WorldWideScience

Sample records for pseudo-first order rate

  1. Type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition induced electrocaloric effect in lead-free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Guorui; Liu, Xing; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Li, Shandong; Li, Peng; Yang, Ke; Zeng, Huarong; Yan, Haixue

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the electrocaloric effect (ECE) of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (BNT-0.06BT) ceramic has been directly measured using a home-made adiabatic calorimeter. The maximum adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) approaches 0.86 K under an electric field of 5 kV/mm at 110 °C, which provides experimental evidence for optimizing the ECE near the type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition (PFOPT). Most importantly, a considerable ΔT value can be maintained over a wide temperature range well above the temperature of the PFOPT under a high electric field. In addition, ΔT is closely related to the structural transition and electric field strength. This work provides a guideline to investigate the high ECE in BNT-based ferroelectric ceramics for applications in cooling technologies.

  2. Pseudo first ordered adsorption of noxious textile dyes by low-temperature synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.; Bhowmick, P.; Pahari, D.; Santra, S.; Sarkar, S.; Das, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2017-03-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) were synthesized by solid state reaction. The as prepared a-CNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. As-synthesized a-CNTs were used for, the first time, for removing different organic dyes from water. The dyes mainly include Rhodamine B and Methyl Orange and systematic batch mode studies of a-CNTs assisted adsorption have been executed in detail. The removing efficiency of a-CNTs has also been investigated for various sorption parameters like contact time, dosage, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time etc. It is seen that a-CNTs can be material of potential for removal of dyes. In case of Rhodamine B, the maximum time for removal was 45 min whereas for Methyl orange rapid removal was plausible in about 30 min even in ambient condition. The experimental data have been well correlated with classical Langmuir-Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models.

  3. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  4. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...

  5. 15 CFR 700.12 - Elements of a rated order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supplier and not as of the date of the original procurement document; (c) The written signature on a manually placed order, or the digital signature or name on an electronically placed order, of an individual authorized to sign rated orders for the person placing the order. The signature or use of the name certifies...

  6. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    . The extensions consider general continuous review policies with backordering and some related service measures. Demand is assumed to be generated by a compound renewal process. An important generalization concerns the class of customer order size distributions with increasing failure rate for which the volume......This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...

  7. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  8. Predictive Rate-Distortion for Infinite-Order Markov Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-06-01

    Predictive rate-distortion analysis suffers from the curse of dimensionality: clustering arbitrarily long pasts to retain information about arbitrarily long futures requires resources that typically grow exponentially with length. The challenge is compounded for infinite-order Markov processes, since conditioning on finite sequences cannot capture all of their past dependencies. Spectral arguments confirm a popular intuition: algorithms that cluster finite-length sequences fail dramatically when the underlying process has long-range temporal correlations and can fail even for processes generated by finite-memory hidden Markov models. We circumvent the curse of dimensionality in rate-distortion analysis of finite- and infinite-order processes by casting predictive rate-distortion objective functions in terms of the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. Examples demonstrate that the resulting algorithms yield substantial improvements.

  9. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  10. 15 CFR 700.18 - Limitations on placing rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... executive order, or Interagency Memoranda of Understanding to other agencies. Unless otherwise agreed to by... Health and Human Services); (iv) All forms of civil transportation (Department of Transportation); (v) Water resources (Department of Defense/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers); and (vi) Communications services...

  11. Desenvolvimento de metodologia de rating baseada no modelo ordered probit

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Bruno Flora

    2006-01-01

    Nos últimos anos o mercado de crédito brasileiro apresentou grande crescimento em termos de volume e modalidade de operações de crédito. Além disso, observou-se também o aumento da participação dos bancos nesse setor, principais intermediários financeiros da economia. Com isso, em um mercado em desenvolvimento, torna-se cada vez mais importante a correta avaliação e administração do risco financeiro envolvido nas operações: o risco de crédito. Nesse contexto, a classificação de rating surge c...

  12. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate... Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate from $12 to $18 per ton (an increase of $0.003 per pound). The Order is administered by the U.S. Highbush Blueberry...

  13. Gain-Loss versus Reinforcement-Affect Ordering of Student Rating of Teaching: Effect of Rating Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Shelly J. C.; Leventhal, Les

    1984-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of student rating instructions on primacy and recency effects when rank ordering four lecture quality sequences. Effects were measured on final instructor ratings, liking for the instructor, student affect, and student self-esteem. (Author/BS)

  14. Calculation and manipulation of the chirp rates of high-order harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, M.; Mauritsson, Johan; L'Huillier, Anne; Schafer, KJ; Gaarde, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the linear chirp rates of high-order harmonics in argon, generated by intense, 810 nm laser pulses, and explore the dependence of the chirp rate on harmonic order, driving laser intensity, and pulse duration. By using a time-frequency representation of the harmonic fields we can identify several different linear chirp contributions. to the plateau harmonics. Our results, which are based on numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation, are in good agreement wit...

  15. 76 FR 72227 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... the rule, a series of conflicts of interest arising from the business of determining credit ratings.\\5... application of Rule 17g-5(a)(3).\\28\\ One comment letter requested that the Order be made permanent, citing many of the same reasons set forth in prior comment letters.\\29\\ \\22\\ See Order, supra note 2, at 28828...

  16. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152 AGENCY.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service... [email protected] , or Mr. Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western...

  17. A Randomized Trial of Displaying Paid Price Information on Imaging Study and Procedure Ordering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Alyna T; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Hatfield, Laura A; Koplan, Kate E; Petty, Carter R; Sinaiko, Anna D; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sequist, Thomas D

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated how price transparency lowers the test-ordering rates of trainees in hospitals, and physician-targeted price transparency efforts have been viewed as a promising cost-controlling strategy. To examine the effect of displaying paid-price information on test-ordering rates for common imaging studies and procedures within an accountable care organization (ACO). Block randomized controlled trial for 1 year. A total of 1205 fully licensed clinicians (728 primary care, 477 specialists). Starting January 2014, clinicians in the Control arm received no price display; those in the intervention arms received Single or Paired Internal/External Median Prices in the test-ordering screen of their electronic health record. Internal prices were the amounts paid by insurers for the ACO's services; external paid prices were the amounts paid by insurers for the same services when delivered by unaffiliated providers. Ordering rates (orders per 100 face-to-face encounters with adult patients): overall, designated to be completed internally within the ACO, considered "inappropriate" (e.g., MRI for simple headache), and thought to be "appropriate" (e.g., screening colonoscopy). We found no significant difference in overall ordering rates across the Control, Single Median Price, or Paired Internal/External Median Prices study arms. For every 100 encounters, clinicians in the Control arm ordered 15.0 (SD 31.1) tests, those in the Single Median Price arm ordered 15.0 (SD 16.2) tests, and those in the Paired Prices arms ordered 15.7 (SD 20.5) tests (one-way ANOVA p-value 0.88). There was no difference in ordering rates for tests designated to be completed internally or considered to be inappropriate or appropriate. Displaying paid-price information did not alter how frequently primary care and specialist clinicians ordered imaging studies and procedures within an ACO. Those with a particular interest in removing waste from the health care system may want to

  18. Determination of Rate Constants for Ouabain Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase: An Undergraduate Biological Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Eri; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate biological chemistry laboratory experiment which provides students with an example of pseudo-first-order kinetics with the cardiac glycoside inhibition of mammalism sodium and potassium transport. (SL)

  19. Mass Customization Production Planning System by Advance Demand Information Based on Unfulfilled-order-rate II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kadomoto, Kiyotaka; Okuhara, Koji

    In the previous paper, we proposed Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) based on unfulfilled-order-rate by using Advance Demand Information which is called ‘Naiji System’ as an unique corporation between a maker and suppliers in Japan, and 3 indicators to estimate the unfulfilled-order-rate. Applying these indicators to the model, we investigated the behavior of unfulfilled-order-rate at the final period in the planning horizon. In this paper, we propose a new model for purchasing, and investigate the unfulfilled-order-rate at each period and the impact to the total inventory. We find that the total inventories become 5.9%-20.0% decreases by using SOn rather than by using SOn(0). And we enhance a base-stock policy to a new one with multi-period. We prove that the MCPS model for purchasing by using SOn(0) is equivalent to the base-stock policy with multi-period under the specified condition. Under this condition, the proposed model by using SOn decreases inventories more than the base-stock policy with multi-period.

  20. Customer Order Flow, Intermediaries, and Discovery of the Equilibrium Risk-Free Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, A.J.; Sarkar, A.; van der Wel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Macro announcements change the equilibrium risk-free rate. We find that Treasury prices reflect part of the impact instantaneously, but intermediaries rely on their customer order flow after the announcement to discover the full impact. This customer flow informativeness is strongest when analyst

  1. 78 FR 58303 - Parker-Davis Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ..., Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Parker-Davis Project--Rate Order No. WAPA-162 AGENCY: Western Area Power...

  2. 78 FR 25515 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... and national securities association to pay transaction fees to the Commission.\\1\\ Specifically... assessments on security futures transactions) equal to the regular appropriation to the Commission for the...

  3. High-order harmonic generation using a high-repetition-rate turnkey laser

    CERN Document Server

    Lorek, Eleonora; Heyl, Christoph Michael; Carlström, Stefanos; Paleček, David; Zigmantas, Donatas; Mauritsson, Johan

    2014-01-01

    We generate high-order harmonics at high pulse repetition rates using a turnkey laser. High-order harmonics at 400 kHz are observed when argon is used as target gas. In neon we achieve generation of photons with energies exceeding 90 eV ($\\sim$13 nm) at 20 kHz. We measure a photon flux of 4.4$\\cdot10^{10}$ photons per second per harmonic in argon at 100 kHz. Many experiments employing high-order harmonics would benefit from higher repetition rates, and the user-friendly operation opens up for applications of coherent extreme ultra-violet pulses in new research areas.

  4. Pangenome Analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei: Genome Evolution Preserves Gene Order despite High Recombination Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanu M Spring-Pearson

    Full Text Available The pangenomic diversity in Burkholderia pseudomallei is high, with approximately 5.8% of the genome consisting of genomic islands. Genomic islands are known hotspots for recombination driven primarily by site-specific recombination associated with tRNAs. However, recombination rates in other portions of the genome are also high, a feature we expected to disrupt gene order. We analyzed the pangenome of 37 isolates of B. pseudomallei and demonstrate that the pangenome is 'open', with approximately 136 new genes identified with each new genome sequenced, and that the global core genome consists of 4568±16 homologs. Genes associated with metabolism were statistically overrepresented in the core genome, and genes associated with mobile elements, disease, and motility were primarily associated with accessory portions of the pangenome. The frequency distribution of genes present in between 1 and 37 of the genomes analyzed matches well with a model of genome evolution in which 96% of the genome has very low recombination rates but 4% of the genome recombines readily. Using homologous genes among pairs of genomes, we found that gene order was highly conserved among strains, despite the high recombination rates previously observed. High rates of gene transfer and recombination are incompatible with retaining gene order unless these processes are either highly localized to specific sites within the genome, or are characterized by symmetrical gene gain and loss. Our results demonstrate that both processes occur: localized recombination introduces many new genes at relatively few sites, and recombination throughout the genome generates the novel multi-locus sequence types previously observed while preserving gene order.

  5. DETERMINANTS OF SOVEREIGN RATING: FACTOR BASED ORDERED PROBIT MODELS FOR PANEL DATA ANALYSIS MODELING FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Teker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compose a new rating methodology and provide credit notches to 23 countries which of 13 are developed and 10 are emerging. There are various literature that explains the determinants of credit ratings. Following the literature, we select 11 variables for our model which of 5 are eliminated by the factor analysis. We use specific dummies to investigate the structural breaks in time and cross section such as pre crises, post crises, BRIC membership, EU membership, OPEC membership, shipbuilder country and platinum reserved country. Then we run an ordered probit model and give credit notches to the countries. We use FITCH ratings as benchmark. Thus, at the end we compare the notches of FITCH with the ones we derive out of our estimated model.

  6. Order-of-Magnitude Estimate of Fast Neutron Recoil Rates in Proposed Neutrino Detector at SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Yuri Efremenko (UT-K) and Kate Scholberg (Duke) indicated, during discussions on 12 January 2006 with the SNS Neutronics Team, interest in a new type of neutrino detector to be placed within the proposed neutrino bunker at SNS, near beam-line 18, against the RTBT. The successful operation of this detector and its associated experiments would require fast-neutron recoil rates of approximately one event per day of operation or less. To this end, the author has attempted the following order-of-magnitude estimate of this recoil rate in order to judge whether or not a full calculation effort is needed or justified. For the purposes of this estimate, the author considers a one-dimensional slab geometry, in which fast and high-energy neutrons making up the general background in the target building are incident upon one side of an irbon slab. This iron slab represents the neutrino bunker walls. If we assume that a significant fraction of the dose rate throughout the target building is due to fast or high-energy neutrons, we can estimate the flux of such neutrons based upon existing shielding calculations performed for radiation protection purposes. In general, the dose rates within the target building are controlled to be less than 0.25 mrem per hour. A variety of calculations have indicated that these dose rates have significant fast and high-energy neutron components. Thus they can estimate the fast neutron flux incident on the neutrino bunker, and thereby the fast neutron flux inside that bunker. Finally, they can estimate the neutron recoil rate within a nominal detector volume. Such an estimate is outlined in Table 1.

  7. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.

    2015-05-29

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e. redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e. less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR.

  8. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J; Wing, A D; Alidina, M; Drewes, J E

    2015-08-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e., redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e., less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ordered rate constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic solids without memory in Lagrangian description using Gibbs potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Reddy, J. N.; Nunez, D.

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents rate constitutive theories for finite deformation of homogeneous, isotropic, compressible, and incompressible thermoviscoelastic solids without memory in Lagrangian description derived using the second law of thermodynamics expressed in terms of Gibbs potential Ψ. To ensure thermodynamic equilibrium during evolution, the rate constitutive theories must be derived using entropy inequality [as other three conservation and balance laws are do not provide a mechanism for deriving constitutive theories for the deforming matter (Surana in Advanced mechanics of continuua. in preparation, 2014)]. The two forms of the entropy inequality in Ψ derived using conjugate pairs , : first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of the Jacobian of deformation and , ; second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of Green's strain tensor are precisely equivalent as the conjugate pairs , and , are transformable from each other. In the present work, we use , as conjugate pair. Two possible choices of dependent variables in the constitutive theories: Ψ, η, , and Ψ, η, , (in which η is entropy density and is heat vector) are explored based on conservation and balance laws. It is shown that the choice of Ψ, η, , is essential when the entropy inequality is expressed in terms of Ψ. The arguments of these dependent variables are decided based on desired physics. Viscoelastic behavior requires considerations of at least and (or ) in the constitutive theories. We generalize and consider strain rates ; i = 0, 1, …, n-1 as arguments of the dependent variables in the derivations of the ordered rate theories of up to orders n. At the onset, , ; i = 0, 1, …, n-1, θ and are considered as arguments of Ψ, η, and . When is substituted in the entropy inequality, the resulting conditions eliminate η as a dependent variable, reduce arguments of some of the dependent variables in the constitutive theory etc. but do not provide a mechanism to

  10. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  11. Application of long-range order to predict unfolding rates of two-state proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harihar, B; Selvaraj, S

    2011-03-01

    Predicting the experimental unfolding rates of two-state proteins and models describing the unfolding rates of these proteins is quite limited because of the complexity present in the unfolding mechanism and the lack of experimental unfolding data compared with folding data. In this work, 25 two-state proteins characterized by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616) using a consensus set of experimental conditions were taken, and the parameter long-range order (LRO) derived from their three-dimensional structures were related with their experimental unfolding rates ln(k(u)). From the total data set of 30 proteins used by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616), five slow-unfolding proteins with very low unfolding rates were considered to be outliers and were not included in our data set. Except all beta structural class, LRO of both the all-alpha and mixed-class proteins showed a strong inverse correlation of r = -0.99 and -0.88, respectively, with experimental ln(k(u)). LRO shows a correlation of -0.62 with experimental ln(k(u)) for all-beta proteins. For predicting the unfolding rates, a simple statistical method has been used and linear regression equations were developed for individual structural classes of proteins using LRO, and the results obtained showed a better agreement with experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Regularized learning of linear ordered-statistic constant false alarm rate filters (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Cummings, Ian; Botts, Jonathan; Summers, Jason E.

    2017-05-01

    The linear ordered statistic (LOS) is a parameterized ordered statistic (OS) that is a weighted average of a rank-ordered sample. LOS operators are useful generalizations of aggregation as they can represent any linear aggregation, from minimum to maximum, including conventional aggregations, such as mean and median. In the fuzzy logic field, these aggregations are called ordered weighted averages (OWAs). Here, we present a method for learning LOS operators from training data, viz., data for which you know the output of the desired LOS. We then extend the learning process with regularization, such that a lower complexity or sparse LOS can be learned. Hence, we discuss what 'lower complexity' means in this context and how to represent that in the optimization procedure. Finally, we apply our learning methods to the well-known constant-false-alarm-rate (CFAR) detection problem, specifically for the case of background levels modeled by long-tailed distributions, such as the K-distribution. These backgrounds arise in several pertinent imaging problems, including the modeling of clutter in synthetic aperture radar and sonar (SAR and SAS) and in wireless communications.

  13. Build to order and entry/exit strategies under exchange rate uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Tsai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under uncertainty of exchange rate, we extend the build to order production model of Lin et al. (2002 by considering the export-oriented manufacturer to make decisions to switch production location freely between domestic and foreign ones. The export-oriented manufacturer is risk neutral and has rational expectations. When we transfer the production location from domestic (foreign to foreign (domestic, and the production location transferring cost and the drift of real exchange rate are both equal to zero, then the optimal entry and exit threshold value of Cobb-Douglas production function are equal, no matter whether we use real options or net present value method. Thus export-oriented manufacturer can make decisions at the optimal transfer threshold value for transferable locations wherever the production locations are. It provides the export-oriented manufacturer with another way of thinking.

  14. 76 FR 8730 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... superseded.\\1\\ The new rate schedule for GI Service, under Rate Schedule DSW-GI1, would go into effect and... comparison of rates: Existing rate schedule DSW- Class of service SD2 Proposed rate schedule DSW-SD3I... no change for WALC. See the following table for the comparison of rates: Existing rate schedule Class...

  15. On the collisionless magnetic reconnection rate of order 0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, Michael; Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Li, Hui; Cassak, Paul; Shay, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the process whereby a change in topology of the magnetic field allows for a rapid release of magnetic energy into thermal and kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The magnitude of the reconnection electric field parallel to the X-line (where magnetic field lines break) not only determines the rate that reconnection proceeds, but can also be crucial for efficiently accelerating highly energetic super-thermal particles. Observations and numerical simulations reveal that essentially collisionless magnetic reconnection of a Harris-type current sheet in the steady state tends to proceed with a normalized reconnection rate of order 0.1, independent of dissipation mechanism or physical model. However, the explanation of this value has remained unclear for decades. We propose a model that provides insight to this long standing problem. The prediction from this model compares favorably to particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in both the non-relativistic and extremely relativistic limits. These results may be important for applications to solar, magnetospheric, fusion, and astrophysical settings.

  16. Design of experiments for zeroth and first-order reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martín-Martín, Raúl; Rodríguez-Aragón, Licesio J

    2014-09-01

    This work presents optimum designs for reaction rates experiments. In these experiments, time at which observations are to be made and temperatures at which reactions are to be run need to be designed. Observations are performed along time under isothermal conditions. Each experiment needs a fixed temperature and so the reaction can be measured at the designed times. For these observations under isothermal conditions over the same reaction a correlation structure has been considered. D-optimum designs are the aim of our work for zeroth and first-order reaction rates. Temperatures for the isothermal experiments and observation times, to obtain the most accurate estimates of the unknown parameters, are provided in these designs. D-optimum designs for a single observation in each isothermal experiment or for several correlated observations have been obtained. Robustness of the optimum designs for ranges of the correlation parameter and comparisons of the information gathered by different designs are also shown. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Computerised Provider Order Entry Adoption Rates Favourably Impact Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Schreiber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Research regarding return on investment for electronic health records (EHRs is sparse. Objective To extend previously established research and examine rigorously whether increasing the adoption of computer-based provider/prescriber order entry (CPOE leads to a decrease in length of stay (LOS, and to demonstrate that the two are inversely and bidirectionally proportional even while other efforts to decrease LOS are in place. Method The study assessed CPOE, LOS and case mix index (CMI data in a community hospital in the United States, using a mature and nearly fully deployed vendor product EHR. CPOE rates and LOS over 7 years were determined on a per-patient, per-visit and per-discipline basis and compared with concomitant CMI data. Results An inverse relationship of CPOE to LOS was correlated for 13 disciplines out of 19, and organisation wide for all disciplines combined during the first 5 years of study. During the subsequent 2 years, both CPOE and LOS plateaued, except in eight disciplines where CPOE rates at first declined and LOS concurrently rose slightly, and then returned to the baseline plateau levels. CMI increased during the entire period of evaluation. An inflection point at approximately 60% CPOE adoption predicted the greatest improvement in lowering of LOS. Conclusions Rising and falling rates of CPOE correlated with reductions and rises in LOS, respectively. CPOE appeared statistically to be an independent factor in affecting LOS, over and above other efforts to shorten LOS, thus contributing to lower costs and improved efficiency outcomes as measured by LOS, even as CMI rises.

  18. [Improving the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble resveratrol by the ordered mesoporous silica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Gui-Lan; Chen, Bao; Wang, Zhou-Hua; Wu, Han; Huang, Xin-Tian; Wu, Lin-Na; Wu, Chuan-Bin

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize the ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) as drug carrier to improve release property of insoluble drug and investigate the dissolution profile of insoluble drug from the porous carrier. The OMS was obtained by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide as the template and resveratrol was selected as the model drug. The resveratrol-loaded OMS (Res-OMS) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro drug release behavior was also investigated. It was found that the synthesized OMS showed a large surface area, a narrow pore size distribution and an important mesoporosity associated to hexagonally organized channels. Compared with physical mixture and crystalline powder, resveratrol was in amorphous or molecular form after loading into OMS. The release rate ofresveratrol from drug-loaded OMS was significantly increased suggesting the great potential application of OMS for the formulation of poorly soluble drugs.

  19. In situ and laboratory determined first-order degradation rate constants of specific organic compounds in an aerobic aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    , tetrachloroethene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenol, 4,6-o-dichlorocresol, and o- and p-nitrophenol in an aerobic aquifer, All aromatic hydrocarbons were degraded in ISM and LBM experiments. The phenolic hydrocarbons were ail degraded in ISM experiments, but some failed to degrade in LBM experiments...... experiments. First-order degradation rate constants for aromatic and phenolic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.01 and 0.9 day(-1). Local variations in first-order degradation rates and variations between rate constants determined by ISM and LBM were generally with in a factor of 5, but no systematic differences...

  20. 15 CFR 700.13 - Acceptance and rejection of rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL... and offer to accept the order on the basis of that date. Scheduling conflicts with previously accepted...

  1. Dynamics of a Fractional Order HIV Infection Model with Specific Functional Response and Cure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Boukhouima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a fractional order model in this paper to describe the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In the model, the infection transmission process is modeled by a specific functional response. First, we show that the model is mathematically and biologically well posed. Second, the local and global stabilities of the equilibria are investigated. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented in order to illustrate our theoretical results.

  2. 78 FR 19700 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... transformer, transmission circuit, or other equipment, expressed in kilowatts (kW). Customer: An entity with a.... Kilovolt (kV): Electrical unit of measure of potential difference that equals 1,000 volts. Kilowatt (kW... explained the proposed rates and potential changes to the proposed rates, answered questions, and provided...

  3. 75 FR 28825 - Order Granting Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ...)(3) and European Union (``EU'') data protection and bank secrecy law and EU rating regulation, in....17g-5(b)(9). \\11\\ 17 CFR 240.17g-5(a)(3). Maintain on a password-protected Internet Web site a list of... the issuer, the date the rating process was initiated, and the Internet Web site address where the...

  4. When learning order affects sensitivity to base rates: challenges for theories of causal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Waldmann, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we investigated whether two procedures of acquiring knowledge about the same causal structure, predictive learning (from causes to effects) versus diagnostic learning (from effects to causes), would lead to different base-rate use in diagnostic judgments. Results showed that learners are capable of incorporating base-rate information in their judgments regardless of the direction in which the causal structure is learned. However, this only holds true for relatively simple scenarios. When complexity was increased, base rates were only used after diagnostic learning, but were largely neglected after predictive learning. It could be shown that this asymmetry is not due to a failure of encoding base rates in predictive learning because participants in all conditions were fairly good at reporting them. The findings present challenges for all theories of causal learning.

  5. Next-to-next-leading order correction to 3-jet rate and event-shape ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupling constant, , was measured by two different methods: first by employing the three-jet observables. Combining all the data, the value of as at next-to-next leading order (NNLO) was determined to be 0.117 ± 0.004(hard) ± 0.006(theo). Secondly, from the event-shape distributions, the strong coupling constant, ...

  6. Molecular dynamics calculations of melting rates with a novel order parameter. The diatomic Pa3 crystal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tepper, H.L.; Scheinhardt-Engels, S.M.; Briels, Willem J.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented to design order parameters that can be used as discriminator in two-phase crystal-liquid molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed methodology is an extension to molecular crystal structures of a previously introduced discriminator for the atomic fcc environment [Phys. Rev.

  7. Next-to-next-leading order correction to 3-jet rate and event-shape ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupling constant, αs, was measured by two different methods: first by employing the three-jet observables. Combining all the data, the value of as at next-to-next leading order (NNLO) was determined to be 0.117 ± 0.004(hard) ± 0.006(theo). Secondly, from the event-shape distributions, the strong coupling constant, αs ...

  8. Decreased rates of hypoglycemia following implementation of a comprehensive computerized insulin order set and titration algorithm in the inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Gregory, Naina; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Gerber, Linda M; Tang, Chin; Brillon, David

    2016-12-01

    More than one-third of hospitalized patients have hyperglycemia. Despite evidence that improving glycemic control leads to better outcomes, achieving recognized targets remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a computerized insulin order set and titration algorithm on rates of hypoglycemia and overall inpatient glycemic control. A prospective observational study evaluating the impact of a glycemic order set and titration algorithm in an academic medical center in non-critical care medical and surgical inpatients. The initial intervention was hospital-wide implementation of a comprehensive insulin order set. The secondary intervention was initiation of an insulin titration algorithm in two pilot medicine inpatient units. Point of care testing blood glucose reports were analyzed. These reports included rates of hypoglycemia (BG 200 mg/dL in phase 1, BG > 180 mg/dL in phase 2). In the first phase of the study, implementation of the insulin order set was associated with decreased rates of hypoglycemia (1.92% vs 1.61%; p set and titration algorithm significantly decreased rates of hypoglycemia. This significant reduction in hypoglycemia was associated with increased rates of hyperglycemia. Hardwiring the algorithm into the electronic medical record may foster adoption.

  9. 78 FR 35022 - Parker-Davis Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    .... Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O... copying at the Desert Southwest Customer Service Regional Office, Western Area Power Administration, 615...

  10. 77 FR 47065 - Central Arizona Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-158

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Western's decision process. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert... 85005-6457, email [email protected] . Written comments may also be faxed to (602) 605-2490, attention: Jack... updated financial and transmission reservation data. Western is proposing no change at this time to the...

  11. 77 FR 3818 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... change in ADS follows a random walk, calculating the expected monthly percentage growth rate for the full... = 0.126, respectively. 4. Assume that the natural logarithm of ADS follows a random walk, so that s... pursuant to amendments made to Section 31 of Exchange Act by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  12. Why does steady-state magnetic reconnection have a maximum local rate of order 0.1?

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, F; Daughton, W; Li, H; Cassak, P A; Shay, M A

    2016-01-01

    Simulations suggest collisionless steady-state magnetic reconnection of Harris-type current sheets proceeds with a rate of order 0.1, independent of dissipation mechanism. We argue this long-standing puzzle is a result of constraints at the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scale. We perform a scaling analysis of the reconnection rate as a function of the opening angle made by the upstream magnetic fields, finding a maximum reconnection rate close to 0.2. The predictions compare favorably to particle-in-cell simulations of relativistic electron-positron and non-relativistic electron-proton reconnection. The fact that simulated reconnection rates are close to the predicted maximum suggests reconnection proceeds near the most efficient state allowed at the MHD-scale. The rate near the maximum is relatively insensitive to the opening angle, potentially explaining why reconnection has a similar fast rate in differing models.

  13. A technique for predicting mode I energy release rates using a first-order shear deformable plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B. D.; Schapery, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Utilizing a first order shear deformable plate theory, a technique is described for predicting the distribution of the energy release rate along a curved or straight mode I planar crack in the plane of a plate (such as a delamination crack). Accuracy of the technique is assessed by comparing the distributions of energy release rate with those predicted by two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses of double cantilever beam specimens with straight crack fronts.

  14. Are rates of pathology test ordering higher in general practices co-located with pathology collection centres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Britt, Helena C; Pan, Ying; Fahridin, Salma; Bayram, Clare F; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2010-07-19

    To determine whether rates of pathology test ordering by general practitioners in general practices co-located with pathology collection centres (PCCs) are higher than those of GPs in practices located apart from PCCs. We identified all practices in the Melbourne and Sydney metropolitan areas that were co-located with PCCs (same or immediately adjacent suite) and the date co-location was established. This information was merged with the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health database to identify samples of GP-patient encounters in co-located practices (n = 31,700) and practices located apart from the nearest PCC (n = 289,700) over the period 2000-2009. Using Poisson regression analysis and logistic regression analysis, we compared GP test-ordering rates across the two types of practices, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Numbers of tests ordered per encounter; likelihood of ordering one or more tests per encounter. In unadjusted analyses, GPs in co-located practices ordered more pathology tests than GPs in practices located apart from PCCs (40.3 v 37.0 tests per 100 encounters, P = 0.01) and had a higher likelihood of ordering one or more tests (16.8% v 15.5% of encounters, P commercial influences and relationships exist in the pathology sector, GPs' test-ordering behaviour may be unaffected.

  15. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rates for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should...

  16. The Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity Problem with a Finite Production Rate and Backorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj-Mikael Björk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The track of developing Economic Order Quantity (EOQ models with uncertainties described as fuzzy numbers has been very lucrative. In this paper, a fuzzy Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model is developed to address a specific problem in a theoretical setting. Not only is the production time finite, but also backorders are allowed. The uncertainties, in the industrial context, come from the fact that the production availability is uncertain as well as the demand. These uncertainties will be handled with fuzzy numbers and the analytical solution to the optimization problem will be obtained. A theoretical example from the process industry is also given to illustrate the new model.

  17. EOQ Model for Deteriorating Items with exponential time dependent Demand Rate under inflation when Supplier Credit Linked to Order Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In paper (2004 Chang studied an inventory model under a situation in which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay of payments if the purchaser orders a large quantity. Tripathi (2011 also studied an inventory model with time dependent demand rate under which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay in payments. This paper is motivated by Chang (2004 and Tripathi (2011 paper extending their model for exponential time dependent demand rate. This study develops an inventory model under which the vendor provides the purchaser with a credit period; if the purchaser orders large quantity. In this chapter, demand rate is taken as exponential time dependent. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate has been discussed. We establish an inventory model for deteriorating items if the order quantity is greater than or equal to a predetermined quantity. We then obtain optimal solution for finding optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and optimal total relevant cost. Numerical examples are given for all different cases. Sensitivity of the variation of different parameters on the optimal solution is also discussed. Mathematica 7 software is used for finding numerical examples.

  18. Signal processing of MEMS gyroscope arrays to improve accuracy using a 1st order Markov for rate signal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengyu; Xue, Liang; Chang, Honglong; Yuan, Guangmin; Yuan, Weizheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a signal processing technique to improve angular rate accuracy of the gyroscope by combining the outputs of an array of MEMS gyroscope. A mathematical model for the accuracy improvement was described and a Kalman filter (KF) was designed to obtain optimal rate estimates. Especially, the rate signal was modeled by a first-order Markov process instead of a random walk to improve overall performance. The accuracy of the combined rate signal and affecting factors were analyzed using a steady-state covariance. A system comprising a six-gyroscope array was developed to test the presented KF. Experimental tests proved that the presented model was effective at improving the gyroscope accuracy. The experimental results indicated that six identical gyroscopes with an ARW noise of 6.2 °/√h and a bias drift of 54.14 °/h could be combined into a rate signal with an ARW noise of 1.8 °/√h and a bias drift of 16.3 °/h, while the estimated rate signal by the random walk model has an ARW noise of 2.4 °/√h and a bias drift of 20.6 °/h. It revealed that both models could improve the angular rate accuracy and have a similar performance in static condition. In dynamic condition, the test results showed that the first-order Markov process model could reduce the dynamic errors 20% more than the random walk model.

  19. Bit-rate-variable and order-switchable optical multiplexing of high-speed pseudorandom bit sequence using optical delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jian; Yilmaz, Omer F; Nuccio, Scott R; Bogoni, Antonella; Willner, Alan E

    2010-09-15

    We experimentally demonstrate high-speed optical pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) multiplexing with coarse and fine bit-rate tuning capability and a switchable order using optical delays. Data multiplexing of 80 Gbit/s and 160 Gbit/s is shown, each with a tunable rate using a conversion/dispersion-based continuously tunable optical delay and tunable PRBS order with large switchable fiber delays. A 7% bit-rate tunability, i.e., 80-85.6 Gbit/s and 160-171.2 Gbit/s, is shown for both 2(7)-1 and 2(15)-1 PRBS. The rf spectra before and after multiplexing are measured in each case and show a suppression ratio of >30 dB, exhibiting the expected PRBS spectral characteristics.

  20. Rate Equation Analysis of the Dynamics of First-order Exciton Mott Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Shimano, Ryo

    2017-10-01

    We perform a rate equation analysis of the dynamics of the exciton Mott transition (EMT) assuming a detailed balance between excitons and unbound electron-hole (e-h) pairs. Using the Saha equation and adopting an empirical expression for the band-gap renormalization effect caused by unbound e-h pairs, we show that the ionization ratio of excitons exhibits bistability as a function of the total e-h pair density at low temperatures. We demonstrate that an incubation time emerges in the dynamics of the EMT from the oversaturated exciton gas phase on the verge of the bistable region. The incubation time shows slowing down behavior when the pair density approaches saddle-node bifurcation of the hysteresis curve of the exciton ionization ratio.

  1. Implementation of Improved Transverse Shear Calculations and Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Analyses of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin-Fa; Kim, Soo; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear and strain rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composite laminated plates under high strain rate impact loadings. A recently developed strength of materials based micromechanics model, incorporating a set of nonlinear, strain rate dependent constitutive equations for the polymer matrix, is extended to account for the transverse shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of transverse shear deformation are investigated in order to improve the developed strain rate dependent micromechanics model. The validities of these assumptions are investigated using numerical and theoretical approaches. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio of the composite is developed. The revised micromechanics model is then implemented into a higher order laminated plate theory which is modified to include the effects of inelastic strains. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the mechanical response of composite plates under high strain rate loadings. Results show the transverse shear stresses cannot be neglected in the impact problem. A significant level of strain rate dependency and material nonlinearity is found in the deformation response of representative composite specimens.

  2. Modelling and experimental checking of the influence of substrate concentration on the first order kinetic constant in photo-processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M; Murcia, M D; Gómez, E; Ortega, S; Sánchez, A; Thaikovskaya, O; Briantceva, N

    2016-12-01

    Most photoprocesses follow a pseudo first order kinetic law and, commonly, the kinetic parameter depends on the initial concentration of the substrate. In this work, a kinetic model, which explains this dependence on the substrate concentration and on the other operational variables, has been developed. In the model, mass transfer of substrate from the bulk solution to the wall of the photoreactor was assumed as the step determining the rate of the process. To check the model, methylene blue (MB) has been used as model substrate and photodegradation experiments have been carried out in an exciplex KrCl flow-through photoreactor, It was observed that the methylene blue conversion improved with a decrease in its initial concentration, in good agreement with the model. Also, by fitting the experimental data to the model, high correlation coefficients and a high degree of agreement between experimental and calculated conversion was obtained, which validates the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High Resolution Order Tracking at Extreme Slew Rates Using Kalman Tracking Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Vold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the periodic components in noise and vibration signals measured on rotating equipment such as car power trains, must be done more and more under rapid changes of an axle, or reference RPM. Normal tracking filters (analog or digital implementations have limited resolution in such situations; wavelet methods, even when applied after resampling the data to be proportional to an axle RPM, must compromise between time and frequency resolution. The authors propose the application of nonstationary Kalman filters for the tracking of periodic components in such noise and vibration signals. These filters are designed to accurately track signals with a known structure among noise and signal components of different, “unknown,” structure. The tracking characteristics of these filters, i.e., the predicted signal amplitude versus time values versus exact signal amplitude versus time values, can be tailored to accurate tracking of harmonics buried in other signal components and noise, even at high rates of change of the reference RPM. A key to the successful construction is the precise knowledge of the structure of the signal to be tracked. For signals that vary with an axle RPM, an accurate estimate of the instantaneous RPM is essential, and procedures to this end will also be presented.

  4. Is a proposed reaction mechanism free from unnecessary assumptions? Occam's razor applied in a mathematical way to complex first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergson, Göran; Linderberg, Jan

    2008-05-08

    Following Occam's principle, a proposed reaction mechanism should not contain assumptions about the existence of reactive intermediates and reaction paths that are unnecessary for a full description and interpretation of the available facts. A mechanism refers, in this paper, to a proposed reaction scheme or network that represents the reactions supposed to be going on in a complex reaction system with observable species as well as unobservable reactive intermediates. The scope is limited here to (pseudo) first-order reactions and the steady-state approximation is invoked in order to relate unknown mechanistic rate constants to experimentally determined ones, and, when available, theoretically calculated quantities. When the resulting, nonlinear system of equations admits a unique solution within a physically reasonable domain, it is concluded that the reaction mechanism fulfills Occam's principle. Otherwise, there are many or no solutions. No subjective or qualitative arguments enter the procedure and the outcome is not negotiable.

  5. Hypotension and heart rate variability after resistance exercise performed maximal and submaximal order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gonçalves Corrêa Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was verified the blood pressure responses and the cardiac autonomic modulation after the strength exercise in two different conditions (maximal and submaximal. The subjects were divided in three groups, such as: maximal repetitions (age: 20.5 ± 0.6 years, weight: 63.7 ± 14.8, height: 1.7 ± 0.1, body mass index: 22.8 ± 4.5 Kilogram per square meter (kg/m², submaximal repetitions (age: 25 ± 4.1 years, weight: 69.1 ± 12.8, height: 1.8 ± 0.1, body mass index: 22.2 ± 1.7 (kg/m²  and a control group (age: 23.7 ± 3.8 years, weight: 64.2 ± 15, height: 1.7 ± 0.1, body mass index: 21.8 ± 1.9 (kg/m². The blood pressure and the Heart Rate R-R intervals were measured before and during one hour after the session, with 10-minutes intervals length between measurements. The analyze of variance did not showed significant differences between experimental protocols to blood pressure (p > 0.05. However, the effect size was able to show that the most intense training caused a reduction in systolic blood pressure at times. Regarding cardiac autonomic response, the group that exercised the submaximal form exhibited a significant increase in LF / HF (p = 0.022 when 20 minutes’ post-exercise. There was a not significant difference in cardiac autonomic modulation between protocols. The high intensity protocol has caused blood pressure reductions in more moments and it was over safer in relation to cardiac autonomic modulation, since it did not cause increased sympathetic activity during recovery.

  6. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  7. Enhanced absorption of the poorly soluble drug fenofibrate by tuning its release rate from ordered mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Mellaerts, Randy; Mols, Raf; Thi, Thao Do; Martens, Johan Adriaan; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick

    2010-12-23

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of release rate from ordered mesoporous silica materials on the rate and extent of absorption of the poorly soluble drug fenofibrate. Three ordered mesoporous silica materials with different pore diameter (7.3 nm, 4.4 nm and 2.7 nm) were synthesized and loaded with fenofibrate via impregnation. Release experiments were conducted under sink conditions and under supersaturating conditions in biorelevant media, simulating the fasted and the fed state. Subsequently, all silica-based formulations were evaluated in vivo (rat model). The release experiments under sink conditions indicated a clear increase in release rate with increasing pore size. However, under supersaturating conditions (FaSSIF), the, pharmaceutical performance (in terms of both the degree and duration of supersaturation), increased with decreasing pore size. The same trend was observed in vivo (fasted state): the area under the plasma concentration-time profile amounted to 102 ± 34 μMh, 86 ± 19 μMh and 20 ± 13 μMh for the materials with pore diameter of 2.7 nm, 4.4 nm and 7.3 nm, respectively. The results of this, study demonstrate that a decrease in drug release rate - and thus, a decrease of the rate at which supersaturation is created - is beneficial to the absorption of fenofibrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lewis Acid Accelerated Aryl Ether Bond Cleavage with Nickel: Orders of Magnitude Rate Enhancement Using AlMe_3

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Paul; Edouard, Guy A.; Lin, Sibo; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Study of the kinetics of intramolecular aryl ether C−O bond cleavage by Ni was facilitated by access to a family of metal complexes supported by diphosphines with pendant aryl-methyl ethers. The nature of the aryl substituents was found to have little effect on the rate of cleavage. In contrast, soluble Lewis acidic additives accelerate the aryl ether cleavage dramatically. The effect of AlMe3 was studied in detail, and showed an increase in rate by several orders of magnitude. Low temperatur...

  9. Divergence time, historical biogeography and evolutionary rate estimation of the order Bangiales (Rhodophyta) inferred from multilocus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuipeng; Tang, Xianghai; Wang, Lu; Yu, Xinzi; Sun, Peipei; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-08-01

    Bangiales is the only order of the Bangiophyceae and has been suggested to be monophyletic. This order contains approximately 190 species and is distributed worldwide. Previous molecular studies have produced robust phylogenies among the red algae, but the divergence times, historical biogeography and evolutionary rates of Bangiales have rarely been studied. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bangiales were examined using the concatenated gene sets from all available organellar genomes. This analysis has revealed the topology ((( Bangia, Porphyra ) Pyropia ) Wildemania ). Molecular dating indicates that Bangiales diversified approximately 246.40 million years ago (95% highest posterior density (HPD)= 194.78u2013318.24 Ma, posterior probability (PP)=0.99) in the Late Permian and Early Triassic, and that the ancestral species most likely originated from eastern Gondwanaland (currently New Zealand and Australia) and subsequently began to spread and evolve worldwide. Based on pairwise comparisons, we found a slower rate of nucleotide substitutions and lower rates of diversification in Bangiales relative to Florideophyceae. Compared with Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), the evolutionary rates of Bangiales and other Rhodophyte groups were found to be dramatically faster, by more than 3-fold for plastid genome (ptDNA) and 15-fold for mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). In addition, an average 2.5-fold lower dN/dS was found for the algae than for the land plants, which indicates purifying selection of the algae.

  10. On the ambiguity of the reaction rate constants in multivariate curve resolution for reversible first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Henning; Sawall, Mathias; Kubis, Christoph; Selent, Detlef; Hess, Dieter; Franke, Robert; Börner, Armin; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    If for a chemical reaction with a known reaction mechanism the concentration profiles are accessible only for certain species, e.g. only for the main product, then often the reaction rate constants cannot uniquely be determined from the concentration data. This is a well-known fact which includes the so-called slow-fast ambiguity. This work combines the question of unique or non-unique reaction rate constants with factor analytic methods of chemometrics. The idea is to reduce the rotational ambiguity of pure component factorizations by considering only those concentration factors which are possible solutions of the kinetic equations for a properly adapted set of reaction rate constants. The resulting set of reaction rate constants corresponds to those solutions of the rate equations which appear as feasible factors in a pure component factorization. The new analysis of the ambiguity of reaction rate constants extends recent research activities on the Area of Feasible Solutions (AFS). The consistency with a given chemical reaction scheme is shown to be a valuable tool in order to reduce the AFS. The new methods are applied to model and experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-jet rate in $e^{+}e^{-}$ at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic order

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea; Monni, Pier Francesco; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present the first next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic resummation for the two-jet rate in $e^+e^-$ annihilation in the Durham and Cambridge algorithms. The results are obtained by extending the ARES method to observables involving any global, recursively infrared and collinear safe jet algorithm in e^+e^- collisions. As opposed to other methods, this approach does not require a factorization theorem for the observables. We present predictions matched to next-to-next-to-leading order, and a comparison to LEP data.

  12. Lewis Acid Accelerated Aryl Ether Bond Cleavage with Nickel: Orders of Magnitude Rate Enhancement Using AlMe3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Paul; Edouard, Guy A; Lin, Sibo; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-11-21

    Study of the kinetics of intramolecular aryl ether C-O bond cleavage by Ni was facilitated by access to a family of metal complexes supported by diphosphines with pendant aryl-methyl ethers. The nature of the aryl substituents was found to have little effect on the rate of cleavage. In contrast, soluble Lewis acidic additives accelerate the aryl ether cleavage dramatically. The effect of AlMe3 was studied in detail, and showed an increase in rate by several orders of magnitude. Low temperature NMR spectroscopy studies demonstrate quantitative coordination of ether to Al. From the Lewis acid-bound precursor, the activation parameters for ether cleavage are significantly lower. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for milder catalyst design for the activation of strong bonds. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rate for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The order fill rate (OFR) is sometimes suggested as an alternative to the volume fill rate (VFR) (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. We consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where replenishment orders have a constant lead time...

  14. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO) with OH and NO3 and glyoxal (HCO)2 with NO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, R. K.; Zhu, L.; Feierabend, K. J.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2011-11-01

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of CH3COCHO (methylglyoxal) with the OH and NO3 radicals and (CHO)2 (glyoxal) with the NO3 radical are reported. Rate coefficients for the OH + CH3COCHO (k1) reaction were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH as a function of temperature (211-373 K) and pressure (100-220 Torr, He and N2 bath gases) using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to measure its temporal profile. k1 was found to be independent of the bath gas pressure with k1(295 K) = (1.29 ± 0.13) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and a temperature dependence that is well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1(T) = (1.74 ± 0.20) × 10-12 exp[(590 ± 40)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 where the uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the NO3 + (CHO)2 (k3) and NO3 + CH3COCHO (k4) reactions were measured using a relative rate technique to be k3(296 K) = (4.0 ± 1.0) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k4(296 K) = (5.1 ± 2.1) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. k3(T) was also measured using an absolute rate coefficient method under pseudo-first-order conditions at 296 and 353 K to be (4.2 ± 0.8) × 10-16 and (7.9 ± 3.6) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, in agreement with the relative rate result obtained at room temperature. The atmospheric implications of the OH and NO3 reaction rate coefficients measured in this work are discussed.

  15. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO with OH and NO3 and glyoxal (HCO2 with NO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Burkholder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of CH3COCHO (methylglyoxal with the OH and NO3 radicals and (CHO2 (glyoxal with the NO3 radical are reported. Rate coefficients for the OH + CH3COCHO (k1 reaction were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH as a function of temperature (211–373 K and pressure (100–220 Torr, He and N2 bath gases using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to measure its temporal profile. k1 was found to be independent of the bath gas pressure with k1(295 K = (1.29 ± 0.13 × 10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and a temperature dependence that is well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1(T = (1.74 ± 0.20 × 10−12 exp[(590 ± 40/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 where the uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the NO3 + (CHO2 (k3 and NO3 + CH3COCHO (k4 reactions were measured using a relative rate technique to be k3(296 K = (4.0 ± 1.0 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k4(296 K = (5.1 ± 2.1 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. k3(T was also measured using an absolute rate coefficient method under pseudo-first-order conditions at 296 and 353 K to be (4.2 ± 0.8 × 10−16 and (7.9 ± 3.6 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively, in agreement with the relative rate result obtained at room temperature. The atmospheric implications of the OH and NO3 reaction rate coefficients measured in this work are discussed.

  16. Reaction rate reconstruction from biomass concentration measurement in bioreactors using modified second-order sliding mode algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Battista, Hernán; Picó, Jesús; Garelli, Fabricio; Navarro, José Luis

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of unknown signals in bioreactors using sliding observers. Particular attention is drawn to estimate the specific growth rate of microorganisms from measurement of biomass concentration. In a recent article, notions of high-order sliding modes have been used to derive a growth rate observer for batch processes. In this paper we generalize and refine these preliminary results. We develop a new observer with a different error structure to cope with other types of processes. Furthermore, we show that these observers are equivalent, under coordinate transformations and time scaling, to the classical super-twisting differentiator algorithm, thus inheriting all its distinctive features. The new observers' family achieves convergence to time-varying unknown signals in finite time, and presents the best attainable estimation error order in the presence of noise. In addition, the observers are robust to modeling and parameter uncertainties since they are based on minimal assumptions on bioprocess dynamics. In addition, they have interesting applications in fault detection and monitoring. The observers performance in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors is assessed by experimental data obtained from the fermentation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on glucose.

  17. Development of a novel starch with a three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure for improving the dissolution rate of felodipine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yanna; Wu, Chao, E-mail: wuchao27@126.com; Zhao, Zongzhe; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Jie; Qiu, Yang; Jiang, Jie; Yu, Tong; Ma, Chunyu; Zhou, Buyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, silica nanospheres with different particle sizes were used as hard template for synthesis of a starch with a novel three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure (3DOMTS). As a pharmaceutical adjuvant, 3DOMTS was used to improve the dissolution rate and oral relative bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Felodipine (FDP) was chosen as a model drug and was loaded into the 3DOMTS by solvent evaporation. FDP loading into 3DOMTS with different pore sizes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results obtained showed that FDP was present in the pores in an amorphic or microcrystalline state. The in vitro dissolution results showed that 3DOMTS could effectively improve the dissolution rate of FDP in comparison with commercial common tablets. Pharmacokinetic results indicated that the oral relative bioavailability of self-made FDP–3DOMTS tablets were 184%, showing that 3DOMTS produced a significantly increased oral absorption of FDP. In conclusion, 3DOMTS exhibits the dual potential of improving the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs and the novel filler produced by direct compression technology confirming that 3DOMTS will be useful for many applications in the field of pharmaceutics. - Highlights: • We successfully prepared a starch with a novel three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure (3DOMTS). • 3DOMTS can suppress the crystallinity of the drug to maintain it at amorphous state. • In vivo and in vitro experiments proved that 3DOMTS can improve the solubility and bioavailability of felodipine.

  18. Optimization and phase matching of fiber-laser-driven high-order harmonic generation at high repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabasse, Amélie; Machinet, Guillaume; Dubrouil, Antoine; Cormier, Eric; Constant, Eric

    2012-11-15

    High-repetition-rate sources are very attractive for high-order harmonic generation (HHG). However, due to their pulse characteristics (low energy, long duration), those systems require a tight focusing geometry to achieve the necessary intensity to generate harmonics. In this Letter, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the optimization of HHG in this geometry, to maximize the extreme UV (XUV) photon flux and improve the conversion efficiency. We analyze the influence of atomic gas media (Ar, Kr, or Xe), gas pressure, and interaction geometries (a gas jet and a finite and a semi-infinite gas cell). Numerical simulations allow us to define optimal conditions for HHG in this tight focusing regime and to observe the signature of on-axis phase matching. These conditions are implemented experimentally using a high-repetition-rate Yb-doped fiber laser system. We achieve optimization of emission with a recorded XUV photon flux of 4.5×10(12) photons/s generated in Xe at 100 kHz repetition rate.

  19. SENSMG: First-Order Sensitivities of Neutron Reaction Rates, Reaction-Rate Ratios, Leakage, keff, and α Using PARTISN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-21

    SENSMG is a tool for computing first-order sensitivities of neutron reaction rates, reaction-rate ratios, leakage, keff, and α using the PARTISN multigroup discrete-ordinates code. SENSMG computes sensitivities to all of the transport cross sections and data (total, fission, nu, chi, and all scattering moments), two edit cross sections (absorption and capture), and the density for every isotope and energy group. It also computes sensitivities to the mass density for every material and derivatives with respect to all interface locations. The tool can be used for one-dimensional spherical (r) and two-dimensional cylindrical (r-z) geometries. The tool can be used for fixed-source and eigenvalue problems. The tool implements Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) as discussed by Williams and Stacey. Section II of this report describes the theory behind adjoint-based sensitivities, gives the equations that SENSMG solves, and defines the sensitivities that are output. Section III describes the user interface, including the input file and command line options. Section IV describes the output. Section V gives some notes about the coding that may be of interest. Section VI discusses verification, which is ongoing. Section VII lists needs and ideas for future work. Appendix A lists all of the input files whose results are presented in Sec. VI.

  20. The "fossilized" mitochondrial genome of Liriodendron tulipifera: ancestral gene content and order, ancestral editing sites, and extraordinarily low mutation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Aaron O; Rice, Danny W; Young, Gregory J; Alverson, Andrew J; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2013-04-15

    The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants vary greatly in size, gene content, gene order, mutation rate and level of RNA editing. However, the narrow phylogenetic breadth of available genomic data has limited our ability to reconstruct these traits in the ancestral flowering plant and, therefore, to infer subsequent patterns of evolution across angiosperms. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of Liriodendron tulipifera, the first from outside the monocots or eudicots. This 553,721 bp mitochondrial genome has evolved remarkably slowly in virtually all respects, with an extraordinarily low genome-wide silent substitution rate, retention of genes frequently lost in other angiosperm lineages, and conservation of ancestral gene clusters. The mitochondrial protein genes in Liriodendron are the most heavily edited of any angiosperm characterized to date. Most of these sites are also edited in various other lineages, which allowed us to polarize losses of editing sites in other parts of the angiosperm phylogeny. Finally, we added comprehensive gene sequence data for two other magnoliids, Magnolia stellata and the more distantly related Calycanthus floridus, to measure rates of sequence evolution in Liriodendron with greater accuracy. The Magnolia genome has evolved at an even lower rate, revealing a roughly 5,000-fold range of synonymous-site divergence among angiosperms whose mitochondrial gene space has been comprehensively sequenced. Using Liriodendron as a guide, we estimate that the ancestral flowering plant mitochondrial genome contained 41 protein genes, 14 tRNA genes of mitochondrial origin, as many as 7 tRNA genes of chloroplast origin, >700 sites of RNA editing, and some 14 colinear gene clusters. Many of these gene clusters, genes and RNA editing sites have been variously lost in different lineages over the course of the ensuing ∽200 million years of angiosperm evolution.

  1. Adsorption kinetics of NO on ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and cerium-containing OMC (Ce-OMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghuan; Cao, Feifei; Chen, Songze; Ni, Mingjiang; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and cerium-containing OMC (Ce-OMC) were prepared using evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method and used to adsorb NO. N2 sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm their structures. The results showed that the ordered and uniform structures were successfully synthesized and with the introduction of cerium pore properties were not significantly changed. The NO adsorption capacity of OMC was two times larger than that of activated carbon (AC). With the introduction of cerium both the adsorption capacity and the adsorption rate were improved. The effects of residence time and oxygen concentration on NO adsorption were also investigated. Oxygen played an important role in the NO adsorption (especially in the form of chemisorption) and residence time had small influence on the NO adsorption capacity. The NO adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion models. The results indicated that the NO adsorption process can be divided into rapid adsorption period, slow adsorption period, and equilibrium adsorption period. The pseudo-second-order model was the most suitable model for NO adsorption on OMC and Ce-OMC. The rate controlling step was the intraparticle diffusion together with the adsorption reaction.

  2. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: measurements and site-specific rate rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardany, Ahmed E; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-06-28

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (C=O) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (C=O), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):

  3. Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan: stirring rate effect in kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A

    2011-03-15

    Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan was studied. Stirring rate influence on kinetics and mechanism was verified. Infra-red analysis was carried out before and after adsorption in order to verify the adsorption nature. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems with different stirring rates (15-400 rpm). Kinetic behavior was analyzed through the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Adsorption mechanism was verified according to the film diffusion model and HSDM model. Pseudo-second-order and Elovich models were satisfactory in order to represent experimental data in all stirring rates. For both dyes, adsorption occurred by film and intraparticle diffusion, and the stirring rate increase caused a decrease in film diffusion resistance. Therefore, the film diffusivity increased the adsorption capacity and, consequently, intraparticle diffusivity increased. In all stirring rates, the rate-limiting step was film diffusion. Adsorption of acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan occurred by chemiosorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Power and transmission rate orders and related documents. Office of Power Marketing Coordination, data compiled January 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-08-01

    This publication contains the power and transmission rate orders and related documents issued by the Department of Energy. It covers calendar years 1980 and 1981. The first publication, DOE/CE-007 covering the period from March through December 1979, was published July 1981. This publication is a compilation of all rate orders issued by the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications and the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy during calendar years 1980 and 1981 under Delegation Order No. 0204-33. It also includes all final approvals, remands, and disapprovals by the FERC, and a petition to the FERC for reconsideration by a Power Marketing Administration during 1980 and 1981. Also included are two delegation orders along with an amendment and a supplement to one delegation order, a departmental order on financial reporting, and Power and Transmission Rate Adjustment Procedures relating to federal power marketing.

  5. Does Overweight and Obesity Impact on Self-Rated Health? Evidence Using Instrumental Variables Ordered Probit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, John; Gillespie, Paddy

    2016-10-01

    This paper, for the first time, presents estimates of the causal impact of overweight and obesity on self-rated health (SRH) using instrumental variables (IV) econometric methods. While a number of previous studies have sought to better understand the determinants of SRH, there is no consensus in relation to the impact of overweight and obesity. Using data from a large nationally representative sample of Irish parents and their children, we estimate a range of ordered probit models to isolate the causal effect of overweight and obesity on SRH. Our data includes independently and objectively recorded weight and height measures for parents and their children and we instrument for parental body mass index (BMI) status using the BMI of a biological child. After controlling for a range of individual, socioeconomic, health and lifestyle related variables, we find that being overweight has a negligible impact on SRH, while being obese has a practically and statistically significant negative impact on SRH, with these effects most pronounced for those who are most obese. We find only minor differences in these effects across gender. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Unified Approach for Calculating Error Rates of 10 Gbps WDM Network in Presence of Higher Order Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karamjit; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-12-01

    The lack of regeneration in all optical networks makes the data susceptible to network malfunctions, misconfigurations and signal impairments. As most of the effects are additive in nature, the signal quality is degraded by the time it reaches at the destination end making optical monitors installation a need of the day to maintain the service-level agreements for the end users. The physical layer impairments that need to be monitored are broadly classified as linear and nonlinear impairments. As the nonlinear impairments depends on the network state, it is difficult to preestimate them, while linear impairments can be easily determined from the type of fiber, wavelength/waveband, amplifier and environmental conditions. Among the linear impairments, dispersion, amplified spontaneous emission noise and attenuation are more dominating. In the present work, an effort is given to study the impact of dispersion on system quality, quantified through bit error rate (BER) and Q-value. Eye diagrams obtained at the receiver end are used for calculating system response. The curves obtained for BER and Q-value are further processed for curve fitting and suitable fifth-order polynomial equation is calculated representing the system response. Implementation of this equation in routing applications is discussed.

  7. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  8. Sorption of uranium(VI) using oxime-grafted ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Gan; Geng Junxia; Jin Yongdong; Wang Chunli; Li Shuqiong; Chen Zhen; Wang Hang; Zhao Yongsheng [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li Shoujian, E-mail: sjli000616@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A new sorbent for uranium(VI) has been developed by functionalizing ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-5 with 4-acetophenone oxime via thermally initiated diazotization. The sorption of U(VI) ions onto the functionalized CMK-5 (Oxime-CMK-5) was investigated as a function of sorbent dosage, pH value, contact time, ionic strength and temperature using batch sorption techniques. The results showed that U(VI) sorption onto Oxime-CMK-5 was strongly dependent on pH, but to a lesser extent, on ionic strength. Kinetic studies revealed that the sorption process achieved equilibrium within 30 min and followed a pseudo-first-order rate equation. The isothermal data correlated with the Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic data indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. Under current experimental conditions, a maximum U(VI) sorption capacity was found to be 65.18 mg/g. Quantitative recovery of uranium was achieved by desorbing the U(VI)-loaded Oxime-CMK-5 with 1.0 mol/L HCl and no significant decrease in U(VI) sorption capability of Oxime-CMK-5 was observed after five consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. The sorption study performed in a simulated nuclear industry effluent demonstrated that the new sorbent showed a desirable selectivity for U(VI) ions over a range of competing metal ions.

  9. Second-Rate Coverage of Second-Order Elections: Czech and Slovak Elections to the EP in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kovář

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elections to the European Parliament (EP are considered second-order national elections (SOE. The SOE model suggests that there is a qualitative difference between different types of elections depending on the perception of what is at stake. Compared to first order elections, in second order elections there is less at stake because they do not determine the composition of government. Given that voters behave differently in second-order elections, the question arises: do the media also consider second-order elections less interesting and therefore devote to them less coverage? The media play a crucial role in informing citizens about such events as elections; they function as intermediaries between the electorate and the political arena. However, little is known about how EU issues are covered in the media, particularly in the new EU member states. Conducting a content analysis and applying the second-order election model, this paper analyses TV news coverage of the 2004 and 2009 European elections in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in a comparative fashion. The findings are discussed in the light of existing research literature on the EU’s legitimacy as well as its alleged democratic and communication deficit, not least because the EU relies on the media in strengthening (albeit indirectly its legitimacy by increasing citizen awareness of its activities.

  10. 76 FR 58319 - Order Granting Temporary Exemption of Kroll Bond Rating Agency, Inc. From the Conflict of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... structured finance products is consistent with the Commission's goal of improving ratings quality for the... allowing Kroll to enter the market for rating structured finance products is consistent with the Commission... Prohibition in Rule 17g-5(c)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 September 14, 2011. I. Introduction...

  11. A quest for the right order : biodegradation rates in the scope of environmental risk assessment of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The biodegradation of chemicals in sewage treatment plants is a key issue of environmental risk assessment. To predict the residual concentration the rate of the biodegradation process has to be estimated. This rate is the result of microbial adaptation of the micro-flora in the system. Therefore

  12. Adsorption kinetics of NO on ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and cerium-containing OMC (Ce-OMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jinghuan; Cao, Feifei; Chen, Songze; Ni, Mingjiang; Gao, Xiang, E-mail: xgao1@zju.edu.cn; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and Ce-OMC were used for NO adsorption. • The NO adsorption capacity of OMC was two times larger than that of activated carbon. • With the addition of cerium both adsorption capacity and adsorption rate increased. • The pseudo-second-order model was the most suitable model for NO adsorption on OMC. • Intraparticle diffusion was the rate controlling step for NO adsorption. - Abstract: Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and cerium-containing OMC (Ce-OMC) were prepared using evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method and used to adsorb NO. N{sub 2} sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm their structures. The results showed that the ordered and uniform structures were successfully synthesized and with the introduction of cerium pore properties were not significantly changed. The NO adsorption capacity of OMC was two times larger than that of activated carbon (AC). With the introduction of cerium both the adsorption capacity and the adsorption rate were improved. The effects of residence time and oxygen concentration on NO adsorption were also investigated. Oxygen played an important role in the NO adsorption (especially in the form of chemisorption) and residence time had small influence on the NO adsorption capacity. The NO adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion models. The results indicated that the NO adsorption process can be divided into rapid adsorption period, slow adsorption period, and equilibrium adsorption period. The pseudo-second-order model was the most suitable model for NO adsorption on OMC and Ce-OMC. The rate controlling step was the intraparticle diffusion together with the adsorption reaction.

  13. Second-order selection in bacterial evolution: selection acting on mutation and recombination rates in the course of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenaillon, O; Taddei, F; Radmian, M; Matic, I

    2001-01-01

    The increase in genetic variability of a population can be selected during adaptation, as demonstrated by the selection of mutator alleles. The dynamics of this phenomenon, named second-order selection, can result in an improved adaptability of bacteria through regulation of all facets of mutation and recombination processes.

  14. Order-specific fertility rates for Germany: Estimates from perinatal statistics for the period 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kreyenfeld (Michaela); Scholz, R. (Rembrandt); F. Peters (Frederick); Wlosnewski, I. (Ines)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUntil 2008, Germany's vital statistics did not include information on the biological order of each birth. This resulted in a dearth of important demographic indicators, such as the mean age at first birth and the level of childlessness. Researchers have tried to fill this gap by

  15. Faster rates with less catalyst in template-directed reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Baird, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently shown that the polycytidylic acid-directed polymerization of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) is amenable to kinetic study and that rate determinations as a function of 2-MeImpG concentration can reveal much mechanistic detail (Kanavarioti et al. 1993). Here we report kinetic data which show that, once the reaction has been initiated by the formation of dimers, the elongation of dimers to form longer oligomers is accelerated by decreasing polycytidylate (poly(C)) concentration from 0.05 to 0.002 M. This result is consistent with the previously proposed mechanism. The increase in the observed pseudo-first order rate constant for formation of the trimer, k3', and the corresponding constant for formation of oligomers longer than the trimer, ki' (ki' is independent of oligomer length for i > or = 4), with decreasing template concentration for a given monomer concentration is attributed to an increase in template occupancy as template concentration is reduced.

  16. Ratings of age of acquisition of 299 words across 25 languages: Is there a cross-linguistic order of words?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łuniewska, Magdalena; Haman, Ewa; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Etenkowski, Bartłomiej; Southwood, Frenette; Anđelković, Darinka; Blom, W.B.T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new set of subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) ratings for 299 words (158 nouns, 141 verbs) in 25 languages from five language families (Afro-Asiatic: Semitic languages; Altaic: one Turkic language: Indo-European: Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Slavic, and Romance languages;

  17. Ammonia removal in anaerobic digestion by biogas stripping: an evaluation of process alternatives using a first order rate model based on experimental findings

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Mark; Iyer, K.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of biogas stripping to remove ammonia in the anaerobic digestion of source segregated food waste was investigated. It was found in batch experiments that ammonia could be removed from digestate and that the removal followed 1st order kinetics with respect to total ammonia nitrogen concentration. Increasing temperature, biogas flow rate and initial pH all increased removal rates. Using kinetic data gathered in these experiments allowed the integration of ammonia stripping with ...

  18. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  19. First- and second-order phase transitions between quantum and classical regimes for the escape rate of a biaxial spin system

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, G H

    1999-01-01

    The particle Hamiltonian for a biaxial spin system with a transverse or longitudinal magnetic field is investigated. We apply the Hamiltonian to the quantum-classical escape rate transition in small magnets. It is found that the phase boundary separating the first- and second-order transition is greatly influenced by the transverse anisotropy constant as well as the external magnetic field.

  20. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Reaction pathway and rate-determining step of the Schmidt rearrangement/fragmentation: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Ryo; Tokugawa, Takehiro; Yamamoto, Yutaro; Yamataka, Hiroshi

    2012-04-20

    The Schmidt rearrangement of substituted 3-phenyl-2-butanone with trimethylsilyl azide in 90% (v/v) aqueous TFA gave two types of product, fragmentation and rearrangement, the ratio of which depends on the substituent: more fragmentation for a more electron-donating substituent. Rate measurements by azotometry indicated the presence of an induction period, and the pseudo-first-order rate constants showed saturation kinetics with respect to the azide concentration. It was indicated that the reaction proceeds through pre-equilibrium in the formation of iminodiazonium (ID) ion and that the N(2) liberation from the ID ion is rate-determining. Under high azide concentration conditions, where the effective reactant is the ID ion, the reaction gave a linear Hammett plot with a ρ value of -0.50. The observed substituent effects on the rate and the product selectivity imply that path bifurcation on the way from the rate-determining TS to the product states occurs, as suggested by previous molecular dynamics simulations, in a similar manner to the analogous Beckmann rearrangement/fragmentation reactions. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  2. A general formula for the rate of resonant transfer of energy between two electric multipole moments of arbitrary order using molecular quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A

    2005-01-22

    A general expression is derived for the matrix element for the resonant transfer of energy between an initially excited donor species and an acceptor moiety in the ground state, with each entity possessing an electric multipole moment of arbitrary order. In the quantum electrodynamical framework employed, the coupling between the pair is mediated by the exchange of a single virtual photon. The probability amplitude found from second-order perturbation theory is a product of the electric moments located at each center and the resonant multipole-multipole interaction tensor. Using the Fermi golden rule, a general formula for the rate of energy transfer is obtained. As an illustration of the efficacy of the theory developed, rates of excitation energy exchange are calculated for systems interacting through dipole-quadrupole, dipole-octupole, quadrupole-quadrupole, and the familiar dipole-dipole coupling. For each of the cases examined, the near- and far-zone limits of the migration rate are calculated from the result valid for all donor-acceptor separations beyond wave function overlap. Expression of the octupole contribution to the transfer rate in terms of its irreducible components of weights 1 and 3 leads to new features. The octupole weight-1 term is found to contribute only when the interaction is retarded, while the dipole-octupole weight-1 contribution appears as a higher-order correction term to the dipole-dipole rate. Order of magnitude estimates are given for the contributions of dipole-quadrupole and dipole-octupole terms relative to the leading dipole-dipole rate for near-, intermediate-, and far-zone separations to further understand the role played by higher multipole moments in the transfer of excitation and the mechanism dominating the process. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  3. The effect of speaking rate on serial-order sound-level errors in normal healthy controls and persons with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossett, Tepanta R D; McNeil, Malcolm R; Pratt, Sheila R; Tompkins, Connie A; Shuster, Linda I

    Although many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, phonetically well-formed sound-level serial-order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic encoding (PE) processes. An influential model of PE (Dell, 1986; Dell, Burger & Svec, 1997) predicts that speaking rate should affect the relative proportion of these serial-order sound errors (anticipations, perseverations, exchanges). These predictions have been extended to, and have special relevance for persons with aphasia (PWA) because of the increased frequency with which speech errors occur and because their localization within the functional linguistic architecture may help in diagnosis and treatment. Supporting evidence regarding the effect of speaking rate on phonological encoding has been provided by studies using young normal language (NL) speakers and computer simulations. Limited data exist for older NL users and no group data exist for PWA. This study tested the phonologic encoding properties of Dell's model of speech production (Dell, 1986; Dell,et al., 1997), which predicts that increasing speaking rate affects the relative proportion of serial-order sound errors (i.e., anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges). The effects of speech rate on the error ratios of anticipation/exchange (AE), anticipation/perseveration (AP) and vocal reaction time (VRT) were examined in 16 normal healthy controls (NHC) and 16 PWA without concomitant motor speech disorders. The participants were recorded performing a phonologically challenging (tongue twister) speech production task at their typical and two faster speaking rates. A significant effect of increased rate was obtained for the AP but not the AE ratio. Significant effects of group and rate were obtained for VRT. Although the significant effect of rate for the AP ratio provided evidence that changes in speaking rate did affect PE, the results failed to support the model derived predictions

  4. Extracting third order optical nonlinearities of Mn(III)-Phthalocyanine chloride using high repetition rate femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhal, Krishnandu; Mathur, Paresh; Maurya, Sidharth; Goswami, Debabrata

    2017-02-01

    Third order nonlinearities of Mn(III)-Phthalocyanine chloride in dimethyl-sulphoxide under 50 fs pulses, operating at 94 MHz, by eliminating cumulative thermal effects have been investigated and reported by us. Modifications were done in data acquisition during Z-scan experiment, which included recording of time evolution waveform traces in an oscilloscope and not collection of Z versus transmission and utilization of a chopper of a suitable duty cycle. Time evolution traces were further processed analytically through MatLab® programming, which yielded Z-scan traces similar to what was obtained with single shot 50 fs pulse. We observed reverse saturable absorption at 800 nm owing to excited state absorption. We show that the nonlinear refractive index (γ) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) are over estimated almost 100 times, when MHz pulses are used compared to a situation, where thermo-optical nonlinearities are accounted. Illumination and dark periods are carefully set in a way, so that the sample is able to completely recover its initial temperature before arrival of the next pulse. Magnitudes of γ and β were found to be -(6.5-4.9) × 10-16 m2/W and (5.4-6.2) × 10-10 m/W under the MHz condition, whereas they were -(0.18-2.2) × 10-18 m2/W and (9.5-15) × 10-12 m/W under the thermally managed condition, respectively. To reveal the associated fast nonlinearity, femtosecond transient absorption experiment was performed, which inferred excited state absorption and ground state bleaching across the 450-780 nm region. Dynamics associated with these processes are reported along with fluorescence lifetime obtained through the TCSPC technique. Structure optimization using TDDFT calculations and HOMO-LUMO gaps with orbital pictures are also shown.

  5. Order of magnitude increase in photocatalytic rate for hierarchically porous anatase thin films synthesized from zinc titanate coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Nathanya J; Kaye, Karl M; Limburn, Gregory J; Cosham, Samuel D; Kulak, Alexander N; Palgrave, Robert G; Hyett, Geoffrey

    2017-02-14

    In this paper we report on the use of aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) to form thin films of the zinc titanate phases using zinc acetate and titanium isopropoxide as precursors in methanol solution. Analysis by XRD and XPS found that through variation in experimental conditions we have been able to synthesize films of zinc titanate with composition of Zn2TiO4 or Zn0.3Ti2.7O4.94, which adopt the spinel and pseudobrookite structure respectively. In addition, we have also formed hybrid films of Zn2TiO4 with either ZnTiO3 or ZnO. Using a technique previously reported with powders, the mixed ZnO and Zn2TiO4 films were treated with acid to produce porous Zn2TiO4 which, through reduction and vapour leaching of zinc, were converted to hierarchically porous thin films of anatase TiO2. This conversion was monitored by XRD. Analysis of photocatalytic activity of the hierarchically porous titania, using dye and stearic acid degradation tests, found a factor of 12 to 14 increase in rates of photocatalysis over conventional TiO2 thin films. Finally we are able to report a maximum formal quantum efficiency for stearic acid degradation of 1.76 × 10-3 molecules per photon.

  6. Contact time optimization of two-stage batch adsorber design using second-order kinetic model for the adsorption of phosphate onto alunite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozacar, Mahmut

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phosphate onto alunite in a batch adsorber has been studied. Four kinetic models including pseudo first- and second-order equation, intraparticle diffusion equation and the Elovich equation were selected to follow the adsorption process. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated and discussed. It was shown that the adsorption of phosphate onto alunite could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of phosphate onto alunite followed the Langmuir isotherm. A model has been used for the design of a two-stage batch adsorber based on pseudo second-order adsorption kinetics. The model has been optimized with respect to operating time in order to minimize total operating time to achieve a specified amount of phosphate removal using a fixed mass of adsorbent. The results of two-stage batch adsorber design studies showed that the required times for specified amounts of phosphate removal significantly decreased. It is particularly suitable for low-cost adsorbents/adsorption systems when minimising operating time is a major operational and design criterion, such as, for highly congested industrial sites in which significant volume of effluent need to be treated in the minimum amount of time.

  7. The effect of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence on a second order chemical reaction rate - Comparison between H. L. Toor's model and experimental observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, A.; Mathieu, J.

    1982-05-01

    Experimental results involving the effects of turbulence created by a grating on the rate of conversion of methyl formiate through alkaline hydrolysis were compared with predictions for 2nd order chemical reaction rates modeled by Toor (1975). Concentrations of NaHO were measured by conductimetry at the entrance of the channel and the longitudinal evolution of reaction products were monitored down the channel. Curves which resulted showed good agreement with Toor's prediction for both fast and slow reactions. A correlation factor was developed to express the ratio of chemical components as following a law of decrease of concentration fluctuation variance by a passive scalar according to a Gaussian probability.

  8. n-Order and maximum fuzzy similarity entropy for discrimination of signals of different complexity: Application to fetal heart rate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Oudjemia, Souad; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents two new concepts for discrimination of signals of different complexity. The first focused initially on solving the problem of setting entropy descriptors by varying the pattern size instead of the tolerance. This led to the search for the optimal pattern size that maximized the similarity entropy. The second paradigm was based on the n-order similarity entropy that encompasses the 1-order similarity entropy. To improve the statistical stability, n-order fuzzy similarity entropy was proposed. Fractional Brownian motion was simulated to validate the different methods proposed, and fetal heart rate signals were used to discriminate normal from abnormal fetuses. In all cases, it was found that it was possible to discriminate time series of different complexity such as fractional Brownian motion and fetal heart rate signals. The best levels of performance in terms of sensitivity (90%) and specificity (90%) were obtained with the n-order fuzzy similarity entropy. However, it was shown that the optimal pattern size and the maximum similarity measurement were related to intrinsic features of the time series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  10. Reanalysis of Rate Data for the Reaction CH3 + CH3 → C2H6 Using Revised Cross Sections and a Linearized Second-Order Master Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, M A; Green, N J B; Shannon, R J; Pilling, M J; Seakins, P W; Western, C M; Robertson, S H

    2015-07-16

    Rate coefficients for the CH3 + CH3 reaction, over the temperature range 300-900 K, have been corrected for errors in the absorption coefficients used in the original publication ( Slagle et al., J. Phys. Chem. 1988 , 92 , 2455 - 2462 ). These corrections necessitated the development of a detailed model of the B̃(2)A1' (3s)-X̃(2)A2″ transition in CH3 and its validation against both low temperature and high temperature experimental absorption cross sections. A master equation (ME) model was developed, using a local linearization of the second-order decay, which allows the use of standard matrix diagonalization methods for the determination of the rate coefficients for CH3 + CH3. The ME model utilized inverse Laplace transformation to link the microcanonical rate constants for dissociation of C2H6 to the limiting high pressure rate coefficient for association, k∞(T); it was used to fit the experimental rate coefficients using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to minimize χ(2) calculated from the differences between experimental and calculated rate coefficients. Parameters for both k∞(T) and for energy transfer ⟨ΔE⟩down(T) were varied and optimized in the fitting procedure. A wide range of experimental data were fitted, covering the temperature range 300-2000 K. A high pressure limit of k∞(T) = 5.76 × 10(-11)(T/298 K)(-0.34) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained, which agrees well with the best available theoretical expression.

  11. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2015-06-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Effect of application rate on fumigant degradation in five agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Hanson, Bradley D

    2016-01-15

    Soil fumigation is an important pest management tool for many high value crops. To address the knowledge gap of how fumigant concentration in soil impacts dissipation, and thereby efficacy, this research determined the degradation characteristics of four fumigants as affected by application rate. Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to determine degradation rates of 1,3-dichloropropene (both cis- and trans isomers), chloropicrin (CP), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and methyl iodide (MeI) in five agricultural soils. Fitted to pseudo first-order kinetics, the degradation rate constant (k) of CP, DMDS, and MeI decreased significantly as application rate increased while the 1,3-D isomers were the least affected by rate. Half-lives increased 12, 17, and 6-fold for CP, DMDS, and MeI, respectively, from the lowest to the highest application rate. At low application rates, the degradation rate of all fumigants in the Hueneme sandy loam soil was reduced by 50-95% in sterilized soil compared to the biologically active controls. However, this difference became much smaller or disappeared at high application rates indicating that biodegradation dominates at low concentrations but chemical degradation is more important at high concentrations. When co-applied, CP degradation was enhanced with biodegradation remained above 50%, while 1,3-D degradation was either reduced or not changed. Among the fumigants tested, the relative importance of biodegradation was DMDS>CP>MeI>1,3-D. These results are useful for determining effective fumigation rates and for informing regulatory decisions on emission controls under different fumigation scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel method for classifying starch digestion by modelling the amylolysis of plant foods using first-order enzyme kinetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Milligan, Peter J; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    Studying starch amylolysis kinetics in vitro is valuable for predicting the postprandial glycaemic response to starch intake. Prediction of starch amylolysis behaviour is challenging however, because of the many physico-chemical factors which influence amylolysis. The Logarithm of Slope (LOS) method for analysis of digestibility curves using first-order enzyme kinetics can identify and quantify nutritionally important starch fractions. The early stages of in vitro amylolysis of hydrothermally processed chickpea and durum wheat with variable degrees of structural integrity were studied. The end-point product concentration (C∞) and the pseudo first-order digestibility rate constant k, obtained from LOS analysis, were then used to compute predictive digestibility curves for evaluation of the model performance. LOS analysis enabled rapid identification of nutritionally important starch-fractions. It was clear that purified starches and flours were digested by a single-phase process, but starch amylolysis in macroparticles occurred by a two-phase system that reflected differences in substrate accessibility. The model gave an excellent fit to data obtained from a range of heterogeneous materials. It provides a rigorous means of studying the mechanisms of starch amylolysis in samples of varying complexity, and we strongly recommend its use for the rapid and accurate predictions of amylolysis. Such predictions have implications for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.

  14. Use of the Mean Abnormal Result Rate (MARR) to Gauge Changes in Family Physicians' Selectivity of Laboratory Test Ordering, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Andrew P; Guo, Maggie; Ma, Irene; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-11-02

    The mean abnormal result rate (MARR) has recently been advanced as a metric of laboratory test appropriateness. We used the MARR metric to examine patterns of change in family physician test requisitions over time. We accessed the Laboratory Information System of Calgary Laboratory Services for family physician-ordered testing on outpatients to gather aggregate test and abnormal result counts from 2010 to 2015. Over the 6 years, there was an annual average of 3,401,553 tests for 411,295 distinct patients on their first test requisition for the year. The MARR increased from 8.1% to 9.0% through this period. The MARR for Calgary and surrounding area gives tentative evidence of a gradual increase in physician test selectivity in recent years. Further data from other catchment areas are needed before making assertions about broader trends in physician awareness of laboratory resource use.

  15. Culture-Sensitive Question Order Effects of Self-Rated Health Between Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Schwarz, Norbert; Goldstein, Leanne Streja

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine context effects created by the question order for self-rated health (SRH) by race/ethnicity and language. Differences in SRH estimates for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics were first examined with multiple observational data that asked SRH in different contexts. To examine context effects by socio-demographics and health-related characteristics, we conducted experiments on SRH question order. While Hispanics reported poorer health than non-Hispanic Whites, this difference, in part, depended on question contexts. With SRH asked after rather than before specific health questions, Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, reported better health, while non-Hispanic Whites' reports remained consistent. Among Spanish-speaking Hispanics, the context effect was larger for unmarried and less educated persons and those with comorbidities. Question contexts influence SRH reports by Spanish-speaking older adults. Cross-cultural inquiries on the meaning of health and its dynamics with question contexts may explain what SRH measures for increasingly diverse populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Preparation of a novel starch-derived three-dimensional ordered macroporous carbon for improving the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao; Hao, Yanna; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Ying; Qiu, Yang; Jiang, Jie; Yu, Tong; Ji, Peng

    2016-01-25

    In our study, soluble starch was applied as a novel carbon source for preparing three-dimensional ordered macroporous carbon (3DOMC) using monodisperse silica nanospheres as the hard template. The 3DOMC was used as an insoluble drug carrier when it was found that it could markedly improve the water solubility of felodipine (FDP). The structural features of 3DOMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The 3DOMC structure was found to have a higher drug loading than microporous and mesoporous structures, and the interconnected nanostructure effectively inhibited the formation of drug crystals. FDP, belonging to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System II (BCSII), was chosen as the model drug and was loaded into the 3DOMC structure by solvent evaporation. The state of FDP in the 3DOMC structure was characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results obtained showed that FDP was present in the pores in an amorphous or microcrystalline state. In vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that 3DOMC could significantly improve the drug dissolution rate, but the FDP-3DOMC self-made common tablets had the disadvantage of a burst effect. For this reason, osmotic pump technology was used to control the drug release rate. We developed a potentially useful insoluble drug carrier for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Various Configurations of Likert, Ordered Categorical, or Rating Scale Data on the Ordinal Logistic Regression Pseudo R-Squared Measure of Fit: The Case of the Cummulative Logit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ochieng, Charles O.

    Many measures found in educational research are ordered categorical response variables that are empirical realizations of an underlying normally distributed variate. These ordered categorical variables are commonly referred to as Likert or rating scale data. Regression models are commonly fit using these ordered categorical variables as the…

  18. Polychlorinated ethane reaction with zero-valent zinc: pathways and rate control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A.; Ball, William P.; Roberts, A. Lynn

    1999-12-01

    Efficient design of zero-valent metal permeable `barriers' for the reduction of organohalides requires information regarding the pertinent reaction rates as well as an understanding of the resultant distribution of products. In this study, the pathways and kinetics for reaction of polychlorinated ethanes with Zn(0) have been examined in batch reactors. Reductive β-elimination was the only route through which hexachloroethane (HCA), 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2-TeCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) reacted. Pentachloroethane (PCA) reacted via concurrent reductive β-elimination (93%) and hydrolysis (7%). As previously demonstrated, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) reacted predominantly via reductive α-elimination. Attempts to correlate BET surface area-normalized rate constants ( kSA-BET) with one-electron reduction potential ( E1) met with limited success, as HCA, PCA, 1,1,1,2-TeCA, and 1,1,1-TCA reacted at nearly identical rates despite substantial differences in E1 values. Comparison of the pseudo-first-order rate constants ( kobs) for these species with rate constants ( kLa) obtained from a correlation for mass transfer to suspended particles revealed that the reaction of these species was mass transfer limited even though reaction rates were unaffected by mixing speed. Calculations suggest that mass transfer limitations may also play a role in the design of treatment systems for highly reactive species, with overall rate constants predicted to increase with flow velocity.

  19. Effect of Educational Intervention on the Rate of Rarely Appropriate Outpatient Echocardiograms Ordered by Attending Academic Cardiologists: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, David M; Bhatia, R Sacha; Mi, Michael Y; Isselbacher, Eric M; Picard, Michael H; Weiner, Rory B

    2016-10-01

    Appropriate use criteria-based educational initiatives have been shown to improve transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) ordering practices of physicians in training. Whether such an intervention is successful with attending cardiologists remains unknown. To prospectively investigate the effect of an appropriate use criteria-based educational intervention on ordering of outpatient TTEs by attending academic cardiologists. We conducted a prospective, randomized clinical trial of an educational intervention designed to reduce the number of outpatient TTEs that were deemed to be rarely appropriate by published appropriate use criteria. Investigators classifying TTEs were blinded to participant groupings. The study was conducted within the cardiology division at the Massachusetts General Hospital, an academic quaternary care hospital. Staff members of the cardiology division were included; 66 cardiologists were randomized. The study was conducted from November 19, 2013, to June 1, 2014. An analysis of the evaluable population was performed. The appropriate use criteria-based educational intervention consisted of a review lecture and electronic information card, as well as monthly individual physician feedback via email. The email described the percentage of rarely appropriate TTEs as well as the appropriate use criteria rationale for classifying studies as rarely appropriate. We hypothesized a priori that the educational intervention would reduce the number of rarely appropriate TTEs. The primary outcome was the rate of rarely appropriate TTEs. Of the 66 cardiologists enrolled in the study, 65 were included in the analysis (1 intervention cardiologist retired from practice during the study). The participants' mean (SD) age was 50.6 (10.5) years; 48 (73%) were men. Following intervention, the proportion of rarely appropriate TTEs was significantly lower in the intervention vs control group (143 of 1359 [10.5%] vs 285 of 1728 [16.5%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0

  20. An application of second-order UV-derivative spectrophotometry for study of solvolysis of a novel fluocinolone acetonide ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Bojan; Vladimirov, Sote; Cudina, Olivera; Savic, Vladimir; Karljikovic-Rajic, Katarina

    2010-02-01

    A novel topical corticosteroid FA-21-PhP, 2-phenoxypropionate ester of fluocinolone acetonide, has been synthesized in order to investigate the possibility of decreasing systemic side effects. In this study model system for in vitro solvolytic reaction of FA-21-PhP has been analyzed in ethanol/water (90:10, v/v) with excess of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The selected conditions have been used as in vitro model for activation of corticosteroid C-21 ester prodrug. The second-order derivative spectrophotometric method (DS) using zero-crossing technique was developed for monitoring ternary mixture of solvolysis. Fluocinolone acetonide (FA) as a solvolyte was determined in the mixture in the concentration range 0.062-0.312 mM using amplitude (2)D(274.96). Experimentally determined LOD value was 0.0295 mM. The accuracy of proposed DS method was confirmed with HPLC referent method. Peak area of parent ester FA-21-PhP was used for solvolysis monitoring to ensure the initial stage of changes. Linear relationship in HPLC assay for parent ester was obtained in the concentration range 0.054-0.54 mM, with experimentally determined LOD value of 0.0041 mM. Investigated solvolytic reaction in the presence of excess of NaHCO(3) proceeded via a pseudo-first-order kinetic with significant correlation coefficients 0.9891 and 0.9997 for DS and HPLC, respectively. The values of solvolysis rate constant calculated according to DS and HPLC methods are in good accordance 0.038 and 0.043 h(-1), respectively. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative effect of order based resistance exercises on number of repetitions, rating of perceived exertion and muscle damage biomarkers in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arazi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that both of the resistance exercise orders were equally effective in muscle damage parameters (CK, lactate, RPE and the average of the total number of exercise repetitions, although when the exercise session progressed, the number of repetitions performed to volitional failure decreased in last exercise in one single order, and the exercise order can influence performance.

  2. Ending to What End? The Impact of the Termination of Court-Desegregation Orders on Residential Segregation and School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, David D.

    2018-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Supreme Court established standards to facilitate the release of school districts from racial desegregation orders. Over the next two decades, federal courts declared almost half of all districts under court order in 1991 to be "unitary"--that is, to have met their obligations to eliminate dual systems of…

  3. Solar photocatalytic degradation of mono azo methyl orange and diazo reactive green 19 in single and binary dye solutions: adsorbability vs photodegradation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Soon-An; Min, Ohm-Mar; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of adsorbability and number of sulfonate group on solar photocatalytic degradation of mono azo methyl orange (MO) and diazo Reactive Green 19 (RG19) in single and binary dye solutions. The adsorption capacity of MO and RG19 onto the TiO₂ was 16.9 and 26.8 mg/g, respectively, in single dye solution, and reduced to 5.0 and 23.1 mg/g, respectively, in the binary dye solution. The data obtained for photocatalytic degradation of MO and RG19 in single and binary dye solution were well fitted with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of diazo RG19 were significant higher than the mono azo MO either in single or binary dye solutions. The higher number of sulfonate group in RG19 contributed to better adsorption capacity onto the surface of TiO₂ than MO indicating greater photocatalytic degradation rate.

  4. Association between hospital rates of early Do-Not-Resuscitate orders and favorable neurological survival among survivors of inhospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Timothy J; Spertus, John A; Kennedy, Kevin F; Chan, Paul S

    2017-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend deferring prognostication for 48 to 72 hours after resuscitation from inhospital cardiac arrest. It is unknown whether hospitals vary in making patients who survive an arrest Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) early after resuscitation and whether a hospital's rate of early DNR is associated with its rate of favorable neurological survival. Within Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation, we identified 24,899 patients from 236 hospitals who achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after inhospital cardiac arrest between 2006 and 2012. Hierarchical models were constructed to derive risk-adjusted hospital rates of DNR status adoption ≤12 hours after ROSC and risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (without severe disability; Cerebral Performance Category ≤2). The association between hospitals' rates of early DNR and favorable neurological survival was evaluated using correlation statistics. Of 236 hospitals, 61.7% were academic, 83% had ≥200 beds, and 94% were urban. Overall, 5577 (22.4%) patients were made DNR ≤12 hours after ROSC. Risk-adjusted hospital rates of early DNR varied widely (7.1%-40.5%, median: 22.7% [IQR: 19.3%-26.1%]; median OR of 1.48). Significant hospital variation existed in risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (3.5%-44.8%, median: 25.3% [IQR: 20.2%-29.4%]; median OR 1.72). Hospitals' risk-adjusted rates of early DNR were inversely correlated with their risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (r=-0.179, P=.006). Despite current guideline recommendations, many patients with inhospital cardiac arrest are made DNR within 12 hours after ROSC, and hospitals vary widely in rates of early DNR. Higher hospital rates of early DNR were associated with worse meaningful survival outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. n-Order and maximum fuzzy similarity entropy for discrimination of signals of different complexity: Application to fetal heart rate signals

    OpenAIRE

    Zaylaa, Amira,; Oudjemia, Souad; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents two new concepts for discrimination of signals of different complexity. The first focused initially on solving the problem of setting entropy descriptors by varying the pattern size instead of the tolerance. This led to the search for the optimal pattern size that maximized the similarity entropy. The second paradigm was based on the n-order similarity entropy that encompasses the 1-order similarity entropy. To improve the statistical stability, n-o...

  6. Direct measurements of the rate constants of the reactions NCN + NO and NCN + NO2 behind shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeier, J; Friedrichs, G

    2011-12-22

    The high-temperature rate constants of the reactions NCN + NO and NCN + NO(2) have been directly measured behind shock waves under pseudo-first-order conditions. NCN has been generated by the pyrolysis of cyanogen azide (NCN(3)) and quantitatively detected by sensitive difference amplification laser absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength of 329.1302 nm. The NCN(3) decomposition initially yields electronically excited (1)NCN radicals, which are subsequently transformed to the triplet ground state by collision-induced intersystem crossing (CIISC). CIISC efficiencies were found to increase in the order of Ar < NO(2) < NO as the collision gases. The rate constants of the NCN + NO/NO(2) reactions can be expressed as k(NCN+NO)/(cm(3) mol(-1)s(-1)) = 1.9 × 10(12) exp[-26.3 (kJ/mol)/RT] (±7%,ΔE(a) = ± 1.6 kJ/mol, 764 K < T < 1944 K) and k(NCN+NO(2))/(cm(3) mol(-1)s(-1)) = 4.7 × 10(12) exp[-38.0(kJ/mol)/RT] (±19%,ΔE(a) = ± 3.8 kJ/mol, 704 K < T < 1659 K). In striking contrast to reported low-temperature measurements, which are dominated by recombination processes, both reaction rates show a positive temperature dependence and are independent of the total density (1.7 × 10(-6) mol/cm(3) < ρ < 7.6 × 10(-6) mol/cm(3)). For both reactions, the minima of the total rate constants occur at temperatures below 700 K, showing that, at combustion-relevant temperatures, the overall reactions are dominated by direct or indirect abstraction pathways according to NCN + NO → CN + N(2)O and NCN + NO(2) → NCNO + NO.

  7. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-01-01

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (CO) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (CO), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):P1,CO = 7.38 × 10-14 exp(-274 K/T) + 9.17 × 10-12 exp(-2499 K/T) (285-1355 K)S10,CO = 1.20 × 10-11 exp(-2046 K/T) + 2.20 × 10-13 exp(160 K/T) (222-1464 K)S11,CO = 4.50 × 10-11 exp(-3000 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1440 K/T) (248-1302 K)S11′,CO = 3.80 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1550 K/T) (263-1370 K)S 21,CO = 5.00 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 4.00 × 10-13 exp(775 K/T) (297-1376 K) © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  8. An Observational Study of the Impact of a Computerized Physician Order Entry System on the Rate of Medication Errors in an Orthopaedic Surgery Unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Hernandez

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of the implementation of a Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE associated with a pharmaceutical checking of medication orders on medication errors in the 3 stages of drug management (i.e. prescription, dispensing and administration in an orthopaedic surgery unit.A before-after observational study was conducted in the 66-bed orthopaedic surgery unit of a teaching hospital (700 beds in Paris France. Direct disguised observation was used to detect errors in prescription, dispensing and administration of drugs, before and after the introduction of computerized prescriptions. Compliance between dispensing and administration on the one hand and the medical prescription on the other hand was studied. The frequencies and types of errors in prescribing, dispensing and administration were investigated.During the pre and post-CPOE period (two days for each period 111 and 86 patients were observed, respectively, with corresponding 1,593 and 1,388 prescribed drugs. The use of electronic prescribing led to a significant 92% decrease in prescribing errors (479/1593 prescribed drugs (30.1% vs 33/1388 (2.4%, p < 0.0001 and to a 17.5% significant decrease in administration errors (209/1222 opportunities (17.1% vs 200/1413 (14.2%, p < 0.05. No significant difference was found in regards to dispensing errors (430/1219 opportunities (35.3% vs 449/1407 (31.9%, p = 0.07.The use of CPOE and a pharmacist checking medication orders in an orthopaedic surgery unit reduced the incidence of medication errors in the prescribing and administration stages. The study results suggest that CPOE is a convenient system for improving the quality and safety of drug management.

  9. Forecasting the Nysa Kłodzka flow rate in order to predict the available flow for a run-off-river (ROR power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroelectricity is generally perceived as a stable and predictable power source. However ROR power plant without reservoir energy output is mainly driven by changing flow rate. This study applies artificial neural networks to create flow rate forecasts with one hour lead time. Forecasting models were built for Nysa Kłodzka catchment which possesses significant potential for new hydropower plants development as well as leads to frequent floods. The best of the obtained model gives satisfactory results both in terms of root mean square error (0.6379 m3/s as well as Nash-Sutcliffe performance indicator (0.9978. Obtained results were compared with currently used forecasting models and were proven to be superior.

  10. Technology Research, Integration, and Demonstration (TRIAD) Program, Delivery Order 0013: High Strain Rate Tension Testing of Titanium 6-2-4-2S at Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    SMART Lab Point of contact : John Chumack Telephone/Fax: 937-229-4426 Address: Manufacturer: MTS 2 Poster Frame & controller Manufacturer’s reference...public release. Distribution is unlimited. Station# 6 Goekel_AFRL_High Rate Tensile Program LB9021 Testing laboratory: SMART Lab Point of contact ...Dantec Dyanmics Q400 low speed imaging system, 17mm lens Dantec Dynamics Q450 high speed DIC 3D Imaging Camera system 100mm lenses & 3x extentions

  11. Virtual Instrument for Determining Rate Constant of Second-Order Reaction by pX Based on LabVIEW 8.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hu; Li, Jiang-Yuan; Tang, Yong-Huai

    2009-01-01

    The virtual instrument system based on LabVIEW 8.0 for ion analyzer which can measure and analyze ion concentrations in solution is developed and comprises homemade conditioning circuit, data acquiring board, and computer. It can calibrate slope, temperature, and positioning automatically. When applied to determine the reaction rate constant by pX, it achieved live acquiring, real-time displaying, automatical processing of testing data, generating the report of results; and other functions. This method simplifies the experimental operation greatly, avoids complicated procedures of manual processing data and personal error, and improves veracity and repeatability of the experiment results.

  12. Virtual Instrument for Determining Rate Constant of Second-Order Reaction by pX Based on LabVIEW 8.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hu; Li, Jiang-Yuan; Tang, Yong-Huai

    2009-01-01

    The virtual instrument system based on LabVIEW 8.0 for ion analyzer which can measure and analyze ion concentrations in solution is developed and comprises homemade conditioning circuit, data acquiring board, and computer. It can calibrate slope, temperature, and positioning automatically. When applied to determine the reaction rate constant by pX, it achieved live acquiring, real-time displaying, automatical processing of testing data, generating the report of results; and other functions. This method simplifies the experimental operation greatly, avoids complicated procedures of manual processing data and personal error, and improves veracity and repeatability of the experiment results. PMID:19730752

  13. Can ethanol be used as an adjuvant to extended curettage in order to reduce the recurrence rate of aneurysmal bone cyst?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Solooki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The best treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of extended curettage and ethanol as an adjuvant to reduce local recurrence of ABCs. METHODS: Retrospectively, 68 cases treated for primary and secondary ABCs caused by benign tumors from 2003 to 2013 were enrolled to a follow-up visit between one to ten years after the surgery. The treatment protocol was en-bloc resection, biopsy and curettage, extended curettage consisted of curettage, high-speed burring, ethanol 96%, and electrocauterization (combined four-step alcohol-using approach followed by defect filling, consecutively. RESULTS: Among 36 patients with primary ABCs (16 male, 20 female, mean age of 16 years, range 3-46 years, 29 cases were treated with the combined four-step alcohol-using approach, four patients with resection, and three with biopsy and curettage. Thirty-two cases had secondary ABCs on benign lesions (17 male, 15 female. The recurrence rate was 5.88 in all primary and secondary ABC cases; two recurrences among 29 patients with primary ABCs (6.9% and one recurrence among the 22 cases with secondary ABCs (4.5%. CONCLUSIONS: It could be suggested that the combined four-step alcohol-using approach may result in a very low recurrence rate of primary and secondary ABC lesions.

  14. Word Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The way constituents are ordered in a linguistic expression is determined by general principles and language specific rules. This article is mostly concerned with general ordering principles and the three main linguistic categories that are relevant for constituent order research: formal......, functional and semantic categories. The general principles appear to be motivated by cognitive considerations, which are deemed to facilitate language processing and which can all be regarded as manifestations of iconicity: non-arbitrary relations between the form and the content of a linguistic expression....... Three major iconic ordering principles are the principles of Domain Integrity, Scope, and Head Proximity....

  15. Should hip fractures be operated upon only by specialist hip unit surgeons in order to lower rates of surgical site infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerado, Enrique; Cano, Juan R; Cruz, Encarnacion; Bertrand, María Luisa; Hirschfeld, Miguel; Benitez-Parejo, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of hip fractures treated by orthopaedic surgeons, performed by specialist vs. non-specialist surgeons. The rate of surgical site infection (SSI) obtained is taken as the main variable. This was a prospective controlled cohort study of 814 patients presenting with hip fractures, operated on by a group of orthopaedic surgeons within the same hospital department. Patients were classified according to whether the surgeons belonged to a specialist hip unit (group A = 212 cases) or not (group B = 602 cases). Multivariate logistic regression showed that there was no relation between gender, SSI, Charlson's index, preoperative period, surgical technique or study groups (A or B). Only age was a determinant factor (rank-sum test p = 0.03; OR 95% CI = 1.07, p = 0.005). Since there were no differences in the SSI outcome between surgeons working in a specialist hip unit and the general orthopaedic surgeons, delaying operative treatment for hip fractures to enable treatment in such a unit or creating a new unit of this type is not necessary. In this respect, the only significant variable is the patient's age.

  16. Cooperation between bound waters and hydroxyls in controlling isotope-exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasci, Adele F.; McAlpin, J. Gregory; Ohlin, C. André; Christensen, Shauna; Fettinger, James C.; Britt, R. David; Rustad, James R.; Casey, William H.

    2012-02-01

    Mineral oxides differ from aqueous ions in that the bound water molecules are usually attached to different metal centers, or vicinal, and thus separated from one another. In contrast, for most monomeric ions used to establish kinetic reactivity trends, such as octahedral aquo ions (e.g., Al(H 2O) 63+), the bound waters are closely packed, or geminal. Because of this structural difference, the existing literature about ligand substitution in monomer ions may be a poor guide to the reactions of geochemical interest. To understand how coordination of the reactive functional groups might affect the rates of simple water-exchange reactions, we synthesized two structurally similar Rh(III) complexes, [Rh(phen) 2(H 2O) 2] 3+ [ 1] and [Rh(phen) 2(H 2O)Cl] 2+ [ 2] where (phen) = 1,10-phenanthroline. Complex [ 1] has two adjacent, geminal, bound waters in the inner-coordination sphere and [ 2] has a single bound water adjacent to a bound chloride ion. We employed Rh(III) as a trivalent metal rather than a more geochemically relevant metal like Fe(III) or Al(III) to slow the rate of reaction, which makes possible measurement of the rates of isotopic substitution by simple mass spectrometry. We prepared isotopically pure versions of the molecules, dissolved them into isotopically dissimilar water, and measured the rates of exchange from the extents of 18O and 16O exchange at the bound waters. The pH dependency of rates differ enormously between the two complexes. Pseudo-first-order rate coefficients at 298 K for water exchanges from the fully protonated molecules are close: k0298 = 5 × 10 -8(±0.5 × 10 -8) s -1 for [ 1] and k0298 = 2.5 × 10 -9(±1 × 10 -9) for [ 2]. Enthalpy and entropy activation parameters (Δ H‡ and Δ S‡) were measured to be 119(±3) kJ mol -1, and 14(±1) J mol -1 K -1, respectively for [ 1]. The corresponding parameters for the mono-aquo complex, [ 2], are 132(±3) kJ mol -1 and 41.5(±2) J mol -1 K -1. Rates increase by many orders of magnitude

  17. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  18. The Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at T = 295 - 150K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Andre S.; Payne, Walter A.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.; Stief, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction between the hydrogen atom and the ethyl (C2H3) radical is predicted by photochemical modeling to be the most important loss process for C2H5 radicals in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. This reaction is also one of the major sources for the methyl radicals in these atmospheres. These two simplest hydrocarbon radicals are the initial species for the synthesis of larger hydrocarbons. Previous measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction varied by a factor of five at room temperature, and some studies showed a dependence upon temperature while others showed no such dependence. In addition, the previous studies were at higher temperatures and generally higher pressures than that needed for use in planetary atmospheric models. The rate constant for the reaction H + C2H5 has been measured directly at T = 150, 202 and 295 K and at P = 1.0 Torr He for all temperatures and additionally at P = 0.5 and 2.0 Torr He at T = 202 K. The measurements were performed in a discharge - fast flow system. The decay of the C2H5 radical in the presence of excess hydrogen was monitored by low-energy electron impact mass spectrometry under pseudo-first order conditions. H atoms and C2H5 radicals were generated rapidly and simultaneously by the reaction of fluorine atoms with H2 and C2H6, respectively. The total rate constant was found to be temperature and pressure independent. The measured total rate constant at each temperature are: k(sub 1)(295K) = (1.02+/-0.24)x10(exp -10), k(sub 1)(202K) = (1.02+/-0.22)x10(exp -10) and k(sub 1)(150K) = (0.93+/-0.21)x10(exp -10), all in units of cu cm/molecule/s. The total rate constant derived from all the combined measurements is k(sub 1) = (l.03+/-0.17)x10(exp -10) cu cm/molecule/s. At room temperature our results are about a factor of two higher than the recommended rate constant and a factor of three lower than the most recently published study.

  19. Shock tube measurements of the rate constants for seven large alkanes+OH

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Reaction rate constants for seven large alkanes + hydroxyl (OH) radicals were measured behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The alkanes, n-hexane, 2-methyl-pentane, 3-methyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-butane, 2,3-dimethyl-butane, 2-methyl-heptane, and 4-methyl-heptane, were selected to investigate the rates of site-specific H-abstraction by OH at secondary and tertiary carbons. Hydroxyl radicals were monitored using narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1(5) transition of the OH spectrum near 306.7 nm. The high sensitivity of the diagnostic enabled the use of low reactant concentrations and pseudo-first-order kinetics. Rate constants were measured at temperatures ranging from 880 K to 1440 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. High-temperature measurements of the rate constants for OH + n-hexane and OH + 2,2-dimethyl-butane are in agreement with earlier studies, and the rate constants of the five other alkanes with OH, we believe, are the first direct measurements at combustion temperatures. Using these measurements and the site-specific H-abstraction measurements of Sivaramakrishnan and Michael (2009) [1,2], general expressions for three secondary and two tertiary abstraction rates were determined as follows (the subscripts indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon): S20=1.58×10-11exp(-1550K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(887-1327K)S30=2.37×10-11exp(-1850K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(887-1327K)S21=4.5×10-12exp(-793.7K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(833-1440K)T100=2.85×10-11exp(-1138.3K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(878-1375K)T101=7.16×10-12exp(-993K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(883-1362K) © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  20. Explicit and asymptotic solutions of simultaneous 1st-order and Riccati equations for a gas reaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Ashley E.; Wunsch, Jared; Lerman, Abraham

    2017-09-01

    Systems of simultaneous or parallel chemical reactions of the type A → B → C → Other products are often treated as first order or pseudo-first order. For a system of simultaneous first and second order reactions — dB/dt = kABA - kBCB2 and dC/dt = kBCB2 - kCC, where A, B, and C are concentrations, t is time, and the reaction rate parameters kAB and kC in yr-1 are 1st-order and kBC in cm3 molecule-1 yr-1 is 2nd-order — no explicit solution is available, as far as we are aware. This paper presents explicit and asymptotic solutions of simultaneous 1st- and 2nd order Riccati equations and applies them to a simplified sequence of gas reactions in the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn: CH4 methane (1st order, k12) → CH3 methyl (2nd order, k23) → C2H6 ethane (1st order, k3) → Other products. The Titan's atmosphere contains methane (CH4) at the present-day partial pressure of 0.1 bar, out of a total atmospheric pressure made up by nitrogen (N2) of 1.5 bar, comparable to Earth's. Methyl CH3 and ethane C2H6 are minor components. On Titan, methyl (CH3) is an intermediate product from methane to ethane, the latter raining out as liquid on Titan's surface. The main points of this paper are: (1) the asymptotic solutions that approximate near-steady state of Titan's atmosphere about 4.5 billion years after its accretion; (2) the computed present-day concentrations of the three gases in Titan's scale atmosphere (i.e., scale atmosphere is a model of an isothermal well mixed reservoir); and (3) the agreement between Titan's reported and computed atmospheric concentrations of CH4, CH3, and C2H6. The reaction rate parameters of the species are constants representative of their mean values during the satellite's cooling history. The present-day concentrations of methyl (CH3) and ethane (C2H6) are several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of methane (CH4). Since Titan's accretion about 4.5 billion years B.P., steady-state concentrations

  1. Peptide production and decay rates affect the quantitative accuracy of protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuford, Christopher M; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L; Muddiman, David C

    2012-09-01

    No consensus has been reached on the proper time to add stable-isotope labeled (SIL) peptides in protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry workflows. While quantifying 24 monolignol pathway enzymes in the xylem tissue of Populus trichocarpa, we compared the protein concentrations obtained when adding the SIL standard peptides concurrently with the enzyme or after quenching of the digestion (i.e. postdigestion) and observed discrepancies for nearly all tryptic peptides investigated. In some cases, greater than 30-fold differences were observed. To explain these differences and potentially correct for them, we developed a mathematical model based on pseudo-first-order kinetics to account for the dynamic production and decay (e.g. degradation and precipitation) of the native peptide targets in conjunction with the decay of the SIL peptide standards. A time course study of the digests confirmed the results predicted by the proposed model and revealed that the discrepancy between concurrent and postdigestion introduction of the SIL standards was related to differential decay experienced by the SIL peptide and the native peptide in each method. Given these results, we propose concurrent introduction of the SIL peptide is most appropriate, though not free from bias. Mathematical modeling of this method reveals that overestimation of protein quantities would still result when rapid peptide decay occurs and that this bias would be further exaggerated by slow proteolysis. We derive a simple equation to estimate the bias for each peptide based on the relative rates of production and decay. According to this equation, nearly half of the peptides evaluated here were estimated to have quantitative errors greater than 10% and in a few cases over 100%. We conclude that the instability of peptides can often significantly bias the protein quantities measured in protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry-based assays and suggest peptide stability be made a priority

  2. Orderly Sovereign Debt Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto,Otaviano; Pinto, Brian; Prasad, Mona

    2014-01-01

    An orderly sovereign debt restructuring should place the debtor nation's public debt on a sustainable trajectory while minimizing procrastination and contagion. However, the experiences with the debt crisis of the 1980s, Russia 1998, Argentina 2001, and Greece 2010 indicate that orderly debt restructurings remain elusive, even with high-powered official intervention. When solvency problems are present, the chances of success increase if official money is lent at the risk-free rate, reflecting...

  3. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2016-11-15

    This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus on assessing the efficiency of an adaptive hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and optimal interpolation (EnKF-OI) and the exact second-order sampling formulation (EnKFESOS) for mitigating the undersampling of the estimation and observation errors covariances, respectively. A multi-dimensional and multi-species reactive transport model is coupled to simulate the migration of contaminants within a Pleistocene aquifer layer located around 25 m below mean sea level. The biodegradation chain of chlorinated hydrocarbons starting from tetrachloroethene and ending with vinyl chloride is modeled under anaerobic environmental conditions for 5 decades. Yearly pseudo-concentration data are used to condition the forecast concentration and degradation rates in the presence of model and observational errors. Assimilation results demonstrate the robustness of the hybrid EnKF-OI, for accurately calibrating the uncertain biodegradation rates. When implemented serially, the adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme efficiently adjusts the weights of the involved covariances for each individual measurement. The EnKFESOS is shown to maintain the parameter ensemble spread much better leading to more robust estimates of the states and parameters. On average, a well tuned hybrid EnKF-OI and the EnKFESOS respectively suggest around 48 and 21 % improved concentration estimates, as well as around 70 and 23 % improved anaerobic degradation rates, over the standard EnKF. Incorporating large uncertainties in the flow model degrades the accuracy of the estimates of all schemes. Given that the performance of the hybrid EnKF-OI depends on the quality of the background statistics, satisfactory results were obtained only when the uncertainty imposed on the background

  4. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gharamti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus on assessing the efficiency of an adaptive hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and optimal interpolation (EnKF-OI and the exact second-order sampling formulation (EnKFESOS for mitigating the undersampling of the estimation and observation errors covariances, respectively. A multi-dimensional and multi-species reactive transport model is coupled to simulate the migration of contaminants within a Pleistocene aquifer layer located around 25 m below mean sea level. The biodegradation chain of chlorinated hydrocarbons starting from tetrachloroethene and ending with vinyl chloride is modeled under anaerobic environmental conditions for 5 decades. Yearly pseudo-concentration data are used to condition the forecast concentration and degradation rates in the presence of model and observational errors. Assimilation results demonstrate the robustness of the hybrid EnKF-OI, for accurately calibrating the uncertain biodegradation rates. When implemented serially, the adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme efficiently adjusts the weights of the involved covariances for each individual measurement. The EnKFESOS is shown to maintain the parameter ensemble spread much better leading to more robust estimates of the states and parameters. On average, a well tuned hybrid EnKF-OI and the EnKFESOS respectively suggest around 48 and 21 % improved concentration estimates, as well as around 70 and 23 % improved anaerobic degradation rates, over the standard EnKF. Incorporating large uncertainties in the flow model degrades the accuracy of the estimates of all schemes. Given that the performance of the hybrid EnKF-OI depends on the quality of the background statistics, satisfactory results were obtained only when the uncertainty imposed on

  5. The rate constant of the reaction NCN + H2 and its role in NCN and NO modeling in low pressure CH4/O2/N2-flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faßheber, Nancy; Lamoureux, Nathalie; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2015-06-28

    Bimolecular reactions of the NCN radical play a key role in modeling prompt-NO formation in hydrocarbon flames. The rate constant of the so-far neglected reaction NCN + H2 has been experimentally determined behind shock waves under pseudo-first order conditions with H2 as the excess component. NCN3 thermal decomposition has been used as a quantitative high temperature source of NCN radicals, which have been sensitively detected by difference UV laser absorption spectroscopy at [small nu, Greek, tilde] = 30383.11 cm(-1). The experiments were performed at two different total densities of ρ≈ 4.1 × 10(-6) mol cm(-3) and ρ≈ 7.4 × 10(-6) mol cm(-3) (corresponding to pressures between p = 324 mbar and p = 1665 mbar) and revealed a pressure independent reaction. In the temperature range 1057 K rate constant can be represented by the Arrhenius expression k/(cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) = 4.1 × 10(13) exp(-101 kJ mol(-1)/RT) (Δlog k = ±0.11). The pressure independent reaction as well as the measured activation energy is consistent with a dominating H abstracting reaction channel yielding the products HNCN + H. The reaction NCN + H2 has been implemented together with a set of reactions for subsequent HNCN and HNC chemistry into the detailed GDFkin3.0_NCN mechanism for NOx flame modeling. Two fuel-rich low-pressure CH4/O2/N2-flames served as examples to quantify the impact of the additional chemical pathways. Although the overall NCN consumption by H2 remains small, significant differences have been observed for NO yields with the updated mechanism. A detailed flux analysis revealed that HNC, mainly arising from HCN/HNC isomerization, plays a decisive role and enhances NO formation through a new HNC → HNCO → NH2→ NH → NO pathway.

  6. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of (Z)-CF3CH═CHCF3: OH radical reaction rate coefficient and global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2011-09-29

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) (cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene) were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) to produce OH and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to detect it. Rate coefficients were measured over a range of temperatures (212-374 K) and bath gas pressures (20-200 Torr; He, N(2)) and found to be independent of pressure over this range of conditions. The rate coefficient has a non-Arrhenius behavior that is well-described by the expression k(1)(T) = (5.73 ± 0.60) × 10(-19) × T(2) × exp[(678 ± 10)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) where k(1)(296 K) was measured to be (4.91 ± 0.50) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and the uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the analogous OD radical reaction were determined over a range of temperatures (262-374 K) at 100 Torr (He) to be k(2)(T) = (4.81 ± 0.20) × 10(-19) × T(2) × exp[(776 ± 15)/T], with k(2)(296 K) = (5.73 ± 0.50) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). OH radical rate coefficients were also measured at 296, 345, and 375 K using a relative rate technique and found to be in good agreement with the PLP-LIF results. A room-temperature rate coefficient for the O(3) + (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) reaction was measured using an absolute method with O(3) in excess to be reaction was estimated to be ~20 days. Infrared absorption spectra of (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) measured in this work were used to determine a (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) global warming potential (GWP) of ~9 for the 100 year time horizon. A comparison of the OH reactivity of (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) with other unsaturated fluorinated compounds is presented.

  8. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  9. Ramsey-type results for ordered hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Balko, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Ramsey-type results for ordered hypergraphs Martin Balko Abstract We introduce ordered Ramsey numbers, which are an analogue of Ramsey numbers for graphs with a linear ordering on their vertices. We study the growth rate of ordered Ramsey numbers of ordered graphs with respect to the number of vertices. We find ordered match- ings whose ordered Ramsey numbers grow superpolynomially. We show that ordered Ramsey numbers of ordered graphs with bounded degeneracy and interval chromatic number are...

  10. Perturbing effects of chiral stationary phase on enantiomerization second-order rate constants determined by enantioselective dynamic high-performance liquid chromatography: a practical tool to quantify the accessible acid and basic catalytic sites bonded on chromatographic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; Pierini, Marco; Siani, Gabriella

    2009-05-01

    Second-order rate constants of the diethylamine-promoted enantiomerization of 2-[2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-isoindole-1,3-dione, a chiral alpha-substituted ketone endowed with high anti-MAO activity type-A, were measured by dynamic high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), stopped-flow high-performance liquid chromatography (sf-HPLC), and a classical method based on enantioselective HPLC as the monitoring tool. The chiral column used in all determinations was the commercial Chiralpak AD. By comparison of the obtained data, perturbing effects of the stationary phase on the DHPLC and sf-HPLC determinations were highlighted and distinguished in indirect (SP(IPC)) and direct (SP(DPC)) type. It was evidenced that SP(DPC) noise effects may be completely erased by simple mathematical treatment of data obtained at different concentrations of the basic catalyst. Perturbations of type SP(IPC) may instead only be partially kept down by modulating the concentration of the basic catalyst. An estimation of the density distribution of catalytic sites covalently bonded to the stationary phase (SP) of the Chiralpak AD was performed exploiting the quantified SP(DPC) effects. Such an approach might be of general application, supplying a useful way to characterize the attitude of SPs to speed acid- or base-catalyzed equilibria possibly active during chromatographic separations.

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of four acids of different acid strengths, pseudo-first-order rate constants were obtained, and the reaction was found to be follow third order kinetics, first order in triazine, and second order in acid. The kinetic ... constant (36.7 at 25°), and its aprotic nature make it particularly useful for acid-base studies, and a good solvent for ...

  12. AGORAPHOBIC, ANIMAL, DEATH-INJURY-ILLNESS AND SOCIAL-STIMULI CLUSTERS AS MAJOR ELEMENTS IN A 4-DIMENSIONAL TAXONOMY OF SELF-RATED FEARS - 1ST-ORDER LEVEL CONFIRMATORY EVIDENCE FROM AN AUSTRALIAN SAMPLE OF ANXIETY DISORDER PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA; OEI, TPS; EVANS, L; VANDERENDE, J

    1991-01-01

    In a recent review article, Arrindell, Pickersgill, Merckelbach, Ardon, and Cornet (1991) (Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 73-130) proposed an a priori four-dimensional categorization system for the description of self-rated fears on the basis of suggestions from previous reviews and

  13. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...

  14. Ordered Rings and Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce ordered rings and fields following Artin-Schreier’s approach using positive cones. We show that such orderings coincide with total order relations and give examples of ordered (and non ordered rings and fields. In particular we show that polynomial rings can be ordered in (at least two different ways [8, 5, 4, 9]. This is the continuation of the development of algebraic hierarchy in Mizar [2, 3].

  15. Football Banning Orders, Proportionality and Public Order

    OpenAIRE

    Stott, Clifford; Pearson, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of the UK legislation on football banning orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights, particularly with respect to Section 14B of the Football (Disorder) Act 2000. The article then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football ‘disorder’ that questions the determining role of the banning order in the reductio...

  16. The Study on Work Load Calibration by Using Step Test and Ergometer Test Was Carried Out in Order to Find the Best Way 10 Calibrate the Data Measurement and to Predict Human Work Load by Using Heart Rate Data. This Study Was Conducted on Four Male Subjects. But the Data Analysis Has Just Been Done to Three Subjects Due One of the Subject Was Insufficient Performance. the Sport Tester PE3000 Heart Rate Monitor is Used for Measuring the Heart Rate Data Which Will Be Useful for Predicting the Work

    OpenAIRE

    Herodian, Sam; Kastaman, Roni

    1998-01-01

    The study on Work Load Calibration by using Step Test and Ergometer test was carried out in order to find the best way 10 calibrate the data measurement and to predict human work load by using heart rate data. This study was conducted on four male subjects. but the data analysis has just been done to three subjects due one of the subject was insufficient performance. The sport tester PE3000 heart rate monitor is used for measuring the heart rate data which will be useful for predicting the wo...

  17. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  18. Kinetics of the Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin of White Wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the kinetics of adsorption of bovine serum albumin, BSA, in white wine model solutions onto activated carbon, AC, and alumina, AL. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to determine the rate and mechanism of adsorption of the white wine protein during the haze removal ...

  19. Kinetics of the Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin of White Wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2008-11-07

    Nov 7, 2008 ... This study investigates the kinetics of adsorption of bovine serum albumin, BSA, in white wine model solutions onto activated carbon, AC, and alumina, AL. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to determine the rate and mechanism of adsorption of the white wine protein during ...

  20. KINETICS OF SUBSTITUTION OF CIS-BIS(MALONATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Effect of concentration of amino acids. The pseudo-first order rate constants were evaluated from the straight line plot of log (A∞-At) vs. time by using KINTOB software procedure. The rate of the reaction increases with increase in the concentration of amino acids (Table 1). In the amino acid variation studies the pH was kept.

  1. Kinetics of Oxidation of Aliphatic Alcohols by Potassium Dichromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pseudo-first-order rate constants were found to be independent of concentration of the oxidant. The presence of TX-100 enhanced the rate of the reaction for all alcohols. Negative salt effects were observed with addition of KCl to the reaction mixture. A suitable mechanism for the reaction was suggested which agrees ...

  2. Modelling diurnal courses of photosynthesis and transpiration of leaves on the basis of stomatal and non-stomatal responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Goudriaan, J.; Wang, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model for photoinhibition of leaf photosynthesis was developed by formalising the assumptions that (1) the rate of photoinhibition is proportional to irradiance; and (2) the rate of recovery, derived from the formulae for a pseudo first-order process, is proportional to the extent of

  3. First-order inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  4. SNV's modes of ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, John; Duim, van der Rene

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an aidnographic approach to examine how internal organizational modes of ordering have influenced tourism development practices of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). Our research revealed six modes of ordering: administration, project management, enterprising,

  5. Reaction rate and isomer-specific product branching ratios of C2H + C4H8: 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene at 79 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Jordy; Fournier, Martin; Sims, Ian R; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2013-06-20

    The reactions of C2H radicals with C4H8 isomers 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene are studied by laser photolysis-vacuum ultraviolet mass spectrometry in a Laval nozzle expansion at 79 K. Bimolecular-reaction rate constants are obtained by measuring the formation rate of the reaction product species as a function of the reactant density under pseudo-first-order conditions. The rate constants are (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (2.1 ± 0.7) × 10(-10), and (1.8 ± 0.9) × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) for the reaction of C2H with 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene, respectively. Bimolecular rate constants for 1-butene and isobutene compare well to values measured previously at 103 K using C2H chemiluminescence. Photoionization spectra of the reaction products are measured and fitted to ionization spectra of the contributing isomers. In conjunction with absolute-ionization cross sections, these fits provide isomer-resolved product branching fractions. The reaction between C2H and 1-butene yields (65 ± 10)% C4H4 in the form of vinylacetylene and (35 ± 10)% C5H6 in the form of 4-penten-1-yne. The cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene reactions yield solely 3-penten-1-yne, and no discrimination is made between cis- and trans-3-penten-1-yne. Last, the isobutene reaction yields (26 ± 15)% 3-penten-1-yne, (35 ± 15)% 2-methyl-1-buten-3-yne, and (39 ± 15)% 4-methyl-3-penten-1-yne. The branching fractions reported for the C2H and butene reactions indicate that these reactions preferentially proceed via CH3 or C2H3 elimination rather than H-atom elimination. Within the experimental uncertainties, no evidence is found for the formation of cyclic species.

  6. Inventory order crossovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2006-01-01

    The control policies that are used in inventory management systems assume that orders arrive in the same sequence as they were ordered. Due to changes in supply chains and markets, this assumption is no longer valid. This paper aims at providing an improved understanding of the phenomenon of order

  7. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  8. Shear viscosity of an ordering latex suspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, A.M.; van der Vorst, B.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Aelmans, N.J.J.; Mellema, J.

    1997-01-01

    The shear viscosity of a latex which is ordered at rest is studied as a function of the shear rate and volume fraction. At low shear rates and for moderate to high volume fractions, the flow curves show dynamic yield behavior which disappears below a volume fraction of 8%. At high shear rates, the

  9. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari

    1996-01-01

    Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre-production, pu......Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre...

  10. Order in Chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2014-01-01

    Ballot order effects are well documented in established democracies, but less so in fragile post-conflict settings. We test for the presence of ballot order effects in the 2010 parliamentary election in Afghanistan. Turning out for the 2010 election was a potentially life-threatening endeavor...... for the Afghan voter. The election provides a first look at ballot order effects in a high stakes, post-conflict setting. In this setting limited cognitive skills and information are more likely explanations of potential ballot order effects than mechanisms of lacking of effort or ambivalence of choice...

  11. THE ENIGMATIC ORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and SADF Champion. Shot. Medal. The continually evolving character of the Order is, to reiterate, rooted in the lack of a firm historical foundation. Thus, any discussion of the Order of the. Star of South Africa must first examine ... case of their religious ancestors, gener- ally had a patron saint and sought pa- pal confirmation.

  12. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND HYDROLYSIS OF NEW ASPIRIN-DERIVED AND TRIFLUSAL-DERIVED ORTHO ESTERS AND ANHYDRIDES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FALBORG, L; SENNING, A

    1993-01-01

    Ten new 2-substituted 2-methyl-2-oxy-4H-1,3-benzodioxin-4-ones, 4a-i and 6, have been synthesized and their rate constants of pseudo-first-order non-enzymatic hydrolysis determined. One of the compounds, 2-(2-acetoxybenzoyloxy)-2-methyl-4H-1,3-benzodioxin-4-one, 6, is a new anhydride of aspirin...

  14. Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on OH ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on ... depending on the concentration of acid and electron-withdrawing power, solute .... reaction of. •. OH radical with PTA was determined by formation kinetic studies at 330 and. 360 nm. The pseudo-first order rate increased linearly with solute concentration and ...

  15. Counterion Binding Effects on the Micellar Catalysis of the Base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of counterion binding on micellar catalysis of the base hydrolysis of FE(phen) has been investaged. Pseudo first order rate constant, k , incrases with increase in the concentrations of ME NCI and (But) NC1 at any fixed Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) concentration while the reserve is the case with NH CL.

  16. Evaluation of adsorption capacity of acetaminophen on activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pseudo first order kinetic model when compared with intra-particle diffusion model with R2 values of 0.991 in pH 6.5 for the acetaminophen adsorption via powdered activated charcoal, thus reflecting high correlation coefficients. This model suggests that physisorption is the rate controlling mechanism via which adsorption.

  17. Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water using TiO 2 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all cases, the kinetics of the photo catalytic oxidation of methyl orange followed a pseudo first order model and the apparent rate constant may depend on several factors such as, the nature and concentration of the organic compound, radiant flux, the solution pH and the presence of other organic substances.

  18. An Analogy Using Pennies and Dimes to Explain Chemical Kinetics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Perez, Wanda I.; Lopez, Jose R.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an analogy that uses coins and graphical analysis to teach kinetics concepts and resolve pseudo-first-order rate constants related to transition-metal complexes ligand-solvent exchange reactions. They describe an activity that is directed to upper-division undergraduate and graduate students. The activity…

  19. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    , CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  20. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  1. Second order Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Espin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU(2×SU(4⊂SO(9 unified theory.

  2. Mathematics of aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Daniel; Savinien, Jean

    2015-01-01

    What is order that is not based on simple repetition, that is, periodicity? How must atoms be arranged in a material so that it diffracts like a quasicrystal? How can we describe aperiodically ordered systems mathematically? Originally triggered by the – later Nobel prize-winning – discovery of quasicrystals, the investigation of aperiodic order has since become a well-established and rapidly evolving field of mathematical research with close ties to a surprising variety of branches of mathematics and physics. This book offers an overview of the state of the art in the field of aperiodic order, presented in carefully selected authoritative surveys. It is intended for non-experts with a general background in mathematics, theoretical physics or computer science, and offers a highly accessible source of first-hand information for all those interested in this rich and exciting field. Topics covered include the mathematical theory of diffraction, the dynamical systems of tilings or Delone sets, their cohomolog...

  3. The Order of Preachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fenelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the birth and development of the Order of Preachers during the Middle Ages along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  4. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    that ‘good order and police’ was in demand by the subjects and also adapted to local needs. Inspired by this research this article investigates the enforcement of police ordinances in the market towns of Aalborg and Sæby and the country district of Børglum-Jerslev. The results show that policing remained...... of governing, ‘police’ was both a way both to govern free burghers and preserve traditional order....

  5. NOC rate card catalog

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Salt Lake 2002 rate card is a detailed list of products and services available for rent by National Olympic Committees (NOCs) during the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games. The rental process, explained in this document, includes ordering, invoicing, payment, procurement, delivery, installation, commissioning, on-site maintenance and service, collection and removal of rate card products.

  6. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  7. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  8. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  9. Nuclear order in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annila, A.J.; Clausen, K.N.; Lindgård, P-A.

    1990-01-01

    A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show the prese......A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show...

  10. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  11. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  12. Land and World Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  13. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    been a number of studies recently looking at whether order of draw remains a problem with modern phlebotomy techniques and materials, or it is an outdated practice followed simply because of historical reasons. In the following article, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory...

  14. Orbital ordering and frustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Mostovoy, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital ordering occurs in many transition metal compounds with Jahn–Teller ions (Cu2+, Mn3+, low-spin Ni3+, Ti3+ etc). It plays an important role in these materials. At the same time, exchange interactions in orbitally degenerate systems are inherently frustrated, even in materials with simple

  15. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  16. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must...

  17. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of the hydroxyl radical with CH2=CHF and CH2=CF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Knight, Gary; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2010-04-08

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with CH(2)=CHF (k(1)) and CH(2)=CF(2) (k(2)) were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH and laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) to detect it. Rate coefficients were measured over a range of temperature (220-373 K) and bath gas pressure (20-600 Torr; He, N(2)). The rate coefficients were found to be independent of pressure. The measured rate coefficient for reaction 1 at room temperature was k(1)(296 K) = (5.18 +/- 0.50) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), independent of pressure, and the temperature dependence is given by the Arrhenius expression k(1)(T) = (1.75 +/- 0.20) x 10(-12) exp[(316 +/- 25)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); the rate coefficients for reaction 2 were k(2)(296 K) = (2.79 +/- 0.25) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(2)(T) = (1.75 +/- 0.20) x 10(-12) exp[(140 +/- 20)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The quoted uncertainties are 2sigma (95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors. The fall-off parameters for reaction 2 of k(infinity) = 3 x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(0)(296 K) = 1.8 x 10(-28) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) with F(c) = 0.6 reproduce the room temperature data obtained in this study combined with the low pressure rate coefficient data from Howard (J. Chem. Phys. 1976, 65, 4771). OH radical formation was observed for reactions 1 and 2 in the presence of O(2), and the mechanism was investigated using (18)OH and OD rate coefficient measurements with CH(2)=CHF and CH(2)=CF(2) over a range of temperature (260-373 K) and pressure (20-100 Torr, He). Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) were used to determine the geometries and energies of the reactants and adducts formed in reactions 1 and 2 and the peroxy radicals formed following the addition of O(2). The atmospheric lifetimes of CH(2)=CHF and CH(2)=CF(2) due to loss by reaction with OH are approximately 2 and 4

  18. Order patterns and chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, Jose M. [Centro de Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain)]. E-mail: jm.amigo@umh.es; Kocarev, Ljupco [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0402 (United States); Szczepanski, Janusz [Institute for Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, PL-00-049 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-06-19

    Chaotic maps can mimic random behavior in a quite impressive way. In particular, those possessing a generating partition can produce any symbolic sequence by properly choosing the initial state. We study in this Letter the ability of chaotic maps to generate order patterns and come to the conclusion that their performance in this respect falls short of expectations. This result reveals some basic limitation of a deterministic dynamic as compared to a random one. This being the case, we propose a non-statistical test based on 'forbidden' order patterns to discriminate chaotic from truly random time series with, in principle, arbitrarily high probability. Some relations with discrete chaos and chaotic cryptography are also discussed.

  19. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2017-02-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution, we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  20. Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pellicer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials” covers novel synthetic aspects of mesoporous materials and explores their use in diverse areas like drug delivery, photocatalysis, filtration or electrocatalysis. The range of materials tackled includes metals and alloys, aluminosilicates, silica, alumina and transition metal oxides. The variety of materials, synthetic approaches and applications examined is vivid proof of the interest that mesoporous materials spark among researchers world-wide.[...

  1. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  2. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  3. Gender Orders Unbound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity....

  4. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    , followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations......In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism...... into the ontological condition of tourism....

  5. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  6. Ordered sets and lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Drashkovicheva, Kh; Igoshin, V I; Katrinyak, T; Kolibiar, M

    1989-01-01

    This book is another publication in the recent surveys of ordered sets and lattices. The papers, which might be characterized as "reviews of reviews," are based on articles reviewed in the Referativnyibreve Zhurnal: Matematika from 1978 to 1982. For the sake of completeness, the authors also attempted to integrate information from other relevant articles from that period. The bibliography of each paper provides references to the reviews in RZhMat and Mathematical Reviews where one can seek more detailed information. Specifically excluded from consideration in this volume were such topics as al

  7. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...

  8. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others....... The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...

  9. Order without design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurakin Alexei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and

  10. Order without design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakin, Alexei

    2010-04-14

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents.

  11. Fundamental Studies of Novel Zwitterionic Hybrid Membranes: Kinetic Model and Mechanism Insights into Strontium Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Wen; Liu, Junsheng; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    ...., Lagergren pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and Elovich models). Adsorption mechanism was evaluated using intraparticle diffusion model, diffusion-chemisorption model, and Boyd equation...

  12. The Impact of Order Source Misattribution on Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) Performance Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, George A; Catzoela, Linda; Patel, Lajja; Bruner, Kylynn; Friedman, Felix; Ramirez, Ricardo; Saucedo, Lilliana; Webster, S Luke; Gillean, John A

    2017-01-01

    One strategy to foster adoption of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) by physicians is the monthly distribution of a list identifying the number and use rate percentage of orders entered electronically versus on paper by each physician in the facility. Physicians care about CPOE use rate reports because they support the patient safety and quality improvement objectives of CPOE implementation. Certain physician groups are also motivated because they participate in contracted financial and performance arrangements that include incentive payments or financial penalties for meeting (or failing to meet) a specified CPOE use rate target. Misattribution of order sources can hinder accurate measurement of individual physician CPOE use and can thereby undermine providers' confidence in their reported performance, as well as their motivation to utilize CPOE. Misattribution of order sources also has significant patient safety, quality, and medicolegal implications. This analysis sought to evaluate the magnitude and sources of misattribution among hospitalists with high CPOE use and, if misattribution was found, to formulate strategies to prevent and reduce its recurrence, thereby ensuring the integrity and credibility of individual and facility CPOE use rate reporting. A detailed manual order source review and validation of all orders issued by one hospitalist group at a midsize community hospital was conducted for a one-month study period. We found that a small but not dismissible percentage of orders issued by hospitalists-up to 4.18 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 3.84-4.56 percent) per month-were attributed inaccurately. Sources of misattribution by department or function were as follows: nursing, 42 percent; pharmacy, 38 percent; laboratory, 15 percent; unit clerk, 3 percent; and radiology, 2 percent. Order management and protocol were the most common correct order sources that were incorrectly attributed. Order source misattribution can negatively affect

  13. Biocatalytic induction of supramolecular order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew R.; Roy, Sangita; Arora, Meenakshi; Das, Apurba K.; Hodson, Nigel; Murray, Paul; Marshall, Stephen; Javid, Nadeem; Sefcik, Jan; Boekhoven, Job; van Esch, Jan H.; Santabarbara, Stefano; Hunt, Neil T.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2010-12-01

    Supramolecular gels, which demonstrate tunable functionalities, have attracted much interest in a range of areas, including healthcare, environmental protection and energy-related technologies. Preparing these materials in a reliable manner is challenging, with an increased level of kinetic defects observed at higher self-assembly rates. Here, by combining biocatalysis and molecular self-assembly, we have shown the ability to more quickly access higher-ordered structures. By simply increasing enzyme concentration, supramolecular order expressed at molecular, nano- and micro-levels is dramatically enhanced, and, importantly, the gelator concentrations remain identical. Amphiphile molecules were prepared by attaching an aromatic moiety to a dipeptide backbone capped with a methyl ester. Their self-assembly was induced by an enzyme that hydrolysed the ester. Different enzyme concentrations altered the catalytic activity and size of the enzyme clusters, affecting their mobility. This allowed structurally diverse materials that represent local minima in the free energy landscape to be accessed based on a single gelator structure.

  14. Symbols of a cosmic order

    CERN Document Server

    Madjid, F Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The world runs on communicated sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role...

  15. Reaction kinetics of resveratrol with tert-butoxyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džeba, Iva; Pedzinski, Tomasz; Mihaljević, Branka

    2012-09-01

    The rate constant for the reaction of t-butoxyl radicals with resveratrol was studied under pseudo-first order conditions. The rate constant was determined by measuring the phenoxyl radical formation rate at 390 nm as function of resveratrol concentration in acetonitrile. The rate constant was determined to be 6.5×108 M-1s-1. This high value indicates the high reactivity consistent with the strong antioxidant activity of resveratrol.

  16. A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and monod biotransformation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K(s), this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. We present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K(S) and in the zero-order approximation the error is K(s)/S. We then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K(s), it may better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of KS for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, we apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set.A formal error analysis is presented showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/KS and in the zero-order approximation the error is KS/S where S is the substrate

  17. Probabilities for separating sets of order statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, D H; Karimpour-Fard, A; Mandel, J; Muller, K E

    2010-04-01

    Consider a set of order statistics that arise from sorting samples from two different populations, each with their own, possibly different distribution functions. The probability that these order statistics fall in disjoint, ordered intervals and that of the smallest statistics, a certain number come from the first populations is given in terms of the two distribution functions. The result is applied to computing the joint probability of the number of rejections and the number of false rejections for the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate procedure.

  18. Order acceptance with reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainegra Hing, M.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Order Acceptance (OA) is one of the main functions in a business control framework. Basically, OA involves for each order a 0/1 (i.e., reject/accept) decision. Always accepting an order when capacity is available could unable the system to accept more convenient orders in the future. Another

  19. On orderability of topological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rangan

    1985-01-01

    can be induced by a total order compatible with the group structure is given and such groups are called ordered or orderable topological groups. A separable totally disconnected ordered topological group is proved to be non-archimedean metrizable while the converse is shown to be false by means of an example. A necessary and sufficient condition for a no-totally disconnected locally compact abelian group to be orderable is also given.

  20. CH3CO + O2 + M (M = He, N2) Reaction Rate Coefficient Measurements and Implications for the OH Radical Product Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Karafas, Emmanuel S; Gierczak, Tomasz; Burkholder, James B

    2015-07-16

    The gas-phase CH3CO + O2 reaction is known to proceed via a chemical activation mechanism leading to the formation of OH and CH3C(O)OO radicals via bimolecular and termolecular reactive channels, respectively. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the CH3CO + O2 reaction were measured over a range of temperature (241-373 K) and pressure (0.009-600 Torr) with He and N2 as the bath gas and used to characterize the bi- and ter-molecular reaction channels. Three independent experimental methods (pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF), pulsed laser photolysis-cavity ring-down spectroscopy (PLP-CRDS), and a very low-pressure reactor (VLPR)) were used to characterize k(T,M). PLP-LIF was the primary method used to measure k(T,M) in the high-pressure regime under pseudo-first-order conditions. CH3CO was produced by PLP, and LIF was used to monitor the OH radical bimolecular channel reaction product. CRDS, a complementary high-pressure method, measured k(295 K,M) over the pressure range 25-600 Torr (He) by monitoring the temporal CH3CO radical absorption following its production via PLP in the presence of excess O2. The VLPR technique was used in a relative rate mode to measure k(296 K,M) in the low-pressure regime (9-32 mTorr) with CH3CO + Cl2 used as the reference reaction. A kinetic mechanism analysis of the combined kinetic data set yielded a zero pressure limit rate coefficient, kint(T), of (6.4 ± 4) × 10(-14) exp((820 ± 150)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (with kint(296 K) measured to be (9.94 ± 1.3) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)), k0(T) = (7.39 ± 0.3) × 10(-30) (T/300)(-2.2±0.3) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1), and k∞(T) = (4.88 ± 0.05) × 10(-12) (T/300)(-0.85±0.07) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with Fc = 0.8 and M = N2. A He/N2 collision efficiency ratio of 0.60 ± 0.05 was determined. The phenomenological kinetic results were used to define the pressure and temperature dependence of the OH radical yield in the CH3CO + O2 reaction. The

  1. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.

  2. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  3. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  4. Order Quantity Distributions in Make-to-Order Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both an analytical and a numerical investigation into the order quantities received by a company in the form of customer orders. A discussion of assumptions regarding the behavior of demand in the form of customer orders from various perspectives within manufacturing planning...

  5. Fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageotte, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is a widely utilized means of assessment of fetal status during labor. Whereas little evidence exists regarding efficacy, this modality continues to be used extensively in every modern labor and delivery unit in developed countries. It is of importance that all providers of health care to the woman in labor and her newborn have a clear understanding of the basic pathophysiology of fetal heart rate monitoring and an appreciation for labor course and concerns as they arise in order to optimize outcomes and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward the Elimination of Paper Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo; Webster, S. Luke

    2016-01-01

    Summary With the adoption of Computerized Patient Order Entry (CPOE), many physicians – particularly consultants and those who are affiliated with multiple hospital systems – are faced with the challenge of learning to navigate and commit to memory the details of multiple EHRs and CPOE software modules. These physicians may resist CPOE adoption, and their refusal to use CPOE presents a risk to patient safety when paper and electronic orders co-exist, as paper orders generated in an electronic ordering environment can be missed or acted upon after delay, are frequently illegible, and bypass the Clinical Decision Support (CDS) that is part of the evidence-based value of CPOE. We defined a category of CPOE Low Frequency Users (LFUs) – physicians issuing a total of less than 10 orders per month – and found that 50.4% of all physicians issuing orders in 3 urban/suburban hospitals were LFUs and actively issuing orders across all shifts and days of the week. Data are presented for 2013 on the number of LFUs by month, day of week, shift and facility, over 2.3 million orders issued. A menu of 6 options to assist LFUs in the use of CPOE, from which hospital leaders could select, was instituted so that paper orders could be increasingly eliminated. The options, along with their cost implications, are described, as is the initial option selected by hospital leaders. In practice, however, a mixed pattern involving several LFU support options emerged. We review data on how the option mix selected may have impacted CPOE adoption and physician use rates at the facilities. The challenge of engaging LFU physicians in CPOE adoption may be common in moderately sized hospitals, and these options can be deployed by other systems in advancing CPOE pervasiveness of use and the eventual elimination of paper orders. PMID:27081405

  7. Base stock policies with degraded service to larger orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    We study an inventory system controlled by a base stock policy assuming a compound renewal demand process. We extend the base stock policy by incorporating rules for degrading the service of larger orders. Two specific rules are considered, denoted Postpone(q,t) and Split(q), respectively. The aim...... of using these rules is to achieve a given order fill rate of the regular orders (those of size less than or equal to the parameter q) having less inventory. We develop mathematical expressions for the performance measures order fill rate (of the regular orders) and average on-hand inventory level. Based...

  8. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  9. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  10. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  11. Aquifer Denitrification: Is it a Zero-Order or First-Order Reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, S. F.

    2007-12-01

    Results from a network of 16 in situ mesocosms (ISMs) used to study aquifer denitrification at 5 sites in North Dakota and 4 sites in Minnesota (with 2 more installations planned for Iowa) are considered. At the Elk Valley aquifer (EVA) site in northeastern North Dakota, denitrification rates from six denitrification experiments were all better modeled as zero-order (0.16 +/- 0.05 mg nitrate-N/L/day), as determined by squared values of the linear correlation coefficient. Denitrification experiments at the other sites showed that denitrification was either below detection (nitrate-N/L/day) or was better modeled as a first-order reaction (0.00021/day to 0.0020/day), although squared values of the linear correlation coefficients for both rate models were nearly equal for some of the experiments. Not only were denitrification rates at the EVA site highest compared to the other sites in the ISM network, but sediment concentrations of electron donors at the EVA site were also greatest [ferrous iron about 0.3%, inorganic S (as pyrite) about 0.4%, organic C about 0.4%, weight basis]. These observations support the Michaelis- Menten model for reaction rates, which indicates that reaction rates will be zero-order when the substrate (electron donor) is abundant and first-order when the substrate availability is limited.

  12. Acid Hydrolysis of Bromazepam Catalyzed by Micelles, Reverse Micelles, and Microemulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdousi Begum; Mollah, M. Yousuf A.; M. Muhibur Rahman; Md. Abu Bin Hasan Susan

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics of the acid hydrolysis of bromazepam (Bz) has been investigated in micelles, reverse micelles, and microemulcions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) by spectrophotometric method. The rate of the acid hydrolysis of Bz was found to be enhanced both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CTAB in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order rate constant (k′) shows an initial decrease for both low and high H+ concentrations. With further increase in [CTAB], at low ...

  13. Waltzing between Order and Ordering - a Social Practice Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2007-01-01

    and produce strategic outcomes. This paper aims to understand these social systems dynamics, which it treats as a mutually shaping interplay between order and ordering. The paper illustrates this interplay though two case studies concerning two small and medium sized companies' efforts to enable strategic...

  14. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  15. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... proposes and discusses the term Order Specification Decoupling Line (OSDL), which is to be used to explain the separation of industrial specifications into some information created prior to order acquisition and some information created during order acquisition and order fulfillment. For instance one may...... find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant...

  16. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  17. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  18. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  19. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  20. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  1. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  2. Warehouse order-picking process. Order-picker routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Korobkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article continues “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle and describes order-picker routing sub-problem of a warehouse order-picking process. It draws analogies between the orderpickers’ routing problem and traveling salesman’s problem, shows differences between the standard problem statement of a traveling salesman and routing problem of warehouse orderpickers, and gives the particular Steiner’s problem statement of a traveling salesman.Warehouse layout with a typical order is represented by a graph, with some its vertices corresponding to mandatory order-picker’s visits and some other ones being noncompulsory. The paper describes an optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal algorithm to solve order-picker’s routing problem for the single-block warehouses, i.e. warehouses with only two crossing aisles, defines seven equivalent classes of partial routing sub-graphs and five transitions used to have an optimal routing sub-graph of a order-picker. An extension of optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal order-picker routing algorithm for multi-block warehouses is presented and also reasons for using the routing heuristics instead of exact optimal algorithms are given. The paper offers algorithmic description of the following seven routing heuristics: S-shaped, return, midpoint, largest gap, aisle-by-aisle, composite, and combined as well as modification of combined heuristics. The comparison of orderpicker routing heuristics for one- and two-block warehouses is to be described in the next article of the “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle.

  3. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    We here study some problems concerned with the computational analysis of finite partially ordered sets. We begin (in § 1) by showing that the matrix representation of a binary relationR may always be taken in triangular form ifR is a partial ordering. We consider (in § 2) the chain structure...

  4. Order and disorder in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Careri, Giorgio

    1984-01-01

    Order and Disorder in Matter offers a comprehensive and up-to-date view of structures and processes in matter, in terms of the evolving concepts of order and disorder. Particular emphasis is given to the recent evolution of these concepts and their relationship to the more complex systems in nature.

  5. Chaos and order in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    source of order" (Brown & Moffett, 1999:21); "complex systems ... contain both order and chaos" (Badenhorst, 1995:13). These state- ments are commonly presented as supported by the assured findings of the physical sciences and mathematics, and commonly linked, in particular, to "chaos theory". Whilst such descriptions ...

  6. Attaining the rate-independent limit of a rate-dependent strain gradient plasticity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The existence of characteristic strain rates in rate-dependent material models, corresponding to rate-independent model behavior, is studied within a back stress based rate-dependent higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity model. Such characteristic rates have recently been observed...... rates for a selected quantity are identified through numerical analysis. Evidently, the concept of a characteristic rate, within the rate-dependent material models, may help unlock an otherwise inaccessible parameter space....

  7. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  8. Selection-endogenous ordered probit and dynamic ordered probit models

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Miranda; Massimiliano Bratti

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation we define two qualitatitive response models: 1) Selection Endogenous Dummy Ordered Probit model (SED-OP); 2) a Selection Endogenous Dummy Dynamic Selection Ordered Probit model (SED- DOP). The SED-OP model is a three-equation model constituted of an endogenous dummy equation, a selection equation, and a main equation which has an ordinal response form. The main feature of the model is that the endogenous dummy enters both the selection equation and the main equation. The ...

  9. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    with the partial order model restricted to total terms. Hence, partial order convergence constitutes a conservative extension of metric convergence, which additionally offers a fine-grained distinction between different levels of divergence. In the second part, we focus our investigation on strong convergence...... of orthogonal systems. The main result is that the gap between the metric model and the partial order model can be bridged by extending the term rewriting system by additional rules. These extensions are the well-known Böhm extensions. Based on this result, we are able to establish that -- contrary...

  10. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  11. Order Theory in Environmental Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Brüggemann, R.; Lerche, D. B.

    This is the proceeding from the fifth workshop in Order Theory in Environ-mental Science. In this workshop series the concept of Partial Order Theory is development in relation to application and the use is tested based on specific problems. The Partial Order Theory will have a potential use...... in cases where more than one criterion is included in a prioritisation problem both in relation to decision support and in relation to data-mining and interpretation. Espe-cially the problems where a high degree of complexity results in considerable uncertainty are good candidates for application...

  12. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that a long-run relationship exists between the industrial productivity growth rate, ration of industrial production to gross domestic product, exchange rate, interest rate and terms of trade, and that exchange rate deregulation has significant impact on industrial performance. In order to determine the short term ...

  13. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  14. Proposed Closing Order : St. Vincent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached letter directed to Secretary Morton from the Florida Chapter of The Nature Conservancy recommends the establishment of a Secretarial closing order on...

  15. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  16. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  17. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905

    2005-01-01

    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM 54.50.20.168.5) may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  18. Inference Procedures for Ordering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frank B.; Hubert, Lawrence J.

    1977-01-01

    Given a set of dichotomously scored items, ordering theory attempts to identify a hierarchy among those items. A graphic representation is presented for an empirically obtained hierarchy and a testing procedure to evaluate hypothesized hierarchical relationships. (Author/JKS)

  19. Topological Order in Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0037 Topological orders in Silicon photonics Mohammad Hafezi MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK 3112 LEE BLDG COLLEGE PARK, MD 20742...15 SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topological Order in Silicon Photonics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA-9550-14-1-0267 5c. PROGRAM...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Topological features

  20. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  2. Nonlinear regression analysis of kinetics of the photocatalytic decolorization of an azo dye in aqueous TiO2 slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Mohammad A; Modirshahla, Nasser

    2006-11-01

    The kinetics of decolorization of an anionic monoazo dye of acid class named C.I. Acid Red 27 (AR27) was investigated in the UV/TiO2 process with nonlinear regression analysis. The experimental results indicated that the kinetics of decolorization of AR27 in this process fit well by pseudo-first order kinetics. With nonlinear regression analysis a model was developed for pseudo-first order rate constant (k(ap,UV/TiO2)) as a function of operational parameters such as TiO2 dosage, initial concentration of AR27, concentration of O2 and UV-light intensity (I0) as following: k(ap,UV/TiO2) = 0.0025 [TiO2](0.65) [AR27]0(-0.96) [O2](0.16)I0. This rate expression can be used for predicting k(ap,UV/TiO2) at different conditions.

  3. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  4. Adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution onto PMMA nanofiber: Kinetics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Muhammad Ali; Bahri, Afdal; Setiyanto, Henry; Nasir, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    The potential of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) nanofiber prepared by the electrospinning technique for the methyl orange (MO) adsorption from aqueous solution was investigated. In this study, the adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of temperatures in a batch system. From experiment it can be seen that the MO adsorption using PMMA nanofiber increased with increasing temperature. The kinetic data of MO were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that the amount of MO adsorbed increase with increasing temperature. Kinetics parameters data indicated that the MO adsorption onto PMMA nanofiber was found to follow both pseudo first and second-order rate equations.

  5. The NOK/euro exhange rate after inflation targeting: : the interest rate rules

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnstad, Roger; Jansen, Eilev S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Norway adopted a flexible inflation target in March 2001 following a long period with exchange rate targeting in various forms. The regime shift reverses the causal ordering between changes in the nominal exchange rate and changes in the interest rate. When the central bank targets the exchange rate, interest rates are rarely changed independently of foreign interest rates and only to counteract large movements in the exchange rate after interventions have failed to stabilise the...

  6. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

  7. Competition for Order Flow and smart Order Routing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foucault, T; Menkveld, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the rivalry between Euronext and the London Stock Exchange (LSE) in the Dutch stock market to test hypotheses about the effect of market fragmentation. As predicted by our theory, the consolidated limit order book is deeper after entry of the LSE. Moreover, cross-sectionally, we find that a

  8. Anion order in perovskite oxynitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Oró-Solé, Judith; Rodgers, Jennifer A; Jorge, Ana Belén; Fuertes, Amparo; Attfield, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Transition-metal oxynitrides with perovskite-type structures are an emerging class of materials with optical, photocatalytic, dielectric and magnetoresistive properties that may be sensitive to oxide-nitride order, but the anion-ordering principles were unclear. Here we report an investigation of the representative compounds SrMO(2)N (M = Nb, Ta) using neutron and electron diffraction. This revealed a robust 1O/2(O(0.5)N(0.5)) partial anion order (up to at least 750 °C in the apparently cubic high-temperature phases) that directs the rotations of MO(4)N(2) octahedra in the room-temperature superstructure. The anion distribution is consistent with local cis-ordering of the two nitrides in each octahedron driven by covalency, which results in disordered zigzag M-N chains in planes within the perovskite lattice. Local structures for the full range of oxynitride perovskites are predicted and a future challenge is to tune properties by controlling the order and dimensionality of the anion chains and networks.

  9. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefmann, K.

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of {sup 109}Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 {mu}T. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs.

  10. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  11. 78 FR 28121 - Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to the Order To Raise the Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... trends have asserted downward pressure on the Board's continued ability to sustain the industry's... industry to protect American lamb's position in retail and foodservice and maintain market share. The Board... advertising, retail promotions, public relations campaigns and media outreach, foodservice programs, consumer...

  12. 77 FR 34868 - Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to the Order To Raise the Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ..., several trends have asserted downward pressure on the Board's continued ability to sustain the industry's... industry to protect American lamb's position in retail and foodservice and maintain market share. The Board... advertising, retail promotions, public relations campaigns and media outreach, foodservice programs, consumer...

  13. Polyoxometalate oxidation of non-phenolic lignin subunits in water : effect of substrate structure on reaction kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoya Yokoyama; Hou-min Chang; Richard S. Reiner; Raja H. Atalla; Ira A. Weinstock; John F. Kadla

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lignin-biopolymer structure on the mechanism of its oxidative depolymerization by polyoxometalates (POMs) was investigated by reacting an equilibrated POM ensemble with a series of ring-substituted benzyl alcohols. Under anaerobic conditions in mixed water/methanol, observed pseudo-first order reaction rates (150°C) of 8.96 x 10–3 and 4.89 x 10–3 sec–1...

  14. Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory reaction. Kinetics of malonic acid decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA KOLAR-ANIC

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ oscillatory reaction was analyzed. With this aim, the time evolution of a reaction mixture composed of malonic acid, bromate, sulfuric acid and cerium(III was studied at 298 K. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to malonic acid as the species undergoing decomposition with a corresponding rate constant, k = 7.5×10-3 min-1, was found.

  15. Higher-Order Program Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generation...... infrastructure of higher-order functions, types, and modules. Furthermore, it has been observed that embedded programs can be restricted to those having simple types using a technique called ``phantom types''. We prove, using an idealized higher-order language, that such an embedding is sound (i.e., when all...... to the disproportion between general programs that can be executed in several contexts and their specialized counterparts that can be executed efficiently. However, stand-alone partial evaluation is usually too costly when a program must be specialized at run time. We introduce a collection of byte-code combinators...

  16. Implicit learning is order dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Vokey, John R; Mewhort, D J K

    2017-01-01

    We report two experiments using the artificial-grammar task that demonstrate order dependence in implicit learning. Studying grammatical training strings in different orders did not affect participants' discrimination of grammatical from ungrammatical test strings, but it did affect their judgments about specific test strings. Current accounts of learning in the artificial-grammar task focus on category-level discrimination and largely ignore item-level discrimination. Hence, the results highlight the importance of moving theory from a category- to an item-level of analysis and point to a new way to evaluate and to refine accounts of implicit learning.

  17. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  18. Style context with second-order statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramachaneni, Sriharsha; Nagy, George

    2005-01-01

    Patterns often occur as homogeneous groups or fields generated by the same source. In multisource recognition problems, such isogeny induces statistical dependencies between patterns (termed style context). We model these dependencies by second-order statistics and formulate the optimal classifier for normally distributed styles. We show that model parameters estimated only from pairs of classes suffice to train classifiers for any test field length. Although computationally expensive, the style-conscious classifier reduces the field error rate by up to 20 percent on quadruples of handwritten digits from standard NIST data sets.

  19. Suffix Ordering and Morphological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Ingo; Baayen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate about the principles constraining the combinatorial properties of suffixes. Hay 2002 and Hay & Plag 2004 proposed a model in which suffixes can be ordered along a hierarchy of processing complexity. We show that this model generalizes to a larger set of suffixes, and we provide independent evidence supporting the…

  20. Towards Successful Cloud Ordering Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Kwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rise of cloud services has led to a drastic growth of e-commerce and a greater investment in development of new cloud services systems by related industries. For SaaS developers, it is important to understand customer needs and make use of available resources at as early as the system design and development stage. Objectives: This study integrates E-commerce Systems (ECS Success model and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA into empirical research of the critical factors for cloud ordering system success. Methods/Approach: A survey research is conducted to collect data on customer perceptions of the importance and performance of each attribute of the particular cloud ordering service. The sample is further divided according to the degree of use of online shopping into high-usage users and low-usage users in order to explore their views regarding the system and generate adequate coping strategies. Results: Developers of online ordering systems can refer to the important factors obtained in this study when planning strategies of product/service improvement. Conclusions: The approach proposed in this study can also be applied to evaluation of other kinds of cloud services systems.

  1. Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases » Students Games & Quizzes Student Resources Teacher´s Desk History of BLS FAQs Beta Data Finder » State and County Map » OOH HOME | OCCUPATION FINDER | OOH FAQ | OOH GLOSSARY ... Nursing Assistants and Orderlies PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary ...

  2. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...

  3. Moral Order and the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that a society without reverence for myths and history inevitably falls prone to chaos and evil, pointing to abortion, Andy Warhol's celebrity, and Woodstock as evidence of this disintegration of society. Proposes that humanities education expose students to human experience based on some awesome and fixed moral order. (AYC)

  4. Formalisation of the ordering process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Gera A.; Vries, Jan de

    2002-01-01

    In this article a conceptual framework of the ordering process, especially the formalisation of this process, is presented. The fundaments of the framework are grounded on the observation that due to information technology and the necessity of reducing control complexity, companies often try to

  5. Time order reversals and saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresevic, Jesse L; Marinovic, Welber; Johnston, Alan; Arnold, Derek H

    2016-08-01

    Ballistic eye movements, or saccades, present a major challenge to the visual system. They generate a rapid blur of movement across the surface of the retinae that is rarely consciously seen, as awareness of input is suppressed around the time of a saccade. Saccades are also associated with a number of perceptual distortions. Here we are primarily interested in a saccade-induced illusory reversal of apparent temporal order. We examine the apparent order of transient targets presented around the time of saccades. In agreement with previous reports, we find evidence for an illusory reversal of apparent temporal order when the second of two targets is presented during a saccade - but this is only apparent for some observers. This contrasts with the apparent salience of targets presented during a saccade, which is suppressed for all observers. Our data suggest that separable processes might underlie saccadic suppressions of salience and saccade-induced reversals of apparent order. We suggest the latter arises when neural transients, normally used for timing judgments, are suppressed due to a saccade - but that this is an insufficient pre-condition. We therefore make the further suggestion, that the loss of a neural transient must be coupled with a specific inferential strategy, whereby some people assume that when they lack a clear impression of event timing, that event must have happened less recently than alternate events for which they have a clear impression of timing. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The characterization of the adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution using natural fibers treated with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediske, Nicole M.

    The objective of this research was to characterize natural carbon fibers from coconut husks, both bare and impregnated with metallic nanoparticles, in removing cadmium from aqueous media. The adsorbent load, kinetics, isotherm parameters, removal efficiencies, desorption capacity and possible contaminant removal mechanisms were evaluated. It was found that the fibers treated with metallic nanoparticles performed better than the bare fibers in removing cadmium from water. The ideal conditions were found to be neutral pH with low initial cadmium concentrations. Through the kinetic analyses, the adsorption process was first thought to be pseudo first order with two separate adsorption mechanisms apparent. Upon further analysis, it was seen that the first mechanism does not follow the pseudo first order kinetics model. An increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations was observed as the cadmium concentrations decreases. This increase corresponds with first mechanism. This suggests the cadmium removal in the first mechanism is due to ion exchange. The second mechanism's rate constant was consistently lower than the first mechanisms rate constant by an order of magnitude. This led to the hypothesis that the second mechanism is controlled by van de Waals forces, specifically ion-induced dipole interactions, and physical adsorption. It was also found that the cadmium does not effectively desorb from the wasted fibers in DI water. Keywords: Adsorption; kinetics; pseudo first order; cadmium; metallic nanoparticles; natural fibers; removal efficiencies; ion exchange.

  7. Base stock policies with degraded service to large orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We study an inventory system controlled by a base stock policy assuming a compound renewal demand process. We extend the base stock policy by incorporating rules for degrading the service of larger orders. Two specific rules are considered, denoted as Postpone(q,t) and Split(q), respectively....... The parameter q distinguishes between regular orders (of size less than or equal to q) and larger orders. We develop mathematical expressions for the performance measures: order fill rate of the regular orders and average on-hand inventory level. We make numerical experiments where the postpone parameter t...... and the base stock levels of each rule are such that all customers (of both order types) are indifferent between the two rules. When comparing the difference in the average on-hand inventory levels, we can then make an assessment of the threshold value of the cost of splitting an order (which may otherwise...

  8. Kinetic Study of Free Radicals Scavenging by Saffron Petal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ardalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron petal is the main by-product of saffron processing which is produced in large amounts, annually. The objectives of this study were to study the antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging effects of saffron petal extracts. The ability of saffron petal to act as an antioxidant using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical method was investigated by applying the Uv–Vis spectrometry. The Uv–Vis spectra of reaction mixtures in acetonitrile revealed that saffron petal has a considerable effect on scavenging free radical. Kinetic studies were conducted by measuring the disappearance of DPPH in acetonitrile over the wavelength range of 515-522 nm under pseudo-first-order conditions at 37oC. Furthermore, the pseudo first order rate constants were determined

  9. Emotions and the moral order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we follow Averill, who tells us that emotions reflect “the thought of an epoch, the secret of a civilization”. In this light, to understand the meaning of an emotion is to understand the relevant aspects of the sociocultural systems of which the emotion is a part. We argue...... that a number of the most central emotions in human lives are identified with reference to the moral order of the sociocultural system rather than with reference to physiological conditions or body states. We present a normative theory of emotions and refer to research on “emotionologies” of different cultures...... to demonstrate that specific moral orders are associated with specific forms of emotionality. If properly cultivated, moral emotions become “orientation guides” that enable persons to respond adequately to what happens in their local, moral worlds, and, as researchers, we can only grasp what such emotions...

  10. Perturbative gadgets at arbitrary orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward

    2008-06-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions. However, experimentally available interactions are generally two-body. In 2004, Kempe, Kitaev, and Regev introduced perturbative gadgets, by which arbitrary three-body effective interactions can be obtained using Hamiltonians consisting only of two-body interactions. These three-body effective interactions arise from the third order in perturbation theory. Since their introduction, perturbative gadgets have become a standard tool in the theory of quantum computation. Here we construct generalized gadgets so that one can directly obtain arbitrary k -body effective interactions from two-body Hamiltonians. These effective interactions arise from the k th order in perturbation theory.

  11. Umbilic Lines in Orientational Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Machon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional orientational order in systems whose ground states possess nonzero gradients typically exhibits linelike structures or defects: λ lines in cholesterics or Skyrmion tubes in ferromagnets, for example. Here, we show that such lines can be identified as a set of natural geometric singularities in a unit vector field, the generalization of the umbilic points of a surface. We characterize these lines in terms of the natural vector bundles that the order defines and show that they give a way to localize and identify Skyrmion distortions in chiral materials—in particular, that they supply a natural representative of the Poincaré dual of the cocycle describing the topology. Their global structure leads to the definition of a self-linking number and helicity integral which relates the linking of umbilic lines to the Hopf invariant of the texture.

  12. Second-Order Footsteps Illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Kitaoka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the “footsteps illusion”, light and dark squares travel at constant speed across black and white stripes. The squares appear to move faster and slower as their contrast against the stripes varies. We now demonstrate some second-order footsteps illusions, in which all edges are defined by colors or textures—even though luminance-based neural motion detectors are blind to such edges.

  13. Perturbative Gadgets at Arbitrary Orders

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions. However, experimentally available interactions are generally two-body. In 2004, Kempe, Kitaev, and Regev introduced perturbative gadgets, by which arbitrary three-body effective interactions can be obtained using Hamiltonians consisting only of two-body interactions. These three-body effective interactions arise from the third order in perturbation theory. Since their introduction, perturbative gadgets...

  14. Molecular Exchange in Ordered Diblock Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lodge, Timothy; Bates, Frank

    2011-03-01

    Previously, molecular exchange between spherical micelles in dilute solution (1 vol% polymer) was investigated using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). As the concentration of spherical micelles formed by the diblock copolymers increases, the micelles begin to overlap and eventually pack onto body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice. In this study, concentrated, ordered micelles (15 vol% polymers) prepared by dispersing isotopically labeled poly(styrene- b -ethylene-alt-propylene) in an isotopic squalane mixture was investigated to understand the micellar concentration dependence of the molecular exchange. Perfectly random mixing of isotopically labeled micelles on the BCC lattice was confirmed by SANS patterns where the interparticle contribution vanishes, resulting in an intensity that directly relates to the exchange kinetics. The measured molecular exchange process for the concentrated, ordered system is qualitatively consistent with the previous observations, but the rate is more than an order of magnitude slower than that for the dilute, disordered system. Infineum(IPrime), MRSEC(NSF), NIST.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of genome rearrangements among five mammalian orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haiwei; Arndt, William; Zhang, Yiwei; Shi, Guanqun; Alekseyev, Max A; Tang, Jijun; Hughes, Austin L; Friedman, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Evolutionary relationships among placental mammalian orders have been controversial. Whole genome sequencing and new computational methods offer opportunities to resolve the relationships among 10 genomes belonging to the mammalian orders Primates, Rodentia, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. By application of the double cut and join distance metric, where gene order is the phylogenetic character, we computed genomic distances among the sampled mammalian genomes. With a marsupial outgroup, the gene order tree supported a topology in which Rodentia fell outside the cluster of Primates, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla. Results of breakpoint reuse rate and synteny block length analyses were consistent with the prediction of random breakage model, which provided a diagnostic test to support use of gene order as an appropriate phylogenetic character in this study. We discussed the influence of rate differences among lineages and other factors that may contribute to different resolutions of mammalian ordinal relationships by different methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-Criteria Model for Determining Order Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jakowska-Suwalska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-criteria model for determining the order size for materials used in production has been presented. It was assumed that the consumption rate of each material is a random variable with a known probability distribution. Using such a model, in which the purchase cost of materials ordered is limited, three criteria were considered: order size, probability of a lack of materials in the production process, and deviations in the order size from the consumption rate in past periods. Based on an example, it has been shown how to use the model to determine the order sizes for polyurethane adhesive and wood in a hard-coal mine. (original abstract

  17. Pricing-to-Market, the Interest-Rate Rule, and the Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Obstfeld

    2006-01-01

    Even when the exchange-rate plays no expenditure-switching role, countries may wish to have flexible exchange rates in order to free the domestic interest rate as a stabilization tool. In a setting with nontraded goods, exchange-rate movements may also enhance international risk sharing.

  18. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts within...

  19. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Indeed, even in the Chinese context, the effectiveness of the country's .... positively related to fertility rates, since a greater likelihood of infant death requires a family to have more births in order to reach ... Infant mortality rates and fertility rates are also very closely correlated both across countries and within them (Ben-Porath ...

  20. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  1. 7 CFR 981.343 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 981.343 Section 981.343 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 981.343 Assessment rate. On...

  2. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate....

  3. 7 CFR 959.237 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 959.237 Section 959.237 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Assessment Rates § 959.237 Assessment rate. On...

  4. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On...

  5. 7 CFR 916.234 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 916.234 Section 916.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NECTARINES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 916.234 Assessment rate....

  6. 7 CFR 966.234 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 966.234 Section 966.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Assessment Rates § 966.234 Assessment rate. On an...

  7. Envelope instability and the fourth order resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The well-known envelope instability or the second order even collective mode [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4 (1998] and the fourth order resonance 4σ=360° due to the nonlinear space charge effect in high intensity beams have been studied previously. A wide stop band around 15° is found in a pure periodic focusing channel. In addition, it is illustrated that the fourth order resonance dominates over the envelope instability and practically replaces it in the stop band [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009]. In this paper, for a continuous beam with remarkable space charge, our 2D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation work with the code topopic shows these two kinds of effects respectively in a periodic focusing defocusing (FD channel. For a fixed tune depression η=0.8, a stop band with a width of almost 15° is also demonstrated. Moreover, it is confirmed that analytical results of the rms envelope instability diagram are a valid tool to interpret the width of the stop band. Emittance growth rates in stop band are also well explained. It is found that, for a nearly rms matched beam, the emittance growth in the stop band is almost proportional to the saturation time of the nonlinear instability of the envelope, which happens in a quick manner and takes only a few FD cells. In contrast, the fourth order resonance is independent of rms matching and will be accompanied by beam evolution as “a long term effect” once the related mechanism is excited.

  8. Combination trading with limit orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Schellhorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the exchange of commodities that are contingent upon each other, when traders place mostly limit orders. Examples include: 1 a market of financial futures where future spreads are also traded, 2 a market of mutual funds and stocks, 3 a market of options and stocks, under the viewpoint that they are both combinations of Arrow-Debreu securities. We prove that consistent prices are optimal. We develop a fixed-point algorithm to compute an optimal price and allocation. The algorithm combines ideas from contraction mapping theory and from homotopy theory. It is much faster than a traditional linear programming approach.

  9. Order statistics & inference estimation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N

    1991-01-01

    The literature on order statistics and inferenc eis quite extensive and covers a large number of fields ,but most of it is dispersed throughout numerous publications. This volume is the consolidtion of the most important results and places an emphasis on estimation. Both theoretical and computational procedures are presented to meet the needs of researchers, professionals, and students. The methods of estimation discussed are well-illustrated with numerous practical examples from both the physical and life sciences, including sociology,psychology,a nd electrical and chemical engineering. A co

  10. Altering a computerized laboratory test order form rationalizes ordering of laboratory tests in primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Katri; Kauppila, Timo; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Puustinen, Raija; Iivanainen, Antti; Mäki, Tiina

    2016-02-01

    To reduce physicians' inappropriate laboratory requests for their patients, administrators have used methods such as modifying a laboratory request order form with an agreed requesting protocol for the most common diagnoses in primary health care. To study the effects of removing the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and aspartate transaminase (AST) which are considered of limited clinical value for primary care clinical decision-making from a computerized laboratory test order form. These tests were removed to another new view from the electronic laboratory menu where the physicians, instead of just ticking the desired test from the list, had to do 4-8s extra work by writing down the abbreviation to order the test. An observational controlled prospective study based on a before-after design was performed by removing AST and ES from the laboratory test order form of the computerized laboratory system for all primary care in the city of Helsinki, Finland. The numbers of annual and monthly use of AST and ESR and their controls, alanine transaminase (ALT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) ordered by General practitioners (GPs) was recorded over an eight-year period: four years before and a four years after the removal of AST and ES. Removing AST and ESR from the computerized laboratory test order form decreased their use by up to 90%, whereas the use of the control tests increased throughout the follow-up period. The variation in use of these removed tests also decreased. Removing a laboratory test from a computerized laboratory test order form may significantly reduce GPs' use of the laboratory test. Further studies are needed, however, to ensure the safety of this type of intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. VAP rates unchanged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In a research letter to JAMA Metersky and colleagues (1 report that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP rates have remained near 10% since 2005. The authors reviewed Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS data on a representative sample of more than 86,000 critically ill patients treated at 1330 US hospitals between 2005 and 2013. To meet a diagnosis of VAP patients were required to have at least 2 days' ventilation in intensive care units; a chest radiograph with a new finding suggesting pneumonia; a physician diagnosis of pneumonia; and an order for antibiotics. VAP incidence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.4% - 14.4% during 2005 to 2006 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval, 5.1% - 14.9% during 2012 to 2013. In contrast, data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN have shown declines in VAP rates of 71% and 62% in medical and surgical intensive care units, respectively, between 2006 and 2012 …

  12. Fauna Europaea – Orthopteroid orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The “Orthopteroid orders“ is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper. PMID:27660531

  13. Enhanced peptide nucleic acid binding to supercoiled DNA: possible implications for DNA "breathing" dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, T; Nielsen, Peter E.

    1996-01-01

    to that of relaxed DNA. The pseudo-first-order rate constant [k psi (sigma)] obeys an exponential function, k psi (sigma) = k psi (lin)e-sigma delta, where delta is a constant of 105 and k psi lin is the rate of PNA binding to linear DNA (sigma = 0). The activation energy [Ea(sigma)] was determined as approximately...... efficient with supercoiled than with linear DNA. In the presence of 140 mM KCI, the PNA binding rate was reduced but, notably, highly dependent on template topology. Negative supercoiling (mean superhelix density, sigma approximately -0.051) increased the rate of binding by 2 orders of magnitude compared...

  14. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  15. Working for the New Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    Damned if you do - damned if you don't. During the Second World War, the collaboration dilemma regarding Europe's business life came to the forefront as business leaders were faced with the necessity of cooperating with the German enemy in order to maintain production and essing a wide range...... of European countries under German control during the Second World War, this book analyzes the conditions of business during the war, showing how contrary to many beliefs and post-war conceptions, occupation and dependency on the German market - as part of a formal or informal empire - was not solely a story...... way or Europe's business during the Second World War is a story of corporate survival in a highly unstable business environment. Cooperation with the dominant European power aimed at securing the future for business, national economies - and the nation states of Europe. With this point of reference...

  16. Packing defects into ordered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechstein, R.; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Vilhelmsen, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied vicinal TiO2(110) surfaces by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. On TiO2 surfaces characterized by a high density of ⟨11̅ 1⟩ steps, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a high density of oxygen-deficient strandlike adstructures....... With the help of density functional theory calculations we develop a complete structural model for the entire strand and demonstrate these adstructures to be more stable than an equivalent amount of bulk defects such as Ti interstitials. We argue that strands can form particularly easy on stepped surfaces...... because building material is available at step sites. The strands on TiO2(110) represent point defects that are densely packed into ordered adstructures....

  17. Working for the New Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    Damned if you do - damned if you don't. During the Second World War, the collaboration dilemma regarding Europe's business life came to the forefront as business leaders were faced with the necessity of cooperating with the German enemy in order to maintain production and essing a wide range...... of European countries under German control during the Second World War, this book analyzes the conditions of business during the war, showing how contrary to many beliefs and post-war conceptions, occupation and dependency on the German market - as part of a formal or informal empire - was not solely a story...... of survival for an individual company, but also an actual source of stabilization. The conditions of business survival varied according to the politics of the occupying power, the cooperation potential of local business and what was left of local political authority. However, in most European countries, one...

  18. Working for the New Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    Damned if you do - damned if you don't. During the Second World War, the collaboration dilemma regarding Europe's business life came to the forefront as business leaders were faced with the necessity of cooperating with the German enemy in order to maintain production and essing a wide range...... of survival for an individual company, but also an actual source of stabilization. The conditions of business survival varied according to the politics of the occupying power, the cooperation potential of local business and what was left of local political authority. However, in most European countries, one...... way or Europe's business during the Second World War is a story of corporate survival in a highly unstable business environment. Cooperation with the dominant European power aimed at securing the future for business, national economies - and the nation states of Europe. With this point of reference...

  19. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  20. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  1. Ordered assemblies of clay nano-platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Chen, Biqiong; Evans, Julian R G

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate five methods of arranging smectite clay tactoids into layered arrangements as a part of the quest for the biomimetic simulation of nacre. Provided the clay is not fully exfoliated, the tactoids retain sufficient rigidity for alignment and we present micrographs which demonstrate these ordered structures. This paves the way for exploration of the high mineral filler end of polymer-clay nanocomposites which can approach the high aragonite volume fraction of nacre. The clay was dispersed in water without additives by ultrasonic agitation, cleaned by partial sedimentation and the resulting suspension was subjected to controlled phase separation by sedimentation, centrifugation, controlled rate slip casting, filtration and electrophoresis. Well-aligned parallel layers of platelets were obtained from all the five methods, the best stacking being associated with slip cast layers. Polyethylene oxide was incorporated into these well-aligned tactoids.

  2. Predictors of third and Higher order births in India

    OpenAIRE

    Payal Singh; Akash Mishra; OP Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Total fertility rate (TFR) reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above me...

  3. Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Valery E.; Cherenkov, Artem V.; Shitikov, Artem E.; Bilenko, Igor A.; Gorodetsky, Michael L.

    2017-07-01

    Dynamics of platicons caused by the third-order dispersion is studied. It is shown that under the influence of the third-order dispersion platicons obtain angular velocity depending both on dispersion and on detuning value. A method of tuning of platicon associated optical frequency comb repetition rate is proposed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  4. Finite difference order doubling in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Centre, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Jolicard, Georges [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut Utinam (UMR CNRS 6213), Observatoire de Besancon, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon cedex (France)

    2008-03-28

    An order doubling process previously used to obtain eighth-order eigenvalues from the fourth-order Numerov method is applied to the perturbed oscillator in two dimensions. A simple method of obtaining high order finite difference operators is reported and an odd parity boundary condition is found to be effective in facilitating the smooth operation of the order doubling process.

  5. Failure Rates in Introductory Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2007-01-01

    It is a common conception that CS1 is a very difficult course and that failure rates are high. However, until now there has only been anecdotal evidence for this claim. This article reports on a survey among institutions around the world regarding failure rates in introductory programming courses....... The article describes the design of the survey and the results. The number of institutions answering the call for data was unfortunately rather low, so it is difficult to make firm conclusions. It is our hope that this article can be the starting point for a systematic collection of data in order to find...

  6. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  7. First order Galilean superfluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2017-09-01

    We study dynamics of an (anomalous) Galilean superfluid up to first order in derivative expansion, both in parity-even and parity-odd sectors. We construct a relativistic system—null superfluid, which is a null fluid (introduced in N. Banerjee, S. Dutta, and A. Jain Akash, [Phys. Rev. D 93, 105020 (2016)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.105020]) with a spontaneously broken global U(1) symmetry. A null superfluid is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean superfluid in one lower dimension; i.e., they have the same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations and are related to each other by a mere choice of basis. The correspondence is based on null reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean symmetry in one lower dimension. To perform this analysis, we use off-shell formalism of (super)fluid dynamics, adopting it appropriately to null (super)fluids. We also verify these results via c →∞ limit of a parent relativistic system.

  8. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  9. Deployment and Automated Technical Order Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Bureaucracy ....................................... 8 2 Technical Order Distribution Office Organization ................................... 9 3 Volume...20 Shop or per TODS TOs Workstation Figure 2. Technical Order Distribution Office Organization . 9 The Nature of Technical Orders Several factors have

  10. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  11. Order-constrained linear optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Magnetic Ordering in Gold Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrachev, Mikhail; Antonello, Sabrina; Dainese, Tiziano; Ruzzi, Marco; Zoleo, Alfonso; Aprà, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Sementa, Luca; Maran, Flavio

    2017-06-12

    Several research groups have observed magnetism in monolayer-protected gold-cluster samples, but the results were often contradictory and thus a clear understanding of this phenomenon is still missing. We used Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180, which is a paramagnetic cluster that can be prepared with atomic precision and whose structure is known precisely. Previous magnetometry studies only detected paramagnetism. We used samples representing a range of crystallographic orders and studied their magnetic behaviors by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). As a film, Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180 displays paramagnetic behavior but, at low temperature, ferromagnetic interactions are detectable. One or few single crystals undergo physical reorientation with the applied field and display ferromagnetism, as detected through hysteresis experiments. A large collection of microcrystals is magnetic even at room temperature and shows distinct paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, and ferromagnetic behaviors. Simulation of the EPR spectra shows that both spin-orbit coupling and crystal distortion are important to determine the observed magnetic behaviors. DFT calculations carried out on single cluster and periodic models predict values of spin6orbit coupling and crystal6splitting effects in agreement with the EPR derived quantities. Magnetism in gold nanoclusters is thus demonstrated to be the outcome of a very delicate balance of factors. To obtain reproducible results, the samples must be (i) controlled for composition and thus be monodispersed with atomic precision, (ii) of known charge state, and (iii) well defined also in terms of crystallinity and experimental conditions. This study highlights the efficacy of EPR spectroscopy to provide a molecular understanding of these phenomena

  13. Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Reiichiro

    2016-10-01

    We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.

  14. Prescribed performance synchronization for fractional-order chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Li, Sheng-Gang; Sun, Ye-Guo; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the synchronization for two different fractional-order chaotic systems, capable of guaranteeing synchronization error with prescribed performance, is investigated by means of the fractional-order control method. By prescribed performance synchronization we mean that the synchronization error converges to zero asymptotically, with convergence rate being no less than a certain prescribed function. A fractional-order synchronization controller and an adaptive fractional-order synchronization controller, which can guarantee the prescribed performance of the synchronization error, are proposed for fractional-order chaotic systems with and without disturbances, respectively. Finally, our simulation studies verify and clarify the proposed method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11401243 and 61403157), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. GK201504002), and the Natural Science Foundation for the Higher Education Institutions of Anhui Province of China (Grant No. KJ2015A256).

  15. 7 CFR 923.236 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 923.236 Section 923.236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...

  16. 7 CFR 985.141 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 985.141 Section 985.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FA...

  17. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  18. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  19. Synchronization between fractional-order chaotic systems and integer orders chaotic systems (fractional-order chaotic systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Cheng, Yuan-Ming; Kuang, Fei

    2010-09-01

    Based on the idea of tracking control and stability theory of fractional-order systems, a controller is designed to synchronize the fractional-order chaotic system with chaotic systems of integer orders, and synchronize the different fractional-order chaotic systems. The proposed synchronization approach in this paper shows that the synchronization between fractional-order chaotic systems and chaotic systems of integer orders can be achieved, and the synchronization between different fractional-order chaotic systems can also be realized. Numerical experiments show that the present method works very well.

  20. Evaluation of the kinetic oxidation of aqueous volatile organic compounds by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Hartog, Niels

    2014-07-01

    The use of permanganate solutions for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a well-established groundwater remediation technology, particularly for targeting chlorinated ethenes. The kinetics of oxidation reactions is an important ISCO remediation design aspect that affects the efficiency and oxidant persistence. The overall rate of the ISCO reaction between oxidant and contaminant is typically described using a second-order kinetic model while the second-order rate constant is determined experimentally by means of a pseudo first order approach. However, earlier studies of chlorinated hydrocarbons have yielded a wide range of values for the second-order rate constants. Also, there is limited insight in the kinetics of permanganate reactions with fuel-derived groundwater contaminants such as toluene and ethanol. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the oxidation kinetics of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene in an aqueous potassium permanganate solution. The overall second-order rate constants were determined directly by fitting a second-order model to the data, instead of typically using the pseudo-first-order approach. The second-order reaction rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) for TCE, toluene, and ethanol were 8.0×10(-1), 2.5×10(-4), and 6.5×10(-4), respectively. Results showed that the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach in several previous studies produced biased estimates of the second-order rate constants. In our study, this error was expressed as a function of the extent (P/N) in which the reactant concentrations deviated from the stoichiometric ratio of each oxidation reaction. The error associated with the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach is negatively correlated with the P/N ratio and reached up to 25% of the estimated second-order rate constant in some previous studies of TCE oxidation. Based on our results, a similar relation is valid for the other volatile

  1. Laboratory Study of the OH + Permethylsiloxane (L2, L3, D3, and D4) Reaction Rate Coefficients Between 240 and 370 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Bernard, F.; Papadimitriou, V. C.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of organosiloxanes has recently been implicated in the formation of new particles as well as regional and indoor air quality. Methylsiloxanes with Sicosmetics, textiles, health care and household products and in industrial applications as solvents and lubricants. They are released into the atmosphere during manufacturing, use, and disposal and have been observed in the atmosphere in ppb levels in certain locations. However, the fundamental chemical properties of this class of compounds, particularly their reactivity with the OH radical, are presently not fully characterized. In this work, the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients for the OH radical reaction with the simplest linear (L2 and L3) and cyclic (D3 and D4) siloxanes were measured: OH + (CH3)3SiOSi(CH3)3 = Products L2OH + [(CH3)3SiO]2Si(CH3)2 = Products L3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]3 = Products D3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]4 = Products D4OH rate coefficients were measured under pseudo-first conditions in OH over the temperature range 240-370 K using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique and at 296 K using a relative rate method. The present results are compared with available literature data where possible and discrepancies are discussed. The results from this work will be discussed in terms of the atmospheric lifetimes of these methylsiloxanes and the reactivity trends for this class of compound.

  2. 45 CFR 98.102 - Content of Error Rate Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... taken to correct those causes in order to reduce the error rates; (9) Description of the information... to correct those causes in order to reduce the error rates; and (5) Such other information as... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of Error Rate Reports. 98.102 Section 98...

  3. Second-order closure PBL model with new third-order moments: Comparison with LES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Minotti, F.; Ronchi, C.; Ypma, R. M.; Zeman, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains two parts. In the first part, a new set of diagnostic equations is derived for the third-order moments for a buoyancy-driven flow, by exact inversion of the prognostic equations for the third-order moment equations in the stationary case. The third-order moments exhibit a universal structure: they all are a linear combination of the derivatives of all the second-order moments, bar-w(exp 2), bar-w theta, bar-theta(exp 2), and bar-q(exp 2). Each term of the sum contains a turbulent diffusivity D(sub t), which also exhibits a universal structure of the form D(sub t) = a nu(sub t) + b bar-w theta. Since the sign of the convective flux changes depending on stable or unstable stratification, D(sub t) varies according to the type of stratification. Here nu(sub t) approximately equal to wl (l is a mixing length and w is an rms velocity) represents the 'mechanical' part, while the 'buoyancy' part is represented by the convective flux bar-w theta. The quantities a and b are functions of the variable N(sub tau)(exp 2), where N(exp 2) = g alpha derivative of Theta with respect to z and tau is the turbulence time scale. The new expressions for the third-order moments generalize those of Zeman and Lumley, which were subsequently adopted by Sun and Ogura, Chen and Cotton, and Finger and Schmidt in their treatments of the convective boundary layer. In the second part, the new expressions for the third-order moments are used to solve the ensemble average equations describing a purely convective boundary laye r heated from below at a constant rate. The computed second- and third-order moments are then compared with the corresponding Large Eddy Simulation (LES) results, most of which are obtained by running a new LES code, and part of which are taken from published results. The ensemble average results compare favorably with the LES data.

  4. 7 CFR 922.235 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 922.235 Section 922.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Assessment Rate §...

  5. 7 CFR 983.253 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 983.253 Section 983.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Assessment Rate §...

  6. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253...

  7. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347...

  8. 7 CFR 932.230 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 932.230 Section 932.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.230 Assessment rate....

  9. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment...

  10. 7 CFR 982.340 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 982.340 Section 982.340 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Assessment Rates § 982.340...

  11. 7 CFR 917.258 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 917.258 Section 917.258 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 917.258...

  12. 7 CFR 955.209 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 955.209 Section 955.209 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations Assessment Rates § 95...

  13. Measuring heart rate with optical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barachi, M. (Mitra)

    2014-01-01

    The problem addressed in this report is to verify the possibility of using an optical sensor in the SaxShirt in order to extract the heart rate. There are specifically three questions that we try to address. 1) How is it possible to extract heart rate (BPM) from the optical sensor? 2) Is it

  14. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  15. 40 CFR 91.604 - Test orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines produced per day. (2) The test order may include alternate families to be selected for testing at... test order. (c) Information included in test order. (1) The test order will specify the engine family... location at which engines must be selected, and the procedure by which engines of the specified family must...

  16. Order units in a C -algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Introduction. Matrix ordered spaces were introduced and studied by Choi and Effros [1]. Matricially normed spaces were introduced and studied by Ruan [8]. Matrix order unit spaces, studied by Choi and Effros, are matrix ordered spaces with a matrix norm induced by an order unit. Their non-unital counterpart were studied ...

  17. Statistical Convergence of Double Sequences of Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Çolak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intend to make a new approach and introduce the concepts of statistical convergence of order and strongly -Cesàro summability of order for double sequences of complex or real numbers. Also, some relations between the statistical convergence of order and strong -Cesàro summability of order are given.

  18. Enhancing Warehouse Performance by Efficient Order Picking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Yu (Mengfei)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies order picking in warehouses. Order picking, the process of retrieval products from their storage locations to fill customer orders, is regarded as the most critical operation in a warehouse. Using stochastic modelling, we develop a model to estimate order picking

  19. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to...

  20. Flow simulation and topological rearrangements of ordered foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Ortiz, J. S.; Belich, H., Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Flow through a narrow bent channel may induce topological rearrangements in a two-dimensional monodispersed dry liquid foam. We use the Cellular Potts Model to simulate a foam under a variable driving force in order to investigate the strain-rate response from these rearrangements. We observe a set of foams' behaviors ranging from elastic, viscoelastic to fluid regime. Bubble's topological rearrangements are localized and their cumulative rearrangements change linearly with time, thus non avalanches critical behavior is found. The strain-rate affects the rate of topological rearrangements, its dependence on the drag force is nonlinear, obeying a Herschel-Bulkley like relationship below the foam's flow point.

  1. Linear and Order Statistics Combiners for Pattern Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several researchers have experimentally shown that substantial improvements can be obtained in difficult pattern recognition problems by combining or integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers. This chapter provides an analytical framework to quantify the improvements in classification results due to combining. The results apply to both linear combiners and order statistics combiners. We first show that to a first order approximation, the error rate obtained over and above the Bayes error rate, is directly proportional to the variance of the actual decision boundaries around the Bayes optimum boundary. Combining classifiers in output space reduces this variance, and hence reduces the 'added' error. If N unbiased classifiers are combined by simple averaging. the added error rate can be reduced by a factor of N if the individual errors in approximating the decision boundaries are uncorrelated. Expressions are then derived for linear combiners which are biased or correlated, and the effect of output correlations on ensemble performance is quantified. For order statistics based non-linear combiners, we derive expressions that indicate how much the median, the maximum and in general the i-th order statistic can improve classifier performance. The analysis presented here facilitates the understanding of the relationships among error rates, classifier boundary distributions, and combining in output space. Experimental results on several public domain data sets are provided to illustrate the benefits of combining and to support the analytical results.

  2. High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available that must be accounted for in order to understand total average error rates. We develop a treatment based on effective Hamiltonian theory that allows us to efficiently model the effect of classical noise on nontrivial single-bit quantum logic operations...

  3. Self-assembled fluids with order-parameter- dependent mobility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process, the structure factor exhibits multiscaling behavior with characteristic length scale. (t/ ln t)1/2(2α+3). The order-parameter-dependent mobility is found to slow down the rate of coarsening. Keywords. Morphological instability; phase changes; nonequilibrium; irreversible ther- modynamics. PACS Nos 47.20.Hw; 05.70.

  4. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Les

    1992-01-01

    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  5. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  6. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  7. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  8. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  9. Optimal Inventory Policy Involving Ordering Cost Reduction, Back-Order Discounts, and Variable Lead Time Demand by Minimax Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wuu Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper allows the backorder rate as a control variable to widen applications of a continuous review inventory model. Moreover, we also consider the backorder rate that is proposed by combining Ouyang and Chuang (2001 (or Lee (2005 with Pan and Hsiao (2001 to present a new form. Thus, the backorder rate is dependent on the amount of shortages and backorder price discounts. Besides, we also treat the ordering cost as a decision variable. Hence, we develop an algorithmic procedure to find the optimal inventory policy by minimax criterion. Finally, a numerical example is also given to illustrate the results.

  10. Reaction rate of propene pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Su, Kehe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2011-10-01

    The reaction rate of propene pyrolysis was investigated based on the elementary reactions proposed in Qu et al., J Comput Chem 2009, 31, 1421. The overall reaction rate was developed with the steady-state approximation and the rate constants of the elementary reactions were determined with the variational transition state theory. For the elementary reaction having transition state, the vibrational frequencies of the selected points along the minimum energy path were calculated with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level and the energies were improved with the accurate model chemistry method G3(MP2). For the elementary reaction without transition state, the frequencies were calculated with CASSCF/6-311G(d,p) and the energies were refined with the multireference configuration interaction method MRCISD/6-311G(d,p). The rate constants were evaluated within 200-2000 K and the fitted three-parameter expressions were obtained. The results are consistent with those in the literatures in most cases. For the overall rate, it was found that the logarithm of the rate and the reciprocal temperature have excellent linear relationship above 400 K, predicting that the rate follows a typical first-order law at high temperatures of 800-2000 K, which is also consistent with the experiments. The apparent activation energy in 800-2000 K is 317.3 kJ/mol from the potential energy surface of zero Kelvin. This value is comparable with the energy barriers, 365.4 and 403.7 kJ/mol, of the rate control steps. However, the apparent activation energy, 215.7 kJ/mol, developed with the Gibbs free energy surface at 1200 K is consistent with the most recent experimental result 201.9 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. "Implicate order" and the good life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    In an attempt to formulate a coherent view of quantum reality, the theoretical physicist David Bohm has proposed a new concept of order to supplement the mechanistic Cartesian order of traditional physics. The "implicate" order is a subtler and deeper order that emphasizes "unbroken wholeness...... in flowing movement," in contrast to the coarser and more superficial, "explicate" Cartesian order of distinct phenomena. This dissertation attempts to develop a meaning for the idea of implicate order in the human world. First is offerend an account of some evolutionary episodes in terms of implicate...... and explicate order which draws on compatible work in cosmology, embryogenesis, visual perception, brain memory, decision making and phenomenology. Two important characteristics of the implicate order are then identified: in an implicate order, the whole is enfolded (or represented) in each of its parts...

  12. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    In mesh-free particle methods a high order solution to the unbounded Poisson equation is usually achieved by constructing regularised integration kernels for the Biot-Savart law. Here the singular, point particles are regularised using smoothed particles to obtain an accurate solution with an order...... of convergence consistent with the moments conserved by the applied smoothing function. In the hybrid particle-mesh method of Hockney and Eastwood (HE) the particles are interpolated onto a regular mesh where the unbounded Poisson equation is solved by a discrete non-cyclic convolution of the mesh values...... and the integration kernel. In this work we show an implementation of high order regularised integration kernels in the HE algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve an arbitrary high order convergence. We further present a quantitative study of the convergence rate to give further insight...

  13. Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Junyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo system is established. The fractional-order controller for pneumatic position servo and its implementation in industrial computer is designed. The experiments with fractional-order controller are carried out under various conditions, which include sine position signal with different frequency and amplitude, step position signal, and variety inertial load. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and verify their fine control performance for pneumatic position servo system.

  14. 77 FR 71201 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Deutsch, Executive Director, American Securitization Forum, and Chris Dalton, Chief Executive Officer... Barnard to the Commission, dated Nov. 23, 2011 (``Barnard Letter''); Letter from Tom Deutsch, Executive...

  15. 78 FR 70984 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... FSA Letter; SFJ Letter; AFME Letter; JCR Letter. \\30\\ See Letter from Tom Deutsch, Executive Director... from Tom Deutsch, Executive Director, American Securitization Forum and Chris Dalton, Chief Executive...

  16. Crystal Thermoelasticity at Extreme Loading Rates and Pressures: Analysis of Higher-Order Energy Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    effective elastic shear to bulk modulus. 15. SUBJECT TERMS dynamic loading, shock compression, constitutive modeling, nonlinear elasticity, equation of...where ‘‘plastic’’ refers here to any thermodynam- ically irreversible mechanism such as dislocation glide, de - formation twinning, fracture, void...σ sym- metric Cauchy stress, and U internal energy per reference volume. Letting ξ denote an internal state variable linked to evolution of

  17. 78 FR 56692 - Colorado River Storage Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Bailey, Power Marketing Manager, CRSP Management Center, Western Area Power Administration, 150 East... Jeka, CRSP Manager, CRSP Management Center, Western Area Power Administration, 150 East Social Hall...) Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7152) transferred to and vested in the Secretary of Energy the power marketing...

  18. 75 FR 73137 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... capital,\\24\\ and conflict with local laws.\\25\\ Several commenters also requested that the conditional... Dalton, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Securitisation Forum, to Randall Roy, Assistant Director... Letter; IIAC Letter. With respect to local laws, we note that the European Commission in recent months...

  19. 77 FR 34381 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... period. ADDRESSES: The public information forum and public comment forum will be held at Western's Desert..., Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ... purchase power costs to recover. Since then, Western's Balancing Authority (BA) in the Desert Southwest...

  20. Ranking of grass species according to visible wilting order and rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf water potential and soil water content at which each grass species wilted were recorded. Keywords: availability; digitaria argyrograpta; digitaria eriantha; grasses; leaf water potential; moisture stress; neutron probe; orange free state; panicum stapfianum; soil water; soil water content; soil water potential; south africa ...

  1. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... ranged from $1,522,519 in 2004 to $3,931,296 in 2012. Expenditures for health and nutrition research have... relating to various health issues, including cardiovascular health and cancer. However, most of these... incorporate specific areas of research into expanded clinical (human) trials. Clinical trials are important...

  2. 76 FR 26324 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    .... Assuming the monthly percentage change in ADS follows a random walk, calculating the expected monthly....123, respectively. 4. Assume that the natural logarithm of ADS follows a random walk, so that s and t... year 2011. Note, however, that Section 31 will be amended by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and...

  3. Charting an Alternate Pathway to Reaction Orders and Rate Laws in Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Criswell, Brett A.; McAllister, Nicole D.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Moore, Lamesha A.; Pierre, Michelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction kinetics is an axiomatic topic in chemistry that is often addressed as early as the high school course and serves as the foundation for more sophisticated conversations in college-level organic, physical, and biological chemistry courses. Despite the fundamental nature of reaction kinetics, students can struggle with transforming their…

  4. 75 FR 57912 - Boulder Canyon Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...). This Act transferred to and vested in the Secretary of Energy the power marketing functions of the... using sound business principles. Both agencies continue to provide transparency in development of their... September 30, 2015, or until superseded. Available In the marketing area serviced by the Boulder Canyon...

  5. Regularities and irregularities in order flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.

  6. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  7. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    The order in which authors are listed on an academic paper determines the credit that each receives on a co-authored publication, influencing hiring, tenure and promotions. Two of the prevalent author ordering schemes are alphabetical, which involves listing authors in lexicographical order...... of their last names, implying that all contributed equally, and by contribution, where authors are listed in decreasing order of their contribution to the paper. We perform a game theoretic analysis of the impact of author ordering schemes, uncovering two considerable advantages of alphabetical ordering......: it leads to improved research quality, and it is the more fair of the two approaches in the worst case. On the other hand, contribution-based ordering results in a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications than is achieved using alphabetical author ordering. Furthermore, authors can...

  8. China and the New International Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian.......This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian....

  9. Order units in a C-algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  10. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  11. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  12. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  13. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  14. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  15. Kinetic characteristics of gas-liquid ozone reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    An experimental chemical method for determining the kinetic characteristics (volumetric mass transfer coefficient and rate constant of a second-order reaction) of gas-liquid ozone reactions in a bubble column reactor is described. The calculation formulas are substantiated, and the ranges of values of the experimental factors that determine the method's limits of applicability are found. The conditions under which the boundary-value problem of a gas-liquid ozone reaction of the second order can be reduced to a problem of a pseudo-first order reaction allowing an analytical solution are revealed.

  16. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  17. Glomerular filtration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  18. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  19. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    obtained a risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain different...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  20. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    obtained an annual risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  1. On Orders of Observables on Effect Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2017-12-01

    On the set of bounded observables on an effect algebra, the Olson order defined by spectral resolutions and the standard order defined by a system of σ-additive states are introduced. We show that sharp bounded observables form a Dedekind σ-complete sublattice of a Dedekind complete lattice under the Olson order. In addition, we compare both orders, and we illustrate them on different effect algebras.

  2. High-order epistasis shapes evolutionary trajectories.

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Zachary R.; Harms, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    High-order epistasis-where the effect of a mutation is determined by interactions with two or more other mutations-makes small, but detectable, contributions to genotype-fitness maps. While epistasis between pairs of mutations is known to be an important determinant of evolutionary trajectories, the evolutionary consequences of high-order epistasis remain poorly understood. To determine the effect of high-order epistasis on evolutionary trajectories, we computationally removed high-order epis...

  3. High-order epistasis shapes evolutionary trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Zachary R.

    2017-01-01

    High-order epistasis?where the effect of a mutation is determined by interactions with two or more other mutations?makes small, but detectable, contributions to genotype-fitness maps. While epistasis between pairs of mutations is known to be an important determinant of evolutionary trajectories, the evolutionary consequences of high-order epistasis remain poorly understood. To determine the effect of high-order epistasis on evolutionary trajectories, we computationally removed high-order epis...

  4. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  5. Reasons for computerised provider order entry (CPOE)-based inpatient medication ordering errors: an observational study of voided orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joanna; Kannampallil, Thomas G; Jarman, Alan; Sharma, Shivy; Rash, Christine; Schiff, Gordon; Galanter, William

    2017-07-11

    Medication voiding is a computerised provider order entry (CPOE)-based discontinuation mechanism that allows clinicians to identify erroneous medication orders. We investigated the accuracy of voiding as an indicator of clinician identification and interception of a medication ordering error, and investigated reasons and root contributors for medication ordering errors. Using voided orders identified with a void alert, we conducted interviews with ordering and voiding clinicians, followed by patient chart reviews. A structured coding framework was used to qualitatively analyse the reasons for medication ordering errors. We also compared clinician-CPOE-selected (at time of voiding), clinician-reported (interview) and chart review-based reasons for voiding. We conducted follow-up interviews on 101 voided orders. The positive predictive value (PPV) of voided orders that were medication ordering errors was 93.1% (95% CI 88.1% to 98.1%, n=94). Using chart review-based reasons as the gold standard, we found that clinician-CPOE-selected reasons were less reflective (PPV=70.2%, 95% CI 61.0% to 79.4%) than clinician-reported (interview) (PPV=86.1%, 95%CI 78.2% to 94.1%) reasons for medication ordering errors. Duplicate (n=44) and improperly composed (n=41) ordering errors were common, often caused by predefined order sets and data entry issues. A striking finding was the use of intentional violations as a mechanism to notify and seek ordering assistance from pharmacy service. Nearly half of the medication ordering errors were voided by pharmacists. We demonstrated that voided orders effectively captured medication ordering errors. The mismatch between clinician-CPOE-selected and the chart review-based reasons for error emphasises the need for developing standardised operational descriptions for medication ordering errors. Such standardisation can help in accurately identifying, tracking, managing and sharing erroneous orders and their root contributors between healthcare

  6. Higher-order (non-)modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting syst...

  7. On the structure of order domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Olav; Pellikaan, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    The notion of an order domain is generalized. The behaviour of an order domain by taking a subalgebra, the extension of scalars, and the tensor product is studied. The relation of an order domain with valuation theory, Gröbner algebras, and graded structures is given. The theory of Gröbner bases...

  8. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or restriction...

  9. Abel's Theorem Simplifies Reduction of Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We give an alternative to the standard method of reduction or order, in which one uses one solution of a homogeneous, linear, second order differential equation to find a second, linearly independent solution. Our method, based on Abel's Theorem, is shorter, less complex and extends to higher order equations.

  10. On the orders of finite semisimple groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the order coincidences among the finite semisimple groups and to give a reasoning of such order coincidences through the transitive actions of compact Lie groups. It is a theorem of Artin and Tits that a finite simple group is determined by its order, with the exception of the groups ( A 3 ...

  11. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of Federal...

  12. Extended-range order in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Egami, T.; Hu, Rui-Zhong [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Howells, W.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    A new type of order is identified in complex glasses, characterized by diffraction peaks at values of the wave vector below those typical of intermediate-range order. Combined neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction studies of one glass exhibiting this behavior, vitreous rubidium germanate, indicate it to be associated with chemical ordering of the two cations with respect to each other.

  13. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  14. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to appear...

  15. New World Order – Perspectives to Achieve

    OpenAIRE

    Albu Gina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we have treated several fundamental issues underlying a new world order of political and economic perspective. I made a brief foray into what about the prospects of creating a new world order and ways to implement it. new world order is a fundamental problem in the global economy..

  16. Optimization of an intracavity Q-switched solid-state second order Raman laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiong; Fu, Xihong; Peng, Hangyu; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Li; Ning, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the model of an intracavity Q-switched second order Raman laser is established, the characteristics of the output 2nd Stokes are simulated. The dynamic balance mechanism among intracavity conversion rates of stimulated emission, first order Raman and second order Raman is obtained. Finally, optimization solutions for increasing output 2nd Stokes pulse energy are proposed.

  17. Computerized Physician Order Entry - effectiveness and efficiency of electronic medication ordering with decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzlinger, Heidi; Hiebinger, Cora; Pertl, Daniela; Traurig, Peter

    2009-05-19

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are software to electronically enter medication orders. They can be equipped with tools for decision support (CDS). In Germany, various vendors offer such systems for hospitals and physicians' offices. These systems have mostly been developed during the last five to ten years. CPOE-systems exist since the 1970's. Usually, clinical decision support is integrated into the CPOE to avoid errors. This HTA-report aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of CPOE-/CDS-systems and their ethical, social and legal aspects. The systematic literature search (27 international data bases) yielded 791 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process, twelve publications were included in the assessment. All reviews and studies included in the present report show that the use of CPOE-/CDS-systems can lead to a reduction of medication errors. Minor errors can be eliminated almost completely. The effect of CPOE-/CDS-systems on the rate of adverse drug events (ADE) is evaluated in only two primary studies with conflicting results. It is difficult to compare the results of economical studies because they evaluate different settings, interventions and time frames. In addition, the documentation often is not fully transparent. All four studies included measure costs and effects from the perspective of a hospital or hospital affiliation. Concerning social aspects, the literature points at changes regard competing interests of technology and humans that result from the implementation of CPOE-systems. The experience of institutions in which the implementation of CPOE-systems leads to problems showed that the importance of considering the socio-organisational context had partly been underestimated. CPOE-/CDS-systems are able to reduce the rate of medication errors when ordering medications. The adherence to guidelines, communication, patient care and personnel satisfaction can also be affected positively. However, the literature also

  18. Ordered Algebraic Structures : the 1991 Conrad Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, C

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 1991 Conrad Conference, held in Gainesville, Florida, USA, in December, 1991. Together, these give an overview of some recent advances in the area of ordered algebraic structures. The first part of the book is devoted to ordered permutation groups and universal, as well as model-theoretic, aspects. The second part deals with material variously connected to general topology and functional analysis. Collectively, the contents of the book demonstrate the wide applicability of order-theoretic methods, and how ordered algebraic structures have connections with many research disciplines. For researchers and graduate students whose work involves ordered algebraic structures.

  19. High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...

  20. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  1. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  2. Tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Prestes, Thiago de Hermann; Gibbon, Danielle de Oliveira; Lansarin, Marla Azário; Moro, Celso Camilo

    2010-01-01

    The tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using TiO2 (P25-Degussa) as catalyst and a high pressure mercury lamp. The photolysis, adsorption and irradiation effects in the reaction rate were evaluated. Afterward, the suspension catalyst concentration and initial pH to the maximum reaction rate was determined. It was observed that the reaction rate can be approached by a pseudo-first order, with a maximum kinetics constant at 260 mg L-1catalyst concentr...

  3. Degradação fotocatalítica do fungicida tebuconazole em solução aquosa Tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Hermann Prestes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using TiO2 (P25-Degussa as catalyst and a high pressure mercury lamp. The photolysis, adsorption and irradiation effects in the reaction rate were evaluated. Afterward, the suspension catalyst concentration and initial pH to the maximum reaction rate was determined. It was observed that the reaction rate can be approached by a pseudo-first order, with a maximum kinetics constant at 260 mg L-1catalyst concentration and pH 7.7.

  4. Accuracy of send-out test ordering: a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of ordering accuracy in 97 clinical laboratories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenstein, Paul N; Walsh, Molly K; Stankovic, Ana K

    2008-01-01

    .... Representatives from 97 clinical laboratories provided information about the processes they use to send tests to reference facilities and their order entry and specimen routing error rates. In aggregate, 98...

  5. Control of Initialized Fractional-Order Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartly, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of historical effects in fractional-order systems, this paper presents a general fractional-order control theory that includes the time-varying initialization response. Previous studies have not properly accounted for these historical effects. The initialization response, along with the forced response, for fractional-order systems is determined. Stability properties of fractional-order systems are presented in the complex Airplane, which is a transformation of the s-plane. Time responses are discussed with respect to pole positions in the complex Airplane and frequency response behavior is included. A fractional-order vector space representation, which is a generalization of the state space concept, is presented including the initialization response. Control methods for vector representations of initialized fractional-order systems are shown. Nyquist, root-locus, and other input-output control methods are adapted to the control of fractional-order systems. Finally, the fractional-order differintegral is generalized to continuous order-distributions that have the possibility of including a continuum of fractional orders in a system element.

  6. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Observing effectiveness of pathology ordering controls in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagholikar, Amol; O'Dwyer, John; Hansen, David; Chu, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate application of data integration technology for observing the effectiveness of interventions to control pathology orders in Emergency Departments. Doctors frequently need to order blood tests in the Emergency Departments as a part of diagnostic set up in Emergency Departments. However, pathology test ordering is excessive and often unnecessary. The excessive ordering of blood test places a significant financial burden on our health care system. It also causes undue discomfort and worry to the patients. There are many interventions employed to control pathology ordering in Emergency Departments. The analysis of effectiveness of interventions is required for improving clinical practices in Emergency Departments. However, the collection and extraction of data on the effects of intervention can be very costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need of a technology-based solution to access, query and analyse data residing across different sources. The research aims to determine efficacy of an intervention called the "Traffic Light System" through a pathology request form used to control the pathology ordering in one adult hospital emergency department. Health Data Integration (HDI) technology was implemented to link and query the data residing at different source systems i.e. pathology and ED information system. The data was extracted from the Emergency Department Information System at an adult tertiary hospital in Queensland. Twenty weeks of pre-intervention data was collected. Twenty weeks of post-intervention data was collected after 32-week transition interval. The data for pre-intervention, transition and post-intervention period was analysed to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing commonly ordered pathology tests such as Full Blood Counts (FBC) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). The total number of FBC tests ordered in the pre-intervention period fell slightly in the post-intervention period (mean 42.3 vs 38.1 per

  8. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  9. Army aeromedical crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Freid, R L; Villarin, A R

    1999-02-01

    Safety is a principal concern for everyone in aviation, including those in military and civilian aeromedical programs. The U.S. Army flies thousands of helicopter missions each year, including many aeromedical flights. The comparison between Army general and aeromedical aviation crash data provides a benchmark for establishing patterns in aeromedical safety and may be useful for similar programs examining safety profiles. To determine the crash rates of Army aeromedical rotary-wing (helicopter) programs and compare them with crash rates in Army general aviation. Retrospective review of safety data from 1987 to 1995. Crashes or mishaps are categorized into three classes: A, B, and C. Class A reflects the most serious mishap and involves loss of life or aircraft destruction, whereas classes B and C represent lesser but still significant mishaps. Crash rates are compared on a year-by-year basis and are reported as events per 100,000 flight hours. Statistical analysis was performed by the z test with Yates' correction, with significance set at p crash rate was 1.86 compared with the aeromedical rate of 2.02. The mean general class A to C crash rate was 7.37 compared with the aeromedical rate of 7.44. Between 1992 and 1995, there were 3 years when the Army aeromedical program suffered no class A mishaps. Differences between study groups are statistically significant, but they are interpreted conservatively given the very low incidence of mishaps in both groups. Both rates are comparable with published civilian mishap rates. There is a very low overall incidence of crashes in both groups. There may be no practical difference between Army general and aeromedical aviation mishap rates. Furthermore, Army crash rates are comparable with published civilian mishap rates.

  10. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  11. Motivational control of second-order conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbauer, Neil E; Balleine, Bernard W

    2005-07-01

    Two experiments examined the motivational specificity of the associations that support 2nd-order conditioning. In the 1st phase of each experiment rats were exposed to 2 visual conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with either a saline or food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) prior to exposure to 2nd-order conditioning using 2 auditory CSs, 1 paired with each visual CS. Rats' motivational state was then shifted prior to a test such that if and only if specific motivational features of the 1st-order training US played a role in the 2nd-order associative structure would responding to the 2nd-order cues shift appropriately with the state change. Even when the US was irrelevant to the training motivational state, shifts in state revealed that it was encoded within the associative structure supporting 2nd-order responding. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Ordering structured populations in multiplayer cooperation games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Spatial structure greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. While in two-player games the condition for cooperation to evolve depends on a single structure coefficient, in multiplayer games the condition might depend on several structure coefficients, making it difficult to compare different population structures. We propose a solution to this issue by introducing two simple ways of ordering population structures: the containment order and the volume order. If population structure is greater than population structure in the containment or the volume order, then can be considered a stronger promoter of cooperation. We provide conditions for establishing the containment order, give general results on the volume order, and illustrate our theory by comparing different models of spatial games and associated update rules. Our results hold for a large class of population structures and can be easily applied to specific cases once the structure coefficients have been calculated or estimated. PMID:26819335

  13. Variable-order fuzzy fractional PID controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Pan, Feng; Xue, Dingyu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new tuning method of variable-order fractional fuzzy PID controller (VOFFLC) is proposed for a class of fractional-order and integer-order control plants. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) could easily deal with parameter variations of control system, but the fractional-order parameters are unable to change through this way and it has confined the effectiveness of FLC. Therefore, an attempt is made in this paper to allow all the five parameters of fractional-order PID controller vary along with the transformation of system structure as the outputs of FLC, and the influence of fractional orders λ and μ on control systems has been investigated to make the fuzzy rules for VOFFLC. Four simulation results of different plants are shown to verify the availability of the proposed control strategy. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ordering structured populations in multiplayer cooperation games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Spatial structure greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. While in two-player games the condition for cooperation to evolve depends on a single structure coefficient, in multiplayer games the condition might depend on several structure coefficients, making it difficult to compare different population structures. We propose a solution to this issue by introducing two simple ways of ordering population structures: the containment order and the volume order. If population structure S1 is greater than population structure S1 in the containment or the volume order, then S1 can be considered a stronger promoter of cooperation. We provide conditions for establishing the containment order, give general results on the volume order, and illustrate our theory by comparing different models of spatial games and associated update rules. Our results hold for a large class of population structures and can be easily applied to specific cases once the structure coefficients have been calculated or estimated. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE=TdS−PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called “Legendre transformation” at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  16. Waiting for coronary angiography: is there a clinically ordered queue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, H; Crook, A M; Feder, G; Dawson, J R; Timmis, A

    2000-03-18

    Among over 3000 patients undergoing coronary angiography in the absence of a formal queue-management system, we found that a-priori urgency scores were strongly associated with waiting times, prevalence of coronary-artery disease, rate of revascularisation, and mortality. These data challenge the widely held assumption that such waiting lists are not clinically ordered; however, the wide variation in waiting times within urgency categories suggests the need for further improvements in clinical queueing.

  17. exchange rate pass-through to import and consumer prices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    (1) Supply shocks are identified from the dynamics of oil price inflation denominated in the .... except oil prices. The exchange rate is ordered third followed by domestic prices which are ordered according to the distribution chain (i.e. MPI, WPI, and CPI). ..... Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Domestic Prices in Pakistan.

  18. Numerical investigation of sixth order Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovska, N.; Vucheva, V.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a family of conservative finite difference schemes for the Boussinesq equation with sixth order dispersion terms. The schemes are of second order of approximation. The method is conditionally stable with a mild restriction τ = O(h) on the step sizes. Numerical tests are performed for quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The numerical experiments show second order of convergence of the discrete solution to the exact one.

  19. Second-order optic flow processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen-Stockdale, Craig; Ledgeway, Tim; Hess, Robert F

    2007-06-01

    Optic flow-large-field rotational and radial motion-is processed as efficiently as translational motion for first-order (luminance-defined) stimuli. However, it has been suggested recently that the same pattern does not hold for second-order (e.g. contrast-defined) stimuli. We used random dot kinematogram (RDK) stimuli to determine whether global processing of optic flow is as efficient as processing of global translational motion for both first- and second-order stimuli. For first-order stimuli, we found that coherence thresholds for radial and rotational motion were equivalent to thresholds for translational motion, supporting previous findings. For second-order stimuli we found, firstly, that given sufficient contrast, second-order optic flow can be processed as efficiently as first-order optic flow and, secondly, that rotational and translational second-order motion are processed with equal efficiency. This contradicts the suggestion that there is a loss of efficiency between integration of second-order global motion and second-order optic flow. The third interesting finding was that the processing of radial second-order motion appears to suffer from a deficit that is dependent upon both the contrast and spatial extent of the stimulus. Further experiments discounted the possibility that the observed deficit is caused by a centrifugal or centripetal bias, but demonstrated that a longer temporal integration period for radial second-order motion is responsible for the observed difference. For durations of approximately 850ms, all three types of motion are processed with equal efficiency.

  20. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    In order to succeed in developing a more sustainable society, buildings will need to be continuously improved. This paper discusses how to rate the energy performance of buildings. A brief review of recent approaches to energy rating is presented. It illustrates that there is no single correct or wrong concept, but one needs to be aware of the relative impact of the strategies. Different strategies of setting energy efficiency standards are discussed and the advantages of the minimum life cycle cost are shown. Indicators for building energy rating based on simulations, aggregated statistics and expert knowledge are discussed and illustrated in order to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the importance of considering the level of amenities offered is presented. Attributes of a rating procedure based on three elements, flexible enough for recognizing different strategies to achieve energy conservation, is proposed.

  1. Executive Orders-William J. Clinton

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  2. Executive Orders-George W. Bush

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  3. Spaces of orderings and abstract real spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Murray A

    1996-01-01

    This book is of interest to students as well as experts in the area of real algebraic geometry, quadratic forms, orderings, valuations, lattice ordered groups and rings, and in model theory. The original motivation comes from orderings on fields and commutative rings. This is explained as is the important application to minimal generation of semi-algebraic sets. Many results in the new theory of abstract real spectra (also called spaces of signs) appear here for the first time. The reader needs elementary knowledge of commutative rings, ordered fields and real closed fields and valuations.

  4. CCII based fractional filters of different orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Soltan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to generalize the design of continuous-time filters to the fractional domain with different orders and validates the theoretical results with two different CCII based filters. In particular, the proposed study introduces the generalized formulas for the previous fractional-order analysis of equal orders. The fractional-order filters enhance the design flexibility and prove that the integer-order performance is a very narrow subset from the fractional-order behavior due to the extra degrees of freedom. The general fundamentals of these filters are presented by calculating the maximum and minimum frequencies, the half power frequency and the right phase frequency which are considered a critical issue for the filter design. Different numerical solutions for the generalized fractional order low pass filters with two different fractional order elements are introduced and verified by the circuit simulations of two fractional-order filters: Kerwin–Huelsman–Newcomb (KHN and Tow-Tomas CCII-based filters, showing great matching.

  5. Doctors' attitudes regarding not for resuscitation orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritharan, Gaya; Mills, Amber C; Levinson, Michele R; Gellie, Anthea L

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to investigate doctors' attitudes regarding the discussion and writing of not for resuscitation (NFR) orders and to identify potential barriers to the completion of these orders. Methods A questionnaire-based convenience study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital. Likert scales and open-ended questions were directed to issues surrounding the discussion, timing, understanding and writing of NFR orders, including legal and personal considerations. Results Doctors thought the presence of an NFR order both should and does alter care delivered by nursing staff, particularly delivery of pain relief, nursing observations and contacting the medical emergency team. Eighty-five per cent of doctors believed they needed somebody else's consent to write an NFR order (seeking of consent is not a requirement in most Australian jurisdictions). Conclusion There are complex barriers to the writing and implementation of NFR orders, including doctors' knowledge around the need for consent when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is likely to be futile or excessively burdensome. Doctors also believed that NFR orders result in changes to goals-of-care, suggesting a confounding of NFR orders with palliative care. Furthermore, doctors are willing to write NFR orders where there is clear medical indication and the patient is imminently dying, but are otherwise reliant on patients and family to initiate discussion. What is known about the topic? Hospitalised elderly patients, in the absence of an NFR order, are known to have poor survival and outcomes following resuscitation. Further, Australian data on the prevalence of NFR forms show that only a minority of older in-patients have a written NFR order in their history. In Australian hospitals, NFR orders are completed by doctors. What does this paper add? To our knowledge, the present study is the first in Australia to qualitatively analyse doctors' reasons to writing NFR orders. The open-text nature

  6. High-order epistasis shapes evolutionary trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Zachary R; Harms, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    High-order epistasis-where the effect of a mutation is determined by interactions with two or more other mutations-makes small, but detectable, contributions to genotype-fitness maps. While epistasis between pairs of mutations is known to be an important determinant of evolutionary trajectories, the evolutionary consequences of high-order epistasis remain poorly understood. To determine the effect of high-order epistasis on evolutionary trajectories, we computationally removed high-order epistasis from experimental genotype-fitness maps containing all binary combinations of five mutations. We then compared trajectories through maps both with and without high-order epistasis. We found that high-order epistasis strongly shapes the accessibility and probability of evolutionary trajectories. A closer analysis revealed that the magnitude of epistasis, not its order, predicts is effects on evolutionary trajectories. We further find that high-order epistasis makes it impossible to predict evolutionary trajectories from the individual and paired effects of mutations. We therefore conclude that high-order epistasis profoundly shapes evolutionary trajectories through genotype-fitness maps.

  7. DYNAMICS OF FRACTIONAL ORDER CHAOTIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dynamics of chaos and synchronization for fractional order chaotic system. For fractional order derivative Captuo definition is used here and numerical simulations are done using Predictor-Correctors scheme by Diethlm based on the Adams-Baseforth-Moulton algorithm. Stability analysis is discussed here for non linear fractional order chaotic system and synchronization is achieved between two non identical fractional order chaotic systems: Finance chaotic system(driving systemand Lorenz system(response systemvia active control.Numerical simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of these approaches.

  8. Second Order Mode Selective Phase-Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent; Bachor, Hans. A-

    2006-01-01

    We exploit second order (χ(2)) nonlinear optical phase matching for the selection of individual high order transverse modes. The ratio between the generated components can be adjusted continuously via changes in the phase-matching condition. ©2007 Optical Society of America......We exploit second order (χ(2)) nonlinear optical phase matching for the selection of individual high order transverse modes. The ratio between the generated components can be adjusted continuously via changes in the phase-matching condition. ©2007 Optical Society of America...

  9. Optical method of atomic ordering estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prutskij, T. [Instituto de Ciencias, BUAP, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, col. San Miguel Huyeotlipan, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Attolini, G. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A - 43010, Parma (Italy); Lantratov, V.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-04

    It is well known that within metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown semiconductor III-V ternary alloys atomically ordered regions are spontaneously formed during the epitaxial growth. This ordering leads to bandgap reduction and to valence bands splitting, and therefore to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission polarization. The same phenomenon occurs within quaternary semiconductor alloys. While the ordering in ternary alloys is widely studied, for quaternaries there have been only a few detailed experimental studies of it, probably because of the absence of appropriate methods of its detection. Here we propose an optical method to reveal atomic ordering within quaternary alloys by measuring the PL emission polarization.

  10. Genetic Algorithm-Based Identification of Fractional-Order Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxi Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus has become an increasingly popular tool for modeling the complex behaviors of physical systems from diverse domains. One of the key issues to apply fractional calculus to engineering problems is to achieve the parameter identification of fractional-order systems. A time-domain identification algorithm based on a genetic algorithm (GA is proposed in this paper. The multi-variable parameter identification is converted into a parameter optimization by applying GA to the identification of fractional-order systems. To evaluate the identification accuracy and stability, the time-domain output error considering the condition variation is designed as the fitness function for parameter optimization. The identification process is established under various noise levels and excitation levels. The effects of external excitation and the noise level on the identification accuracy are analyzed in detail. The simulation results show that the proposed method could identify the parameters of both commensurate rate and non-commensurate rate fractional-order systems from the data with noise. It is also observed that excitation signal is an important factor influencing the identification accuracy of fractional-order systems.

  11. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  12. Higher-Order Minimal Functional Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil D; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    We present a minimal function graph semantics for a higher-order functional language with applicative evaluation order. The semantics captures the intermediate calls performed during the evaluation of a program. This information may be used in abstract interpretation as a basis for proving...

  13. High-Order Thermal Radiative Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Douglas Nelson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cleveland, Mathew Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wollaeger, Ryan Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warsa, James S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this research is to asses the sensitivity of the linearized thermal radiation transport equations to finite element order on unstructured meshes and to investigate the sensitivity of the nonlinear TRT equations due to evaluating the opacities and heat capacity at nodal temperatures in 2-D using high-order finite elements.

  14. Partial Order Reduction for Probabilistic Branching Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; d' Argenio, P.R.; Größer, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    In the past, partial order reduction has been used successfully to combat the state explosion problem in the context of model checking for non-probabilistic systems. For both linear time and branching time specifications, methods have been developed to apply partial order reduction in the context of

  15. The Optimal Economic Order: the simplest model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn the last five years humanity has become faced with the problem of the optimal socioeconomic order more clearly than ever. After the confrontation of capitalism and socialism, which was the core of the Marxist thesis, the fact transpired that capitalism was not the optimal order. It

  16. 76 FR 766 - Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1011, 1034, 1102, 1104, and 1115 Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders... Transportation Board (Board or STB) proposes to establish regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing... regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing orders upon application of the National Railroad...

  17. Exploring Partial Order of European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoni, Paola; Bruggemann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Partial Order Theory has been recently more and more employed in applied science to overcome the intrinsic disadvantage hidden in aggregation, if a multiple attribute system is available. Despite its numerous positive features, there are many practical cases where the interpretation of the partial order can be rather troublesome. In these cases…

  18. School Bullying and Social and Moral Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical consideration of the ways in which school bullying relates to social and moral orders and the relations of power that are central to the upholding of such orders. Moving away from the focus on individual aggressive intentionality that has hitherto dominated school bullying research, the article argues that…

  19. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders... Assessment, Site Security Plan, or both; and (v) A statement, indicating what action(s) the chemical must...

  20. Higher order corrections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present some techniques which have been developed recently or in the recent past to compute Feynman graphs beyond one-loop order. These techniques are useful to compute the three-loop splitting functions in QCD and to obtain the complete second order QED corrections to Bhabha scattering.

  1. 40 CFR 164.123 - Emergency order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency order. 164.123 Section 164... Hearings § 164.123 Emergency order. (a) Whenever the Environmental Appeals Board determines that an emergency exists that does not permit him to hold a hearing before suspension, the Environmental Appeals...

  2. Bidimensional Relations for Reading Order Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Smeulders, Arnold M.W.

    2003-01-01

    We use a propositional language of qualitative rectangle relations to detect the reading order from document images. Document encoding rules are introduced and, expressed in the propositional language of rectangles, are used to build a reading order detector for document images. Results of testing

  3. Verbal cluster order and processing complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Versloot, A.; Weerman, F.

    We examine a case of word order variation where speakers choose between two near-synonymous constructions partly on the basis of the processing complexity of the construction and its context. When producing two-verb clusters in Dutch, a speaker can choose between two word orders. Previous corpus

  4. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 1219.17 Section 1219.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  5. Invariant Ordering of Item-Total Regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    A new observable consequence of the property of invariant item ordering is presented, which holds under Mokken's double monotonicity model for dichotomous data. The observable consequence is an invariant ordering of the item-total regressions. Kendall's measure of concordance "W" and a weighted version of this measure are proposed as measures for…

  6. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  7. Pecking Order Behavior in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of the pecking order hypothesis in 23 emerging market countries. Emerging market countries would appear to be an ideal setting for the pecking order hypothesis to hold because of the presence of strong asymmetric information issues and agency costs. We observe,

  8. Charting the social order of meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Meetings are occasions for the construction of social order between meeting participants. I Identify four pure types of meeting order or style that mix empirically: (1) the managerial style, which relies on the somewhat authoritarian management style of yesteryear, (2) the parliamentary style, wi...

  9. Oscillations of first order difference equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oscillations of first order difference equations. N PARHI. Department of Mathematics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. MS received 10 June 1999; revised 28 December 1999. Abstract. The oscillatory and asymptotic behaviour of solutions of first order diff- erence equations is studied. Keywords. Oscillation ...

  10. High order Bragg grating microfluidic dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate a single mode distributed feedback liquid dye laser, based on a short 133 'rd order Bragg grating defined in a single polymer layer between two glass substrates.......We demonstrate a single mode distributed feedback liquid dye laser, based on a short 133 'rd order Bragg grating defined in a single polymer layer between two glass substrates....

  11. 21 CFR 1301.46 - Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... application for registration to import or to manufacture in bulk a basic class of any controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II is granted, or any application for registration is denied, or any registration... which the order is based. The order shall specify the date on which it shall take effect. The...

  12. 21 CFR 1308.45 - Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final order. 1308.45 Section 1308.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.45 Final order. As soon as practicable after the presiding officer has certified the record to the...

  13. 21 CFR 1303.37 - Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final order. 1303.37 Section 1303.37 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Hearings § 1303.37 Final order. As soon as practicable after the presiding officer has certified the record to the Administrator, the...

  14. Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...

  15. 12 CFR 622.59 - Assessment order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment order. 622.59 Section 622.59 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.59 Assessment order. (a) Consent. In the event of consent of the parties...

  16. Rank order scaling of pictorial depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, A.; Koenderink, J.; Wagemans, J.

    2011-01-01

    We address the topic of “pictorial depth” in cases of pictures that are unlike photographic renderings. The most basic measure of “depth” is no doubt that of depth order. We establish depth order through the pairwise depth-comparison method, involving all pairs from a set of 49 fiducial points. The

  17. Higher order corrections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to compute Feynman graphs beyond one-loop order. These techniques are useful to compute the three-loop splitting functions in QCD and to obtain the complete second order QED corrections to. Bhabha scattering. ..... ¾ into the following special functions [9] given by the hyper-geometric functions. ¾F½, ¿F¾, the Appell ...

  18. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  19. Static Complexity Analysis of Higher Order Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Kristiansen, Lars; Moyen, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms.......The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms....

  20. First Order Characterizations of Pseudoconvex Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vsevolod

    2001-01-01

    First order characterizations of pseudoconvex functions are investigated in terms of generalized directional derivatives. A connection with the invexity is analysed. Well-known first order characterizations of the solution sets of pseudolinear programs are generalized to the case of pseudoconvex programs. The concepts of pseudoconvexity and invexity do not depend on a single definition of the generalized directional derivative.

  1. Word order in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses word order, the syntactic arrangement of words in a sentence, clause, or phrase as one of the most crucial aspects of grammar of any spoken language. It aims to investigate the order of the primary constituents which can either be subject, object, or verb of a simple

  2. High order stiffly stable linear multistep methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.N.

    1979-01-01

    Stiffly stable linear k-step methods of order k for the initial-value problem are studied. Examples for k = 1, 2, and 3 were discovered by use of Adams-type methods. A large family of stiffly stable linear 7-step methods of order 7 was also found.

  3. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  4. Chemical Dosing and First-Order Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    College students encounter a variety of first-order phenomena in their mathematics and science courses. Introductory chemistry textbooks that discuss first-order processes, usually in conjunction with chemical kinetics or radioactive decay, stop at single, discrete dose events. Although single-dose situations are important, multiple-dose events,…

  5. Revising Child Support Orders: The Wisconsin Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Wisconsin child support system. Explores policy and program implications of the child support revision process and makes recommendations for improving revision. Advocates expressing child support orders as a percentage of the noncustodial parents' income to keep the orders updated automatically and replace the need for…

  6. Effects of computerized prescriber order entry on pharmacy order-processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietholter, Jon; Sitterson, Susan; Allison, Steven

    2009-08-01

    The effect of computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) on the efficiency of medication-order-processing time was evaluated. This study was conducted at a 761-bed, tertiary care hospital. A total of 2988 medication orders were collected and analyzed before (n = 1488) and after CPOE implementation (n = 1500). Data analyzed included the time the prescriber ordered the medication, the time the pharmacy received the order, and the time the order was completed by a pharmacist. The mean order-processing time before CPOE implementation was 115 minutes from prescriber composition to pharmacist verification. After CPOE implementation, the mean order-processing time was reduced to 3 minutes (p order was received by the pharmacy to the time it was verified by a pharmacist was reduced from 31 minutes before CPOE implementation to 3 minutes after CPOE implementation (p order-processing time (from order composition to verification) by 97%. Additionally, pharmacy-specific order-processing time (from order receipt in the pharmacy to pharmacist verification) was reduced by 90%. This reduction in order-processing time improves patient care by shortening the interval between physician prescribing and medication availability and may allow pharmacists to explore opportunities for enhanced clinical activities that will further positively impact patient care. CPOE implementation reduced the mean pharmacy order-processing time from composition to verification by 97%. After CPOE implementation, a new medication order was verified as appropriate by a pharmacist in three minutes, on average.

  7. Selfishness as second-order altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Wilson, David Sloan

    2008-01-01

    Selfishness is seldom considered a group-beneficial strategy. In the typical evolutionary formulation, altruism benefits the group, selfishness undermines altruism, and the purpose of the model is to identify mechanisms, such as kinship or reciprocity, that enable altruism to evolve. Recent models have explored punishment as an important mechanism favoring the evolution of altruism, but punishment can be costly to the punisher, making it a form of second-order altruism. This model identifies a strategy called “selfish punisher” that involves behaving selfishly in first-order interactions and altruistically in second-order interactions by punishing other selfish individuals. Selfish punishers cause selfishness to be a self-limiting strategy, enabling altruists to coexist in a stable equilibrium. This polymorphism can be regarded as a division of labor, or mutualism, in which the benefits obtained by first-order selfishness help to “pay” for second-order altruism. PMID:18448681

  8. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  9. Fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of nonlinear fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the problem of fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of fractional-order Lipschitz nonlinear systems using fractional-order adaptive fault observer. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotical convergence of the fractional-order state estimation error, the conventional integer-order and the fractional-order faults estimation error are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) formulation by introducing a continuous frequency distributed equivalent model and using an indirect Lyapunov approach where the fractional-order α belongs to 0 < α < 1. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  10. Dynamical analysis of fractional order model of immunogenic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Arshad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the fractional order model of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to a growing tumor cell population. We investigate the long-term behavior of tumor growth and explore the conditions of tumor elimination analytically. We establish the conditions for the tumor-free equilibrium and tumor-infection equilibrium to be asymptotically stable and provide the expression of the basic reproduction number. Existence of physical significant tumor-infection equilibrium points is investigated analytically. We show that tumor growth rate, source rate of immune cells, and death rate of immune cells play vital role in tumor dynamics and system undergoes saddle-node and transcritical bifurcation based on these parameters. Furthermore, the effect of cancer treatment is discussed by varying the values of relevant parameters. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the analytical results.

  11. On the universal identity in second order hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdanov, S. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Starinets, A.O. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-02

    We compute the ’t Hooft coupling correction to the infinite coupling expression for the second order transport coefficient λ{sub 2} in N=4SU(N{sub c}) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature in the limit of infinite N{sub c}, which originates from the R{sup 4} terms in the low energy effective action of the dual type IIB string theory. Using this result, we show that the identity involving the three second order transport coefficients, 2ητ{sub Π}−4λ{sub 1}−λ{sub 2}=0, previously shown by Haack and Yarom to hold universally in relativistic conformal field theories with string dual descriptions to leading order in supergravity approximation, holds also at next to leading order in this theory. We also compute corrections to transport coefficients in a (hypothetical) strongly interacting conformal fluid arising from the generic curvature squared terms in the corresponding dual gravity action (in particular, Gauss-Bonnet action), and show that the identity holds to linear order in the higher-derivative couplings. We discuss potential implications of these results for the near-equilibrium entropy production rate at strong coupling.

  12. Hybrid RANS-LES using high order numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Yellapantula, Shashank; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Knaus, Robert; Sprague, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the impact of wind turbine wake dynamics on downstream turbines is particularly important for the design of efficient wind farms. Due to their tractable computational cost, hybrid RANS/LES models are an attractive framework for simulating separation flows such as the wake dynamics behind a wind turbine. High-order numerical methods can be computationally efficient and provide increased accuracy in simulating complex flows. In the context of LES, high-order numerical methods have shown some success in predictions of turbulent flows. However, the specifics of hybrid RANS-LES models, including the transition region between both modeling frameworks, pose unique challenges for high-order numerical methods. In this work, we study the effect of increasing the order of accuracy of the numerical scheme in simulations of canonical turbulent flows using RANS, LES, and hybrid RANS-LES models. We describe the interactions between filtering, model transition, and order of accuracy and their effect on turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy spectra, boundary layer evolution, and dissipation rate. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Exascale Computing Project, under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  13. Stability analysis of a class of fractional order nonlinear systems with order lying in (0, 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruoxun; Tian, Gang; Yang, Shiping; Cao, Hefei

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the stability of n-dimensional fractional order nonlinear systems with commensurate order 0 fractional order nonlinear systems with order lying in (0, 2). According to this theory, stabilizing a class of fractional order nonlinear systems only need a linear state feedback controller. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed theory. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control and Synchronization of the Fractional-Order Lorenz Chaotic System via Fractional-Order Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Zhou; Rui Ding

    2012-01-01

    The unstable equilibrium points of the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be controlled via fractional-order derivative, and chaos synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be achieved via fractional-order derivative. The control and synchronization technique, based on stability theory of fractional-order systems, is simple and theoretically rigorous. The numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. Control and Synchronization of the Fractional-Order Lorenz Chaotic System via Fractional-Order Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unstable equilibrium points of the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be controlled via fractional-order derivative, and chaos synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be achieved via fractional-order derivative. The control and synchronization technique, based on stability theory of fractional-order systems, is simple and theoretically rigorous. The numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  16. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    ), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  17. Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform

    OpenAIRE

    Imit, Mokhtar; Yamamoto, Takakazu; Imin, Patigul

    2005-01-01

    Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform under irradiation with light were studied. The reactions were separately carried out under air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The obtained results showed that this reaction belongs to the pseudo-first-order reaction with a rate constant k obs of 1.4×10−5 s−1 at room temperature. The presence or absence of air, oxygen, and nitrogen did not have obvious effects on the reaction rate under irradiation with light.

  18. Radiation-induced degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-Peng; Liu, Shao-Yang; Yu, Han-Qing; Yin, Hao; Li, Qian-Rong

    2008-06-01

    Degradation of methyl orange under gamma-irradiation was investigated. The reactions followed pseudo first-order kinetics. Apparent degradation rate constant, estimated through linear regression analysis, increased with an increase of dose rate and a decrease of initial methyl orange concentration. Degradation of methyl orange was significantly accelerated under oxidative condition, but was slightly enhanced under reductive condition. However, the result of decoloration was better under reductive condition than oxidative one. An analysis on the intermediates using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrates that the radiolytic degradation of methyl orange was processed with different C-N cleavages under oxidative and reductive conditions.

  19. Experimental verification of an indefinite causal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Giulia; Rozema, Lee A; Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Zeuner, Jonas M; Procopio, Lorenzo M; Brukner, Časlav; Walther, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Investigating the role of causal order in quantum mechanics has recently revealed that the causal relations of events may not be a priori well defined in quantum theory. Although this has triggered a growing interest on the theoretical side, creating processes without a causal order is an experimental task. We report the first decisive demonstration of a process with an indefinite causal order. To do this, we quantify how incompatible our setup is with a definite causal order by measuring a "causal witness." This mathematical object incorporates a series of measurements that are designed to yield a certain outcome only if the process under examination is not consistent with any well-defined causal order. In our experiment, we perform a measurement in a superposition of causal orders-without destroying the coherence-to acquire information both inside and outside of a "causally nonordered process." Using this information, we experimentally determine a causal witness, demonstrating by almost 7 SDs that the experimentally implemented process does not have a definite causal order.

  20. Design of a fifth-order achromat

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, W

    1999-01-01

    A repetitive system free of all aberrations up to the fifth order was designed based on a recently developed analytical theory that, in principle, allows the design of such achromats to an arbitrary order (Wan and Berz, Phys. Rev. E, 54 (1996) 2870; Wan, Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1995). It serves as an example to show that complete correction of aberrations is possible beyond order three, which is the highest order achieved before (Dragt, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 258 (1987) 339; F. Neri, in: Berz, McIntyre (Eds.), Proc. Workshop on High Order Effects). Instead of repetition of identical cells, which is widely used in achromat design based on normal form theory, we utilize cells which are obtained from the original ones through mirror imaging about the x-y plane, which corresponds to a reversion. In our design, the second half of the ring is the reversion of the first one, and two turns make a fifth-order achromat. A possible application of repetitive high-order achromats being time-of-flight sp...