammad; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Kuipers, Oscar P

    The transcriptional regulator UlaR belongs to the family of PRD-containing transcriptional regulators, which are mostly involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. The role of the transcriptional regulator UlaR in Streptococcus pneumoniae has recently been described [1]. Here, we report

  17. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging (United States)

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E.; Gleibs, Ilka H.; Keller, Melanie M.; Froehlich, Laura


    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed. PMID:27471484

  18. Understanding Latino Students' Sense of Belonging in Engineering: The Impact of Institutional Agents at one Predominantly White Institution (United States)

    Alva, Desiree D.

    This study explores the ways in which institutional agents (i.e., faculty, staff, and advisors) influence Latino engineering students' sense of belonging at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Research (e.g., Museus, Palmer, Davis, & Maramba, 2011) has shown the struggles that Latino students face in pursuing higher education (e.g., culture shock, marginalization, financial barriers), as well as the obstacles that some of them face related to their undocumented status (e.g., out-of-state tuition, ineligibility for federal student aid) (Gildersleeve & Ranero, 2010; Gildersleeve, Rumann, & Mondragon, 2010). However, there is little to no empirical research that describes how successful Latino engineering students connect socially in order to feel a sense of belonging in competitive majors, such as engineering, at a PWI. To explore this phenomenon, this study addressed the following research questions: (a) How do Latino students describe their social connections with institutional agents? (b) According to Latino students, how have those social connections influenced their sense of belonging in engineering at a PWI? (c) How are the social connections and their influence on sense of belonging in engineering alike or different for Latinos who identify as undocumented? Using a qualitative case study design (i.e., on-site observations, interviews, and a constant comparative method), the social connections that seven Latino students made at one Midwestern university were explored in an effort to understand the influence that institutional agents had on their sense of belonging in engineering at a PWI. The findings revealed that while Latinos felt marginalized, they eventually felt a sense of belonging in engineering through developing their engineering identity with the support of institutional agents and peers. Further implications for theory, methodology, policy, and practice were also explored.

  19. Professional behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists (United States)

    Schill, Janna Marie

    Professional socialization is a process that individuals experience as members of a profession and consists of the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences that influence and shape their professional identity. The process of professional socialization has not been studied in the clinical laboratory science profession. Clinical laboratory science is an allied health profession that is faced by a workforce shortage that has been caused by a decrease in new graduates, decreased retention of qualified professionals, and increased retirements. Other allied health professions such as nursing, athletic training, and pharmacy have studied professional socialization as a way to identify factors that may influence the retention of early career professionals. This mixed method study, which quantitatively used Hall's Professionalism Scale (1968) in addition to qualitative focus group interviews, sought to identify the professional attitudes and behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists. Early career clinical laboratory scientists were divided into two groups based upon the amount of work experience they had; new clinical laboratory science graduates have had less than one year of work experience and novice clinical laboratory scientists had between one and three years of work experience. This study found that early career clinical laboratory scientists have established professional identities and view themselves as members of the clinical laboratory science field within four proposed stages of professional socialization consisting of pre-arrival, encounter, adaptation, and commitment. New CLS graduates and novice clinical laboratory scientists were found to be at different stages of the professional stage process. New CLS graduates, who had less than one year of work experience, were found to be in the encounter stage. Novice clinical laboratory scientists, with one to three years of work experience, were found to

  20. Functional and comparative genome analysis of novel virulent actinophages belonging to Streptomyces flavovirens. (United States)

    Sharaf, A; Mercati, F; Elmaghraby, I; Elbaz, R M; Marei, E M


    ) sequences highlighted that the isolated phages belong to the BG Streptomyces phage group but are clearly separated, representing a novel sub-cluster. The results of this study provide the first physiological and genomic information for S. flavovirens phages and will be useful for pharmaceutical industries based on S. flavovirens and future phage evolution studies.

  1. Do Glass Manufacturing Plants Belong Under the Chemical Processing Plant Category (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. The In-between Generation. Immigrants and the Problem of a Dual Sense of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bielenin-Lenczowska


    The aim of this paper is an anthropological analysis of three individual biographies of Macedonian-speaking Muslims migrants in Italy. An author focuses on the generation called by her in-between generation. It means young people who migrated from Macedonia with their parents at the early age. They have studied or already completed their education in Italy, they speak Italian fluently and most of their friends are Italian. However, they are still speak Macedonian at home, visit their country of origin every year and are aware of their strong belonging to the Macedonian-speaking Muslim group. Therefore, they should constantly negotiate between traditional values of their parents, and their own patterns of life. The significant issues and tensions regard religious practices, daily habits like food and dress, and – that is most sensitive – gender relations.   Pokolenie pomiędzy. Imigranci a problem podwójnej przynależności Celem artykułu jest antropologiczna analiza biografii trojga macedońskojęzycznych muzułmanów, należących do grupy imigrantów we Włoszech. Autorka skupia się na młodych ludziach, którzy na wczesnym etapie życia wyemigrowali z Macedonii z rodzicami. W literaturze nazywa się ich „pokoleniem 1,5”, podczas gdy w omawianych badaniach wybrano termin „pokolenie pomiędzy”; ponieważ rozmówcy jako imigranci znajdują się między pierwszym a drugim pokoleniem imigracyjnym, są zawieszeni pomiędzy wartościami i ideami kraju pochodzenia i kraju przyjmującego, pomiędzy dzieciństwem i dorosłością. Studiowali lub ukończyli edukację we Włoszech, mówią płynnie po włosku, a większość ich przyjaciół to Włoszki/Włosi. Jednak wciąż mówią po macedońsku w domu, co roku odwiedzają kraj pochodzenia i mają silną świadomość przynależności do grupy macedońskojęzycznych muzułmanów. Z tego względu wciąż muszą prowadzić negocjacje między tradycyjnymi wartościami rodziców a własnymi wzorami

  3. Multiple Religious Belonging after Religion: Theorising Strategic Religious Participation in a Shared Religious Landscape as a Chinese Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedges Paul


    Full Text Available It is argued that the concept of Multiple Religious Belonging as normally conceived relies upon a problematic construction of “religion” which can be expressed as the World Religions Paradigm. This relies upon a modern Western Protestant bias as to how “religion” should be understood. It is argued that religion can be understood otherwise, and looking at the Chinese context an argument is made that participation in different religious traditions relies upon a very different construct from Multiple Religious Belonging via the World Religions Paradigm model. This is termed Strategic Religious Participation in a Shared Religious Landscape. It considers the way that Chinese religiosity does not have fixed borders in the same way as the World Religions Paradigm suggests. Indeed, asking whether there is Multiple Religious Belonging in traditional Chinese thought seems to misconstrue the situation. A final reflection asks whether this new paradigm, of Strategic Religious Participation in a Shared Religious Landscape, may be appropriate to look at the contemporary Western context amongst a number of religious “nones”. Although no definitive answer is given to this question, the issue highlights that the World Religions Paradigm which shapes our sense of Multiple Religious Belonging may need to be rethought within different contexts.

  4. The Association of Depression and Sense of Belonging with Suicidal Ideation among Older Adults: Applicability of Resiliency Models (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson; Bailey, Maria; Van Der Horst, Renee K.


    Suicide among older people, especially men, is a significant problem. In this study the applicability of the compensatory, the risk-protective, the challenge, and the protective-protective models of resiliency for the prediction of suicidal ideation from depression (the risk factor) and sense of belonging to the community (the protective factor)…

  5. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure. (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J


    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Women who belong to the Elite in Hungary - The features of elite Identity in Women’s Elite Groups


    Ibolya Czibere


    The study represents the women’s situation who belong to the cultural, economic and political elite in Hungary, according to the differences between women and men elite groups on the one hand and on the other hand, according to elite type differences of women’s elite groups.

  7. The Relationship between the Students' Socialization and Sense of Belonging Who Attended University's Spring Festivals (United States)

    Basaran, Zekiye; Demir, Ayse


    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of spring festivals on university students' socialization and sense of belonging. According to this aim, this study's sample was 983 volunteer students including 460 women and 523 men who were studying at Istanbul Yildiz Technical University and Istanbul Aydin University. The data collection tools…

  8. When the Girls Still Wore Headscarves: Integration and Belonging in an After-School Center in Berlin (United States)

    Burnside, Bruce S.


    This study is centered on a youth center in Berlin, Germany, that serves migrant females. It draws on the anthropology of performance and the concept of "friction" to argue for an understanding of performances of belonging, where migrant girls stage acts of inclusion through creative encounters with the forces of integration to negotiate…

  9. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca


    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…

  10. Teacher Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Leave the Teaching Profession: Relations with School Context, Feeling of Belonging, and Emotional Exhaustion (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel


    This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers' feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and…

  11. Does Your Child Click with a Clique? Help Your Child Uncover the Truth about Cliques and Belonging. (United States)

    Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret


    Explains how parents can help their middle school students cope with cliques and find a sense of belonging in a healthy, positive way. This includes helping them identify the school's social hierarchy (the popular group, fringe group, friendship circles, and loners); discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each group; and helping them…

  12. The Study of Relationship between Organizational Culture and Organizational Belonging in Employees of Varamin County Office of Education (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Seyed Mahmoud; Koohi, Amirhasan; Ghandali, Abbas; Tajik, Tayebeh


    The purpose of the present research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational belonging among employees of Varamin County ministry of education. This is a descriptive-survey study. The statistical population is consisted of all 274 official and contract employees of ministry of education in Varamin County of…

  13. Belonging to a Workplace: First-Year Apprentices' Perspectives on Factors Determining Engagement and Continuation through Apprenticeship (United States)

    Chan, Selena


    The transition to work through apprenticeship is one taken by many young people. A sense of belonging to a workplace is posited to be an important precursor for initial and on-going engagement with practice communities. This article details a study of beginning apprentices in ten trades. The project sought to identify factors influencing…

  14. The Relationship between the Physical Environment of Schools and Teacher Morale, Sense of Belonging, and Work Ethic (United States)

    Wiley, Ben D.


    This study examines the physical environment of school buildings and the effects it has on teacher morale, sense of belonging, and work ethic. Within this mixed-method study, four New York State schools were given the researcher developed School Environment Survey, and multiple school stakeholders were interviewed to determine the extent of these…

  15. "Ikasi Style" and the Quiet Violence of Dreams: A Critique of Youth Belonging in Post-Apartheid South Africa (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Harding, James Hamilton; De Lannoy, Ariane


    Drawing on empirical data from two recent research studies in post-Apartheid South Africa, this paper asks what it means to be poor, young and black, and belong in a society that has suffered debilitating and dehumanising racial subjugation, actively excluding people from citizenship, and how poverty serves to perpetuate this exclusion. It…

  16. Associations among Sexual Attraction Status, School Belonging, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Rural High School Students (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Owens, Gina P.; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.


    Analysis of data collected from 1725 9th graders from 25 rural high schools revealed that students reporting same-sex attraction or uncertainty about their attraction status also reported significantly lower GPAs, lower school belonging, and higher marijuana and alcohol use. Regression analyses confirmed that beyond the effects of GPA and…

  17. The moderating effect of the need to belong and classroom composition on belongingness seeking of minority adolescents. (United States)

    Kuo, Fu Wen; Yang, Shu Ching


    This study aimed to elucidate whether the interaction of classroom composition and the need to belong influences belongingness seeking and, if so, to investigate how upward comparison mediates the effects. The analyses were conducted with a cross-sectional sample of 383 Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents (39.7% male) recruited from schools with mixed-sex/ethnicity (n = 113), single-sex (n = 122), and minority-only (n = 148) classrooms. After controlling for socioeconomic status, the moderation analyses indicated that participants with a chronic need to belong in classes with diversity (mixed sex/ethnicity) perceived higher social acceptance, while those with a chronic need to belong in homogeneous classes (single-sex and minority-only) reported greater feelings of rejection. Upward comparison for differentiation was found to influence the indirect effects of the need to belong on feelings of rejection and depression in single-sex and minority-only classes. In particular, the mediating effect of upward comparison was stronger in minority-only classes. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bridging the Gap: Individual Growth and Development Indicators--The Which One Doesn't Belong Task (United States)

    Rodriguez, Megan I.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.


    The Individual Growth and Development Indicator (IGDI): Which One Doesn't Belong (WODB) task is an early comprehension screening assessment designed for use in pre-Kindergarten multi-tiered systems of support. This article summarizes the purpose, procedures, and evidence base currently available in the literature to support the WODB task. Example…

  19. Trajectories of Chinese Students' Sense of School Belonging and Academic Achievement over the High School Transition Period (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong


    The present study identified the different patterns of Chinese students' academic achievement trajectories over the high school transition period and examined the relationships between students' sense of school belonging trajectories and the different patterns of academic achievement trajectories. In a sample of 567 Chinese high school students, a…

  20. Cultivation of hitherto-uncultured bacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Azevedo, Joao Lucio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leo S.; Andreoti, F.D.

    The role of dominant bacterial groups in the plant rhizosphere, e.g., those belonging to the phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, has, so far, not been elucidated, and this is mainly due to the lack of culturable representatives. This study aimed to isolate hitherto-uncultured bacteria from the

  1. Cultivation of hitherto-uncultured bacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, da U.N.; Andreote, F.D.; Azevedo, J.L.; Elsas, van J.D.; Overbeek, van L.S.


    The role of dominant bacterial groups in the plant rhizosphere, e.g., those belonging to the phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, has, so far, not been elucidated, and this is mainly due to the lack of culturable representatives. This study aimed to isolate hitherto-uncultured bacteria from the

  2. "It's Not Just Learning English, It's Learning Other Cultures": Belonging, Power, and Possibility in an Immigrant Contact Zone (United States)

    Malsbary, Christine Brigid


    This ethnographic investigation of a multiethnic, multilingual classroom examines the ways in which immigrant students' goals for community and belonging were mediated by their vibrant cultural and linguistic practices. Findings demonstrate how youth formed a community of practice through brokering acts, resource pooling, and linguistic play…

  3. Is the igeneration a 'we' generation? Social networking use among 9- to 13-year-olds and belonging. (United States)

    Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A


    Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children aged 9-13 years. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 443 children (48.98% boys), asking about their SNS use and their sense of belonging to their friendship group. SNS users reported a stronger sense of belonging to their friendship group than non-users, but this was found only among older boys. Furthermore, among boy SNS users, a positive linear relationship was found between the intensity of usage and feelings of belonging. No significant relationships were found for girls. These findings suggest that boys who use these sites are gaining friendship benefits over and above those boys who are non-users or low-intensity users. Longitudinal studies should investigate the causal relationships between SNS use and social effects within this age group. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Characterization of a multifunctional inositol phosphate kinase from rice and barley belonging to the ATP-grasp superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, L.; Bohn, L.; Sørensen, M.B.


    OsIpk and HvIk, inositol phosphate kinases, were cloned from rice (Oryza sativa L. var. indica, IR64) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) respectively.. IP Sequence alignment showed that they belong to the ATP-grasp family, which includes inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase from humans and Arabidopsis...

  5. A Study of International Undergraduate Students Taking Online Courses: Group and Organizational Socialization Theory and Sense of Belonging (United States)

    Adams, Jacob Lyle


    Purpose: This study sought to (1) identify and describe the experiences of international students participating in U.S. cohort- and text-based asynchronous online courses and to 2) analyze perceptions of belonging/isolation within online environments through group and organizational socialization theory. Research Methods: Data from interviews with…

  6. Fostering Academic Self-Concept: Advisor Support and Sense of Belonging among International and Domestic Graduate Students (United States)

    Curtin, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.; Ostrove, Joan M.


    International doctoral students in the United States face challenges of acculturation in academia yet complete graduate school at higher rates and more quickly than their domestic counterparts. This study examined advisor support, sense of belonging, and academic self-concept among international and domestic doctoral students at a research…

  7. Critical Care and Problematizing Sense of School Belonging as a Response to Inequality for Immigrants and Children of Immigrants (United States)

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Yu, Min; Crowley, Christopher B.; Gabel, Susan L.


    This chapter examines the factors that contribute to a sense of school belonging for immigrant and immigrant-origin youth. Through a review of the education research on critical care, the authors propose a framework informed by "cariño conscientizado"--critically conscious and authentic care--as central to reconceptualizing notions of…

  8. Intervention to Improve Engineering Self-Efficacy and Sense of Belonging of First-Year Engineering Students (United States)

    Jordan, Kari L.

    /her physiological state, and social persuasions, such as student-professor interaction. Increasing the awareness of a student's engineering self-efficacy could potentially improve sense of belonging and persistence for underrepresented minority students in engineering. The hypothesis of this study is that an intervention during the first semester of an incoming freshman's tenure can help improve their engineering self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and overall retention in the engineering program. This study explored the following research questions: 1. What are the differences in engineering self-efficacy, and sense of belonging for first-year underrepresented minority engineering students compared to majority students? 2. What factors or variables should be considered and/or addressed in designing an intervention to increase engineering self-efficacy and sense of belonging amongst first-year underrepresented minority engineering students? 3. Can a small intervention during the beginning of the first semester improve a student's sense of belonging, engineering self-efficacy, and student-professor interaction? Using the race, social fit, and achievement study by Walton and Cohen as a model, the author developed an intervention consisting of short compelling videos of upperclass engineering students from diverse backgrounds. In these videos, students discussed their pursuit of the engineering degree, what obstacles they faced in terms of sense of belonging and coping efficacy, and how they overcame those obstacles. Treatment groups of students watched the videos during the first few weeks of the semester, and pre and post tests were administered to measure mean gains in the student's engineering self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and other variables. The results showed that underrepresented minority students had a lower sense of belonging than whites. The intervention used in the study contributed to mean gain increases in participants' engineering self-efficacy, which could

  9. Does kisspeptin belong to the proposed RF-amide peptide family?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongsik eYun


    Full Text Available Kisspeptin (KISS plays a key role in regulating reproduction by binding to its receptor, GPR54 (KISSR. Because of the Arg-Phe (RF sequence at its carboxyl terminus, KISS has been proposed to be a member of the RF-amide peptide family consisting of neuropeptide FF (NPFF, neuropeptide VF (NPVF, pyroglutamylated RF-amide peptide (QRFP, and prolactin-releasing hormone (PRLH. Evolutionary relationships of protein families can be determined through phylogenetic analysis. However, phylogenetic analysis among related peptide families, often fails to provide sufficient information because only short mature peptide sequences from full preprohormone sequences are conserved. Considering the concept of the coevolution of peptide ligands and their cognate receptors, evolutionary relationships among related receptor families provide clues to explore relationships between their peptides. Although receptors for NPFF, NPVF, and QRFP are phylogenetically clustered together, receptors for PRLH and KISS are on different branches of the phylogenetic tree. In particular, KISS has been proposed to be a member of the KISS/galanin/spexin family based on synteny analysis and the phylogenetic relationship between their receptors. This article discusses the evolutionary history of the receptors for the proposed RF-amide peptide family and proposes that, from an evolutionary aspect, KISS has emerged from an ancestor which is distinct from those of the other RF-amide peptides, and so should be classed separately.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen TODICĂ


    Full Text Available The management (power responsibility (internal management involves committing physical operations of implementing the social will embodied in the General Assembly decisions as well as verifying their execution. In this way, the administrator is authorized by the General Assembly to execute its decisions. Furthermore, these decisions implementation implies concluding legal deeds (of conservation, management and disposal requested by the activity of the company, and thus, achieve its core business. However, as have emphasized, certain legal deeds of disposition of particular importance to the assets of the company, may be concluded only with the approval of the general meeting of shareholders. In this context, as well as a lacunar regulation on the applicable sanction it is necessary to analyze the effects such the lack of authorization, as well as the administrator liability in relation to the management of the company. These powers (authorities of the administrator concern the internal management of the company (management,that is the relationships of the manager with the company and shareholders, which requires delineation of the power they represent.

  11. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos


    such activities, to increase participation in their activities. Using nationally-representative data from Ireland, the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Data from...... two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used......-Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network...

  12. Banks Belonging to the Erste Group and their Sensitivity to the Confidence Crisis on the Interbank Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Klepková Vodová


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to measure the sensitivity of commercial banks from the Erste Group to the confidence crisis on the interbank market and to compare their sensitivity with average sensitivity of banks in particular countries. We have used the methodology of scenario analysis for the liquid asset ratio. All banks belonging to the Erste Group should be able to withstand the confidence crisis on the interbank market. The group of the most vulnerable banks consists from Erste bank Hungary and Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania. In some cases, banks from the Erste Group are more sensitive; while in other cases are banks belonging to the Erste Group less vulnerable than corresponding banking sectors. Except of banks from Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, subsidiary banks are less sensitive to the confidence crisis than the parent bank. Banks (and banking sectors who are net borrowers on the interbank market are much more sensitive to the confidence crisis on this market.

  13. Finding One’s Place : An Ethnological Study of Belonging among Swedish Migrants on the Costa del Sol in Spain


    Woube, Annie


    This study explores how Swedish migrants on the Costa del Sol in Spain create belonging and how this is expressed in migration stories and practiced in the daily life. The migrants are part of a migration phenomenon that is conceptualized as lifestyle migration, often to destinations in association with tourism and leisure. Based on ethnographical fieldwork carried out among Swedish migrants within the Swedish infrastructure of institutions, organizations and private enterprises on the Costa ...

  14. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge (United States)

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi


    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with 14C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with 13C6-glucose and 13C3-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with 13C-glucose and 13C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with 14C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high Km for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5–10 m). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta. PMID:21562600

  15. Functional characterization of Brucella melitensis NorMI, an efflux pump belonging to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family


    Braibant, Martine; Zygmunt, Michel


    Two putative proteins (NorMI and NorMII) similar to the multidrug efflux protein NorM of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are encoded by the Brucella melitensis 16 M genome. We show that a drug-hypersusceptible Escherichia coli strain overexpressing NorMI displays increased resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetraphenylphosphonium ion, acriflavine, and berberine. This elevated resistance was proven to be mediated by an energy-dependent efflux mechanism. NorMI belongs to the multidru...

  16. Differentially expressed genes in Bordetella pertussis strains belonging to a lineage which recently spread globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan de Gouw

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease in humans caused by the Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis has resurged in the face of intensive vaccination and this has coincided with the emergence of strains carrying a particular allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, ptxP3, which is associated with higher levels of pertussis toxin (Ptx production. Within 10 to 20 years, ptxP3 strains have nearly completely replaced the previously dominant ptxP1 strains resulting in a worldwide selective sweep. In order to identify B. pertussis genes associated with the selective sweep, we compared the expression of genes in ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains that are under control of the Bordetella master virulence regulatory locus (bvgASR. The BvgAS proteins comprise a two component sensory transduction system which is regulated by temperature, nicotinic acid and sulfate. By increasing the sulfate concentration, it is possible to change the phase of B. pertussis from virulent to avirulent. Until recently, the only distinctive phenotype of ptxP3 strains was a higher Ptx production. Here we identify additional phenotypic differences between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains which may have contributed to its global spread by comparing global transcriptional responses under sulfate-modulating conditions. We show that ptxP3 strains are less sensitive to sulfate-mediated gene suppression, resulting in an increased production of the vaccine antigens pertactin (Prn and Ptx and a number of other virulence genes, including a type III secretion toxin, Vag8, a protein involved in complement resistance, and lpxE involved in lipid A modification. Furthermore, enhanced expression of the vaccine antigens Ptx and Prn by ptxP3 strains was confirmed at the protein level. Identification of genes differentially expressed between ptxP1 and ptxP3 strains may elucidate how B. pertussis has adapted to vaccination and allow the improvement of pertussis vaccines by

  17. Why narcissists are at risk for developing Facebook addiction: The need to be admired and the need to belong. (United States)

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia


    Building upon previous research establishing a positive association between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and problematic social networking use, the present study tests a model that explains how grandiose and vulnerable narcissists might develop Facebook (Fb) addiction symptoms through the need for admiration and the need to belong. A sample of 535 undergraduates (50.08% F; mean age 22.70±2.76years) completed measures of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, Fb addiction symptoms, and two brief scales measuring the need for admiration and the need to belong. Results from structural equation modelling show that the association between grandiose narcissism and Fb addiction levels was completely mediated by the need for admiration and the need to belong. On the other hand, vulnerable narcissism was not found to be associated either directly or indirectly with Fb addiction levels. The variables in the model accounted for 30% of the variance in Fb addiction levels. The present study represents a step toward a better understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying the link between grandiose narcissism and problematic Fb use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown were made and tested in vitro (concentration: 300 µg/disc against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 (S. aureus and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778 (B. cereus, and two Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 (E. coli, using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10 µg/disc was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted against S. aureus and B. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further low MIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 > BOPF > OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, and OP pocess in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteria P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  19. Fitting in or opting out: A review of key social-psychological factors influencing a sense of belonging for women in physics (United States)

    Lewis, Karyn L.; Stout, Jane G.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Ito, Tiffany A.


    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women's relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we discuss how a sense of belonging relates to women's interest, persistence, and achievement in physics. We explore what it means to "fit in" and belong in academic contexts, the situational and interpersonal antecedents to belonging, and the consequences of a lack of belonging. We review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of interventions designed to bolster a sense of belonging. Based on these interventions we conclude the paper with a number of practical recommendations to affirm women's sense of belonging and create more welcoming and inclusive physics environments for all students.

  20. The relationships between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction, and self-esteem among Australian gay men. (United States)

    Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne


    Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the sense of belonging-self-esteem relation. Educating gay men and health professionals about the possible negative outcomes of "belonging" to an appearance-oriented community is important.

  1. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa


    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Presilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Presilience (moderator effect). Resilience moderates the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression and characterization of a recombinant psychrophilic γ-carbonic anhydrase (NcoCA) identified in the genome of the Antarctic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc. (United States)

    De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Carginale, Vincenzo; Di Fonzo, Pietro; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente


    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC catalyze the CO2 hydration/dehydration reversible reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇄ [Formula: see text] + H(+). Living organisms encode for at least six distinct genetic families of such catalyst, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs. The main function of the CAs is to quickly process the CO2 derived by metabolic processes in order to regulate acid-base homeostasis, connected to the production of protons (H(+)) and bicarbonate. Few data are available in the literature on Antarctic CAs and most of the scientific information regards CAs isolated from mammals or prokaryotes (as well as other mesophilic sources). It is of great interest to study the biochemical behavior of such catalysts identified in organism living in the Antarctic sea where temperatures average -1.9 °C all year round. The enzymes isolated from Antarctic organisms represent a useful tool to study the relations among structure, stability and function of proteins in organisms adapted to living at constantly low temperatures. In the present paper, we report in detail the cloning, purification, and physico-chemical properties of NcoCA, a γ-CA isolated from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. This enzyme showed a higher catalytic efficiency at lower temperatures compared to mesophilic counterparts belonging to α-, β-, γ-classes, as well as a limited stability at moderate temperatures.

  3. To whom does Serbian archaeology belong? The case of Belovode and Pločnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Miljana


    published in Starinar XLIV/2014, from which he withdrew without offering any constructive comments, only to publicly publish his views as well as professional and personal insults directed towards us in Starinar XLV/2015. The situation where Šljivar had the opportunity to act in his best professional interest was while our article was still in preparation and he chose not to do it; this leads us to assume that professional interests were not his priority on this matter. Finally, Šljivar’s deceitful and erroneous claims were executed in a spiteful language that is unfit for a scholarly journal, and damages both his reputation and the decision of this journal to publish them. We further elaborate on these developments in the broader context of Serbian archaeology, quoting the legislation on the intellectual copyright of excavation directors over the archaeological materials that they have excavated. The current law on Cultural Monuments recognizes the exclusive rights of excavation directors to publish their research for the period of 12 months after the excavations ended. After this period, other interested parties in the field can access the materials and any related field documentation. This demonstrates, alongside previously mentioned scientific arguments, that we have worked with the Belovode and Pločnik materials in accordance with the valid legal regulations. We conclude that there is no formal support for the exclusive interpretation of lives of communities in the sites of Belovode and Pločnik c. 7000 years ago, and emphasise the value of our original scientific contribution as illuminating a particular economic activity of the inhabitants of these two prehistoric villages. Finally, we call for the reinforcement of existing procedures in Serbia so that our profession can prevent any future misconduct such as that exemplified in the attempt by Duško Šljivar.

  4. A Pedagogical Experience to Delve Into Students’ Sense of Cultural Belonging and Intercultural Understanding in a Rural School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Ramos Holguín


    Full Text Available Rural education has been the focus for several research studies which reveal a tendency to include students’ home context in the curriculum. Considering the aforementioned statement, this article aims to share a pedagogical experience which was carried out in a rural school in Guavatá, Santander, Colombia. The main purpose of this experience was to integrate eleventh graders’ rural context through the design of curricular units. After implementing the curricular units, information was collected through a journal, a semi-structured interview, and students’ surveys. The outcomes of the experience showed that aspects such as students’ sense of cultural belonging and intercultural understanding were enhanced.

  5. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacono, M.; Villa, L.; Fortini, D.


    The whole-genome sequence of an epidemic, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain (strain ACICU) belonging to the European clone II group and carrying the plasmid-mediated bla(OXA-58) carbapenem resistance gene was determined. The A. baumannii ACICU genome was compared with the genomes...... of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, with the aim of identifying novel genes related to virulence and drug resistance. A. baumannii ACICU has a single chromosome of 3,904,116 bp (which is predicted to contain 3,758 genes) and two plasmids, pACICUI and pACICU2, of 28,279 and 64...

  6. Cloning of eggplant hypocotyl cDNAs encoding cytochromes P450 belonging to a novel family (CYP77). (United States)

    Toguri, T; Tokugawa, K


    From eggplant hypocotyl tissues we have cloned two closely related cDNAs encoding cytochromes P450 (P450s) by PCR amplification using a primer designed based on the highly conserved sequence among the known eggplant P450s. One cDNA lacks the NH2-terminal short sequence that is present in the other, full-length cDNA. The two predicted protein sequences are 71% identical with each other and show less than 30% identity with any other known P450s. It is concluded that these P450s, which are termed CYP77A1 and -A2, belong to a hitherto unknown P450 family.

  7. Capsae belonging to the so-called necropolis of the plots numbers 45 and 46 in Segobriga (Saelices, Hispania Citerior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Cebrián Fernández


    Full Text Available Several incinerations belonging to the so-called necropolis of the plots numbers 45 and 46 in Segobriga contained elements of locks and metal fittings in brass and iron, corresponding to seven wooden caskets (“capsae”. They are dated in the second half of the 1st century AD and mainly they contained personal female care items and cosmetics. They were burned at the same time as the deceased, in a widespread funeral practice throughout the Roman provinces. We present here the review and study of these materials with a typological approach to the cases considering other specimens known elsewhere in the Empire.

  8. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia (United States)

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus


    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  9. Resilience among Men Farmers: The Protective Roles of Social Support and Sense of Belonging in the Depression-Suicidal Ideation Relation (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne; Challis, Chantal


    This study investigated the applicability of 3 models of resiliency for the prediction of suicidal ideation from depression (the risk factor) and social support and sense of belonging (the protective factors). A sample of 99 Australian men farmers completed measures of depression, suicidal ideas, social support, and sense of belonging. Sense of…

  10. 'It's good to live in Jarva-Jaani but we can't stay here' : Youth and belonging in rural Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their

  11. Fostering a Sense of Belonging at School--Five Orientations to Practice That Assist Vulnerable Youth to Create a Positive Student Identity (United States)

    Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn


    Drawing on data from a mixed-method longitudinal study of marginalized youth from New Zealand, most of whom did not complete high school, we explore the concept of a sense of belonging as it relates to the way these youth explain their experiences of school. We identify the centrality of this sense of belonging at school to an understanding of…

  12. Latino/a Students' Perceptions of Their Sense of Belonging at Kansas State University: Mi Casa Es Su Casa... or Is It Really? (United States)

    Esquivel, Sonia


    This qualitative multiple case study explored the campus climate and sense of belonging of Latino/a undergraduate student participants at a predominately White university. Guided by the work of Hurtado and Carter (1997), relationships among several aspects of the college environment and sense of belonging were examined. In depth interviews…

  13. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.


    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  14. Strains nodulating Lupinus albus on different continents belong to several new chromosomal and symbiotic lineages within Bradyrhizobium. (United States)

    Velázquez, Encarna; Valverde, Angel; Rivas, Raúl; Gomis, Víctor; Peix, Alvaro; Gantois, Inne; Igual, José M; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio


    In this work we analysed different chromosomal and symbiotic markers in rhizobial strains nodulating Lupinus albus (white lupin) in several continents. Collectively the analysis of their rrs and atpD genes, and 16S-23S intergenic spacers (ITS), showed that they belong to at least four chromosomal lineages within the genus Bradyrhizobium. Most isolates from the Canary Islands (near to the African continent) grouped with some strains isolated on mainland Spain and were identified as Bradyrhizobium canariense. These strains are divided into two ITS subgroups coincident with those previously described from isolates nodulating Ornithopus. The remaining strains isolated on mainland Spain grouped with most isolates from Chile (American continent) forming a new lineage related to Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The strains BLUT2 and ISLU207 isolated from the Canary Islands and Chile, respectively, formed two new lineages phylogenetically close to different species of Bradyrhizobium depending on the marker analyzed. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains nodulating L. albus belong to the biovar genistearum; nevertheless they form four different nodC lineages of which lineage C is at present exclusively formed by L. albus endosymbionts isolated from different continents.

  15. Relationships between frailty, neighborhood security, social cohesion and sense of belonging among community-dwelling older people. (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P


    The relationships between frailty and neighborhood social resources and neighborhood quality among community-dwelling older people are poorly understood. We therefore enquired into these associations while controlling for important individual characteristics. Our cross-sectional study included 945 out of 1440 (66% response rate) community-dwelling older people (aged ≥ 70 years) in Rotterdam. The sample included approximately 430 older adults per district and was proportional with respect to neighborhood and age. Potential participants were mailed questionnaires, non-respondents were first sent a reminder, then asked by telephone and finally visited at home to complete the questionnaire. Age, sex, marital status and level of education varied between the frail and non-frail. A significantly larger proportion of the frail was female (64.4% vs 48.0%; P ≤ 0.001), fewer were married (22.1% vs 48.4%; P ≤ 0.001) and the frail were, on average, older than the non-frail (78.8 vs 76.0 years; P ≤ 0.001). A significantly larger proportion of the frail were poorly educated (25.9% vs 18.6%; P ≤ 0.01). Multilevel regression analyses showed that older age (Pcohesion and neighborhood belonging (Pcohesion and a sense of belonging within the neighborhood. These findings could have important implications for efforts to reduce frailty of older people within communities. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Teachers' feeling of belonging, exhaustion, and job satisfaction: the role of school goal structure and value consonance. (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel


    In their daily teaching and classroom management, teachers inevitably communicate and represent values. The purpose of this study was to explore relations between teachers' perception of school level values represented by the goal structure of the school and value consonance (the degree to which they felt that they shared the prevailing norms and values at the school), teachers' feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. The participants were 231 Norwegian teachers in elementary school and middle school. Data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Teachers' perception of mastery goal structure was strongly and positively related to value consonance and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, whereas performance goal structure, in the SEM model, was not significantly related to these constructs. Furthermore, value consonance was positively related to teachers' feeling of belonging and job satisfaction, whereas emotional exhaustion was negatively associated with job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was the strongest predictor of motivation to leave the teaching profession. A practical implication of the study is that educational goals and values should be explicitly discussed and clarified, both by education authorities and at the school level.

  17. Sequencing and comparison of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi belonging to Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae families. (United States)

    Borriello, Roberto; Bianciotto, Valeria; Orgiazzi, Alberto; Lumini, Erica; Bergero, Roberta


    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are well known for their ecological importance and their positive influence on plants. The genetics and phylogeny of this group of fungi have long been debated. Nuclear markers are the main tools used for phylogenetic analyses, but they have sometimes proved difficult to use because of their extreme variability. Therefore, the attention of researchers has been moving towards other genomic markers, in particular those from the mitochondrial DNA. In this study, 46 sequences of different AMF isolates belonging to two main clades Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae have been obtained from the mitochondrial gene coding for the Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI), representing the largest dataset to date of AMF COI sequences. A very low level of divergence was recorded in the COI sequences from the Gigasporaceae, which could reflect either a slow rate of evolution or a more recent evolutionary divergence of this group. On the other hand, the COI sequence divergence between Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae was high, with synonymous divergence reaching saturated levels. This work also showed the difficulty in developing valuable mitochondrial markers able to effectively distinguish all Glomeromycota species, especially those belonging to Gigasporaceae, yet it represents a first step towards the development of a full mtDNA-based dataset which can be used for further phylogenetic investigations of this fungal phylum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Explaining the link between objective and perceived differences in groups: The role of the belonging and distinctiveness motives. (United States)

    Ormiston, Margaret E


    Group diversity research often focuses on objective diversity, or the actual compositional attributes of the group (e.g., differences in sex or functional background), and its impact on group processes and performance. More recently, diversity researchers have called for consideration of group members' perceptions of diversity, or their subjective understanding of differences within their group, because these perceptions have important effects on group outcomes. In fact, research has indicated only a modest correlation between objective and perceived diversity. Although the subjective nature of group diversity has important implications for group outcomes, we are still unclear about why and when perceived diversity diverges from objective diversity. In this article, I examine the role of identity motives, or motives that guide self-definition, in shaping member's perceptions of themselves and their group's composition. I argue that group members want to balance their needs for belonging and distinctiveness, but high levels of objective differences make them feel too distinct whereas low levels of objective differences makes them feel too deindividuated. Individual differences in the need to belong and be distinct further influence the degree to which these motives are satisfied. In turn, when these motives are unsatisfied, they will affect members' perceptions of differences. The presented theory helps to explain the discrepancy between objective differences and members' perceptions of differences, and ultimately helps integrate opposing findings in the diversity literature. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Blood Meal Identification of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Specimens Belong to Culex pipiens Complex that were Collected from Kayseri Province. (United States)

    Korkmaz, Seval; Yıldırım, Alparslan; Düzlü, Önder; Çiloğlu, Arif; Önder, Zuhal; İnci, Abdullah


    This study aimed to determine the host preferences in blood meal of specimens belonging to Culex pipiens complex. A total of 1284 female mosquitos were morphologically examined, and genomic DNA isolations were individually performed on 376 (28.4%) specimens that were determined to be Cx. pipiens complex. PCR was performed with primers to specifically amplify the avian and mammalian mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-cytb) gene region. Amplicons were cloned, and the obtained plasmids were sequenced to determine host species. Of 376 specimens, 148 (39.4%) were positive for the avian and/or mammalian blood meal. Among the positive specimens, 43, 98, and seven were determined to be positive for only mammalian, avian, and both avian and mammalian blood, respectively. Avian host preference in blood meal of the specimens belonging to Cx. pipiens was found to be significant. Of 15 avian blood positive isolates, nine, three, two, and one were designated as blood meal from avian species in Passeriformes, Accipitriformes, Columbiformes, and Strigiformes orders, respectively. While six, four, three, and two out of 15 mammalian blood-positive specimens were found to be positive for human, cattle, sheep, and dog blood, respectively. Molecular data regarding the host preferences of the Cx. pipiens species complex in blood meal were revealed for the first time in Turkey with this study.

  20. Examining the link between forms of bullying behaviors and perceptions of safety and belonging among secondary school students. (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P


    Research suggests that students who bully may perceive the school climate less favorably. Person-centered analyses were used to identify distinct groupings of bullying behaviors and related social-emotional factors (i.e., victimization, internalizing, and perception of school and bullying climate). Latent class analyses were conducted on a sample of 10,254 middle and 2509 high school students and indicated four classes in middle school (Low Involvement, Verbal, High Physical/High Verbal, and High Involvement) and three classes in high school (Low Involvement, Verbal, and High Involvement). A Low Involvement bullying class characterized most students and was related to positive adjustment, whereas a High Involvement bullying class represented the smallest proportion of the sample (1.6% middle school and 7.3% in high school). Students in the High Involvement class reported increased victimization and internalizing problems, feeling less safe and less belonging, and perceiving the school climate to be more supportive of bullying (i.e., perceiving adults' prevention and intervention efforts as ineffective). In middle school, the High Physical/High Verbal class reported significantly higher levels of victimization as compared to the Verbal class. Findings highlight heterogeneity in bullying behaviors and underscore the importance of prevention and intervention programming that addresses safety and belonging. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Tourism as a factor of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Lela


    Full Text Available The paper looks at tourism as an essential component of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory. The aim of the paper is to point to the role of tourism in the integration of rural areas into the national and international economy based on the analysis of the relevant rural development model and in terms of more efficient endogenous development. The main hypothesis is that rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory have significant natural and anthropogenic resources for tourism development. However, what lacks is an integrated strategy that would contribute to sustainability and strengthening of the competitiveness of the rural economy. In accordance with the subject of the paper, its aim and the set hypotheses, qualitative, quantitative and SWOT analysis were applied during the research. A survey was conducted in order to obtain positions and feedback from the key actors involved in tourism development. The paper is organized in eight sections. The main result of the research points to the necessity of giving priority to rural tourism development as an essential component of the revitalization of villages and local communities.

  2. The first fossil of a bolbitidoid fern belongs to the early-divergent lineages of Elaphoglossum (Dryopteridaceae). (United States)

    Lóriga, Josmaily; Schmidt, Alexander R; Moran, Robbin C; Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Heinrichs, Jochen


    • Closing gaps in the fossil record and elucidating phylogenetic relationships of mostly incomplete fossils are major challenges in the reconstruction of the diversification of fern lineages through time. The cosmopolitan family Dryopteridaceae represents one of the most species-rich families of leptosporangiate ferns, yet its fossil record is sparse and poorly understood. Here, we describe a fern inclusion in Miocene Dominican amber and investigate its relationships to extant Dryopteridaceae.• The morphology of the fossil was compared with descriptions of extant ferns, resulting in it being tentatively assigned to the bolbitidoid fern genus Elaphoglossum. This assignment was confirmed by reconstructing the evolution of the morphological characters preserved in the inclusion on a molecular phylogeny of 158 extant bolbitidoid ferns. To assess the morphology-based assignment of the fossil to Elaphoglossum, we examined DNA-calibrated divergence time estimates against the age of the amber deposits from which it came.• The fossil belongs to Elaphoglossum and is the first of a bolbitidoid fern. Its assignment to a particular section of Elaphoglossum could not be determined; however, sects. Lepidoglossa, Polytrichia, and Setosa can be discounted because the fossil lacks subulate scales or scales with acicular marginal hairs. Thus, the fossil might belong to either sects. Amygdalifolia, Wrightiana, Elaphoglossum, or Squamipedia or to an extinct lineage.• The discovery of a Miocene Elaphoglossum fossil provides remarkable support to current molecular clock-based estimates of the diversification of these ferns. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Journeys to home and liminal spaces among former refugees: exploring identity and belonging among Vietnamese-Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eyles


    Full Text Available Rites of passage are integral to the life course of human beings. They exist in societies as culturally appropriate means to help individuals transition into their new social role or status. The story and journey of the former Vietnamese refugees in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada is one that resonates with the literature on rites of passage. This process included an uprooting from home, which was followed by a crossing over into liminal space. After leaving Vietnam, these refugees were in limbo as a result of their circumstance. Rites of passage as a conceptual framework can help to explain the journey and settlement experience of these Vietnamese refugees. Their experience have shaped their understanding of home, identity and belonging as Vietnamese-Canadians. The following paper examines the Vietnamese refugees’ stories and their reflection on settlement and home, which suggest a process of continuous liminality that articulates the complexity of experience and sense making in the lives of migrants. In order to understand the sense of belonging of these former refugees, the authors examine their life, journey, and rites of passage from Vietnam to Canada.

  4. Differential growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant density in two wild plants belonging to contrasting functional types. (United States)

    Pérez, Marisela; Urcelay, Carlos


    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant growth was examined in two wild plant species belonging to contrasting functional types: an annual forb (Bidens pilosa, Asteraceae) and a deciduous shrub (Acacia caven, Fabaceae) at three contrasting plant densities (one, two, and three individuals per pot). AMF had a slightly negative effect on B. pilosa when the species grew in isolation while they positively affected A. caven. Positive effects of AMF on shoot mass of A. caven decreased at higher plant densities, while shoot mass of individuals of B. pilosa showed less marked differences between plant densities. When considering total biomass per pot, AMF positively affected A. caven growth while negatively affecting B. pilosa, at all three plant densities. Root/shoot ratio per pot was negatively affected by AMF but not plant density in both species. These findings highlight the importance of including plants belonging to different life forms and/or traits in research regarding the interaction between AMF and intraspecific plant competition.

  5. The influence of college choice on the success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging of African American engineers (United States)

    DeRamus-Suazo, Nicole L.

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the perceptions of African American engineers on how college choice influenced their success, ethnic identity, and professional sense of belonging by documenting the unique experiences and success stories of African American engineers who attended four-year institutions, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). The research question was best answered through a qualitative, phenomenological study that depicted the lived experiences of individuals in their own voice. The governing interest was in discovering whether aspiring African American engineers, at this stage in their professional experience, favorably viewed their choice of HBCUs versus PWIs. Participants relayed how having a sense of belonging to their institution and having a supportive network of peers and faculty influenced and shaped their outlook on life. Several of the participants spoke of being resolute in achieving their goal to become an engineer despite the challenges faced in college and in the workforce. Whether participants attended an HBCU or PWI, they felt a sense of achievement and a competence to walk into any situation and succeed. Overwhelmingly, most participants expressed they would choose their undergraduate institution again if given the opportunity. African American engineers favorably viewed their undergraduate college choice as having given them an opportunity to achieve their professional aspirations.

  6. Performing Belonging, celebrating invisibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine


    Serbian migrants living transnational lives consciously or unconsciously move between visibility and invisibility in their performance of migrant success stories. A case in point are public festivals, performed to make visible migrants’ successful inclusion in Danish society, i.e. celebrating...

  7. This belongs to you

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete


    The Reprogram series investigates the changes in museums around the world from a collection of essays, articles and lectures transcripts of some of the most influential museum thinkers of our time. It is a collaborative effort of shared content and publishing made possible by crowdfunding...

  8. Papillomavirus in yaks: the isolates of bovine papillomavirus type 1 have a high possibility of belonging to a novel type. (United States)

    Dong, Jianbao; Zhu, Wei; Haga, Takeshi


    Although papillomaviruses (PVs) have been widely reported in vertebrates, there have been only a few PV reports in yaks (Bos grunniens). In 2012, Bam et al. reported bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and BPV-2 associated with cutaneous papillomatosis in yaks, which provided genomic and pathology information for yak PVs. However, nucleotide identity and phylogenic analyses revealed that there are two isolates with a high possibility of belonging to a novel type that is not BPV-1. The argument was thought to be caused by type-specific primers. Our analysis showed that BPV-1 type-specific primers can detect not only BPV-1 but also other PVs. It suggests that identification results using type-specific primers should be confirmed with more robust methods in molecular epidemiological studies.

  9. Approximation of signals (functions belonging to the weighted W(Lp,ξ(t-class by linear operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Mittal


    Full Text Available Mittal and Rhoades (1999–2001 and Mittal et al. (2006 have initiated the studies of error estimates En(f through trigonometric Fourier approximations (TFA for the situations in which the summability matrix T does not have monotone rows. In this paper, we determine the degree of approximation of a function f˜, conjugate to a periodic function f belonging to the weighted W(Lp,ξ(t-class (p≥1, where ξ(t is nonnegative and increasing function of t by matrix operators T (without monotone rows on a conjugate series of Fourier series associated with f. Our theorem extends a recent result of Mittal et al. (2005 and a theorem of Lal and Nigam (2001 on general matrix summability. Our theorem also generalizes the results of Mittal, Singh, and Mishra (2005 and Qureshi (1981-1982 for Nörlund (Np-matrices.

  10. External environments facing community health services facilities that belong to state-owned enterprises or public services units in China. (United States)

    You, Chuanmei; Lan, Yao; Scarf, Christopher


    This article analyzes the external environments facing community health services (CHS) facilities that belong to state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and public services units (PSUs) in urban China. Semistructured and open-ended key informant interviews were conducted in six such CHS facilities in Wuhan City. A total of 45 chief directors and various other classifications of health professionals from CHS facilities participated in the interviews. Behavioral responses of local government authorities, immediate managerial agencies (SOEs and PSUs), other medical facilities, and the general public were revealed as the external influences impacting these kinds of CHS facilities. Conclusions arrived at were that these CHS facilities need sound external environments to fulfill their roles, including financial support from government and immediate agencies, professional guidance and support, appropriate referrals from other medical facilities, and the cooperation and confidence of the general public in the work of the facilities.

  11. Characterization of 17 strains belonging to the Mycobacterium simiae complex and description of Mycobacterium paraense sp. nov. (United States)

    Fusco da Costa, Ana R; Fedrizzi, Tarcisio; Lopes, Maria L; Pecorari, Monica; Oliveira da Costa, Wana L; Giacobazzi, Elisabetta; da Costa Bahia, Jeann R; De Sanctis, Veronica; Batista Lima, Karla V; Bertorelli, Roberto; Grottola, Antonella; Fabio, Anna; Mariottini, Alessandro; Ferretti, Pamela; Di Leva, Francesca; Fregni Serpini, Giulia; Tagliazucchi, Sara; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Jousson, Olivier; Segata, Nicola; Tortoli, Enrico


    Fourteen mycobacterial strains isolated from pulmonary samples of independent patients in the state of Pará (Brazil), and three strains isolated in Italy, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Thorough genetic investigation, including whole-genome sequencing, demonstrated that the strains belong to the M. simiae complex, being most closely related to Mycobacterium interjectum. For 14 of the strains, evidence emerged supporting their inclusion in a previously unreported species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium paraense sp. nov. is proposed (type strain, IEC26(T) = DSM 46749(T) = CCUG 66121(T)). The novel species is characterized by slow growth, unpigmented or pale yellow scotochromogenic colonies, and a HPLC mycolic acid profile different from other known mycobacteria. In different genetic regions, high sequence microheterogeneity was detected. © 2015 IUMS.

  12. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids]. (United States)

    Tori, Motoo


    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  13. Clinical-anthropometric characteristics of COPD outpatients belonging to the different groups and having different severity of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with COPD, which differ in the degree of airways obstruction and belong to groups A, B, C, D in accordance with GOLD, 2011 classification. A total of 112 ambulatory COPD patients in remission made the study sample. Anthropometric data, body mass index, medical history, dyspnea by mMRC scale, and spirometry was performed for all patients. There was confirmed that outpatients with COPD is a heterogeneous group, in which the majority are those with moderate (48.22 % and severe (30.36 %, airway obstruction. Despite the vast majority of men among outpatients, the percentage of women among patients with mild to moderate obstruction (22.58±5.31 % was significantly higher (p=0.002 as compared with those with severe or very severe limitation of airflow (6.00±3.36 %. Patients with severe and very severe obstruction were of significantly older age (p = 0.024. At the same time, the distribution of patients according to the GOLD, 2011 classification, demonstrate that all groups did not differ on any of the anthropometric indicators, including gender and age (p > 0.050. Distribution of patients by groups with different risk for future exacerbations is not a mirror image of gradation in accordance with the degree of airway obstruction. Every second (50.00±4.43 % of cases patient is included in group C and every tenth (10.20±4.32 % belongs to the group D not due to degree of bronchial obstruction, but due to the number of exa­cerbations in the past year. Therefore, in future studies it is advisable to use both principles of patients’ classification.

  14. Light‐dependent regulation of ascorbate in tomato by a monodehydroascorbate reductase localized in peroxisomes and the cytosol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gest, Noé; Garchery, Cécile; Gautier, Hélène; Jiménez, Ana; Stevens, Rebecca


    .... In plants, MDHAR belongs to a multigene family. Here, we report the presence of an MDHAR isoform in both the cytosol and peroxisomes and show that this enzyme negatively regulates ascorbate levels in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato...

  15. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.


    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  16. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne


    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...... affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretizisation...... and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts....

  17. Regulation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bouvet, F.


    This paper reviews the design of regulation loops for power converters. Power converter control being a vast domain, it does not aim to be exhaustive. The objective is to give a rapid overview of the main synthesis methods in both continuous- and discrete-time domains.

  18. Belonging out of Context: the Intersection of Place, Networks and Ethnic Identity among Retired British Migrants Living in the Costa Blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya AHMED


    Full Text Available Intra-European migration is now a well-documented phenomenon among older people and for UK retirees, Spain is the most popular choice. ‘Belonging’ is particularly important when attempting to understand experiences of migration since often people become aware that they need to belong precisely when they realise that they do not. However, although belonging is a recurrent theme in identity and migration discourse it is rarely defined. This paper explores the concept of belonging in relation to the experiences of a group of retired women living in the Costa Blanca in Spain and considers its multiple and overlapping representations. The myriad forms of belonging that these ‘lifestyle migrants’ construct through narrative in relation to place, networks and ethnic identity and the central intersecting role of language are considered and discussed.

  19. Living with Change Among a Transient Population: Narratives and Practices of Collective Belonging among Swedish Migrants on the Costa del Sol in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Annie Woube


    The article explores how the Swedish migrants narrate and practice collective belonging as strategies to handle life in a region characterised by a transient and circulating population on the Costa del Sol, Spain...

  20. RegulatING chromatin regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl


    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors...... on the basis of reports describing their down-regulation and mislocalization in a variety of cancer types. In addition to their regulation by transcriptional mechanisms, understanding the range of PTMs (post-translational modifications) of INGs is important in understanding how ING functions are fine...

  1. The Relationships Between Sense of Belonging to a Community GLB Youth Group; School, Teacher, and Peer Connectedness; and Depressive Symptoms: Testing of a Path Model. (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne; Schurmann, Jacqueline; Jenkins, Megan


    Research indicates belonging to a gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) support group is indirectly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, via higher levels of sense of belonging to the general community. The current study extended this research by testing a path model to determine whether school, teacher, and peer connectedness are influenced by sense of belonging to a community GLB youth group. A sample of 82 Australian GLB adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who currently attend high school completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Psychological Subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, and the Social Questionnaire for Secondary Students. Results indicated very good model fit. Higher levels of belonging to a community GLB youth group were associated with higher levels of school, teacher, and peer connectedness, but only peer connectedness was directly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher levels of school and teacher connectedness were associated with higher levels of peer connectedness. Interventions aimed at increasing belonging to a community GLB youth group may have indirect benefits for the mental health of GLB adolescents, via higher levels of school, teacher, and peer connectedness.

  2. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan


    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  3. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies: Results of a Europe-wide survey. (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner; Ilie, Mădălina; Holleran, Grainne; Salaga, Maciej; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn; Burisch, Johan


    One of the aims of the Young Talent Group (YTG) is to make United European Gastroenterology (UEG) more attractive for young fellows interested in gastroenterology, and to involve them actively in UEG activities, by collaborating with young GI sections (YGIS) across Europe. Therefore, the YTG launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support mechanisms for young trainees, and ideas on how to improve them. Overall, 24 of 29 Friends answered the survey (83%). Among the Societies surveyed, only half have a young section. Typically, YGIS are supported, but not influenced, by National Societies through several initiatives. Results of the survey suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes that a close collaboration between National Societies, UEG, and the YTG is necessary in order to offer young fellows the most productive and professionally satisfying future possible.

  4. Identification of species belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus by PCR-RFLP analysis of a hsp60 gene fragment (United States)


    Background Bifidobacterium represents one of the largest genus within the Actinobacteria, and includes at present 32 species. These species share a high sequence homology of 16S rDNA and several molecular techniques already applied to discriminate among them give ambiguous results. The slightly higher variability of the hsp60 gene sequences with respect to the 16S rRNA sequences offers better opportunities to design or develop molecular assays, allowing identification and differentiation of closely related species. hsp60 can be considered an excellent additional marker for inferring the taxonomy of the members of Bifidobacterium genus. Results This work illustrates a simple and cheap molecular tool for the identification of Bifidobacterium species. The hsp60 universal primers were used in a simple PCR procedure for the direct amplification of 590 bp of the hsp60 sequence. The in silico restriction analysis of bifidobacterial hsp60 partial sequences allowed the identification of a single endonuclease (HaeIII) able to provide different PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns in the Bifidobacterium spp. type strains evaluated. The electrophoretic analyses allowed to confirm the different RFLP patterns. Conclusions The developed PCR-RFLP technique resulted in efficient discrimination of the tested species and subspecies and allowed the construction of a dichotomous key in order to differentiate the most widely distributed Bifidobacterium species as well as the subspecies belonging to B. pseudolongum and B. animalis. PMID:23815602

  5. Psychoactive substances belonging to the amphetamine class potently activate brain carbonic anhydrase isoforms VA, VB, VII, and XII. (United States)

    Angeli, Andrea; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta; Supuran, Claudiu T


    Identifying possible new biological activities of psychoactive substances belonging to various chemical classes may lead to a better understanding of their mode of action and side effects. We report here that amines structurally related to amphetamine, a widely used psychoactive substance, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, mephentermine, and chlorphenteramine, potently activate several carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC isoforms involved in important physiological functions. Of the 11 investigated human (h) isoforms, the widespread hCA I and II, the secreted hCA VI, as well as the cytosolic hCA XIII, and membrane-bound hCA IX and XIV were poorly activated by these amines, whereas the extracellular hCA IV, the mitochondrial enzymes hCA VA/VB, the cytosolic hCA VII, and the transmembrane isoform hCA XII were potently activated. Some of these enzymes are abundant in the brain, raising the possibility that some of the cognitive effects of such psychoactive substances might be related to their activation of these enzymes.

  6. TMC and EVER genes belong to a larger novel family, the TMC gene family encoding transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutai Hideki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the transmembrane cochlear expressed gene 1 (TMC1 cause deafness in human and mouse. Mutations in two homologous genes, EVER1 and EVER2 increase the susceptibility to infection with certain human papillomaviruses resulting in high risk of skin carcinoma. Here we report that TMC1, EVER1 and EVER2 (now TMC6 and TMC8 belong to a larger novel gene family, which is named TMC for trans membrane channel-like gene family. Results Using a combination of iterative database searches and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR experiments we assembled contigs for cDNA encoding human, murine, puffer fish, and invertebrate TMC proteins. TMC proteins of individual species can be grouped into three subfamilies A, B, and C. Vertebrates have eight TMC genes. The majority of murine TMC transcripts are expressed in most organs; some transcripts, however, in particular the three subfamily A members are rare and more restrictively expressed. Conclusion The eight vertebrate TMC genes are evolutionary conserved and encode proteins that form three subfamilies. Invertebrate TMC proteins can also be categorized into these three subfamilies. All TMC genes encode transmembrane proteins with intracellular amino- and carboxyl-termini and at least eight membrane-spanning domains. We speculate that the TMC proteins constitute a novel group of ion channels, transporters, or modifiers of such.

  7. Finding 16S rRNA gene-based SNPs for the genetic traceability of commercial species belonging to Gadiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mantovani


    Full Text Available A SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism based analysis was developed to differentiate four economically important species belonging to the Gadiformes order: Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus, Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Ling Molva molva. A 430bp fragment of the 16s rRNA gene was amplified using interspecific conserved primer and sequenced. The sequences were aligned and analyzed for the presence of SNPs; three SNPs (MerSNP1, MerSNP7 and MerSNP9 were identified and selected to allow discrimination between the four species. Aplotypes were TCC, CCC, CAT and CAC for Pacific cod, Atlantic cod, Haddock and Ling respectively. Confirmation of results was achieved by sequencing 16s rRNA gene fragments of 16 G. morhua, 7 G. macrocephalus, 15 M. aeglefinus and 5 M. molva samples collected at different fish catching campaign. Nucleotide sequence of 16s rRNA mitochondial gene has been shown to be a useful tool to allow rapid reliable and fully automatable for discrimination of 4 economically important species in fisheries industry.

  8. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 polymerase complex recognizes leader promoters of other species belonging to the genus Rubulavirus. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yusuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Nishio, Machiko


    Leader sequence, located at the 3' terminus of paramyxovirus genomes, determines the degree of viral transcription and replication. The essential nucleotides in the leader sequence that influence viral propagation, however, have not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we show that polymerase complex of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) uses a luciferase-encoding hPIV2 mini-genome possessing the leader sequence from other closely related viruses as a template. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although hPIV2 polymerase complex can recognize the leader sequence of hPIV4B, mumps virus (MuV) and PIV5 as well as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), it cannot recognize measles virus, hPIV1, Sendai virus (SeV) or hPIV3. We could obtain the chimeric hPIV2 possessing the leader sequence from hPIV4B, MuV and PIV5, but not from other species, including NDV and SeV. These results reveal that although hPIV2 polymerase complex can recognize the leader sequence from rubulaviruses to achieve efficient viral infection, this does not apply to viruses belonging to other genus. A comparison of leader sequence nucleotides among paramyxoviruses highlights the importance of the conservation in the first 13 nucleotides for infectious hPIV2 growth.

  9. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae). (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K W; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S; Tan, Keng-Hong


    An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome.

  10. ‘We have nothing in common’: Rethinking community and the mechanisms of creating a sense of belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strummiello Giusi


    Full Text Available We live in an era of crisis for community and commonality. Our present experience, as noted by Derrida, is that of an aporia at the heart of belonging. Yet, it is in the very space torn apart by this aporia that we can try to conceive of a new sense of community and transform our way of thinking about being in common, which means the deconstruction of “Us” and of its enunciation. In the light of such a deconstruction, what makes for effective and powerful change in a struggle for emancipation, or in a protest for the recognition of one or more rights, when carried out by a collective movement or a group? This paper aims to answer that question, by seeking to investigate the conceptual and theoretical mechanisms that make a plural subject’s protest or claim concrete in its quest for justice and equality, in the face of a growing and likewise concrete (or real inequality.

  11. History of abuse and risky sex among substance users: The role of rejection sensitivity and the need to belong. (United States)

    Woerner, Jacqueline; Kopetz, Catalina; Lechner, William V; Lejuez, Carl


    This study investigates abuse and rejection sensitivity as important correlates of risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Victims of abuse may experience heightened sensitivity to acute social rejection and consequently engage in risky sexual behavior in an attempt to restore belonging. Data were collected from 258 patients at a substance use treatment facility in Washington, D.C. Participants' history of abuse and risky sexual behavior were assessed via self-report. To test the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, participants completed a social rejection task (Cyberball) and responded to a questionnaire assessing their reaction to the rejection experience. General risk-taking propensity was assessed using a computerized lab measure. Abuse was associated with increased rejection sensitivity (B=0.124, SE=0.040, p=0.002), which was in turn associated with increased risky sex (B=0.06, SE=0.028, p=0.03) (indirect effect=0.0075, SE=0.0043; 95% CI [0.0006, 0.0178]), but not with other indices of risk-taking. These findings suggest that rejection sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying the relationship between abuse and risky sexual behavior among substance users. These effects do not extend to other risk behaviors, supporting the notion that risky sex associated with abuse represents a means to interpersonal connection rather than a general tendency toward self-defeating behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A DEAD Box RNA Helicase Is Critical for Pre-mRNA Splicing, Cold-Responsive Gene Regulation, and Cold Tolerance in Arabidopsis[C][W (United States)

    Guan, Qingmei; Wu, Jianmin; Zhang, Yanyan; Jiang, Changhua; Liu, Renyi; Chai, Chenglin; Zhu, Jianhua


    Cold stress resulting from chilling and freezing temperatures substantially reduces crop production worldwide. To identify genes critical for cold tolerance in plants, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for deregulated expression of a firefly luciferase reporter gene under the control of the C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR2 (CBF2) promoter (CBF2:LUC). A regulator of CBF gene expression1 (rcf1-1) mutant that is hypersensitive to cold stress was chosen for in-depth characterization. RCF1 encodes a cold-inducible DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box RNA helicase. Unlike a previously reported DEAD box RNA helicase (LOW EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES4 [LOS4]) that regulates mRNA export, RCF1 does not play a role in mRNA export. Instead, RCF1 functions to maintain proper splicing of pre-mRNAs; many cold-responsive genes are mis-spliced in rcf1-1 mutant plants under cold stress. Functional characterization of four genes (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR5 [PRR5], SHAGGY-LIKE SERINE/THREONINE KINASE12 [SK12], MYB FAMILY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR CIRCADIAN1 [CIR1], and SPFH/PHB DOMAIN-CONTAINING MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN [SPFH]) that are mis-spliced in rcf1-1 revealed that these genes are cold-inducible positive (CIR1 and SPFH) and negative (PRR5 and SK12) regulators of cold-responsive genes and cold tolerance. Together, our results suggest that the cold-inducible RNA helicase RCF1 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing and is important for cold-responsive gene regulation and cold tolerance in plants. PMID:23371945

  13. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults: Findings from a prospective analysis of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). (United States)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten; Tolstrup, Janne S; Vinther, Johan L; Koyanagi, Ai; Donovan, Robert J; Koushede, Vibeke


    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program to promote mental health. However, its potential for preventing substance use disorders is unknown. Further, a literature gap is evident concerning behavioral modification strategies to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted of 3950 adults aged ≥50years. A validated scale for problem drinking was used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used as an indicator of Act, social network integration as an indicator of Belong, and frequency of participation in these social/recreational activities as an indicator of Commit. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between baseline indicators of Act-Belong-Commit and the development of problem drinking at two-year follow-up. Each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of problem drinking. Similarly, being well integrated into social networks (Belong) was negatively associated with the development of problem drinking. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) also inversely predicted the onset of problem drinking. These associations were apparent regardless of the presence of baseline common mental disorders. Act-Belong-Commit indicators are shown to be associated with a reduced risk for problem drinking. This lends further support to the Act-Belong-Commit domains and has wide-ranging implications for preventing substance use disorders in the aging community. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Stars Belong to Everyone: The rhetorical practices of astronomer and science writer Dr. Helen Sawyer Hogg (1905--1993) (United States)

    Cahill, Maria J.

    Astronomer and science writer Dr. Helen Sawyer Hogg (University of Toronto) reached a variety of audiences through different rhetorical forms. She communicated to her colleagues through her scholarly writings; she reached out to students and the public through her Toronto Star newspaper column entitled "With the Stars," which she authored for thirty years; she wrote The Stars Belong to Everyone , a book that speaks to a lay audience; she hosted a successful television series entitled Ideas ; and she delivered numerous speeches at scientific conferences, professional women's associations, school programs, libraries, and other venues. Adapting technical information for different audiences is at the heart of technical communication, and Sawyer Hogg's work exemplifies adaptation as she moves from writing for the scientific community (as in her articles on globular cluster research) to science writing for lay audiences (as in her newspaper column, book, and script for her television series). Initially she developed her sense of audience through a male perspective informed largely by her scholarly work with two men (Harlow Shapley and her husband, Frank Hogg) as well as the pervasive masculine culture of academic science. This dissertation situates Sawyer Hogg in what is slowly becoming a canon of technical communication scholarship on female scientists. Toward this end, I discuss how she rhetorically engaged two different audiences, one scholarly and one popular, how Sawyer Hogg translated male dominated scientific rhetoric to writing for the public, and how science writing helped her achieve her professional goals. Complementing the archival research in addressing the questions of this study, I employ social construction analysis (also known as the social perspective) for my research methodology. She was ahead of her time and embodied the social perspective years before its definition as a rhetorical concept. In short, my study illuminates one scientific woman's voice

  15. Sonorensin: an Antimicrobial Peptide, Belonging to the Heterocycloanthracin Subfamily of Bacteriocins, from a New Marine Isolate, Bacillus sonorensis MT93 (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Vikas


    Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized. PMID:24610839

  16. "Occupational Exposure To Xylene In Workers, Employing At Pathology Wards Of Hospitals Belonging To The Qazvin University Of Medical Sciences "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Taheri SJ


    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene are extensively used in the different environments and industries, causing adverse effects on individuals who are being exposed occupationally and environmentally to these hazardous compounds. In this study, occupational exposure to xylene in workers, employing at pathology wards of hospitals belonging to the Qazvin University of Medical Sciences have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Methyl Hiporic Acid (MHA as a main metabolite of xylene in urine was used to evaluate the workers exposure to this chemical. The urine samples were taken from all 30 workers from 4 hospitals, i.e. Kosar, Shahid Rajaei, Booali and Qods. Through this study, 30 administrative employees were also selected as control group. The direct DBA colorimetric method was used to measure MHA in the workers urine. Results: The results obtained from this study showed that, there were significant differences between MHA and working days, type of jobs, and length of exposure time. This study also showed that, there were no significant differences between urinary MHA concentration and sex, age, and smoking habit. Conclusion: Through this study, it was also clearly obtained that, xylene exposure can not affect on the total and direct serum bilirobin in the workers blood. Finally, it is worth mentioning that, although this study showed no acute exposure to xylene in hospitals pathology wards, the effect of chronic exposure to such compound cannot be ignored, therefore protecting workers against like these organic solvents are strongly recommended as their TLVs are considerably being reduced during these years

  17. A new Eastern Central Atlantic skate Raja parva sp. nov. (Rajoidei: Rajidae) belonging to the Raja miraletus species complex. (United States)

    Last, Peter R; Séret, Bernard


    An investigation of combined CO1 and NADH2 data for rajid skates referable to Raja miraletus provided evidence that populations ranging from southern Africa to the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, once considered to represent a cline, belong to a species complex consisting of at least four valid species. Raja miraletus appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, and the North-East Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay south to Morocco and Madeira. The southernmost species, referable to the resurrected Raja ocellifera, occurs off southern Africa, off Namibia and from False Bay to Durban (South Africa). Two species occur off tropical West Africa, including Raja parva sp. nov. (Senegal, Liberia and Angola but is probably more widespread within the region), and another unidentified species needing further investigation. Raja cf. miraletus, confirmed from Mauritania and Senegal, appears to be a larger skate with a broader disc, more broadly pointed snout, larger spiracles, and a slightly longer and broader tail. Raja parva sp. nov. differs from nominal members of the complex in having an unusually long procaudal tail (exceeding 22% TL), as well as a combination of other external characters. Past investigators observed morphological and anatomical differences between these forms but these were thought to be due to intraspecific variability. They postulated that an upwelling at Cape Blanco (21°N) may have isolated the Mediterranean form (R. miraletus) from Mauritania-Senegal form (now known to be two species). Similarly, the Benguela Current and upwelling off Cape Frio (18°S) were thought to be responsible for separating the Angolan form (R. parva) and South African form (R. ocellifera).

  18. Methane oxidation at 55 degrees C and pH 2 by a thermoacidophilic bacterium belonging to the Verrucomicrobia phylum. (United States)

    Islam, Tajul; Jensen, Sigmund; Reigstad, Laila Johanne; Larsen, Oivind; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre


    Methanotrophic bacteria constitute a ubiquitous group of microorganisms playing an important role in the biogeochemical carbon cycle and in control of global warming through natural reduction of methane emission. These bacteria share the unique ability of using methane as a sole carbon and energy source and have been found in a great variety of habitats. Phylogenetically, known methanotrophs constitute a rather limited group and have so far only been affiliated with the Proteobacteria. Here, we report the isolation and initial characterization of a nonproteobacterial obligately methanotrophic bacterium. The isolate, designated Kam1, was recovered from an acidic hot spring in Kamchatka, Russia, and is more thermoacidophilic than any other known methanotroph, with optimal growth at approximately 55 degrees C and pH 3.5. Kam1 is only distantly related to all previously known methanotrophs and belongs to the Verrucomicrobia lineage of evolution. Genes for methane monooxygenases, essential for initiation of methane oxidation, could not be detected by using standard primers in PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis, suggesting the presence of a different methane oxidation enzyme. Kam1 also lacks the well developed intracellular membrane systems typical for other methanotrophs. The isolate represents a previously unrecognized biological methane sink, and, due to its unusual phylogenetic affiliation, it will shed important light on the origin, evolution, and diversity of biological methane oxidation and on the adaptation of this process to extreme habitats. Furthermore, Kam1 will add to our knowledge of the metabolic traits and biogeochemical roles of the widespread but poorly understood Verrucomicrobia phylum.

  19. Towards an Understanding of Molecule Capture by the Antennae of Male Beetles Belonging to the Genus Rhipicera (Coleoptera, Rhipiceridae). (United States)

    Ramsey, Andrew; Houston, Terry F; Ball, Alexander D; Goral, Tomasz; Barclay, Maxwell V L; Cox, Jonathan P L


    Working on the hypothesis that an important function of the lamellate antennae of adult male beetles belonging to the genus Rhipicera is to detect scent associated with female conspecifics, and using field observations, anatomical models derived from X-ray microcomputed tomography, and scanning electron microscopy, we have investigated the behavioral, morphological, and morphometric factors that may influence molecule capture by these antennae. We found that male beetles fly upwind in a zigzag manner, or face upwind when perching, behavior consistent with an animal that is tracking scent. Furthermore, the ultrastructure of the male and female antennae, like their gross morphology, is sexually dimorphic, with male antennae possessing many more of a particular type of receptor-the sensillum placodeum-than their female counterparts (approximately 30,000 vs. 100 per antenna, respectively). Based on this disparity, we assume that the sensilla placodea on the male antennae are responsible for detecting scent associated with female Rhipicera beetles. Molecule capture by male antennae in their alert, fanned states is likely to be favoured by: (a) male beetles adopting prominent, upright positions on high points when searching for scent; (b) the partitioning of antennae into many small segments; (c) antennal morphometry (height, width, outline area, total surface area, leakiness, and narrow channels); (d) the location of the sensilla placodea where they are most likely to encounter odorant molecules; and (e) well dispersed sensilla placodea. The molecule-capturing ability of male Rhipicera antennae may be similar to that of the pectinate antennae of certain male moths. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Presence and mechanisms of acquired antimicrobial resistance in Belgian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates belonging to different clonal complexes. (United States)

    Mahu, M; Pasmans, F; Vranckx, K; De Pauw, N; Vande Maele, L; Vyt, Philip; Vandersmissen, Tamara; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F


    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important disease for which antimicrobial treatment still occupies an important place to control outbreaks. However, acquired antimicrobial resistance is increasingly observed in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. In this study, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of six antimicrobial compounds for 30 recent Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates were determined using a broth microdilution method. In addition, relevant regions of the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and the L3 protein encoding genes were sequenced to reveal mutations associated with acquired resistance. Finally, a phylogeny was reconstructed using minimal spanning tree analysis of multi locus sequence typing of the isolates. For lincomycin, doxycycline, tylosin and tylvalosin, at least 70% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population and were considered to have acquired resistance. For valnemulin and tiamulin, this was over 50%. In all isolates with acquired resistance to doxycycline, the G1058C mutation was present in their 16S rRNA gene. All isolates showing acquired resistance to lincomycin and both macrolides displayed the A2058T mutation in their 23S rRNA gene. Other mutations in this gene and the N148S mutation in the L3 protein were present in both wild-type isolates and isolates considered to have acquired resistance. Multi locus sequence analysis revealed a previously undescribed clonal complex, with 4 novel sequence types in which the majority of isolates showed acquired resistance to all tested antimicrobial products. In conclusion, acquired antimicrobial resistance is widespread among Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates. The emergence of multi-resistant clonal complexes can pose a threat to swine industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acinetobacter Insertion Sequence ISAba11 Belongs to a Novel Family That Encodes Transposases with a Signature HHEK Motif (United States)

    Rieck, Barbara; Tourigny, David S.; Crosatti, Marialuisa; Schmid, Ralf; Kochar, Mandira; Harrison, Ewan M.; Ou, Hong-Yu; Turton, Jane F.


    Experimental and in silico PCR analysis targeting ISAba11 and TnAbaR islands in 196 epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter strains representative of ≥19 species were performed. The first two Acinetobacter baumannii ISAba11 elements identified had been found to map to the same site on TnAbaR transposons. However, no further evidence of physical linkage between the two elements was demonstrated. Indeed, examination of 25 definite or putative insertion sites suggested limited sequence specificity. Importantly, an aacC1-tagged version of ISAba11 was shown to actively transpose in A. baumannii. Similarity searches identified nine iso-ISAba11 elements in Acinetobacter and one in Enhydrobacter and single representatives of four distant homologs in bacteria belonging to the phyla “Cyanobacteria” and Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic, sequence, and structural analyses of ISAba11 and/or its associated transposase (TnpISAba11) suggested that these elements be assigned to a new family. All five homologs encode transposases with a shared extended signature comprising 16 invariant residues within the N2, N3, and C1 regions, four of which constituted the cardinal ISAba11 family HHEK motif that is substituted for the YREK DNA binding motif conserved in the IS4 family. Additionally, ISAba11 family members were associated with either no flanking direct repeat (DR) or an ISAba11-typical 5-bp DR and possessed variable-length terminal inverted repeats that exhibited extensive intrafamily sequence identity. Given the limited pairwise identity among TnpISAba11 homologs and the observed restricted distribution of ISAba11, we propose that substantial gaps persist in the evolutionary record of ISAba11 and that this element represents a recent though potentially highly significant entrant into the A. baumannii gene pool. PMID:22081580

  2. Est10: A Novel Alkaline Esterase Isolated from Bovine Rumen Belonging to the New Family XV of Lipolytic Enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Rodríguez

    Full Text Available A metagenomic fosmid library from bovine rumen was used to identify clones with lipolytic activity. One positive clone was isolated. The gene responsible for the observed phenotype was identified by in vitro transposon mutagenesis and sequencing and was named est10. The 367 amino acids sequence harbors a signal peptide, the conserved secondary structure arrangement of alpha/beta hydrolases, and a GHSQG pentapeptide which is characteristic of esterases and lipases. Homology based 3D-modelling confirmed the conserved spatial orientation of the serine in a nucleophilic elbow. By sequence comparison, Est10 is related to hydrolases that are grouped into the non-specific Pfam family DUF3089 and to other characterized esterases that were recently classified into the new family XV of lipolytic enzymes. Est10 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified and biochemically characterized. Est10 showed maximum activity towards C4 aliphatic chains and undetectable activity towards C10 and longer chains which prompted its classification as an esterase. However, it was able to efficiently catalyze the hydrolysis of aryl esters such as methyl phenylacetate and phenyl acetate. The optimum pH of this enzyme is 9.0, which is uncommon for esterases, and it exhibits an optimal temperature at 40 °C. The activity of Est10 was inhibited by metal ions, detergents, chelating agents and additives. We have characterized an alkaline esterase produced by a still unidentified bacterium belonging to a recently proposed new family of esterases.

  3. Global investigation of composition and interaction networks in gut microbiomes of individuals belonging to diverse geographies and age-groups. (United States)

    Yadav, Deepak; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S


    Factors like ethnicity, diet and age of an individual have been hypothesized to play a role in determining the makeup of gut microbiome. In order to investigate the gut microbiome structure as well as the inter-microbial associations present therein, we have performed a comprehensive global comparative profiling of the structure (composition, relative heterogeneity and diversity) and the inter-microbial networks in the gut microbiomes of 399 individuals of eight different nationalities. The study identified certain geography-specific trends with respect to composition, intra-group heterogeneity and diversity of the gut microbiomes. Interestingly, the gut microbial association/mutual-exlusion networks were observed to exhibit several cross-geography trends. It was seen that though the composition of gut microbiomes of the American and European individuals were similar, there were distinct patterns in their microbial interaction networks. Amongst European gut-microbiomes, the co-occurrence network obtained for the Danish population was observed to be most dense. Distinct patterns were also observed within Chinese, Japanese and Indian datasets. While performing an age-wise comparison, it was observed that the microbial interactions increased with the age of individuals. Furthermore, certain bacterial groups were identified to be present only in the older age groups. The trends observed in gut microbial networks could be due to the inherent differences in the diet of individuals belonging to different nationalities. For example, the higher number of microbial associations in the Danish population as compared to the Spanish population, may be attributed to the evenly distributed diet of the later. This is in line with previously reported findings which indicate an increase in functional interdependency of microbes in individuals with higher nutritional status. To summarise, the present study identifies geography and age specific patterns in the composition as well as

  4. Peer relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction: The mediating role of self-esteem and the moderating role of the need to belong. (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Xingchao; Xie, Xiaochun; Wang, Yuhui; Lei, Li


    Background and aims Adolescent smartphone addiction has received increased attention in recent years, and peer relationship has been found to be a protective factor in adolescent smartphone. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the mediating role of self-esteem in the association between student-student relationship and smartphone addiction, and (b) the moderating role of the need to belong in the indirect relationship between student-student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction. Methods This model was examined with 768 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 16.81 years, SD = 0.73); the participants completed measurements regarding student-student relationship, self-esteem, the need to belong, and smartphone addiction. Results The correlation analyses indicated that student-student relationship was significantly negatively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction, and the need to belong was significantly positively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction. Mediation analyses revealed that self-esteem partially mediated the link between student-student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction. Moderated mediation further indicated that the mediated path was weaker for adolescents with lower levels of the need to belong. Discussion and conclusion High self-esteem could be a protective factor against smartphone addiction for adolescents with a strong need to belong as these students appeared to be at elevated risk of developing smartphone addiction.

  5. Does citizenship always further Immigrants' feeling of belonging to the host nation? A study of policies and public attitudes in 14 Western democracies. (United States)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær


    Immigrants' access to citizenship in their country of residence is increasingly debated in Western democracies. It is an underlying premise of these debates that citizenship and national belonging are closely linked, but at the same time there is considerable cross-country variation in how citizenship is approached in Western democracies. In the literature, these differences are typically understood to reflect varying degrees of openness to seeing immigrants as part of the host national community. Motivated by this observation, the article examines whether the degree to which immigrants experience greater attachment to the host nation (i.e. belonging) from having host country citizenship is affected by the host country's approach to citizenship. This question is analysed with multilevel regressions on survey and country-level data from 14 Western democracies. The findings show that citizenship is associated with increased host national belonging in countries where the host population attaches great importance to citizenship as a mark of national membership, while there is no positive association between citizenship and belonging in countries where the host population considers citizenship less important. Interestingly, citizenship policy does not have a moderating effect on the association between citizenship and national belonging. Implications for future studies of the subjective experience of citizenship are discussed.

  6. Rotavirus serotype G9 strains belonging to VP7 gene phylogenetic sequence lineage 1 may be more suitable for serotype G9 vaccine candidates than those belonging to lineage 2 or 3. (United States)

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Jones, Ronald W; Ross, Jerri; Honma, Shinjiro; Santos, Norma; Gentsch, Jon R; Kapikian, Albert Z


    A safe and effective group A rotavirus vaccine that could prevent severe diarrhea or ameliorate its symptoms in infants and young children is urgently needed in both developing and developed countries. Rotavirus VP7 serotypes G1, G2, G3, and G4 have been well established to be of epidemiologic importance worldwide. Recently, serotype G9 has emerged as the fifth globally common type of rotavirus of clinical importance. Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene of various G9 isolates has demonstrated the existence of at least three phylogenetic lineages. The goal of our study was to determine the relationship of the phylogenetic lineages to the neutralization specificity of various G9 strains. We generated eight single VP7 gene substitution reassortants, each of which bore a single VP7 gene encoding G9 specificity of one of the eight G9 strains (two lineage 1, one lineage 2 and five lineage 3 strains) and the remaining 10 genes of bovine rotavirus strain UK, and two hyperimmune guinea pig antisera to each reassortant, and we then analyzed VP7 neutralization characteristics of the eight G9 strains as well as an additional G9 strain belonging to lineage 1; the nine strains were isolated in five countries. Antisera to lineage 1 viruses neutralized lineage 2 and 3 strains to at least within eightfold of the homotypic lineage viruses. Antisera to lineage 2 virus neutralized lineage 3 viruses to at least twofold of the homotypic lineage 2 virus; however, neutralization of lineage 1 viruses was fourfold (F45 and AU32) to 16- to 64-fold (WI61) less efficient. Antisera to lineage 3 viruses neutralized the lineage 2 strain 16- to 64-fold less efficiently, the lineage 1 strains F45 and AU32 8- to 128-fold less efficiently, and WI61 (prototype G9 strain) 128- to 1024-fold less efficiently than the homotypic lineage 3 viruses. These findings may have important implications for the development of G9 rotavirus vaccine candidates, as the strain with the broadest reactivity (i.e., a prime

  7. When trying hard isn't natural: women's belonging with and motivation for male-dominated STEM fields as a function of effort expenditure concerns. (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L; Lewis, Karyn L; Hawthorne, Lauren; Hodges, Sara D


    Feeling like one exerts more effort than others may influence women's feelings of belonging with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and impede their motivation. In Study 1, women STEM graduate students perceived they exerted more effort than peers to succeed. For women, but not men, this effort expenditure perception predicted a decreased sense of belonging, which in turn decreased motivation. Study 2 tested whether the male-dominated status of a field triggers such effort expectations. We created a fictional "eco-psychology" graduate program, which when depicted as male-dominated resulted in women expecting to exert relatively more effort and decreased their interest in pursuing the field. Study 3 found emphasizing effort as expected (and normal) to achieve success elevated women's feelings of belonging and future motivation. Results suggest effort expenditure perceptions are an indicator women use to assess their fit in STEM. Implications for enhancing women's participation in STEM are discussed.

  8. Of decentralization of public power Ukrainian land that belonged to Lithuanian (XIII – the early XVII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Manuilova


    Full Text Available A comprehensive crisis in Ukraine and continued military confrontation in the Donbass demonstrated the urgent need to establish effective governance, which would imply decentralization of public power. Note that in implementing the decentralization of power in Ukraine insists the International Monetary Fund; United Nations Development Program; the transfer of authority to the field and decentralization of power in Ukraine is one of the points of the Minsk agreements and obligations of Ukraine to the EU. The article deals with the Ukrainian lands topical issue features the decentralization of public power in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century. The importance of the topic due to the need to study the historical experience of the implementation of decentralization. It was, emphasized that the success of the reforms depends largely because of the historical experience and features of the decentralization of public power in the past. Characterized by the development of local government in the Ukrainian lands was part of the Lithuanian state. The purpose of the article is to clarify the characteristics of decentralization of public authority on Ukrainian lands were part of the Lithuanian state during the XVII century XIII. To address this goal, outline decentralization of public power in the state; analyze, competence of local government in the Ukrainian lands that belonged to the Lith uanian State; determine how close to the power of the people. The level of decentralization of public power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century was high. It was, found that Lithuania had not established a centralized state. It is, noted that the Board of the nobility limited the princely power. The effect of delegated deputies from different parts of the Lithuanian statehood solutions nobility Council.Clarified the facts that confirm the existence of decentralization of public power in Lithuania: the functioning of local

  9. Molecular Characterization of Two Lysophospholipid:acyl-CoA Acyltransferases Belonging to the MBOAT Family in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Zhang

    Full Text Available In the remodeling pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC, acyl-CoA-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC acyltransferase (LPCAT catalyzes the reacylation of lysoPC. A number of genes encoding LPCATs have been cloned and characterized from several plants in recent years. Using Arabidopsis and other plant LPCAT sequences to screen the genome database of Nicotiana benthamiana, we identified two cDNAs encoding the putative tobacco LPCATs (NbLPCAT1 and NbLPCAT2. Both of them were predicted to encode a protein of 463 amino acids with high similarity to LPCATs from other plants. Protein sequence features such as the presence of at least eight putative transmembrane regions, four highly conserved signature motifs and several invariant residues indicate that NbLPCATs belong to the membrane bound O-acyltransferase family. Lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity of NbLPCATs was confirmed by testing lyso-platelet-activating factor (lysoPAF sensitivity through heterologous expression of each full-length cDNA in a yeast mutant Y02431 (lca1△ disrupted in endogenous LPCAT enzyme activity. Analysis of fatty acid profiles of phospholipids from the NbLPCAT-expressing yeast mutant Y02431 cultures supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids suggested more incorporation of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA into PC compared to yeast mutant harbouring empty vector. In vitro enzymatic assay demonstrated that NbLPCAT1had high lysoPC acyltransferase activity with a clear preference for α-linolenoyl-CoA (18:3, while NbLPCAT2 showed a high lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPA acyltransferase activity towards α-linolenoyl-CoA and a weak lysoPC acyltransferase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed a ubiquitous expression of NbLPCAT1 and NbLPCAT2 in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds, and a strong expression in developing flowers. This is the first report on the cloning and characterization of lysophospholipid

  10. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1ε subgroup. (United States)

    Wolters, Birgit; Kyselková, Martina; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Kreuzig, Robert; Smalla, Kornelia


    Manure is known to contain residues of antibiotics administered to farm animals as well as bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). These genes are often located on mobile genetic elements. In biogas plants (BGPs), organic substrates such as manure and plant material are mixed and fermented in order to provide energy, and resulting digestates are used for soil fertilization. The fate of plasmid carrying bacteria from manure during the fermentation process is unknown. The present study focused on transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from digestates of seven BGPs, using manure as a co-substrate, and their phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Plasmids conferring resistance to either tetracycline or sulfadiazine were captured by means of exogenous plasmid isolation from digestates into Pseudomonas putida KT2442 and Escherichia coli CV601 recipients, at transfer frequencies ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-7). Transconjugants (n = 101) were screened by PCR-Southern blot hybridization and real-time PCR for the presence of IncP-1, IncP-1ε, IncW, IncN, IncP-7, IncP-9, LowGC, and IncQ plasmids. While 61 plasmids remained unassigned, 40 plasmids belonged to the IncP-1ε subgroup. All these IncP-1ε plasmids were shown to harbor the genes tet(A), sul1, qacEΔ1, intI1, and integron gene cassette amplicons of different size. Further analysis of 16 representative IncP-1ε plasmids showed that they conferred six different multiple antibiotic resistance patterns and their diversity seemed to be driven by the gene cassette arrays. IncP-1ε plasmids displaying similar restriction and antibiotic resistance patterns were captured from different BGPs, suggesting that they may be typical of this environment. Our study showed that BGP digestates are a potential source of transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids, and in particular the broad host range IncP-1ε plasmids might contribute to the spread of ARGs when digestates are used as fertilizer.

  11. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1ε subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eWolters


    Full Text Available Manure is known to contain residues of antibiotics administered to farm animals as well as bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. These genes are often located on mobile genetic elements. In biogas plants (BGPs, organic substrates such as manure and plant material are mixed and fermented in order to provide energy, and resulting digestates are used for soil fertilization. The fate of plasmid carrying bacteria from manure during the fermentation process is unknown. The present study focused on transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from digestates of seven BGPs, using manure as a co-substrate, and their phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Plasmids conferring resistance to either tetracycline or sulfadiazine were captured by means of exogenous plasmid isolation from digestates into Pseudomonas putida KT2442 and Escherichia coli CV601 recipients, at transfer frequencies ranging from 10-5 to 10-7. Transconjugants (n = 101 were screened by PCR-Southern blot hybridization and real-time PCR for the presence of IncP-1, IncP-1ε, IncW, IncN, IncP-7, IncP-9, LowGC and IncQ plasmids. While 61 plasmids remained unassigned, 40 plasmids belonged to the IncP-1ε subgroup. All these IncP-1ε plasmids were shown to harbor the genes tetA, sul1, qacE∆1, intI1 and integron gene cassette amplicons of different size. Further analysis of 16 representative IncP-1ε plasmids showed that they conferred six different multiple antibiotic resistance patterns and their diversity seemed to be driven by the gene cassette arrays. IncP-1ε plasmids displaying similar restriction and antibiotic resistance patterns were captured from different BGPs, suggesting that they may be typical for this environment. Our study showed that BGP digestates are a potential source of transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids and in particular the broad host range IncP-1ε plasmids might contribute to the spread of ARGs when digestates are used as fertilizer.

  12. Hyperuniformity of initial conditions and critical decay of a diffusive epidemic process belonging to the Manna class (United States)

    Kwon, Sungchul; Kim, Jin Min


    For a fixed-energy Manna sandpile model belonging to a Manna class in one dimension (d =1 ), we recently showed that the critical decay is different for random and regular initial conditions (ICs). Compared with previous results of natural IC for several models, we suggested for the Manna class that the critical decay depends on the characteristics of the three ICs. But the dependence on the random and regular ICs was shown only for a single model. In this work, we study the critical decay for the random and regular ICs for another model of the Manna class in d =1 , a diffusive epidemic process. It is shown that the critical decay exponent agrees with the previous result for each IC, which verifies that IC dependence is a common feature of the Manna class. In addition, for the random and regular ICs, we measure the variance σ2(r ) of total particle density in a region of size r by increasing r up to system size and investigate its temporal evolution toward the value σq2(r ) of the quasisteady state at criticality. In d =1 ,σ2(r ) scales as σ2(r ) ˜r-ψ with ψ =1 for random distributions and 1 toward σq2(r ) and the regular IC becomes a hyperuniform distribution of ψ =2 in the beginning of the evolution. We estimate ψ =1.45 (3 ) for both the quasisteady state and absorbing states, so the quasisteady state is also as hyperuniform as absorbing states. The hyperuniformity of the quasisteady state shows that the natural IC also should be hyperuniform as much as the quasisteady state, because the natural IC is obtained from particle configurations close to the quasisteady state. Consequently, the different ψ of the three ICs suggest that σ2(r ) can classify the characteristics of the three ICs in a unified way and the different degree of hyperuniformity of the ICs provides another explanation for the observed IC-dependent critical decay in a point of view of initial fluctuations and correlations.

  13. Neural Representations of Hierarchical Rule Sets: the Human Control System Represents Rules Irrespective of the Hierarchical Level They Belong to. (United States)

    Pischedda, Doris; Görgen, Kai; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo


    study, we use multivariate pattern analysis to independently explore the representation of formally identical conditional rules belonging to different levels of a cognitive hierarchy, and provide, for the first time, a clear identification of low- and high-level rule representations. We found no major spatial differences between regions encoding rules from different hierarchical levels. This suggests that the human brain does not use levels in the investigated hierarchy as topographical organization principle to represent rules controlling our behavior. Our paradigm represents a promising approach to identify which principles are critical. Copyright © 2017 the authors.

  14. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults: Findings from a prospective community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos


    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program designed to promote mental health. The campaign targets individuals to engage in mentally healthy activities, while at the same time, encouraging community organizations that offer such act......-ranging implications for preventing the deterioration of mental health and cognitive decline in the aging community.......The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program designed to promote mental health. The campaign targets individuals to engage in mentally healthy activities, while at the same time, encouraging community organizations that offer...

  15. Studies on palearctic Onthophagus associated with burrows of small mammals. IV. A new Iranian species belonging to the furciceps group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Onthophagini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ziani


    Full Text Available Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus psychopompus sp. n. is described based on 75 specimens from Iran. The new species belongs to the furciceps species group, and has pholeophile habits, as the other species of the group. It appears to have a wide distribution in Iran, from 600 to 1950 m above sea level. A revised dichotomous key to the group is given.

  16. "¿Pertenezco a Esta Universidad?" The Mediating Role of Belonging for Collective Self-Esteem and Mattering for Latin@ Undergraduates (United States)

    Dueñas, Mary; Gloria, Alberta M.


    We examined differences in and relationship of psychological (collective self-esteem), social (cohesion and university belonging), and cultural (cultural congruity) dimensions of university mattering for 141 Latin@ undergraduates. Collectively the dimensions accounted for 50% of the variance, with the psychological dimension having the largest…

  17. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? : A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebauer, J.E.; Sedikides, C.; Wagner, J.; Bleidorn, W.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.


    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal

  18. The Role of Natural Environments in Developing a Sense of Belonging: A Comparative Study of Immigrants in the U.S., Poland, the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Stodolska, M.; Horolets, A.


    This paper examines the role of natural environments in the development of a sense of belonging among immigrants in host countries. The data were collected with the use of in-depth interviews with 70 Latino and Chinese immigrants in the U.S., Ukrainian and Vietnamese immigrants in Poland, Moroccan

  19. Does Citizenship Always Further Immigrants' Feeling of Belonging to the Host Nation? A Study of Policies and Public Attitudes in 14 Western Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær


    Immigrants' access to citizenship in their country of residence is increasingly debated in Western democracies. It is an underlying premise of these debates that citizenship and national belonging are closely linked, but at the same time there is considerable cross-country variation in how citize...

  20. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex (United States)

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Gennaro Pescitelli; Alessio Cimmino; Suzette Clement; Beth Peacock; Antonio Evidente


    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure (‘die-off’), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex...

  1. Implementing a Mentally Healthy Schools Framework Based on the Population Wide Act-Belong-Commit Mental Health Promotion Campaign: A Process Evaluation (United States)

    Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina


    Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…

  2. The human gut and groundwater harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging to a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria (United States)

    Di Rienzi, Sara C; Sharon, Itai; Wrighton, Kelly C; Koren, Omry; Hug, Laura A; Thomas, Brian C; Goodrich, Julia K; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Banfield, Jillian F; Ley, Ruth E


    Cyanobacteria were responsible for the oxygenation of the ancient atmosphere; however, the evolution of this phylum is enigmatic, as relatives have not been characterized. Here we use whole genome reconstruction of human fecal and subsurface aquifer metagenomic samples to obtain complete genomes for members of a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria, for which we propose the designation ‘Melainabacteria’. Metabolic analysis suggests that the ancestors to both lineages were non-photosynthetic, anaerobic, motile, and obligately fermentative. Cyanobacterial light sensing may have been facilitated by regulators present in the ancestor of these lineages. The subsurface organism has the capacity for nitrogen fixation using a nitrogenase distinct from that in Cyanobacteria, suggesting nitrogen fixation evolved separately in the two lineages. We hypothesize that Cyanobacteria split from Melainabacteria prior or due to the acquisition of oxygenic photosynthesis. Melainabacteria remained in anoxic zones and differentiated by niche adaptation, including for symbiosis in the mammalian gut. DOI: PMID:24137540

  3. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults: Findings from a prospective community-based study. (United States)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Donovan, Robert J; Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke


    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program designed to promote mental health. The campaign targets individuals to engage in mentally healthy activities, while at the same time, encouraging community organizations that offer such activities, to increase participation in their activities. Using nationally-representative data from Ireland, the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Data from two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥50years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used as an indicator of Act, social network integration as an indicator of Belong, and frequency of participation in these social/recreational activities as an indicator of Commit. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between baseline indicators of Act-Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network integration (Belong); that is, being well integrated into social networks was a significant protective factor against all mental health outcomes. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) significantly and inversely predicted the onset of depression and anxiety, while the protective effect against cognitive impairment was only marginally significant. Act-Belong-Commit indicators are shown to be protective against mental disorders and cognitive

  4. Metabolic pathways regulated by p63. (United States)

    Candi, Eleonora; Smirnov, Artem; Panatta, Emanuele; Lena, Anna Maria; Novelli, Flavia; Mancini, Mara; Viticchiè, Giuditta; Piro, Maria Cristina; Di Daniele, Nicola; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Melino, Gerry


    The transcription factor p63 belongs to the p53-family and is a master regulator of proliferative potential, lineage specification, and differentiation in epithelia during development and tissue homeostasis. In cancer, p63 contribution is isoform-specific, with both oncogenic and tumour suppressive roles attributed, for ΔNp63 and TAp63, respectively. Recently, p53 and TAp73, in line with other tumour suppressor genes, have emerged as important regulators of energy metabolism and metabolic reprogramming in cancer. To date, p63 contributions in controlling energy metabolism have been partially investigated; given the extensive interaction of the p53 family members, these studies have potential implications in tumour cells for metabolic reprogramming. Here, we review the role of p63 isoforms, TAp63 and ΔNp63, in controlling cell metabolism, focusing on their specific metabolic target genes and their physiological/functional context of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Uptake of Pb(2+ )by a cyanobacterium belonging to the genus Synechocystis, isolated from East Kolkata Wetlands. (United States)

    Roy, Sanchita; Ghosh, Amar Nath; Thakur, Ashoke Ranjan


    East Kolkata Wetlands is a conserved wetland utilizing sewage and garbage, generated by Kolkata Municipal Corporation area for cultivation purpose. Cyanobacteria are the photosynthetic prokaryotes having bioremedial capacity. We have isolated a cyanobacterium from the sewage recycling fish-pond of East Kolkata Wetlands. Partial sequence of 16S rDNA gene of the isolated strain showed 100% similarity with that of genus Synechocystis. Isolated strain and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 survived up to 300 mug ml(-1) Pb(2+ )and growth was completely inhibited at 400 mug ml(-1) Pb(2+). All experiments were carried out with 100 mug ml(-1) Pb(2+) in which growth was the maximum. 91.67% of the total Pb(2+) got adsorbed to the outer surface of the cell and 1% of the total Pb(2+) entered the cell of the isolated strain as estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry, but in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 72.72% adsorbed and 0.96% penetrated. Intracellular and periplasmic depositions of Pb(2+) were observed in both the strain. A filamentous structure developed outside the cell wall of the isolated cyanobacterium, but very little change was observed in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. ZiaR-SmtB like regulator gene was expressed in both the strains after Pb(2+) induction. The cDNA sequence of ZiaR of the isolated cyanobacterium shows 100% homology with that of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Upon Pb(2+) induction, expression of SOD gene increased. cDNA sequence of the SOD gene from the isolated strain showed 98% homology with that of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Enzymatic activity of catalase and SOD was also increased. No DNA damage was monitored upon induction with Pb(2+).

  6. Dominant petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Archipelago Sea in South-West Finland (Baltic Sea) belong to different taxonomic groups than hydrocarbon degraders in the oceans. (United States)

    Reunamo, Anna; Riemann, Lasse; Leskinen, Piia; Jørgensen, Kirsten S


    The natural petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capacity of the Archipelago Sea water in S-W Finland was studied in a microcosm experiment. Pristine and previously oil exposed sites were examined. Bacterial community fingerprinting was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and samples from selected microcosms were sequenced. The abundance of PAH degradation genes was measured by quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities in diesel exposed microcosms diverged from control microcosms during the experiment. Gram positive PAH degradation genes dominated at both sites in situ, whereas gram negative PAH degrading genes became enriched in diesel microcosms. The dominant bacterial groups after a 14 days of diesel exposure were different depending on the sampling site, belonging to the class Actinobacteria (32%) at a pristine site and Betaproteobacteria (52%) at a previously oil exposed site. The hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the Baltic Sea differ from those in the oceans, where most hydrocarbon degraders belong to Gammaproteobacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The draft genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CCBH4851, a nosocomial isolate belonging to clone SP (ST277 that is prevalent in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melise Silveira


    Full Text Available The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR microorganisms is considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions including 60 RNAs.

  8. Interaction study of three overlapping synthetic peptides belonging to E2 protein of GBV-C/HGV with liposomes as biomembrane models (United States)

    Rojo, N.; Muñoz, M.; Pujol, M.; Alsina, M. A.; Haro, I.


    In this work we studied by DSC the interaction of three antigenic overlapping peptides belonging to the E2 envelope protein of Hepatitis G virus, namely E2(39-53), E2(32-53) and E2(26-53), with liposomes of different lipid composition (DPPC, DMPC and DMPG) as biomembrane models. The effect of the three selected peptides on the thermotropic behaviour of lipid bilayers has been evaluated.

  9. The effects of playing Nintendo Wii on depression, sense of belonging and social support in Australian aged care residents: a protocol study of a mixed methods intervention trial


    Chesler, Jessica; McLaren, Suzanne; Klein, Britt; Watson, Shaun


    Background The proportion of people aged 65 or older is the fastest growing age group worldwide. Older adults in aged care facilities have higher levels of depression, and lower levels of social support and sense of belonging compared with older adults living in the community. Research has begun to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the mental health of residents and has found both cognitive and physical benefits of video game playing. The benefits of playing these games in ...

  10. [Identification of the party responsible for restoring the water quality according to the German Potable Water Act in buildings belonging to a semiautonomous condominium community]. (United States)

    Hecker, R M


    When drinking water contaminations occur in installations belonging to a semiautonomous condominium community (Wohnungseigentumsgemeinschaft) and the water installation's final paths being owned by the various condominium owners, the German legal definition of the party responsible has a broad reach. Therefore, authorities should address the condominium community, the condominium owners and the community administrator (WEG-Verwalter). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem. (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Wagner, Jenny; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D


    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal belonging. The getting-ahead perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of getting ahead in the social world, while regarding low anxiety/neuroticism as a sociometer of getting along with others. The 3 perspectives make contrasting predictions on the relation between the Big Five personality traits and self-esteem across cultures. We tested these predictions in a self-report study (2,718,838 participants from 106 countries) and an informant-report study (837,655 informants from 64 countries). We obtained some evidence for cultural norm fulfillment, but the effect size was small. Hence, this perspective does not satisfactorily account for self-esteem's function. We found a strong relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem, but no such relation between Agreeableness and self-esteem. These 2 traits are pillars of interpersonal belonging. Hence, the results do not fit the interpersonal-belonging perspective either. However, the results closely fit the getting-ahead perspective. The relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem is consistent with this perspective, because Extraversion is the Big Five driver for getting ahead in the social world. The relation between Agreeableness and lower neuroticism is also consistent with this perspective, because Agreeableness is the Big Five driver for getting along with others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Drinking to Fit in: Examining the Need to Belong as a Moderator of Perceptions of Best Friends? Alcohol Use and Related Risk Cognitions Among College Students


    Litt, Dana M.; Stock, Michelle L.; Lewis, Melissa A.


    The primary objective of the present study was to examine whether the need to belong moderates the relation between perceived descriptive norms for best friend alcohol use and alcohol-related cognitions outlined in the Prototype Willingness model (i.e., willingness, attitudes, and prototype favorability) among college students. Three hundred forty-six college students (197 female) completed the survey. Regression results indicated that the effect of perceptions of best friend alcohol use on r...

  13. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species ? further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis


    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan,Keng-Hong


    Abstract Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world?s most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens , Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis . The latter species have been recently synonymise...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Salinivibrio proteolyticus, Salinivibrio sharmensis, Salinivibrio siamensis, Salinivibrio costicola subsp. alcaliphilus, Salinivibrio costicola subsp. vallismortis, and 29 New Isolates Belonging to the Genus Salinivibrio. (United States)

    López-Hermoso, Clara; de la Haba, Rafael R; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Bayliss, Sion C; Feil, Edward J; Ventosa, Antonio


    The draft genome sequences of 5 type strains of species of the halophilic genus Salinivibrio and 29 new isolates from different hypersaline habitats belonging to the genus Salinivibrio have been determined. The genomes have 3,123,148 to 3,641,359 bp, a G+C content of 49.2 to 50.9%, and 2,898 to 3,404 open reading frames (ORFs). Copyright © 2017 López-Hermoso et al.

  15. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Sense of Class and School Belonging for Majors in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Disciplines (United States)

    Hogue, Barbara A.

    Research into women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has become a topic of interest due to the increasing need for employees with technical expertise and a shortage of individuals to fill STEM jobs. The discrepancy in women's representation between STEM and other fields cannot adequately be explained by factors such as women's need to balance work and family (medicine and law are both extremely demanding careers), women's fear of competition (admissions into medical and law schools are highly competitive), or women's inability to excel in science (e.g., entry into medicine requires excellent achievement in the basic sciences). The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role and/or impact a sense of belonging has inside and outside of STEM classrooms. Research questions focused on the role and/or impact of belonging contributes to students' self-efficacy beliefs as a STEM major. Bandura's self-efficacy theory serves as the theoretical framework. Data sources include close-ended surveys of 200 sophomore- and junior-level college students majoring in a STEM discipline. A quantitative exploratory approach allowed participants' responses to be analyzed using both correlation and multiple regression analyses to understand whether a student's sense of belonging is associated with his or her self-efficacy beliefs. Findings suggested that positive support systems impact students' self-efficacy and play a role in fostering students' motivation and decision to major in STEM disciplines. This study contributes to positive social change by providing empirical evidence faculty and administrators may use to promote university-based STEM support programs reflecting the impact belonging has on students' self-efficacy and potentially increasing the number of students majoring in STEM disciplines.

  16. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe?A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice


    Stefanie Doebler


    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativityacross 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing...

  17. In vitro antifungal activity against Candida species of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal potential of different grades of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea [orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1] belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high. Methods: Antifungal activity was assessed in vitro using methanolic extracts (300 µg/disc and agar disc diffusion bioassay technique against three Candida species, Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida glabrata (C. glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. ketoconazole and itraconazole mixture was used as positive control (10 µg/disc and methanol was used as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were also determined using standard protocols. Results: None of the extracts were effective against Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, orange pekoe grade tea belonging to all agro-climatic elevations did not induce any antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata as well. Conversely, Dust No. 1 belonging to all three agro-climatic elevations and low-grown BOPF showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Interestingly, the severity of the antifungal effect varied with agroclimatic elevations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 64.00–128.00 µg/mL against C. glabrata and 128.00-256.00 µg/mL against C. albicans. Conclusions: Sri Lankan Dust No. 1 and BOPF have marked antifungal activity in vitro and offer promise to be used as a supplementary beverage in prophylaxis and during drug treatment in candidiasis.

  18. Development of X-ray Fluorescence Quantitative Methodologies To Analyze Aqueous and Acid Extracts from Building Materials Belonging to Cultural Heritage. (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Madariaga, Juan Manuel


    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF) is widely used in art and cultural heritage for direct measurements and elemental quantification of solid samples. However, in the literature there are not works dealing with the quantitative application of ED-XRF to liquid extracts coming from samples belonging to cultural heritage. In this work, a novel methodology based on the use of ED-XRF spectrometry after thin film deposition on special sample retainers and a subsequent evaporation was developed to quantify light elements (Z ≤ 20) in aqueous extracts and heavy elements (Z > 20) in acid extracts, coming from materials and degradation products belonging to built heritage (mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations). For this purpose, special sample retainers were used instead of more common adsorbent filter papers. Three different ED-XRF calibration methodologies were designed as elemental quantification tools and "green chemistry" alternatives to conventional techniques. On the one hand, the developed external ED-XRF calibration methodology for elements with Z ≤ 20 was proposed as an alternative to ion chromatography to obtain information about the degradation processes that the building materials suffered. On the other hand, the external ED-XRF calibration for elements with Z > 20 in acid extracts was optimized as a faster and cleaner quantification alternative to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Finally, with the aim to reduce the matrix effect and to improve the quantitative results for elements with Z > 20 in acid extracts, a novel ED-XRF calibration methodology based on standard additions was successfully designed and applied to real samples belonging to built heritage.

  19. Investigation of class 1 integrons in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical and microbiota isolates belonging to different phylogenetic groups in Recife, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Maria Silva Lima


    Full Text Available Introduction The high prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is related to the ability of K. pneumoniae to acquire and disseminate exogenous genes associated with mobile elements, such as R plasmids, transposons and integrons. This study investigated the presence of class 1 integrons in clinical and microbiota isolates of K. pneumoniae belonging to different phylogenetic groups and correlated these results with the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the studied isolates. Methods Of the 51 isolates of K. pneumoniae selected for this study, 29 were from multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, and 22 were from children's microbiota. The susceptibility profile was determined using the disk diffusion method, and class 1 integrons were detected through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results The results showed that none of the 22 microbiota isolates carried class 1 integrons. Among the 29 clinical isolates, 19 (65.5% contained class 1 integrons, and resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was identified in 18 of these isolates (94.7%. Among the K. pneumoniae isolates with class 1 integrons, 47% belonged to the KpI phylogenetic group, and one isolate (14.3% carrying these genetic elements belonged to the KpIII group. Conclusions The wide variety of detected class 1 integrons supports the presence of high rates of antimicrobial resistance, genetic variability, and rapid dissemination of beta-lactamase genes among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates in recent years in hospitals in Recife-PE, Brazil. The findings of this study indicate that the surveillance of K. pneumoniae integrons in clinical isolates could be useful for monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the hospital environment.

  20. Trigonometric Approximation of Signals (Functions Belonging to W(Lr, ξ(t Class by Matrix (C1·Np Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uaday Singh


    class by general summability matrix, which generalize some of the results of Chandra (2002 and results of Leindler (2005, respectively. In this paper, we determine the degree of approximation of functions belonging to Lip α and W(Lr, ξ(t classes by using Cesáro-Nörlund (C1·Np summability without monotonicity condition on {pn}, which in turn generalizes the results of Lal (2009. We also note some errors appearing in the paper of Lal (2009 and rectify them in the light of observations of Rhoades et al. (2011.

  1. Regulating through leverage: Civil regulation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürst, K.


    The overarching goal of this study is to examine the efforts of Chinese NGOs to prevent and/or control industrial pollution risks and then use the findings of this research to study the nature of civil regulation in, and beyond, China’s authoritarian setting. It first argues that 'regulation through

  2. Individual differences in in-person and social media television coviewing: the role of emotional contagion, need to belong, and coviewing orientation. (United States)

    Cohen, Elizabeth L; Lancaster, Alexander L


    The popularity of social media television coviewing is growing, but little is known about why people engage in these connected viewing experiences or how they differ from in-person coviewing. This study investigated how engaging in in-person and social media coviewing is predicted by individual differences: emotional contagion, need to belong, and three dimensions of a coviewing orientation scale created for this research (need for company, need for solitude, and audience monitoring). On Amazon Mechanical Turk, 451 people were recruited for an online survey. The mean age was 34.64 years (SD=13.16 years), and 52% of the sample was female. Emotional contagion predicted in-person coviewing only. Need to belong predicted several mediated co-viewing activities. Need for solitude negatively predicted in-person coviewing, but need for company positively predicted in-person coviewing. Results indicate that viewers have different motivations for engaging in various coviewing activities. Findings also suggest that social media coviewing can provide valuable opportunities for social connection among viewers who watch television in physical solitude.

  3. The love and belonging healthcare needs of HIV infected African-American men upon admission to an AIDS dedicated nursing home. (United States)

    Fields, Sheldon D; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet


    The purpose of this study was to describe the love and belonging healthcare needs of HIV infected African-American men upon admission to an AIDS dedicated nursing home. Subjects were 73 (N=73) African-American men 26 to 60 years of age that were admitted to an AIDS dedicated nursing home in the Southern New England area between 1995 and 1999. Most of the men were single (n = 39) and estranged from their immediate families. Many of these men did not have a family member supportive of discharge (n = 60) and did not desire discharge back out into the community (n = 40). A significant number of these men reported having children (n = 40). It has been noted that unmet love and belonging needs lead to a sense of loneliness and isolation. Therefore, it is imperative that nurses strive to attend to these psychosocial needs in the same manner as they do the physical needs of clients entrusted to their care. The African-American men in this study found a sense of family in the AIDS dedicated nursing home making it potentially a valuable source of needed social support.

  4. Preschool social exclusion, aggression, and cooperation: a longitudinal evaluation of the need-to-belong and the social-reconnection hypotheses. (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars


    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion fosters aggression, whereas the social-reconnection hypothesis suggests that social exclusion promotes motivation to behave cooperatively. To date, empirical investigations of these contrasting views have focused on the immediate effects of social exclusion, yielding mixed results. Here we examine longer term effects of preschool social exclusion on children's functioning 2 years later. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, aggression and cooperation by parents. Cross-lagged analyses showed that greater social exclusion at age 4 predicted more aggression and less cooperation at age 6, providing support for the need-to-belong rather than social-reconnection hypothesis. Secondary analyses showed that social exclusion predicted more aggression only among children scoring above mean on aggression at age 4, indicating that aggressive behavior is amplified by social exclusion among children already behaving aggressively. No gender differences were found. Implications and limitations are discussed in a developmental context. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Combinatorial Gene Regulation Using Auto-Regulation (United States)

    Hermsen, Rutger; Ursem, Bas; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein


    As many as 59% of the transcription factors in Escherichia coli regulate the transcription rate of their own genes. This suggests that auto-regulation has one or more important functions. Here, one possible function is studied. Often the transcription rate of an auto-regulator is also controlled by additional transcription factors. In these cases, the way the expression of the auto-regulator responds to changes in the concentrations of the “input” regulators (the response function) is obviously affected by the auto-regulation. We suggest that, conversely, auto-regulation may be used to optimize this response function. To test this hypothesis, we use an evolutionary algorithm and a chemical–physical model of transcription regulation to design model cis-regulatory constructs with predefined response functions. In these simulations, auto-regulation can evolve if this provides a functional benefit. When selecting for a series of elementary response functions—Boolean logic gates and linear responses—the cis-regulatory regions resulting from the simulations indeed often exploit auto-regulation. Surprisingly, the resulting constructs use auto-activation rather than auto-repression. Several design principles show up repeatedly in the simulation results. They demonstrate how auto-activation can be used to generate sharp, switch-like activation and repression circuits and how linearly decreasing response functions can be obtained. Auto-repression, on the other hand, resulted only when a high response speed or a suppression of intrinsic noise was also selected for. The results suggest that, while auto-repression may primarily be valuable to improve the dynamical properties of regulatory circuits, auto-activation is likely to evolve even when selection acts on the shape of response function only. PMID:20548950

  6. Sense of belonging / Tõnu Naelapea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naelapea, Tõnu, 1962-


    Väliseestlastest ja nende kokkukuuluvustundest Eestiga. Artiklis on tsiteeritud president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnet kodakondsustunnistuste kätteandmisel 28. mail 2009 Tallinnas Kumu kunstimuuseumis

  7. Does Halloween Belong in School? (United States)

    Drevitch, Gary


    For many teachers, trying to organize a Halloween celebration has become more of a trick than a treat. Some religious groups protest the observance of what they consider a pagan celebration and administrators fret about maintaining security during events that are, by definition, wild. Even educators complain that class time devoted to candy corn…

  8. DRUMBEAT: In Search of Belonging (United States)

    Faulkner, Simon


    DRUMBEAT is a flexible program that combines experiential learning with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, and engages young people and adults who may be anxious or resistant to "talk based" therapies. The DRUMBEAT program is taught to young people and adults across Australia in schools, youth services, drug and alcohol rehabilitation…

  9. To belong to the living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Nebeling


    Med udgangspunkt i Lee Edelmans polemiske argumentation imod reproduktiv futurisme og Sara Ahmeds fokus på queer attachments analyserer og diskuterer artiklen queer slægtskab, som det fremstilles i den amerikanske spillefilm The Kids Are All Right. Der argumenteres for, at børnenes heteronormative...... temporale udvikling i filmen gør et queer slægtskab heteronormativt genkendeligt, mens der samtidigt udkæmpes en brutal forhandling om maskulinitet, slægtskab og queerhed af sæddonoren Paul og moren Nic. Afsluttende diskuteres begrebet reproduktiv futurisme med udgangspunkt i José Estaban Muñoz’ kritik af...

  10. Territorial stigmatization and local belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Christensen, Ann-Dorte


    Loïc Wacquant has made a widely read and debated contribution to critical research on contemporary urban marginality. A central part of the theoretical framework is that residents of deprived areas internalize territorial stigmatization, which then has a range of negative effects. Based on empiri...

  11. Not Even Believing in Belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    This essay-Collection reprints earlier publications and thereby provide an overview of international literature within law & religion. This is the only Nordic contribution in the collection......This essay-Collection reprints earlier publications and thereby provide an overview of international literature within law & religion. This is the only Nordic contribution in the collection...

  12. Regulating fisheries under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank


    Regulator uncertainty is decisive for whether price or quantity regulation maximizes welfare in fisheries. In this paper, we develop a model of fisheries regulation that includes ecological uncertainly, variable economic uncertainty as well as structural economic uncertainty. We aggregate...... qualification of the pro-price regulation message dominating the fisheries economics literature. We also believe that the model of a fishery developed in this paper could be applied to the regulation of other renewable resources where regulators are subject to uncertainty either directly or with some...

  13. Interpersonal instrumental emotion regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netzer, L.; Van Kleef, G.A.; Tamir, M.


    What motivates people to regulate the emotions of others? Prior research has shown that people are motivated to regulate the emotions of others to make others feel better. This investigation, however, was designed to test whether people are also motivated to regulate the emotions of others to

  14. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den


    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice

  15. From soil to structure, a novel dimeric β-glucosidase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 3 isolated from compost using metagenomic analysis. (United States)

    McAndrew, Ryan P; Park, Joshua I; Heins, Richard A; Reindl, Wolfgang; Friedland, Gregory D; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Northen, Trent; Sale, Kenneth L; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D


    A recent metagenomic analysis sequenced a switchgrass-adapted compost community to identify enzymes from microorganisms that were specifically adapted to switchgrass under thermophilic conditions. These enzymes are being examined as part of the pretreatment process for the production of "second-generation" biofuels. Among the enzymes discovered was JMB19063, a novel three-domain β-glucosidase that belongs to the GH3 (glycoside hydrolase 3) family. Here, we report the structure of JMB19063 in complex with glucose and the catalytic variant D261N crystallized in the presence of cellopentaose. JMB19063 is first structure of a dimeric member of the GH3 family, and we demonstrate that dimerization is required for catalytic activity. Arg-587 and Phe-598 from the C-terminal domain of the opposing monomer are shown to interact with bound ligands in the D261N structure. Enzyme assays confirmed that these residues are absolutely essential for full catalytic activity.

  16. Degree of approximation of functions belonging to Lipα class and weighted (Lr,ξ(t class by product summability method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Krishna Nigam


    Full Text Available A good amount of work has been done on degree of approximation of functions belonging to Lipα, Lip(α,r, Lip(ξ(t,r and W(Lr, ξ(t classes using Cesàro and (generalized Nörlund single summability methods by a number of researchers like Alexits, Sahney, Goel, Qureshi, Neha, Chandra, Khan, Leindler and Rhoades. But till now no work seems to have been done so far in the direction of present work. Therefore, in present paper, two quite new results on degree of approximation of functions f∈ Lipα and f∈ W(Lr,ξ(t class by (E,1(C,1 product summability means of Fourier series have been obtained.

  17. HP0902 from Helicobacter pylori is a thermostable, dimeric protein belonging to an all-beta topology of the cupin superfamily. (United States)

    Sim, Dae-Won; Lee, Yoo-Sup; Kim, Ji-Hun; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Bong-Jin; Won, Hyung-Sik


    Here, we report the first biochemical and structural characterization of the hypothetical protein HP0902 from Helicobacter pylori, in terms of structural genomics. Gel-permeation chromatography and dynamic light scattering indicated that the protein behaves as a dimer in solution. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that HP0902 primarily adopts a beta-structure and the protein was highly thermostable with a denaturing temperature higher than 70 degrees C. Finally, the backbone NMR assignments were obtained on the [(13)C,(15)N]HP0902 and the secondary structure was determined using the chemical shift data. Additionally, the local flexibility was assessed via a heteronuclear (1)H-(15)N steady state NOE experiment. The results revealed that HP0902 would adopt a compactly folded, all-beta topology with 11 beta-strands. All of the results clearly support the notion that HP0902 belongs to the cupin superfamily of proteins.

  18. Salmonella enterica Serotype Napoli is the First Cause of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis in Lombardy, Italy (2010-2014), and Belongs to Typhi Subclade. (United States)

    Huedo, Pol; Gori, Maria; Zolin, Anna; Amato, Ettore; Ciceri, Giulia; Bossi, Anna; Pontello, Mirella


    Salmonella enterica serotype Napoli (S. Napoli) is currently emerging in Europe and particularly in Italy, where in 2014 it caused a large outbreak associated with elevated rates of bacteremia. However, no study has yet investigated its invasive ability and phylogenetic classification. Here, we show that between 2010 and 2014, S. Napoli was the first cause of invasive salmonellosis affecting 40 cases out of 687 (invasive index: 5.8%), which is significantly higher than the invasive index of all the other nontyphoidal serotypes (2.0%, p < 0.05). Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an invasive isolate revealed that S. Napoli belongs to Typhi subclade in clade A, Paratyphi A being the most related serotype and carrying almost identical pattern of typhoid-associated genes. This work presents evidence of invasive capacity of S. Napoli and argues for reconsideration of its nontyphoidal category.

  19. Fore limb bones of late Pleistocene dwarf hippopotamuses (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla from Madagascar previously determined as belonging to the crocodylid Voay Brochu, 2007

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    O. Hampe


    Full Text Available A humerus and two radii of juvenile dwarf hippopotamuses are redescribed. The subfossil bones from the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin were erroneously assigned to the horned crocodile Voay robustus (Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872 by Bickelmann & Klein (2009. All three limb bones presented here belong to immature animals. The epiphyses are not fused, except the proximal extremity of the right radius; and the radius and ulna are also unfused. The two radii are from individuals of different size, whereas the left radius and the humerus are from animals of similar size. Morphologically, the limb bones cannot be identified to species level. A tentative assignment to Hippopotamus madagascariensis is discussed based on the knowledge of the geographic origin on the island. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000003

  20. X-ray structures of two proteins belonging to Pfam DUF178 revealed unexpected structural similarity to the DUF191 Pfam family

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    Burley Stephen K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pfam is a comprehensive collection of protein domains and families, with a range of well-established information including genome annotation. Pfam has two large series of functionally uncharacterized families, known as Domains of Unknown Function (DUFs and Uncharacterized Protein Families (UPFs. Results Crystal structures of two proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans and Streptomyces coelicolor belonging to Pfam protein family DUF178 (ID: PF02621 have been determined using Selenium-Single-wavelength Anomalous Dispersion (Se-SAD. Based on the structure, we have identified the putative function for this family of protein. Conclusion Unexpectedly, we found that DUF178 Pfam is remarkably similar to Pfam family DUF191 suggesting that the sequence-based classification alone may not be sufficient to classify proteins into Pfam families.

  1. Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong


    Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla I. Rogova


    Full Text Available The article is focused on analyzing the state and prospects of forming a branch segment of psychological, pedagogical and educational issues in the information space of Ukraine, and the participation of the network of educational libraries belonging to the MES of Ukraine and the NAPS of Ukraine in this procedure. The author of the article elucidates the basic notions of forming a capacious information space by the state libraries of Ukraine, viz.: information space, integration, corporatism, cooperation, an integrated branch information resource (IBIR. The efficient instruments of innovative library activities are defined, first of all as far as the creation of electronic resources is concerned. The researcher also highlights the results of scientific work at V. Sukhomlynskyi State Scientific and Pedagogical Library of Ukraine as to the formation of IBIR together with the leading libraries of the network at present stage. The perspective activities of the above-mentioned libraries in this direction are defined for the future.

  3. Northern and Southern Somali on the outskirts of Aarhus – a linguistic ethnographic analysis of language and belonging across time and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Line Møller

    In this paper, I present a linguistic ethnographic analysis of how children make meaning of language and belonging across time and space. The empirical starting point is ‘mother tongue teaching’ in Somali in a primary school on the outskirts of Aarhus, Denmark. ‘Mother tongue teaching......’ is the official Danish term for teaching of languages such as Somali or Arabic, taking place within public primary and lower secondary schools and targeted at pupils believed to have these languages as their ’mother tongue’. At the same time a profoundly national construction and an inherently transnational...... phenomenon, mother tongue teaching provides a privileged site for the exploration of multilingual children’s investment in languages, places and national identities.In the linguistic ethnographic analysis presented in the paper, I draw on Laursen and Mogensen’s conceptualization of ‘timespacing competence...

  4. Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma belongs to the nongerminal center B-cell-like subgroup: A study of 18 cases. (United States)

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A; Hattab, Eyas M; Tarawneh, Musleh S; Amr, Samir S; Orazi, Attilio; Ulbright, Thomas M


    The most common type of primary testicular lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell type, which has the potential for aggressive clinical behavior. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can be further subclassified into two major prognostic categories: germinal center B-cell-like and nongerminal center B-cell-like. Such distinction is made possible using the immunohistochemical expression of CD10, Bcl-6 and MUM1. The aim of this study was to stratify primary testicular lymphoma of the diffuse large B-cell type according to this scheme. Immunohistochemical stains for CD10, Bcl-6 and MUM1 were performed on 18 cases of primary testicular lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type. Subclassification was carried out as previously described where CD10 and/or Bcl-6 positivity and negativity for MUM1 were considered indicative of germinal center B-cell-like type and the opposite expression as nongerminal center B-cell-like type. The proliferative activity was determined using immunostaining with the Ki-67 antibody. Of 18 cases, 16 (89%) were found to belong to the nongerminal center B-cell-like type. Two cases (11%) were classified as germinal center B-cell-like type; one had a CD10-positive, Bcl-6-positive and MUM1-negative profile, and the other was CD10 negative, Bcl-6 positive and MUM1 negative. The former occurred in a 38-year-old patient who was human immunodeficiency virus positive. All the cases expressed high proliferative activity (> or =50% Ki-67 labeling). We conclude that most (89%) primary testicular lymphomas of the diffuse large B-cell type belong to the nongerminal center B-cell-like subgroup and have high proliferative activity.

  5. Structural insights into the substrate specificity and function of Escherichia coli K12 YgjK, a glucosidase belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 63. (United States)

    Kurakata, Yuma; Uechi, Akiko; Yoshida, Hiromi; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sakano, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi


    Proteins belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 63 (GH63) are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Eukaryotic GH63 proteins are processing *-glucosidase I enzymes that hydrolyze an oligosaccharide precursor of eukaryotic N-linked glycoproteins. In contrast, the functions of the bacterial and archaeal GH63 proteins are unclear. Here we determined the crystal structure of a bacterial GH63 enzyme, Escherichia coli K12 YgjK, at 1.78 A resolution and investigated some properties of the enzyme. YgjK consists of the N-domain and the A-domain, joined by a linker region. The N-domain is composed of 18 antiparallel beta-strands and is classified as a super-beta-sandwich. The A-domain contains 16 *-helices, 12 of which form an (*/*)(6)-barrel; the remaining 4 *-helices are found in an extra structural unit that we designated as the A'-region. YgjK, a member of the glycoside hydrolase clan GH-G, shares structural similarity with glucoamylase (GH15) and chitobiose phosphorylase (GH94) [corrected] both of which belong to clan GH-L or GH-L-like [corrected] In crystal structures of YgjK in complex with glucose, mannose, and galactose, all of the glucose, mannose, and galactose units were located in the catalytic cleft. YgjK showed the highest activity for the *-1,3-glucosidic linkage of nigerose, but also hydrolyzed trehalose, kojibiose, and maltooligosaccharides from maltose to maltoheptaose, although the activities were low. These findings suggest that YgjK is a glucosidase with relaxed specificity for sugars.

  6. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species – further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong


    Abstract Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world’s most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species’ positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males’ sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. PMID:26798265

  7. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species - further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis. (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K W; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong


    Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world's most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species' positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males' sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis.

  8. The Growth of Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov., a Novel Agar-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Soil, is Enhanced by the Diffusible Metabolites Produced by Bacteria Belonging to Rhizobiales (United States)

    Sakai, Masao; Hosoda, Akifumi; Ogura, Kenjiro; Ikenaga, Makoto


    An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from soil collected in a vegetable cropping field. The growth of this isolate was enhanced by supplying culture supernatants of bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the novel bacterium, strain KA5–BT, belonged to the genus Steroidobacter in Gammaproteobacteria, but differed from its closest relative, Steroidobacter denitrificans FST, at the species level with 96.5% similarity. Strain KA5–BT was strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, and had a straight to slightly curved rod shape. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase activities were positive. The strain grew on media containing culture supernatants in a temperature range of 15–37°C and between pH 4.5 and 9.0, with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and pH 6.0–8.0. No growth occurred at 10 or 42°C or at NaCl concentrations more than 3% (w/v). The main cellular fatty acids were iso–C15:0, C16:1ω7c, and iso–C17:1ω9c. The main quinone was ubiquinone-8 and DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%. In contrast, strain FST was motile, did not grow on the agar plate, and its dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 and C17:1ω8c. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KA5–BT (JCM 18477T = KCTC 32107T) represents a novel species in genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24621511

  9. Seroprevalence of Sandfly-Borne Phleboviruses Belonging to Three Serocomplexes (Sandfly fever Naples, Sandfly fever Sicilian and Salehabad in Dogs from Greece and Cyprus Using Neutralization Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaf Alwassouf


    Full Text Available Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV, Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV, Arbia virus, and Adana virus i.e. four viruses belonging to the 3 sandfly-borne serocomplexes known to circulate actively in the Mediterranean area. Our results showed that (i SFSV is highly prevalent with 71.9% (50.7-84.9% depending on the region in Greece and 60.2% (40.0-72.6% in Cyprus; (ii TOSV ranked second with 4.4% (0-15.4% in Greece and 8.4% (0-11.4% in Cyprus; (iii Salehabad viruses (Arbia and Adana displayed also substantial prevalence rates in both countries with values ranging from 0-22.6% depending on the region and on the virus strain used in the test. These results demonstrate that circulation of viruses transmitted by sand flies can be estimated qualitatively using dog sera. As reported in other regions of the Mediterranean, these results indicate that it is time to shift these viruses from the "neglected" status to the "priority" status in order to stimulate studies aiming at defining and quantifying their medical and veterinary importance and possible public health impact. Specifically, viruses belonging to the Sandfly fever Sicilian complex should be given careful consideration. This calls for implementation of direct and indirect diagnosis in National reference centers and in hospital microbiology laboratories and systematic testing of unelucidated febrile illness and central and peripheral nervous system febrile

  10. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Related Genes in E. coli Strains Belonging to B2 Phylogroup Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Combination with Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes

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    Hamid Staji


    Full Text Available Background:  This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of EHEC virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup implicated in Urinary tract infections in Semnan, Iran.Methods:   From 240 urine samples 160 E. coli strains were isolated, biochemically. Then, E. coli isolates were examined by Multiplex-PCR for phylogenetic typing and detection of virulence genes (hly, stx1, stx2, eae associated with Enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Finally, Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates were characterized using Disk Diffusion method.  Results:  From 160 E. coli isolates, 75 strains (47% were assigned to B2 phylogenetic group and prevalence of virulence genes were as follow: hly (21.3%, stx1 (16%, stx2 (10.6% and eae (6.7%, subsequently.  Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of B2 isolates showed that all isolates were sensitive to Meropenem and Furazolidone and then highest frequency of resistance was observed to Streptomycin, Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Nalidixic acid and Ampicillin (98.7% to 49.3%. Also low resistance prevalence was observed in case of Ceftizoxime, Lincospectin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and flurefenicole (16% to 1.3%.Conclusion:   The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains belonging to B2 phylogroup even for the antimicrobials using in pet and farm animals and their potential to cause EHEC specific clinical symptoms which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can be transmitted to GI tract and act as a reservoir for other uropathogenic E. coli and commensal strains.

  11. Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement Amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study Between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes


    Anderson, Christine Marie


    In this study, I examined the relationship that exists among school belonging, achievement motivation, and academic achievement in a sample of student-athletes at UC Berkeley. The goal of the study was to achieve a deeper understanding of how and why achievement motivation and academic achievement is often discrepant between revenue and non-revenue athletes (Howard-Hamilton & Sina, 2001; Simons, Covington, & Van Rheenen, 1999). By examining the relationship between sense of school belonging...

  12. Type II restriction endonuclease R.Hpy188I belongs to the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily, but exhibits an unusual active site

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    Kobayashi Ichizo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic domains of Type II restriction endonucleases (REases belong to a few unrelated three-dimensional folds. While the PD-(D/EXK fold is most common among these enzymes, crystal structures have been also determined for single representatives of two other folds: PLD (R.BfiI and half-pipe (R.PabI. Bioinformatics analyses supported by mutagenesis experiments suggested that some REases belong to the HNH fold (e.g. R.KpnI, and that a small group represented by R.Eco29kI belongs to the GIY-YIG fold. However, for a large fraction of REases with known sequences, the three-dimensional fold and the architecture of the active site remain unknown, mostly due to extreme sequence divergence that hampers detection of homology to enzymes with known folds. Results R.Hpy188I is a Type II REase with unknown structure. PSI-BLAST searches of the non-redundant protein sequence database reveal only 1 homolog (R.HpyF17I, with nearly identical amino acid sequence and the same DNA sequence specificity. Standard application of state-of-the-art protein fold-recognition methods failed to predict the relationship of R.Hpy188I to proteins with known structure or to other protein families. In order to increase the amount of evolutionary information in the multiple sequence alignment, we have expanded our sequence database searches to include sequences from metagenomics projects. This search resulted in identification of 23 further members of R.Hpy188I family, both from metagenomics and the non-redundant database. Moreover, fold-recognition analysis of the extended R.Hpy188I family revealed its relationship to the GIY-YIG domain and allowed for computational modeling of the R.Hpy188I structure. Analysis of the R.Hpy188I model in the light of sequence conservation among its homologs revealed an unusual variant of the active site, in which the typical Tyr residue of the YIG half-motif had been substituted by a Lys residue. Moreover, some of its homologs

  13. The Self-Regulated Learning Model and Music Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Marijan


    Full Text Available Self-regulation and self-regulated learning (SRL are important features in music education. In this research self-regulated learning model is presented as a complex, multidimensional structure. SRL starts with the self-regulation. Self-regulation is formed through interaction with the environment, thus self-learning, self-analysis, self-judgment, self-instruction, and self-monitoring are the main functions in self-regulatory structure. Co-regulation is needed, and helps self-regulation to be activated and monitored. In music education, co-regulation refers to the instructions that teacher introduces in the lessons. These instructions have to enhance learning and develop regulation over emotions, cognitive, auditor, and motor skills in students. Learning techniques and learning strategies are core components in music education. Adapting those, students become aware of their learning processes, actions, thoughts, feelings and behaviors that are involved in learning. It is suggested that every teaching methodology has to develop learning techniques, as well as metamemory and metacognition in students, in order to gain expertise. The author has emphasized her attention to every aspect that is believed to belong to SRL. There are not many articles on the SRL in music education, written by musicians, in compare with those written by psychologists and neurologists,. Therefore, the author has suggested that this paper would encourage music teachers and performers to take an advantage in the research of SRL. These researches would help music educational systems and teachers to develop and promote learning techniques and strategies. The results would show improvement in student’s learning and self-regulation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF


    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  15. IgE-mediated allergy to corn: a 50 kDa protein, belonging to the Reduced Soluble Proteins, is a major allergen. (United States)

    Pasini, G; Simonato, B; Curioni, A; Vincenzi, S; Cristaudo, A; Santucci, B; Peruffo, A Dal Belin; Giannattasio, M


    Although corn is often cited as an allergenic food, very few studies have been devoted to the identification of corn allergens and corn allergy has been rarely confirmed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Recently, Pastorello et al. (1) identified some salt-soluble IgE-binding proteins of corn flour as potential allergens. One of these, corresponding to corn Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP), appeared to be the major one. The aim of this study was to verify the clinical significance of the skin prick test (SPT) and CAP-FEIA CAP-System IgE fluozoenzyme immunosorbent assay (Pharmacia Diagnostic, Uppsala, Sweden) positivities to corn and to identify the presence of IgE-binding proteins in the corn flour salt-insoluble protein fractions (comprising up to 96% of the total protein) using sera of patients with DBPCFC-documented food allergy to corn. In addition the effect of cooking and proteolytic digestion on the corn allergens was investigated. Sixteen subjects with SPT and CAP-FEIA positivities to corn flour were examined. Only six of them complained of suffering from urticaria and/or other symptoms after ingestion of corn-based foods. The patients were food challenged with cooked corn flour (polenta). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting. The digestibility of the IgE-binding proteins was examined during a pepsin attack followed by a pancreatin digestion performed on a cooked corn flour sample. Oral challenge was positive only for six patients with symptoms after ingestion of corn. A 50 kDa protein, belonging to the corn Reduced Soluble Protein (RSP) fraction was recognized by the serum IgE of all the DBPCFC-positive subjects and resulted to be resistant to both heating and peptic/pancreatic digestion. SPT with the purified RSP fraction gave positive results for all of the DBPCFC-positive patients examined. SPT and CAP-FEIA positivities to corn flour had no clinical significance for most of the patients and food allergy to corn has

  16. The effects of playing Nintendo Wii on depression, sense of belonging and social support in Australian aged care residents: a protocol study of a mixed methods intervention trial. (United States)

    Chesler, Jessica; McLaren, Suzanne; Klein, Britt; Watson, Shaun


    The proportion of people aged 65 or older is the fastest growing age group worldwide. Older adults in aged care facilities have higher levels of depression, and lower levels of social support and sense of belonging compared with older adults living in the community. Research has begun to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the mental health of residents and has found both cognitive and physical benefits of video game playing. The benefits of playing these games in a group may also lead to greater social interaction and decreased loneliness. The current study aims to investigate an intervention program designed to foster relationships among older adults in care based on shared interests. Residents will be assessed on the effectiveness of a 6 week program of playing Wii bowling in comparison to a control group. Participants will be allocated to the intervention (Wii bowling) or the control group based on their place of residence. Participants in the intervention group will be invited to participate in Wii bowling twice weekly, with up to three other residents for a period of 6 weeks. Residents in both conditions will be assessed for depression, social support, sense of belonging, and current self-rated mood at pre-intervention (0 weeks), post-intervention (6 weeks), and at 2-month follow up (14 weeks). Qualitative data on social interaction between group members will also be collected at weeks 1, 3, and 6. Both groups will receive a Wii console after week 6 to establish if residents and staff engage with the Wii without intervention. The Wii provides a user friendly platform for older adults to use video games, and it incorporates both social and competitive aspects in the game play. Existing research has not extensively investigated the social aspects of using this type of technology with older adults. If found to be effective, incorporating Wii games into an activity schedule may benefit the mental health of older adults living in care by

  17. SmTRC1, a novel Schistosoma mansoni DNA transposon, discloses new families of animal and fungi transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjovski-Almeida Sergio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CACTA (also called En/Spm superfamily of DNA-only transposons contain the core sequence CACTA in their Terminal Inverted Repeats (TIRs and so far have only been described in plants. Large transcriptome and genome sequence data have recently become publicly available for Schistosoma mansoni, a digenetic blood fluke that is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans, and have provided a comprehensive repository for the discovery of novel genes and repetitive elements. Despite the extensive description of retroelements in S. mansoni, just a single DNA-only transposon belonging to the Merlin family has so far been reported in this organism. Results We describe a novel S. mansoni transposon named SmTRC1, for S. mansoni Transposon Related to CACTA 1, an element that shares several characteristics with plant CACTA transposons. Southern blotting indicates approximately 30–300 copies of SmTRC1 in the S. mansoni genome. Using genomic PCR followed by cloning and sequencing, we amplified and characterized a full-length and a truncated copy of this element. RT-PCR using S. mansoni mRNA followed by cloning and sequencing revealed several alternatively spliced transcripts of this transposon, resulting in distinct ORFs coding for different proteins. Interestingly, a survey of complete genomes from animals and fungi revealed several other novel TRC elements, indicating new families of DNA transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily that have not previously been reported in these kingdoms. The first three bases in the S. mansoni TIR are CCC and they are identical to those in the TIRs of the insects Aedes aegypti and Tribolium castaneum, suggesting that animal TRCs may display a CCC core sequence. Conclusion The DNA-only transposable element SmTRC1 from S. mansoni exhibits various characteristics, such as generation of multiple alternatively-spliced transcripts, the presence of terminal inverted repeats at the extremities of

  18. Aviation Flight Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... This regulation covers aircraft operations, crew requirements and flight rules. It also covers Army aviation general provisions, training, standardization, and management of aviation resources...

  19. Regulating household financial advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F. Cummings


    Full Text Available This paper reviews economic theory related to investment advice. This theory explains 1 why financial advisors need to be carefully regulated for the benefit of both the investment advice industry and for consumers, 2 why principles-based regulation (e.g., a fiduciary standard is more efficient than rules-based regulation, 3 why dual regulation of financial professionals providing investment or insurance advice is inefficient and inequitable policy, and 4 why the application of a universal and uniform fiduciary standard will be difficult to implement.

  20. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan


    Full Text Available

    The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  1. A Wide Variety of Clostridium perfringens Type A Food-Borne Isolates That Carry a Chromosomal cpe Gene Belong to One Multilocus Sequence Typing Cluster (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghua; Wagendorp, Arjen; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko


    Of 98 suspected food-borne Clostridium perfringens isolates obtained from a nationwide survey by the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority in The Netherlands, 59 strains were identified as C. perfringens type A. Using PCR-based techniques, the cpe gene encoding enterotoxin was detected in eight isolates, showing a chromosomal location for seven isolates and a plasmid location for one isolate. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG)5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis distinguished C. perfringens from other sulfite-reducing clostridia but did not allow for differentiation between various types of C. perfringens strains. To characterize the C. perfringens strains further, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was performed on eight housekeeping genes of both enterotoxic and non-cpe isolates, and the data were combined with a previous global survey covering strains associated with food poisoning, gas gangrene, and isolates from food or healthy individuals. This revealed that the chromosomal cpe strains (food strains and isolates from food poisoning cases) belong to a distinct cluster that is significantly distant from all the other cpe plasmid-carrying and cpe-negative strains. These results suggest that different groups of C. perfringens have undergone niche specialization and that a distinct group of food isolates has specific core genome sequences. Such findings have epidemiological and evolutionary significance. Better understanding of the origin and reservoir of enterotoxic C. perfringens may allow for improved control of this organism in foods. PMID:22865060

  2. The R1 gene for potato resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) belongs to the leucine zipper/NBS/LRR class of plant resistance genes. (United States)

    Ballvora, Agim; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Weiss, Julia; Meksem, Khalid; Bormann, Christina Angelika; Oberhagemann, Petra; Salamini, Francesco; Gebhardt, Christiane


    Late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive disease in potato cultivation worldwide. New, more virulent P. infestans strains have evolved which overcome the genetic resistance that has been introgressed by conventional breeding from wild potato species into commercial varieties. R genes (for single-gene resistance) and genes for quantitative resistance to late blight are present in the germplasm of wild and cultivated potato. The molecular basis of single-gene and quantitative resistance to late blight is unknown. We have cloned R1, the first gene for resistance to late blight, by combining positional cloning with a candidate gene approach. The R1 gene is member of a gene family. It encodes a protein of 1293 amino acids with a molecular mass of 149.4 kDa. The R1 gene belongs to the class of plant genes for pathogen resistance that have a leucine zipper motif, a putative nucleotide binding domain and a leucine-rich repeat domain. The most closely related plant resistance gene (36% identity) is the Prf gene for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae of tomato. R1 is located within a hot spot for pathogen resistance on potato chromosome V. In comparison to the susceptibility allele, the resistance allele at the R1 locus represents a large insertion of a functional R gene.

  3. Wide spread of OXA-23-producing carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii belonging to clonal complex II in different hospitals in Lebanon. (United States)

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Hamze, Monzer; Jisr, Tamima; Lemarié, Carole; Eveillard, Matthieu; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie


    To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from different hospitals in Lebanon. A total of 119 non-duplicate Acinetobacter strains were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method and all identified carbapenem-resistant isolates were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of the carbapenemase-encoding genes. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used for molecular typing. Of the 119 A. baumannii isolates, 76.5% were resistant to carbapenems. The most common carbapenemase was the OXA-23-type, found in 82 isolates. The study of population structure using MLST revealed the presence of 30 sequence types (STs) including 18 new ones, with ST2 being the most commonly detected, accounting for 61% of the isolates typed. PFGE performed on all strains of ST2 identified a major cluster of 53 isolates, in addition to three other minor clusters and ten unique profiles. This study highlights the wide dissemination of highly related OXA-23-producing carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii belonging to the international clone II in Lebanon. Thus, appropriate infection control measures are recommended in order to control the geographical spread of this clone in this country. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, in Java. (United States)

    Durden, L A; Beaucournu, J-C


    Three new species of fleas belonging to the genus Macrostylophora (Siphonaptera, Ceratophyllidae) are described from the three-striped ground squirrel, Lariscus insignis, from Tjibodas, West Java (Jawa Barat), Indonesia at an elevation of 1500 m. Macrostylophora larisci sp. n. is described from three male specimens, Macrostylophora debilitata sp. n. is described from one male and Macrostylophora wilsoni sp. n. is described from one female. Non-genital morphological characters of the female specimen, including ctenidial spine shapes and lengths, show that it is not the corresponding female for either M. larisci sp. n. or M. debilitata sp. n. It is unusual for three different species of congeneric fleas to parasitize the same host species in the same geographical location. These three new species represent the first known records of Macrostylophora from Java and they could be enzootic vectors between rodents of flea-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia typhi and Yersinia pestis, both of which are established on Java. A list is provided of the 43 known species and 12 subspecies of Macrostylophora together with their known geographical distributions and hosts. A map depicting the distributions of known Indonesian (and Bornean) species of Macrostylophora is also included. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Four Chrysanthemum MADS-Box Genes, Belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 Subfamilies1 (United States)

    Shchennikova, Anna V.; Shulga, Olga A.; Immink, Richard; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Angenent, Gerco C.


    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and CDM41 belong to the FRUITFULL (FUL) clade, CDM111 is a member of the APETALA1 (AP1) subfamily, and CDM44 is a member of the SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors. Overexpression of CDM111 in Arabidopsis plants resulted in an aberrant phenotype that is reminiscent of the phenotype obtained by ectopic expression of the AP1 gene. In addition, CDM111 was able to partially complement the ap1-1 mutant from Arabidopsis, illustrating that CDM111 is the functional equivalent to AP1. Yeast two- and three-hybrid studies were performed to investigate the potential protein interactions and complexes in which these chrysanthemum MADS-box proteins are involved. Based on these studies, we conclude that CDM44 is most likely the SEP3 functional equivalent, because the CDM44 protein interacts with CDM proteins of the AP1/FUL and AG subfamilies, and as a higher order complex with the heterodimer between the presumed B-type CDM proteins. PMID:15064378

  6. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) Is Only Present in Mammals, and Belongs to a Family of Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) (United States)

    Sessa, Luca; Gatti, Elena; Zeni, Filippo; Antonelli, Antonella; Catucci, Alessandro; Koch, Michael; Pompilio, Giulio; Fritz, Günter


    The human receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and is involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Most importantly, RAGE is considered a receptor for HMGB1 and several S100 proteins, which are Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) released during tissue damage. In this study we show that the Ager gene coding for RAGE first appeared in mammals, and is closely related to other genes coding for cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as ALCAM, BCAM and MCAM that appeared earlier during metazoan evolution. RAGE is expressed at very low levels in most cells, but when expressed at high levels, it mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components and to other cells through homophilic interactions. Our results suggest that RAGE evolved from a family of CAMs, and might still act as an adhesion molecule, in particular in the lung where it is highly expressed or under pathological conditions characterized by an increase of its protein levels. PMID:24475194

  7. A Subject of Sea and Salty Sediment: Diasporic Labor and Queer (Belonging in Monique Truong’s The Book of Salt

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    Michelle Peek


    Full Text Available Caught having an affair while employed at the home of the governor-general of Saigon, Vietnamese cook, migrant worker, and narrator of Monique Truong’s The Book of Salt, Binh, is cast out of his natal home, and sets off for the open sea, winding up as a live-in cook in the household of lesbian couple Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas. As an abstract source of labor and culinary pleasure to those he encounters in Paris, Binh concludes, despondently, that he is, “nothing but a series of destinations with no meaningful expanses in between.” Yet the “expanses in between,” most notably in reference to waterways, allude to a central trope of Vietnamese culture. Incorporating Vietnamese symbolism with formative migratory experiences, this essay argues that Truong constructs a subject who can be read through both affective forms of national belonging as well as a broader queer diasporic community. It also explores Binh’s percipient tongue as one that is ever critical of the dynamics of power and privilege, and ever sensitive to the variances in salt (of sea, sweat, tears. The Book of Salt thus mediates the possibility of a gustatory epistemology and community constituted in the sensate, attuned to divergent experiences of mobility, labor, and love.

  8. The major leucyl aminopeptidase of Trypanosoma cruzi (LAPTc assembles into a homohexamer and belongs to the M17 family of metallopeptidases

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    Assumpção Teresa C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens depend on peptidase activities to accomplish many physiological processes, including interaction with their hosts, highlighting parasitic peptidases as potential drug targets. In this study, a major leucyl aminopeptidolytic activity was identified in Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Results The enzyme was isolated from epimastigote forms of the parasite by a two-step chromatographic procedure and associated with a single 330-kDa homohexameric protein as determined by sedimentation velocity and light scattering experiments. Peptide mass fingerprinting identified the enzyme as the predicted T. cruzi aminopeptidase EAN97960. Molecular and enzymatic analysis indicated that this leucyl aminopeptidase of T. cruzi (LAPTc belongs to the peptidase family M17 or leucyl aminopeptidase family. LAPTc has a strong dependence on neutral pH, is mesophilic and retains its oligomeric form up to 80°C. Conversely, its recombinant form is thermophilic and requires alkaline pH. Conclusions LAPTc is a 330-kDa homohexameric metalloaminopeptidase expressed by all T. cruzi forms and mediates the major parasite leucyl aminopeptidolytic activity. Since biosynthetic pathways for essential amino acids, including leucine, are lacking in T. cruzi, LAPTc could have a function in nutritional supply.

  9. Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1, an unusual hemolysin from the nematocyst venom of Hydra magnipapillata which belongs to an extended gene family. (United States)

    Glasser, Eliezra; Rachamim, Tamar; Aharonovich, Dikla; Sher, Daniel


    Cnidarians rely on their nematocysts and the venom injected through these unique weaponry systems to catch prey and protect themselves from predators. The development and physiology of the nematocysts of Hydra magnipapillata, a classic model organism, have been intensively studied, yet the composition and biochemical activity of their venom components are mostly unknown. Here, we show that hydra actinoporin-like toxins (HALTs), which have previously been associated with Hydra nematocysts, belong to a multigene family comprising six genes, which have diverged from a single common ancestor. All six genes are expressed in a population of Hydra magnipapillata. When expressed recombinantly, HALT-1 (Δ-HYTX-Hma1a), an actinoporin-like protein found in the stenoteles (the main penetrating nematocysts used in prey capture), reveals hemolytic activity, albeit about two-thirds lower than that of the anemone actinoporin equinatoxin II (EqTII, Δ-AITX-Aeq1a). HALT-1 also differs from EqTII in the size of its pores, and likely does not utilize sphingomyelin as a membrane receptor. We describe features of the HALT-1 sequence which may contribute to this difference in activity, and speculate on the role of this unusual family of pore-forming toxins in the ecology of Hydra. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogenentic and enzymatic characterization of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant marine bacteria belong to γ-Proteobacteria group isolated from the sub-Antarctic Beagle Channel, Argentina. (United States)

    Cristóbal, Héctor A; Benito, Juliana; Lovrich, Gustavo A; Abate, Carlos M


    The phylogenetic and physiological characteristics of cultivable-dependent approaches were determined to establish the diversity of marine bacteria associated with the intestines of benthonic organisms and seawater samples from the Argentina's Beagle Channel. A total of 737 isolates were classified as psychrophlic and psychrotolerant culturable marine bacteria. These cold-adapted microorganisms are capable of producing cold-active glycosyl hydrolases, such as β-glucosidases, celulases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, chitinases, and proteases. These enzymes could have potential biotechnological applications for use in low-temperature manufacturing processes. According to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of part of genes encoding 16S ribosomal DNA (ARDRA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB-RFLP), 11 operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified and clustered in known genera using InfoStat software. The 50 isolates selected were sequenced based on near full sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB sequences and identified by their nearest neighbors ranging between 96 and 99 % of identities. Phylogenetic analyses using both genes allowed relationships between members of the cultured marine bacteria belonging to the γ-Proteobacteria group (Aeromonas, Halteromonas, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Serratia, Colwellia, Glacielocola, and Psychrobacter) to be evaluated. Our research reveals a high diversity of hydrolytic bacteria, and their products actuality has an industrial use in several bioprocesses at low-temperature manufacturing.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis Reveals the Enterovirus D68 Isolates during the United States 2014 Outbreak Mainly Belong to a Novel Clade. (United States)

    Huang, Weihua; Wang, Guiqing; Zhuge, Jian; Nolan, Sheila M; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Fallon, John T


    In the late summer and the fall of 2014, the United States experienced an unprecedented outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections. During the outbreak, we collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens from patients in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York. Here, we conduct a retrospective study on the genomic diversity of EV-D68 strains. We first employ a metagenomic shotgun sequencing protocol on a total of 93 clinical samples, including 21 negative controls, the results of which allow assembly of 20 EV-D68 genomes, six complete and 14 near-complete. We then investigate their genetic relationships, along with additional 20 EV-D68 strains having whole-genome sequences publicly available. Our comparative genomic analysis uncovers that the majority (26/29) of EV-D68 strains circulating in the 2014 outbreak differ significantly from prior ones, have a main feature of three variables, C1817T, C3277A, and A4020G, and belong to a new clade. C3277A causes amino acid substitution T860N in the protease 2A(pro) cleavage site between VP1 and 2A, whereas A4020G causes S1108G in a 3C(pro) cleavage site between 2B and 2C. The two functional mutations may alter the proteases' cleavage efficiency, leading to increased rate of viral replication and transmission. These provide insights into the evolution of epidemic EV-D68 strains.

  12. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe--A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice. (United States)

    Doebler, Stefanie


    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God) is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries' legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group.

  13. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe—A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice (United States)

    Doebler, Stefanie


    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God) is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries’ legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. PMID:26247352

  14. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) of human and avian origin belonging to sequence type complex 95 (STC95) portray indistinguishable virulence features. (United States)

    Nandanwar, Nishant; Janssen, Traute; Kühl, Michael; Ahmed, Niyaz; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H


    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of certain genetic lineages are frequently implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and birds. ExPEC strains belonging to the phylogenetic lineage/sequence type complex 95 (STC95) are one such prominent lineage that is commonly isolated from extraintestinal infections such as systemic disease in poultry and urinary tract infections (UTIs), neonatal meningitis and sepsis in humans. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that ST95 strains obtained from such infections may share similar virulence genes and other genomic features. However, data on their ability to establish infections in vivo as deduced from the manifestation of similar virulence phenotypes remain elusive. In the present study, 116 STC95 ExPEC isolates comprising 55 human and 61 avian strains, possessing similar virulence gene patterns, were characterized in vitro using adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation and serum bactericidal assays. Overall, STC95 strains from both groups, namely human and birds, were equally capable of adhering to and invading the two mammalian kidney cell lines. Similarly, these strains were able to form strong biofilms in M63 medium. Furthermore, they were equally resistant to the bactericidal activity of human and avian serum. Our cumulative data reinforce the understanding that ST95 strains from poultry present a potential zoonotic risk and therefore need a One Health strategy for a successfull intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analysis of Text Genres Belonging to Bilateral Commissive Text Types Used in the Management of Multinational Corporations for Communication Purposes

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    Suzana Jurin


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and analyse text genres of the bilateral commissive type that are mostly used in management communication for attaining objectives of a particular corporation. This paper aims at providing a linguistic analysis of the text. Materials which have been used for the analysis of text genres and text types are based on theoretical principles of text linguistics. The literature and research related to the link between corporate discourse and corporations’ ideologies will not be taken into consideration in this paper. This topic will not be considered as important for this research.Text genres are dealt with in this paper as implementations of texts in communication. Their communicative function is the most important classification parameter. The analysis of text genres belonging to bilateral commissive text types that can be found in the corpus, aims at showing that management uses a specific vocabulary, grammatical structures and syntax in the communication by means of bilateral commissives and that text genres which have been analysed according to their micro structural and macro structural features make up a specific communication model that management uses in a given communicational situation.

  16. Association of Obesity with Hypertension Amongst School-Age Children Belonging to Lower income group and middle income group in national capital territory of Delhi

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    Supreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG and middle income group (MIG in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation : t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension.

  17. Governing the sense of belonging: An anthropological analysis of "culture"and "identity" in the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia

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    Čarna Brković


    Full Text Available The topic of this work is critical reconsideration of a cultural idea which is standardized by the highest political-legal document of the Republic of Serbia. I am starting from the assumption that if in the Constitution as a "founding legal and political document of a state", are incorporated concepts of human rights, and, particularly, the rights of the minorities (as set apart and protected, then a certain idea is standardized by it, i.e., a concept about what is Culture or what it should be. The analysis points out to three main problems which stem from writings about culture in the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia from 2006. Firstly, the concept of culture used in the Constitution is grounded in the aged anthropological idea of culture as a complete, homogenous, and authentic whole. This idea of culture carries a great potential for creating cultural conflicts. Secondly, the ways of managing cultural belonging are not carefully considered. The writers of the Constitution have not offered the mechanisms to resolve the potential cultural clashes in which all conflicted parties respect the constitutionally offered solutions. Thirdly, in the Constitution, theses of liberal and multicultural policy of identity are not carefully united. Combining the idea of free and equal citizens with the recognition of specific cultural rights of the minority’s demands developing a specific system for overcoming their contradictions. Such a system has not been offered by the Constitution.

  18. Two new species of Drosophila belonging to the canalinea group (Diptera, rosophilidae Duas novas espécies de Drosophila do grupo canalinea (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    Vilma Ratcov

    Full Text Available Drosophila piratininga sp. nov. and Drosophila sampa sp. nov., belonging to the canalinea group of the subgenus Drosophila, are described based mostly on wild-caught specimens collected at a forest reserve of the Cidade Universitária "Armando de Salles Oliveira", an urban remnant of the montane Atlantic Forest located at west São Paulo city, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The two species are readily distinguished from each other mostly by having different wing patterns: the main crossveins being remarkably clouded in the first one and unclouded in the latter. Illustrations of terminalia are also provided.Drosophila piratininga sp. nov. e Drosophila sampa sp. nov., espécies neotropicais pertencentes ao grupo canalinea, são descritas no presente artigo. Elas podem ser facilmente separadas com base no padrão das asas, sendo que as duas nervuras transversais são nitidamente esfumaçadas na primeira e hialinas na segunda. As coletas foram realizadas na Reserva Florestal da Cidade Universitária "Armando de Salles Oliveira", um remanescente da Mata Atlântica de planalto localizado na área urbana da zona oeste do município de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ilustrações detalhadas das terminálias são fornecidas.

  19. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe--A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice.

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    Stefanie Doebler

    Full Text Available This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries' legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group.


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    Full Text Available The objective of the Functional Data Analysis techniques is to study such type of data which consist of observed functions or curves evaluated at a finite subset of some real interval.   Techniques in Functional Data Analysis can be used to study the variation in a random sample of real functions, xi(t, i=1, 2, …, N and their derivatives. In practice, these functions are often a consequence of a preliminary smoothing process applied to discrete data and in this work, Spline Smoothing Methods are used.  As the number of functions and the number of observation points increases, it would be difficult to handle the functions  altogether. In order to overcome this complexity, we utilize Functional and Regularized Functional Principal Component Analyses where a high percentage of total variation  could be accounted for with only a few component functions.  Finally, an application on the daily closing data for the share prices of the companies belonging to the ISE-30 index is also given.

  1. Liquid-phase sequence capture and targeted re-sequencing revealed novel polymorphisms in tomato genes belonging to the MEP carotenoid pathway. (United States)

    Terracciano, Irma; Cantarella, Concita; Fasano, Carlo; Cardi, Teodoro; Mennella, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Nunzio


    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants are characterized by having a variety of fruit colours that reflect the composition and accumulation of diverse carotenoids in the berries. Carotenoids are extensively studied for their health-promoting effects and this explains the great attention these pigments received by breeders and researchers worldwide. In this work we applied Agilent's SureSelect liquid-phase sequence capture and Illumina targeted re-sequencing of 34 tomato genes belonging to the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) carotenoid pathway on a panel of 48 genotypes which differ for carotenoid content calculated as the sum of β-carotene, cis- and trans-lycopene. We targeted 230 kb of genomic regions including all exons and regulatory regions and observed ~40% of on-target capture. We found ample genetic variation among all the genotypes under study and generated an extensive catalog of SNPs/InDels located in both genic and regulatory regions. SNPs/InDels were also classified based on genomic location and putative biological effect. With our work we contributed to the identification of allelic variations possibly underpinning a key agronomic trait in tomato. Results from this study can be exploited for the promotion of novel studies on tomato bio-fortification as well as of breeding programs related to carotenoid accumulation in fruits.

  2. Conjugative transfer frequencies of mef(A)-containing Tn1207.3 to macrolide-susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes belonging to different emm types. (United States)

    Hadjirin, N F; Harrison, E M; Holmes, M A; Paterson, G K


    The aim of this study was to examine the gene transfer potential of mef(A)-containing Tn120.3 to macrolide-susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes belonging to different emm types. Using the filter mating technique, Tn1207.3 was transferred by conjugation to 23 macrolide-susceptible recipients representing 11 emm types. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of the mef(A) gene and the comEC junction regions of the Tn1207.3 insertion in resultant transconjugants. Significant variation was found in the transfer frequency of Tn1207.3 to different Strep. pyogenes strains, and this phenomenon may contribute to the differences in mef(A) frequency observed among clinical isolates. The spread of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an important problem, but the mechanisms of horizontal transfer between strains and species are often poorly understood. For instance, little is known on how macrolide resistance spreads between strains of the human pathogen Strep. pyogenes and why certain strains more commonly display resistance than others. Here, we show that Strep. pyogenes strains vary greatly in their ability to acquire a transposon encoding macrolide resistance by horizontal gene transfer in vitro. These data provide a novel insight into the transfer of antibiotic resistance between bacterial strains and offer an explanation for the differences in the frequency of resistance determinates and resistance seen among clinical isolates. © 2014 The Authors Letters in Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Emotion-regulation choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J.


    Despite centuries of speculation about how to manage negative emotions, little is actually known about which emotion-regulation strategies people choose to use when confronted with negative situations of varying intensity. On the basis of a new process conception of emotion regulation, we

  4. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.


    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets.

  5. Practicing reflexive regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Rutz (Suzanne)


    textabstractReflexive regulation has been developed to provide inspectors with strategies to deal with uncertain situations in which rules and roles are unclear, and inspecting involves multiple actors and learning how to deal with the situation is crucial. Reflexive regulation offers an alternative

  6. Plant Growth Regulators. (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.


    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  7. Regulation of SUMO Modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Knipscheer (Puck Maria)


    textabstractThe small ubiquitin related modifier SUMO is a posttranslational modifier that functions in a wide range of cellular processes like intracellular transport, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and regulation of transcription. SUMO is an 11 kDa protein and is ligated to its target proteins

  8. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    Within hunting, wildlife populations are estimated to be too high in many countries which is assumed to be due to the market failure, that each hunter harvests too little compared to what the regulator wants. This may be due to the existing regulation which, among other things, requires knowledge...

  9. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar


    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...... literature. First, contrary to what is commonly argued, we claim that strong states in Asia promote civil regulation in what we call the “paradox of the weak state”. Second, we not only argue that civil regulation is mainly enforced by multinational enterprises willing to promote international social...

  10. Using Valsiner's Zone Theory for Identifying the Forms of Students' Pseudo Responses in Mathematics Teaching Process (United States)

    Iffah, Jauhara Dian Nurul; Sutawidjaja, Akbar; Sa'dijah, Cholis; Subanji


    Various methods of teaching had been implemented to create an active and fun teaching process by teachers for students. Teachers' actions during class could lead to different responses from students. However, those actions are not always well accepted by students. Valsiner suggested a theory on a set of teachers' actions for promoting students'…

  11. Evaluation of a novel 16S rRNA/tRNAVal mitochondrial marker for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of shrimp species belonging to the superfamily Penaeoidea. (United States)

    Calo-Mata, Pilar; Pascoal, Ananias; Fernández-No, Inmaculada; Böhme, Karola; Gallardo, José M; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge


    In this study, we infer the phylogenetic relationships within commercial shrimp using sequence data from a novel mitochondrial marker consisting of an approximately 530-bp region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)/transfer RNA (tRNA)(Val) genes compared with two other mitochondrial genes: 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). All three mitochondrial markers were considerably AT rich, exhibiting values up to 78.2% for the species Penaeus monodon in the 16S rRNA/tRNA(Val) genes, notably higher than the average among other Malacostracan mitochondrial genomes. Unlike the 16S rRNA and COI genes, the 16S rRNA/tRNA(Val) marker evidenced that Parapenaeus is more closely related to Metapenaeus than to Solenocera, a result that seems to be more in agreement with the taxonomic status of these genera. To our knowledge, our study using the 16S rRNA/tRNA(Val) gene as a marker for phylogenetic analysis offers the first genetic evidence to confirm that Pleoticus muelleri and Solenocera agassizi constitute a separate group and that they are more related to each other than to genera belonging to the family Penaeidae. The 16S rRNA/tRNA(Val) region was also found to contain more variable sites (56%) than the other two regions studied (33.4% for the 16S rRNA region and 42.7% for the COI region). The presence of more variable sites in the 16S rRNA/tRNA(Val) marker allowed the interspecific differentiation of all 19 species examined. This is especially useful at the commercial level for the identification of a large number of shrimp species, particularly when the lack of morphological characteristics prevents their differentiation.

  12. Thermosporothrix narukonensis sp. nov., belonging to the class Ktedonobacteria, isolated from fallen leaves on geothermal soil, and emended description of the genus Thermosporothrix. (United States)

    Yabe, Shuhei; Sakai, Yasuteru; Yokota, Akira


    A thermophilic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium that formed branched vegetative and aerial mycelia was isolated from fallen leaves on geothermal soil. This strain, designated F4T, grew at temperatures between 30 and 60 °C; optimum growth temperature was 50 °C, whereas no growth was observed below 28 °C or above 65 °C. The pH range for growth was 4.9-9.5; the pH for optimum growth was 7.0, but no growth was observed at pH below 4.4 or above 10.0. Strain F4T was able to hydrolyse polysaccharides such as cellulose, xylan, chitin and starch. The G+C content in the DNA of strain F4T was 52.5 mol%. The major fatty acid was iso-C17 : 0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9 (H2). The cell wall of strain F4T contained glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine and ornithine in a molar ratio of 1.0:1.5:1.4:1.8:0.7. The polar lipids of this strain consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unknown phospholipid, three unknown glycolipids and two unknown lipids. The cell-wall sugar was mannose. Detailed phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain F4T belongs to the genus Thermosporothrix, and that it was related most closely to Thermosporothrix hazakensis SK20-1T (98.7 % similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization showed relatedness values of less than 15 % with the type strain of Thermosporothrix hazakensis. On the basis of phenotypic features and phylogenetic position, strain F4T is considered to represent a novel species, Thermosporothrix narukonensis sp. nov. The type strain is F4T(=NBRC 111777T=BCCM/LMG 29329T).

  13. Pathogenicity evaluation of twelve West Nile virus strains belonging to four lineages from five continents in a mouse model: discrimination between three pathogenicity categories. (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Del Amo, Javier; Fall, Gamou; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Lubisi, Alison; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vázquez, Ana; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel


    Rodent models have been used extensively to study West Nile virus (WNV) infection because they develop severe neurological symptoms similar to those observed in human WNV neuroinvasive disease. Most of this research has focused on old lineage (L) 1 strains, while information about pathogenicity is lacking for the most recent L1 and L2 strains, as well as for newly defined lineages. In this study, 4-week-old Swiss mice were inoculated with a collection of 12 WNV isolates, comprising 10 old and recent L1 and L2 strains, the putative L6 strain from Malaysia and the proposed L7 strain Koutango (KOU). The intraperitoneal inoculation of 10-fold dilutions of each strain allowed the characterization of the isolates in terms of LD50, median survival times, ID50, replication in neural and extraneural tissues and antibody production. Based on these results, we classified the isolates in three groups: high virulence (all L1a strains, recent L2 strains and KOU), moderate virulence (B956 strain) and low virulence (Kunjin and Malaysian isolates). We determined that the inoculation of a single dose of 1000 p.f.u. would be sufficient to classify WNV strains by pathotype. We confirmed the enhanced virulence of the KOU strain with a high capacity to cause rapid systemic infection. We also corroborated that differences in pathogenicity among strains do not correlate with phylogenetic lineage or geographic origin, and confirmed that recent European and African WNV strains belonging to L1 and L2 are highly virulent and do not differ in their pathotype profile compared to the prototype NY99 strain.

  14. P39, a novel soybean protein allergen, belongs to a plant-specific protein family and is present in protein storage vacuoles. (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Baird, Lisa M; Jung, Rudolf; Zeece, Michael G; Markwell, John; Sarath, Gautam


    Soybean lecithins are seeing increasing use in industry as an emulsifier and food additive. They are also a growing source of human food allergies, which arise principally from the proteins fractionating with the lecithin fraction during manufacture. A previous study (Gu, X.; Beardslee, T.; Zeece, M.; Sarath, G.; Markwwell, J. Int Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2001, 126, 218-225) identified several allergenic proteins in soybean lecithins and a soybean IgE-binding protein termed P39 was discovered. However, very little was known about this protein except that it was coded by the soybean genome. This paper investigates key biological and immunological properties of this potential soybean lecithin allergen. P39 is encoded by a multigene family in soybeans and in several other higher plants. The soybean P39-1 protein and its essentially indistinguishable homologue, P39-2, have been cloned and studied. These proteins and their homologues belong to a family of plant-specific proteins of unknown function. In soybeans, P39-1 is seed specific, and its transcript levels are highest in developing seeds and decline during seed maturation. In contrast, P39 protein was detectable only in the fully mature, dry seed. Subcellular fractionation revealed that P39 protein was strongly associated with oil bodies; however, immunolocalization indicated P39 was distributed in the matrix of the protein storage vacuoles, suggesting that association with oil bodies was an artifact arising from the extraction procedure. By the use of recombinant techniques it has also been documented that IgE-binding epitopes are present on several different portions of the P39-1 polypeptide.

  15. Molecular analysis and distribution of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to clonal complex 17 in a tertiary care center in Mexico City (United States)


    Background Enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. A high rate of resistance to different antibiotics has been associated with virulent clonal complex 17 isolates carrying the esp and hyl genes and the purK1 allele. Results Twelve clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates were obtained from pediatric patients at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG). Among these VREF isolates, 58.3% (7/12) were recovered from urine, while 41.7% (5/12) were recovered from the bloodstream. The VREF isolates showed a 100% rate of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, rifampicin, erythromycin and teicoplanin. In addition, 16.7% (2/12) of the isolates were resistant to linezolid, and 66.7% (8/12) were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the vanA gene in all 12 VREF isolates, esp in 83.3% (10/12) of the isolates and hyl in 50% (6/12) of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis via molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and demonstrated 44% similarity among the VREF isolates. MLST analysis identified four different sequence types (ST412, ST757, ST203 and ST612). Conclusion This study provides the first report of multidrug-resistant VREF isolates belonging to clonal complex 17 from a tertiary care center in Mexico City. Multidrug resistance and genetic determinants of virulence confer advantages among VREF in the colonization of their host. Therefore, the prevention and control of the spread of nosocomial infections caused by VREF is crucial for identifying new emergent subclones that could be challenging to treat in subsequent years. PMID:24330424

  16. Management of acute coronary syndromes, a questionnaire survey of the clinical practice of cardiologists and other medical physicians belonging to west midland hospitals. (United States)

    Shah, S U; Davies, M K; Quinn, Tom


    To assess the management of acute coronary syndromes by cardiologists and other medical physicians in a clinical setting. Questionnaire survey consisting of 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios and four possible therapeutic options for each scenario. Consultants and specialist registrars in Cardiology (with or without access to interventional facilities) and consultant physicians belonging to various hospitals in the west midland region of United Kingdom. Respondents' ability to recognise high risk patients and their management of the hypothetical clinical cases. To establish any differences in management strategy between cardiologists and general physicians, and whether these differences, if any, relate to access to interventional cardiac facilities. Overall no significant differences were found in the responses between cardiologists and general physicians with or without access to cardiac interventional facilities. However, cardiologists were more inclined to use percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) compared to other physicians (scenario 8, 18.4% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.05 and scenario 9, 44.9% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.01). In two other situations, physicians from institutions with access to interventional facilities were more inclined to use 'other' treatment strategies (intravenous nitrates, antiplatelet treatment, inotropes, Intra-aortic balloon pump) compared to their colleagues from non-tertiary hospitals with no interventional facility on site (scenario 3, 21.7% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.04) and more use of PTCA ( scenario 6, 52.2% vs. 26.8%, p = 0.04). The management of acute coronary syndromes in this questionnaire survey was satisfactory and evidence based. No real differences were found between the management strategies adopted by cardiologists or non-cardiologists. Physicians working in centres with interventional facilities were no more inclined towards using primary PTCA or rescue angioplasty than those working in centres without such facilities.

  17. Regulation of Appetite, Body Composition, and Metabolic Hormones by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)


    Vu, JP; LARAUCHE, M.; Flores, M; Luong, L.; Norris, J.; Oh, S.(Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America); Liang, LJ; Waschek, J; Pisegna, JR; Germano, PM


    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of ve...

  18. Neuropeptide Y: a central regulator of energy homeostasis. (United States)

    White, J D


    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide belonging to the pancreatic polypeptide family of neuroendocrine hormones. It is the most abundant peptide yet discovered in the mammalian brain and is widely expressed by neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as adrenal medullary cells. Recently, a large number of studies have focussed on the potential roles played by NPY within the hypothalamus and pituitary with respect to the control of food intake and energy homeostasis. It is now clear that NPY is a potent stimulator of food intake in models of hyperphagia, that hypothalamic NPY also regulates sympathetic neural activity and it appears that NPY may also influence the glucocorticoid, growth hormone and thyroid hormone axes. Taken together, current data suggest that hypothalamic and pituitary NPY-expressing cells represent an important and critical site of integration of peripheral hormonal signals with regulation of energy homeostasis.

  19. Epigenetic Regulation of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham


    Full Text Available Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to changes in the expression of adipokines, adipocyte-specific hormones that can regulate whole body energy metabolism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a mechanism by which cells can alter gene expression through the modifications of DNA and histones. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are intimately tied to energy metabolism due to their dependence on metabolic intermediates such as S-adenosylmethionine and acetyl-CoA. Altered expression of adipokines in obesity may be due to epigenetic changes. The goal of this review is to highlight current knowledge of epigenetic regulation of adipokines.

  20. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F


    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  1. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.


    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and

  2. Sport Fishing Regulations (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  3. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen


    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... their customer bases decline to commercially non-viable levels. The analysis is framed by public governance literature and argues that the regulation is an example of collaborative or interactive governance, because the tax administrators do not regulate non-compliance directly, but activate external...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  4. Focus on PTEN regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eBermudez-Brito


    Full Text Available The role of PTEN as a tumour suppressor has been for a long time attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5P3, the phospholipid product of the class I PI3Ks. Besides its traditional role as a lipid phosphatase at the plasma membrane, a wealth of data has shown that PTEN can function independently of its phosphatase activity and that PTEN also exists and plays a role in the nucleus, in cytoplasmic organelles and extracellularly. Accumulating evidence has shed light on diverse physiological functions of PTEN which are accompanied by a complex regulation of its expression and activity. PTEN levels and function are regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. PTEN is also sensitive to regulation by its interacting proteins and its localization. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the expression and enzymatic activity of PTEN and its role in human diseases.

  5. Regulation of Genetic Tests (United States)

    Skip to main content Regulation of Genetic Tests Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions ...

  6. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  7. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    . The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  8. Restructuring nuclear regulations.


    Mossman, Kenneth L


    Nuclear regulations are a subset of social regulations (laws to control activities that may negatively impact the environment, health, and safety) that concern control of ionizing radiation from radiation-producing equipment and from radioactive materials. The impressive safety record among nuclear technologies is due, in no small part, to the work of radiation safety professionals and to a protection system that has kept pace with the rapid technologic advancements in electric power generati...

  9. Epigenetic Regulation of Adipokines


    Pham, Tho X.; Ji-Young Lee


    Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to changes in the expression of adipokines, adipocyte-specific hormones that can regulate whole body energy metabolism. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a mechanism by which cells can alter gene expression through the modifications of DNA and histones. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are intimately tied to energy metabolism due to their dependence on metabolic intermediates such as S-adenosylmethion...

  10. Turning regulation into value


    Laamanen, Tomi; Reuter, Emmanuelle; Steiger, Fabio


    As an export-based industry, the survival of Swiss private banking depends on its access to an international client base in relevant markets. Adoption of transnational regulation is especially critical as the foreign onshore business gains importance while the offshore business declines. Transnational regulation should therefore not be seen as an option. Rather, it is central to a sustainable and successful Swiss private banking model.

  11. In regulation we trust. (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Tharaldsen, Jorunn Elise


    The role of trust has been argued to play an increasingly important role in modern, complex, and ambivalent risk societies. Trust within organizational research is anticipated to have a general strategic impact on aspects such as organizational performance, communication and knowledge exchange, and learning from accidents. Trust is also an important aspect related to regulation of risk. Diverse regulatory regimes, their contexts and risks influence regulators use of trust and distrust in regulatory practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between risk regulation and trust across diverse risk regulation regimes. By drawing from studies of risk regulation, risk perception, and trust the purpose is to discuss how regulation and trust are linked and used in practice to control risk across system levels in socio-technical systems in high risk industries. This paper provides new knowledge on 1) how functional and dysfunctional trust and distrust are grounded in the empirical realities of high risk industries, 2) how different perspectives on trust and distrust act together and bring new knowledge on how society control risk.

  12. Interpersonal emotion regulation. (United States)

    Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig


    Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.

  13. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Ethiopia Predominantly Caused by Strains Belonging to the Delhi/CAS Lineage and Newly Identified Ethiopian Clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Merker, Matthias; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C; Niemann, Stefan


    Recently, newly defined clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, namely Ethiopia 1-3 and Ethiopia H37Rv-like strains, and other clades associated with pulmonary TB (PTB) were identified in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated whether these new strain types exhibit an increased ability to cause TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) and raised the question, if particular MTBC strains derived from TBLN patients in northern Ethiopia are genetically adapted to their local hosts and/or to the TBLN. Genotyping of 196 MTBC strains isolated from TBLN patients was performed by spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. A statistical analysis was carried out to see possible associations between patient characteristics and phylogenetic MTBC strain classification. Among 196 isolates, the majority of strains belonged to the Delhi/CAS (38.8%) lineage, followed by Ethiopia 1 (9.7%), Ethiopia 3 (8.7%), Ethiopia H37RV-like (8.2%), Ethiopia 2 and Haarlem (7.7% each), URAL (3.6%), Uganda l and LAM (2% each), S-type (1.5%), X-type (1%), and 0.5% isolates of TUR, EAI, and Beijing genotype, respectively. Overall, 15 strains (7.7%) could not be allocated to a previously described phylogenetic lineage. The distribution of MTBC lineages is similar to that found in studies of PTB samples. The cluster rate (35%) in this study is significantly lower (P = 0.035) compared to 45% in the study of PTB in northwestern Ethiopia. In the studied area, lymph node samples are dominated by Dehli/CAS genotype strains and strains of largely not yet defined clades based on MIRU-VNTR 24-loci nomenclature. We found no indication that strains of particular genotypes are specifically associated with TBLN. However, a detailed analysis of specific genetic variants of the locally contained Ethiopian clades by whole genome sequencing may reveal new insights into the host-pathogen co-evolution and specific features that are

  14. hsdS, Belonging to the Type I Restriction-Modification System, Contributes to the Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Survival Ability in Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu


    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is an important zoonotic agent in swine and humans. Anti-phagocytosis and survival in phagocytic cells and whole blood is essential for bacteria to be pathogenic. In this study, the host specificity determinant specificity subunit (coded by hsdS of the Type I Restriction-Modification system and two peptidoglycan-binding proteins (coded by lysM and lysM′, respectively, which were simultaneously found to be subjected to transcript-level influence by hsdS, were identified to facilitate the anti-phagocytosis of SS2 to a microglia cell line BV2. Furthermore, they significantly enhanced its survival in BV2, whole blood, and a peroxidation environment (H2O2 (p < 0.05, yet not in the acidic condition based on statistical analysis of the characteristic differences between gene mutants and wild-type SS2. In contrast, another specificity subunit, coded by hsdS′, that belonged to the same Type I Restriction-Modification system, only significantly reduced the survival ability of SS2 in the acidic condition when in the form of a gene-deleted mutant (p < 0.05, but it did not significantly influence the survival ability in other conditions mentioned above or have enhanced anti-phagocytosis action when compared with wild-type SS2. In addition, the mutation of hsdS significantly enhanced the secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α by BV2 with SS2 incubation (p < 0.05. The SS2 was tested, and it failed to stimulate BV2 to produce IFN-γ. These results demonstrated that hsdS contributed to bacterial anti-phagocytosis and survival in adverse host environments through positively impacting the transcription of two peptidoglycan-binding protein genes, enhancing resistance to reactive oxygen species, and reducing the secretion of TNF-α and nitric oxide by phagocytes. These findings revealed new mechanisms of SS2 pathogenesis.

  15. Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster". (United States)

    Kama-Kama, Francisca; Midiwo, Jacob; Nganga, Joseph; Maina, Naomi; Schiek, Elise; Omosa, Leonidah Kerubo; Osanjo, George; Naessens, Jan


    Members of 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach. Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution. Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for

  16. Social exclusion predicts impaired self-regulation: a 2-year longitudinal panel study including the transition from preschool to school. (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars


    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion (i.e., being rejected by peers) impairs the ability to self-regulate, and experimental studies with adults support this contention, at least on a short-term basis. Few studies have investigated whether social exclusion affects the development of self-regulation of children in a more enduring manner. By using data from a community sample of 762 children, we investigated reciprocal relations between social exclusion and self-regulation from age 4 to age 6. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, whereas self-regulation was reported by parents. Autoregressive latent cross-lagged analyses showed that social exclusion predicted impaired development of dispositional self-regulation and, reciprocally, that poor self-regulation predicted enhanced social exclusion. In other words, social exclusion undermines children's development of self-regulation, whereas poor self-regulation increases the likelihood of exclusion. Results illuminate the applied relevance of the need-to-belong theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sultan I. Mahmud’a Ait Bir Ruznâme (H.1147/M.1734 A Ruzname Belonging To Sultan Mahmud I (1147 AH/1734 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efkan UZUN


    Full Text Available The privy secretaries who were very close people to ProphetMohammed during the commencement of Islam also involved in thecorrespondence with other foreign kings, emperors and emeers. Thoseofficials who supervised different bureaucratic works in time werealways in higher positions in protocol. The sultans took themeverywhere they went. Therefore, they naturally withnessed a lot ofevents that could not be known by ordinary people.The ruznames which can be defined as the diary of Ottomansultan were written down by the privacy secretaries. The archiverecords which were first seen in 18. Century as defined by today'sscientist were important resources for getting to know the sultans of theera very closely and reaching the extraordinary information belonging tothe courtiers. In addition, those records are important for knowingpalaces, pavillions, servants in them, socio-cultural, cultural, economicevents of the era, the history of Istanbul and a lot of subjects.The ruzname in the study belongs to enthronement of SultanMahmut I, dated 1734 BC and it has not been studied to date. Theruzname which spans about four and half months must have been thepart of a whole. In spite of a short one, it is a very significant record forlooking into the events of the era in detail and filling a gap in this era.The aim of the study is to help enhance some of our knowledge andfacts about Sultan Mahmud I and introduce science world someunknown facts about him and it is certain that it will help fill animportant gap and be useful. İslamiyet’in bidayetinde Hz. Peygamber’in en yakınındaki insanlardan birisi olan sır kâtipleri, yabancı devlet hükümdarları ve emirleriyle yapılan yazışmaları da takip etmişlerdir. İslam devletlerinde zamanla farklı bürokratik işlere de bakan bu görevliler protokolde hep önemli bir konumda olmuşlardır. Sultanların gittiği her yere onlarla beraber gitmişler ve doğal olarak sıradan insanların bilmesine imkân olmayan

  18. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins. (United States)

    van Egmond, Hans P


    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  19. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  20. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle....... Understanding the structure/function relationship of TRPV4 is essential for future development of specific TRPV4 agonist for treatment of diseases causes by dysfunctional TRPV4. E.g. two inherited bone dysplasias have recently been demonstrated in humans to originate from TRPV4 mutations....