WorldWideScience

Sample records for pseudo-random single photon

  1. Range walk error correction and modeling on Pseudo-random photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shanshan; Chen, Qian; He, Weiji

    2017-08-01

    Signal to noise ratio and depth accuracy are modeled for the pseudo-random ranging system with two random processes. The theoretical results, developed herein, capture the effects of code length and signal energy fluctuation are shown to agree with Monte Carlo simulation measurements. First, the SNR is developed as a function of the code length. Using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs), longer code length is proven to reduce the noise effect and improve SNR. Second, the Cramer-Rao lower bound on range accuracy is derived to justify that longer code length can bring better range accuracy. Combined with the SNR model and CRLB model, it is manifested that the range accuracy can be improved by increasing the code length to reduce the noise-induced error. Third, the Cramer-Rao lower bound on range accuracy is shown to converge to the previously published theories and introduce the Gauss range walk model to range accuracy. Experimental tests also converge to the presented boundary model in this paper. It has been proven that depth error caused by the fluctuation of the number of detected photon counts in the laser echo pulse leads to the depth drift of Time Point Spread Function (TPSF). Finally, numerical fitting function is used to determine the relationship between the depth error and the photon counting ratio. Depth error due to different echo energy is calibrated so that the corrected depth accuracy is improved to 1cm.

  2. Pseudo random signal processing theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications

  3. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  4. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  5. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  6. Single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information

  7. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  8. Quality pseudo-random number generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasiuk, J.

    1996-01-01

    The pseudo-random number generator (RNG) was written to match needs of nuclear and high-energy physics computation which in some cases require very long and independent random number sequences. In this random number generator the repetition period is about 10 36 what should be sufficient for all computers in the world. In this article the test results of RNG correlation, speed and identity of computations for PC, Sun4 and VAX computer tests are presented

  9. Single-photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Peter; Theuwissen, Albert J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist's view from different domains to the forthcoming ''single-photon imaging'' revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internationally renowned, leading scientists and technologists who have all pioneered their respective fields. (orig.)

  10. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  11. Long period pseudo random number sequence generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A circuit for generating a sequence of pseudo random numbers, (A sub K). There is an exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) for the normal basis representation of elements in a finite field GF(2 sup m) each represented by m binary digits and having two inputs and an output from which the sequence (A sub K). Of pseudo random numbers is taken. One of the two inputs is connected to receive the outputs (E sub K) of maximal length shift register of n stages. There is a switch having a pair of inputs and an output. The switch outputs is connected to the other of the two inputs of the exponentiator. One of the switch inputs is connected for initially receiving a primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m). Finally, there is a delay circuit having an input and an output. The delay circuit output is connected to the other of the switch inputs and the delay circuit input is connected to the output of the exponentiator. Whereby after the exponentiator initially receives the primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m) through the switch, the switch can be switched to cause the exponentiator to receive as its input a delayed output A(K-1) from the exponentiator thereby generating (A sub K) continuously at the output of the exponentiator. The exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) is novel and comprises a cyclic-shift circuit; a Massey-Omura multiplier; and, a control logic circuit all operably connected together to perform the function U(sub i) = 92(sup i) (for n(sub i) = 1 or 1 (for n(subi) = 0).

  12. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  13. Pseudo-random bit generator based on lag time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, M.; Campos-Cantón, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a pseudo-random bit generator (PRBG) based on two lag time series of the logistic map using positive and negative values in the bifurcation parameter. In order to hidden the map used to build the pseudo-random series we have used a delay in the generation of time series. These new series when they are mapped xn against xn+1 present a cloud of points unrelated to the logistic map. Finally, the pseudo-random sequences have been tested with the suite of NIST giving satisfactory results for use in stream ciphers.

  14. A pseudo-random number generator and its spectral test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lai

    1998-01-01

    The author introduces a pseudo-random number generator and describes its algorithm and C language implementation. The performance of the generator is tested and compared with some well known LCG generators

  15. Pseudo-random bit generator based on Chebyshev map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study a pseudo-random bit generator based on two Chebyshev polynomial maps. The novel derivative algorithm shows perfect statistical properties established by number of statistical tests.

  16. Hardware implementation of a GFSR pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, G. R.; Budinich, M.; Milotti, E.

    1989-12-01

    We describe the hardware implementation of a pseudo-random number generator of the "Generalized Feedback Shift Register" (GFSR) type. After brief theoretical considerations we describe two versions of the hardware, the tests done and the performances achieved.

  17. Graphical analysis of some pseudo-random number generators

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Peter A. W.

    1986-01-01

    There exist today many 'good' pseudo-random number generators; the problem is to retrieve them. This document discusses three commonly used pseudo- random number generators, the first being RANDU, a notoriously bad generator, but one which is still occasionally used. The next is the widely used prime modulus, multiplicative congruential generator used in LL-RANDOMII, the Naval Postgraduate School random number package, and the last is the random number generator provided for microcomputers wi...

  18. A Repetition Test for Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Manuel; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Petersen, Wesley P.

    2017-01-01

    A new statistical test for uniform pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) is presented. The idea is that a sequence of pseudo-random numbers should have numbers reappear with a certain probability. The expectation time that a repetition occurs provides the metric for the test. For linear congruential generators (LCGs) failure can be shown theoretically. Empirical test results for a number of commonly used PRNGs are reported, showing that some PRNGs considered to have good statistical propert...

  19. Surface detection performance evaluation of pseudo-random noise continuous wave laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, Renaud; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    A number of space missions (including in the ESA Exploration Programme) foreseen a use of laser radar sensor (or lidar) for determination of range between spacecrafts or between spacecraft and ground surface (altimetry). Such sensors need to be compact, robust and power efficient, at the same time with high detection performance. These requirements can be achieved with a Pseudo-Random Noise continuous wave lidar (PRN cw lidar). Previous studies have pointed to the advantages of this lidar with respect to space missions, but they also identified its limitations in high optical background. The progress of the lasers and the detectors in the near IR spectral range requires a re-evaluation of the PRN cw lidar potential. Here we address the performances of this lidar for surface detection (altimetry) in planetary missions. The evaluation is based on the following system configuration: (i) A cw fiber amplifier as lidar transmitter. The seeding laser exhibits a single-frequency spectral line, with subsequent amplitude modulation. The fiber amplifier allows high output power level, keeping the spectral characteristics and the modulation of the seeding light input. (ii) An avalanche photodiode in photon counting detection; (iii) Measurement scenarios representative for Earth, Mercury and Mars.

  20. Thermoelectric single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Kuzanyan, A S

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB 6 and (La,Ce)B 6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.

  1. Approaches to single photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thew, R.T.; Curtz, N.; Eraerds, P.; Walenta, N.; Gautier, J.-D.; Koller, E.; Zhang, J.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results on our development of single photon detectors, including: gated and free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs); hybrid detection systems based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) and Si APDs-SFG-Si APDs; and SSPDs (superconducting single photon detectors), for telecom wavelengths; as well as SiPM (Silicon photomultiplier) detectors operating in the visible regime.

  2. Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails

    OpenAIRE

    Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more heads than tails. This bias explains the empirically observed failure of some random number generators in random walk experiments. It can be traced down to the special role of the value zero in the ...

  3. Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Map Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Huaping; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    A one-way coupled chaotic map lattice is used for generating pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that with suitable cooperative applications of both chaotic and conventional approaches, the output of the spatiotemporally chaotic system can easily meet the practical requirements of random numbers, i.e., excellent random statistical properties, long periodicity of computer realizations, and fast speed of random number generations. This pseudo-random number generator system can be used as ideal synchronous and self-synchronizing stream cipher systems for secure communications.

  4. Cryptography, statistics and pseudo-randomness (Part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, S.; Gill, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    In the classical approach to pseudo-random number generators, a generator is considered to perform well if its output sequences pass a battery of statistical tests that has become standard. In recent years, it has turned out that this approach is not satisfactory. Many generators have turned out to

  5. Single-photon decision maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  6. Lensless digital holography with diffuse illumination through a pseudo-random phase mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Stefan; Harm, Walter; Jesacher, Alexander; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2011-12-05

    Microscopic imaging with a setup consisting of a pseudo-random phase mask, and an open CMOS camera, without an imaging objective, is demonstrated. The pseudo random phase mask acts as a diffuser for an incoming laser beam, scattering a speckle pattern to a CMOS chip, which is recorded once as a reference. A sample which is afterwards inserted somewhere in the optical beam path changes the speckle pattern. A single (non-iterative) image processing step, comparing the modified speckle pattern with the previously recorded one, generates a sharp image of the sample. After a first calibration the method works in real-time and allows quantitative imaging of complex (amplitude and phase) samples in an extended three-dimensional volume. Since no lenses are used, the method is free from lens abberations. Compared to standard inline holography the diffuse sample illumination improves the axial sectioning capability by increasing the effective numerical aperture in the illumination path, and it suppresses the undesired so-called twin images. For demonstration, a high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) is programmed to act as the pseudo-random phase mask. We show experimental results, imaging microscopic biological samples, e.g. insects, within an extended volume at a distance of 15 cm with a transverse and longitudinal resolution of about 60 μm and 400 μm, respectively.

  7. Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdall, A.L.; Branning, D.; Castelletto, S.

    2002-01-01

    As typically implemented, single-photon sources cannot be made to produce single photons with high probability, while simultaneously suppressing the probability of yielding two or more photons. Because of this, single-photon sources cannot really produce single photons on demand. We describe a multiplexed system that allows the probabilities of producing one and more photons to be adjusted independently, enabling a much better approximation of a source of single photons on demand

  8. Single photon searches at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.

  9. Single photon searches at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented

  10. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  11. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  12. Correlations of pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukin, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    An algorithm is suggested for searching with a computer in unit n-dimensional cube the sets of planes where all the points fall whose coordinates are composed of n successive pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence. This effect should be taken into account in Monte-Carlo calculations with definite constructive dimension. The parameters of these planes are obtained for three random number generators. 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  13. High brightness single photon sources based on photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.; Bazin, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel single-photon-source based on the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a single-mode photonic wire. This geometry ensures a very large coupling (> 95%) of the spontaneous emission to the guided mode. Numerical simulations show that a photon collection efficiency...

  14. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  15. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  16. Accelerating Pseudo-Random Number Generator for MCNP on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Hu, Qingfeng; Deng, Li; Gong, Zhenghu

    2010-09-01

    Pseudo-random number generators (PRNG) are intensively used in many stochastic algorithms in particle simulations, artificial neural networks and other scientific computation. The PRNG in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) requires long period, high quality, flexible jump and fast enough. In this paper, we implement such a PRNG for MCNP on NVIDIA's GTX200 Graphics Processor Units (GPU) using CUDA programming model. Results shows that 3.80 to 8.10 times speedup are achieved compared with 4 to 6 cores CPUs and more than 679.18 million double precision random numbers can be generated per second on GPU.

  17. Program pseudo-random number generator for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Program pseudo-random number generators (PNG) intended for the test of control equipment and communication channels are considered. In the case of 8-bit microcomputers it is necessary to assign 4 words of storage to allocate one random number. The proposed economical algorithms of the random number generation are based on the idea of the ''mixing'' of such quarters of the preceeding random number to obtain the next one. Test results of the PNG are displayed for two such generators. A FORTRAN variant of the PNG is presented along with a program realizing the PNG made on the base of the INTEL-8080 autocode

  18. New Trends in Pseudo-Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    Properties of pseudo-random number generators are reviewed. The emphasis is on correlations between successive random numbers and their suppression by improvement steps. The generators under discussion are the linear congruential generators, lagged Fibonacci generators with various operations, and the improvement techniques combination, shuffling and decimation. The properties of the RANSHI generator are reviewed somewhat more extensively. The transition to 64-bit technology is discussed in several cases. The generators are subject to several tests, which look both for short range and for long range correlations. Some performance figures are given for a Pentium Pro PC. Recommendations are presented in the final chapter.

  19. Cryptographic pseudo-random sequence from the spatial chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuyan; Liu Shutang

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for pseudo-random binary sequence generation based on the spatial chaotic map is proposed. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRBS in cryptography, the proposed PRBS is subjected to statistical tests which are the well-known FIPS-140-1 in the area of cryptography, and correlation properties of the proposed sequences are investigated. The proposed PRBS successfully passes all these tests. Results of statistical testing of the sequences are found encouraging. The results of statistical tests suggest strong candidature for cryptographic applications.

  20. Pseudo random number generator based on quantum chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhshani, A.; Akhavan, A.; Mobaraki, A.; Lim, S.-C.; Hassan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    For many years dissipative quantum maps were widely used as informative models of quantum chaos. In this paper, a new scheme for generating good pseudo-random numbers (PRNG), based on quantum logistic map is proposed. Note that the PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the quantum chaotic map. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hardware and thus computation speed is fast. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRNG in quantum cryptography and other practical applications, the proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests using well-known test suites such as NIST, DIEHARD, ENT and TestU01. The results of the statistical tests were promising, as the proposed PRNG successfully passed all these tests. Moreover, the degree of non-periodicity of the chaotic sequences of the quantum map is investigated through the Scale index technique. The obtained result shows that, the sequence is more non-periodic. From these results it can be concluded that, the new scheme can generate a high percentage of usable pseudo-random numbers for simulation and other applications in scientific computing.

  1. PRIMITIVE MATRICES AND GENERATORS OF PSEUDO RANDOM SEQUENCES OF GALOIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beletsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory and practice of information cryptographic protection one of the key problems is the forming a binary pseudo-random sequences (PRS with a maximum length with acceptable statistical characteristics. PRS generators are usually implemented by linear shift register (LSR of maximum period with linear feedback [1]. In this paper we extend the concept of LSR, assuming that each of its rank (memory cell can be in one of the following condition. Let’s call such registers “generalized linear shift register.” The research goal is to develop algorithms for constructing Galois and Fibonacci generalized matrix of n-order over the field , which uniquely determined both the structure of corresponding generalized of n-order LSR maximal period, and formed on their basis Galois PRS generators of maximum length. Thus the article presents the questions of formation the primitive generalized Fibonacci and Galois arbitrary order matrix over the prime field . The synthesis of matrices is based on the use of irreducible polynomials of degree and primitive elements of the extended field generated by polynomial. The constructing methods of Galois and Fibonacci conjugated primitive matrices are suggested. The using possibilities of such matrices in solving the problem of constructing generalized generators of Galois pseudo-random sequences are discussed.

  2. Fully Digital Chaotic Oscillators Applied to Pseudo Random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-05-01

    adapted for pseudo random number generation by truncating statistically defective bits. Finally, a novel post-processing technique using the Fibonacci series is proposed and implemented with a non-autonomous driven hyperchaotic system to provide pseudo random number generators with high nonlinear complexity and controllable period length that enables full utilization of all branches of the chaotic output as statistically secure pseudo random output.

  3. Single photon emission computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooge, P. de.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis two single-photon emission tomographic techniques are presented: (a) longitudinal tomography with a rotating slanting-hole collimator, and (b) transversal tomography with a rotating gamma camera. These methods overcome the disadvantages of conventional scintigraphy. Both detection systems and the image construction methods are explained and comparisons with conventional scintigraphy are drawn. One chapter is dedicated to the determination of system parameters like spatial resolution, contrast, detector uniformity, and size of the object, by phantom studies. In separate chapters the results are presented of detection of tumors and metastases in the liver and the liver hilus; skeletal diseases; various pathological aberrations of the brain; and myocardial perfusion. The possible use of these two ect's for other organs and body areas is discussed in the last chapter. (Auth.)

  4. Properties making a chaotic system a good Pseudo Random Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Falcioni, Massimo; Palatella, Luigi; Pigolotti, Simone; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We discuss two properties making a deterministic algorithm suitable to generate a pseudo random sequence of numbers: high value of Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and high-dimensionality. We propose the multi dimensional Anosov symplectic (cat) map as a Pseudo Random Number Generator. We show what chaotic features of this map are useful for generating Pseudo Random Numbers and investigate numerically which of them survive in the discrete version of the map. Testing and comparisons with other generat...

  5. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A.; Mora F, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  6. Programmable pseudo-random detector-pulse-pattern generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putten, R. van der; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the design and realization of the digital part of the programmable pseudo-random detector pulse-pattern generator. For the design and realization use has been made of F-TTL and high speed special purpose ic's, in particular FAL's (15 ns). The design possibilities offered by the software for pro-gramming of the FAL's have been utilized as much as possible. In this way counters, registers and a state machine with extended control possibilities have been designed and an advanced 8 channel pulse generator has been developed which is controlled via the VME system bus. the generator possesses an internal clock oscillator of 16 MHZ. The moment when a pulse is generated can be adjusted with a step size of 250 ps. 2000 different periods (time windows) can be stored for generating a pattern. (author). 37 refs.; 6 figs

  7. Quantifiers for randomness of chaotic pseudo-random number generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, L; Larrondo, H A; Plastino, A; Rosso, O A

    2009-08-28

    We deal with randomness quantifiers and concentrate on their ability to discern the hallmark of chaos in time series used in connection with pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs). Workers in the field are motivated to use chaotic maps for generating PRNGs because of the simplicity of their implementation. Although there exist very efficient general-purpose benchmarks for testing PRNGs, we feel that the analysis provided here sheds additional didactic light on the importance of the main statistical characteristics of a chaotic map, namely (i) its invariant measure and (ii) the mixing constant. This is of help in answering two questions that arise in applications: (i) which is the best PRNG among the available ones? and (ii) if a given PRNG turns out not to be good enough and a randomization procedure must still be applied to it, which is the best applicable randomization procedure? Our answer provides a comparative analysis of several quantifiers advanced in the extant literature.

  8. Pseudo-random number generator for the Sigma 5 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is presented for developing a pseudo-random number generator based on the linear congruential form. The two numbers used for the generator are a prime number and a corresponding primitive root, where the prime is the largest prime number that can be accurately represented on a particular computer. The primitive root is selected by applying Marsaglia's lattice test. The technique presented was applied to write a random number program for the Sigma 5 computer. The new program, named S:RANDOM1, is judged to be superior to the older program named S:RANDOM. For applications requiring several independent random number generators, a table is included showing several acceptable primitive roots. The technique and programs described can be applied to any computer having word length different from that of the Sigma 5.

  9. Primitive polynomials selection method for pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I. V.; Alnajjar, Kh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggested the method for primitive polynomials selection of special type. This kind of polynomials can be efficiently used as a characteristic polynomials for linear feedback shift registers in pseudo-random number generators. The proposed method consists of two basic steps: finding minimum-cost irreducible polynomials of the desired degree and applying primitivity tests to get the primitive ones. Finally two primitive polynomials, which was found by the proposed method, used in pseudorandom number generator based on fuzzy logic (FRNG) which had been suggested before by the authors. The sequences generated by new version of FRNG have low correlation magnitude, high linear complexity, less power consumption, is more balanced and have better statistical properties.

  10. Generation of pseudo-random sequences for spread spectrum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, R.; Stover, J.

    1985-05-01

    The characteristics of pseudo random radio signal sequences (PRS) are explored. The randomness of the PSR is a matter of artificially altering the sequence of binary digits broadcast. Autocorrelations of the two sequences shifted in time, if high, determine if the signals are the same and thus allow for position identification. Cross-correlation can also be calculated between sequences. Correlations closest to zero are obtained with large volume of prime numbers in the sequences. Techniques for selecting optimal and maximal lengths for the sequences are reviewed. If the correlations are near zero in the sequences, then signal channels can accommodate multiple users. Finally, Gold codes are discussed as a technique for maximizing the code lengths.

  11. a Pseudo-Random Number Generator Employing Multiple RÉNYI Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Oi-Yan; Yuen, Ching-Hung; Wong, Kwok-Wo

    2013-11-01

    The increasing risk along with the drastic development of multimedia data transmission has raised a big concern on data security. A good pseudo-random number generator is an essential tool in cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel pseudo-random number generator based on the controlled combination of the outputs of several digitized chaotic Rényi maps. The generated pseudo-random sequences have passed both the NIST 800-22 Revision 1a and the DIEHARD tests. Moreover, simulation results show that the proposed pseudo-random number generator requires less operation time than existing generators and is highly sensitive to the seed.

  12. Waveguide superconducting single-photon autocorrelators for quantum photonic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, D.; Gaggero, A.; Frucci, G.; Jahanmirinejad, S.; Sprengers, J.P.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Beetz, J.; Lermer, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Fiore, A.; Hasan, Z.U.; Hemmer, P.R.; Lee, H.; Santori, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel component for integrated quantum photonic applications, a waveguide single-photon autocorrelator. It is based on two superconducting nanowire detectors patterned onto the same GaAs ridge waveguide. Combining the electrical output of the two detectors in a correlation card enables

  13. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...... on a gallium arsenide platform. This platform offers near-unity coupling between embedded single-photon emitters and a photonic mode, as well as the ability to suppress decoherence mechanisms, making it highly suited for quantum information applications. In this thesis we show how a single-photon router can...... be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device...

  14. Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2012-01-30

    We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.

  15. Single photon transport by a moving atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, A E; Melentiev, P N; Kuzin, A A; Yu Kalatskiy, A; Balykin, V I

    2017-01-01

    The results of investigation of photon transport through the subwavelength hole in the opaque screen by using single neutral atom are represented. The basis of the proposed and implemented method is the absorption of a photon by a neutral atom immediately before the subwavelength aperture, traveling of the atoms through the hole and emission of a photon on the other side of the screen. Realized method is the alternative approach to existing for photon transport through a subwavelength aperture: 1) self-sustained transmittance of a photon through the aperture according to the Bethe’s model; 2) extra ordinary transmission because of surface-plasmon excitation. (paper)

  16. Simulation of a directed random-walk model: the effect of pseudo-random-number correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Shchur, L. N.; Heringa, J. R.; Blöte, H. W. J.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism that leads to systematic deviations in cluster Monte Carlo simulations when correlated pseudo-random numbers are used. We present a simple model, which enables an analysis of the effects due to correlations in several types of pseudo-random-number sequences. This model provides qualitative understanding of the bias mechanism in a class of cluster Monte Carlo algorithms.

  17. Very high performance pseudo-random number generation on DAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.; Reddaway, S. F.; Scott, D. M.

    1985-07-01

    Since the National DAP Service began at QMC in 1980, extensive use has been made of pseudo-random numbers in Monte Carlo simulation. Matrices of uniform numbers have been produced by various generators: (a) multiplicative ( x+ 1 = 13 13xn mod 2 59); (b) very long period shift register ( x4423 + x271 + 1); (c) multiple shorter period ( x127 + x7 + 1) shift registers generating several matrices per iteration. The above uniform generators can also feed a normal distribution generator that uses the Box-Muller transformation. This paper describes briefly the generators, their implementation and speed. Generator (b) has been greatly speeded-up by re-implementation, and now produces more than 100 × 10 6 high quality 16-bit numbers/s. Generator (c) is under development and will achieve even higher performance, mainly due to producing data in greater bulk. High quality numbers are expected, and performance will range from 400 to 800 × 10 6 numbers/s, depending on how the generator is used.

  18. Protocols for data hiding in pseudo-random state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott; Li, Enping; Yu, Jun

    2009-02-01

    An emerging form of steganographic communication uses ciphertext to replace the output of a random or strong pseudo-random number generator. PRNG-driven media, for example computer animated backdrops in video-conferencing channels, can then be used as a covert channel, if the PRNG bits that generated a piece of content can be estimated by the recipient. However, all bits sent over such a channel must be computationally indistinguishable from i.i.d. coin flips. Ciphertext messages and even key exchange datagrams are easily shaped to match this distribution; however, when placing these messages into a continous stream of PRNG bits, the sender is unable to provide synchronization markers, metadata, or error correction to ensure the message's location and proper decoding. In this paper we explore methods for message transmission and steganographic key exchange in such a "coin flip" channel. We establish that key exchange is generally not possible in this channel if an adversary possesses even a modest noise budget. If the warden is not vigilant in adding noise, however, communication is very simple.

  19. Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pantoja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.

  20. Photon statistics characterization of a single-photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, R; Treussart, F; Courty, J-M; Roch, J-F

    2004-01-01

    In a recent experiment, we reported the time-domain intensity noise measurement of a single-photon source relying on single-molecule fluorescence control. In this paper, we present data processing starting from photocount timestamps. The theoretical analytical expression of the time-dependent Mandel parameter Q(T) of an intermittent single-photon source is derived from ON↔OFF dynamics. Finally, source intensity noise analysis, using the Mandel parameter, is quantitatively compared with the usual approach relying on the time autocorrelation function, both methods yielding the same molecular dynamical parameters

  1. Design and Characterization of 64K Pixels Chips Working in Single Photon Processing Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Campbell, M

    2007-01-01

    Progress in CMOS technology and in fine pitch bump bonding has made possible the development of high granularity single photon counting detectors for X-ray imaging. This thesis studies the design and characterization of three pulse processing chips with 65536 square pixels of 55 µm x 55 µm designed in a commercial 0.25 µm 6-metal CMOS technology. The 3 chips share the same architecture and dimensions and are named Medipix2, Mpix2MXR20 and Timepix. The Medipix2 chip is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256 x 256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals. The preamplifier feedback provides compensation for detector leakage current on a pixel by pixel basis. Two identical pulse height discriminators are used to define an energy window. Every event falling inside the energy window is counted with a 13 bit pseudo-random counter. The counter logic, based in a shift register, also behaves as the input/output register for the pixel. Each...

  2. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  3. Single photon sources with single semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guang-Cun; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Shek, Chan Hung; Huang, Wei

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution, we briefly recall the basic concepts of quantum optics and properties of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) which are necessary to the understanding of the physics of single-photon generation with single QDs. Firstly, we address the theory of quantum emitter-cavity system, the fluorescence and optical properties of semiconductor QDs, and the photon statistics as well as optical properties of the QDs. We then review the localization of single semiconductor QDs in quantum confined optical microcavity systems to achieve their overall optical properties and performances in terms of strong coupling regime, efficiency, directionality, and polarization control. Furthermore, we will discuss the recent progress on the fabrication of single photon sources, and various approaches for embedding single QDs into microcavities or photonic crystal nanocavities and show how to extend the wavelength range. We focus in particular on new generations of electrically driven QD single photon source leading to high repetition rates, strong coupling regime, and high collection efficiencies at elevated temperature operation. Besides, new developments of room temperature single photon emission in the strong coupling regime are reviewed. The generation of indistinguishable photons and remaining challenges for practical single-photon sources are also discussed.

  4. Changing optical band structure with single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving strong interactions between individual photons enables a wide variety of exciting possibilities in quantum information science and many-body physics. Cold atoms interfaced with nanophotonic structures have emerged as a platform to realize novel forms of nonlinear interactions. In particular, when atoms are coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, long-range atomic interactions can arise that are mediated by localized atom-photon bound states. We theoretically show that in such a system, the absorption of a single photon can change the band structure for a subsequent photon. This occurs because the first photon affects the atoms in the chain in an alternating fashion, thus leading to an effective period doubling of the system and a new optical band structure for the composite atom-nanophotonic system. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be engineered to realize a single-photon switch, where the first incoming photon switches the system from being highly transmissive to highly reflective, and analyze how signatures can be observed via non-classical correlations of the outgoing photon field.

  5. A symbolic dynamics approach for the complexity analysis of chaotic pseudo-random sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Fanghong

    2004-01-01

    By considering a chaotic pseudo-random sequence as a symbolic sequence, authors present a symbolic dynamics approach for the complexity analysis of chaotic pseudo-random sequences. The method is applied to the cases of Logistic map and one-way coupled map lattice to demonstrate how it works, and a comparison is made between it and the approximate entropy method. The results show that this method is applicable to distinguish the complexities of different chaotic pseudo-random sequences, and it is superior to the approximate entropy method

  6. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  7. Single Photon Sources in Silicon Carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Single photon sources in semiconductors are highly sought after as they constitute the building blocks of a diverse range of emerging technologies such as integrated quantum information processing, quantum metrology and quantum photonics. In this presentation, we show the first observation of single photon emission from deep level defects in silicon carbide (SiC). The single photon emission is photo-stable at room temperature and surprisingly bright. This represents an exciting alternative to diamond color centers since SiC possesses well-established growth and device engineering protocols. The defect is assigned to the carbon vacancy-antisite pair which gives rise to the AB photoluminescence lines. We discuss its photo-physical properties and their fabrication via electron irradiation. Preliminary measurements on 3C SiC nano-structures will also be discussed. (author)

  8. Photonic wires and trumpets for ultrabright single photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gérard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joël

    2013-01-01

    as to tailor their radiation diagram in the far-field. We highlight the novel “photonic trumpet” geometry, which provides a clean Gaussian beam, and is much less sensitive to fabrication imperfections than the more common needle-like taper geometry. S4Ps based on a single QD in a PW with integrated bottom...

  9. Single-photon sources based on single molecules in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerner, W E

    2004-01-01

    Single molecules in suitable host crystals have been demonstrated to be useful single-photon emitters both at liquid-helium temperatures and at room temperature. The low-temperature source achieved controllable emission of single photons from a single terrylene molecule in p-terphenyl by an adiabatic rapid passage technique. In contrast with almost all other single-molecule systems, terrylene single molecules show extremely high photostability under continuous, high-intensity irradiation. A room-temperature source utilizing this material has been demonstrated, in which fast pumping into vibrational sidebands of the electronically excited state achieved efficient inversion of the emissive level. This source yielded a single-photon emission probability p(1) of 0.86 at a detected count rate near 300 000 photons s -1 , with very small probability of emission of more than one photon. Thus, single molecules in solids can be considered as contenders for applications of single-photon sources such as quantum key distribution

  10. Three-dimensional pseudo-random number generator for implementing in hybrid computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Vasil'ev, N.P.; Voronin, A.V.; Kravtsov, M.Yu.; Maksutov, A.A.; Spiridonov, A.A.; Khudyakova, V.I.; Chugunkov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm for generating pseudo-random numbers oriented to implementation by using hybrid computer systems is considered. The proposed solution is characterized by a high degree of parallel computing [ru

  11. Design and performance of single photon APD focal plane arrays for 3-D LADAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    ×We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of focal plane arrays (FPAs) for use in 3-D LADAR imaging applications requiring single photon sensitivity. These 32 × 32 FPAs provide high-efficiency single photon sensitivity for three-dimensional LADAR imaging applications at 1064 nm. Our GmAPD arrays are designed using a planarpassivated avalanche photodiode device platform with buried p-n junctions that has demonstrated excellent performance uniformity, operational stability, and long-term reliability. The core of the FPA is a chip stack formed by hybridizing the GmAPD photodiode array to a custom CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) and attaching a precision-aligned GaP microlens array (MLA) to the back-illuminated detector array. Each ROIC pixel includes an active quenching circuit governing Geiger-mode operation of the corresponding avalanche photodiode pixel as well as a pseudo-random counter to capture per-pixel time-of-flight timestamps in each frame. The FPA has been designed to operate at frame rates as high as 186 kHz for 2 μs range gates. Effective single photon detection efficiencies as high as 40% (including all optical transmission and MLA losses) are achieved for dark count rates below 20 kHz. For these planar-geometry diffused-junction GmAPDs, isolation trenches are used to reduce crosstalk due to hot carrier luminescence effects during avalanche events, and we present details of the crosstalk performance for different operating conditions. Direct measurement of temporal probability distribution functions due to cumulative timing uncertainties of the GmAPDs and ROIC circuitry has demonstrated a FWHM timing jitter as low as 265 ps (standard deviation is ~100 ps).

  12. Highly efficient sources of single indistinguishable photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    be electrically driven. Several design strategies addressing these requirements have been proposed. In the cavity-based source, light emission is controlled using resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics effects, whereas in the waveguide-based source, broadband electric field screening effects are employed......Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable and the source should...

  13. Using pseudo-random number generator for making iterative algorithms of hashing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Vasil'ev, N.P.; Kozyrskij, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    The method of stochastic data transformation made for usage in cryptographic methods of information protection has been analyzed. The authors prove the usage of cryptographically strong pseudo-random number generators as a basis for Sponge construction. This means that the analysis of the quality of the known methods and tools for assessing the statistical security of pseudo-random number generators can be used effectively [ru

  14. Pseudo-random number generation using a 3-state cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Kamalika; Paul, Dipanjyoti; Das, Sukanta

    This paper investigates the potentiality of pseudo-random number generation of a 3-neighborhood 3-state cellular automaton (CA) under periodic boundary condition. Theoretical and empirical tests are performed on the numbers, generated by the CA, to observe the quality of it as pseudo-random number generator (PRNG). We analyze the strength and weakness of the proposed PRNG and conclude that the selected CA is a good random number generator.

  15. High-Performance Pseudo-Random Number Generation on Graphics Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Nandapalan, Nimalan; Brent, Richard P.; Murray, Lawrence M.; Rendell, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    This work considers the deployment of pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) on graphics processing units (GPUs), developing an approach based on the xorgens generator to rapidly produce pseudo-random numbers of high statistical quality. The chosen algorithm has configurable state size and period, making it ideal for tuning to the GPU architecture. We present a comparison of both speed and statistical quality with other common parallel, GPU-based PRNGs, demonstrating favourable performance o...

  16. Entangled photons from single atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Bengt

    2018-05-01

    The first two-photon entanglement experiment performed 50 years ago by Kocher and Commins (KC) provided isolated pairs of entangled photons from an atomic three-state fluorescence cascade. In view of questioning of Bell's theorem, data from these experiments are re-analyzed and shown sufficiently precise to confirm quantum mechanical and dismiss semi-classical theory without need for Bell's inequalities. Polarization photon correlation anisotropy (A) is useful: A is near unity as predicted quantum mechanically and well above the semi-classic range, 0 ⩽ A ⩽ 1 / 2 . Although yet to be found, one may envisage a three-state molecule emitting entangled photon pairs, in analogy with the KC atomic system. Antibunching in fluorescence from single molecules in matrix and entangled photons from quantum dots promise it be possible. Molecules can have advantages to parametric down-conversion as the latter photon distribution is Poissonian and unsuitable for producing isolated pairs of entangled photons. Analytical molecular applications of entangled light are also envisaged.

  17. Transmitting more than 10 bit with a single photon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tentrup, T.B.H.; Hummel, T.; Wolterink, T.A.W.; Uppu, R.; Mosk, Allard; Pinkse, P.W.H.

    2017-01-01

    Encoding information in the position of single photons has no known limits, given infinite resources. Using a heralded single-photon source and a spatial light modulator (SLM), we steer single photons to specific positions in a virtual grid on a large-area spatially resolving photon-counting

  18. Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D. D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.

  19. Demonstrating quantum random with single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Silberhorn, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We present an experiment for education which demonstrates random transmission or reflection of heralded single photons on beam splitters. With our set-up, we can realize different quantum random experiments by appropriate settings of polarization rotators. The concept of entanglement is motivated by correlated randomness. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate education and are available as interactive screen experiments.

  20. Interactive Screen Experiments with Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Single photons are used for fundamental quantum physics experiments as well as for applications. Originally being a topic of advance courses, such experiments are increasingly a subject of undergraduate courses. We provide interactive screen experiments (ISE) for supporting the work in a real laboratory, and for students who do not have access to…

  1. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu-Lai, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0–1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator. (general)

  2. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Lai

    2010-09-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0-1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator.

  3. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-08-01

    Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  4. Least squares deconvolution for leak detection with a pseudo random binary sequence excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Si Tran Nguyen; Gong, Jinzhe; Lambert, Martin F.; Zecchin, Aaron C.; Simpson, Angus R.

    2018-01-01

    Leak detection and localisation is critical for water distribution system pipelines. This paper examines the use of the time-domain impulse response function (IRF) for leak detection and localisation in a pressurised water pipeline with a pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) signal excitation. Compared to the conventional step wave generated using a single fast operation of a valve closure, a PRBS signal offers advantageous correlation properties, in that the signal has very low autocorrelation for lags different from zero and low cross correlation with other signals including noise and other interference. These properties result in a significant improvement in the IRF signal to noise ratio (SNR), leading to more accurate leak localisation. In this paper, the estimation of the system IRF is formulated as an optimisation problem in which the l2 norm of the IRF is minimised to suppress the impact of noise and interference sources. Both numerical and experimental data are used to verify the proposed technique. The resultant estimated IRF provides not only accurate leak location estimation, but also good sensitivity to small leak sizes due to the improved SNR.

  5. Multi-kW coherent combining of fiber lasers seeded with pseudo random phase modulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Angel; Ehrehreich, Thomas; Holten, Roger; Anderson, Brian; Dajani, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    We report efficient coherent beam combining of five kilowatt-class fiber amplifiers with a diffractive optical element (DOE). Based on a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, the amplifiers were seeded with pseudo random phase modulated light. Each non-polarization maintaining fiber amplifier was optically path length matched and provides approximately 1.2 kW of near diffraction-limited output power (measured M2polarization control. A low power sample of the combined beam after the DOE provided an error signal for active phase locking which was performed via Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-Detector Electronic-Frequency Tagging (LOCSET). After phase stabilization, the beams were coherently combined via the 1x5 DOE. A total combined output power of 4.9 kW was achieved with 82% combining efficiency and excellent beam quality (M2splitter loss was 5%. Similarly, losses due in part to non-ideal polarization, ASE content, uncorrelated wavefront errors, and misalignment errors contributed to the efficiency reduction.

  6. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changhyuk, E-mail: cl678@cornell.edu; Johnson, Ben, E-mail: bcj25@cornell.edu; Molnar, Alyosha, E-mail: am699@cornell.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  7. Diamond-based single-photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Simpson, D A; Su, C-H; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.

  8. Ultrafast time measurements by time-correlated single photon counting coupled with superconducting single photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.

  9. Distributed quantum computing with single photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beige, A.; Kwek, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Distributed quantum computing requires the ability to perform nonlocal gate operations between the distant nodes (stationary qubits) of a large network. To achieve this, it has been proposed to interconvert stationary qubits with flying qubits. In contrast to this, we show that distributed quantum computing only requires the ability to encode stationary qubits into flying qubits but not the conversion of flying qubits into stationary qubits. We describe a scheme for the realization of an eventually deterministic controlled phase gate by performing measurements on pairs of flying qubits. Our scheme could be implemented with a linear optics quantum computing setup including sources for the generation of single photons on demand, linear optics elements and photon detectors. In the presence of photon loss and finite detector efficiencies, the scheme could be used to build large cluster states for one way quantum computing with a high fidelity. (author)

  10. Measuring gas-residence times in large municipal incinerators, by means of a pseudo-random binary signal tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Jones, B.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of measuring gas-residence time in large incinerators was studied by the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) stimulus tracer response technique at the Sheffield municipal solid-waste incinerator (35 MW plant). The steady-state system was disturbed by the superimposition of small fluctuations in the form of a pseudo-random binary sequence of methane pulses, and the response of the incinerator was determined from the CO 2 concentration in flue gases at the boiler exit, measured with a specially developed optical gas analyser with a high-frequency response. For data acquisition, an on-line PC computer was used together with the LAB Windows software system; the output response was then cross-correlated with the perturbation signal to give the impulse response of the incinerator. There was very good agreement between the gas-residence time for the Sheffield MSW incinerator as calculated by computational fluid dynamics (FLUENT Model) and gas-residence time at the plant as measured by the PRBS tracer technique. The results obtained from this research programme clearly demonstrate that the PRBS stimulus tracer response technique can be successfully and economically used to measure gas-residence times in large incinerator plants. It also suggests that the common commercial practice of characterising the incinerator operation by a single-residence-time parameter may lead to a misrepresentation of the complexities involved in describing the operation of the incineration system. (author)

  11. Robust video watermarking via optimization algorithm for quantization of pseudo-random semi-global statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukgoz, Mehmet; Harmanci, Oztan; Mihcak, Mehmet K.; Venkatesan, Ramarathnam

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel semi-blind video watermarking scheme, where we use pseudo-random robust semi-global features of video in the three dimensional wavelet transform domain. We design the watermark sequence via solving an optimization problem, such that the features of the mark-embedded video are the quantized versions of the features of the original video. The exact realizations of the algorithmic parameters are chosen pseudo-randomly via a secure pseudo-random number generator, whose seed is the secret key, that is known (resp. unknown) by the embedder and the receiver (resp. by the public). We experimentally show the robustness of our algorithm against several attacks, such as conventional signal processing modifications and adversarial estimation attacks.

  12. Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Gaston E.

    2007-09-01

    The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 1013 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 1013 numbers and that they are not correlated.

  13. Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, Gaston E.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 10 13 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 10 13 numbers and that they are not correlated

  14. Sub-megahertz linewidth single photon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rambach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report 100% duty cycle generation of sub-MHz single photon pairs at the rubidium D1 line using cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion. The temporal intensity cross correlation function exhibits a bandwidth of 666±16 kHz for the single photons, an order of magnitude below the natural linewidth of the target transition. A half-wave plate inside our cavity helps to achieve triple resonance between pump, signal, and idler photon, reducing the bandwidth and simplifying the locking scheme. Additionally, stabilisation of the cavity to the pump frequency enables the 100% duty cycle. The quantum nature of the source is confirmed by the idler-triggered second-order autocorrelation function at τ=0 to be gs,s(2(0= 0.016±0.002 for a heralding rate of 5 kHz. The generated photons are well-suited for storage in quantum memory schemes with sub-natural linewidths, such as gradient echo memories.

  15. Single-Photon Technologies Based on Quantum-Dots in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff

    -photon purity under quasi-resonantexcitation. Furthermore the waveguide based platform demonstrates indistinguishable single-photonsat timescales up to 13 ns.A setup for active demultiplexing of single-photons to a three-fold single-photon state is proposed.Using a fast electro-optical modulator, single...

  16. Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on ATI Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is presented.

  17. Determination of spatially dependent transfer function of zero power reactor by using pseudo-random incentive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.

    1973-01-01

    Specially constructed fast reactivity oscillator was stimulating the zero power reactor by a stimulus which caused pseudo-random reactivity changes. Measuring system included stochastic oscillator BCR-1 supplied by pseudo-random pulses from noise generator GBS-16, instrumental tape-recorder, system for data acquisition and digital computer ZUSE-Z-23. For measuring the spatially dependent transfer function, reactor response was measured at a number of different positions of stochastic oscillator and ionization chamber. In order to keep the reactor system linear, experiment was limited to small reactivity fluctuations. Experimental results were compared to theoretical ones

  18. Design of Long Period Pseudo-Random Sequences from the Addition of -Sequences over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-random sequence with good correlation property and large linear span is widely used in code division multiple access (CDMA communication systems and cryptology for reliable and secure information transmission. In this paper, sequences with long period, large complexity, balance statistics, and low cross-correlation property are constructed from the addition of -sequences with pairwise-prime linear spans (AMPLS. Using -sequences as building blocks, the proposed method proved to be an efficient and flexible approach to construct long period pseudo-random sequences with desirable properties from short period sequences. Applying the proposed method to , a signal set is constructed.

  19. Pseudo-Random Number Generators for Vector Processors and Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    2015-01-01

    Large scale Monte Carlo applications need a good pseudo-random number generator capable of utilizing both the vector processing capabilities and multiprocessing capabilities of modern computers in order to get the maximum performance. The requirements for such a generator are discussed. New ways...

  20. Pseudo-random-number generators and the square site percolation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Selected pseudo-random-number generators are applied to a Monte Carlo study of the two-dimensional square-lattice site percolation model. A generator suitable for high precision calculations is identified from an application specific test of randomness. After extended computation and analysis, an ostensibly reliable value of p_{c}=0.59274598(4) is obtained for the percolation threshold.

  1. Pseudo-random Trees: Multiple Independent Sequence Generators for Parallel and Branching Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, John H.

    1989-09-01

    A class of families of linear congruential pseudo-random sequences is defined, for which it is possible to branch at any event without changing the sequence of random numbers used in the original random walk and for which the sequences in different branches show properties analogous to mutual statistical independence. This is a hitherto unavailable, and computationally desirable, tool.

  2. About the problem of generating three-dimensional pseudo-random points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, D. D.

    The author demonstrates that a popular pseudo-random number generator is not adequate in some circumstances to generate n-dimensional random points, n > 2. This problem is particularly noxious when direction cosines are generated. He proposes several soultions, among them a good generator that satisfies all statistical criteria.

  3. Coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian

    Efficient and high quality single-photon sources is a key element in quantum information processing using photons. As a consequence, much current research is focused on realizing all-solid-state nanophotonic single-photon sources. Single photons can be harvested with high efficiency if the emitter...... is coupled efficiently to a single enhanced mode. One popular approach has been to couple single quantum dots to a nanocavity but a limiting factor in this configuration is that in order to apply the photon it should subsequently be coupled out of the cavity, reducing the overall efficiency significantly...

  4. Ultrafast electrical control of a resonantly driven single photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of a pulsed stream of electrically triggered single photons in resonance fluorescence, by applying high frequency electrical pulses to a single quantum dot in a p-i-n diode under resonant laser excitation. Single photon emission was verified, with the probability of multiple photon emission reduced to 2.8%. We show that despite the presence of charge noise in the emission spectrum of the dot, resonant excitation acts as a “filter” to generate narrow bandwidth photons

  5. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Molecular Dynamics codes implemented on GPUs have achieved two-order of magnitude computational accelerations. → Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations require a large number of random numbers per time step. → We introduce a method for generating small batches of pseudorandom numbers distributed over many threads of calculations. → With this method, Dissipative Particle Dynamics is implemented on a GPU device without requiring thread-to-thread communication. - Abstract: Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  6. Single Photon Double Ionization of Atomic Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarathna, Madhushani; Gorczyca, Thomas; Ballance, Connor; Stolte, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    Single photon double ionization cross sections are calculated using an R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method which was recently applied by Gorczyca et al. for the double photoionization of helium. With the convergence of these theoretical calculations for the simple case of helium, we extend this methodology to consider the more complex case of oxygen double photoionization. We compare our calculated results with recent measurements at the Advanced Light Source, as well as earlier experimental measurements. Our RMPS results agree well, qualitatively, with the experimental measurements, but there exist outstanding discrepancies to be addressed. This project is supported by NASA APRA award NNX17AD41G.

  7. Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

    2015-04-15

    Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared.

  8. Single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Single photon tomography dates from the early 1960's when the idea of emission transverse section tomography was presented by Kuhl and Edwards. They used a rectilinear scanner and analogue back-projection methods to detect emissions from a series of sequential positions transverse to the cephaldcaudad axis of the body. This chapter presents an explanation of emission tomography by describing longitudinal and transverse section tomography. In principle all modes of tomography can be considered under the general topic of coded apertures wherein the code ranges from translation of a pinhole collimator to rotation of a parallel hole or focused collimator array

  9. Single photon detection in the SQS mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.A.; Fraga, M.M.; Lima, E.P. de; Marques, R.F.; Neves, F.; Policarpo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented concerning the detection of single UV photons in self quenching streamer detectors by photoionization of one of the gas mixture components, in this case TEA (tri ethyl-amine), whose molecules have low photoionization potential and large absorption cross section. As a UV light source, a gas scintillation counter filled with krypton was used, whose emission light spectrum, centered at approximately 150 nm, overlaps well the photoionization spectrum of TEA. The mixtures studied were argon/ethane/TEA, argon/isobutane/TEA, argon/ethane/methylal/TEA and argon/isobutane/methylal/ TEA. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Quantum optics. All-optical routing of single photons by a one-atom switch controlled by a single photon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomroni, Itay; Rosenblum, Serge; Lovsky, Yulia; Bechler, Orel; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak

    2014-08-22

    The prospect of quantum networks, in which quantum information is carried by single photons in photonic circuits, has long been the driving force behind the effort to achieve all-optical routing of single photons. We realized a single-photon-activated switch capable of routing a photon from any of its two inputs to any of its two outputs. Our device is based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator. A single reflected control photon toggles the switch from high reflection (R ~ 65%) to high transmission (T ~ 90%), with an average of ~1.5 control photons per switching event (~3, including linear losses). No additional control fields are required. The control and target photons are both in-fiber and practically identical, making this scheme compatible with scalable architectures for quantum information processing. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Quantum Logic with Cavity Photons From Single Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Rubenok, Allison; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B R; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Marshall, Graham D; Sparrow, Chris; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Poulios, Konstantinos; Kuhn, Axel; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate quantum logic using narrow linewidth photons that are produced with an a priori nonprobabilistic scheme from a single ^{87}Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity. We use a controlled-not gate integrated into a photonic chip to entangle these photons, and we observe nonclassical correlations between photon detection events separated by periods exceeding the travel time across the chip by 3 orders of magnitude. This enables quantum technology that will use the properties of both narrow-band single photon sources and integrated quantum photonics.

  12. Generation of Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the spectral (temporal) properties of heralded single photon wave packets, triggered by the detection of an idler photon in the process of parametric down conversion. The generated single photons are studied within the framework of the chronocyclic Wigner function, from which the single photon spectral width and temporal duration can be computed. We derive specific conditions on the two-photon joint spectral amplitude which result in both pure and Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons. Likewise, we present specific source geometries which lead to the fulfillment of these conditions and show that one of these geometries leads, for a given pump bandwidth, to the temporally shortest possible heralded single photon wave packets

  13. Modular Transformations, Order-Chaos Transitions and Pseudo-Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Antonio; Ruffo, Stefano

    Successive pairs of pseudo-random numbers generated by standard linear congruential transformations display ordered patterns of parallel lines. We study the "ordered" and "chaotic" distribution of such pairs by solving the eigenvalue problem for two-dimensional modular transformations over integers. We conjecture that the optimal uniformity for pair distribution is obtained when the slope of linear modular eigenspaces takes the value n opt =maxint (p/√ {p-1}), where p is a prime number. We then propose a new generator of pairs of independent pseudo-random numbers, which realizes an optimal uniform distribution (in the "statistical" sense) of points on the unit square (0, 1] × (0, 1]. The method can be easily generalized to the generation of k-tuples of random numbers (with k>2).

  14. A scanner for single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Cumpstey, D.E.; Evans, N.T.S.; Coleman, J.D.; Ettinger, K.V.; Mallard, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of single photon ECT has now been available for some eighteen years, but has yet still to be exploited fully. The difficulties of doing this lie in the need for gathering data of sufficiently good statistical accuracy in a reasonable counting time, in the uniformity of detector sensitivity, and in the means for correcting the image satisfactorily for photon attenuation within the body. The relative ease with which a general purpose gamma camera can be adapted to give rotation around the patient makes this an attractive practical approach to the problem. However, the sensitivity of gamma cameras over their field of view is by no means uniform, and their sensitivity is less good than that of purpose-designed scanners when no more than about ten sections through the body are required. There is therefore a need to assess the clinical usefulness of a whole body tomographic scanner of high sensitivity and uniformity. Such a machine is the Aberdeen Section Scanner Mark II described

  15. Distributed Pseudo-Random Number Generation and Its Application to Cloud Database

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiageng; Miyaji, Atsuko; Su, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Cloud database is now a rapidly growing trend in cloud computing market recently. It enables the clients run their computation on out-sourcing databases or access to some distributed database service on the cloud. At the same time, the security and privacy concerns is major challenge for cloud database to continue growing. To enhance the security and privacy of the cloud database technology, the pseudo-random number generation (PRNG) plays an important roles in data encryptions and privacy-pr...

  16. Pseudo-random number generator based on mixing of three chaotic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, M.; Grosges, T.; Barchiesi, D.; Erra, R.

    2014-04-01

    A secure pseudo-random number generator three-mixer is proposed. The principle of the method consists in mixing three chaotic maps produced from an input initial vector. The algorithm uses permutations whose positions are computed and indexed by a standard chaotic function and a linear congruence. The performance of that scheme is evaluated through statistical analysis. Such a cryptosystem lets appear significant cryptographic qualities for a high security level.

  17. Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan, E-mail: zyxue@scnu.edu.cn; Yang, Li-Na [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou8627@163.com [Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-07-13

    In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.

  18. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1,2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  19. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2 /Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  20. Single photon imaging. New instrumentation and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of Anger scintillation cameras continues to be enhanced through a series of small improvements which result in significantly better imaging characteristics. The most recent changes in camera design consist of: (1) the introduction of photomultipliers with better photocathode and electron collection efficiencies, (2) the use of thinner (3/8 or 1/4 in) crystals giving slightly better intrinsic resolution for low gamma-ray energies, (3) inclusion of a spatially varying energy window to compensate for variations of light collection efficiency, (4) event-by-event, real-time distortion removal for uniformity correction, and (5) introduction of new methods to improve the count-rate capability. Whereas some of these improvements are due to better understanding of the fundamentals of camera design, others are the result of technological advances in electronic components such as analogue-to-digital converters, microprocessors and high-density digital memories. The development of single photon tomography has developed along two parallel paths. Multipinhole and rotating slant-hole collimator attachments provide some degree of longitudinal tomography, and are currently being applied to cardiac imaging. At the same time rotating camera systems capable of transverse as well as longitudinal imaging are being refined technically and evaluated clinically. Longitudinal tomography is of limited use in quantitative studies and is likely to be an interim solution to three-dimensional imaging. Rotating camera systems, on the other hand, not only provide equal resolution in all three dimensions but are also capable of providing quantitative accuracy. This is the result of progress in attenuation correction and the design of special collimators. Single photon tomography provides a small but noticeable improvement in diagnostic accuracy which is likely to result in widespread use of rotating camera systems in the future

  1. Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Marsili, Francesco; Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Painter, Oskar J.; Shaw, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated WSi-based superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors coupled to SiNx waveguides with integrated ring resonators. This photonics platform enables the implementation of robust and efficient photon-counting detectors with fine spectral resolution near 1550 nm.

  2. Single-Photon Routing for a L-Shaped Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Hou, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Chun

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of a single photon scattered by a two-level atom embedded in a L-shaped waveguide, which is made of two one-dimensional (1D) semi-infinite coupled-resonator waveguides (CRWs). Single photons can be directed from one CRW to the other due to spontaneous emission of the atom. The result shows that the spontaneous emission of the TLS still routes single photon from one CRW to the other; the boundary existing makes the probability of finding single photon in a CRW could reach one. Our the scheme is helpful to construct a ring quantum networks.

  3. The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....

  4. A high-efficiency electrically-pumped single-photon source based on a photonics nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    An electrically-pumped single-photon source design with a predicted efficiency of 89% is proposed. The design is based on a quantum dot embedded in a photonic nanowire with tailored ends and optimized contact electrodes. Unlike cavity-based approaches, the photonic nanowire features broadband...

  5. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to 1D nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption.......We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption....

  6. Direct detection of a single photon by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Jonathan N.; Molodtsov, Maxim I.; Prevedel, Robert; Wartmann, David; Espigulé-Pons, Jofre; Lauwers, Mattias; Vaziri, Alipasha

    2016-01-01

    Despite investigations for over 70 years, the absolute limits of human vision have remained unclear. Rod cells respond to individual photons, yet whether a single-photon incident on the eye can be perceived by a human subject has remained a fundamental open question. Here we report that humans can detect a single-photon incident on the cornea with a probability significantly above chance. This was achieved by implementing a combination of a psychophysics procedure with a quantum light source that can generate single-photon states of light. We further discover that the probability of reporting a single photon is modulated by the presence of an earlier photon, suggesting a priming process that temporarily enhances the effective gain of the visual system on the timescale of seconds. PMID:27434854

  7. New Generation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goltsman G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of recent results for new generation of infrared and optical superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs that has already demonstrated a performance that makes them devices-of-choice for many applications. SNSPDs provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, SNSPDs are also compatible with an integrated optical platform as a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. By embedding SNSPDs in nanophotonic circuits we realize waveguide integrated single photon detectors which unite all desirable detector properties in a single device.

  8. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  9. Single-photon emission tomography and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celsis, P.; Chan, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Sveinsdottir, E.; Goldman, T.G.; Henriksen, L.; Paulson, O.B.; Stokely, E.M.; Lassen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper illustrates the capabilities of single-photon emission tomography in imaging local cerebral blood flows in man. The results purport the conclusion that a fairly good improvement has been achieved when compared to stationary detectors and that single-photon emission tomography is a well-suited tool for studying cerebral hemodynamics, especially within the framework of clinical studies [fr

  10. Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    Solid-state sources of single indistinguishable photons are of great interest for quantum information applications. The semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a host material represents an attractive platform to realize such a single-photon source (SPS). A near-unity efficiency, defined as the num...... nanowire SPSs...

  11. Computer simulation of different designs of pseudo-random time-of-flight velocity analysers for molecular beam scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotzoll, G.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief summary of the pseudo-random time-of-flight (TOF) method, the design criteria for construction of a pseudo-random TOF disc are considered and complemented by computer simulations. The question of resolution and the choice of the sequence length and number of time channels per element are discussed. Moreover, the stability requirements of the chopper motor frequency are investigated. (author)

  12. Single-photon generator for optical telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, T; Sakuma, Y; Hirose, S; Takemoto, K; Yokoyama, N; Miyazawa, T; Takatsu, M; Arakawa, Y

    2006-01-01

    We report on the generation of single-photon pulses from a single InAs/InP quantum dot in telecommunication bands (1.3-1.55 μm: higher transmittance through an optical fiber). First we prepared InAs quantum dots on InP (0 0 1) substrates in a low-pressure MOCVD by using a so-called InP 'double-cap' procedure. The quantum dots have well-controlled photo emission wavelength in the telecommunication bands. We also developed a single-photon emitter in which quantum dots were embedded. Numerical simulation designed the emitter to realize efficient injection of the emitted photons into a single-mode optical fiber. Using a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss technique has proved that the photons through the fiber were single photons

  13. Interactive reconstruction in single-photon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Wallis, J.W.; Wilson, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new method is described to allow interactive selection of the reconstruction filter at the time of interpretation of images from single-photon tomography. In the filtered back projection algorithm, the only part of the reconstruction process requiring user interaction is the selection of the window function. Since the ramp and window filters have different purposes, they can be separated, placing the window at the end of the reconstruction process as a three-dimensional filter. All stages of reconstruction except the window filtering are performed before the physician begins to interpret the study. The three-dimensional filtering is performed very rapidly with use of the Chebyshev convolution algorithm. A 64 x 64 x 64 pixel cube of data is filtered in 13-33 s using filters of 3-11 lengths. Smaller volumes of image data can be filtered in less than 1 s; thus, the user can interactively choose any desired filter for a given tomographic study at the time of interpretation of the images. (orig.)

  14. Cardiorespiratory Kinetics Determined by Pseudo-Random Binary Sequences - Comparisons between Walking and Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Thieschäfer, L; Heine, O; Baum, K; Hoffmann, U

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to compare cardiorespiratory kinetics as a response to a standardised work rate protocol with pseudo-random binary sequences between cycling and walking in young healthy subjects. Muscular and pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ) kinetics as well as heart rate kinetics were expected to be similar for walking and cycling. Cardiac data and V̇O 2 of 23 healthy young subjects were measured in response to pseudo-random binary sequences. Kinetics were assessed applying time series analysis. Higher maxima of cross-correlation functions between work rate and the respective parameter indicate faster kinetics responses. Muscular V̇O 2 kinetics were estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V̇O 2 using a circulatory model. Muscular (walking vs. cycling [mean±SD in arbitrary units]: 0.40±0.08 vs. 0.41±0.08) and pulmonary V̇O 2 kinetics (0.35±0.06 vs. 0.35±0.06) were not different, although the time courses of the cross-correlation functions of pulmonary V̇O 2 showed unexpected biphasic responses. Heart rate kinetics (0.50±0.14 vs. 0.40±0.14; P=0.017) was faster for walking. Regarding the biphasic cross-correlation functions of pulmonary V̇O 2 during walking, the assessment of muscular V̇O 2 kinetics via pseudo-random binary sequences requires a circulatory model to account for cardio-dynamic distortions. Faster heart rate kinetics for walking should be considered by comparing results from cycle and treadmill ergometry. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Quantum dot single-photon switches of resonant tunneling current for discriminating-photon-number detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei

    2015-03-23

    Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.

  16. Generation of pseudo-random numbers from given probabilistic distribution with the use of chaotic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawnik, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    The scope of the paper is the presentation of a new method of generating numbers from a given distribution. The method uses the inverse cumulative distribution function and a method of flattening of probabilistic distributions. On the grounds of these methods, a new construction of chaotic maps was derived, which generates values from a given distribution. The analysis of the new method was conducted on the example of a newly constructed chaotic recurrences, based on the Box-Muller transformation and the quantile function of the exponential distribution. The obtained results certify that the proposed method may be successively applicable for the construction of generators of pseudo-random numbers.

  17. Efficient pseudo-random number generation for monte-carlo simulations using graphic processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Siddhant; Mohanty, A. K.; Carminati, F.

    2012-06-01

    A hybrid approach based on the combination of three Tausworthe generators and one linear congruential generator for pseudo random number generation for GPU programing as suggested in NVIDIA-CUDA library has been used for MONTE-CARLO sampling. On each GPU thread, a random seed is generated on fly in a simple way using the quick and dirty algorithm where mod operation is not performed explicitly due to unsigned integer overflow. Using this hybrid generator, multivariate correlated sampling based on alias technique has been carried out using both CUDA and OpenCL languages.

  18. Pseudo-Random Sequences Generated by a Class of One-Dimensional Smooth Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Qin, Xue; Xie, Yi-Xin

    2011-08-01

    We extend a class of a one-dimensional smooth map. We make sure that for each desired interval of the parameter the map's Lyapunov exponent is positive. Then we propose a novel parameter perturbation method based on the good property of the extended one-dimensional smooth map. We perturb the parameter r in each iteration by the real number xi generated by the iteration. The auto-correlation function and NIST statistical test suite are taken to illustrate the method's randomness finally. We provide an application of this method in image encryption. Experiments show that the pseudo-random sequences are suitable for this application.

  19. Pseudo-Random Sequences Generated by a Class of One-Dimensional Smooth Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Qin Xue; Xie Yi-Xin

    2011-01-01

    We extend a class of a one-dimensional smooth map. We make sure that for each desired interval of the parameter the map's Lyapunov exponent is positive. Then we propose a novel parameter perturbation method based on the good property of the extended one-dimensional smooth map. We perturb the parameter r in each iteration by the real number x i generated by the iteration. The auto-correlation function and NIST statistical test suite are taken to illustrate the method's randomness finally. We provide an application of this method in image encryption. Experiments show that the pseudo-random sequences are suitable for this application. (general)

  20. Pseudo-random Aloha for inter-frame soft combining in RFID systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castiglione, Paolo; Ricciato, Fabio; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider a recently proposed variant of the classical Framed Slotted-ALOHA where slot selection is based on a pseudo-random function of the message to be transmitted and of the frame index. We couple this feature with convolutional encoding, that allows to perform Inter-frame Soft...... cancellation (instead of combining). Numerical simulation results show that the ISoC scheme brings a noticeable throughput gain over traditional schemes in a dense RFID scenario with multiple concurrent Tag transmissions....

  1. Efficient pseudo-random number generation for Monte-Carlo simulations using graphic processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Siddhant; Mohanty, A K; Carminati, F

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid approach based on the combination of three Tausworthe generators and one linear congruential generator for pseudo random number generation for GPU programing as suggested in NVIDIA-CUDA library has been used for MONTE-CARLO sampling. On each GPU thread, a random seed is generated on fly in a simple way using the quick and dirty algorithm where mod operation is not performed explicitly due to unsigned integer overflow. Using this hybrid generator, multivariate correlated sampling based on alias technique has been carried out using both CUDA and OpenCL languages.

  2. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  3. Entanglement and quantum superposition induced by a single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xin-You; Zhu, Gui-Lei; Zheng, Li-Li; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    We predict the occurrence of single-photon-induced entanglement and quantum superposition in a hybrid quantum model, introducing an optomechanical coupling into the Rabi model. Originally, it comes from the photon-dependent quantum property of the ground state featured by the proposed hybrid model. It is associated with a single-photon-induced quantum phase transition, and is immune to the A2 term of the spin-field interaction. Moreover, the obtained quantum superposition state is actually a squeezed cat state, which can significantly enhance precision in quantum metrology. This work offers an approach to manipulate entanglement and quantum superposition with a single photon, which might have potential applications in the engineering of new single-photon quantum devices, and also fundamentally broaden the regime of cavity QED.

  4. Analysis of deterministic swapping of photonic and atomic states through single-photon Raman interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Serge; Borne, Adrien; Dayan, Barak

    2017-03-01

    The long-standing goal of deterministic quantum interactions between single photons and single atoms was recently realized in various experiments. Among these, an appealing demonstration relied on single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) in a three-level atom coupled to a single-mode waveguide. In essence, the interference-based process of SPRINT deterministically swaps the qubits encoded in a single photon and a single atom, without the need for additional control pulses. It can also be harnessed to construct passive entangling quantum gates, and can therefore form the basis for scalable quantum networks in which communication between the nodes is carried out only by single-photon pulses. Here we present an analytical and numerical study of SPRINT, characterizing its limitations and defining parameters for its optimal operation. Specifically, we study the effect of losses, imperfect polarization, and the presence of multiple excited states. In all cases we discuss strategies for restoring the operation of SPRINT.

  5. A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...... above 80% within a 0.5 numerical aperture can be achieved using a bottom Bragg mirror and a tapering of the nanowire tip. Because this photon collection strategy does not exploit the Purcell effect, it could also be efficiently applied to broadband single photon emitters such as F-centers in diamond....

  6. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  7. Spectrum of acetylene fluorescence excited by single XUV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum of visible emission from photofragments of acetylene excited by single 16.85 eV photons has been recorded for the first time. The spectrum is dominated by the Swan and Deslandres-d'Azambuja bands of C 2 and the 431.5 nm band of CH. The yields of these emissions are of the order 10 -3 photons per absorbed incident photon. The experimental conditions suggest that the emission results from primary C* 2 and CH* photofragments

  8. Nanofabrication of Plasmonic Circuits Containing Single Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    Nanofabrication of photonic components based on dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) excited by single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds is demonstrated. DLSPPW circuits are built around NV containing nanodiamonds, which are certified to be single-photon...... emitters, using electron-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist on silver-coated silicon substrates. A propagation length of 20 ± 5 μm for the NV single-photon emission is measured with DLSPPWs. A 5-fold enhancement in the total decay rate, and 58% coupling efficiency to the DLSPPW mode...

  9. Single-photon light detection with transition-edge sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajteri, M.; Taralli, E.; Portesi, C.; Monticone, E.

    2008-01-01

    Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) are micro calorimeters that measure the energy of incident single-photons by the resistance increase of a superconducting film biased within the superconducting-to-normal transition. TES are able to detect single photons from x-ray to IR with an intrinsic energy resolution and photon-number discrimination capability. Metrological, astronomical and quantum communication applications are the fields where these properties can be particularly important. In this work, we report about characterization of different TESs based on Ti films. Single-photons have been detected from 200 nm to 800 nm working at T c ∼ 100 m K. Using a pulsed laser at 690 nm we have demonstrated the capability to resolve up to five photons.

  10. Improving the pseudo-randomness properties of chaotic maps using deep-zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2017-05-01

    A generalized method is proposed to compose new orbits from a given chaotic map. The method provides an approach to examine discrete-time chaotic maps in a "deep-zoom" manner by using k-digits to the right from the decimal separator of a given point from the underlying chaotic map. Interesting phenomena have been identified. Rapid randomization was observed, i.e., chaotic patterns tend to become indistinguishable when compared to the original orbits of the underlying chaotic map. Our results were presented using different graphical analyses (i.e., time-evolution, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent, Poincaré diagram, and frequency distribution). Moreover, taking advantage of this randomization improvement, we propose a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) based on the k-logistic map. The pseudo-random qualities of the proposed PRNG passed both tests successfully, i.e., DIEHARD and NIST, and were comparable with other traditional PRNGs such as the Mersenne Twister. The results suggest that simple maps such as the logistic map can be considered as good PRNG methods.

  11. Generation of pseudo-random numbers with the use of inverse chaotic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawnik Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In (Lawnik M., Generation of numbers with the distribution close to uniform with the use of chaotic maps, In: Obaidat M.S., Kacprzyk J., Ören T. (Ed., International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH (28-30 August 2014, Vienna, Austria, SCITEPRESS, 2014 Lawnik discussed a method of generating pseudo-random numbers from uniform distribution with the use of adequate chaotic transformation. The method enables the “flattening” of continuous distributions to uniform one. In this paper a inverse process to the above-mentioned method is presented, and, in consequence, a new manner of generating pseudo-random numbers from a given continuous distribution. The method utilizes the frequency of the occurrence of successive branches of chaotic transformation in the process of “flattening”. To generate the values from the given distribution one discrete and one continuous value of a random variable are required. The presented method does not directly involve the knowledge of the density function or the cumulative distribution function, which is, undoubtedly, a great advantage in comparison with other well-known methods. The described method was analysed on the example of the standard normal distribution.

  12. Single-photon generation with InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santori, Charles; Fattal, David; Vuckovic, Jelena; Solomon, Glenn S; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Single-photon generation using InAs quantum dots in pillar microcavities is described. The effects on performance of the excitation wavelength and polarization, and the collection bandwidth and polarization, are studied in detail. The efficiency and photon state purity of these devices have been measured, and issues affecting these parameters are discussed. Prospects for improved devices are also discussed

  13. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  14. Recent Advances for High-Efficiency Sources of Single Photons Based on Photonic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J. M.; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic nanowires have recently been used to tailor the spontaneous emission of embedded quantum dots, and to develop record efficiency single-photon sources. We will present recent developments in this field mainly 1) the observation of a strong inhibition of the spontaneous emission of quantum...

  15. Controlling light emission from single-photon sources using photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Chen, Yuntian; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The photonic nanowire has recently emerged as an promising alternative to microcavity-based single-photon source designs. In this simple structure, a geometrical effect ensures a strong coupling between an embedded emitter and the optical mode of interest and a combination of tapers and mirrors a...

  16. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sciacca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Single photon detection is one of the most challenging goals of photonics. In recent years, the study of ultra-fast and/or low-intensity phenomena has received renewed attention from the academic and industrial communities. Intense research activity has been focused on bio-imaging applications, bio-luminescence, bio-scattering methods, and, more in general, on several applications requiring high speed operation and high timing resolution. In this paper we present design and characterization of bi-dimensional arrays of a next generation of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs. Single photon sensitivity, dark noise, afterpulsing and timing resolution of the single SPAD have been examined in several experimental conditions. Moreover, the effects arising from their integration and the readout mode have also been deeply investigated.

  17. Modeling and Development of Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a research project as the central component of a Ph.D. program focused on the device physics of superconducting nanowire single photon...

  18. Deterministic Single-Photon Source for Distributed Quantum Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Axel; Hennrich, Markus; Rempe, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    A sequence of single photons is emitted on demand from a single three-level atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. The photons are generated by an adiabatically driven stimulated Raman transition between two atomic ground states, with the vacuum field of the cavity stimulating one branch of the transition, and laser pulses deterministically driving the other branch. This process is unitary and therefore intrinsically reversible, which is essential for quantum communication and networking, and the photons should be appropriate for all-optical quantum information processing

  19. Graphene-Based Josephson-Junction Single-Photon Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Evan D.; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung

    2017-08-01

    We propose to use graphene-based Josephson junctions (GJJs) to detect single photons in a wide electromagnetic spectrum from visible to radio frequencies. Our approach takes advantage of the exceptionally low electronic heat capacity of monolayer graphene and its constricted thermal conductance to its phonon degrees of freedom. Such a system could provide high-sensitivity photon detection required for research areas including quantum information processing and radio astronomy. As an example, we present our device concepts for GJJ single-photon detectors in both the microwave and infrared regimes. The dark count rate and intrinsic quantum efficiency are computed based on parameters from a measured GJJ, demonstrating feasibility within existing technologies.

  20. Characterizing multi-photon quantum interference with practical light sources and threshold single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Álvaro; Wang, Wenyuan; Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos

    2018-04-01

    The experimental characterization of multi-photon quantum interference effects in optical networks is essential in many applications of photonic quantum technologies, which include quantum computing and quantum communication as two prominent examples. However, such characterization often requires technologies which are beyond our current experimental capabilities, and today's methods suffer from errors due to the use of imperfect sources and photodetectors. In this paper, we introduce a simple experimental technique to characterize multi-photon quantum interference by means of practical laser sources and threshold single-photon detectors. Our technique is based on well-known methods in quantum cryptography which use decoy settings to tightly estimate the statistics provided by perfect devices. As an illustration of its practicality, we use this technique to obtain a tight estimation of both the generalized Hong‑Ou‑Mandel dip in a beamsplitter with six input photons and the three-photon coincidence probability at the output of a tritter.

  1. Electro-optic routing of photons from a single quantum dot in photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midolo, Leonardo; Hansen, Sofie L.; Zhang, Weili; Papon, Camille; Schott, Rüdiger; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2017-12-01

    Recent breakthroughs in solid-state photonic quantum technologies enable generating and detecting single photons with near-unity efficiency as required for a range of photonic quantum technologies. The lack of methods to simultaneously generate and control photons within the same chip, however, has formed a main obstacle to achieving efficient multi-qubit gates and to harness the advantages of chip-scale quantum photonics. Here we propose and demonstrate an integrated voltage-controlled phase shifter based on the electro-optic effect in suspended photonic waveguides with embedded quantum emitters. The phase control allows building a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer with two orthogonal arms, taking advantage of the anisotropic electro-optic response in gallium arsenide. Photons emitted by single self-assembled quantum dots can be actively routed into the two outputs of the interferometer. These results, together with the observed sub-microsecond response time, constitute a significant step towards chip-scale single-photon-source de-multiplexing, fiber-loop boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.

  2. Recyclable amplification for single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Chen, Ling-Quan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-01-01

    We put forward a highly efficient recyclable single-photon assisted amplification protocol, which can protect single-photon entanglement (SPE) from photon loss and decoherence. Making use of quantum nondemolition detection gates constructed with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity, our protocol has some attractive advantages. First, the parties can recover less-entangled SPE to be maximally entangled SPE, and reduce photon loss simultaneously. Second, if the protocol fails, the parties can repeat the protocol to reuse some discarded items, which can increase the success probability. Third, when the protocol is successful, they can similarly repeat the protocol to further increase the fidelity of the SPE. Thereby, our protocol provides a possible way to obtain high entanglement, high fidelity and high success probability simultaneously. In particular, our protocol shows higher success probability in the practical high photon loss channel. Based on the above features, our amplification protocol has potential for future application in long-distance quantum communication.

  3. A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh

    2010-01-01

    –4 or a semiconductor quantum dot5–7. Achieving a high extraction efficiency has long been recognized as a major issue, and both classical solutions8 and cavity quantum electrodynamics effects have been applied1,9–12. We adopt a different approach, based on an InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic nanowire......The development of efficient solid-state sources of single photons is a major challenge in the context of quantum communication,optical quantum information processing and metrology1. Such a source must enable the implementation of a stable, single-photon emitter, like a colour centre in diamond2...

  4. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  5. Pseudo-random arranged color filter array for controlling moiré patterns in display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangui; Fan, Hang; An, Sengzhong; Li, Juntao; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying; Liu, Yikun

    2015-11-16

    Optical display quality can be degraded by the appearance of moiré pattern occurring in a display system consisting of a basic matrix superimposed with a functional structured optical layer. We propose in this paper a novel pseudo-random arranged color filter array with the table number arranged with an optimal design scenario. We show that the moiré pattern can be significantly reduced with the introduction of the special color filter array. The idea is tested with an experiment that gives rise to a substantially reduced moiré pattern in a display system. It is believed that the novel functional optical structures have significant impact to complex structured display system in general and to the autostereoscopic and integrated display systems in particular.

  6. A Bidirectional Generalized Synchronization Theorem-Based Chaotic Pseudo-random Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shuangshuang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bidirectional generalized synchronization theorem for discrete chaos system, this paper introduces a new 5-dimensional bidirectional generalized chaos synchronization system (BGCSDS, whose prototype is a novel chaotic system introduced in [12]. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the BGCSDS achieve generalized chaos synchronization via a transform H.A chaos-based pseudo-random number generator (CPNG was designed by the new BGCSDS. Using the FIPS-140-2 tests issued by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST verified the randomness of the 1000 binary number sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm respectively. The results showed that all the tested sequences passed the FIPS-140-2 tests. The confidence interval analysis showed the statistical properties of the randomness of the sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm do not have significant differences.

  7. ACORN—A new method for generating sequences of uniformly distributed Pseudo-random Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, R. S.

    1989-07-01

    A new family of pseudo-random number generators, the ACORN ( additive congruential random number) generators, is proposed. The resulting numbers are distributed uniformly in the interval [0, 1). The ACORN generators are defined recursively, and the ( k + 1)th order generator is easily derived from the kth order generator. Some theorems concerning the period length are presented and compared with existing results for linear congruential generators. A range of statistical tests are applied to the ACORN generators, and their performance is compared with that of the linear congruential generators and the Chebyshev generators. The tests show the ACORN generators to be statistically superior to the Chebyshev generators, while being statistically similar to the linear congruential generators. However, the ACORN generators execute faster than linear congruential generators for the same statistical faithfulness. The main advantages of the ACORN generator are speed of execution, long period length, and simplicity of coding.

  8. Security Flaws in an Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator for Low-Power Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Hernandez-Castro, Julio C.; Tapiador, Juan M. E.; Millán, Enrique San; van der Lubbe, Jan C. A.

    In 2004, Settharam and Rhee tackled the design of a lightweight Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) suitable for low-power environments (e.g. sensor networks, low-cost RFID tags). First, they explicitly fixed a set of requirements for this primitive. Then, they proposed a PRNG conforming to these requirements and using a free-running timer [9]. We analyze this primitive discovering important security faults. The proposed algorithm fails to pass even relatively non-stringent batteries of randomness such as ENT (i.e. a pseudorandom number sequence test program). We prove that their recommended PRNG has a very short period due to the flawed design of its core. The internal state can be easily revealed, compromising its backward and forward security. Additionally, the rekeying algorithm is defectively designed mainly related to the unpractical value proposed for this purpose.

  9. Design of an Ultra-wideband Pseudo Random Coded MIMO Radar Based on Radio Frequency Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO ultra-wideband radar can detect the range and azimuth information of targets in real time. It is widely used for geological surveys, life rescue, through-wall tracking, and other military or civil fields. This paper presents the design of an ultra-wideband pseudo random coded MIMO radar that is based on Radio Frequency (RF switches and implements a MIMO radar system. RF switches are employed to reduce cost and complexity of the system. As the switch pressure value is limited, the peak power of the transmitting signal is 18 dBm. The ultra-wideband radar echo is obtained by hybrid sampling, and pulse compression is computed by Digital Signal Processors (DSPs embedded in an Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to simplify the signal process. The experiment illustrates that the radar system can detect the range and azimuth information of targets in real time.

  10. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (II). The second experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko.

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)

  11. Covert Communication in MIMO-OFDM System Using Pseudo Random Location of Fake Subcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Pratama Hudhajanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is the most used wireless transmission scheme in the world. However, its security is the interesting problem to discuss if we want to use this scheme to transmit a sensitive data, such as in the military and commercial communication systems. In this paper, we propose a new method to increase the security of MIMO-OFDM system using the change of location of fake subcarrier. The fake subcarriers’ location is generated per packet of data using Pseudo Random sequence generator. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme does not decrease the performance of conventional MIMO-OFDM. The attacker or eavesdropper gets worse Bit Error Rate (BER than the legal receiver compared to the conventional MIMO-OFDM system.

  12. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (III). The third experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko.

    1995-03-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the third reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on September 16, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 70% of reactor power and under a normal sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)

  13. Efficient generation of single and entangled photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mower, Jacob; Englund, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a protocol for generating on-demand, indistinguishable single photons on a silicon photonic integrated chip. The source is a time-multiplexed spontaneous parametric down-conversion element that allows optimization of single-photon versus multiphoton emission while realizing high output rate and indistinguishability. We minimize both the scaling of active elements and the scaling of active element loss with multiplexing. We then discuss detection strategies and data processing to further optimize the procedure. We simulate an improvement in single-photon-generation efficiency over previous time-multiplexing protocols, assuming existing fabrication capabilities. We then apply this system to generate heralded Bell states. The generation efficiency of both nonclassical states could be increased substantially with improved fabrication procedures.

  14. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Moerk, Jesper [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Oersteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Koenderink, A Femius, E-mail: yche@fotonik.dtu.dk [Center for Nanophotonics, FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    We study the dynamics of single-photon absorption by a single emitter coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide that simultaneously provides channels for spontaneous emission (SE) decay and a channel for the input photon. We have developed a time-dependent theory that allows us to specify any input single-photon wavepacket guided by the waveguide as the initial condition, and calculate the excitation probability of the emitter, as well as the time evolution of the transmitted and reflected fields. For single-photon wavepackets with a Gaussian spectrum and temporal shape, we obtain analytical solutions for the dynamics of absorption, with maximum atomic excitation {approx}40%. We furthermore propose a terminated waveguide to aid the single-photon absorption. We found that for an emitter placed at an optimal distance from the termination, the maximum atomic excitation due to an incident single-photon wavepacket can exceed 70%. This high value is a direct consequence of the high SE {beta}-factor for emission into the waveguide. Finally, we have also explored whether waveguide dispersion could aid single-photon absorption by pulse shaping. For a Gaussian input wavepacket, we found that the absorption efficiency can be improved by a further 4% by engineering the dispersion. Efficient single-photon absorption by a single emitter has potential applications in quantum communication and quantum computation. (paper)

  15. Deterministic teleportation using single-photon entanglement as a resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Gunnar; Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2012-01-01

    We outline a proof that teleportation with a single particle is, in principle, just as reliable as with two particles. We thereby hope to dispel the skepticism surrounding single-photon entanglement as a valid resource in quantum information. A deterministic Bell-state analyzer is proposed which...

  16. Single-photon production at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement of single photon production from p-p collisions at ISR energies is presented. A signal comparable to single π 0 production is found at large p/sub T/. A study of associated particles favors production dominated by the first-order QCD process of gluon-valence quark production q g → q γ

  17. Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    to a collection efficiency of only 1-2 %, and efficient light extraction thus poses a major challenge in SPS engineering. Initial efforts to improve the efficiency have exploited cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) to efficiently couple the emitted photons to the optical cavity mode. An alternative approach......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light...

  18. Quasi free mechanism in single photon double ionization of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeffler, Markus; Stuck, Christian [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jahnke, Till; Waitz, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Lenz, Ute; Schmidt-Boecking, Horst; Doerner, Reinhard [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Jones, Mathew; Landers, Allen [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cocke, Lew [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Double ionization of Helium by a single photon is widely believed to proceed through two mechanisms: knock-off (TS1) or shake-off, with the last one dominating at high photon energies. A new mechanism, termed ''Quasi Free Mechanism'' (QFM) was predicted 35 years ago by Amusia and coworkers, but escaped experimental observation till today. Here we provide the first proof of this mechanism using 800 eV photons from the Advanced Light Source. Fragments (electrons and ions) were measured in coincidence using momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). He{sup (}2+) ions with zero momentum were found - the fingerprint for the QFM.

  19. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics in the Context of Single Photon Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…

  20. Preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, So-Young; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2011-01-01

    We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. The arbitrary single-photon path qubit is prepared losslessly by passing the heralded single-photon state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion through variable beam splitter. Quantum state tomography of the single-photon path qubit is implemented by introducing path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. Using the state preparation and path-projection measurements methods for the single-photon path qubit, we demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity. -- Highlights: → We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. → We implement path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. → We demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity.

  1. A Variable Single Photon Plasmonic Beamsplitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander

    Plasmonic structures can both be exploited for scaling down optical components beyond the diffraction limit and enhancing andcollecting the emission from a single dipole emitter. Here, we experimentally demonstrate adiabatic coupling between two silvernanowires using a nitrogen vacancy center as ...

  2. Fast recognition of single molecules based on single-event photon statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangli; Huang Tao; Liu Yuan; Wang Jun; Zhang Guofeng; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2007-01-01

    Mandel's Q parameter, which is determined from single-event photon statistics, provides an alternative way to recognize single molecules with fluorescence detection, other than the second-order correlation function. It is shown that the Q parameter of an assumed ideal double-molecule fluorescence with the same average photon number as that of the sample fluorescence can act as the criterion for single-molecule recognition. The influence of signal-to-background ratio and the error estimates for photon statistics are also presented. We have applied this method to ascertain single Cy5 dye molecules within hundreds of milliseconds

  3. Diagnosis of dementia with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Reed, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography is a practical modality for the study of physiologic cerebral activity in vivo. We utilized single photon emission computed tomography and N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine iodine 123 to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow in nine patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), five healthy elderly control subjects, and two patients with multi-infarct dementia. We found that all subjects with AD demonstrated flow deficits in temporoparietal cortex bilaterally, and that the ratio of activity in bilateral temporoparietal cortex to activity in the whole slice allowed the differentiation of all patients with AD from both the controls and from the patients with multi-infarct dementia. Furthermore, this ratio showed a strong correlation with disease severity in the AD group. Single photon emission computed tomography appears to be useful in the differential diagnosis of dementia and reflects clinical features of the disease

  4. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  5. Streak camera imaging of single photons at telecom wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Donohue, John Matthew; Czerniuk, Thomas; Aßmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Streak cameras are powerful tools for temporal characterization of ultrafast light pulses, even at the single-photon level. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio in the infrared range prevents measurements on weak light sources in the telecom regime. We present an approach to circumvent this problem, utilizing an up-conversion process in periodically poled waveguides in Lithium Niobate. We convert single photons from a parametric down-conversion source in order to reach the point of maximum detection efficiency of commercially available streak cameras. We explore phase-matching configurations to apply the up-conversion scheme in real-world applications.

  6. Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)

  7. Single-photon interference experiment for high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.

  8. Stable single-photon source in the near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaebel, T; Popa, I; Gruber, A; Domhan, M; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J

    2004-01-01

    Owing to their unsurpassed photostability, defects in solids may be ideal candidates for single-photon sources. Here we report on generation of single photons by optical excitation of a yet unexplored defect in diamond, the nickel-nitrogen complex (NE8) centre. The most striking feature of the defect is its emission bandwidth of 1.2 nm at room temperature. The emission wavelength of the defect is around 800 nm, which is suitable for telecom fibres. In addition, in this spectral region little background light from the diamond bulk material is detected. Consequently, a high contrast in antibunching measurements is achieved

  9. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as 123 I and 99 Tc m that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  10. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as {sup 123}I and {sup 99}Tc{sup m} that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  11. Towards the coupling of single photons from dye molecules to a photonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisseni, Claudio; Kho, Kiang Wei; Major, Kyle; Grandi, Samuele; Boisser, Sebastien; Hwang, Jaesuk; Clark, Alex; Hinds, Edward

    Single photons are very attractive for quantum information processing given their long coherence time and their ability to carry information in many degrees of freedom. A current challenge is the efficient generation of single photons in a photonic chip in order to scale up the complexity of quantum operations. We have proposed that a dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecule inside an anthracene (AC) crystal could couple lifetime-limited indistinguishable single photons into a photonic waveguide if deposited in its vicinity. In this talk I describe the recent progress towards the realization of this proposal. A new method has been developed for evaporating AC and DBT to produce crystals that are wide and thin. The crystals are typically several microns across and have remarkably uniform thickness, which we control between 20 and 150 nm. The crystal growth is carried out in a glove bag in order to exclude oxygen, which improves the photostability of the DBT molecules by orders of magnitude. We image the fluorescence of single DBT molecules using confocal microscopy and analyse the polarization of this light to determine the alignment of the molecules. I will report on our efforts to control the alignement of the molecules by aligning the host matrix with the substrate.

  12. Single-photon switch: Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Gong, Z. R.; Liu, Y. X.; Sun, C. P.; Nori, F.

    2010-03-01

    We analyze the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide and is scattered by a controllable two-level system located inside one of the resonators of this waveguide. Our approach, which uses discrete coordinates, unifies low and high energy effective theories for single-photon scattering. We show that the controllable two-level system can behave as a quantum switch for the coherent transport of a single photon. This study may inspire new electro-optical single-photon quantum devices. We also suggest an experimental setup based on superconducting transmission line resonators and qubits. References: L. Zhou, Z.R. Gong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008). L. Zhou, H. Dong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Quantum super-cavity with atomic mirrors, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063827 (2008).

  13. Evaluation of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for extended spectral range of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Anderson-Engels, Stefan

    This paper describe the performance of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for single photon counting, and investigates its performance for photon time-of-flight (PToF) spectroscopy. At first this report will serve as a summary to the group for PToF spectroscopy at the Department of Physics...

  14. A photon position sensor consisting of single-electron circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikombo, Andrew Kilinga; Amemiya, Yoshihito; Tabe, Michiharu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a solid-state sensor that can detect the position of incident photons with a high spatial resolution. The sensor consists of a two-dimensional array of single-electron oscillators, each coupled to its neighbors through coupling capacitors. An incident photon triggers an excitatory circular wave of electron tunneling in the oscillator array. The wave propagates in all directions to reach the periphery of the array. By measuring the arrival time of the wave at the periphery, we can know the position of the incident photon. The tunneling wave's generation, propagation, arrival at the array periphery, and the determination of incident photon positions are demonstrated with the results of Monte Carlo based computer simulations.

  15. Interfering Heralded Single Photons from Two Separate Silicon Nanowires Pumped at Different Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical quantum photonic applications require on-demand single photon sources. As one possible solution, active temporal and wavelength multiplexing has been proposed to build an on-demand single photon source. In this scheme, heralded single photons are generated from different pump wavelengths in many temporal modes. However, the indistinguishability of these heralded single photons has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this work, we achieve 88% ± 8% Hong–Ou–Mandel quantum interference visibility from heralded single photons generated from two separate silicon nanowires pumped at different wavelengths. This demonstrates that active temporal and wavelength multiplexing could generate indistinguishable heralded single photons.

  16. Optimizing the photon selection of the CMS Single-Photon search for Supersymmetry using multivariate analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to improve the photon selection of the CMS SinglePhoton search for Supersymmetry by using multivariate analyses.The Single-Photon search aims to find Supersymmetry (SUSY) in data taken by theCompact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider located atthe research center CERN. SUSY is an extension of the standard model of particlephysics. The search is designed for a general gauge mediation scenario, which describes the gauge mediated SUSY breaking. The analysis uses final states with jets,at least one photon and missing transverse energy. A data-driven prediction of themultijet background is performed for the analysis. For this purpose, photon candidates have to be classified into two selections.In this thesis the usage of multivariate analyses for the photon candidate classification is studied. The methods used are Fisher Discriminant, Boosted Decision Treesand Artificial Neural Networks. Their performance is evaluated with respect to different aspects impor...

  17. Single photon imaging at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: Gloria.Spandre@pi.infn.it; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Baldini, L.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Sgro, C.; Bregeon, J.; Razzano, M.; Pinchera, M. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O. [SSL, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-06-11

    We present a detection system capable of imaging both single photon/positive ion and multiple coincidence photons/positive ions with extremely high spatial resolution. In this detector the photoelectrons excited by the incoming photons are multiplied by microchannel plate(s) (MCP). The process of multiplication is spatially constrained within an MCP pore, which can be as small as 4 {mu}m for commercially available MCPs. An electron cloud originated by a single photoelectron is then encoded by a pixellated custom analog ASIC consisting of 105 K charge sensitive pixels of 50 {mu}m in size arranged on a hexagonal grid. Each pixel registers the charge with an accuracy of <100 electrons rms. Computation of the event centroid from the readout charges results in an accurate event position. A large number of simultaneous photons spatially separated by {approx}0.4 mm can be detected simultaneously allowing multiple coincidence operation for the experiments where a large number of incoming photons/positive ions have to be detected simultaneously. The experimental results prove that the spatial resolution of the readout system itself is {approx}3 {mu}m FWHM enabling detection resolution better than 6 {mu}m for the small pore MCPs. An attractive feature of the detection system is its capability to register the timing of each incoming photon/positive ion (in single photon detection mode) or of the first incoming particle (for the multiple coincidence detection) with an accuracy of {approx}130 ps FWHM. There is also virtually no dark count noise in the detection system making it suitable for low count rate applications.

  18. The intensity detection of single-photon detectors based on photon counting probability density statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zijing; Song Jie; Zhao Yuan; Wu Long

    2017-01-01

    Single-photon detectors possess the ultra-high sensitivity, but they cannot directly respond to signal intensity. Conventional methods adopt sampling gates with fixed width and count the triggered number of sampling gates, which is capable of obtaining photon counting probability to estimate the echo signal intensity. In this paper, we not only count the number of triggered sampling gates, but also record the triggered time position of photon counting pulses. The photon counting probability density distribution is obtained through the statistics of a series of the triggered time positions. Then Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation (MVUE) method is used to estimate the echo signal intensity. Compared with conventional methods, this method can improve the estimation accuracy of echo signal intensity due to the acquisition of more detected information. Finally, a proof-of-principle laboratory system is established. The estimation accuracy of echo signal intensity is discussed and a high accuracy intensity image is acquired under low-light level environments. (paper)

  19. Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.

  20. Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongwei [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Ma, Haiqiang, E-mail: hqma@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wei, Kejin [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yang, Xiuqing [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application. - Highlights: • A multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons scheme is proposed. • Any one of the groups can be chosen to share secret through controlling the polarization of photons. • Two sets of keys can be shared simultaneously without redistribution.

  1. Interference Suppression Performance of Automotive UWB Radars Using Pseudo Random Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pasya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra wideband (UWB automotive radars have attracted attention from the viewpoint of reducing traffic accidents. The performance of automotive radars may be degraded by interference from nearby radars using the same frequency. In this study, a scenario where two cars pass each other on a road was considered. Considering the utilization of cross-polarization, the desired-to-undesired signal power ratio (DUR was found to vary approximately from -10 to 30 dB. Different pseudo random sequences were employed for spectrum spreading the different radar signals to mitigate the interference effects. This paper evaluates the interference suppression provided by maximum length sequence (MLS and Gold sequence (GS through numerical simulations of the radar’s performance in terms of probability of false alarm and probability of detection. It was found that MLS and GS yielded nearly the same performance when the DUR is -10 dB (worst case; for example when fixing the probability of false alarm to 0.0001, the probabilities of detection were 0.964 and 0.946 respectively. The GS are more advantageous than MLS due to larger number of different sequences having the same length in GS than in MLS.

  2. Targeted reduction of highly abundant transcripts using pseudo-random primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Ophélie; Kato, Sachi; Poulain, Stéphane; Plessy, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Transcriptome studies based on quantitative sequencing can estimate levels of gene expression by measuring target RNA abundance in sequencing libraries. Sequencing costs are proportional to the total number of sequenced reads, and in order to cover rare RNAs, considerable quantities of abundant and identical reads are needed. This major limitation can be addressed by depleting a proportion of the most abundant sequences from the library. However, such depletion strategies involve either extra handling of the input RNA sample or use of a large number of reverse transcription primers, termed not-so-random (NSR) primers, which are costly to synthesize. Taking advantage of the high tolerance of reverse transcriptase to mis-prime, we found that it is possible to use as few as 40 pseudo-random (PS) reverse transcription primers to decrease the rate of undesirable abundant sequences within a library without affecting the overall transcriptome diversity. PS primers are simple to design and can be used to deplete several undesirable RNAs simultaneously, thus creating a flexible tool for enriching transcriptome libraries for rare transcript sequences.

  3. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  4. Design of a Handheld Pseudo Random Coded UWB Radar for Human Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zheng-huan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a handheld pseudo random coded Ultra-WideBand (UWB radar for human sensing. The main tasks of the radar are to track the moving human object and extract the human respiratory frequency. In order to achieve perfect penetrability and good range resolution, m sequence with a carrier of 800 MHz is chosen as the transmitting signal. The modulated m-sequence can be generated directly by the high-speed DAC and FPGA to reduce the size of the radar system, and the mean power of the transmitting signal is 5 dBm. The receiver has two receiving channels based on hybrid sampling, the first receiving channel is to sample the reference signal and the second receiving channel is to obtain the radar echo. The real-time pulse compression is computed in parallel with a group of on-chip DSP48E slices in FPGA to improve the scanning rate of the radar system. Additionally, the algorithms of moving target tracking and life detection are implemented using Intel’s micro-processor, and the detection results are sent to the micro displayer fixed on the helmet. The experimental results show that the moving target located at less than 16 m far away from the wall can be tracked, and the respiratory frequency of the static human at less than 14 m far away from the wall can be extracted.

  5. Reactor dynamics experiment of N.S. Mutsu using pseudo random signal. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Koji; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Shimazaki, Junya; Inoue, Kimihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki.

    1993-10-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, reactor noise experiments using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) have been planned, and a preliminary experiment was performed on March 4, 1991 in the first experimental navigation with the aim of checking the experimental procedures and conditions. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 70 % of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. From the results obtained, we confirmed that (1) the procedures and experimental conditions determined prior to the experiment were suitable for performing the PRBS experiments, (2) when the PRBS disturbances were applied, the plant state remained quite stable, and (3) the quality of the measured data is adequate for the purpose of dynamics analysis. This paper summarizes the planning and preparation of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)

  6. Binary Pseudo-Random Gratings and Arrays for Calibration of Modulation Transfer Functions of Surface Profilometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik D.; Cambie, Rossana; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Stover, John C.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-09-11

    A technique for precise measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF), suitable for characterization of a broad class of surface profilometers, is investigated in detail. The technique suggested in [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)]is based on use of binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays as standard MTF test surfaces. Unlike most conventional test surfaces, BPR gratings and arrays possess white-noise-like inherent power spectral densities (PSD), allowing the direct determination of the one- and two-dimensional MTF, respectively, with a sensitivity uniform over the entire spatial frequency range of a profiler. In the cited work, a one dimensional realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, a high-confidence of the MTF calibration technique is demonstrated via cross comparison measurements of a number of two dimensional BPR arrays using two different interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer. We also present the results of application of the experimentally determined MTF correction to the measurement taken with the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope of the surface roughness of a super-polished test mirror. In this particular case, without accounting for the instrumental MTF, the surface rms roughness over half of the instrumental spatial frequency bandwidth would be underestimated by a factor of approximately 1.4.

  7. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-04

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  8. Semi-quantum Dialogue Based on Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tian-Yu; Ye, Chong-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two semi-quantum dialogue (SQD) protocols by using single photons as the quantum carriers, where one requires the classical party to possess the measurement capability and the other does not have this requirement. The security toward active attacks from an outside Eve in the first SQD protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of present semi-quantum key distribution (SQKD) protocols, the classical one-time pad encryption, the classical party's randomization operation and the decoy photon technology. The information leakage problem of the first SQD protocol is overcome by the classical party' classical basis measurements on the single photons carrying messages which makes him share their initial states with the quantum party. The security toward active attacks from Eve in the second SQD protocol is guaranteed by the classical party's randomization operation, the complete robustness of present SQKD protocol and the classical one-time pad encryption. The information leakage problem of the second SQD protocol is overcome by the quantum party' classical basis measurements on each two adjacent single photons carrying messages which makes her share their initial states with the classical party. Compared with the traditional information leakage resistant QD protocols, the advantage of the proposed SQD protocols lies in that they only require one party to have quantum capabilities. Compared with the existing SQD protocol, the advantage of the proposed SQD protocols lies in that they only employ single photons rather than two-photon entangled states as the quantum carriers. The proposed SQD protocols can be implemented with present quantum technologies.

  9. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    -photon wavepacket can exceed 70%. This high value is a direct consequence of the high SE β-factor for emission into the waveguide. Finally, we have also explored whether waveguide dispersion could aid single-photon absorption by pulse shaping. For a Gaussian input wavepacket, we found that the absorption efficiency...

  10. Design and characterization of single photon avalanche diodes arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Tudisco, S.; Lanzanò, L.; Musumeci, F.; Privitera, S.; Scordino, A.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.

    2010-05-01

    During the last years, in collaboration with ST-Microelectronics, we developed a new avalanche photo sensor, single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) see Ref.[S. Privitera, et al., Sensors 8 (2008) 4636 [1];S. Tudisco et al., IEEE Sensors Journal 8 (2008) 1324 [2

  11. The physics of nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, Jelmer Jan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the detection mechanism in superconducting single photon detectors via quantum detector tomography. We find that the detection event is caused by diffusion of quasiparticles from the absorption spot, combined with entrance of a vortex. Moreover, we investigate the behaviour of

  12. High-speed single-photon signaling for daytime QKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienfang, Joshua; Restelli, Alessandro; Clark, Charles

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of quantum-generated cryptographic key at high throughputs can be critically limited by the performance of the systems' single-photon detectors. While noise and afterpulsing are considerations for all single-photon QKD systems, high-transmission rate systems also have critical detector timing-resolution and recovery time requirements. We present experimental results exploiting the high timing resolution and count-rate stability of modified single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in our GHz QKD system operating over a 1.5 km free-space link that demonstrate the ability to apply extremely short temporal gates, enabling daytime free-space QKD with a 4% QBER. We also discuss recent advances in gating techniques for InGaAs SPADs that are suitable for high-speed fiber-based QKD. We present afterpulse-probability measurements that demonstrate the ability to support single-photon count rates above 100 MHz with low afterpulse probability. These results will benefit the design and characterization of free-space and fiber QKD systems. A. Restelli, J.C. Bienfang A. Mink, and C.W. Clark, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quant. Electron 16, 1084 (2010).

  13. Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...

  14. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  15. Single-Photon Source for Quantum Information Based on Single Dye Molecule Fluorescence in Liquid Crystal Host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, S.G.; Knox, R.P.; Freivald, P.; McNamara, A.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr. C.R.; Schmid, A.W.; Marshall, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new application for liquid crystals: quantum information technology. A deterministically polarized single-photon source that efficiently produces photons exhibiting antibunching is a pivotal hardware element in absolutely secure quantum communication. Planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts deterministically align the single dye molecules which produce deterministically polarized single (antibunched) photons. In addition, 1-D photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystals will increase single-photon source efficiency. The experiments and challenges in the observation of deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules in planar-aligned glassy nematic-liquid-crystal oligomer as well as photon antibunching in glassy cholesteric oligomer are described for the first time

  16. Single-photon indistinguishability: influence of phonons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    of indistinguishability, absent in the approximate theories. The maximum arises due to virtual processes in the highly non-Markovian short-time regime, which dominate the decoherence for small QD-cavity coupling, and phonon-mediated real transitions between the upper and lower polariton branches in the long-time regime......Recent years have demonstrated that the interaction with phonons plays an important role in semiconductor based cavity QED systems [2], consisting of a quantum dot (QD) coupled to a single cavity mode [Fig. 1(a)], where the phonon interaction is the main decoherence mechanism. Avoiding decoherence...... as a function of the QD-cavity coupling strength for light emitted from the QD and the cavity, respectively, for all the employed methods. Both the Lindblad and TCL theories deviate significantly from our exact results, where, importantly, the exact results predict a pronounced maximum in the degree...

  17. The Heisenberg picture for single photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.

  18. Trapping a single atom with a fraction of a photon using a photonic crystal nanocavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, D.; Kuipers, L.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the interaction between a single rubidium atom and a photonic crystal nanocavity. Because of the ultrasmall mode volume of the nanocavity, an extremely strong coupling regime can be achieved in which the atom can shift the cavity resonance by many cavity linewidths. We show that this

  19. High-efficiency single-photon source: The photonic wire geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, J.; Bazin, Maela; Malik, Nitin S.

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-photon-source design based on the emission of a quantum dot embedded in a semiconductor (GaAs) nanowire. The nanowire ends are engineered (efficient metallic mirror and tip taper) to reach a predicted record-high collection efficiency of 90% with a realistic design. Preliminar...

  20. Tapered fiber coupling of single photons emitted by a deterministically positioned single nitrogen vacancy center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebermeister, Lars, E-mail: lars.liebermeister@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Petersen, Fabian; Münchow, Asmus v.; Burchardt, Daniel; Hermelbracht, Juliane; Tashima, Toshiyuki [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80799 München (Germany); Schell, Andreas W.; Benson, Oliver [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meinhardt, Thomas; Krueger, Anke [Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Research Center for Complex Materials Systems, Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Stiebeiner, Ariane; Rauschenbeutel, Arno [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, 1020 Wien (Austria); Weinfurter, Harald; Weber, Markus, E-mail: markusweber@lmu.de [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80799 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    A diamond nano-crystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center is optically selected with a confocal scanning microscope and positioned deterministically onto the subwavelength-diameter waist of a tapered optical fiber (TOF) with the help of an atomic force microscope. Based on this nano-manipulation technique, we experimentally demonstrate the evanescent coupling of single fluorescence photons emitted by a single NV-center to the guided mode of the TOF. By comparing photon count rates of the fiber-guided and the free-space modes and with the help of numerical finite-difference time domain simulations, we determine a lower and upper bound for the coupling efficiency of (9.5 ± 0.6)% and (10.4 ± 0.7)%, respectively. Our results are a promising starting point for future integration of single photon sources into photonic quantum networks and applications in quantum information science.

  1. Phonon number measurements using single photon opto-mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiri-Esfahani, S; Akram, U; Milburn, G J

    2012-01-01

    We describe a system composed of two coupled optical cavity modes with a coupling modulated by a bulk mechanical resonator. In addition, one of the cavity modes is irreversibly coupled to a single photon source. Our scheme is an opto-mechanical realization of the Jaynes–Cummings model where the qubit is a dual rail optical qubit while the bosonic degree of freedom is a matter degree of freedom realized as the bulk mechanical excitation. We show the possibility of engineering phonon number states of the mechanical oscillator in such a system by computing the conditional state of the mechanics after successive photon counting measurements. (paper)

  2. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Wang Chuan; Zhang Ru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with authentication. The authentication key expansion method is introduced to improve the life of the keys with security. In the first scheme, the third party, called Trent is introduced to authenticate the users that participate in the communication. He sends the polarized photons in blocks to authenticate communication parties Alice and Bob using the authentication keys. In the communication process, polarized single photons are used to serve as the carriers, which transmit the secret messages directly. The second QSDC process with authentication between two parties is also discussed.

  3. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-04-27

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e{sup +}e{sup -} dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  4. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e + e - pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e + e - pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e + e - pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e + e - plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e + e - dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  5. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.

  6. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry

    2014-01-01

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored

  7. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Tang, Henry [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  8. Quasi-Coherent Noise Jamming to LFM Radar Based on Pseudo-random Sequence Phase-modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel quasi-coherent noise jamming method is proposed against linear frequency modulation (LFM signal and pulse compression radar. Based on the structure of digital radio frequency memory (DRFM, the jamming signal is acquired by the pseudo-random sequence phase-modulation of sampled radar signal. The characteristic of jamming signal in time domain and frequency domain is analyzed in detail. Results of ambiguity function indicate that the blanket jamming effect along the range direction will be formed when jamming signal passes through the matched filter. By flexible controlling the parameters of interrupted-sampling pulse and pseudo-random sequence, different covering distances and jamming effects will be achieved. When the jamming power is equivalent, this jamming obtains higher process gain compared with non-coherent jamming. The jamming signal enhances the detection threshold and the real target avoids being detected. Simulation results and circuit engineering implementation validate that the jamming signal covers real target effectively.

  9. Design of Long Period Pseudo-Random Sequences from the Addition of m -Sequences over 𝔽 p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-random sequence with good correlation property and large linear span is widely used in code division multiple access (CDMA communication systems and cryptology for reliable and secure information transmission. In this paper, sequences with long period, large complexity, balance statistics, and low cross-correlation property are constructed from the addition of m -sequences with pairwise-prime linear spans (AMPLS. Using m -sequences as building blocks, the proposed method proved to be an efficient and flexible approach to construct long period pseudo-random sequences with desirable properties from short period sequences. Applying the proposed method to 𝔽 2 , a signal set ( ( 2 n − 1 ( 2 m − 1 , ( 2 n + 1 ( 2 m + 1 , ( 2 ( n + 1 / 2 + 1 ( 2 ( m + 1 / 2 + 1 is constructed.

  10. Near-unity efficiency, single-photon sources based on tapered photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleuse, Joël; Munsch, Mathieu; Claudon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon emission from excitons in InAs Quantum Dots (QD) embedded in GaAs Tapered Photonic Wires (TPW) already demonstrated a 0.72 collection efficiency, with TPWs were the apex is the sharp end of the cone. Going to alternate designs, still based on the idea of the adiabatic deconfinement...... of the quasi-Gaussian emission mode, but with inverted TPW where the apex is the cone's base, leads to even larger efficiencies. In addition, these inverted TPWs make the electric pumping of the emitters compatible with these large efficiencies....

  11. On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaari, Ali W; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D

    2017-08-30

    Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.Combining different integration platforms on the same chip is currently one of the main challenges for quantum technologies. Here, Elshaari et al. show III-V Quantum Dots embedded in nanowires operating in a CMOS compatible circuit, with controlled on-chip filtering and tunable routing.

  12. Pseudo-random generator to allow to an electronic pulse simulator the ability to emulate radioisotopes spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucianna F A; Carrillo M A; Mangussi M J

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a pseudo-random system to provide to a simulator pulse of radiation detectors the ability to emit pulses patterns similar to those recorded when measuring actual radioisotope. The idea is that the system can emulate characteristic spectral distributions of known radioisotopes, as well as creating individual spectra for specific purposes. This design is based on an improvement in terms of software from earlier development that only supplied predefined amplitude pulses at constant intervals (author)

  13. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon source based on quantum dots in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël S.; Balram, Krishna C.; Pregnolato, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benefit from a high brightness, fiber-coupled source of triggered single photons. Here, we present a fiber-coupled photonic-crystal waveguide (PCWG) singlephoton source relying on evanescent coupling of the light field from a tapered...

  14. Nonclassicality characterization in photon statistics based on binary-response single-photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanqiang; Yang Rongcan; Li Gang; Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Yuchi; Wang Junmin; Zhang Tiancai

    2011-01-01

    By employing multiple conventional single-photon counting modules (SPCMs), which are binary-response detectors, instead of photon number resolving detectors, the nonclassicality criteria are investigated for various quantum states. The bounds of the criteria are derived from a system based on three or four SPCMs. The overall efficiency and background are both taken into account. The results of experiments with thermal and coherent light agree with the theoretical analysis. Compared with photon number resolving detectors, the use of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss-like scheme with multiple SPCMs is even better for revealing the nonclassicality of the fields, and the efficiency requirements are not so stringent. Some proposals are presented which can improve the detection performance with binary-response SPCMs for different quantum states.

  15. A bright single-photon source based on a photonic trumpet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.; Bleuse, Joël

    Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application to the r......Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application...... to the realization of bright sources of quantum light and, reversibly, provide an efficient interface between propagating photons and the QD. For a wire diameter ∼ λ/n (λ is the operation wavelength), the fraction of QD SE coupled to the fundamental guided mode exceeds 90%. The collection of the photons can...... be brought close to unity with a proper engineering of the wire ends. In particular, a tapering of the top wire end is necessary to achieve a directive far-field emission pattern [1]. Recently, we have realized a single-photon source featuring a needle-like taper. The source efficiency, though record...

  16. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion

  17. Localization of Narrowband Single Photon Emitters in Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Kerem; Sandstrom, Russell; Elbadawi, Christopher; Fischer, Martin; Schreck, Matthias; Shimoni, Olga; Lobo, Charlene; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-03-23

    Diamond nanocrystals that host room temperature narrowband single photon emitters are highly sought after for applications in nanophotonics and bioimaging. However, current understanding of the origin of these emitters is extremely limited. In this work, we demonstrate that the narrowband emitters are point defects localized at extended morphological defects in individual nanodiamonds. In particular, we show that nanocrystals with defects such as twin boundaries and secondary nucleation sites exhibit narrowband emission that is absent from pristine individual nanocrystals grown under the same conditions. Critically, we prove that the narrowband emission lines vanish when extended defects are removed deterministically using highly localized electron beam induced etching. Our results enhance the current understanding of single photon emitters in diamond and are directly relevant to fabrication of novel quantum optics devices and sensors.

  18. Zn doped GaN for single-photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, Arne; Ledig, Johannes; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, University of Technology Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Peters, Silke; Racu, Ana Maria; Schmunk, Waldemar; Hofer, Helmut; Kueck, Stefan [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In this work we report on the optical investigation of Zn doped GaN films fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The samples show bright emission in the blue spectral range around 2.9 eV when Si codoping is provided. This emission is suggested to be used for single-photon emission, thus the density of the Zn-Si pairs was drastically reduced leading to a decrease of the blue luminescence. For electrically excited single-photon sources these Zn-Si pairs have to be incorporated into LEDs, therefore we fabricated GaN-based nano-LEDs which show electroluminescence at 430 nm (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2016-10-01

    We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.

  20. Very bright, near-infrared single photon emitters in diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. M. Lau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate activation of bright diamond single photon emitters in the near infrared range by thermal annealing alone, i.e., without ion implantation. The activation is crucially dependent on the annealing ambient. The activation of the single photon emitters is only observed when the sample is annealed in forming gas (4% H2 in Ar above temperatures of 1000 °C. By contrast, no emitters are activated by annealing in vacuum, oxygen, argon or deuterium. The emitters activated by annealing in forming gas exhibit very bright emission in the 730-760 nm wavelength range and have linewidths of ∼1.5-2.5 nm at room temperature.

  1. On the scalar electron mass limit from single photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivaz, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    We discuss how the 90% C.L. lower limit on the mass of the scalar electron, as extracted from the single photon experiments, is affected by the way the background from radiative neutrino pair production is handled. We argue that some of the results presented at the Berkeley conference are overoptimistic, and that the mass lower limit is 65 GeV rather than the advertized value of 84 GeV, for the case of degenerate scalar electrons with massless photinos

  2. Secure authentication of classical messages with single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Fu-Chen, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for secure authentication of classical messages with single photons and a hashed function. The security analysis of this scheme is also given, which shows that anyone cannot forge valid message authentication codes (MACs). In addition, the lengths of the authentication key and the MACs are invariable and shorter, in comparison with those presented authentication schemes. Moreover, quantum data storage and entanglement are not required in this scheme. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient and economical. (general)

  3. Processing of transmission data from an uncollimated single photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikaios, N.; Dinelle, K.; Spinks, T.; Nikita, K.; Thielemans, K.

    2006-01-01

    The EXACT 3D PET scanner uses a Cs-137 single photon rotating point source for the transmission scan. As the source is un-collimated, the transmission data are contaminated by scatter. It has been suggested that segmentation of the reconstructed image can restore the quantitative information in the image. We study here if the results can be further improved by the application of a scale factor for every transaxial plane

  4. Single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the current role and state-of-the-art regarding the development, clinical applications, and usefulness of generator-produced single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides (SPUSLR's) and to predict their future impact on medicine. Special emphasis was placed on the generator production of iridium-191, gold-195, and krypton-81. This report contains expanded summaries of the included papers. (ACR)

  5. Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Mads B; Buß, Thomas; Smith, Cameron L C; Petersen, Sidsel R; Jørgensen, Mette M; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer photonic crystal (PhC) lasers fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography are studied for their reproducibility and stability characteristics. We introduce a phase shift in the PhC lattice that substantially improves the yield of single wavelength emission. Single mode emission and reproducibility of laser characteristics are important if the lasers are to be mass produced in, e.g., optofluidic sensor chips. The fabrication yield is above 85% with highly reproducible wavelengths (within 0.5%), and the temperature dependence on the wavelength is found to be −0.045 or −0.066 nm K -1 , depending on the material

  6. Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer photonic crystal (PhC) lasers fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography are studied for their reproducibility and stability characteristics. We introduce a phase shift in the PhC lattice that substantially improves the yield of single wavelength emission. Single mode...... emission and reproducibility of laser characteristics are important if the lasers are to be mass produced in, e. g., optofluidic sensor chips. The fabrication yield is above 85% with highly reproducible wavelengths (within 0.5%), and the temperature dependence on the wavelength is found to be -0.045 or -0...

  7. Heralded noiseless amplification for single-photon entangled state with polarization feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Yu-Yu; Qin, Sheng-Xian; Zu, Hao; Zhou, Lan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Heralded noiseless amplification is a promising method to overcome the transmission photon loss in practical noisy quantum channel and can effectively lengthen the quantum communication distance. Single-photon entanglement is an important resource in current quantum communications. Here, we construct two single-photon-assisted heralded noiseless amplification protocols for the single-photon two-mode entangled state and single-photon three-mode W state, respectively, where the single-photon qubit has an arbitrary unknown polarization feature. After the amplification, the fidelity of the single-photon entangled state can be increased, while the polarization feature of the single-photon qubit can be well remained. Both the two protocols only require the linear optical elements, so that they can be realized under current experimental condition. Our protocols may be useful in current and future quantum information processing.

  8. Deterministic and Storable Single-Photon Source Based on a Quantum Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuai; Chen, Y.-A.; Strassel, Thorsten; Zhao Bo; Yuan Zhensheng; Pan Jianwei; Schmiedmayer, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    A single-photon source is realized with a cold atomic ensemble ( 87 Rb atoms). A single excitation, written in an atomic quantum memory by Raman scattering of a laser pulse, is retrieved deterministically as a single photon at a predetermined time. It is shown that the production rate of single photons can be enhanced considerably by a feedback circuit while the single-photon quality is conserved. Such a single-photon source is well suited for future large-scale realization of quantum communication and linear optical quantum computation

  9. Molecular single photon double K-shell ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penent, F.; Nakano, M.; Tashiro, M.; Grozdanov, T.P.; Žitnik, M.; Carniato, S.; Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Lablanquie, P.; Palaudoux, J.; Shigemasa, E.; Iwayama, H.; Hikosaka, Y.; Soejima, K.; Suzuki, I.H.; Kouchi, N.; Ito, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied single photon double K-shell ionization of small molecules (N 2 , CO, C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3), …) and the Auger decay of the resulting double core hole (DCH) molecular ions thanks to multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer. The relative cross-sections for single-site (K −2 ) and two-site (K −1 K −1 ) double K-shell ionization with respect to single K-shell (K −1 ) ionization have been measured that gives important information on the mechanisms of single photon double ionization. The spectroscopy of two-site (K −1 K −1 ) DCH states in the C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3) series shows important chemical shifts due to a strong dependence on the C-C bond length. In addition, the complete cascade Auger decay following single site (K −2 ) ionization has been obtained

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of single particle tracking in extreme conditions: single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajgfinger, T.

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames / second) single-photon detector electron-bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity: the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developed to detect single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on the ebCMOS sensor is presented. The second section compares the localization accuracy of these detectors in extreme conditions of very low photon flux (<10 photons/frame). First the theoretical limit is calculated using the Cramer-Rao lower bound for significant parameter sets. An experimental comparison of the detectors is then described. The setup provides one or more point sources controlled in position, signal and background noise. The results allow a comparison of the experimental effectiveness, purity and localization accuracy. The last section describes two experiments with the ebCMOS camera. The first aims at tracking hundreds of quantum dots simultaneously at the Nanoptec center. The second focuses on the swimming of bacteria at the surface at the Joliot Curie Institute. The point sources tracking algorithm using single photons and the Kalman filter implementation developed for these experiments is also described. (author)

  11. Single photon laser altimeter simulator and statistical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Michael; Prochazka, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Spaceborne altimeters are common instruments onboard the deep space rendezvous spacecrafts. They provide range and topographic measurements critical in spacecraft navigation. Simultaneously, the receiver part may be utilized for Earth-to-satellite link, one way time transfer, and precise optical radiometry. The main advantage of single photon counting approach is the ability of processing signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio eliminating the need of large telescopes and high power laser source. Extremely small, rugged and compact microchip lasers can be employed. The major limiting factor, on the other hand, is the acquisition time needed to gather sufficient volume of data in repetitive measurements in order to process and evaluate the data appropriately. Statistical signal processing is adopted to detect signals with average strength much lower than one photon per measurement. A comprehensive simulator design and range signal processing algorithm are presented to identify a mission specific altimeter configuration. Typical mission scenarios (celestial body surface landing and topographical mapping) are simulated and evaluated. The high interest and promising single photon altimeter applications are low-orbit (˜10 km) and low-radial velocity (several m/s) topographical mapping (asteroids, Phobos and Deimos) and landing altimetry (˜10 km) where range evaluation repetition rates of ˜100 Hz and 0.1 m precision may be achieved. Moon landing and asteroid Itokawa topographical mapping scenario simulations are discussed in more detail.

  12. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  13. On-demand single-photon state generation via nonlinear absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tao; Jack, Michael W.; Yamashita, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method for producing on-demand single-photon states based on collision-induced exchanges of photons and unbalanced linear absorption between two single-mode light fields. These two effects result in an effective nonlinear absorption of photons in one of the modes, which can lead to single-photon states. A quantum nonlinear attenuator based on such a mechanism can absorb photons in a normal input light pulse and terminate the absorption at a single-photon state. Because the output light pulses containing single photons preserve the properties of the input pulses, we expect this method to be a means for building a highly controllable single-photon source

  14. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Chandra M; Tanner, Michael G; Hadfield, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires (SSPDs or SNSPDs) have rapidly emerged as a highly promising photon-counting technology for infrared wavelengths. These devices offer high efficiency, low dark counts and excellent timing resolution. In this review, we consider the basic SNSPD operating principle and models of device behaviour. We give an overview of the evolution of SNSPD device design and the improvements in performance which have been achieved. We also evaluate device limitations and noise mechanisms. We survey practical refrigeration technologies and optical coupling schemes for SNSPDs. Finally we summarize promising application areas, ranging from quantum cryptography to remote sensing. Our goal is to capture a detailed snapshot of an emerging superconducting detector technology on the threshold of maturity. (topical review)

  15. Single-organelle tracking by two-photon conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Shimada, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kurihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Kiichi; Shin-Ichi Arimura, Shin-Ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Keisuke; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2007-03-01

    Spatial and temporal information about intracellular objects and their dynamics within a living cell are essential for dynamic analysis of such objects in cell biology. A specific intracellular object can be discriminated by photoactivatable fluorescent proteins that exhibit pronounced light-induced spectral changes. Here, we report on selective labeling and tracking of a single organelle by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. We performed selective labeling of a single mitochondrion in a living tobacco BY-2 cell using two-photon photoconversion of Kaede. Using this technique, we demonstrated that, in plants, the directed movement of individual mitochondria along the cytoskeletons was mediated by actin filaments, whereas microtubules were not required for the movement of mitochondria. This single-organelle labeling technique enabled us to track the dynamics of a single organelle, revealing the mechanisms involved in organelle dynamics. The technique has potential application in direct tracking of selective cellular and intracellular structures.

  16. Single-photon two-qubit entangled states: Preparation and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2003-01-01

    We implement experimentally a deterministic method to prepare and measure the so-called single-photon two-qubit entangled states or single-photon Bell states, in which the polarization and the spatial modes of a single photon each represent a quantum bit. All four single-photon Bell states can be easily prepared and measured deterministically using linear optical elements alone. We also discuss how this method can be used for the recently proposed single-photon two-qubit quantum cryptography scheme

  17. The photonic nanowire: an emerging platform for highly efficient single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient coupling between a localized quantum emitter and a well defined optical channel represents a powerful route to realize single-photon sources and spin-photon interfaces. The tailored fiber-like photonic nanowire embedding a single quantum dot has recently demonstrated an appealing...... potential. However, the device requires a delicate, sharp needle-like taper with performance sensitive to minute geometrical details. To overcome this limitation we demonstrate the photonic trumpet, exploiting an opposite tapering strategy. The trumpet features a strongly Gaussian far-field emission...

  18. The simultaneous use of several pseudo-random binary sequences in the identification of linear multivariable dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1965-02-01

    With several white noise sources the various transmission paths of a linear multivariable system may be determined simultaneously. This memorandum considers the restrictions on pseudo-random two state sequences to effect simultaneous identification of several transmission paths and the consequential rejection of cross-coupled signals in linear multivariable systems. The conditions for simultaneous identification are established by an example, which shows that the integration time required is large i.e. tends to infinity, as it does when white noise sources are used. (author)

  19. A high-speed on-chip pseudo-random binary sequence generator for multi-tone phase calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommé, Liesbeth; Vandersteen, Gerd; Rolain, Yves

    2011-07-01

    An on-chip reference generator is conceived by adopting the technique of decimating a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) signal in parallel sequences. This is of great benefit when high-speed generation of PRBS and PRBS-derived signals is the objective. The design implemented standard CMOS logic is available in commercial libraries to provide the logic functions for the generator. The design allows the user to select the periodicity of the PRBS and the PRBS-derived signals. The characterization of the on-chip generator marks its performance and reveals promising specifications.

  20. A high-speed on-chip pseudo-random binary sequence generator for multi-tone phase calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gommé, Liesbeth; Vandersteen, Gerd; Rolain, Yves

    2011-01-01

    An on-chip reference generator is conceived by adopting the technique of decimating a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) signal in parallel sequences. This is of great benefit when high-speed generation of PRBS and PRBS-derived signals is the objective. The design implemented standard CMOS logic is available in commercial libraries to provide the logic functions for the generator. The design allows the user to select the periodicity of the PRBS and the PRBS-derived signals. The characterization of the on-chip generator marks its performance and reveals promising specifications

  1. Single photon counting fluorescence lifetime detection of pericellular oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Neveen A; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy offers a non-invasive method for quantifying local oxygen concentrations. However, existing methods are either invasive, require custom-made systems, or show limited spatial resolution. Therefore, these methods are unsuitable for investigation of pericellular oxygen concentrations. This study describes an adaptation of commercially available equipment which has been optimized for quantitative extracellular oxygen detection with high lifetime accuracy and spatial resolution while avoiding systematic photon pile-up. The oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride hexahydrate [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+), was excited using a two-photon excitation laser. Lifetime was measured using a Becker & Hickl time-correlated single photon counting, which will be referred to as a TCSPC card. [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+) characterization studies quantified the influences of temperature, pH, cellular culture media and oxygen on the fluorescence lifetime measurements. This provided a precisely calibrated and accurate system for quantification of pericellular oxygen concentration based on measured lifetimes. Using this technique, quantification of oxygen concentrations around isolated viable chondrocytes, seeded in three-dimensional agarose gel, revealed a subpopulation of cells that exhibited significant spatial oxygen gradients such that oxygen concentration reduced with increasing proximity to the cell. This technique provides a powerful tool for quantifying spatial oxygen gradients within three-dimensional cellular models.

  2. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H

    2014-03-24

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  3. High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD

  4. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael G.; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  5. Quantification in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena; 2 - quantification in SPECT, problems and correction methods: Attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration; 3 - Synthesis: actual quantification accuracy; 4 - Beyond the activity concentration measurement

  6. Multiplexing Superconducting Qubit Circuit for Single Microwave Photon Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R. E.; Senior, J.; Saira, O.-P.; Pekola, J. P.; de Graaf, S. E.; Lindström, T.; Pashkin, Yu A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on a device that integrates eight superconducting transmon qubits in λ /4 superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fed from a common feedline. Using this multiplexing architecture, each resonator and qubit can be addressed individually, thus reducing the required hardware resources and allowing their individual characterisation by spectroscopic methods. The measured device parameters agree with the designed values, and the resonators and qubits exhibit excellent coherence properties and strong coupling, with the qubit relaxation rate dominated by the Purcell effect when brought in resonance with the resonator. Our analysis shows that the circuit is suitable for generation of single microwave photons on demand with an efficiency exceeding 80%.

  7. Single photon emission computed tomography in children with idiopathic seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Masafumi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Kojima, Akihiro; Shimomura, Osamu; Kinoshita, Rumi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Taku, Keiichi; Miike, Teruhisa

    1991-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isoprophyl-p [ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP), X-ray computed tomography (X-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in 20 children with idiopathic seizures. In children with idiopathic seizures, SPECT could detect the abnormal sites at the highest rate (45%) compared with CT (10%) and MRI (12%), but the abnormal sites on SPECT correlated poorly with the foci on electroencephalograph (EEG). Idiopathic epilepsy with hypoperfusion on SPECT was refractory to treatment and was frequently associated with mental and/or developmental retardation. Perfusion defects on SPECT scans probably affect the development and maturation of the brain in children. (author)

  8. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  9. Design of Slow and Fast Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides for Single-photon Emission Using a Bloch Mode Expansion Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Rigal, B.; Kapon, E.

    We design slow and fast light photonic crystal waveguides for single-photon emission using a Bloch mode expansion and scattering matrix technique. We propose slow light designs that increase the group index-waveguide mode volume ratio for larger Purcell enhancement, and address efficient slow-to-...

  10. Dye molecules as single-photon sources and large optical nonlinearities on a chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J; Hinds, E A

    2011-01-01

    We point out that individual organic dye molecules, deposited close to optical waveguides on a photonic chip, can act as single-photon sources. A thin silicon nitride strip waveguide is expected to collect 28% of the photons from a single dibenzoterrylene molecule. These molecules can also provide large, localized optical nonlinearities, which are enough to discriminate between one photon or two through a differential phase shift of 2 0 per photon. This new atom-photon interface may be used as a resource for processing quantum information.

  11. Ultra-Low Power Optical Transistor Using a Single Quantum Dot Embedded in a Photonic Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, H.A.; Grange, T.; Malik, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons.......Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons....

  12. Post-processing with linear optics for improving the quality of single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Dominic W; Scheel, Stefan; Myers, Casey R; Sanders, Barry C; Knight, Peter L; Laflamme, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Triggered single-photon sources produce the vacuum state with non-negligible probability, but produce a much smaller multiphoton component. It is therefore reasonable to approximate the output of these photon sources as a mixture of the vacuum and single-photon states. We show that it is impossible to increase the probability for a single photon using linear optics and photodetection on fewer than four modes. This impossibility is due to the incoherence of the inputs; if the inputs were pure-state superpositions, it would be possible to obtain a perfect single-photon output. In the more general case, a chain of beam splitters can be used to increase the probability for a single photon, but at the expense of adding an additional multiphoton component. This improvement is robust against detector inefficiencies, but is degraded by distinguishable photons, dark counts or multiphoton components in the input

  13. High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasel, Sylvain; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sebastien; Baldi, Pascal; Beveratos, Alexios; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    We report on the experimental realization and characterization of an asynchronous heralded single-photon source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Photons at 1550 nm are heralded as being inside a single-mode fibre with more than 60% probability, and the multi-photon emission probability is reduced by a factor of up to more than 500 compared to Poissonian light sources. These figures of merit, together with the choice of telecom wavelength for the heralded photons, are compatible with practical applications needing very efficient and robust single-photon sources

  14. Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Neale A. W.; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed. PMID:27447643

  15. Single-photon sources for quantum technologies - Results of the joint research project SIQUTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kück, S.; López, M.; Rodiek, B.

    2017-01-01

    In this presentation, the results of the joint research project “Single-Photon Sources for Quantum Technologies” (SIQUTE) [1] will be presented. The focus will be on the development of absolutely characterized single-photon sources, on the realization of an efficient waveguide-based single-photon......-photon source at the telecom wavelengths of 1.3 µm and 1.55 µm, on the implementation of the quantum-enhanced resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy and on the development of a detector for very low photon fluxes...

  16. Two-photon interference at telecom wavelengths for time-bin-encoded single photons from quantum-dot spin qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S; Tanner, Michael G; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-11-24

    Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.

  17. Vacuum Ultraviolet Single-Photon Postionization of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultraviolet (UV laser desorption and vacuum UV single-photon (VUV SP postionization were performed to ionize and successfully analyze 20 common amino acids. The analytical merit and efficiency of the ionization was compared with those of conventional UV matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (UV-MALDI. A VUV light source (118 nm was generated from the ninth harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, and the photon number was determined to be larger than 1012 for each laser pulse in the ionization region. In general, the detection sensitivity of VUV-SP-postionization was 10–100 times higher than that of conventional UV-MALDI. In particular, the ion signal from VUV-SP-postionization was considerably larger than that from UV-MALDI for analytes with low proton affinity such as glycine. However, some fragmentation of intact ions was observed in VUV-SP-postionization. Quantitative analysis performed using a glycine/histidine mixture and tryptophan/phenylalanine mixture revealed that the dynamic range of VUV-SP-postionization was one order of magnitude larger than that of UV-MALDI, indicating that VUV-SP-postionization is suitable for the quantitative analysis of amino acids.

  18. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  19. Source of single photons and interferometry with one photon. From the Young's slit experiment to the delayed choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, V.

    2007-11-01

    This manuscript is divided in two independent parts. In the first part, we study the wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nano-crystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's bi-prism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice Gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. The second part of the manuscript is devoted to the efficiency improvement of single-photon sources. We first describe the implementation of a new single-photon source based on the photoluminescence of a single nickel-related defect center in diamond. The photophysical properties of such defect make this single-photon source well adapted to open-air quantum cryptography. We finally demonstrate an original method that leads to an improvement of single-molecule photo stability at room temperature. (author)

  20. Athermal avalanche in bilayer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B., E-mail: verma@nist.gov; Lita, A. E.; Stevens, M. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate that two superconducting nanowires separated by a thin insulating barrier can undergo an avalanche process. In this process, Joule heating caused by a photodetection event in one nanowire and the associated production of athermal phonons which are transmitted through the barrier cause the transition of the adjacent nanowire from the superconducting to the normal state. We show that this process can be utilized in the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce system jitter, maximize device area, and increase the external efficiency over a very broad range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the avalanche mechanism may provide a path towards a superconducting logic element based on athermal gating.

  1. Single photon emission computed tomography of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the liver has been introduced in order to improve sensitivity and localization of space-occupying lesions. There have been numerous reports on the usefulness of the technique, as well as extensive analyses of its technical drawbacks. In general, SPECT provides a more accurate estimation of defect size than does conventional planar scintigraphy for cases in which one wishes to evaluate changes in lesion size due to therapy. The presence of a superimposed parenchymal disease, however, remains a major problem, which will only be resolved by a scanning technique that specifically detects the disease process of concern (hot spot imaging) rather than displacement of normal tissue (cold spot imaging)

  2. Technology development for a single-photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, Roland

    2011-01-01

    the emission from 1.3 μm to 1.5 μm was obtained. To achieve high collection efficiency, the quantum dots should be embedded into photonic crystals. An ArCl 2 -etch-process was developed which enables the etch of small features in Al x Ga y In 1-x-y As material system to transfer the Si 3 N 4 -pattern into the semiconductor. Using this process the fabricated photonic crystals with L3-cavities had Q-factors around 2200. Any concept using a cavity needs a mechanism to control the frequency-detuning between the mode and the quantum dots, due to the inhomogeneous frequency broadening of the quantum dots. Thus an in-situ tuning mechanism is required for adjusting the emission wavelength of the quantum dot or cavity mode, respectively. This concept intents to use the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) to force the emission of a single photon out of a quantum dot into the photonic crystal mode. This is realized using a reversed biased Schottky contact to cause a red-shift of the emission of a single quantum dot. Electroluminescence measurements on the device show, that even with very low currents of 14.5 μA the saturation intensity of single quantum dots could be reached. (orig.)

  3. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder

  4. On-Demand Microwave Generator of Shaped Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn-Díaz, P.; Warren, C. W.; Chang, C. W. S.; Vadiraj, A. M.; Wilson, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate the full functionality of a circuit that generates single microwave photons on demand, with a wave packet that can be modulated with a near-arbitrary shape. We achieve such a high tunability by coupling a superconducting qubit near the end of a semi-infinite transmission line. A dc superconducting quantum interference device shunts the line to ground and is employed to modify the spatial dependence of the electromagnetic mode structure in the transmission line. This control allows us to couple and decouple the qubit from the line, shaping its emission rate on fast time scales. Our decoupling scheme is applicable to all types of superconducting qubits and other solid-state systems and can be generalized to multiple qubits as well as to resonators.

  5. TCAD simulations for a novel single-photon avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangliang; Yang, Jia; Yang, Hongjiao; Tang, Lizhen; Liu, Weihui

    2015-03-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) device with P+-SEN junction, and a low concentration of N-type doping circular virtual guard-ring was presented in this paper. SEN layer of the proposed SPAD has high concentration of N-type doping, causing the SPAD low breakdown voltage (~14.26 V). What's more, an efficient and narrow (about 2μm) guard-ring of the proposed SPAD not only can withstand considerably higher electric fields for preventing edge breakdown, but also offers a little increment in fill factor compared with existing SPADs due to its small area. In addition, some Silvaco TCAD simulations have been done and verify characteristics and performance of the design in this work.

  6. Single photon emission computed tomography and oth selected computer topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of a meeting in January 1980, contains 21 papers. Thirteen are devoted to aspects of emission tomography, four to nuclear cardiology, and five to other topics. The initial set of papers consists of reviews of the single photon emission tomography process. These include transverse axial tomography using scintillation cameras and other devices, longitudinal section tomography, and pin-hole and slant-hole systems. These reviews are generally well done, but as might be expected, lack any coherence from paper to paper. The papers on nuclear cardiology include several of Fourier analysis in nuclear cardiology and one on shunt quantification. Other clinical papers are on quantifying Tc-99m glucoheptonate uptake in the brain and on iron-59 retention studies. A general criticism of the book is the poor quality of photographic reproductions

  7. Single photon light detector for deep ocean applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, S.; Babson, J.; Learned, J.G.; O'Connor, D.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Wilson, C.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a single photon sensitive light detector module which can be operated in the ocean to a depth of 5000 m. It was designed primarily to be used as a Cherenkov light detector in conjunction with the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector) experiment. After calibration in the laboratory, seven detectors, assembled in a vertical string geometry, have been operated simultaneously in the deep ocean off the coast of the island of Hawaii. Cosmic ray muons have been recorded successfully at dephts ranging from 2000 to 4000 m. The results have demonstrated the capability of the detector; it fulfills the specifications required for the modules to be used in a deep ocean muon and neutrino detector. (orig.)

  8. Application of single photon ECT for dynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, T.; Ishii, Y.; Tamaki, N.

    1982-01-01

    Feasibility of dynamic study in a form of ECT using a rotating gamma camera was evaluated. Since it takes longer one around time sampling, application for the dynamic study is limited under following conditions; 1) physiological gated process, 2) slow clearance process, 3) physiological steady state process. The gated study was applicated for heart pumping action synchronized with ECG. The ECG gated heart ECT either of blood pool or myocardium was useful to reveal a subtle wall motion abnormalities in a tomographic plane, even when a planar imaging failed to reveal it. As for slow dynamic process of tracer, an excretion process of hepatobiliary agent, was subjected to be analyzed in order to calculate clearance rate at each pixel. As for steady state process, an ECT of regional celebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated during continuous infusion into intracarotid artery. All of these technique were proved to have a clinical feasibility and to potentiate usefulness of the single photon ECT (SPECT)

  9. Super-resolution from single photon emission: toward biological application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Forneris, J.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Guarina, L.; Franchino, C.; Picollo, F.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Carabelli, V.; Olivero, P.; Genovese, M.

    2017-08-01

    Properties of quantum light represent a tool for overcoming limits of classical optics. Several experiments have demonstrated this advantage ranging from quantum enhanced imaging to quantum illumination. In this work, experimental demonstration of quantum-enhanced resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy will be presented. This is achieved by exploiting the non-classical photon statistics of fluorescence emission of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond. By developing a general model of super-resolution based on the direct sampling of the kth-order autocorrelation function of the photoluminescence signal, we show the possibility to resolve, in principle, arbitrarily close emitting centers. Finally, possible applications of NV-based fluorescent nanodiamonds in biosensing and future developments will be presented.

  10. Latest Advances in the Generation of Single Photons in Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The major barrier for optical quantum information technologies is the absence of reliable single photons sources providing non-classical light states on demand which can be easily and reliably integrated with standard processing protocols for quantum device fabrication. New methods of generation at room temperature of single photons are therefore needed. Heralded single photon sources are presently being sought based on different methods built on different materials. Silicon Carbide (SiC has the potentials to serve as the preferred material for quantum applications. Here, we review the latest advances in single photon generation at room temperatures based on SiC.

  11. Single-photon three-qubit quantum logic using spatial light modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagalwala, Kumel H; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2017-09-29

    The information-carrying capacity of a single photon can be vastly expanded by exploiting its multiple degrees of freedom: spatial, temporal, and polarization. Although multiple qubits can be encoded per photon, to date only two-qubit single-photon quantum operations have been realized. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of three-qubit single-photon, linear, deterministic quantum gates that exploit photon polarization and the two-dimensional spatial-parity-symmetry of the transverse single-photon field. These gates are implemented using a polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator that provides a robust, non-interferometric, versatile platform for implementing controlled unitary gates. Polarization here represents the control qubit for either separable or entangling unitary operations on the two spatial-parity target qubits. Such gates help generate maximally entangled three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, which is confirmed by tomographical reconstruction of single-photon density matrices. This strategy provides access to a wide range of three-qubit states and operations for use in few-qubit quantum information processing protocols.Photons are essential for quantum information processing, but to date only two-qubit single-photon operations have been realized. Here the authors demonstrate experimentally a three-qubit single-photon linear deterministic quantum gate by exploiting polarization along with spatial-parity symmetry.

  12. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M; Tsuburaya, Y [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felle, M. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Huwer, J., E-mail: jan.huwer@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Penty, R. V. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.

  14. Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felle, M.; Huwer, J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Penty, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons

  15. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process; Una prueba empirica de generadores de numeros pseudoaleatorios mediante un proceso de decaimiento exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, A.P. 475, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Mora F, L.E. [CIMAT, A.P. 402, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)]. e-mail: hcoronel@uv.mx

    2007-07-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  16. Single-Shot Quantum Nondemolition Detection of Individual Itinerant Microwave Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Jean-Claude; Gasparinetti, Simone; Collodo, Michele C.; Walter, Theo; Kurpiers, Philipp; Pechal, Marek; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Single-photon detection is an essential component in many experiments in quantum optics, but it remains challenging in the microwave domain. We realize a quantum nondemolition detector for propagating microwave photons and characterize its performance using a single-photon source. To this aim, we implement a cavity-assisted conditional phase gate between the incoming photon and a superconducting artificial atom. By reading out the state of this atom in a single shot, we reach an external (internal) photon-detection fidelity of 50% (71%), limited by transmission efficiency between the source and the detector (75%) and the coherence properties of the qubit. By characterizing the coherence and average number of photons in the field reflected off the detector, we demonstrate its quantum nondemolition nature. We envisage applications in generating heralded remote entanglement between qubits and for realizing logic gates between propagating microwave photons.

  17. Photon counting imaging and centroiding with an electron-bombarded CCD using single molecule localisation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times.

  18. Setting Single Photon Detectors for Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    EPA software). 5) If a TPI measurement is to be performed, the polarization of the PAs must first be adjusted to account for the birefringence of the... measurement of the entangled photon pairs generated by an entangled photon pair source require at least 2 SPDs operating at their highest possible...v 1. Introduction 1 2. Generation, Detection, and Measurement of Entangled Photon Pairs 1 2.1 Generation of Entangled Photon Pairs 2 2.2

  19. Proceedings of clinical SPECT [single photon emission computed tomography] symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  20. Single- and dual-photon absorptiometry in osteoporosis and osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Single- and dual-photon absorptiometric methods have been used in the past to identify populations at risk for bone loss, to define the osteoporotic syndrome in terms of bone mass, and to evaluate treatment regimens to prevent bone loss. Technical improvements have made these procedures available for the nontraumatic measurement of bone mineral in the management of the individual patient suspected of having osteoporosis or other bone loss. This requires a different approach to data interpretation because decisions have to be made on the basis of a single measurement. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia cannot be distinguished by bone mineral measurements because both are characterized by a decrease in content of bone mineral. Bone mineral measurements can be used to assess the risk of fracture and, with it, the severity of bone loss. This allows treatment decisions to be made. Repeated measurements made under well-defined conditions allow estimation of long-term rate of bone loss and monitoring of treatment effect. 38 references

  1. Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Saniya; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Pallab, E-mail: pkb@eecs.umich.edu [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate a semiconductor quantum dot based electrically pumped single-photon source operating at room temperature. Single photons emitted in the red spectral range from single In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}N/GaN quantum dots exhibit a second-order correlation value g{sup (2)}(0) of 0.29, and fast recombination lifetime ∼1.3 ±0.3 ns at room temperature. The single-photon source can be driven at an excitation repetition rate of 200 MHz.

  2. The reproducibility of single photon absorptiometry in a clinical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The reproducibility of single photon absorptiometry (SPA) results for detection of changes in bone mineral content (BMC) was evaluated in a clinical setting. During a period of 18 months with 4 different sources, the calibration scans of an aluminium standard had a variation of less than 1% unless the activity of the 125 I source was low. The calibration procedure was performed weekly and this was sufficient to correct for drift of the system. The short term reproducibility in patients was assessed with 119 duplicate measurements made in direct succession. The best reproducibility (CV=1.35%) was found for fat corrected BMC results expressed in g/cm, obtained at the site proximal to the 8 mm space between the radius and ulna. Analysis of all SPA scans made during 1 year (487 scans) showed a failure of the automatic procedure to detect the space of 8 mm between the forearm bones in 19 scans (3.9%). A space adjacent to the ulnar styloid was taken as the site for the first scan in these examinations. This problem may be recognized and corrected relatively easy. A significant correlation was found between BMC at the lower arm and BMC of the lumbar spine assessed with dual photon absorptiometry. However, the error of estimation of proximal BMC (SEE=20%) and distal BMC (SEE=19.4%) made these measurements of little value to predict BMC at the lumbar spine in individuals. The short term reproducibility in patients combined with long term stability of the equipment in our clinical setting showed that SPA is a reliable technique to assess changes in bone mass at the lower arm of 4% between 2 measurements with a confidence level of 95%. (orig.)

  3. Orthopedic applications of single photon emission computed Tomographic bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    When compared with planar bone scanning, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has technical advantages of potential diagnostic significance. Planar imaging often superimposes substantial underlying or overlying activity on the bony structure of medical interest. SPECT, however, can be used to remove such unwanted activity. For example, in the hip the acetabulum extends downwards behind the femoral head. Therefore when using planar bone scanning techniques, the photon-deficient defect typical of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral had may be obscured by activity originating in the underlying acetabulum. By using SPECT, underlying and overlying distributions of activity can be separated into sequential tomographic planes. For this reason SPECT facilitates the detection of AVN of the femoral head. When referring a patient without a history of malignancy for bone scanning, the orthopaedic surgeon usually has a specific clinical question involving a limited portion of the skeleton. Orthopaedic surgeons at their institution commonly use bone scanning to clarify the cause of back, hip or knee pain; to determine with a physiological test the significance of radiographic findings; and to establish the extent of disease at symptomatic skeletal sites such as the three compartments of the knee. In instances such as these, when clinical concern is limited to a specific anatomical region, a bone scan procedure that includes SPECT imaging of only a portion of the skeleton is appropriate. To date, SPECT of the skeletal system has most frequently been used to evaluate patients with pain the larger joints and bony structures such as the lumbar spine, hips, knees, or temporomandibular joints (TMJ)

  4. InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche diode for 1550 nm photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao; Xie, Shiyu; Zhou, Xinxin; Calandri, Niccolò; Sanzaro, Mirko; Tosi, Alberto; Tan, Chee Hing; Ng, Jo Shien

    2016-03-01

    A single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with an InGaAs absorption region, and an InAlAs avalanche region was designed and demonstrated to detect 1550 nm wavelength photons. The characterization included leakage current, dark count rate and single photon detection efficiency as functions of temperature from 210 to 294 K. The SPAD exhibited good temperature stability, with breakdown voltage dependence of approximately 45 mV K(-1). Operating at 210 K and in a gated mode, the SPAD achieved a photon detection probability of 26% at 1550 nm with a dark count rate of 1 × 10(8) Hz. The time response of the SPAD showed decreasing timing jitter (full width at half maximum) with increasing overbias voltage, with 70 ps being the smallest timing jitter measured.

  5. Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate single- and multi-photon detection regimes of superconducting nanowire detectors embedded in silicon nitride nanophotonic circuits. At near-infrared wavelengths, simultaneous detection of up to three photons is observed for 120 nm wide nanowires biased far from the critical current, while narrow nanowires below 100 nm provide efficient single photon detection. A theoretical model is proposed to determine the different detection regimes and to calculate the corresponding internal quantum efficiency. The predicted saturation of the internal quantum efficiency in the single photon regime agrees well with plateau behavior observed at high bias currents

  6. Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe 76132 (Germany); Kovalyuk, Vadim [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe 76132 (Germany); Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Goltsman, Gregory N. [Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya Ulitsa, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Korneev, Alexander [Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow 141700 (Russian Federation); Pernice, Wolfram H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe 76132 (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2015-04-13

    We investigate single- and multi-photon detection regimes of superconducting nanowire detectors embedded in silicon nitride nanophotonic circuits. At near-infrared wavelengths, simultaneous detection of up to three photons is observed for 120 nm wide nanowires biased far from the critical current, while narrow nanowires below 100 nm provide efficient single photon detection. A theoretical model is proposed to determine the different detection regimes and to calculate the corresponding internal quantum efficiency. The predicted saturation of the internal quantum efficiency in the single photon regime agrees well with plateau behavior observed at high bias currents.

  7. Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2016-01-01

    We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities...... and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark...

  8. Evaluation of a fast single-photon avalanche photodiode for measurement of early transmitted photons through diffusive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ying; Valim, Niksa; Niedre, Mark

    2013-06-15

    We tested the performance of a fast single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) in measurement of early transmitted photons through diffusive media. In combination with a femtosecond titanium:sapphire laser, the overall instrument temporal response time was 59 ps. Using two experimental models, we showed that the SPAD allowed measurement of photon-density sensitivity functions that were approximately 65% narrower than the ungated continuous wave case at very early times. This exceeds the performance that we have previously achieved with photomultiplier-tube-based systems and approaches the theoretical maximum predicted by time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Corpuscular Model of Two-Beam Interference and Double-Slit Experiments with Single Photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Fengping; Yuan, Shengjun; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji

    We introduce an event-based corpuscular simulation model that reproduces the wave mechanical results of single-photon double-slit and two-beam interference experiments and (of a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization) of a single-photon interference experiment with a Fresnel biprism. The

  10. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  11. Large conditional single-photon cross-phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Vuletić, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic optical quantum logic requires a nonlinear quantum process that alters the phase of a quantum optical state by π through interaction with only one photon. Here, we demonstrate a large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal field, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. This approach avoids fundamental limitations associated with multimode effects for traveling optical photons. We measure a conditional cross-phase shift of π/6 (and up to π/3 by postselection on photons that remain in the system longer than average) between the retrieved signal and control photons, and confirm deterministic entanglement between the signal and control modes by extracting a positive concurrence. By upgrading to a state-of-the-art cavity, our system can reach a coherent phase shift of π at low loss, enabling deterministic and universal photonic quantum logic. PMID:27519798

  12. Optical π phase shift created with a single-photon pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarks, Daniel; Schmidt, Steffen; Rempe, Gerhard; Dürr, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A deterministic photon-photon quantum logic gate is a long-standing goal. Building such a gate becomes possible if a light pulse containing only one photon imprints a phase shift of π onto another light field. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a π phase shift with a single-photon pulse. A first light pulse containing less than one photon on average is stored in an atomic gas. Rydberg blockade combined with electromagnetically induced transparency creates a phase shift for a second light pulse, which propagates through the medium. We measure the π phase shift of the second pulse when we postselect the data upon the detection of a retrieved photon from the first pulse. This demonstrates a crucial step toward a photon-photon gate and offers a variety of applications in the field of quantum information processing.

  13. Photon statistics of a single-atom intracavity system involving electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebic, S.; Parkins, A.S.; Tan, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    We explore the photon statistics of light emitted from a system comprising a single four-level atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity mode that is driven by a coherent laser field. In the weak driving regime this system is found to exhibit a photon blockade effect. For intermediate driving strengths we find a sudden change in the photon statistics of the light emitted from the cavity. Photon antibunching switches to photon bunching over a very narrow range of intracavity photon number. It is proven that this sudden change in photon statistics occurs due to the existence of robust quantum interference of transitions between the dressed states of the atom-cavity system. Furthermore, it is shown that the strong photon bunching is a nonclassical effect for certain values of driving field strength, violating classical inequalities for field correlations

  14. How a single photon can mediate entanglement between two others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    We describe a novel quantum information protocol, which probabilistically entangles two distant photons that have never interacted. Different from the entanglement swapping protocol, which requires two pairs of maximally entangled photons as the input states, as well as a Bell-state measurement (BSM), the present scheme only requires three photons: two to be entangled and another to mediate the correlation, and no BSM, in a process that we call “entanglement mediation”. Furthermore, in analyzing the paths of the photons in our arrangement, we conclude that one of them, the mediator, exchanges information with the two others simultaneously, which seems to be a new quantum-mechanical feature.

  15. Coherent control of the single-photon multichannel scattering in the dissipation case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun-Xia; Wang, Hang-Yu; Ma, Jin-Lou; Li, Qing; Tan, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Based on the quasi-boson approach, a model of a Λ-type three-level atom coupled to a X-shaped coupled cavity arrays (CCAs) is used to study the transport properties of a single-photon in the dissipative case, and a classical field is introduced to motivate the one transition of the Λ-type three-level atom (ΛTLA). The analytical expressions of transmission and transfer rate are obtained. Our results show that the cavity dissipation will obviously weaken the single-photon transfer rate where the incident energy of the single photon is resonant with the excited energy of the atom. Whether the cavity dissipation exists or not, the single photon can be almost confined in the incident channel at large detuning, and we can regulate the intensity of the classical field to control the total transmission of the single-photon.

  16. Microscopic theory of cavity-enhanced single-photon emission from optical two-photon Raman processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddermann, Dominik; Praschan, Tom; Heinze, Dirk; Binder, Rolf; Schumacher, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    We consider cavity-enhanced single-photon generation from stimulated two-photon Raman processes in three-level systems. We compare four fundamental system configurations, one Λ -, one V-, and two ladder (Ξ -) configurations. These can be realized as subsystems of a single quantum dot or of quantum-dot molecules. For a new microscopic understanding of the Raman process, we analyze the Heisenberg equation of motion applying the cluster-expansion scheme. Within this formalism an exact and rigorous definition of a cavity-enhanced Raman photon via its corresponding Raman correlation is possible. This definition for example enables us to systematically investigate the on-demand potential of Raman-transition-based single-photon sources. The four system arrangements can be divided into two subclasses, Λ -type and V-type, which exhibit strongly different Raman-emission characteristics and Raman-emission probabilities. Moreover, our approach reveals whether the Raman path generates a single photon or just induces destructive quantum interference with other excitation paths. Based on our findings and as a first application, we gain a more detailed understanding of experimental data from the literature. Our analysis and results are also transferable to the case of atomic three-level-resonator systems and can be extended to more complicated multilevel schemes.

  17. Proposal for automated transformations on single-photon multipath qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldijão, R. D.; Borges, G. F.; Marques, B.; Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.; Pádua, S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method for implementing automated state transformations on single-photon multipath qudits encoded in a one-dimensional transverse spatial domain. It relies on transferring the encoding from this domain to the orthogonal one by applying a spatial phase modulation with diffraction gratings, merging all the initial propagation paths by using a stable interferometric network, and filtering out the unwanted diffraction orders. The automation feature is attained by utilizing a programmable phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) where properly designed diffraction gratings displayed on its screen will implement the desired transformations, including, among others, projections, permutations, and random operations. We discuss the losses in the process which is, in general, inherently nonunitary. Some examples of transformations are presented and, considering a realistic scenario, we analyze how they will be affected by the pixelated structure of the SLM screen. The method proposed here enables one to implement much more general transformations on multipath qudits than is possible with a SLM alone operating in the diagonal basis of which-path states. Therefore, it will extend the range of applicability for this encoding in high-dimensional quantum information and computing protocols as well as fundamental studies in quantum theory.

  18. Single photon emission computed tomography in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, S.; Muro, T.; Eisenstein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic images and plain X-ray films of the lumbar vertebrae was performed in 15 patients with lumbar spondylosis and 15 patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. The facet joint and osteophyte images were observed in particular, and the slipping ratio of spondylolisthetic vertebrae was determined. The slipping ratio of degenerative spondylolisthesis ranged from 11.8 % to 22.3 %. Hot uptake of 99mTc-HMDP by both L4-5 facet joints was significantly greater in the patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis than in those with lumbar spondylosis. The hot uptake by the osteophytes in lumbar spondylosis was nearly uniform among the three inferior segments, L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S, but was localized to the spondylolisthetic vertebrae, L4-5, or L5-S, in the patients with spondylolisthesis. Half of the osteophytes with hot uptake were assigned to the 3rd degree of Nathan's grading. It was suggested that stress was localized to the slipping vertebrae and their facet joints in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. (author)

  19. Visualization of portal venous system by single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T; Ikawa, T; Azuma, M; Matsuda, H; Yoshioka, H; Mitsutani, N; Koizumi, T

    1987-03-01

    Single photon emission CT (SPECT) was performed for the intra-abdominal blood pool with /sup 99m/Tc autologous red blood cells (RBC) in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis. Twenty mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-RBC labeled by in vivo technique were administered intravenously and tomographic imaging of the intra-abdominal vascular blood pool was performed as follows. For each subject, 64 views were obtained over 360 deg of elliptic rotation at 30 seconds per view using a high resolution low energy parallel-hole collimator. Portal vein and portosystemic collaterals were clearly observed in coronal images. In 12 of 15 patients, portal vein was delineated. Portosystemic collaterals such as coronary vein, splenorenal shunt and umbilical vein were also shown in 12 patients. These images were consistent with images obtained by scintiphotosplenoportography or arterial portography. Therefore, it is considered that SPECT study for the intra-abdominal blood pool is clinically very useful for the diagnosis of abnormality of portal venous system in portal hypertension.

  20. Brain single photon emission computed tomography in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denays, R.; Van Pachterbeke, T.; Tondeur, M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to rate the clinical value of [ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) or [ 99m Tc] hexamethyl propylene amine oxyme (HM-PAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neonates, especially in those likely to develop cerebral palsy. The results showed that SPECT abnormalities were congruent in most cases with structural lesions demonstrated by ultrasonography. However, mild bilateral ventricular dilatation and bilateral subependymal porencephalic cysts diagnosed by ultrasound were not associated with an abnormal SPECT finding. In contrast, some cortical periventricular and sylvian lesions and all the parasagittal lesions well visualized in SPECT studies were not diagnosed by ultrasound scans. In neonates with subependymal and/or intraventricular hemorrhage the existence of a parenchymal abnormality was only diagnosed by SPECT. These results indicate that [ 123 I]IMP or [ 99m Tc]HM-PAO brain SPECT shows a potential clinical value as the neurodevelopmental outcome is clearly related to the site, the extent, and the number of cerebral lesions. Long-term clinical follow-up is, however, mandatory in order to define which SPECT abnormality is associated with neurologic deficit

  1. The atomic coilgun and single-photon cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libson, Adam, E-mail: alibson@physics.utexas.edu; Bannerman, Stephen Travis; Clark, Robert J.; Mazur, Thomas R.; Raizen, Mark G. [University of Texas at Austin, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics (United States)

    2012-12-15

    As the simplest atom, hydrogen has a unique role as a testing ground of fundamental physics. Precision measurements of the hydrogen atomic structure provide stringent tests of current theory, while tritium is an excellent candidate for studies of {beta}-decay and possible measurement of the neutrino rest mass. Furthermore, precision measurement of antihydrogen would allow for tests of fundamental symmetries. Methods demonstrated in our lab provide an avenue by which hydrogen isotopes can be trapped and cooled to near the recoil limit. The atomic coilgun, which we have demonstrated with metastable neon and molecular oxygen, provides a general method of stopping a supersonic beam of any paramagnetic species. This tool provides a method by which hydrogen and its isotopes can be magnetically trapped at around 100 mK using a room temperature apparatus. Another tool developed in our laboratory, single-photon cooling, allows further cooling of a trapped sample to near the recoil limit. This cooling method has already been demonstrated on a trapped sample of rubidium. We report on the progress of implementing these methods to trap and cool hydrogen isotopes, and on the prospects for using cold trapped hydrogen for precision measurements.

  2. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Sheffali; Kalra, Veena; Bal, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The success of epilepsy surgery is determined strongly by the precise location of the epileptogenic focus. The information from clinical electrophysiological data needs to be strengthened by functional neuroimaging techniques. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) available locally has proved useful as a localising investigation. It evaluates the regional cerebral blood flow and the comparison between ictal and interictal blood flow on SPECT has proved to be a sensitive nuclear marker for the site of seizure onset. Many studies justify the utility of SPECT in localising lesions to possess greater precision than interictal scalp EEG or anatomic neuroimaging. SPECT is of definitive value in temporal lobe epilepsy. Its role in extratemporal lobe epilepsy is less clearly defined. It is useful in various other generalized and partial seizure disorders including epileptic syndromes and helps in differentiating pseudoseizures from true seizures. The need for newer radiopharmaceutical agents with specific neurochemical properties and longer shelf life are under investigation. Subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI is a promising new modality. (author)

  3. Three-dimensional photonic crystals created by single-step multi-directional plasma etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kitano, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2014-07-14

    We fabricate 3D photonic nanostructures by simultaneous multi-directional plasma etching. This simple and flexible method is enabled by controlling the ion-sheath in reactive-ion-etching equipment. We realize 3D photonic crystals on single-crystalline silicon wafers and show high reflectance (>95%) and low transmittance (photonic bandgap. Moreover, our method simply demonstrates Si-based 3D photonic crystals that show the photonic bandgap effect in a shorter wavelength range around 0.6 μm, where further fine structures are required.

  4. Single photon transport by a moving atom through sub-wavelength hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, A.E.; Melentiev, P.N.; Kuzin, A.A.; Kalatskiy, A.Yu.; Balykin, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    The results of investigation of photon transport through the subwavelength hole in the opaque screen by using single neutral atom are represented. The basis of the proposed and implemented method is the absorption of a photon by a neutral atom immediately before the subwavelength aperture, traveling of the atoms through the hole and emission of a photon on the other side of the screen. Realized method is the alternative approach to existing for photon transport through a subwavelength aperture: 1) self-sustained transmittance of a photon through the aperture according to the Bethe’s model; 2) extra ordinary transmission because of surface-plasmon excitation.

  5. Pseudo-Random Number Generation in Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Further Evidence for a Dissociation in Executive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Moss, Simon A.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    The repetitive, stereotyped and obsessive behaviours, which are core diagnostic features of autism, are thought to be underpinned by executive dysfunction. This study examined executive impairment in individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder using a verbal equivalent of an established pseudo-random number generating task. Different patterns…

  6. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  7. Long-Distance Single Photon Transmission from a Trapped Ion via Quantum Frequency Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas; Miyanishi, Koichiro; Ikuta, Rikizo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Vartabi Kashanian, Samir; Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Keller, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Trapped atomic ions are ideal single photon emitters with long-lived internal states which can be entangled with emitted photons. Coupling the ion to an optical cavity enables the efficient emission of single photons into a single spatial mode and grants control over their temporal shape. These features are key for quantum information processing and quantum communication. However, the photons emitted by these systems are unsuitable for long-distance transmission due to their wavelengths. Here we report the transmission of single photons from a single 40Ca+ ion coupled to an optical cavity over a 10 km optical fiber via frequency conversion from 866 nm to the telecom C band at 1530 nm. We observe nonclassical photon statistics of the direct cavity emission, the converted photons, and the 10 km transmitted photons, as well as the preservation of the photons' temporal shape throughout. This telecommunication-ready system can be a key component for long-distance quantum communication as well as future cloud quantum computation.

  8. Continuous-wave operation and 10-Gb/s direct modulation of InAsP/InP sub-wavelength nanowire laser on silicon photonic crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Takiguchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated sub-wavelength (∼111 nm diameter single nanowire (NW continuous wave (CW lasers on silicon photonic crystal in the telecom-band with direct modulation at 10 Gb/s by optical pumping at cryogenic temperatures. To estimate the small signal response and pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS modulation of our CW lasers, we employed a new signal detection technique that employs a superconducting single photon detector and a time-correlated single photon counting module. The results showed that our NW laser was unambiguously modulated at above 10 Gb/s and an open eye pattern was obtained. This is the first demonstration of a telecom-band CW NW laser with high-speed PRBS modulation.

  9. Bright quantum dot single photon source based on a low Q defect cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023.......The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023....

  10. Single Higgs-boson production at a photon-photon collider: General 2HDM versus MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Val, David, E-mail: lopez@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sola, Joan, E-mail: sola@ecm.ub.es [High Energy Physics Group, Dept. ECM, and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-08-19

    We revisit the production of a single Higgs boson from direct {gamma}{gamma}-scattering at a photon collider. We compute the total cross-section {sigma}({gamma}{gamma}{yields}h) (for h=h{sup 0},H{sup 0},A{sup 0}), and the strength of the effective g{sub h}{sup 0}{sub {gamma}{gamma}} coupling normalized to the Standard Model (SM), for both the general Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In both cases the predicted production rates for the CP-even (odd) states render up to 10{sup 4} (10{sup 3}) events per 500 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, in full consistency with all the theoretical and phenomenological constraints. Depending on the channel the maximum rates can be larger or smaller than the SM expectations, but in most of the parameter space they should be well measurable. We analyze how these departures depend on the dynamics underlying each of the models, supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric, and highlight the possible distinctive phenomenological signatures. We demonstrate that this process could be extremely useful to discern non-supersymmetric Higgs bosons from supersymmetric ones. Furthermore, in the MSSM case, we show that {gamma}{gamma}-physics could decisively help to overcome the serious impasse afflicting Higgs boson physics at the infamous 'LHC wedge'.

  11. Mode Engineering of Single Photons from Cavity Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion Source and Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Uttam

    Over the past decade, much effort has been made in identifying and characterizing systems that can form a building block of quantum networks, among which semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source are two of the most promising candidates. The work presented in this thesis will be centered on investigating and engineering the mentioned systems for generating customizable single photons. A type-II SPDC source can generate a highly flexible pair of entangled photons that can be used to interface disparate quantum systems. In this thesis, we have successfully implemented a cavity-SPDC source that emits polarization correlated photons at 942 nm with a lifetime of 950-1050ps that mode matches closely with InAs/GaAs QD photons. The source emits 80 photon pairs per second per mW pump power within the 150MHz bandwidth. Though the detection of idler photons, the source is capable of emitting heralded photons with g2?0.5 for up to 40 mW pump power. For a low pump power of 5 mW, the heralded g2 is 0.06, indicating that the system is an excellent heralded single photon source. By directly exciting a single QD with cavity-SPDC photons, we have demonstrated a heralded-absorption of SPDC photons by QD, resulting in the coupling of the two systems. Due to the large pump bandwidth, the emitted source is highly multimode in nature, requiring us to post-filter the downconverted field, resulting in a lower photon pair emission rate. We propose placing an intra-cavity etalon to suppress the multi-mode emissions and increase the photon count rate. Understanding and experimentally implementing two-photon interference (HOM) measurements will be crucial for building a scalable quantum network. A detailed theoretical description of HOM measurements is given and is experimentally demonstrated using photons emitted by QD. Through HOM measurements we demonstrated that the QD sample in the study is capable of emitting indistinguishable photons, with

  12. Processing multiphoton states through operation on a single photon: Methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qing; He Bing; Bergou, Janos A.; Ren, Yuhang

    2009-01-01

    Multiphoton states are widely applied in quantum information technology. By the methods presented in this paper, the structure of a multiphoton state in the form of multiple single-photon qubit products can be mapped to a single-photon qudit, which could also be in a separable product with other photons. This makes possible the manipulation of such multiphoton states by processing single-photon states. The optical realization of unknown qubit discrimination [B. He, J. A. Bergou, and Y.-H. Ren, Phys. Rev. A 76, 032301 (2007)] is simplified with the transformation methods. Another application is the construction of quantum logic gates, where the inverse transformations back to the input state spaces are also necessary. We especially show that the modified setups to implement the transformations can realize the deterministic multicontrol gates (including Toffoli gate) operating directly on the products of single-photon qubits.

  13. Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, J; Primerov, N; Chin, S; Antman, Y; Zadok, A; Sales, S; Thévenaz, L

    2012-03-12

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate new architectures to realize multi-tap microwave photonic filters, based on the generation of a single or multiple dynamic Brillouin gratings in polarization maintaining fibers. The spectral range and selectivity of the proposed periodic filters is extensively tunable, simply by reconfiguring the positions and the number of dynamic gratings along the fiber respectively. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of three different configurations comprising a microwave photonic filter implementation: a simple notch-type Mach-Zehnder approach with a single movable dynamic grating, a multi-tap performance based on multiple dynamic gratings and finally a stationary grating configuration based on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS).

  14. Single-Photon Tracking for High-Speed Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Gyongy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quanta Imager Sensors provide photon detections at high frame rates, with negligible read-out noise, making them ideal for high-speed optical tracking. At the basic level of bit-planes or binary maps of photon detections, objects may present limited detail. However, through motion estimation and spatial reassignment of photon detections, the objects can be reconstructed with minimal motion artefacts. We here present the first demonstration of high-speed two-dimensional (2D tracking and reconstruction of rigid, planar objects with a Quanta Image Sensor, including a demonstration of depth-resolved tracking.

  15. Radiation Tests of Single Photon Avalanche Diode for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Francesco; Marisaldi, Martino; MacCagnani, Piera; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Prest, Michela; Berra, Alessandro; Bolognini, Davide; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; hide

    2013-01-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been recently studied as photodetectors for applications in space missions. In this presentation we report the results of radiation hardness test on large area SPAD (actual results refer to SPADs having 500 micron diameter). Dark counts rate as low as few kHz at -10 degC has been obtained for the 500 micron devices, before irradiation. We performed bulk damage and total dose radiation tests with protons and gamma-rays in order to evaluate their radiation hardness properties and their suitability for application in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space mission. With this aim SPAD devices have been irradiated using up to 20 krad total dose with gamma-rays and 5 krad with protons. The test performed show that large area SPADs are very sensitive to proton doses as low as 2×10(exp 8) (1 MeV eq) n/cm2 with a significant increase in dark counts rate (DCR) as well as in the manifestation of the "random telegraph signal" effect. Annealing studies at room temperature (RT) and at 80 degC have been carried out, showing a high decrease of DCR after 24-48 h at RT. Lower protons doses in the range 1-10×10(exp 7) (1 MeV eq) n/cm(exp 2) result in a lower increase of DCR suggesting that the large-area SPADs tested in this study are well suitable for application in low-inclination LEO, particularly useful for gamma-ray astrophysics.

  16. Site-controlled InGaN/GaN single-photon-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-04-11

    We report single-photon emission from electrically driven site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The device is fabricated from a planar light-emitting diode structure containing a single InGaN quantum well, using a top-down approach. The location, dimension, and height of each single-photon-emitting diode are controlled lithographically, providing great flexibility for chip-scale integration.

  17. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. The recent estimates .... This value of the critical temperature is motivated by the ... of the photon self energy using a model where interactions have been included.

  18. Frequency Control of Single Quantum Emitters in Integrated Photonic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgall, Emma R; Chakravarthi, Srivatsa; Gould, Michael; Christen, Ian R; Hestroffer, Karine; Hatami, Fariba; Fu, Kai-Mei C

    2018-02-14

    Generating entangled graph states of qubits requires high entanglement rates with efficient detection of multiple indistinguishable photons from separate qubits. Integrating defect-based qubits into photonic devices results in an enhanced photon collection efficiency, however, typically at the cost of a reduced defect emission energy homogeneity. Here, we demonstrate that the reduction in defect homogeneity in an integrated device can be partially offset by electric field tuning. Using photonic device-coupled implanted nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in a GaP-on-diamond platform, we demonstrate large field-dependent tuning ranges and partial stabilization of defect emission energies. These results address some of the challenges of chip-scale entanglement generation.

  19. Frequency Control of Single Quantum Emitters in Integrated Photonic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgall, Emma R.; Chakravarthi, Srivatsa; Gould, Michael; Christen, Ian R.; Hestroffer, Karine; Hatami, Fariba; Fu, Kai-Mei C.

    2018-02-01

    Generating entangled graph states of qubits requires high entanglement rates, with efficient detection of multiple indistinguishable photons from separate qubits. Integrating defect-based qubits into photonic devices results in an enhanced photon collection efficiency, however, typically at the cost of a reduced defect emission energy homogeneity. Here, we demonstrate that the reduction in defect homogeneity in an integrated device can be partially offset by electric field tuning. Using photonic device-coupled implanted nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in a GaP-on-diamond platform, we demonstrate large field-dependent tuning ranges and partial stabilization of defect emission energies. These results address some of the challenges of chip-scale entanglement generation.

  20. Single photon SWAP gate using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a scheme that performs a SWAP gate between two photons at different wavelengths with near 100% fidelity. The essential idea is the preparation of a near-maximal atomic coherence using electromagnetically induced transparency

  1. Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements of single quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal waveguides. Quantum dots that couple to a photonic crystal waveguide are found to decay up to 27 times faster than uncoupled quantum dots. From these measurements -factors of up to 0.89 ...... taking into account that the light-matter coupling is strongly enhanced due to the significant slow-down of light in the photonic crystal waveguides....

  2. Photon emission statistics and photon tracking in single-molecule spectroscopy of molecular aggregates : Dimers and trimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemsma, E. A.; Knoester, J.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the generating function formalism, we investigate broadband photon statistics of emission for single dimers and trimers driven by a continuous monochromatic laser field. In particular, we study the first and second moments of the emission statistics, which are the fluorescence excitation

  3. CdSe quantum dot in vertical ZnSe nanowire and photonic wire for efficient single-photon emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremel, Thibault; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Cagnon, Laurent

    conformal dielectric coating of Al2O3 on the NW-QDs using Atomic Layer Deposition so that a photonic wire is formed with the CdSe QD deterministically positioned on its axis. The collection enhancement effect is studied by measuring the emission (with pulse excitation, at saturation intensity) of single...

  4. Analysis of heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics studied by two different pseudo-random binary sequence work rate amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Koschate, J; Schiffer, T; Schneider, S; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR), pulmonary (V˙O 2 pulm) and predicted muscular (V˙O 2 musc) oxygen uptake between two different pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) amplitudes both below anaerobic threshold. Eight healthy individuals performed two PRBS WR protocols implying changes between 30W and 80W and between 30W and 110W. HR and V˙O 2 pulm were measured beat-to-beat and breath-by-breath, respectively. V˙O 2 musc was estimated applying the approach of Hoffmann et al. (Eur J Appl Physiol 113: 1745-1754, 2013) considering a circulatory model for venous return and cross-correlation functions (CCF) for the kinetics analysis. HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics seem to be independent of WR intensity (p>0.05). V˙O 2 pulm kinetics show prominent differences in the lag of the CCF maximum (39±9s; 31±4s; p<0.05). A mean difference of 14W between the PRBS WR amplitudes impacts venous return significantly, while HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics remain unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays (Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)) has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)). Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  6. Binary pseudo-random gratings and arrays for calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers: recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Soldate, Paul; Anderson, Erik H.; Cambie, Rossana; Marchesini, Stefano; McKinney, Wanye R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitry L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-07-07

    The major problem of measurement of a power spectral density (PSD) distribution of the surface heights with surface profilometers arises due to the unknown Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the instruments. The MTF tends to distort the PSD at higher spatial frequencies. It has been suggested [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47 (7), 073602-1-5 (2008)] that the instrumental MTF of a surface profiler can be precisely measured using standard test surfaces based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) patterns. In the cited work, a one dimensional (1D) realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, we present recent achievements made in fabricating and using two-dimensional (2D) BPR arrays that allow for a direct 2D calibration of the instrumental MTF. The 2D BPRAs were used as standard test surfaces for 2D MTF calibration of the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope with all available objectives. The effects of fabrication imperfections on the efficiency of calibration are also discussed.

  7. Experimental test of the strongly nonclassical character of a noisy squeezed single-photon state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jezek, M.; Tipsmark, A.; Dong, R.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally verify the quantum non-Gaussian character of a conditionally generated noisy squeezed single-photon state with a positive Wigner function. Employing an optimized witness based on probabilities of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states, we prove that the state cannot...... be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian states. In our experiment, the non-Gaussian state is generated by conditional subtraction of a single photon from a squeezed vacuum state. The state is probed with a homodyne detector and the witness is determined by averaging a suitable pattern function over the measured...

  8. Elliptical quantum dots as on-demand single photons sources with deterministic polarization states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Demory, Brandon; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States); Zhang, Lei; Hill, Tyler A.; Deng, Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    In quantum information, control of the single photon's polarization is essential. Here, we demonstrate single photon generation in a pre-programmed and deterministic polarization state, on a chip-scale platform, utilizing site-controlled elliptical quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by a top-down approach. The polarization from the QD emission is found to be linear with a high degree of linear polarization and parallel to the long axis of the ellipse. Single photon emission with orthogonal polarizations is achieved, and the dependence of the degree of linear polarization on the QD geometry is analyzed.

  9. Single-photon counting in the 1550-nm wavelength region for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul-Woo; Park, Jun-Bum; Park, Young-Soo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Shin, Hyun-Jun; Bae, Byung-Seong; Moon, Sung; Han, Sang-Kook

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measured performance of an InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) Module fabricated for single-photon counting. We measured the dark current noise, the after-pulse noise, and the quantum efficiency of the single- photon detector for different temperatures. We then examined our single-photon source and detection system by measuring the coincident probability. From our measurement, we observed that the after-pulse effect of the APD at temperatures below 105 .deg. C caused cascade noise build-up on the succeeding electrical signals.

  10. Entangling quantum-logic gate operated with an ultrabright semiconductor single-photon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzano, O; Almeida, M P; Nowak, A K; Portalupi, S L; Lemaître, A; Sagnes, I; White, A G; Senellart, P

    2013-06-21

    We demonstrate the unambiguous entangling operation of a photonic quantum-logic gate driven by an ultrabright solid-state single-photon source. Indistinguishable single photons emitted by a single semiconductor quantum dot in a micropillar optical cavity are used as target and control qubits. For a source brightness of 0.56 photons per pulse, the measured truth table has an overlap with the ideal case of 68.4±0.5%, increasing to 73.0±1.6% for a source brightness of 0.17 photons per pulse. The gate is entangling: At a source brightness of 0.48, the Bell-state fidelity is above the entangling threshold of 50% and reaches 71.0±3.6% for a source brightness of 0.15.

  11. Stopping single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J.-T.; Povinelli, M. L.; Sandhu, Sunil; Fan Shanhui

    2007-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to stop and time reverse single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems. As a concrete example, we exploit the large tunability of the superconducting charge quantum bit (charge qubit) to predict one-photon transport properties in multiple-qubit systems with dynamically controlled transition frequencies. In particular, two qubits coupled to a waveguide give rise to a single-photon transmission line shape that is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic systems. Furthermore, by cascading double-qubit structures to form an array and dynamically controlling the qubit transition frequencies, a single photon can be stopped, stored, and time reversed. With a properly designed array, two photons can be stopped and stored in the system at the same time. Moreover, the unit cell of the array can be designed to be of deep subwavelength scale, miniaturizing the circuit

  12. Deterministic and robust generation of single photons from a single quantum dot with 99.5% indistinguishability using adiabatic rapid passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu-Ming; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Hu, Yi-Nan; He, Yu; Wu, Dian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-12

    Single photons are attractive candidates of quantum bits (qubits) for quantum computation and are the best messengers in quantum networks. Future scalable, fault-tolerant photonic quantum technologies demand both stringently high levels of photon indistinguishability and generation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate deterministic and robust generation of pulsed resonance fluorescence single photons from a single semiconductor quantum dot using adiabatic rapid passage, a method robust against fluctuation of driving pulse area and dipole moments of solid-state emitters. The emitted photons are background-free, have a vanishing two-photon emission probability of 0.3% and a raw (corrected) two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility of 97.9% (99.5%), reaching a precision that places single photons at the threshold for fault-tolerant surface-code quantum computing. This single-photon source can be readily scaled up to multiphoton entanglement and used for quantum metrology, boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.

  13. Multiparty Quantum English Auction Scheme Using Single Photons as Message Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a secure and economic multiparty english auction protocol using the single photons as message carrier of bids is proposed. In order to achieve unconditional security, fairness, undeniability and so on, we adopt the decoy photon checking technique and quantum encryption algorithm. Analysis result shows that our protocol satisfies all the characteristics of traditional english auction, meanwhile, it can resist malicious attacks.

  14. Practical single-photon-assisted remote state preparation with non-maximally entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    Remote state preparation (RSP) and joint remote state preparation (JRSP) protocols for single-photon states are investigated via linear optical elements with partially entangled states. In our scheme, by choosing two-mode instances from a polarizing beam splitter, only the sender in the communication protocol needs to prepare an ancillary single-photon and operate the entanglement preparation process in order to retrieve an arbitrary single-photon state from a photon pair in partially entangled state. In the case of JRSP, i.e., a canonical model of RSP with multi-party, we consider that the information of the desired state is split into many subsets and in prior maintained by spatially separate parties. Specifically, with the assistance of a single-photon state and a three-photon entangled state, it turns out that an arbitrary single-photon state can be jointly and remotely prepared with certain probability, which is characterized by the coefficients of both the employed entangled state and the target state. Remarkably, our protocol is readily to extend to the case for RSP and JRSP of mixed states with the all optical means. Therefore, our protocol is promising for communicating among optics-based multi-node quantum networks.

  15. Quantum State Transfer from a Single Photon to a Distant Quantum-Dot Electron Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yu-Jia; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Kai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven

    2017-08-01

    Quantum state transfer from flying photons to stationary matter qubits is an important element in the realization of quantum networks. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots provide a promising solid-state platform hosting both single photon and spin, with an inherent light-matter interface. Here, we develop a method to coherently and actively control the single-photon frequency bins in superposition using electro-optic modulators, and measure the spin-photon entanglement with a fidelity of 0.796 ±0.020 . Further, by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state projection on the frequency, path, and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon, we demonstrate quantum state transfer from a single photon to a single electron spin confined in an InGaAs quantum dot, separated by 5 m. The quantum state mapping from the photon's polarization to the electron's spin is demonstrated along three different axes on the Bloch sphere, with an average fidelity of 78.5%.

  16. Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagliano, F.; Cho, Y.; Xia, T.; Otten, van F.W.M.; Johne, R.; Fiore, A.

    2014-01-01

    Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both singlephoton emission and the strong

  17. Towards single photon generation using NV centers in diamond coupled to thin layer optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tashima

    2014-01-01

    Single photon emitters like the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond are important for quantum communication such as quantum cryptography and quantum metrology. In this context, e.g. tapered optical nano-fibers are a promising approach as they allow efficient coupling of single photons into a single spatial mode. Yet, integration of such fibers in a compact integrated quantum circuit is demanding. Here we propose a NV defect center in diamond as a single photon emitter coupled to a thin layer photonic waveguide. The benefit is to allow smaller size devices while having a similar strong evanescent field like tapered nano-optical fibers. We present numerical simulations and fabrication steps of such structures. (author)

  18. Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging Phase I SBIR successes, in Phase II, a single photon sensitive LIDAR receiver will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. In Phase I, high-gain,...

  19. NFAD Arrays for Single Photon Optical Communications at 1.5 um, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this program, we propose to develop large pixel-count single photon counting detector arrays suitable for deployment in spacecraft terminal receivers supporting...

  20. Quantitative single-photon emission tomography for cerebral flow and receptor distribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in single-photon emission tomography for two major reasons. First, correction methods have been devised for attenuation compensation, nonuniform resolution, and scattered radiation. Second, new radiopharmaceuticals with 1-5% uptake in the brain provide adequate statistics for quantitative imaging of flow using properly designed single-photon tomographic instruments. The lack of commercially available instruments designed specifically to optimize sensitivity for a resolution finer than 15 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) seems now to be the major deterrent to the widespread use of single-photon emission tomography. But it appears now that some development in this respect also might lead to a widespread renewed interest in single-photon tomography of the brain. Major activities of the past few years can be placed in three distinct categories of instrumentation and methodology

  1. Room-Temperature Single-Photon Source for Secure Quantum Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are asking for four years of support for PhD student Justin Winkler's work on a research project entitled "Room temperature single photon source for secure...

  2. Influence of material and geometry on the performance of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Henrich, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors offer the capability to detect electromagnetic waves on a single photon level in a wavelength range that far exceeds that of alternative detector types. However, above a certain threshold wavelength, the efficiency of those detectors decreases stronlgy, leading to a poor performance in the far-infrared range. Influences on this threshold are studied and approaches for improvement are verified experimentally by measurement of the device performance.

  3. Fast Excitation and Photon Emission of a Single-Atom-Cavity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochmann, J.; Muecke, M.; Langfahl-Klabes, G.; Erbel, C.; Weber, B.; Specht, H. P.; Moehring, D. L.; Rempe, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fast excitation of a single atom coupled to an optical cavity using laser pulses that are much shorter than all other relevant processes. The cavity frequency constitutes a control parameter that allows the creation of single photons in a superposition of two tunable frequencies. Each photon emitted from the cavity thus exhibits a pronounced amplitude modulation determined by the oscillatory energy exchange between the atom and the cavity. Our technique constitutes a versatile tool for future quantum networking experiments

  4. Cross correlations of quantum key distribution based on single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangli; Wang Xiaobo; Zhang Guofeng; Sun Jianhu; Zhang Fang; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the second-order correlation function in a quantum key distribution system with real single-photon sources. Based on single-event photon statistics, the influence of the modification caused by an eavesdropper's intervention and the effects of background signals on the cross correlations between authorized partners are presented. On this basis, we have shown a secure range of correlation against the intercept-resend attacks.

  5. CMOS SPAD-based image sensor for single photon counting and time of flight imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Neale Arthur William

    2016-01-01

    The facility to capture the arrival of a single photon, is the fundamental limit to the detection of quantised electromagnetic radiation. An image sensor capable of capturing a picture with this ultimate optical and temporal precision is the pinnacle of photo-sensing. The creation of high spatial resolution, single photon sensitive, and time-resolved image sensors in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers numerous benefits in a wide field of applications....

  6. Direct experimental observation of nonclassicality in ensembles of single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Forneris, J.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Picollo, F.; Brida, G.; Olivero, P.; Genovese, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we experimentally demonstrate a recently proposed criterion addressed to detect nonclassical behavior in the fluorescence emission of ensembles of single-photon emitters. In particular, we apply the method to study clusters of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond characterized with single-photon-sensitive confocal microscopy. Theoretical considerations on the behavior of the parameter at any arbitrary order in the presence of Poissonian noise are presented and, finally, the opportunity of detecting manifold coincidences is discussed.

  7. Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum...... dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new...... avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission....

  8. First experimental observation of double-photon Compton scattering using single gamma detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, B.S.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of double-photon Compton scattering has been successfully observed using single gamma detector, a technique avoiding the use of complicated slow-fast coincidence set-up used till now for observing this higher order process. Here doubly differentiated collision cross-section integrated over direction of one of the two final photons, the direction of other one being kept fixed, has been measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. The energy spectra of the detected photons are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on the lower side of the full energy peak in the recorded scattered energy spectrum. The present results are in agreement with theory of this process

  9. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon sources based on quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël Sura

    refrigeration with coupled quantum wells. Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benet from a highbrightness, ber-coupled source of triggered single photons. This thesis presents a study of such sources based on quantum dots coupled to unidirectional photonic-crystal waveguide devices.......6 %. This latter method opens a promising future for increasing the eciency and reliability of planar chip-based single-photon sources. Refrigeration of a solid-state system with light has potential applications for cooling small-scale electronic and photonic circuits. We show theoretically that two coupled...... semiconductor quantum wells are ecient cooling media because they support long-lived indirect electron-hole pairs. These pairs can be thermally excited to distinct higher-energy states with faster radiative recombination, thereby creating an ecient escape channel to remove thermal energy from the system. From...

  10. Extent of sensitivity of single photon production to parton distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used the BFG-I parton to photon fragmentation function by Bourhis et al [17], which includes correction in the fragmentation function beyond leading logarithmic approxima- tion. The three scales μf,μR,μF are set equal to a common scale μ to reduce theoretical uncertainties in the calculation. The scale μ is further defined as ...

  11. Frequency Conversion of Single Photons: Physics, Devices, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Anton Zeilinger , Alexan- der V. Sergienko, and Yanhua Shih. New high-intensity source of polarization- entangled photon pairs. Physical Review Letters...interface. Nature, 437(7055):116–120, 2005. [36] S. Ramelow, A. Fedrizzi, A. Poppe, N. K. Langford, and A. Zeilinger . Polarization-entanglement-conserving

  12. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.

  13. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196

  14. Self-similar photonic crystal cavity with ultrasmall mode volume for single-photon nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3.......We propose a photonic crystal cavity design with self-similar structure to achieve ultrasmall mode volume. We describe the concept with a silicon-air nanobeam cavity at λ ∼ 1550nm, reaching a mode volume of ∼ 7.01 × 10∼5λ3....

  15. Complete Bell-state analysis for a single-photon hybrid entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan; Wang Lei; Zhao Sheng-Mei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scheme capable of performing complete Bell-state analysis for a single-photon hybrid entangled state. Our single-photon state is encoded in both polarization and frequency degrees of freedom. The setup of the scheme is composed of polarizing beam splitters, half wave plates, frequency shifters, and independent wavelength division multiplexers, which are feasible using current technology. We also show that with this setup we can perform complete two-photon Bell-state analysis schemes for polarization degrees of freedom. Moreover, it can also be used to perform the teleportation scheme between different degrees of freedom. This setup may allow extensive applications in current quantum communications

  16. Nano-LED array fabrication suitable for future single photon lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulics, M; Hardtdegen, H

    2015-01-01

    We report on an alternative illumination concept for a future lithography based on single-photon emitters and important technological steps towards its implementation. Nano light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are chosen as the photon emitters. First, the development of their fabrication and their integration technology is presented, then their optical characteristics assessed. Last, size-controlled nano-LEDs, well positioned in an array, are electrically driven and utilized for illumination. Nanostructures are lithographically formed, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach. The potential of single-photon lithography to reach the ultimate scale limits in mass production is discussed. (paper)

  17. On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Ming; He, Yu; Wei, Yu-Jia; Wu, Dian; Atatüre, Mete; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Single-photon sources based on semiconductor quantum dots offer distinct advantages for quantum information, including a scalable solid-state platform, ultrabrightness and interconnectivity with matter qubits. A key prerequisite for their use in optical quantum computing and solid-state networks is a high level of efficiency and indistinguishability. Pulsed resonance fluorescence has been anticipated as the optimum condition for the deterministic generation of high-quality photons with vanishing effects of dephasing. Here, we generate pulsed single photons on demand from a single, microcavity-embedded quantum dot under s-shell excitation with 3 ps laser pulses. The π pulse-excited resonance-fluorescence photons have less than 0.3% background contribution and a vanishing two-photon emission probability. Non-postselective Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between two successively emitted photons is observed with a visibility of 0.97(2), comparable to trapped atoms and ions. Two single photons are further used to implement a high-fidelity quantum controlled-NOT gate.

  18. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  19. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  20. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  1. Very Efficient Single-Photon Sources Based on Quantum Dots in Photonic Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel

    2014-01-01

    . By placing a tip-shaped or trumpet-like tapering at the output end of the wire, a highly directional Gaussian far-field emission pattern is obtained. More generally, a photonic wire containing a quantum dot appears as an attractive template to explore and exploit in a solid-state system the unique optical...

  2. Thermal-hydraulic study of fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR), in FCC, BCC and pseudo-random configurations of the core through CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, M.; Chavez, I.; Cajas, D.; Santos, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of thermal-hydraulic performance of a fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR) core and the effect of the porosity was studied by the CFD method with 'SolidWorks' software. The representative sections of three different packed beds arrangements were analyzed: face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and a pseudo-random, with values of porosity of 0.28, 0.33 and 0.53 respectively. The minimum coolant flow required to avoid the phase change for each one of the configurations was determined. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases when the porosity value decreases, and consequently the minimum coolant flow in each configuration. The results of minimum coolant flow were: 728.51 kg/s for the FCC structure, 372.72 kg/s for the BCC, and 304.96 kg/s for the pseudo-random. Meanwhile, the heat transfer coefficients in each packed bed were 6480 W/m 2 *K, 3718 W/m 2 *K and 3042 W/m 2 *K respectively. Finally the pressure drop was calculated, and the results were 0.588 MPa for FCC configuration, 0.033 MPa for BCC and 0.017 MPa for the pseudo-random one. This means that with a higher porosity, the fluid can circulate easier because there are fewer obstacles to cross, so there are fewer energy losses. (authors)

  3. On-demand semiconductor source of 780-nm single photons with controlled temporal wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, Lucas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Wolters, Janik; Reindl, Marcus; Huo, Yongheng; Trotta, Rinaldo; Rastelli, Armando; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Treutlein, Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    We report on a fast, bandwidth-tunable single-photon source based on an epitaxial GaAs quantum dot. Exploiting spontaneous spin-flip Raman transitions, single photons at 780 nm are generated on demand with tailored temporal profiles of durations exceeding the intrinsic quantum dot lifetime by up to three orders of magnitude. Second-order correlation measurements show a low multiphoton emission probability [g2(0 ) ˜0.10 -0.15 ] at a generation rate up to 10 MHz. We observe Raman photons with linewidths as low as 200 MHz, which is narrow compared to the 1.1-GHz linewidth measured in resonance fluorescence. The generation of such narrow-band single photons with controlled temporal shapes at the rubidium wavelength is a crucial step towards the development of an optimized hybrid semiconductor-atom interface.

  4. Quantum routing of single optical photons with a superconducting flux qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Keyu; Jelezko, Fedor; Twamley, Jason

    2018-05-01

    Interconnecting optical photons with superconducting circuits is a challenging problem but essential for building long-range superconducting quantum networks. We propose a hybrid quantum interface between the microwave and optical domains where the propagation of a single-photon pulse along a nanowaveguide is controlled in a coherent way by tuning the electromagnetically induced transparency window with the quantum state of a flux qubit mediated by the spin in a nanodiamond. The qubit can route a single-photon pulse using the nanodiamond into a quantum superposition of paths without the aid of an optical cavity—simplifying the setup. By preparing the flux qubit in a superposition state our cavityless scheme creates a hybrid state-path entanglement between a flying single optical photon and a static superconducting qubit.

  5. Single photon detection in a waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicholas J D; Gehl, Michael; Derose, Christopher T; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S

    2017-07-10

    We examine gated-Geiger mode operation of an integrated waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode (APD) and demonstrate single photon detection at low dark count for this mode of operation. Our integrated waveguide-coupled APD is fabricated using a selective epitaxial Ge-on-Si growth process resulting in a separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) design compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate is measured as a function of temperature in order to understand and optimize performance characteristics in this device. We report single photon detection of 5.27% at 1310 nm and a dark count rate of 534 kHz at 80 K for a Ge-on-Si single photon avalanche diode. Dark count rate is the lowest for a Ge-on-Si single photon detector in this range of temperatures while maintaining competitive detection efficiency. A jitter of 105 ps was measured for this device.

  6. Pulsed single-photon spectrometer by frequency-to-time mapping using chirped fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex O C; Saulnier, Paul M; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J

    2017-05-29

    A fiber-integrated spectrometer for single-photon pulses outside the telecommunications wavelength range based upon frequency-to-time mapping, implemented by chromatic group delay dispersion (GDD), and precise temporally-resolved single-photon counting, is presented. A chirped fiber Bragg grating provides low-loss GDD, mapping the frequency distribution of an input pulse onto the temporal envelope of the output pulse. Time-resolved detection with fast single-photon-counting modules enables monitoring of a wavelength range from 825 nm to 835 nm with nearly uniform efficiency at 55 pm resolution (24 GHz at 830 nm). To demonstrate the versatility of this technique, spectral interference of heralded single photons and the joint spectral intensity distribution of a photon-pair source are measured. This approach to single-photon-level spectral measurements provides a route to realize applications of time-frequency quantum optics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where multiple spectral channels must be simultaneously monitored.

  7. Single-photon compressive imaging with some performance benefits over raster scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Wang, Chao; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A single-photon imaging system based on compressed sensing has been developed to image objects under ultra-low illumination. With this system, we have successfully realized imaging at the single-photon level with a single-pixel avalanche photodiode without point-by-point raster scanning. From analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement we find that our system has much higher sensitivity than conventional ones based on point-by-point raster scanning, while the measurement time is also reduced. - Highlights: • We design a single photon imaging system with compressed sensing. • A single point avalanche photodiode is used without raster scanning. • The Poisson shot noise in the measurement is analyzed. • The sensitivity of our system is proved to be higher than that of raster scanning

  8. Coherent properties of single quantum dot transitions and single photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, Patrick

    2008-04-23

    of the first laser pulse. The relative phase of the QDs exciton can be controlled externally via the bias voltage. This effect is the basis for the observation of RAMSEY-fringes, which are presented in this work. The coherent manipulation of the p-shell is the basis for a novel excitation scheme for single photon emission. In this work it is shown that the first excited state can be coherently manipulated, similar to the ground state. (orig.)

  9. Coherent properties of single quantum dot transitions and single photon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ester, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    of the first laser pulse. The relative phase of the QDs exciton can be controlled externally via the bias voltage. This effect is the basis for the observation of RAMSEY-fringes, which are presented in this work. The coherent manipulation of the p-shell is the basis for a novel excitation scheme for single photon emission. In this work it is shown that the first excited state can be coherently manipulated, similar to the ground state. (orig.)

  10. Single-Photon-Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to develop single-photon-sensitive short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) receivers based on linear-mode HgCdTe APDs, for application by NASA in light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors. Linear-mode photon-counting APDs are desired for lidar because they have a shorter pixel dead time than Geiger APDs, and can detect sequential pulse returns from multiple objects that are closely spaced in range. Linear-mode APDs can also measure photon number, which Geiger APDs cannot, adding an extra dimension to lidar scene data for multi-photon returns. High-gain APDs with low multiplication noise are required for efficient linear-mode detection of single photons because of APD gain statistics -- a low-excess-noise APD will generate detectible current pulses from single photon input at a much higher rate of occurrence than will a noisy APD operated at the same average gain. MWIR and LWIR electron-avalanche HgCdTe APDs have been shown to operate in linear mode at high average avalanche gain (M > 1000) without excess multiplication noise (F = 1), and are therefore very good candidates for linear-mode photon counting. However, detectors fashioned from these narrow-bandgap alloys require aggressive cooling to control thermal dark current. Wider-bandgap SWIR HgCdTe APDs were investigated in this program as a strategy to reduce detector cooling requirements.

  11. Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, G. Y.; Hofmann, H. F.; Pryde, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum entanglement can help to increase the precision of optical phase measurements beyond the shot noise limit (SNL) to the ultimate Heisenberg limit. However, the N-photon parity measurements required to achieve this optimal sensitivity are extremely difficult to realize with current photon detection technologies, requiring high-fidelity resolution of N + 1 different photon distributions between the output ports. Recent experimental demonstrations of precision beyond the SNL have therefore used only one or two photon-number detection patterns instead of parity measurements. Here we investigate the achievable phase sensitivity of the simple and efficient single interference fringe detection technique. We show that the maximally-entangled “NOON” state does not achieve optimal phase sensitivity when N > 4, rather, we show that the Holland-Burnett state is optimal. We experimentally demonstrate this enhanced sensitivity using a single photon-counted fringe of the six-photon Holland-Burnett state. Specifically, our single-fringe six-photon measurement achieves a phase variance three times below the SNL. PMID:24067490

  12. In-depth study of single photon time resolution for the Philips digital silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Paganoni, M.; Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Lecoq, P.

    2016-01-01

    The digital silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) has been commercialised by Philips as an innovative technology compared to analog silicon photomultiplier devices. The Philips digital SiPM, has a pair of time to digital converters (TDCs) connected to 12800 single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Detailed measurements were performed to understand the low photon time response of the Philips digital SiPM. The single photon time resolution (SPTR) of every single SPAD in a pixel consisting of 3200 SPADs was measured and an average value of 85 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) was observed. Each SPAD sends the signal to the TDC with different signal propagation time, resulting in a so called trigger network skew. This distribution of the trigger network skew for a pixel (3200 SPADs) has been measured and a variation of 50 ps FWHM was extracted. The SPTR of the whole pixel is the combination of SPAD jitter, trigger network skew, and the SPAD non-uniformity. The SPTR of a complete pixel was 103 ps FWHM at 3.3 V above breakdown voltage. Further, the effect of the crosstalk at a low photon level has been studied, with the two photon time resolution degrading if the events are a combination of detected (true) photons and crosstalk events. Finally, the time response to multiple photons was investigated.

  13. Probabilistically cloning two single-photon states using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen; Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Ziyun; Yang, Qun

    2014-01-01

    By using quantum nondemolition detectors (QNDs) based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, we propose an experimental scheme for achieving 1→2 probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of a single-photon state, secretly choosing from a two-state set. In our scheme, after a QND is performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the assistant photon, a single-photon projection measurement is performed by a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and two single-photon trigger detectors (SPTDs). The measurement is to judge whether the PQC should be continued. If the cloning fails, a cutoff is carried out and some operations are omitted. This makes our scheme economical. If the PQC is continued according to the measurement result, two more QNDs and some unitary operations are performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the cloning photon to achieve the PQC in a nearly deterministic way. Our experimental scheme for PQC is feasible for future technology. Furthermore, the quantum logic network of our PQC scheme is presented. In comparison with similar networks, our PQC network is simpler and more economical. (paper)

  14. Efficient frequency downconversion at the single photon level from the red spectral range to the telecommunications C-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaske, Sebastian; Lenhard, Andreas; Becher, Christoph

    2011-06-20

    We report on single photon frequency downconversion from the red part of the spectrum (738 nm) to the telecommunications C-band. By mixing attenuated laser pulses with an average photon number per pulse telecommunications wavelengths.

  15. On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Lucas; Jöns, Klaus D.; Zeuner, Katharina D.; Covre da Silva, Saimon Filipe; Huang, Huiying; Lettner, Thomas; Reindl, Marcus; Zichi, Julien; Trotta, Rinaldo; Rastelli, Armando; Zwiller, Val

    2018-02-01

    True on-demand high-repetition-rate single-photon sources are highly sought after for quantum information processing applications. However, any coherently driven two-level quantum system suffers from a finite re-excitation probability under pulsed excitation, causing undesirable multi-photon emission. Here, we present a solid-state source of on-demand single photons yielding a raw second-order coherence of g(2 )(0 )=(7.5 ±1.6 )×10-5 without any background subtraction or data processing. To this date, this is the lowest value of g(2 )(0 ) reported for any single-photon source even compared to the previously reported best background subtracted values. We achieve this result on GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots embedded in a low-Q planar cavity by employing (i) a two-photon excitation process and (ii) a filtering and detection setup featuring two superconducting single-photon detectors with ultralow dark-count rates of (0.0056 ±0.0007 ) s-1 and (0.017 ±0.001 ) s-1, respectively. Re-excitation processes are dramatically suppressed by (i), while (ii) removes false coincidences resulting in a negligibly low noise floor.

  16. CeB6 Sensor for Thermoelectric Single-Photon Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen KUZANIAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in single-photon detectors has recently sharply increased. The most developed single-photon detectors are currently based on superconductors. Following the theory, thermoelectric single-photon detectors can compete with superconducting detectors. The operational principle of thermoelectric detector is based on photon absorption by absorber as a result of which a temperature gradient is generated across the sensor. In this work we present the results of computer modeling of heat distribution processes after absorption of a photon of 1 keV - 1 eV energy in different areas of the absorber for different geometries of tungsten absorber and cerium hexaboride sensor. The time dependence of the temperature difference between the ends of the thermoelectric sensor and electric potential appearing across the sensor are calculated. The results of calculations show that it is realistic to detect single photons from IR to X-ray and determine their energy. Count rates up to hundreds gigahertz can be achieved.

  17. An integrated single- and two-photon non-diffracting light-sheet microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sze Cheung; Chiu, Hoi Chun; Zhao, Luwei; Zhao, Teng; Loy, M. M. T.; Du, Shengwang

    2018-04-01

    We describe a fluorescence optical microscope with both single-photon and two-photon non-diffracting light-sheet excitations for large volume imaging. With a special design to accommodate two different wavelength ranges (visible: 400-700 nm and near infrared: 800-1200 nm), we combine the line-Bessel sheet (LBS, for single-photon excitation) and the scanning Bessel beam (SBB, for two-photon excitation) light sheet together in a single microscope setup. For a transparent thin sample where the scattering can be ignored, the LBS single-photon excitation is the optimal imaging solution. When the light scattering becomes significant for a deep-cell or deep-tissue imaging, we use SBB light-sheet two-photon excitation with a longer wavelength. We achieved nearly identical lateral/axial resolution of about 350/270 nm for both imagings. This integrated light-sheet microscope may have a wide application for live-cell and live-tissue three-dimensional high-speed imaging.

  18. QUANTUM NETWORKS WITH SINGLE ATOMS, PHOTONS AND PHONONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    there is interference between two different transport channels. For instance, in a cavity far from resonance, there is interference arising from all...recovers the well-known form of a Beer -Lambert law, reading T (∆A)/T0(∆A) = exp [ −N ln ∆ 2 A + (Γ′ + Γ1D)2/4 ∆2A + Γ′2/4 ] ’ exp [ − OD1 + (2∆A/Γ′)2...Elements of Quantum Optics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007. [39] J.-T. Shen and S. Fan. Coherent photon transport from spontaneous emission in one

  19. New cardiac cameras: single-photon emission CT and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr J; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear cardiology instrumentation has evolved significantly in the recent years. Concerns about radiation dose and long acquisition times have propelled developments of dedicated high-efficiency cardiac SPECT scanners. Novel collimator designs, such as multipinhole or locally focusing collimators arranged in geometries that are optimized for cardiac imaging, have been implemented to enhance photon-detection sensitivity. Some of these new SPECT scanners use solid-state photon detectors instead of photomultipliers to improve image quality and to reduce the scanner footprint. These new SPECT devices allow dramatic up to 7-fold reduction in acquisition times or similar reduction in radiation dose. In addition, new hardware for photon attenuation correction allowing ultralow radiation doses has been offered by some vendors. To mitigate photon attenuation artifacts for the new SPECT scanners not equipped with attenuation correction hardware, 2-position (upright-supine or prone-supine) imaging has been proposed. PET hardware developments have been primarily driven by the requirements of oncologic imaging, but cardiac imaging can benefit from improved PET image quality and improved sensitivity of 3D systems. The time-of-flight reconstruction combined with resolution recovery techniques is now implemented by all major PET vendors. These new methods improve image contrast and image resolution and reduce image noise. High-sensitivity 3D PET without interplane septa allows reduced radiation dose for cardiac perfusion imaging. Simultaneous PET/MR hybrid system has been developed. Solid-state PET detectors with avalanche photodiodes or digital silicon photomultipliers have been introduced, and they offer improved imaging characteristics and reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic MR fields. Higher maximum count rate of the new PET detectors allows routine first-pass Rb-82 imaging, with 3D PET acquisition enabling clinical utilization of dynamic imaging with myocardial flow

  20. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Robert M.; Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime

  1. Observation of Entanglement of a Single Photon with a Trapped Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volz, Juergen; Weber, Markus; Schlenk, Daniel; Rosenfeld, Wenjamin; Vrana, Johannes; Saucke, Karen; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Weinfurter, Harald

    2006-01-01

    We report the observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon at a wavelength suitable for low-loss communication over large distances, thereby achieving a crucial step towards long range quantum networks. To verify the entanglement, we introduce a single atom state analysis. This technique is used for full state tomography of the atom-photon qubit pair. The detection efficiency and the entanglement fidelity are high enough to allow in a next step the generation of entangled atoms at large distances, ready for a final loophole-free Bell experiment

  2. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on SOI for near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojan, Philipp; Il' in, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Hofherr, Matthias; Doerner, Steffen; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Semenov, Alexey [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, Berlin-Adlershof (Germany); Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, Berlin-Adlershof (Germany); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors are promising devices for photon detectors with high count rates, low dark count rates and low dead times. At wavelengths beyond the visible range, the detection efficiency of today's SNSPDs drops significantly. Moreover, the low absorption in ultra-thin detector films is a limiting factor over the entire spectral range. Solving this problem requires approaches for an enhancement of the absorption range in feeding the light to the detector element. A possibility to obtain a better absorption is the use of multilayer substrate materials for photonic waveguide structures. We present results on development of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors made from niobium nitride on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) multilayer substrates. Optical and superconducting properties of SNSPDs on SOI will be discussed and compared with the characteristics of detectors on common substrates.

  3. Ramsey spectroscopy by direct use of resonant light on isotope atoms for single-photon detuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hoon; Choi, Mi Hyun; Moon, Ye Lin; Kim, Seung Jin; Kim, Jung Bog [Korea National University of Education, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We demonstrate Ramsey spectroscopy with cold {sup 87}Rb atoms via a two-photon Raman process. One laser beam has a cross-over resonant frequency on the {sup 85}Rb transition and the other beam has a 6.8 GHz shifted frequency. These two laser beams fulfill the two-photon Raman resonance condition, which involves a single-photon detuning of -2.6 GHz. By implementing these two lasers on cold {sup 87}Rb atoms, we demonstrate Ramsey spectroscopy with an interrogation time of the intermediate state by using π/2 Raman pulses. In our laser system, we can change the single-photon detuning to 1.2, 4.2 or -5.6 GHz by changing the {sup 85}Rb transition line used as a locking signal and an injected sideband. The laser system that directly uses resonant light on isotope atoms will be described in this paper.

  4. Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D.; Di Sieno, L.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F.; Pifferi, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons

  5. Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D., E-mail: davide.contini@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); CNR, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-03-21

    We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons.

  6. Electrical and optical 3D modelling of light-trapping single-photon avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianzhe; Zang, Kai; Morea, Matthew; Xue, Muyu; Lu, Ching-Ying; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Kamins, Theodore I.; Harris, James S.

    2018-02-01

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been widely used to push the frontier of scientific research (e.g., quantum science and single-molecule fluorescence) and practical applications (e.g., Lidar). However, there is a typical compromise between photon detection efficiency and jitter distribution. The light-trapping SPAD has been proposed to break this trade-off by coupling the vertically incoming photons into a laterally propagating mode while maintaining a small jitter and a thin Si device layer. In this work, we provide a 3D-based optical and electrical model based on practical fabrication conditions and discuss about design parameters, which include surface texturing, photon injection position, device area, and other features.

  7. Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, Aaron; Mathot, Serge; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Jarron, Pierre; Brownlee, Colin; O’Shea, Val

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial

  8. Millijoule Pulse Energy Second Harmonic Generation With Single-Stage Photonic Bandgap Rod Fiber Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Saby, Julien; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, a single-stage Q-switched single-mode (SM) ytterbium-doped rod fiber laser delivering record breaking pulse energies at visible and UV light. We use a photonic bandgap rod fiber with a mode field diameter of 59μm based on a new distributed...

  9. Microwave-Controlled Generation of Shaped Single Photons in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pechal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale quantum information processors or quantum communication networks will require reliable exchange of information between spatially separated nodes. The links connecting these nodes can be established using traveling photons that need to be absorbed at the receiving node with high efficiency. This is achievable by shaping the temporal profile of the photons and absorbing them at the receiver by time reversing the emission process. Here, we demonstrate a scheme for creating shaped microwave photons using a superconducting transmon-type three-level system coupled to a transmission line resonator. In a second-order process induced by a modulated microwave drive, we controllably transfer a single excitation from the third level of the transmon to the resonator and shape the emitted photon. We reconstruct the density matrices of the created single-photon states and show that the photons are antibunched. We also create multipeaked photons with a controlled amplitude and phase. In contrast to similar existing schemes, the one we present here is based solely on microwave drives, enabling operation with fixed frequency transmons.

  10. Mapping the Local Density of Optical States of a Photonic Crystal with Single Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots as internal probes to map the local density of optical states of photonic crystal membranes. The employed technique separates contributions from nonradiative recombination and spin-flip processes by properly accounting for the role of the exciton...... fine structure. We observe inhibition factors as high as 70 and compare our results to local density of optical states calculations available from the literature, thereby establishing a quantitative understanding of photon emission in photonic crystal membranes. © 2011 American Physical Society....

  11. Single and double ionization of helium by high-energy photon impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, L.R.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Production of singly and doubly charged helium ions by impact of keV photons is studied. The ratio R ph = σ ph ++ /σ ph + for photoabsorption is calculated in the photon-energy range 2--18 keV using correlated initial- and final- state wave functions. Extrapolation towards symptotic photon energies yields R ph (ω → ∞) = 1.66% in agreement with previous predictions. Ionization due to Compton scattering, which becomes comparable to photoabsorption above ω ∼ 3 keV, is discussed

  12. Modeling and Design of High-Efficiency Single-Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    be electrically driven. Several design strategies addressing these requirements have been proposed. In the cavity-based source, light emission is controlled using resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics effects, whereas in the waveguide-based source, broadband electric field screening effects are employed......Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable, and the source should...

  13. Coupled-resonator waveguide perfect transport single-photon by interatomic dipole-dipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guo-an; Lu, Hua; Qiao, Hao-xue; Chen, Ai-xi; Wu, Wan-qing

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically investigate single-photon coherent transport in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide coupled to two quantum emitters with dipole-dipole interactions. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the transmission spectrum of the photon depends on the two atoms dipole-dipole interactions and the photon-atom couplings. The dipole-dipole interactions may change the dip positions in the spectra and the coupling strength may broaden the frequency band width in the transmission spectrum. We further demonstrate that the typical transmission spectra split into two dips due to the dipole-dipole interactions. This phenomenon may be used to manufacture new quantum waveguide devices.

  14. Generation efficiency of single-photon current pulses in the Geiger mode of silicon avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhovtseva, A. V.; Gergel, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistical fluctuations of the avalanche's multiplication efficiency were studied as applied to the single-photon (Geiger) mode of avalanche photodiodes. The distribution function of partial multiplication factors with an anomalously wide (of the order of the average) dispersion was obtained. Expressions for partial feedback factors were derived in terms of the average gain and the corresponding dependences on the diode's overvoltage were calculated. Final expressions for the photon-electric pulse's conversion were derived by averaging corresponding formulas over the coordinate of initiating photoelectron generation using the functions of optical photon absorption in silicon.

  15. Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raj B; Bennett, Anthony J; Cooper, Ken; Atkinson, Paola; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2010-07-09

    Quantum interference lies at the foundation of many protocols for scalable quantum computing and communication with linear optics. To observe these effects the light source must emit photons that are indistinguishable. From a technological standpoint, it would be beneficial to have electrical control over the emission. Here we report of an electrically driven single-photon source emitting indistinguishable photons. The device consists of a layer of InAs quantum dots embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode. Indistinguishability of consecutive photons is tested in a two-photon interference experiment under two modes of operation, continuous and pulsed current injection. We also present a complete theory based on the interference of photons with a Lorentzian spectrum which we compare to both our continuous wave and pulsed experiments. In the former case, a visibility was measured limited only by the timing resolution of our detection system. In the case of pulsed injection, we employ a two-pulse voltage sequence which suppresses multi-photon emission and allows us to carry out temporal filtering of photons which have undergone dephasing. The characteristic Hong-Ou-Mandel 'dip' is measured, resulting in a visibility of 64 +/- 4%.

  16. Quantum Interference between Autonomous Single-Photon Sources from Doppler-Broadened Atomic Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Teak; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Park, Jiho; Kim, Heonoh; Moon, Han Seb

    2017-01-01

    To realize a quantum network based on quantum entanglement swapping, bright and completely autonomous sources are essentially required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) quantum interference between two independent bright photon pairs generated via the spontaneous four-wave mixing in Doppler-broadened ladder-type 87Rb atoms. Bright autonomous heralded single photons are operated in a continuous-wave (CW) mode with no synchronization or supplemental filters. The four-fol...

  17. Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal nanocavity design with self-similar electromagnetic boundary conditions, achieving ultrasmall mode volume (V-eff). The electric energy density of a cavity mode can be maximized in the air or dielectric region, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. We illust...... at the single-photon level. These features open new directions in cavity quantum electrodynamics, spectroscopy, and quantum nonlinear optics....

  18. High quality GaAs single photon emitters on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, S.; Sanguinetti, S.; Cavigli, L.; Accanto, N.; Vinattieri, A.; Minari, S.; Abbarchi, M.; Isella, G.; Frigeri, C.; Gurioli, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for the direct epitaxial growth of a single photon emitter, based on GaAs quantum dots fabricated by droplet epitaxy, working at liquid nitrogen temperatures on Si substrates. The achievement of quantum photon statistics up to T=80 K is directly proved by antibunching in the second order correlation function as measured with a H anbury Brown and Twiss interferometer

  19. Unambiguous modification of nonorthogonal single- and two-photon polarization states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Aguirre, J.; Delgado, A.; Lima, G.; Neves, L.; Roa, L.; Saavedra, C.; Padua, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic method which allows an unambiguous modification of two nonorthogonal quantum states. We experimentally implement this protocol by using two-photon polarization states generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion. In the experiment, for codifying initial quantum states, we consider single-photon states and heralded detection. We show that the application of this protocol to entangled states allows a fine control of the amount of entanglement of the initial state.

  20. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  1. Increasing the collection efficiency of time-correlated single-photon counting with single-photon avalanche diodes using immersion lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Charles; Giudice, Andrea; Thibault, Simon; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves

    2016-11-20

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) achieving high timing resolution (≈20-50  ps) developed for time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) generally have very small photosensitive areas (25-100 μm in diameter). This limits the achievable photon counting rate and signal-to-noise ratio and may lead to long counting times. This is detrimental in applications requiring several measurements, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscopy, which requires scanning, and time-domain diffuse optical tomography (TD-DOT). We show in this work that the use of an immersion lens directly affixed onto the photosensitive area of the SPAD helps alleviate this problem by allowing more light to be concentrated onto the detector. Following careful optical design and simulations, our experimental results show that it is actually possible to achieve the predicted theoretical increase in the photon counting rate (we achieve a factor of ≈4 here). This work is of high relevance in high timing resolution TCSPC with small photosensitive area detectors and should find widespread interest in FLIM and TD-DOT with SPADs.

  2. Unconditionally secure key distillation from multi-photons in a single-photon polarization based quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Tamaki, K

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation, we show some counter-examples to a naive belief that the security of QKD is based on no-cloning theorem. One example is shown by explicitly proving that one can indeed generate an unconditionally secure key from Alice's two-photon emission part in "SARG04 protocol" proposed by V. Scarani et al, in Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004). This protocol differs from BB84 only in the classical communication. It is, thus, interesting to see how only the classical communication of QKD protocol might qualitatively change its security. We also show that one can generate an unconditionally secure key from the single to the four-photon part in a generalized SARG04 that uses six states. Finally, we also compare the bit error rate threshold of these protocols with the one in BB84 and the original six-state protocol assuming a depolarizing channel.

  3. Single-Electron and Single-Photon Sensitivity with a Silicon Skipper CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffenberg, Javier; Sofo-Haro, Miguel; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Essig, Rouven; Guardincerri, Yann; Holland, Steve; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2017-09-01

    We have developed ultralow-noise electronics in combination with repetitive, nondestructive readout of a thick, fully depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) to achieve an unprecedented noise level of 0.068 e- rms /pixel . This is the first time that discrete subelectron readout noise has been achieved reproducible over millions of pixels on a stable, large-area detector. This enables the contemporaneous, discrete, and quantized measurement of charge in pixels, irrespective of whether they contain zero electrons or thousands of electrons. Thus, the resulting CCD detector is an ultra-sensitive calorimeter. It is also capable of counting single photons in the optical and near-infrared regime. Implementing this innovative non-destructive readout system has a negligible impact on CCD design and fabrication, and there are nearly immediate scientific applications. As a particle detector, this CCD will have unprecedented sensitivity to low-mass dark matter particles and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, while future astronomical applications may include direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets.

  4. Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, N.; Amin, M.; Naureen, S.; Anand, S.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of mini-stop bands (MSB) in line-defect photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and in heterostructure PhC waveguides having one abrupt interface are investigated. Tunability of the MSB position by air-fill factor heterostructure PhC waveguides is utilized to demonstrate different filter functions, at optical communication wavelengths, ranging from resonance-like to wide band pass filters with high transmission. The narrowest filter realized has a resonance-like transmission peak with a full width at half maximum of 3.4 nm. These devices could be attractive for coarse wavelength selection (pass and drop) and for sensing applications. 2013 Copyright 2013 Author(s). This article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  5. Analysis of InP-based single photon avalanche diodes based on a single recess-etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiwon

    2018-04-01

    Effects of the different etching techniques have been investigated by analyzing electrical and optical characteristics of two-types of single-diffused single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). The fabricated two-types of SPADs have no diffusion depth variation by using a single diffusion process at the same time. The dry-etched SPADs show higher temperature dependence of a breakdown voltage, larger dark-count-rate (DCR), and lower photon-detection-efficiency (PDE) than those of the wet-etched SPADs due to plasma-induced damage of dry-etching process. The results show that the dry etching damages can more significantly affect the performance of the SPADs based on a single recess-etching process.

  6. Generation, transmission, and detection of terahertz photons on an electrically driven single chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Kenji; Ito, Atsushi; Okano, Shun [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate single photon counting of terahertz (THz) waves transmitted from a local THz point source through a coplanar two-wire waveguide on a GaAs/AlGaAs single heterostructure crystal. In the electrically driven all-in-one chip, quantum Hall edge transport is used to achieve a noiseless injection current for a monochromatic point source of THz fields. The local THz fields are coupled to a coplanar two-wire metal waveguide and transmitted over a macroscopic scale greater than the wavelength (38 μm in GaAs). THz waves propagating on the waveguide are counted as individual photons by a quantum-dot single-electron transistor on the same chip. Photon counting on integrated high-frequency circuits will open the possibilities for on-chip quantum optical experiments.

  7. Fluctuation mechanisms in superconductors nanowire single-photon counters, enabled by effective top-down manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolf, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Holger Bartolf discusses state-of-the-art detection concepts based on superconducting nanotechnology as well as sophisticated analytical formulæ that model dissipative fluctuation-phenomena in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Such knowledge is desirable for the development of advanced devices which are designed to possess an intrinsic robustness against vortex-fluctuations and it provides the perspective for honorable fundamental science in condensed matter physics. Especially the nanowire detector allows for ultra-low noise detection of signals with single-photon sensitivity and GHz repetition rates. Such devices have a huge potential for future technological impact and might enable unique applications (e.g. high rate interplanetary deep-space data links from Mars to Earth). Contents Superconducting Single-Photon Detectors Nanotechnological Manufacturing; Scale: 10 Nanometer Berezinskii-Kosterlitz Thouless (BKT) Transition, Edge-Barrier, Phase Slips Target Groups Researchers and students of...

  8. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2014-01-01

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors

  9. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Makarov, Vadim, E-mail: makarov@vad1.com [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gerhardt, Ilja, E-mail: ilja@quantumlah.org [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstraße 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency and reduced speeds for single photons in a fully quantized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, Thomas; Ligare, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for electromagnetically induced transparency in which all fields are treated quantum mechanically. We study a system of three separated atoms at fixed positions in a one-dimensional multimode optical cavity. The first atom serves as the source for a single spontaneously emitted photon; the photon scatters from a three-level 'Λ'-configuration atom which interacts with an additional single-mode field coupling two of the atomic levels; the third atom serves as a detector of the total transmitted field. We find an analytical solution for the quantum dynamics. From the quantum amplitude describing the excitation of the detector atom we extract information that provides exact single-photon analogues to wave delays predicted by semi-classical theories. We also find complementary information in the expectation value of the electric field intensity operator

  11. Two-Color Single-Photon Photoinitiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy F.; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; Sullivan, Amy C.; Bowman, Christopher N.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2009-05-01

    Controlling and reducing the developed region initiated by photoexposure is one of the fundamental goals of optical lithography. Here, we demonstrate a two-color irradiation scheme whereby initiating species are generated by single-photon absorption at one wavelength while inhibiting species are generated by single-photon absorption at a second, independent wavelength. Co-irradiation at the second wavelength thus reduces the polymerization rate, delaying gelation of the material and facilitating enhanced spatial control over the polymerization. Appropriate overlapping of the two beams produces structures with both feature sizes and monomer conversions otherwise unobtainable with use of single- or two-photon absorption photopolymerization. Additionally, the generated inhibiting species rapidly recombine when irradiation with the second wavelength ceases, allowing for fast sequential exposures not limited by memory effects in the material and thus enabling fabrication of complex two- or three-dimensional structures.

  12. Reconfigurable Computing As an Enabling Technology for Single-Photon-Counting Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Wesley; Hicks, Edward; Pinchinat, Maxime; Dabney, Philip; McGarry, Jan; Murray, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Single-photon-counting laser altimetry is a new measurement technique offering significant advantages in vertical resolution, reducing instrument size, mass, and power, and reducing laser complexity as compared to analog or threshold detection laser altimetry techniques. However, these improvements come at the cost of a dramatically increased requirement for onboard real-time data processing. Reconfigurable computing has been shown to offer considerable performance advantages in performing this processing. These advantages have been demonstrated on the Multi-KiloHertz Micro-Laser Altimeter (MMLA), an aircraft based single-photon-counting laser altimeter developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with several potential spaceflight applications. This paper describes how reconfigurable computing technology was employed to perform MMLA data processing in real-time under realistic operating constraints, along with the results observed. This paper also expands on these prior results to identify concepts for using reconfigurable computing to enable spaceflight single-photon-counting laser altimeter instruments.

  13. Generating single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xue-xiang, E-mail: xuxuexiang@jxnu.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Yuan, Hong-chun [College of Electrical and Optoelectronic Engineering, Changzhou Institute of Technology, Changzhou 213002 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We theoretically generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states (SPCCSs) by means of quantum-optical catalysis based on the beam splitter (BS) or the parametric amplifier (PA). These states are obtained in one of the BS (or PA) output channels if a coherent state and a single-photon Fock state are present in two input ports and a single photon is registered in the other output port. The success probabilities of the detection (also the normalization factors) are discussed, which is different for BS and PA catalysis. In addition, we prove that the generated states catalyzed by BS and PA devices are actually the same quantum states after analyzing photon number distribution of the SPCCSs. The quantum properties of the SPCCSs, such as sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effect, quadrature squeezing effect, and the negativity of the Wigner function are investigated in detail. The results show that the SPCCSs are non-Gaussian states with an abundance of nonclassicality. - Highlights: • We generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis. • We prove the equivalent effects of the lossless beam splitter and the non-degenerate parametric amplifier. • Some nonclassical properties of the generated states are investigated in detail.

  14. Bi-dimensional arrays of SPAD for time-resolved single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudisco, S.; Lanzano, L.; Musumeci, F.; Neri, L.; Privitera, S.; Scordino, A.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Many scientific areas like astronomy, biophysics, biomedicine, nuclear and plasma science, etc. are interested in the development of a new time-resolved single photon imaging device. Such a device represents today one of the most challenging goals in the field of photonics. In collaboration with Catania R and D staff of ST-Microelectronics (STM) we created, during the last few years, a new avalanche photosensor-Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) able to detect and count, with excellent performance, single photons. Further we will discuss the possible realization of a single photon imaging device through the many elements integration (bi-dimensional arrays) of SPADs. In order to achieve the goal, it is also important to develop an appropriate readout strategy able to address the time information of each individual sensor and in order to read a great number of elements easily. First prototypes were designed and manufactured by STM and the results are reported here. In the paper we will discuss in particular: (i) sensor performance (gain, photodetection efficiency, timing, after-pulsing, etc.); (ii) array performance (layout, cross-talk, etc.); (iii) readout strategy (quenching, electronics), and (iv) first imaging results (general performance).

  15. Nonlocality of a single photon: Paths to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    A single-photon incident on a beam splitter produces an entangled field state, and in principle could be used to violate a Bell inequality, but such an experiment (without postselection) is beyond the reach of current experiments. Here we consider the somewhat simpler task of demonstrating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering with a single photon (also without postselection). We demonstrate that Alice's choice of measurement on her portion of the entangled state can affect Bob's portion of the entangled state in his laboratory, in a sense rigorously defined by us and Doherty [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)]. Previous work by Lvovsky and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047903 (2004)] has addressed this phenomenon (which they called remote preparation) experimentally using homodyne measurements on a single photon. Here we show that, unfortunately, their experimental parameters do not meet the bounds necessary for a rigorous demonstration of EPR steering with a single photon. However, we also show that modest improvements in the experimental parameters, and the addition of photon counting to the arsenal of Alice's measurements, would be sufficient to allow such a demonstration.

  16. A study of pile-up in integrated time-correlated single photon counting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Jochen; Tyndall, David; Rae, Bruce R; Li, David D-U; Richardson, Justin A; Henderson, Robert K

    2013-10-01

    Recent demonstration of highly integrated, solid-state, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) systems in CMOS technology is set to provide significant increases in performance over existing bulky, expensive hardware. Arrays of single photon single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, timing channels, and signal processing can be integrated on a single silicon chip with a degree of parallelism and computational speed that is unattainable by discrete photomultiplier tube and photon counting card solutions. New multi-channel, multi-detector TCSPC sensor architectures with greatly enhanced throughput due to minimal detector transit (dead) time or timing channel dead time are now feasible. In this paper, we study the potential for future integrated, solid-state TCSPC sensors to exceed the photon pile-up limit through analytic formula and simulation. The results are validated using a 10% fill factor SPAD array and an 8-channel, 52 ps resolution time-to-digital conversion architecture with embedded lifetime estimation. It is demonstrated that pile-up insensitive acquisition is attainable at greater than 10 times the pulse repetition rate providing over 60 dB of extended dynamic range to the TCSPC technique. Our results predict future CMOS TCSPC sensors capable of live-cell transient observations in confocal scanning microscopy, improved resolution of near-infrared optical tomography systems, and fluorescence lifetime activated cell sorting.

  17. MHz rate and efficient synchronous heralding of single photons at telecom wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarico, Enrico; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Guerreiro, Thiago; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo

    2012-10-08

    We report on the realization of a synchronous source of heralded single photons at telecom wavelengths with MHz heralding rates and high heralding efficiency. This source is based on the generation of photon pairs at 810 and 1550 nm via Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) in a 1 cm periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal pumped by a 532 nm pulsed laser. As high rates are fundamental for multi-photon experiments, we show that single telecom photons can be announced at 4.4 MHz rate with 45% heralding efficiency. When we focus only on the optimization of the coupling of the heralded photon, the heralding efficiency can be increased up to 80%. Furthermore, we experimentally observe that group velocity mismatch inside long crystals pumped in a pulsed mode affects the spectrum of the emitted photons and their fibre coupling efficiency. The length of the crystal in this source has been chosen as a trade off between high brightness and high coupling efficiency.

  18. Coupling of a single active nanoparticle to a polymer-based photonic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Thuy Trang Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The engineered coupling between a guest moiety (molecule, nanoparticle and the host photonic nanostructure may provide a great enhancement of the guest optical response, leading to many attractive applications. In this article, we describe briefly the basic concept and some recent progress considering the coupling of a single nanoparticle into a photonic structure. Different kinds of nanoparticles of great interest including quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamond for single photon source, nonlinear nanoparticles for efficient nonlinear effect and sensors, magnetic nanoparticles for Kerr magneto-optical effect, and plasmonic nanoparticles for ultrafast optical switching and sensors, are briefly reviewed. We focus further on the coupling of plasmonic gold nanoparticles and polymeric photonic structures by optimizing theoretically the photonic structures and developing efficient way to realize desired hybrid structures. The simple and low-cost fabrication technique, the optical enhancement of the fluorescent nanoparticles induced by the photonic structure, as well as the limitations, challenges and appealing prospects are discussed in details.

  19. Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Micrometer-Long Air-Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A.; Uda, T.; Kato, Y. K.

    2017-11-01

    Statistics of photons emitted by mobile excitons in individual carbon nanotubes are investigated. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to identify the chiralities and suspended lengths of air-suspended nanotubes, and photon-correlation measurements are performed at room temperature on telecommunication-wavelength nanotube emission with a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss setup. We obtain zero-delay second-order correlation g(2 )(0 ) less than 0.5, indicating single-photon generation. Excitation power dependence of the photon antibunching characteristics is examined for nanotubes with various chiralities and suspended lengths, where we find that the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ) is obtained at the lowest power. The influence of exciton diffusion and end quenching is studied by Monte Carlo simulations, and we derive an analytical expression for the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ). Our results indicate that mobile excitons in micrometer-long nanotubes can in principle produce high-purity single photons, leading to new design strategies for quantum photon sources.

  20. Optimal entangling operations between deterministic blocks of qubits encoded into single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jake A.; Kaplan, Lev

    2018-01-01

    Here, we numerically simulate probabilistic elementary entangling operations between rail-encoded photons for the purpose of scalable universal quantum computation or communication. We propose grouping logical qubits into single-photon blocks wherein single-qubit rotations and the controlled-not (cnot) gate are fully deterministic and simple to implement. Interblock communication is then allowed through said probabilistic entangling operations. We find a promising trend in the increasing probability of successful interblock communication as we increase the number of optical modes operated on by our elementary entangling operations.

  1. Attacking quantum key distribution with single-photon two-qubit quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2006-01-01

    The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt (FPB) probe realizes the most powerful individual attack on Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution (BB84 QKD) by means of a single controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. This paper describes a complete physical simulation of the FPB-probe attack on polarization-based BB84 QKD using a deterministic CNOT constructed from single-photon two-qubit quantum logic. Adding polarization-preserving quantum nondemolition measurements of photon number to this configuration converts the physical simulation into a true deterministic realization of the FPB attack

  2. Conversion of Beckman DK-2A spectrophotometer into an automatic single-photon counting fluorescence spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkur, G.C.; Lagare, M.T.; Umakantha, N.

    1981-01-01

    Details of how a DK-2A spectrophotometer can be modified into an automatic single-photon counting fluorescence spectrophotometer for recording a low intensity spectrum, are reported. The single-photon count-rate converted into a DC voltage is applied at the appropriate stage in the sample channel amplifier circuit of a DK-2A to get the pen deflection proportional to the count-rate. A high intensity spectrum may be recorded in the usual way by merely turning the shaft of the mirror motor by 180 degrees. (author)

  3. Growth of optical-quality anthracene crystals doped with dibenzoterrylene for controlled single photon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Kyle D., E-mail: kyle.major11@imperial.ac.uk; Lien, Yu-Hung; Polisseni, Claudio; Grandi, Samuele; Kho, Kiang Wei; Clark, Alex S.; Hwang, J.; Hinds, E. A., E-mail: ed.hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules within a crystalline anthracene matrix show promise as quantum emitters for controlled, single photon production. We present the design and construction of a chamber in which we reproducibly grow doped anthracene crystals of optical quality that are several mm across and a few μm thick. We demonstrate control of the DBT concentration over the range 6–300 parts per trillion and show that these DBT molecules are stable single-photon emitters. We interpret our data with a simple model that provides some information on the vapour pressure of DBT.

  4. Study on the ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaomin; Huang Shengli; Xu Zizong; Wu Chong

    2001-01-01

    The ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer and their influence factors were studied. A method to depress the background, to shorten the measurement time and to increase the ratio of signal to noise was discussed. Results show that ratio of signal to noise is proportional to solid angle of detector to source and detection efficiency, and inverse proportional to electronics noise. Choose the activity of the source was important for decreasing of random coincidence counting. To use a coincidence gate and a discriminator of single photon were an effective way of increasing measurement accuracy and detection efficiency

  5. Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschi, Federico; Calderan, Laura; Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello E [Medical Physics Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); D' Ambrosio, Daniela; Marengo, Mario [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: federico.boschi@univr.it

    2009-12-07

    In vivo optical imaging instruments are generally devoted to the acquisition of light coming from fluorescence or bioluminescence processes. Recently, an instrument was conceived with radioisotopic detection capabilities (Kodak in Vivo Multispectral System F) based on the conversion of x-rays from the phosphorus screen. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that an optical imager (IVIS 200, Xenogen Corp., Alameda, USA), designed for in vivo acquisitions of small animals in bioluminescent and fluorescent modalities, can even be employed to detect signals due to radioactive tracers. Our system is based on scintillator crystals for the conversion of high-energy rays and a collimator. No hardware modifications are required. Crystals alone permit the acquisition of photons coming from an in vivo 20 g nude mouse injected with a solution of methyl diphosphonate technetium 99 metastable (Tc99m-MDP). With scintillator crystals and collimators, a set of measurements aimed to fully characterize the system resolution was carried out. More precisely, system point spread function and modulation transfer function were measured at different source depths. Results show that system resolution is always better than 1.3 mm when the source depth is less than 10 mm. The resolution of the images obtained with radioactive tracers is comparable with the resolution achievable with dedicated techniques. Moreover, it is possible to detect both optical and nuclear tracers or bi-modal tracers with only one instrument. (letter to the editor)

  6. Spectrally pure heralded single photons by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber: reducing impact of dispersion fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk...

  7. A single photon sensor employing wavelength-shifting and light-guiding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Lukas; Voge, Markus; Boeser, Sebastian; Kowalski, Marek [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In this work we describe a feasibility study of a novel type of single photon sensor that employs organic wavelength shifting materials (WLS) to capture photons and guide them to a PMT readout. Two different WLS materials, Saint Gobain BC-480 and BC-482A, have been tested as candidates for use in such a sensor. We address the photon detection efficiency, noise properties, time and spatial resolution, PMT readout, as well as some practical aspects relevant for the development and construction of a prototype sensor. Calculating the overall photon detection efficiency, we show that the effective photosensitive area of a prototype built with existing technology could easily exceed that of modules currently used e. g. in IceCube while having a dark noise rate up to two orders of magnitude smaller.

  8. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion collisions and quark-hadron phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K

    2001-01-01

    The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. The recent estimates of photon production in quark-matter (at two loop level) along with the dominant reactions in the hadronic matter leading to photons are used. About half of the radiated photons are seen to have a thermal origin. The same treatment and the initial conditions provide a very good description to hadronic spectra measured by several groups and the intermediate mass dileptons measured by the NA50 experiment, lending a strong support to the conclusion that quark gluon plasma has been formed in these collisions. Predictions for RHIC and LHC energies are also given. (37 refs).

  9. Comparison of tool feed influence in CNC polishing between a novel circular-random path and other pseudo-random paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2017-09-18

    A new category of circular pseudo-random paths is proposed in order to suppress repetitive patterns and improve surface waviness on ultra-precision polished surfaces. Random paths in prior research had many corners, therefore deceleration of the polishing tool affected the surface waviness. The new random path can suppress velocity changes of the polishing tool and thus restrict degradation of the surface waviness, making it suitable for applications with stringent mid-spatial-frequency requirements such as photomask blanks for EUV lithography.

  10. Results on the Coherent Interaction of High Energy Electrons and Photons in Oriented Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballestrero, S.; Biino, C.; Birol, I.; Cenci, P.; Connell, S.H.; Eichblatt, S.; Fonseca, T.; Freund, A.; Gorini, B.; Groess, R.; Ispirian, K.; Ketel, T.J.; Kononets, Yu.V.; Lopez, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; van Rens, B.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Shieh, M.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V.; Uggerhoj, E.; Uggerhj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Wessely, O.; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN-NA-59 experiment examined a wide range of electromagnetic processes for multi-GeV electrons and photons interacting with oriented single crystals. The various types of crystals and their orientations were used for producing photon beams and for converting and measuring their polarisation. The radiation emitted by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on a 1.5 cm thick Si crystal oriented in the Coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB) and the String-of-Strings (SOS) modes was used to obtain multi-GeV linearly polarised photon beams. A new crystal polarimetry technique was established for measuring the linear polarisation of the photon beam. The polarimeter is based on the dependence of the Coherent Pair Production (CPP) cross section in oriented single crystals on the direction of the photon polarisation with respect to the crystal plane. Both a 1 mm thick single crystal of Germanium and a 4 mm thick multi-tile set of synthetic Diamond crystals were used as analyzers of the linear polarisation. A birefringence ...

  11. Enhancing the brightness of electrically driven single-photon sources using color centers in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Igor A.; Vyshnevyy, Andrey A.; Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Practical applications of quantum information technologies exploiting the quantum nature of light require efficient and bright true single-photon sources which operate under ambient conditions. Currently, point defects in the crystal lattice of diamond known as color centers have taken the lead in the race for the most promising quantum system for practical non-classical light sources. This work is focused on a different quantum optoelectronic material, namely a color center in silicon carbide, and reveals the physics behind the process of single-photon emission from color centers in SiC under electrical pumping. We show that color centers in silicon carbide can be far superior to any other quantum light emitter under electrical control at room temperature. Using a comprehensive theoretical approach and rigorous numerical simulations, we demonstrate that at room temperature, the photon emission rate from a p-i-n silicon carbide single-photon emitting diode can exceed 5 Gcounts/s, which is higher than what can be achieved with electrically driven color centers in diamond or epitaxial quantum dots. These findings lay the foundation for the development of practical photonic quantum devices which can be produced in a well-developed CMOS compatible process flow.

  12. Simple Atomic Quantum Memory Suitable for Semiconductor Quantum Dot Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Janik; Buser, Gianni; Horsley, Andrew; Béguin, Lucas; Jöckel, Andreas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.; Treutlein, Philipp

    2017-08-01

    Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δ f =0.66 GHz , the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For a 50 ns storage time, we measure ηe2 e 50 ns=3.4 (3 )% end-to-end efficiency of the fiber-coupled memory, with a total intrinsic efficiency ηint=17 (3 )%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to ηe 2 e≈35 %; beyond that, increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional read-out noise level of 9 ×10-3 photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ1=0.27 (4 ) photons, the signal to noise level would be unity.

  13. Photon-HDF5: An Open File Format for Timestamp-Based Single-Molecule Fluorescence Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ingargiola, Antonino; Laurence, Ted; Boutelle, Robert; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Photon-HDF5, an open and efficient file format to simplify exchange and long-term accessibility of data from single-molecule fluorescence experiments based on photon-counting detectors such as single-photon avalanche diode, photomultiplier tube, or arrays of such detectors. The format is based on HDF5, a widely used platform- and language-independent hierarchical file format for which user-friendly viewers are available. Photon-HDF5 can store raw photon data (timestamp, channel n...

  14. Measuring temporal summation in visual detection with a single-photon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Rebecca; Victora, Michelle; Wang, Ranxiao Frances; Kwiat, Paul G

    2017-11-01

    Temporal summation is an important feature of the visual system which combines visual signals that arrive at different times. Previous research estimated complete summation to last for 100ms for stimuli judged "just detectable." We measured the full range of temporal summation for much weaker stimuli using a new paradigm and a novel light source, developed in the field of quantum optics for generating small numbers of photons with precise timing characteristics and reduced variance in photon number. Dark-adapted participants judged whether a light was presented to the left or right of their fixation in each trial. In Experiment 1, stimuli contained a stream of photons delivered at a constant rate while the duration was systematically varied. Accuracy should increase with duration as long as the later photons can be integrated with the proceeding ones into a single signal. The temporal integration window was estimated as the point that performance no longer improved, and was found to be 650ms on average. In Experiment 2, the duration of the visual stimuli was kept short (100ms or photons was varied to explore the efficiency of summation over the integration window compared to Experiment 1. There was some indication that temporal summation remains efficient over the integration window, although there is variation between individuals. The relatively long integration window measured in this study may be relevant to studies of the absolute visual threshold, i.e., tests of single-photon vision, where "single" photons should be separated by greater than the integration window to avoid summation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photon emission by electrons and positrons traversing thin single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'chak, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation emission by planar channeled particles (electrons, positrons) in a thin single crystal of thickness L is considered. It is shown that for L approximately πb/THETAsub(L) (b is the lattice constant, THETA sub(L) the Lindhard angle) besides the main spontaneous channeling maxima there exist auxiliary interference maxima, the positions of all the maxima depending on L. The dependence of the radiation spectral intensity on crystal thickness is discussed

  16. Quantum key distribution with a single photon from a squeezed coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masahiro; Hirano, Takuya

    2003-01-01

    Squeezing of the coherent state by optical parametric amplifier is shown to efficiently produce single-photon states with reduced multiphoton probabilities compared with the weak coherent light. It can be a better source for a longer-distance quantum key distribution and also for other quantum optical experiments. The necessary condition for a secure quantum key distribution given by Brassard et al. is analyzed as functions of the coherent-state amplitude and squeeze parameter. Similarly, the rate of the gained secure bits G after error correction and privacy amplification given by Luetkenhaus is calculated. Compared with the weak coherent light, it is found that G is about ten times larger and its high level continues on about two times longer distance. By improvement of the detector efficiency it is shown that the distance extends further. Measurement of the intensity correlation function and the relation to photon antibunching are discussed for the experimental verification of the single-photon generation

  17. Simple and efficient absorption filter for single photons from a cold atom quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel T; Lee, Patricia J; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-03-09

    The ability to filter unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral atom ensembles. Here we demonstrate an efficient frequency filter which uses a vapor cell filled with (85)Rb and a buffer gas to attenuate both residual laser light and noise photons by nearly two orders of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with our cold (87)Rb quantum memory. This simple, passive filter provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser and erroneous spontaneous emissions for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We show that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and the retrieval efficiency of our quantum memory by ≈ 35%.

  18. Real-time imaging systems for superconducting nanowire single-photon detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofherr, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Superconducting nanowire singe-photon detectors (SNSPD) are promising detectors in the field of applications, where single-photon resolution is required like in quantum optics, spectroscopy or astronomy. These cryogenic detectors gain from a broad spectrum in the optical and infrared range and deliver low dark counts and low jitter. This work provides a piece of deeper physical understanding of detector functionality in combination with highly engineered readout development. A detailed analysis focuses on the intrinsic detection mechanism of SNSPDs related to the detection in the infrared regime and the evolution of dark counts. With this fundamental knowledge, the next step is the development of a multi-pixel readout at cryogenic conditions. It is demonstrated, how two auspicious multi-pixel readout concepts can be realized, which enables statistical framing like in imaging applications using RSFQ electronics with fast framing rates and the readout of a detector array with continuous real-time single-photon resolution.

  19. Direct isolated single and di-photon production at ATLAS and CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolberg, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    Direct isolated single and di-photon production cross section measurements are a classic test of perturbative QCD and are used to constrain the gluon densities in the proton. The LHC general-purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS have made a number of differential cross section measurements for both the single and di-photon production processes using the 2011 dataset at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy. Overall, good agreement is found with the theoretical predictions, and the measurements are sufficiently precise to constrain the gluon PDF uncertainty for other production processes at the LHC. Some systematic differences between the di-photon data and the NLO (Next-to-Leading Order) theoretical predictions show a need to include higher-order effects in the predictions. (author)

  20. Broadband enhancement of single photon emission and polarization dependent coupling in silicon nitride waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, Suzanne; Guille, Antoine; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger; Brainis, Edouard

    2015-06-01

    Single-photon (SP) sources are important for a number of optical quantum information processing applications. We study the possibility to integrate triggered solid-state SP emitters directly on a photonic chip. A major challenge consists in efficiently extracting their emission into a single guided mode. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigate the SP emission from dipole-like nanometer-sized inclusions embedded into different silicon nitride (SiNx) photonic nanowire waveguide designs. We elucidate the effect of the geometry on the emission lifetime and the polarization of the emitted SP. The results show that highly efficient and polarized SP sources can be realized using suspended SiNx slot-waveguides. Combining this with the well-established CMOS-compatible processing technology, fully integrated and complex optical circuits for quantum optics experiments can be developed.

  1. Fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors for quantum correlation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slysz, W.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Grabiec, P.; Gorska, M.; Reiger, E.; Dorenbos, S.; Zwiller, V.; Milostnaya, I.; Minaeva, O.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated fiber-coupled superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), designed for quantum-correlationtype experiments. The SSPDs are nanostructured (~100-nm wide and 4-nm thick) NbN superconducting meandering stripes, operated in the 2 to 4.2 K temperature range, and known for ultrafast

  2. Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…

  3. Hybrid GaAs/AlGaAs Nanowire—Quantum dot System for Single Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirlin, G.; Reznik, R.; Shtrom, I.

    2018-01-01

    III–V nanowires, or a combination of the nanowires with quantum dots, are promising building blocks for future optoelectronic devices, in particular, single-photon emitters, lasers and photodetectors. In this work we present results of molecular beam epitaxial growth of combined nanostructures...

  4. New bi-dimensional SPAD arrays for time resolved single photon imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S., E-mail: tudisco@lns.infn.it [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Piemonte, C. [FBK-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via S. Croce 77, 38122 Trento (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Anzalone, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serra, N.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via S. Croce 77, 38122 Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Some of the first results concerning the electrical and optical performances of new bi-dimensional single photon avalanche diodes arrays for imaging applications are briefly presented. The planned arrays were realized at the Fondazione Bruno Kessler—Trento and tested at LNS–INFN. The proposed new solution, utilizing a new architecture with integrated quenching resistors, allows to simplify the electronic readout.

  5. New bi-dimensional SPAD arrays for time resolved single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, R.; Tudisco, S.; Piemonte, C.; Lo Presti, D.; Anzalone, A.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Serra, N.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the first results concerning the electrical and optical performances of new bi-dimensional single photon avalanche diodes arrays for imaging applications are briefly presented. The planned arrays were realized at the Fondazione Bruno Kessler—Trento and tested at LNS–INFN. The proposed new solution, utilizing a new architecture with integrated quenching resistors, allows to simplify the electronic readout

  6. Fundamental limitations in spontaneous emission rate of single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of single-photon generation by quantum emitters (QEs) can be enhanced by placing a QE inside a resonant structure. This structure can represent an all-dielectric micro-resonator or waveguide and thus be characterized by ultra-low loss and dimensions on the order of wavelength. Or it can ...

  7. Experimental demonstration of highly anisotropic decay rates of single quantum dots inside photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    We have systematically measured the variation of the spontaneous emission rate with polarization for self-assembled single quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystal membranes and obtained a maximum anisotropy factor of 6 between the decay rates of the two nondegenerate bright exciton states....

  8. Quantum dot-micropillars: a bright source of coherent single photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, Sebastian; He, Yu-Ming; Maier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We present the efficient generation of coherent single photons based on quantum dots in micropillars. We utilize a scalable lithography scheme leading to quantum dot-micropillar devices with 74% extraction efficiency. Via pulsed strict resonant pumping, we show an indistinguishability of consecut...

  9. Extremely low-loss single-mode photonic crystal fiber in the terahertz regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Hasanuzzaman, G. K M; Sadath, Md Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an updated design and numerical characterization of a rotated porous-core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for single-mode terahertz (THz) wave guidance. The simulation results are found using an efficient finite element method (FEM) which show a better and ultra-low eff...

  10. Characteristics of a single photon emission tomography system with a wide field gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonnat, F.; Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Kellershohn, C.

    1979-01-01

    This text summarizes a work study describing the imagery possibilities of a single photon emission tomography system composed of a conventional wide field gamma camera, connected to a computer. The encouraging results achieved on the various phantoms studied suggest a significant development of this technique in clinical work in Nuclear Medicine Departments [fr

  11. Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with aluminum oxide aperture defined tunneling area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.W.; Kardynal, Beata; Ellis, D.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with independently defined absorption and sensing areas is demonstrated. The device, in which the tunneling is constricted to an aperture in an insulating layer in the emitter, shows electrical characteristics typical of high quality res...

  12. Single photon core ionization with core excitation: a new spectroscopic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penent, F; Carniato, S; Lablanquie, P; Selles, P; Palaudoux, J; Andric, L; Žitnik, M; Bučar, K; Shigemasa, E; Nakano, M; Ito, K; Hikosaka, Y

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous core ionization and core excitation process (or K -2 V process) induced by absorption of a single photon provides the basis of a new spectroscopy that offers both advantages of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) spectroscopy (paper)

  13. Photon-Induced Magnetization Reversal in Single Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Mustafa

    2005-03-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMM) have been the subject of intensive research for more than a decade now because of their unique properties such as macroscopic quantum tunneling. Recent work in this area is focused on whether SMM are potential qubits, as proposed theoretically [1]. We use continuous millimeter wave radiation to manipulate the populations of the energy levels of a single crystal molecular magnet Fe8 [2]. When radiation is in resonance with the transitions between energy levels, the steady state magnetization exhibits dips. As expected, the magnetic field locations of these dips vary linearly with the radiation frequency. We will describe our experimental results, which provide a lower bound of 0.17 ns for transverse relaxation time. Transitions between excited states are found even though these states have negligible population at the experimental temperature. We find evidence that the sample heating is significant when the resonance condition is satisfied. Recent experiments are concentrated on the spin dynamics of Fe8 induced by pulsed radiation and results of these studies will also be presented. [1] Leuenberger, M. N. and Loss, D., Nature 410, 789 (2001). [2] M. Bal et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 100408(R) (2004).

  14. Single molecule photodynamics by means of one- and two-photon approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, Giuseppe; Cannone, Fabio; Diaspro, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy allows to investigate heterogeneous behaviours on photochemical and structural grounds. We report on studies of the effect of the excitation intensity on the internal photodynamics of simple dyes immobilized on chemically etched glass slides. The use of the excitation intensity needed for two-photon excitation induces local heating, structural changes and transitions to dark states. Similar behaviour is found on single green fluorescent proteins immobilized on glass slides or embedded in silica gels upon single-photon excitation. However, by sampling the images with sufficiently low frequency, we are able to follow relevant biological events, such as the unfolding kinetics. We find that the glass slides are preferable in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio but the protein is not preserved in its native state, while evidence for the native conformation of the single proteins in the silica gels is found in the uniformity of the fluorescence emission

  15. Likelihood functions for the analysis of single-molecule binned photon sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopich, Irina V., E-mail: irinag@niddk.nih.gov [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: Folding of a protein with attached fluorescent dyes, the underlying conformational trajectory of interest, and the observed binned photon trajectory. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequence of photon counts can be analyzed using a likelihood function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exact likelihood function for a two-state kinetic model is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several approximations are considered for an arbitrary kinetic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved likelihood functions are obtained to treat sequences of FRET efficiencies. - Abstract: We consider the analysis of a class of experiments in which the number of photons in consecutive time intervals is recorded. Sequence of photon counts or, alternatively, of FRET efficiencies can be studied using likelihood-based methods. For a kinetic model of the conformational dynamics and state-dependent Poisson photon statistics, the formalism to calculate the exact likelihood that this model describes such sequences of photons or FRET efficiencies is developed. Explicit analytic expressions for the likelihood function for a two-state kinetic model are provided. The important special case when conformational dynamics are so slow that at most a single transition occurs in a time bin is considered. By making a series of approximations, we eventually recover the likelihood function used in hidden Markov models. In this way, not only is insight gained into the range of validity of this procedure, but also an improved likelihood function can be obtained.

  16. Maximum likelihood-based analysis of photon arrival trajectories in single-molecule FRET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waligorska, Marta [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Molski, Andrzej, E-mail: amolski@amu.edu.pl [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study model selection and parameter recovery from single-molecule FRET experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the maximum likelihood-based analysis of two-color photon trajectories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The number of observed photons determines the performance of the method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For long trajectories, one can extract mean dwell times that are comparable to inter-photon times. -- Abstract: When two fluorophores (donor and acceptor) are attached to an immobilized biomolecule, anti-correlated fluctuations of the donor and acceptor fluorescence caused by Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) report on the conformational kinetics of the molecule. Here we assess the maximum likelihood-based analysis of donor and acceptor photon arrival trajectories as a method for extracting the conformational kinetics. Using computer generated data we quantify the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates and the efficiency of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in selecting the true kinetic model. We find that the number of observed photons is the key parameter determining parameter estimation and model selection. For long trajectories, one can extract mean dwell times that are comparable to inter-photon times.

  17. Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-04-01

    Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.

  18. Amplitude distributions of dark counts and photon counts in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with the HEMT readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaygorsky, J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States); Słysz, W., E-mail: wslysz@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, PL-02 668 Warsaw (Poland); Shouten, R.; Dorenbos, S.; Reiger, E.; Zwiller, V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Sobolewski, Roman [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). • A better understanding of the origin of dark counts generated by the detector. • A promise of PNR functionality in SSPD measurements. - Abstract: We present a new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) by integrating them with a low-noise cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor and a high-load resistor. The integrated sensors are designed to get a better understanding of the origin of dark counts triggered by the detector, as our scheme allows us to distinguish the origin of dark pulses from the actual photon pulses in SSPDs. The presented approach is based on a statistical analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded trains of the SSPD photoresponse transients. It also enables to obtain information on energy of the incident photons, as well as demonstrates some photon-number-resolving capability of meander-type SSPDs.

  19. Possibility of single biomolecule imaging with coherent amplification of weak scattering x-ray photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2008-10-01

    The number of photons produced by coherent x-ray scattering from a single biomolecule is very small because of its extremely small elastic-scattering cross section and low damage threshold. Even with a high x-ray flux of 3 x 10;{12} photons per 100-nm -diameter spot and an ultrashort pulse of 10 fs driven by a future x-ray free electron laser (x-ray FEL), it has been predicted that only a few 100 photons will be produced from the scattering of a single lysozyme molecule. In observations of scattered x rays on a detector, the transfer of energy from wave to matter is accompanied by the quantization of the photon energy. Unfortunately, x rays have a high photon energy of 12 keV at wavelengths of 1A , which is required for atomic resolution imaging. Therefore, the number of photoionization events is small, which limits the resolution of imaging of a single biomolecule. In this paper, I propose a method: instead of directly observing the photons scattered from the sample, we amplify the scattered waves by superimposing an intense coherent reference pump wave on it and record the resulting interference pattern on a planar x-ray detector. Using a nanosized gold particle as a reference pump wave source, we can collect 10;{4}-10;{5} photons in single shot imaging where the signal from a single biomolecule is amplified and recorded as two-dimensional diffraction intensity data. An iterative phase retrieval technique can be used to recover the phase information and reconstruct the image of the single biomolecule and the gold particle at the same time. In order to precisely reconstruct a faint image of the single biomolecule in Angstrom resolution, whose intensity is much lower than that of the bright gold particle, I propose a technique that combines iterative phase retrieval on the reference pump wave and the digital Fourier transform holography on the sample. By using a large number of holography data, the three-dimensional electron density map can be assembled.

  20. Frequency characteristic measurement of a fiber optic gyroscope using a correlation spectrum analysis method based on a pseudo-random sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Xingfan; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The frequency characteristic is an important indicator of a system’s dynamic performance. The identification of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG)’s frequency characteristic using a correlation spectrum analysis method based on a pseudo-random sequence is proposed. Taking the angle vibrator as the source of the test rotation stimulation and a pseudo-random sequence as the test signal, the frequency characteristic of a FOG is calculated according to the power spectral density of the rotation rate signal and the cross-power spectral density of the FOG’s output signal and rotation rate signal. A theoretical simulation is done to confirm the validity of this method. An experiment system is built and the test results indicate that the measurement error of the normalized amplitude–frequency response is less than 0.01, that the error of the phase–frequency response is less than 0.3 rad, and the overall measurement accuracy is superior to the traditional frequency-sweep method. By using this method, the FOG’s amplitude–frequency response and phase–frequency response can be measured simultaneously, quickly, accurately, and with a high frequency resolution. The described method meets the requirements of engineering applications. (paper)

  1. Integration of Single-Photon Sources and Detectors on GaAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Enrica Digeronimo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is presented together with our recent achievements in terms of nanofabrication and integration of each component of the circuit. Photons are generated by excited InAs quantum dots (QDs and routed through ridge waveguides towards photonic crystal cavities acting as filters. The filters with a transmission of 20% and free spectral range ≥66 nm are able to select a single excitonic line out of the complex emission spectra of the QDs. The QD luminescence can be measured by on-chip superconducting single photon detectors made of niobium nitride (NbN nanowires patterned on top of a suspended nanobeam, reaching a device quantum efficiency up to 28%. Moreover, two electrically independent detectors are integrated on top of the same nanobeam, resulting in a very compact autocorrelator for on-chip g(2(τ measurements.

  2. Deterministic reshaping of single-photon spectra using cross-phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki

    2016-03-01

    The frequency conversion of light has proved to be a crucial technology for communication, spectroscopy, imaging, and signal processing. In the quantum regime, it also offers great potential for realizing quantum networks incorporating disparate physical systems and quantum-enhanced information processing over a large computational space. The frequency conversion of quantum light, such as single photons, has been extensively investigated for the last two decades using all-optical frequency mixing, with the ultimate goal of realizing lossless and noiseless conversion. I demonstrate another route to this target using frequency conversion induced by cross-phase modulation in a dispersion-managed photonic crystal fiber. Owing to the deterministic and all-optical nature of the process, the lossless and low-noise spectral reshaping of a single-photon wave packet in the telecommunication band has been readily achieved with a modulation bandwidth as large as 0.4 THz. I further demonstrate that the scheme is applicable to manipulations of a nonclassical frequency correlation, wave packet interference, and entanglement between two photons. This approach presents a new coherent frequency interface for photons for quantum information processing.

  3. Periodically modulated single-photon transport in one-dimensional waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingmin; Wei, L. F.

    2018-03-01

    Single-photon transport along a one-dimension waveguide interacting with a quantum system (e.g., two-level atom) is a very useful and meaningful simplified model of the waveguide-based optical quantum devices. Thus, how to modulate the transport of the photons in the waveguide structures by adjusting certain external parameters should be particularly important. In this paper, we discuss how such a modulation could be implemented by periodically driving the energy splitting of the interacting atom and the atom-photon coupling strength. By generalizing the well developed time-independent full quantum mechanical theory in real space to the time-dependent one, we show that various sideband-transmission phenomena could be observed. This means that, with these modulations the photon has certain probabilities to transmit through the scattering atom in the other energy sidebands. Inversely, by controlling the sideband transmission the periodic modulations of the single photon waveguide devices could be designed for the future optical quantum information processing applications.

  4. Angular correlation of annihilation photons in ice single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Kvajic, G.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1971-01-01

    -lattice vectors g⃗ on the direction perpendicular to the slits and the sample surface. The relative area of the central plus the side peaks was (15.2 ± 0.4)% for all curves. All the peaks are interpreted as due to parapositronium annihilation. The side peaks are explained as evidence for the positronium center......Linear-slit angular-correlation curves were obtained at - 148 °C for the [0001], [10¯10], and [11¯20] directions in single crystals of ice. Besides the narrow central peak, pronounced narrow side peaks were also observed. They occurred at angles θ=2πℏgz/mc, where gz is the projection of reciprocal...

  5. Photonic single nonlinear-delay dynamical node for information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortín, Silvia; San-Martín, Daniel; Pesquera, Luis; Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2012-06-01

    An electro-optical system with a delay loop based on semiconductor lasers is investigated for information processing by performing numerical simulations. This system can replace a complex network of many nonlinear elements for the implementation of Reservoir Computing. We show that a single nonlinear-delay dynamical system has the basic properties to perform as reservoir: short-term memory and separation property. The computing performance of this system is evaluated for two prediction tasks: Lorenz chaotic time series and nonlinear auto-regressive moving average (NARMA) model. We sweep the parameters of the system to find the best performance. The results achieved for the Lorenz and the NARMA-10 tasks are comparable to those obtained by other machine learning methods.

  6. Development of new photon-counting detectors for single-molecule fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, X.; Colyer, R. A.; Scalia, G.; Ingargiola, A.; Lin, R.; Millaud, J. E.; Weiss, S.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; Cheng, A.; Levi, M.; Aharoni, D.; Arisaka, K.; Villa, F.; Guerrieri, F.; Panzeri, F.; Rech, I.; Gulinatti, A.; Zappa, F.; Ghioni, M.; Cova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Two optical configurations are commonly used in single-molecule fluorescence microscopy: point-like excitation and detection to study freely diffusing molecules, and wide field illumination and detection to study surface immobilized or slowly diffusing molecules. Both approaches have common features, but also differ in significant aspects. In particular, they use different detectors, which share some requirements but also have major technical differences. Currently, two types of detectors best fulfil the needs of each approach: single-photon-counting avalanche diodes (SPADs) for point-like detection, and electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) for wide field detection. However, there is room for improvements in both cases. The first configuration suffers from low throughput owing to the analysis of data from a single location. The second, on the other hand, is limited to relatively low frame rates and loses the benefit of single-photon-counting approaches. During the past few years, new developments in point-like and wide field detectors have started addressing some of these issues. Here, we describe our recent progresses towards increasing the throughput of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in solution using parallel arrays of SPADs. We also discuss our development of large area photon-counting cameras achieving subnanosecond resolution for fluorescence lifetime imaging applications at the single-molecule level. PMID:23267185

  7. Silicon photon-counting avalanche diodes for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, Xavier; Ingargiola, Antonino; Colyer, Ryan A.; Scalia, Giuseppe; Weiss, Shimon; Maccagnani, Piera; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Solution-based single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool with applications in cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics. The basic feature of this technique is to excite and collect light from a very small volume and work in a low concentration regime resulting in rare burst-like events corresponding to the transit of a single molecule. Detecting photon bursts is a challenging task: the small number of emitted photons in each burst calls for high detector sensitivity. Bursts are very brief, requiring detectors with fast response time and capable of sustaining high count rates. Finally, many bursts need to be accumulated to achieve proper statistical accuracy, resulting in long measurement time unless parallelization strategies are implemented to speed up data acquisition. In this paper we will show that silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) best meet the needs of single-molecule detection. We will review the key SPAD parameters and highlight the issues to be addressed in their design, fabrication and operation. After surveying the state-of-the-art SPAD technologies, we will describe our recent progress towards increasing the throughput of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in solution using parallel arrays of SPADs. The potential of this approach is illustrated with single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. PMID:25309114

  8. Single-photon superradiance and cooperative Lamb shift in an optoelectronic device (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    Superradiance is one of the many fascinating phenomena predicted by quantum electrodynamics that have first been experimentally demonstrated in atomic systems and more recently in condensed matter systems like quantum dots, superconducting q-bits, cyclotron transitions and plasma oscillations in quantum wells (QWs). It occurs when a dense collection of N identical two-level emitters are phased via the exchange of photons, giving rise to enhanced light-matter interaction, hence to a faster emission rate. Of great interest is the regime where the ensemble interacts with one photon only and therefore all of the atoms, but one, are in the ground state. In this case the quantum superposition of all possible configurations produces a symmetric state that decays radiatively with a rate N times larger than that of the individual oscillators. This phenomenon, called single photon superradiance, results from the exchange of real photons among the N emitters. Yet, to single photon superradiance is also associated another collective effect that renormalizes the emission frequency, known as cooperative Lamb shift. In this work, we show that single photon superradiance and cooperative Lamb shift can be engineered in a semiconductor device by coupling spatially separated plasma resonances arising from the collective motion of confined electrons in QWs. These resonances hold a giant dipole along the growth direction z and have no mutual Coulomb coupling. They thus behave as a collection of macro-atoms on different positions along the z axis. Our device is therefore a test bench to simulate the low excitation regime of quantum electrodynamics.

  9. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  10. Study of KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, M.; Uehara, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Adachi, I.; Ahn, J. K.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bansal, V.; Behera, P.; Berger, M.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Choudhury, S.; Cinabro, D.; Czank, T.; Dash, N.; Di Carlo, S.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Garg, R.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gelb, M.; Giri, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Guido, E.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hedges, M. T.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jaegle, I.; Jin, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Karyan, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kodyš, P.; Kotchetkov, D.; Križan, P.; Kroeger, R.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, I. S.; Lee, S. C.; Li, L. K.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lubej, M.; Luo, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matvienko, D.; Merola, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moon, H. K.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nanut, T.; Nath, K. J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Niiyama, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Ono, H.; Onuki, Y.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, H.; Paul, S.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Russo, G.; Sakai, Y.; Salehi, M.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seidl, R.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shimizu, N.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Strube, J. F.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takizawa, M.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tenchini, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wang, B.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Widmann, E.; Won, E.; Ye, H.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zakharov, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhukova, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    We report a measurement of the cross section for KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions, γ*γ →KS0KS0, for Q2 up to 30 GeV2 , where Q2 is the negative of the invariant mass squared of the tagged photon. The measurement covers the kinematic range 1.0 GeV partial decay widths of the χc 0 and χc 2 mesons are measured as a function of Q2 based on 10 candidate events in total.

  11. Photon-assisted tunneling in a Fe8 single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, L.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Thirion, C.; Barra, A.-L.; Pacchioni, M.; Mailly, D.; Barbara, B.

    2003-12-01

    The low-temperature spin dynamics of a Fe8 single-molecule magnet was studied under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation allowing us to establish clearly photon-assisted tunneling. This effect, while linear at low power, becomes highly nonlinear above a relatively low-power threshold. Heating due to phonon emission, spin-spin interactions, and coherent emission/absorption of photons might lead to the observed nonlinearity. These results are of importance if such systems are to be used as quantum computers.

  12. Laser generation in opal-like single-crystal and heterostructure photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchyanov, A. S.; Plekhanov, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the laser generation of a 6Zh rhodamine in artificial opals representing single-crystal and heterostructure films. The spectral and angular properties of emission and the threshold characteristics of generation are investigated. In the case where the 6Zh rhodamine was in a bulk opal, the so-called random laser generation was observed. In contrast to this, the laser generation caused by a distributed feedback inside the structure of the photonic bandgap was observed in photonic-crystal opal films.

  13. Fast measurement of luminosity at LEP by detecting the single bremsstrahlung photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1991-01-01

    Luminosity and beam angular divergence have been measured at LEP with a fast monitor based on the single bremsstrahlung process e + e - → e + e - γ. The photons emitted at the interaction point 1 are detected by an electromagnetic calorimeter: both the photon energy and the impact point are measured. The beam angular divergence and the luminosity are determined in few minutes with a statistical error of 1%. With the present experimental layout the systematic error is of few percent; it would be reduced by performing the measurement on an experimental interaction point. (orig.)

  14. Strong coupling of a single electron in silicon to a microwave photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, X.; Cady, J. V.; Zajac, D. M.; Deelman, P. W.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon is vital to the computing industry because of the high quality of its native oxide and well-established doping technologies. Isotopic purification has enabled quantum coherence times on the order of seconds, thereby placing silicon at the forefront of efforts to create a solid-state quantum processor. We demonstrate strong coupling of a single electron in a silicon double quantum dot to the photonic field of a microwave cavity, as shown by the observation of vacuum Rabi splitting. Strong coupling of a quantum dot electron to a cavity photon would allow for long-range qubit coupling and the long-range entanglement of electrons in semiconductor quantum dots.

  15. Highly chirped single-bandpass microwave photonic filter with reconfiguration capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2011-02-28

    We propose a novel photonic structure to implement a chirped single-bandpass microwave photonic filter based on the amplitude modulation of a broadband optical signal transmitted by a non-linear dispersive element and an interferometric system prior to balanced photodetection. A full reconfigurability of the filter is achieved since amplitude and phase responses can be independently controlled. We have experimentally demonstrated chirp values up to tens of ns/GHz, which is, as far as we know, one order of magnitude better than others achieved by electrical approaches and furthermore, without restrictions in terms of frequency tuning since a frequency operation range up to 40 GHz has been experimentally demonstrated.

  16. Hybrid single quantum well InP/Si nanobeam lasers for silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegadolli, William S; Kim, Se-Heon; Postigo, Pablo Aitor; Scherer, Axel

    2013-11-15

    We report on a hybrid InP/Si photonic crystal nanobeam laser emitting at 1578 nm with a low threshold power of ~14.7 μW. Laser gain is provided from a single InAsP quantum well embedded in a 155 nm InP layer bonded on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer. This miniaturized nanolaser, with an extremely small modal volume of 0.375(λ/n)(3), is a promising and efficient light source for silicon photonics.

  17. Integrated single- and two-photon light sheet microscopy using accelerating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piksarv, Peeter; Marti, Dominik; Le, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first light sheet microscope using propagation invariant, accelerating Airy beams that operates both in single- and two-photon modes. The use of the Airy beam permits us to develop an ultra compact, high resolution light sheet system without beam scanning. In two-photon mode......, an increase in the field of view over the use of a standard Gaussian beam by a factor of six is demonstrated. This implementation for light sheet microscopy opens up new possibilities across a wide range of biomedical applications, especially for the study of neuronal processes....

  18. Raman spectroscopy and single-photon source in an ion-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves de Barros, H.

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores the interaction between a single trapped 40Ca+ ion and the electromagnetic field inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The coupling takes place via the use of a vacuum stimulated Raman transition, which transfers atomic population from the S1/2 to the D3/2 manifolds of the calcium ion producing a photon in the cavity. This photon is measured and properties of the system are evaluated. Spectroscopy measurements of the Raman transitions are performed and all possible transitions are identified for different polarizations of both drive laser and cavity fields. The system is also used to deterministically produce single photons. Simulation curves quantitatively match the experimental results within calibration error bars. The single-photon creation efficiency obtained in this work overcomes previous ion-cavity setups and is comparable to state-of-the-art systems composed of a neutral atom and a cavity operating in the strong coupling regime. (author)

  19. Ultrathin NbN film superconducting single-photon detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, K; Korneev, A; Minaeva, O; Divochiy, A; Tarkhov, M; Ryabchun, S; Seleznev, V; Kaurova, N; Voronov, B; Gol'tsman, G; Polonsky, S

    2007-01-01

    We report on the fabrication process of the 2 x 2 superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) array. The SSPD array is made from ultrathin NbN film and is operated at liquid helium temperatures. Each detector is a nanowire-based structure patterned by electron beam lithography process. The advances in fabrication technology allowed us to produce highly uniform strips and preserve superconducting properties of the unpatterned film. SSPD exhibit up to 30% quantum efficiency in near infrared and up to 1% at 5-μm wavelength. Due to 120 MHz counting rate and 18 ps jitter, the time-domain multiplexing read-out is proposed for large scale SSPD arrays. Single-pixel SSPD has already found a practical application in non-invasive testing of semiconductor very-large scale integrated circuits. The SSPD significantly outperformed traditional single-photon counting avalanche diodes

  20. 0.4 THz Photonic-Wireless Link With 106 Gb/s Single Channel Bitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2018-01-01

    To accommodate the demand of exponentially increased global wireless data traffic, the prospective data rates for wireless communication in the market place will soon reach 100 Gb/s and beyond. In the lab environment, wireless transmission throughput has been elevated to the level of over 100 Gb....../s attributed to the development of photonic-assisted millimeter wave and terahertz (THz) technologies. However, most of recent demonstrations with over 100 Gb/s data rates are based on spatial or frequency division multiplexing techniques, resulting in increased system's complexity and energy consumption. Here......, we experimentally demonstrate a single channel 0.4 THz photonic-wireless link achieving a net data rate of beyond 100 Gb/s by using a single pair of THz emitter and receiver, without employing any spatial/frequency division multiplexing techniques. The high throughput up to 106 Gb/s within a single...