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Sample records for pseudo-first order rate

  1. Rate kernel theory for pseudo-first-order kinetics of diffusion-influenced reactions and application to fluorescence quenching kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mino

    2007-06-07

    Theoretical foundation of rate kernel equation approaches for diffusion-influenced chemical reactions is presented and applied to explain the kinetics of fluorescence quenching reactions. A many-body master equation is constructed by introducing stochastic terms, which characterize the rates of chemical reactions, into the many-body Smoluchowski equation. A Langevin-type of memory equation for the density fields of reactants evolving under the influence of time-independent perturbation is derived. This equation should be useful in predicting the time evolution of reactant concentrations approaching the steady state attained by the perturbation as well as the steady-state concentrations. The dynamics of fluctuation occurring in equilibrium state can be predicted by the memory equation by turning the perturbation off and consequently may be useful in obtaining the linear response to a time-dependent perturbation. It is found that unimolecular decay processes including the time-independent perturbation can be incorporated into bimolecular reaction kinetics as a Laplace transform variable. As a result, a theory for bimolecular reactions along with the unimolecular process turned off is sufficient to predict overall reaction kinetics including the effects of unimolecular reactions and perturbation. As the present formulation is applied to steady-state kinetics of fluorescence quenching reactions, the exact relation between fluorophore concentrations and the intensity of excitation light is derived.

  2. Type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition induced electrocaloric effect in lead-free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Guorui; Liu, Xing; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Li, Shandong; Li, Peng; Yang, Ke; Zeng, Huarong; Yan, Haixue

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the electrocaloric effect (ECE) of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (BNT-0.06BT) ceramic has been directly measured using a home-made adiabatic calorimeter. The maximum adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) approaches 0.86 K under an electric field of 5 kV/mm at 110 °C, which provides experimental evidence for optimizing the ECE near the type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition (PFOPT). Most importantly, a considerable ΔT value can be maintained over a wide temperature range well above the temperature of the PFOPT under a high electric field. In addition, ΔT is closely related to the structural transition and electric field strength. This work provides a guideline to investigate the high ECE in BNT-based ferroelectric ceramics for applications in cooling technologies.

  3. Pseudo-first-order alkaline hydrolysis of diethyl tartrate: a baseline study for a polymer matrix used in controlled-release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, D S; Simonelli, A P

    1990-04-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of a bifunctional group compound, diethyl tartrate, was studied as a function of temperature and pH in the alkaline region. A pH-stat was used to maintain constant pH conditions in the alkaline region. This allowed the studies to be carried out at low ionic strengths and without the use of buffers. The results indicate that the hydrolysis for both steps followed specific base catalysis. The ratio of the two rate constants was 13.31, which was attributed to a strong charge effect in the second step. The results also show that the use of an overall average rate constant may not be acceptable for multifunctional group compounds.

  4. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  5. 15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priority ratings and rated orders. 700.3 Section 700.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE...

  6. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    -pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct

  7. Calculated Third Order Rate Constants for Interpreting the Mechanisms of Hydrolyses of Chloroformates, Carboxylic Acid Halides, Sulfonyl Chlorides and Phosphorochloridates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. William Bentley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolyses of acid derivatives (e.g., carboxylic acid chlorides and fluorides, fluoro- and chloroformates, sulfonyl chlorides, phosphorochloridates, anhydrides exhibit pseudo-first order kinetics. Reaction mechanisms vary from those involving a cationic intermediate (SN1 to concerted SN2 processes, and further to third order reactions, in which one solvent molecule acts as the attacking nucleophile and a second molecule acts as a general base catalyst. A unified framework is discussed, in which there are two reaction channels—an SN1-SN2 spectrum and an SN2-SN3 spectrum. Third order rate constants (k3 are calculated for solvolytic reactions in a wide range of compositions of acetone-water mixtures, and are shown to be either approximately constant or correlated with the Grunwald-Winstein Y parameter. These data and kinetic solvent isotope effects, provide the experimental evidence for the SN2-SN3 spectrum (e.g., for chloro- and fluoroformates, chloroacetyl chloride, p-nitrobenzoyl p-toluenesulfonate, sulfonyl chlorides. Deviations from linearity lead to U- or V-shaped plots, which assist in the identification of the point at which the reaction channel changes from SN2-SN3 to SN1-SN2 (e.g., for benzoyl chloride.

  8. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  9. Dissolution rate enhancement of piroxicam by ordered mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Vikas Anand; Choudhury, Pratim Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Micronized piroxicam was mixed with lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, maltitol and sodium chloride to produce ordered mixture in a glass vial by manual hand shaking method. The effect of excipients, surfactant, superdisintegrant, drug concentration and carrier particle size on dissolution rate was investigated. Dissolution rate studies of the prepared ordered mixtures revealed that all water soluble excipients increased the dissolution rate of piroxicam when compared to the dissolution rate of piroxicam or its suspension. Ordered mixture formulation PLF4, consisting of lactose as water soluble excipient, SSG (8% w/s) and SLS (1% w/w), released piroxcam at a very fast rate so much so that about 90% of the composition had passed into solution within 2 min. The order of the dissolution rate enhancement for ordered mixtures of various water soluble excipients was: lactose > mannitol > maltitol > sorbitol > sodium chloride. Carrier granules of size 355-710 µm were most effective in increasing the dissolution rate of drug from ordered mixtures. Decreasing the carrier particle size reduced drug dissolution from ordered mixtures. The dissolution rate of ordered mixtures consisting of 1-5% w/w piroxicam was superior to dissolution rate of piroxicam suspension. The dissolution data fitting and the resulting regression parameters indicated Hixson Crowell, cube root law, as the best fit to drug release data of ordered mixtures.

  10. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  11. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  12. 15 CFR 700.12 - Elements of a rated order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.12 Elements of a rated order. Each...

  13. 15 CFR 700.17 - Use of rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.17 Use of rated orders. (a) A person...

  14. Mitigating costs and the preemptive effect of federal rate orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darr, F.P.

    1992-01-01

    The role of federalism in the regulation of energy production is a long-standing problem. This article is divided into five parts. Following a summary of the case 'New Orleans Public Service, Inc. v. Council of New Orleans' (NOPSI) in Part I the article addresses the statutory and interpretive foundations of the filed rate doctrine described in Part II. Part III discusses the Supreme Court's extension of the doctrine into greater federal management of retail rates and introduces the reaction of the lower courts to the Supreme Court's decisions. Part IV analyzes the NOPSI exception requiring a utility to mitigate the effects of a FERC order in light of the policy distinctions inherent in the filed rate doctrine and the recognized eceptions. Part V addresses a related policy issue of the appropriate venue for challenging state orders to deny costs arising from federal orders. 153 refs

  15. RCS Leak Rate Calculation with High Order Least Squares Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Kang, Young Kyu; Kim, Yang Ki

    2010-01-01

    As a part of action items for Application of Leak before Break(LBB), RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program is upgraded in Kori unit 3 and 4. For real time monitoring of operators, periodic calculation is needed and corresponding noise reduction scheme is used. This kind of study was issued in Korea, so there have upgraded and used real time RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program in UCN unit 3 and 4 and YGN unit 1 and 2. For reduction of the noise in signals, Linear Regression Method was used in those programs. Linear Regression Method is powerful method for noise reduction. But the system is not static with some alternative flow paths and this makes mixed trend patterns of input signal values. In this condition, the trend of signal and average of Linear Regression are not entirely same pattern. In this study, high order Least squares Method is used to follow the trend of signal and the order of calculation is rearranged. The result of calculation makes reasonable trend and the procedure is physically consistence

  16. 15 CFR 700.18 - Limitations on placing rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Memoranda of Understanding to other agencies. Unless otherwise agreed to by the concerned agencies, the... of Energy); (iii) Health resources (Department of Health and Human Services); (iv) All forms of civil... Engineers); and (vi) Communications services (National Communications System under Executive Order 12472 of...

  17. A simple and accurate approximation for the order fill rates in lost-sales Assemble-to-Order systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, K.M.R.; Güllü, R.; van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Vliegen, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider an Assemble-to-Order system with multiple end-products. Demands for an end-product follow a Poisson process and each end-product requires a fixed set of components. We are interested in the order fill rates, i.e., the percentage of demands for which all requested components

  18. The dynamic interaction of order flows and the CAD/USD exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Gradojevic; Christopher J. Neely

    2008-01-01

    We explore the relationship between disaggregated order flow, the Canada/U.S. dollar (CAD/USD) market and U.S. macroeconomic announcements. Three types of CAD order flow and the CAD/USD are cointegrated. Financial order flow appears to contemporaneously drive the CAD/USD while commercial order flow seems to contemporaneously respond to exchange rate movements. Past order flow and lagged exchange rates strongly explain most types of order flow. Despite this predictability and the contemporaneo...

  19. Cation ordering in orthopyroxenes and cooling rates of meteorites: Low temperature cooling rates of Estherville, Bondoc and Shaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Yang, H.; Ghose, S.

    1993-01-01

    The cooling rates of meteorites provide important constraints on the size of their parent bodies, and their accretionary and evolutionary histories. However, the cooling rates obtained so far from the commonly used metallographic, radiometric and fission-track methods have been sometimes quite controversial, such as in the case of the mesosiderites and the meteorite Shaw. We have undertaken a systematic study of the cooling rates of meteorites using a different approach, which involves single crystal x-ray determination of Fe(2+)-Mg ordering in orthopyroxenes (OP(x)) in meteorites, subject to bulk compositional constraints, and numerical simulation of the evolution of the ordering state as a function of cooling rate, within the framework of the thermodynamic and kinetic principles governing cation ordering. We report the results obtained for OP(x) crystals from Shaw and two mesosiderites, Estherville and Bondoc.

  20. Automated Decisional Model for Optimum Economic Order Quantity Determination Using Price Regressive Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, M. M.; Tarbă, C. I.; Neagu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The current models for inventory management are complementary, but together they offer a large pallet of elements for solving complex problems of companies when wanting to establish the optimum economic order quantity for unfinished products, row of materials, goods etc. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate an automated decisional model for the calculus of the economic order quantity taking into account the price regressive rates for the total order quantity. This model has two main objectives: first, to determine the periodicity when to be done the order n or the quantity order q; second, to determine the levels of stock: lighting control, security stock etc. In this way we can provide the answer to two fundamental questions: How much must be ordered? When to Order? In the current practice, the business relationships with its suppliers are based on regressive rates for price. This means that suppliers may grant discounts, from a certain level of quantities ordered. Thus, the unit price of the products is a variable which depends on the order size. So, the most important element for choosing the optimum for the economic order quantity is the total cost for ordering and this cost depends on the following elements: the medium price per units, the stock cost, the ordering cost etc.

  1. Order of current variance and diffusivity in the rate one totally asymmetric zero range process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balázs, M.; Komjáthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the variance of the current across a characteristic is of order t 2/3 in a stationary constant rate totally asymmetric zero range process, and that the diffusivity has order t 1/3. This is a step towards proving universality of this scaling behavior in the class of one-dimensional

  2. Order-α corrections to the decay rate of orthopositronium in the Fried-Yennie gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.; Salahuddin, A.A.; Schalm, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    The order-α correction to the decay rate of orthopositronium is obtained using the Fried-Yennie gauge. The result (mα 7 /π 2 ) [-1.987 84(11)] is consistent with but more accurate than the results of previous evaluations

  3. Effects of Cooling Rate on 6.5% Silicon Steel Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jun [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Macziewski, Chad [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Jensen, Brandt [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Ouyang, Gaoyuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Zhou, Lin [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Dennis, Kevin [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Zarkevich, Nikolai [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Jiang, Xiujuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tang, Wei [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Zhou, Shihuai [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Simsek, Emrah [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Napolitano, Ralph [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Kramer, Matt [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-03-02

    Increasing Si content improves magnetic and electrical properties of electrical steel, with 6.5% Si as the optimum. Unfortunately, when Si content approaches 5.7%, the Fe-Si alloy becomes brittle. At 6.5%, the steel conventional cold rolling process is no longer applicable. The heterogeneous formation of B2 and D03 ordered phases is responsible for the embrittlement. The formation of these ordered phases can be impeded by rapid cooling. However, only the cooling rates of water and brine water were investigated. A comprehensive study of the effect of rapid cooling rate on the formation of the ordered phases was carried out by varying wheel speed and melt-injection rate. Thermal imaging employed to measure cooling rates while microstructures of the obtained ribbons are characterized using X-ray diffraction and TEM. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical properties are characterized using 4-pt probe, VSM, and macro-indentation methods. The relations between physical properties and ordered phases are established.

  4. The capacity investment decision for make-to-order production systems with demand rate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, J.W.M.; Ooijen, van H.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the capacity investment decision for make-to-order manufacturing firms that utilize a fixed capacity, operate in a stochastic, stationary market, and can influence their demand rate by increasing or decreasing their sales effort. We consider manufacturing situations that

  5. Relationship between medication event rates and the Leapfrog computerized physician order entry evaluation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander A; Keohane, Carol; Lipsitz, Stuart; Zimlichman, Eyal; Amato, Mary; Simon, Steven R; Coffey, Michael; Kaufman, Nathan; Cadet, Bismarck; Schiff, Gordon; Seger, Diane L; Bates, David W

    2013-06-01

    The Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool has been promoted as a means of monitoring computerized physician order entry (CPOE). We sought to determine the relationship between Leapfrog scores and the rates of preventable adverse drug events (ADE) and potential ADE. A cross-sectional study of 1000 adult admissions in five community hospitals from October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010 was performed. Observed rates of preventable ADE and potential ADE were compared with scores reported by the Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool. The primary outcome was the rate of preventable ADE and the secondary outcome was the composite rate of preventable ADE and potential ADE. Leapfrog performance scores were highly related to the primary outcome. A 43% relative reduction in the rate of preventable ADE was predicted for every 5% increase in Leapfrog scores (rate ratio 0.57; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.88). In absolute terms, four fewer preventable ADE per 100 admissions were predicted for every 5% increase in overall Leapfrog scores (rate difference -4.2; 95% CI -7.4 to -1.1). A statistically significant relationship between Leapfrog scores and the secondary outcome, however, was not detected. Our findings support the use of the Leapfrog tool as a means of evaluating and monitoring CPOE performance after implementation, as addressed by current certification standards. Scores from the Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool closely relate to actual rates of preventable ADE. Leapfrog testing may alert providers to potential vulnerabilities and highlight areas for further improvement.

  6. Higher order constraints on the Higgs production rate from fixed-target DIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints of fixed-target DIS data in fits of parton distributions including QCD corrections to next-to-next-to leading order are studied. We point out a potential problem in the analysis of the NMC data which can lead to inconsistencies in the extracted value for α s (M Z ) and the gluon distribution at higher orders in QCD. The implications for predictions of rates for Standard Model Higgs boson production at hadron colliders are investigated. We conclude that the current range of excluded Higgs boson masses at the Tevatron appears to be much too large. (orig.)

  7. Test order in teacher-rated behavior assessments: Is counterbalancing necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E; McCoach, D Betsy; Miller, Faith G; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Fabiano, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Counterbalancing treatment order in experimental research design is well established as an option to reduce threats to internal validity, but in educational and psychological research, the effect of varying the order of multiple tests to a single rater has not been examined and is rarely adhered to in practice. The current study examines the effect of test order on measures of student behavior by teachers as raters utilizing data from a behavior measure validation study. Using multilevel modeling to control for students nested within teachers, the effect of rating an earlier measure on the intercept or slope of a later behavior assessment was statistically significant in 22% of predictor main effects for the spring test period. Test order effects had potential for high stakes consequences with differences large enough to change risk classification. Results suggest that researchers and practitioners in classroom settings using multiple measures evaluate the potential impact of test order. Where possible, they should counterbalance when the risk of an order effect exists and report justification for the decision to not counterbalance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Effects of substrate misorientation and growth rate on ordering in GaInP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L. C.; Ho, I. H.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1994-05-01

    Epitaxial layers of GaxIn1-xP with x≊0.52 have been grown by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy on GaAs substrates misoriented from the (001) plane in the [1¯10] direction by angles ϑm, of 0°, 3°, 6°, and 9°. For each substrate orientation growth rates rg of 1, 2, and 4 μm/h have been used. The ordering was characterized using transmission electron diffraction (TED), dark-field imaging, and photoluminescence. The (110) cross-sectional images show domains of the Cu-Pt structure separated by antiphase boundaries (APBs). The domain size and shape and the degree of order are found to be strongly affected by both the substrate misorientation and the growth rate. For example, lateral domain dimensions range from 50 Å for layers grown with rg=4 μm/h and ϑm=0° to 2500 Å for rg=1 μm/h and ϑm=9°. The APBs generally propagate from the substrate/epilayer interface to the top surface at an angle to the (001) plane that increases dramatically as the angle of misorientation increases. The angle is nearly independent of growth rate. From the superspot intensities in the TED patterns, the degree of order appears to be a maximum for ϑm≊5°. Judging from the reduction in photoluminescence peak energy caused by ordering, the maximum degree of order appears to occur at ϑm≊4°.

  9. The Dividend Discount Model with Multiple Growth Rates of Any Order for Stock Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser; El-Khatib, Youssef

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we provide a general solution for the dividend discount model in order to compute the intrinsic value of a common stock that allows for multiple stage growth rates of any predetermined number of periods. A mathematical proof is provided for the suggested general solution. A numerical application is also presented. The solution introduced in this paper is expected to improve on the precision of stock valuation, which might be of fundamental importance for investors as well as fin...

  10. The impact of item order on ratings of cancer risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Shelby, Rebecca A; Schwartz, Marc D; Ackerman, Josh; LaSalle, V Holland; Gelmann, Edward P; McGuire, Colleen

    2002-07-01

    Although perceived risk is central to most theories of health behavior, there is little consensus on its measurement with regard to item wording, response set, or the number of items to include. In a methodological assessment of perceived risk, we assessed the impact of changing the order of three commonly used perceived risk items: quantitative personal risk, quantitative population risk, and comparative risk. Participants were 432 men and women enrolled in an ancillary study of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Three groups of consecutively enrolled participants responded to the three items in one of three question orders. Results indicated that item order was related to the perceived risk ratings of both ovarian (P Perceptions of risk were significantly lower when the comparative rating was made first. The findings suggest that compelling participants to consider their own risk relative to the risk of others results in lower ratings of perceived risk. Although the use of multiple items may provide more information than when only a single method is used, different conclusions may be reached depending on the context in which an item is assessed.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF SOVEREIGN RATING: FACTOR BASED ORDERED PROBIT MODELS FOR PANEL DATA ANALYSIS MODELING FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Teker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compose a new rating methodology and provide credit notches to 23 countries which of 13 are developed and 10 are emerging. There are various literature that explains the determinants of credit ratings. Following the literature, we select 11 variables for our model which of 5 are eliminated by the factor analysis. We use specific dummies to investigate the structural breaks in time and cross section such as pre crises, post crises, BRIC membership, EU membership, OPEC membership, shipbuilder country and platinum reserved country. Then we run an ordered probit model and give credit notches to the countries. We use FITCH ratings as benchmark. Thus, at the end we compare the notches of FITCH with the ones we derive out of our estimated model.

  12. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.

    2015-05-29

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e. redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e. less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR.

  13. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J; Wing, A D; Alidina, M; Drewes, J E

    2015-08-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e., redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e., less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of an Electronic Ordering System on Blood Bank Specimen Rejection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Stefanie K; Shirazi, Maryam; Wu-Gall, Charlotte; Stotler, Brie A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact that an electronic ordering system has on the rate of rejection of blood type and screen testing samples and the impact on the number of ABO blood-type discrepancies over a 4-year period. An electronic ordering system was implemented in May 2011. Rejection rates along with reasons for rejection were tracked between January 2010 and December 2013. A total of 40,104 blood samples were received during this period, of which 706 (1.8%) were rejected for the following reasons: 382 (54.0%) unsigned samples, 235 (33.0%) mislabeled samples, 57 (8.0%) unsigned requisitions, 18 (2.5%) incorrect tubes, and 14 (1.9%) ABO discrepancies. Of the samples, 2.5% were rejected in the year prior to implementing the electronic ordering system compared with 1.2% in the year following implementation ( P  blood sample rejection. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  16. Application of long-range order to predict unfolding rates of two-state proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harihar, B; Selvaraj, S

    2011-03-01

    Predicting the experimental unfolding rates of two-state proteins and models describing the unfolding rates of these proteins is quite limited because of the complexity present in the unfolding mechanism and the lack of experimental unfolding data compared with folding data. In this work, 25 two-state proteins characterized by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616) using a consensus set of experimental conditions were taken, and the parameter long-range order (LRO) derived from their three-dimensional structures were related with their experimental unfolding rates ln(k(u)). From the total data set of 30 proteins used by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616), five slow-unfolding proteins with very low unfolding rates were considered to be outliers and were not included in our data set. Except all beta structural class, LRO of both the all-alpha and mixed-class proteins showed a strong inverse correlation of r = -0.99 and -0.88, respectively, with experimental ln(k(u)). LRO shows a correlation of -0.62 with experimental ln(k(u)) for all-beta proteins. For predicting the unfolding rates, a simple statistical method has been used and linear regression equations were developed for individual structural classes of proteins using LRO, and the results obtained showed a better agreement with experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Lyapunov Exponent and Out-of-Time-Ordered Correlator's Growth Rate in a Chaotic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, Efim B; Ganeshan, Sriram; Galitski, Victor

    2017-02-24

    It was proposed recently that the out-of-time-ordered four-point correlator (OTOC) may serve as a useful characteristic of quantum-chaotic behavior, because, in the semiclassical limit ℏ→0, its rate of exponential growth resembles the classical Lyapunov exponent. Here, we calculate the four-point correlator C(t) for the classical and quantum kicked rotor-a textbook driven chaotic system-and compare its growth rate at initial times with the standard definition of the classical Lyapunov exponent. Using both quantum and classical arguments, we show that the OTOC's growth rate and the Lyapunov exponent are, in general, distinct quantities, corresponding to the logarithm of the phase-space averaged divergence rate of classical trajectories and to the phase-space average of the logarithm, respectively. The difference appears to be more pronounced in the regime of low kicking strength K, where no classical chaos exists globally. In this case, the Lyapunov exponent quickly decreases as K→0, while the OTOC's growth rate may decrease much slower, showing a higher sensitivity to small chaotic islands in the phase space. We also show that the quantum correlator as a function of time exhibits a clear singularity at the Ehrenfest time t_{E}: transitioning from a time-independent value of t^{-1}lnC(t) at ttime at t>t_{E}. We note that the underlying physics here is the same as in the theory of weak (dynamical) localization [Aleiner and Larkin, Phys. Rev. B 54, 14423 (1996)PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.54.14423; Tian, Kamenev, and Larkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 124101 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.124101] and is due to a delay in the onset of quantum interference effects, which occur sharply at a time of the order of the Ehrenfest time.

  18. First-order dissolution rate law and the role of surface layers in glass performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B.; Müller, R.

    2001-09-01

    The first-order dissolution rate law is used for nuclear waste glass performance predictions since 1984. A first discussion of the role of saturation effects was initiated at the MRS conference that year. In paper (1) it was stated that "For glass dissolution A* (the reaction affinity) cannot become zero since saturation only involves the reacting surface while soluble elements still might be extracted from the glass" [B. Grambow, J. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 44 (1985) 15]. Saturation of silica at the surface and condensation of surface silanol groups was considered as being responsible for the slow down of reaction rates by as much as a factor of 1000. Precipitation of Si containing secondary phases such as quartz was invoked as a mechanism for keeping final dissolution affinities higher than zero. Another (2) paper [A.B. Barkatt, P.B. Macedo, B.C. Gibson, C.J. Montrose, J. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 44 (1985) 3] stated that "… under repository conditions the extent of glass dissolution will be moderate due to saturation with respect to certain major elements (in particular, Si, Al and Ca). Consequently, the concentration levels of the more soluble glass constituents in the aqueous medium are expected to fall appreciable below their solubility limit." The formation of dense surface layers was considered responsible for explaining the saturation effect. The mathematical model assumed stop of reaction in closed systems, once solubility limits were achieved. For more than 15 years the question of the correctness of one or the other concept has seldom been posed and has not yet been resolved. The need of repository performance assessment for validated rate laws demands a solution, particularly since the consequences of the two concepts and research requirements for the long-term glass behavior are quite different. In concept (1) the stability of the `equilibrium surface region' is not relevant because, by definition, this region is stable chemically and after a

  19. 75 FR 55292 - Amendment to Egg Research and Promotion Order and Regulations To Increase the Rate of Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...] Amendment to Egg Research and Promotion Order and Regulations To Increase the Rate of Assessment and.... SUMMARY: This proposed rule would amend the Egg Research and Promotion Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate on egg producers paying assessments to the American Egg Board (AEB) from 10 cents to 15 cents...

  20. Build to order and entry/exit strategies under exchange rate uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Tsai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under uncertainty of exchange rate, we extend the build to order production model of Lin et al. (2002 by considering the export-oriented manufacturer to make decisions to switch production location freely between domestic and foreign ones. The export-oriented manufacturer is risk neutral and has rational expectations. When we transfer the production location from domestic (foreign to foreign (domestic, and the production location transferring cost and the drift of real exchange rate are both equal to zero, then the optimal entry and exit threshold value of Cobb-Douglas production function are equal, no matter whether we use real options or net present value method. Thus export-oriented manufacturer can make decisions at the optimal transfer threshold value for transferable locations wherever the production locations are. It provides the export-oriented manufacturer with another way of thinking.

  1. High-Order Model and Dynamic Filtering for Frame Rate Up-Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Li; Ding, Lianghui; Gao, Zhiyong

    2018-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel frame rate up-conversion method through high-order model and dynamic filtering (HOMDF) for video pixels. Unlike the constant brightness and linear motion assumptions in traditional methods, the intensity and position of the video pixels are both modeled with high-order polynomials in terms of time. Then, the key problem of our method is to estimate the polynomial coefficients that represent the pixel's intensity variation, velocity, and acceleration. We propose to solve it with two energy objectives: one minimizes the auto-regressive prediction error of intensity variation by its past samples, and the other minimizes video frame's reconstruction error along the motion trajectory. To efficiently address the optimization problem for these coefficients, we propose the dynamic filtering solution inspired by video's temporal coherence. The optimal estimation of these coefficients is reformulated into a dynamic fusion of the prior estimate from pixel's temporal predecessor and the maximum likelihood estimate from current new observation. Finally, frame rate up-conversion is implemented using motion-compensated interpolation by pixel-wise intensity variation and motion trajectory. Benefited from the advanced model and dynamic filtering, the interpolated frame has much better visual quality. Extensive experiments on the natural and synthesized videos demonstrate the superiority of HOMDF over the state-of-the-art methods in both subjective and objective comparisons.

  2. ICG Utilities (Manitoba) Ltd. application for an order determining rate base, rate of return and rates based on a 1989 mid-year historic test year and confirmation of Board orders 1/90 and 2/90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-28

    In the fall of 1989, ICG Utilities (Manitoba) Ltd. and Greater Winnipeg Gas Company (collectively referred to as the Company) applied to the Public Utilities Board for Interim Refundable Rate increases effective January 1, 1990. The Board was satisfied that the Company had proved a prima facie case for financial need and, accordingly, the Board approved rates on an interim basis to become effective on January 1, 1990. On March 1, 1990, the Company filed its General Rate Application with the Board on the basis of a 1989 mid-year historic test year with rates to be effective September 1, 1990. In the amended application, the Company sought the Board's approval to recover a total revenue deficiency of $17.0 million and earn an overall rate of return of 12.9%, which includes a requested return on shareholders' equity of 14%, an increase from 13% previously approved. The Company stated that absent confirmation of the interim rates and approval of increased rates effective September 1, 1990, the overall rate of return would be 8.2% which would yield a return on shareholders' equity of 2.27%. On an overall basis, the Board reduced the Company's requested increase in revenue requirement from 7.12% to 5.24%. Of the 5.24% increase allowed by the Board, 3.07% is currently being recovered through rates which took effect on January 1, 1990, and the remaining 2.17% increase is accommodated by this order. The Board also dealt with several other matters including the following: a change in the due date for bill payment; the Company's request for Board endorsement of a lock-off policy; the Company's capital expenditure program; the efficiencies in the Company's operations and capital program; and retroactive recovery of the revenue deficiency from January 1, 1990 to August 31,1990. 33 tabs.

  3. Application by Manitoba Hydro for an order approving an increase in its existing rates effective April 1, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with an order from the Manitoba Public Utilities Board, Manitoba Hydro's proposed schedule of rates effective April 1, 1992 is presented along with a revenue forecast. The rate schedule is divided into the following categories: residential rates, flat-rate water heating rates, small general service customers (not exceeding 200 kVA), large general service, general service cooking and heating rates, general service flat-rate water heating, and area and roadway lighting. Comparisons are made for all rate categories between present utility bills and bills under the proposed new rates. 10 tabs

  4. Computerised Provider Order Entry Adoption Rates Favourably Impact Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Schreiber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Research regarding return on investment for electronic health records (EHRs is sparse. Objective To extend previously established research and examine rigorously whether increasing the adoption of computer-based provider/prescriber order entry (CPOE leads to a decrease in length of stay (LOS, and to demonstrate that the two are inversely and bidirectionally proportional even while other efforts to decrease LOS are in place. Method The study assessed CPOE, LOS and case mix index (CMI data in a community hospital in the United States, using a mature and nearly fully deployed vendor product EHR. CPOE rates and LOS over 7 years were determined on a per-patient, per-visit and per-discipline basis and compared with concomitant CMI data. Results An inverse relationship of CPOE to LOS was correlated for 13 disciplines out of 19, and organisation wide for all disciplines combined during the first 5 years of study. During the subsequent 2 years, both CPOE and LOS plateaued, except in eight disciplines where CPOE rates at first declined and LOS concurrently rose slightly, and then returned to the baseline plateau levels. CMI increased during the entire period of evaluation. An inflection point at approximately 60% CPOE adoption predicted the greatest improvement in lowering of LOS. Conclusions Rising and falling rates of CPOE correlated with reductions and rises in LOS, respectively. CPOE appeared statistically to be an independent factor in affecting LOS, over and above other efforts to shorten LOS, thus contributing to lower costs and improved efficiency outcomes as measured by LOS, even as CMI rises.

  5. 75 FR 57912 - Boulder Canyon Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... by the Contractor's contingent capacity percentage as provided by contract. Forecast Rates Energy... existing formula, the rates for BCP electric service consist of a base charge, a capacity rate, and an energy rate. The provisional base charge is $75,182,522, the provisional capacity rate is $1.90 per...

  6. Mean Abnormal Result Rate: Proof of Concept of a New Metric for Benchmarking Selectivity in Laboratory Test Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher T; Guo, Maggie

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to develop and validate new metrics to access the appropriateness of laboratory test requests. The mean abnormal result rate (MARR) is a proposed measure of ordering selectivity, the premise being that higher mean abnormal rates represent more selective test ordering. As a validation of this metric, we compared the abnormal rate of lab tests with the number of tests ordered on the same requisition. We hypothesized that requisitions with larger numbers of requested tests represent less selective test ordering and therefore would have a lower overall abnormal rate. We examined 3,864,083 tests ordered on 451,895 requisitions and found that the MARR decreased from about 25% if one test was ordered to about 7% if nine or more tests were ordered, consistent with less selectivity when more tests were ordered. We then examined the MARR for community-based testing for 1,340 family physicians and found both a wide variation in MARR as well as an inverse relationship between the total tests ordered per year per physician and the physician-specific MARR. The proposed metric represents a new utilization metric for benchmarking relative selectivity of test orders among physicians. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Associations between Birth Order and Personality Traits: Evidence from Self-Reports and Observer Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Tyrone; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1998-01-01

    Sulloway (1996) proposed that personality traits developed in childhood mediate the association of birth order with scientific radicalism. Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of personality were examined in three studies. Self-reports on brief measures of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness in a national sample (N= 9664) were unrelated to birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in an adult sample (N= 612) ...

  8. Order-Specific Fertility Rates for Germany
    Estimates from Perinatal Statistics for the Period 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Kreyenfeld; Rembrandt Scholz; Frederik Peters; Ines Wlosnewski

    2011-01-01

    Until 2008, Germany’s vital statistics did not include information on the biological order of each birth. This resulted in a dearth of important demographic indicators, such as the mean age at first birth and the level of childlessness. Researchers have tried to fill this gap by generating order-specific birth rates from survey data, and by combining survey data with vital statistics. This paper takes a different approach by using Perinatal Statistics to generate birth order-specific fertilit...

  9. Rate-induced solubility and suppression of the first-order phase transition in olivine LiFePO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; van Hulzen, Martijn; Singh, Deepak P; Brownrigg, Alex; Wright, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Niels H; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2014-05-14

    The impact of ultrahigh (dis)charge rates on the phase transition mechanism in LiFePO4 Li-ion electrodes is revealed by in situ synchrotron diffraction. At high rates the solubility limits in both phases increase dramatically, causing a fraction of the electrode to bypass the first-order phase transition. The small transforming fraction demonstrates that nucleation rates are consequently not limiting the transformation rate. In combination with the small fraction of the electrode that transforms at high rates, this indicates that higher performances may be achieved by further optimizing the ionic/electronic transport in LiFePO4 electrodes.

  10. 15 CFR 700.13 - Acceptance and rejection of rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order and transmit the acceptance or rejection in writing (hard copy), or in electronic format, within... rejection, pursuant to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in writing (hard copy) or electronic format...

  11. Dynamics of a Fractional Order HIV Infection Model with Specific Functional Response and Cure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Boukhouima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a fractional order model in this paper to describe the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In the model, the infection transmission process is modeled by a specific functional response. First, we show that the model is mathematically and biologically well posed. Second, the local and global stabilities of the equilibria are investigated. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented in order to illustrate our theoretical results.

  12. 76 FR 8730 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region.... Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... ancillary service rates for the Desert Southwest Customer Service Region in accordance with section 302 of...

  13. 77 FR 34381 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... factor of the rate increase is when the existing rates were developed, purchase power was handled at the... and comment period to be considered in Western's decision process. As access to Western facilities is... designed to recover an annual revenue requirement that includes operation and maintenance, purchase power...

  14. 76 FR 26324 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... of x. 3. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the series {[Delta] 1 , [Delta] 2... 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates I. Background Section 31 of the Securities Exchange Act... the fee rates under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act in fiscal years 2002 through 2011. II...

  15. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rates for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should be the prefer......The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should...

  16. Macroporous 'bubble' graphene film via template-directed ordered-assembly for high rate supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Chun-Hsien; Zhao, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Bing-Sen; Kong, Qing-Qiang; Wang, Mao-Zhang; Yang, Yong-Gang; Cai, Rong; Sheng Su, Dang

    2012-07-21

    A three-dimensional bubble graphene film, with controllable and uniform macropores and tailorable microstructure, was fabricated by a facile hard templating strategy and exhibit extraordinary electrochemical capacitance with high rate capability (1.0 V s(-1)).

  17. Application of first order rate kinetics to explain changes in bloom toxicity—the importance of understanding cell toxin quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Philip T.; Willis, Anusuya; Burford, Michele A.

    2018-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic Gram-negative bacteria that can form potentially toxic blooms in eutrophic and slow flowing aquatic ecosystems. Bloom toxicity varies spatially and temporally, but understanding the mechanisms that drive these changes remains largely a mystery. Changes in bloom toxicity may result from changes in intracellular toxin pool sizes of cyanotoxins with differing molecular toxicities, and/or from changes in the cell concentrations of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial species or strains within bloom populations. We show here how first-order rate kinetics at the cellular level can be used to explain how environmental conditions drive changes in bloom toxicity at the ecological level. First order rate constants can be calculated for changes in cell concentration (μ c: specific cell division rate) or the volumetric biomass concentration (μ g: specific growth rate) between short time intervals throughout the cell cycle. Similar first order rate constants can be calculated for changes in nett volumetric cyanotoxin concentration (μ tox: specific cyanotoxin production rate) over similar time intervals. How μ c (or μ g ) covaries with μ tox over the cell cycle shows conclusively when cyanotoxins are being produced and metabolised, and how the toxicity of cells change in response to environment stressors. When μ tox/μ c>1, cyanotoxin cell quotas increase and individual cells become more toxic because the nett cyanotoxin production rate is higher than the cell division rate. When μ tox/μ c=1, cell cyanotoxin quotas remains fixed because the nett cyanotoxin production rate matches the cell division rate. When μ tox/μ ccyanotoxin cell quota decreases because either the nett cyanotoxin production rate is lower than the cell division rate, or metabolic breakdown and/or secretion of cyanotoxins is occurring. These fundamental equations describe cyanotoxin metabolism dynamics at the cellular level and provide the necessary

  18. 75 FR 28825 - Order Granting Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... accessed information for [Insert Number] issued securities and money market instruments through Internet... the arranger will, among other things, disclose on a password-protected Internet Web site the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62120; File No. S7-04-09] Order Granting...

  19. 76 FR 72227 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... accessed information for [Insert Number] issued securities and money market instruments through Internet... the arranger will, among other things, disclose on a password-protected Internet Web site the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65765; File No. S7-04-09] Order Extending...

  20. 78 FR 70984 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... relied upon that the arranger will, among other things, disclose on a password-protected Internet Web... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70919; File No. S7-04-09] Order Extending... of Rule 17g-5 Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Request for Comment November 22, 2013. I...

  1. Next-to-next-leading order correction to 3-jet rate and event-shape ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupling constant, , was measured by two different methods: first by employing the three-jet observables. Combining all the data, the value of as at next-to-next leading order (NNLO) was determined to be 0.117 ± 0.004(hard) ± 0.006(theo). Secondly, from the event-shape distributions, the strong coupling constant, ...

  2. Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Johnsson, P.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Kornelis, W.; Biegert, J.; Keller, U.; Gaarde, M.B.; Schafer, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    We measure the chirp rate of harmonics 13 to 23 in argon by cross correlation with a 12 femtosecond probe pulse. Under low ionization conditions, we directly measure the negative chirp due to the atomic dipole phase, and show that an additional chirp on the pump pulse is transferred to the qth harmonic as q times the fundamental chirp. Our results are in accord with simulations using the experimentally measured 815 nm pump and probe pulses. The ability to measure and manipulate the harmonic chirp rate is essential for the characterization and optimization of attosecond pulse trains

  3. 78 FR 54934 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... U.S.C. 77f(b). \\2\\ 15 U.S.C. 78m(e). \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 78n(g). The Investor and Capital Markets Fee... first order moving average model [Delta] t = [alpha] + [beta]e t-1 + e t , where e t denotes the... - [alpha] - [beta]e t-1 . The model can be estimated using standard commercially available software. Using...

  4. 78 FR 56692 - Colorado River Storage Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... existing Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Firm Power Rate and the Colorado River Storage...-6372, email [email protected] , or Mr. Rodney Bailey, Power Marketing Manager, CRSP Management Center...: Western Area Power Administration Temporary Extension for Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Firm...

  5. 77 FR 71201 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a)(1) (i.e., disclosed the type of conflict of interest in Exhibit 6 to Form NRSRO... (c) of Rule 17g-5 specifically prohibits seven types of conflicts of interest. Consequently, an NRSRO... conflicts of interest arising from the business of determining credit ratings.\\6\\ Paragraph (a) of Rule 17g...

  6. 75 FR 38516 - Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ..., Electric Quarterly Reports, Strategic Energy Management Corp., Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation. 1... (including market-based power sales, cost-based power sales, and transmission service) and providing transaction information (including rates) for short-term and long-term power sales during the most recent...

  7. Determination of rate constants in second-order kinetics using UV-visible spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Smilde, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    A general method for estimating reaction rate constants of chemical reactions using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy is presented. The only requirement is that some of the chemical components involved be spectroscopically active. The method uses the combination of spectroscopic measurements

  8. A Systematic Review of Tools to Measure Respiratory Rate in Order to Identify Childhood Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Lenahan, Jennifer L; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Ansermino, J Mark

    2018-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Compendex for studies published through September 2017 assessing the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement technologies in children. We identified 16 studies: 2 describing manual devices and 14 describing automated devices. Although both studies describing manual devices took place in low-resource settings, all studies describing automated devices were conducted in well-resourced settings. Direct comparison between studies was complicated by small sample size, absence of a consistent reference standard, and variations in comparison methodology. There is an urgent need for affordable and appropriate innovations that can reliably measure a child's respiratory rate in low-resource settings. Accelerating development or scale-up of these technologies could have the potential to advance childhood pneumonia diagnosis worldwide.

  9. 78 FR 19700 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... the proposed rates. Response: These costs are associated with the PPW program for Western's BA in the... program, including required reserves, and will work collaboratively with customers as additional... by the service agreement or contract. Adjustments for Reactive Power: There shall be no entitlement...

  10. The transmission business rate order application, 1999-2000 : application to the Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Ontario government is restructuring the electric power industry by introducing competition to the generation and retailing sectors, as well as to the transmission and distribution sectors within the industry. This application marks the beginning of the regulation of the Ontario Hydro Services Company Inc.'s (OHSC) transmission business by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB). The OHSC has asked the OEB to approve a revenue requirement for the transmission business and rates derived from the revenue requirement for unbundled transmission services to customers for the year 1999. For the year 2000, the OHSC asked the OEB to approve the performance-based regulation mechanism and the transmission rates derived from that mechanism. This document includes the actual text of the application and provides the justification for the $1,327 million revenue requirement for 1999 and the PBR framework forecast of $ 1,291 million for the year 2000. tabs., figs

  11. EOQ Model for Deteriorating Items with exponential time dependent Demand Rate under inflation when Supplier Credit Linked to Order Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In paper (2004 Chang studied an inventory model under a situation in which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay of payments if the purchaser orders a large quantity. Tripathi (2011 also studied an inventory model with time dependent demand rate under which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay in payments. This paper is motivated by Chang (2004 and Tripathi (2011 paper extending their model for exponential time dependent demand rate. This study develops an inventory model under which the vendor provides the purchaser with a credit period; if the purchaser orders large quantity. In this chapter, demand rate is taken as exponential time dependent. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate has been discussed. We establish an inventory model for deteriorating items if the order quantity is greater than or equal to a predetermined quantity. We then obtain optimal solution for finding optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and optimal total relevant cost. Numerical examples are given for all different cases. Sensitivity of the variation of different parameters on the optimal solution is also discussed. Mathematica 7 software is used for finding numerical examples.

  12. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  13. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rates for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should be the preferred measure. In this paper we consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where all replenishment orders have the same constant lead time and all unfilled demands are backordered. We develop exac...

  14. In situ and laboratory determined first-order degradation rate constants of specific organic compounds in an aerobic aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    In situ microcosms (ISM) and laboratory batch microcosms (LBM) were used for determination of the first-order degradation rate constants of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, nitrobenzene, naphthalene, biphenyl, o- and p-dichlorobenzene, 1,1,1 -trichloroethane, tetrachlorometane, trichloroethene......, tetrachloroethene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenol, 4,6-o-dichlorocresol, and o- and p-nitrophenol in an aerobic aquifer, All aromatic hydrocarbons were degraded in ISM and LBM experiments. The phenolic hydrocarbons were ail degraded in ISM experiments, but some failed to degrade in LBM experiments....... Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons were degraded neither in ISM nor LBM experiments. Degradation rate constants were determined by a model accounting for kinetic sorption (bicontinuum model), lag phases, and first-order degradation. With a few exceptions, lag phases were less than 2 weeks in both ISM and LBM...

  15. Divergence time, historical biogeography and evolutionary rate estimation of the order Bangiales (Rhodophyta) inferred from multilocus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuipeng; Tang, Xianghai; Wang, Lu; Yu, Xinzi; Sun, Peipei; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-08-01

    Bangiales is the only order of the Bangiophyceae and has been suggested to be monophyletic. This order contains approximately 190 species and is distributed worldwide. Previous molecular studies have produced robust phylogenies among the red algae, but the divergence times, historical biogeography and evolutionary rates of Bangiales have rarely been studied. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bangiales were examined using the concatenated gene sets from all available organellar genomes. This analysis has revealed the topology ((( Bangia, Porphyra ) Pyropia ) Wildemania ). Molecular dating indicates that Bangiales diversified approximately 246.40 million years ago (95% highest posterior density (HPD)= 194.78u2013318.24 Ma, posterior probability (PP)=0.99) in the Late Permian and Early Triassic, and that the ancestral species most likely originated from eastern Gondwanaland (currently New Zealand and Australia) and subsequently began to spread and evolve worldwide. Based on pairwise comparisons, we found a slower rate of nucleotide substitutions and lower rates of diversification in Bangiales relative to Florideophyceae. Compared with Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), the evolutionary rates of Bangiales and other Rhodophyte groups were found to be dramatically faster, by more than 3-fold for plastid genome (ptDNA) and 15-fold for mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). In addition, an average 2.5-fold lower dN/dS was found for the algae than for the land plants, which indicates purifying selection of the algae.

  16. On the ambiguity of the reaction rate constants in multivariate curve resolution for reversible first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Henning; Sawall, Mathias; Kubis, Christoph; Selent, Detlef; Hess, Dieter; Franke, Robert; Börner, Armin; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    If for a chemical reaction with a known reaction mechanism the concentration profiles are accessible only for certain species, e.g. only for the main product, then often the reaction rate constants cannot uniquely be determined from the concentration data. This is a well-known fact which includes the so-called slow-fast ambiguity. This work combines the question of unique or non-unique reaction rate constants with factor analytic methods of chemometrics. The idea is to reduce the rotational ambiguity of pure component factorizations by considering only those concentration factors which are possible solutions of the kinetic equations for a properly adapted set of reaction rate constants. The resulting set of reaction rate constants corresponds to those solutions of the rate equations which appear as feasible factors in a pure component factorization. The new analysis of the ambiguity of reaction rate constants extends recent research activities on the Area of Feasible Solutions (AFS). The consistency with a given chemical reaction scheme is shown to be a valuable tool in order to reduce the AFS. The new methods are applied to model and experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytical Expressions for the Mixed-Order Kinetics Parameters of TL Glow Peaks Based on the two Heating Rates Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Mufeed; Al-Abdullah, Tariq; Khattari, Ziad

    2018-03-24

    The two heating rates method (originally developed for first-order glow peaks) was used for the first time to evaluate the activation energy (E) from glow peaks obeying mixed-order (MO) kinetics. The derived expression for E has an insignificant additional term (on the scale of a few meV) when compared with the first-order case. Hence, the original expression for E using the two heating rates method can be used with excellent accuracy in the case of MO glow peaks. In addition, we derived a simple analytical expression for the MO parameter. The present procedure has the advantage that the MO parameter can now be evaluated using analytical expression instead of using the graphical representation between the geometrical factor and the MO parameter as given by the existing peak shape methods. The applicability of the derived expressions for real samples was demonstrated for the glow curve of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn single crystal. The obtained parameters compare very well with those obtained by glow curve fitting and with the available published data.

  18. High-rate capability of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous T-Nb2O5 through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shuaifeng; Cheng, Xinqun; Wang, Long; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Qin; Ma, Yulin; Gao, Yunzhi; Zuo, Pengjian; Du, Chunyu; Yin, Geping

    2017-09-01

    Orthorhombic Niobium oxide (T-Nb2O5) has been regarded as a promising anode material for high-rate lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its potential to operate at high rates with improved safety and high theoretical capacity of 200 mA h g-1. Herein, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) T-Nb2O5, with mesoporous hierarchical structure, was firstly prepared by a simple approach employing self-assembly polystyrene (PS) microspheres as hard templates. The obtained T-Nb2O5 anode material presents obvious and highly-efficiency pseudocapacitive Li+ intercalation behaviour, which plays a dominant role in the kinetics of electrode process. As a result, rapid Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation are achieved, leading to excellent rate capability and long cycle life. The 3DOM T-Nb2O5 shows a remarkable high capacity of 106 and 77 mA h g-1 at the rate of 20C and 50C. The work presented herein holds great promise for future design of material structure, and demonstrates the great potential of T-Nb2O5 as a practical high-rate anode material for LIBs.

  19. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli A; Sutter, Peter W

    2014-12-03

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important, as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles, among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments, the hydrated electrons e(-)aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e(-)aq generated by the electron beam during in situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e(-)aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e(-)aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zerovalent metal atoms in solution.

  20. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rate for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The order fill rate (OFR) is sometimes suggested as an alternative to the volume fill rate (VFR) (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. We consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where replenishment orders have a constant lead time...

  1. Time-dependent quantum transport through an interacting quantum dot beyond sequential tunneling: second-order quantum rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, B; Ding, G H; Lei, X L

    2015-01-01

    A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime. (paper)

  2. Development of a novel starch with a three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure for improving the dissolution rate of felodipine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yanna; Wu, Chao, E-mail: wuchao27@126.com; Zhao, Zongzhe; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Jie; Qiu, Yang; Jiang, Jie; Yu, Tong; Ma, Chunyu; Zhou, Buyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, silica nanospheres with different particle sizes were used as hard template for synthesis of a starch with a novel three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure (3DOMTS). As a pharmaceutical adjuvant, 3DOMTS was used to improve the dissolution rate and oral relative bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Felodipine (FDP) was chosen as a model drug and was loaded into the 3DOMTS by solvent evaporation. FDP loading into 3DOMTS with different pore sizes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results obtained showed that FDP was present in the pores in an amorphic or microcrystalline state. The in vitro dissolution results showed that 3DOMTS could effectively improve the dissolution rate of FDP in comparison with commercial common tablets. Pharmacokinetic results indicated that the oral relative bioavailability of self-made FDP–3DOMTS tablets were 184%, showing that 3DOMTS produced a significantly increased oral absorption of FDP. In conclusion, 3DOMTS exhibits the dual potential of improving the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs and the novel filler produced by direct compression technology confirming that 3DOMTS will be useful for many applications in the field of pharmaceutics. - Highlights: • We successfully prepared a starch with a novel three-dimensional ordered macroporous structure (3DOMTS). • 3DOMTS can suppress the crystallinity of the drug to maintain it at amorphous state. • In vivo and in vitro experiments proved that 3DOMTS can improve the solubility and bioavailability of felodipine.

  3. Two-photon decay rates of hydrogenlike ions revisited by using Dirac-Coulomb Sturmian expansions of the first order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Zachée; Nganso, Hugues Merlain Tetchou; Ekogo, Thierry Blanchard; Njock, Moïse Godfroy Kwato

    2014-02-01

    A fully relativistic multipole scheme is formulated to study two-photon emission processes in hydrogenlike ions with an infinitely heavy, pointlike, and spinless nucleus of charge up to 100. By making use of the Sturmian expansion of the Dirac-Coulomb Green function of the first order constructed by Szmytkowski, closed-form expressions are derived for arbitrary multipole channels. In the nonrelativistic limit, well-known formulas established previously are retrieved. For the sake of assessing the effectiveness of our approach, numerical applications are then carried out for two-photon decay rates of the selected 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 atomic states. To this end, radial integrals, the most crucial quantities involved in the matrix elements, are treated with great care by means of two suitable techniques that agree with each other quite closely so that very accurate values are obtained regardless of the choice of parameters, such as radial quantum numbers and orders of spherical Bessel functions of the first kind. In addition, the convergence and stability of computations are checked in connection with the intermediate-state summation, which appears within the second-order perturbation theory. As expected, the gauge invariance of our fully relativistic multipole numbers is confirmed. Relativistic effects, and the influence of the negative spectrum of the complete set of Dirac-Coulomb Sturmians of first order and retardation truncations in the transition operator are examined. Finally, a comparison is undertaken of our two-photon relativistic calculations with refined predictions of other authors based on finite basis-set methods widely employed over the past decades.

  4. Optimization and phase matching of fiber-laser-driven high-order harmonic generation at high repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabasse, Amélie; Machinet, Guillaume; Dubrouil, Antoine; Cormier, Eric; Constant, Eric

    2012-11-15

    High-repetition-rate sources are very attractive for high-order harmonic generation (HHG). However, due to their pulse characteristics (low energy, long duration), those systems require a tight focusing geometry to achieve the necessary intensity to generate harmonics. In this Letter, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the optimization of HHG in this geometry, to maximize the extreme UV (XUV) photon flux and improve the conversion efficiency. We analyze the influence of atomic gas media (Ar, Kr, or Xe), gas pressure, and interaction geometries (a gas jet and a finite and a semi-infinite gas cell). Numerical simulations allow us to define optimal conditions for HHG in this tight focusing regime and to observe the signature of on-axis phase matching. These conditions are implemented experimentally using a high-repetition-rate Yb-doped fiber laser system. We achieve optimization of emission with a recorded XUV photon flux of 4.5×10(12) photons/s generated in Xe at 100 kHz repetition rate.

  5. SENSMG: First-Order Sensitivities of Neutron Reaction Rates, Reaction-Rate Ratios, Leakage, keff, and α Using PARTISN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-21

    SENSMG is a tool for computing first-order sensitivities of neutron reaction rates, reaction-rate ratios, leakage, keff, and α using the PARTISN multigroup discrete-ordinates code. SENSMG computes sensitivities to all of the transport cross sections and data (total, fission, nu, chi, and all scattering moments), two edit cross sections (absorption and capture), and the density for every isotope and energy group. It also computes sensitivities to the mass density for every material and derivatives with respect to all interface locations. The tool can be used for one-dimensional spherical (r) and two-dimensional cylindrical (r-z) geometries. The tool can be used for fixed-source and eigenvalue problems. The tool implements Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) as discussed by Williams and Stacey. Section II of this report describes the theory behind adjoint-based sensitivities, gives the equations that SENSMG solves, and defines the sensitivities that are output. Section III describes the user interface, including the input file and command line options. Section IV describes the output. Section V gives some notes about the coding that may be of interest. Section VI discusses verification, which is ongoing. Section VII lists needs and ideas for future work. Appendix A lists all of the input files whose results are presented in Sec. VI.

  6. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: measurements and site-specific rate rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardany, Ahmed E; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-06-28

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (C=O) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (C=O), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):

  8. Power and transmission rate orders and related documents. Office of Power Marketing Coordination, data compiled January 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-08-01

    This publication contains the power and transmission rate orders and related documents issued by the Department of Energy. It covers calendar years 1980 and 1981. The first publication, DOE/CE-007 covering the period from March through December 1979, was published July 1981. This publication is a compilation of all rate orders issued by the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications and the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy during calendar years 1980 and 1981 under Delegation Order No. 0204-33. It also includes all final approvals, remands, and disapprovals by the FERC, and a petition to the FERC for reconsideration by a Power Marketing Administration during 1980 and 1981. Also included are two delegation orders along with an amendment and a supplement to one delegation order, a departmental order on financial reporting, and Power and Transmission Rate Adjustment Procedures relating to federal power marketing.

  9. Order of the 23 March 2006 relative to the return rate on the immobilized capital for the electric power production installation in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This order fixes the return rate on the investments capital of electric power production in non connected areas, used for the calculation of the compensation expenses of the electric utilities. (A.L.B.)

  10. Extracting rephase-invariant CP and CPT violating parameters from asymmetries of time-ordered integrated rates of correlated decays of entangled mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhijie; Shi, Yu.

    2012-01-01

    We present a general model-independent formalism of measuring CP and CPT violating parameters through time-ordered integrated rates of correlated decays of C=±1 entangled states of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. We give the general formulae of CP and CPT violating parameters in terms of four measurable asymmetries defined for the time-ordered integrated rates, applicable to all kinds of decay product. Two special cases which are often realized in experiments are discussed specifically. (orig.)

  11. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  12. 75 FR 9964 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2010 Mid-Year Adjustment to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Sections 31(b...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... of x. 3. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the series {[Delta] 1 , [Delta] 2...(j)(2) of the Exchange Act requires the Commission to issue an order adjusting the fee rates under... Adjusted Rate Section 31(j)(4)(B) of the Exchange Act provides that a mid-year adjustment shall take effect...

  13. Second-Rate Coverage of Second-Order Elections: Czech and Slovak Elections to the EP in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kovář

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elections to the European Parliament (EP are considered second-order national elections (SOE. The SOE model suggests that there is a qualitative difference between different types of elections depending on the perception of what is at stake. Compared to first order elections, in second order elections there is less at stake because they do not determine the composition of government. Given that voters behave differently in second-order elections, the question arises: do the media also consider second-order elections less interesting and therefore devote to them less coverage? The media play a crucial role in informing citizens about such events as elections; they function as intermediaries between the electorate and the political arena. However, little is known about how EU issues are covered in the media, particularly in the new EU member states. Conducting a content analysis and applying the second-order election model, this paper analyses TV news coverage of the 2004 and 2009 European elections in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in a comparative fashion. The findings are discussed in the light of existing research literature on the EU’s legitimacy as well as its alleged democratic and communication deficit, not least because the EU relies on the media in strengthening (albeit indirectly its legitimacy by increasing citizen awareness of its activities.

  14. Cooling rate dependence of structural order in Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10} metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feng, E-mail: fzhang@ameslab.gov; Ye, Zhuo [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ding, Zejun [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ho, Kai-Ming [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); International Center for Quantum Design of Functional Materials (ICQD), and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-07-07

    The atomic structure of Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10} metallic glass is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. By performing a long sub-T{sub g} annealing, we developed a glass model closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. Using the cluster alignment method, we found that “3661” cluster is the dominating short-range order in the glass samples. The connection and arrangement of “3661” clusters, which define the medium-range order in the system, are enhanced significantly in the sub-T{sub g} annealed sample as compared with the fast cooled glass samples. Unlike some strong binary glass formers such as Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5}, the clusters representing the short-range order do not form an interconnected interpenetrating network in Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10,} which has only marginal glass formability.

  15. Damage rates in neutron irradiated FeCo and FeCo2V ordered and disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, J.P.; Dinhut, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Ordered and disordered samples of FeCo and FeCo2V alloys have been irradiated at liquid hydrogen temperature with fission neutrons up to an integrated dose of about 7.2 x 10 17 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). During the irradiation, the resistivity increases continuously due to point defect production. (author)

  16. Order-specific fertility rates for Germany: Estimates from perinatal statistics for the period 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kreyenfeld (Michaela); Scholz, R. (Rembrandt); F. Peters (Frederick); Wlosnewski, I. (Ines)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUntil 2008, Germany's vital statistics did not include information on the biological order of each birth. This resulted in a dearth of important demographic indicators, such as the mean age at first birth and the level of childlessness. Researchers have tried to fill this gap by

  17. Rate of antioxidant degradation and color variations in dehydrated apples as related to water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2009-06-10

    Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 degrees C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid acid acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.

  18. Ratings of self and parents by youth: are they affected by family status, gender, and birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, T S

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, 648 youths from across the state of Kansas voluntarily evaluated themselves and their parents using the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Self-concept was found to be significantly higher for those from intact families in comparison with those from divorced remarried families. Evaluations of mothers were significantly higher for those from intact and divorced nonremarried families as compared with those from divorced remarried families. The ratings of fathers by youths from intact families were significantly more favorable than the ratings by those from either divorced nonremarried or divorced remarried families. Interestingly, gender by family status two-way interaction effects were also found for self-concept and ratings of fathers. Possible explanations for these findings, and their implications, are discussed.

  19. 76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of transmission was included in the Point-to-Point Transmission Service, Rate Schedules L- FPT1 and L... integrates resource plans ahead of time, maintains load- interchange-generation balance within a Balancing... Allocation Criteria (Marketing Plan). Firm Point-to-Point Transmission The highest priority Service...

  20. 76 FR 61183 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... of transmission was included in the Point-to-Point Transmission Service, Rate Schedules L- FPT1 and L... integrates resource plans ahead of time, maintains load-interchange- generation balance within a Balancing... Allocation Criteria (Marketing Plan). Firm Point-to-Point Transmission The highest priority transmission...

  1. 76 FR 58319 - Order Granting Temporary Exemption of Kroll Bond Rating Agency, Inc. From the Conflict of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Exchange Act of 1934 (``Exchange Act'') prohibits a nationally recognized statistical rating organization... traditionally has operated mainly under the ``subscriber-paid'' business model, in which the NRSRO derives its... Act'') as set forth in the Report of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs...

  2. 78 FR 63177 - Order on Voluntary Remand and Clarifying Policy on Filing of Reactive Power Service Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... the obligation to follow a voltage schedule.'' \\19\\ The Commission distinguished Hot Spring Power Co..., to explore the mechanics of public utilities filing reactive power rate schedules for which there is...'' jurisdictional service and, accordingly, must be filed for Commission review); Sulphur Springs Valley Elec. Coop...

  3. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one customer class will get the best service. That theoretical result is validated through a series of numerical experiments which also reveal that it is quite robust.

  4. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  5. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. A molecular genetic time scale demonstrates Cretaceous origins and multiple diversification rate shifts within the order Galliformes (Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R Will; Brown, Joseph W; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2015-11-01

    The phylogeny of Galliformes (landfowl) has been studied extensively; however, the associated chronologies have been criticized recently due to misplaced or misidentified fossil calibrations. As a consequence, it is unclear whether any crown-group lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg; 65.5 Ma) mass extinction. Using Bayesian phylogenetic inference on an alignment spanning 14,539 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, four fossil calibrations, and a combination of uncorrelated lognormally distributed relaxed-clock and strict-clock models, we inferred a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny for 225 of the 291 extant Galliform taxa. These analyses suggest that crown Galliformes diversified in the Cretaceous and that three-stem lineages survived the K-Pg mass extinction. Ideally, characterizing the tempo and mode of diversification involves a taxonomically complete phylogenetic hypothesis. We used simple constraint structures to incorporate 66 data-deficient taxa and inferred the first taxon-complete phylogenetic hypothesis for the Galliformes. Diversification analyses conducted on 10,000 timetrees sampled from the posterior distribution of candidate trees show that the evolutionary history of the Galliformes is best explained by a rate-shift model including 1-3 clade-specific increases in diversification rate. We further show that the tempo and mode of diversification in the Galliformes conforms to a three-pulse model, with three-stem lineages arising in the Cretaceous and inter and intrafamilial diversification occurring after the K-Pg mass extinction, in the Paleocene-Eocene (65.5-33.9 Ma) or in association with the Eocene-Oligocene transition (33.9 Ma). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of speaking rate on serial-order sound-level errors in normal healthy controls and persons with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossett, Tepanta R D; McNeil, Malcolm R; Pratt, Sheila R; Tompkins, Connie A; Shuster, Linda I

    Although many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, phonetically well-formed sound-level serial-order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic encoding (PE) processes. An influential model of PE (Dell, 1986; Dell, Burger & Svec, 1997) predicts that speaking rate should affect the relative proportion of these serial-order sound errors (anticipations, perseverations, exchanges). These predictions have been extended to, and have special relevance for persons with aphasia (PWA) because of the increased frequency with which speech errors occur and because their localization within the functional linguistic architecture may help in diagnosis and treatment. Supporting evidence regarding the effect of speaking rate on phonological encoding has been provided by studies using young normal language (NL) speakers and computer simulations. Limited data exist for older NL users and no group data exist for PWA. This study tested the phonologic encoding properties of Dell's model of speech production (Dell, 1986; Dell,et al., 1997), which predicts that increasing speaking rate affects the relative proportion of serial-order sound errors (i.e., anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges). The effects of speech rate on the error ratios of anticipation/exchange (AE), anticipation/perseveration (AP) and vocal reaction time (VRT) were examined in 16 normal healthy controls (NHC) and 16 PWA without concomitant motor speech disorders. The participants were recorded performing a phonologically challenging (tongue twister) speech production task at their typical and two faster speaking rates. A significant effect of increased rate was obtained for the AP but not the AE ratio. Significant effects of group and rate were obtained for VRT. Although the significant effect of rate for the AP ratio provided evidence that changes in speaking rate did affect PE, the results failed to support the model derived predictions

  8. Photooxidative removal of the herbicide Acid Blue 9 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide: modeling of the reaction for evaluation of electrical energy per order (E EO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Ali R; Khataee, Hamid R

    2008-09-01

    The present work deals with photooxidative removal of the herbicide, Acid Blue 9 (AB9), in water in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under UV light illumination (30 W). The influence of the basic operational parameters such as amount of H2O2, irradiation time and initial concentration of AB9 on the photodegradation efficiency of the herbicide was investigated. The degradation rate of AB9 was not appreciably high when the photolysis was carried out in the absence of H2O2 and it was negligible in the absence of UV light. The photooxidative removal of the herbicide was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetic, and hence the figure-of-merit electrical energy per order (E Eo) was considered appropriate for estimating the electrical energy efficiency. A mathematical relation between the apparent reaction rate constant and H2O2 used was applied for prediction of the electricity consumption in the photooxidative removal of AB9. The results indicated that this kinetic model, based on the initial rates of degradation, provided good prediction of the E Eo values for a variety of conditions. The results also indicated that the UV/H2O2 process was appropriate as the effective treatment method for removal of AB9 from the contaminated wastewater.

  9. n-Order and maximum fuzzy similarity entropy for discrimination of signals of different complexity: Application to fetal heart rate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Oudjemia, Souad; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents two new concepts for discrimination of signals of different complexity. The first focused initially on solving the problem of setting entropy descriptors by varying the pattern size instead of the tolerance. This led to the search for the optimal pattern size that maximized the similarity entropy. The second paradigm was based on the n-order similarity entropy that encompasses the 1-order similarity entropy. To improve the statistical stability, n-order fuzzy similarity entropy was proposed. Fractional Brownian motion was simulated to validate the different methods proposed, and fetal heart rate signals were used to discriminate normal from abnormal fetuses. In all cases, it was found that it was possible to discriminate time series of different complexity such as fractional Brownian motion and fetal heart rate signals. The best levels of performance in terms of sensitivity (90%) and specificity (90%) were obtained with the n-order fuzzy similarity entropy. However, it was shown that the optimal pattern size and the maximum similarity measurement were related to intrinsic features of the time series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  11. Factors influencing the temporal growth rate of the high order TM{sub 0n} modes in the Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dapeng, E-mail: vipbenjamin@163.com; Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2015-06-15

    When the wavelength of overmoded Cherenkov oscillator goes into Ka-band, power handling capacity becomes an essential issue. Using the TM{sub 02} mode or higher order TM{sub 0n} modes as the operating mode is a potential solution. This paper is aimed to find some proper parameters to make the temporal growth rate of the TM{sub 02} mode higher in our previously studied Gigawatt (GW)-class Ka band oscillator. An accurate and fast calculation method of the “hot” dispersion equation is derived for rectangular corrugated SWSs, which are widely used in the high frequency Cherenkov devices. Then, factors that affect the temporal growth rate of the high order TM{sub 0n} modes are analyzed, including the depth of corrugation, the radius of drift tube, and the diode voltage. Results show that, when parameters are chosen properly, the temporal growth rate of the TM{sub 02} mode can be as high as 0.3 ns{sup −1}.

  12. Convergence of high order memory kernels in the Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized master equation and rate constants: Case study of the spin-boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Yan, Yaming; Liu, Yanying; Shi, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized master equation provides a formally exact framework to simulate quantum dynamics in condensed phases. Yet, the exact memory kernel is hard to obtain and calculations based on perturbative expansions are often employed. By using the spin-boson model as an example, we assess the convergence of high order memory kernels in the Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized master equation. The exact memory kernels are calculated by combining the hierarchical equation of motion approach and the Dyson expansion of the exact memory kernel. High order expansions of the memory kernels are obtained by extending our previous work to calculate perturbative expansions of open system quantum dynamics [M. Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 146, 064102 (2017)]. It is found that the high order expansions do not necessarily converge in certain parameter regimes where the exact kernel show a long memory time, especially in cases of slow bath, weak system-bath coupling, and low temperature. Effectiveness of the Padé and Landau-Zener resummation approaches is tested, and the convergence of higher order rate constants beyond Fermi's golden rule is investigated.

  13. Estimates of the stabilization rate as t→∞ of solutions of the first mixed problem for a quasilinear system of second-order parabolic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikova, L M; Mukminov, F Kh

    2000-01-01

    A quasilinear system of parabolic equations with energy inequality is considered in a cylindrical domain {t>0}xΩ. In a broad class of unbounded domains Ω two geometric characteristics of a domain are identified which determine the rate of convergence to zero as t→∞ of the L 2 -norm of a solution. Under additional assumptions on the coefficients of the quasilinear system estimates of the derivatives and uniform estimates of the solution are obtained; they are proved to be best possible in the order of convergence to zero in the case of one semilinear equation

  14. Determination of the absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O3 → NaO + O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, David; Marshall, Paul; Plane, J.M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O 3 -> NaO + O 2 (k 1 ) has been determined by time-resolved atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy at lambda = 589 nm [Na(3 2 Psub(j)) 2 Ssub(1/2))] following pulsed irradiation, coupled with monitoring of O 3 by light absorption in the ultra-violet; this yields k 1 (500 K) = 4(+4,-2) x 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , resolving large differences for various estimates of this important quantity used in modelling the sodium layer in the mesosphere. (author)

  15. Reanalysis of Rate Data for the Reaction CH3 + CH3 → C2H6 Using Revised Cross Sections and a Linearized Second-Order Master Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, M A; Green, N J B; Shannon, R J; Pilling, M J; Seakins, P W; Western, C M; Robertson, S H

    2015-07-16

    Rate coefficients for the CH3 + CH3 reaction, over the temperature range 300-900 K, have been corrected for errors in the absorption coefficients used in the original publication ( Slagle et al., J. Phys. Chem. 1988 , 92 , 2455 - 2462 ). These corrections necessitated the development of a detailed model of the B̃(2)A1' (3s)-X̃(2)A2″ transition in CH3 and its validation against both low temperature and high temperature experimental absorption cross sections. A master equation (ME) model was developed, using a local linearization of the second-order decay, which allows the use of standard matrix diagonalization methods for the determination of the rate coefficients for CH3 + CH3. The ME model utilized inverse Laplace transformation to link the microcanonical rate constants for dissociation of C2H6 to the limiting high pressure rate coefficient for association, k∞(T); it was used to fit the experimental rate coefficients using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to minimize χ(2) calculated from the differences between experimental and calculated rate coefficients. Parameters for both k∞(T) and for energy transfer ⟨ΔE⟩down(T) were varied and optimized in the fitting procedure. A wide range of experimental data were fitted, covering the temperature range 300-2000 K. A high pressure limit of k∞(T) = 5.76 × 10(-11)(T/298 K)(-0.34) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained, which agrees well with the best available theoretical expression.

  16. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2015-06-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  17. Rate Coefficients for the OH + (CHO)2 (Glyoxal) Reaction Between 240 and 400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, K. J.; Talukdar, R. K.; Zhu, L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Glyoxal (CHO)2, the simplest dialdehyde, is an end product formed in the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, for example, isoprene. As such, glyoxal plays a role in regional air quality and ozone production in certain locations. Glyoxal is lost in the atmosphere via UV photolysis and reaction with OH. However, the currently available rate coefficient data for the OH + glyoxal reaction is limited to a single room- temperature measurement made using the relative rate method. A determination of the rate coefficient temperature dependence is therefore needed for a more complete interpretation of the atmospheric processing of glyoxal. This study reports the rate coefficient for the OH + (CHO)2 reaction measured under pseudo- first-order conditions in OH ([(CHO)2] > 1000 [OH]0). OH radicals were produced using 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of H2O2 or HNO3 and detected by pulsed laser induced fluorescence. The concentration of glyoxal in the reactor was determined using three independent techniques; gas flow rates as well as in situ UV and IR absorption. The total pressure in the reactor was varied from 40 to 300 Torr (He), and the rate coefficient was found to be independent of pressure over the temperature range studied. The rate coefficient exhibits a negative temperature dependence between 240 and 400 K consistent with the dependence previously observed for many other aldehydes. Our room-temperature rate coefficient is smaller than the relative rate value that is currently recommended for use in atmospheric model calculations. Our measured rate coefficients are discussed with respect to those for other aldehydes. The atmospheric implications of our work will also be discussed.

  18. Kinetics of isotope exchange reactions involving intra- and intermolecular reactions: 1. Rate law for a system with two chemical compounds and three exchangeable atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuelei Chu; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    For an isotopic exchange reaction between two compounds (X and AB) in a homogeneous system, such as a gaseous or aqueous system, where one (AB) of them possesses two exchangeable atoms in non-equivalent positions and where one intramolecular isotope exchange (A ↔ B) and two intermolecular isotope exchange reactions (X ↔ A and X ↔ B) may occur, its rate law no longer obeys a pseudo-first order rate equation described for simple two-component systems by many previous investigators. The change with time of the δ value of each of the three components (X, A, and B) in a closed and homogeneous system is a complicated function of the initial δ values of the three components, the chemical concentrations of the two compounds, and the overall rate constants of the forward and reverse reactions involving the two intermolecular and one intramolecular reactions of isotope exchanges. Also, for some one of the three components, the change of its δ value with time may not be monotonic, and the relationship of 1n (1 - F) with time may be non-linear in a plot of 1n (1 - F) vs. t. In addition, the rate law of the isotope exchange reaction in this system also provides a quantitative method to estimate the overall rate constants for the one-intra-and two intermolecular isotope exchanges and the equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors among the three components

  19. Influence of the medium on the reaction rate of the t-butoxyl radical with iron(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaljevic, B.; Razem, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Tert-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO.) were generated by homolytic photodecomposition of di-tert-butylperoxide using ruby laser flashes at 347 nm. The reaction of t-BuO. radicals with Fe 2+ was studied under pseudo-first order conditions. The quantum yield Φ(Fe 3+ ) was determined by measuring the absorbance of Fe 3+ ion as [FeCl] 2+ complex at 360 nm 2 μs after the flash. According to the equation derived from the reaction scheme, the rate constant k 3 was obtained from the relative rate constant k r (k r =k 0 /k 3 ) and the value of k 0 ; the latter refers to the overall rate of the competing disappearance of t-BuO. radicals from the system (reaction 2), including the highest contribution of β-cleavage. The rate constant k 0 was determined using diphenylmethanol instead of Fe 2+ . The known rate constant of the reaction of t-BuO. radical with diphenylmethanol giving ketyl radicals (6.9 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ) was applied. The quantum yield of ketyl radicals was determined by measuring the maximum of absorbance at 535 nm. At acid concentration of 0.023 mol dm -3 HCl the rate constant k 3 = 3.4 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 was determined. The relative rate constant increased with an increase of the hydrochloric acid concentration which has been ascribed to the lower stability of t-BuO. radical at higher acidity of the medium. The effect of polarity of the medium on the reaction rate was also determined. Decreasing k 3 in media of increasing polarity were explained by increasing of the β-scission rate of t-BuO. radical with increasing polarity of the medium

  20. Ending to What End? The Impact of the Termination of Court-Desegregation Orders on Residential Segregation and School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, David D.

    2018-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Supreme Court established standards to facilitate the release of school districts from racial desegregation orders. Over the next two decades, federal courts declared almost half of all districts under court order in 1991 to be "unitary"--that is, to have met their obligations to eliminate dual systems of…

  1. A procedure for the measurement of Oxygen Consumption Rates (OCRs) in red wines and some observations about the influence of wine initial chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2018-05-15

    The rates at which wine consumes oxygen are important technological parameters for whose measurement there are not accepted procedures. In this work, volumes of 8 wines are contacted with controlled volumes of air in air-tight tubes containing oxygen-sensors and are further agitated at 25 °C until O 2 consumption is complete. Three exposure levels of O 2 were used: low (10 mg/L) and medium or high (18 or 32 mg/L plus the required amount to oxidize all wine SO 2 ). In each oxygen level, 2-4 independent segments following pseudo-first order kinetics were identified, plus an initial segment at which wine consumed O 2 very fast. Overall, multivariate data techniques identify six different Oxygen-Consumption-Rates (OCRs) as required to completely define wine O 2 consumption. Except the last one, all could be modeled from the wine initial chemical composition. Total acetaldehyde, Mn, Cu/Fe, blue and red pigments and gallic acid seem to be essential to determine these OCRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-01-01

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (CO) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (CO), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):P1,CO = 7.38 × 10-14 exp(-274 K/T) + 9.17 × 10-12 exp(-2499 K/T) (285-1355 K)S10,CO = 1.20 × 10-11 exp(-2046 K/T) + 2.20 × 10-13 exp(160 K/T) (222-1464 K)S11,CO = 4.50 × 10-11 exp(-3000 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1440 K/T) (248-1302 K)S11′,CO = 3.80 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1550 K/T) (263-1370 K)S 21,CO = 5.00 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 4.00 × 10-13 exp(775 K/T) (297-1376 K) © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  3. Determination of first order rate constants by natural logarithm of the slope plot exemplified by analysis of Aspergillus niger in batch culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, B.R.; Ruiter, G.; Visser, J.; Iversen, J.J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Finding rate constants from experimental data is often difficult because of offset and noise. A computer program was developed to average experimental data points, reducing the effect of noise, and to produce a loge of slope plot - a plot of the natural logarithm of the slope of a curve -

  4. Collection and spectral control of high-order harmonics generated with a 50 W high-repetition rate Ytterbium femtosecond laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabasse, A; Hazera, Ch; Quintard, L; Cormier, E; Petit, S; Constant, E

    2016-01-01

    We generate high-order harmonics with a 50 W, Yb femtosecond fiber laser system operating at 100 kHz in a tight focusing configuration. We achieve a high photon flux even with pulses longer than 500 fs. We collect the diverging extreme ultraviolet (XUV) harmonic beam in a 35 mrad wide solid angle by using a spectrometer designed to handle the high thermal load under vacuum and refocus the XUV beam onto a detector where the beam is characterised or can alternatively be used for experiments. This setup is designed for a 50 eV XUV bandwidth and offers the possibility to perform XUV-IR pump probe experiments with both temporal and spectral resolution. The high-order harmonics were generated and optimized at 100 kHz by using several gas target geometries (a gas jet and a semi-infinite gas cell) and several gases (argon, krypton, xenon) that provide XUV beams with different characteristics. After the spectrometer and for high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in xenon, we detect more than 4 × 10 10 photons per second over four harmonics, that is a useful XUV power on target of 0.1 μW. This corresponds to the emission of more than 1 μW per harmonic at the source and we achieved a similar flux with both the semi-infinite cell and the jet. In addition, we observe a strong spectral selectivity when generating harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell as few harmonics clearly dominate the neighbouring harmonics. We attribute this spectral selectivity to phase matching effects. (paper)

  5. The influence of ion energy, target temperature, dose rate and crystal order on the shape of bombardment induced pyramids on copper crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.; Whitton, J.L.; Kofod, S.

    1978-01-01

    Following recent studies of energetic ion bombardment of copper, which established the conditions necessary for the production of cones/pyramids, investigations have been extended to include the effects of change in ion energy, target temperature and dose rate. In addition, the authors have attempted a detailed analysis of the influence of sample crystal orientation on the final form of pyramids and have investigated the stability of the pyramids as a function of the total dose. These experiments, as in earlier work, have been done using very pure copper, mass-analyzed ion beams and free of any metal contamination from, for example, defining apertures. (Auth.)

  6. Virtual Instrument for Determining Rate Constant of Second-Order Reaction by pX Based on LabVIEW 8.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hu; Li, Jiang-Yuan; Tang, Yong-Huai

    2009-01-01

    The virtual instrument system based on LabVIEW 8.0 for ion analyzer which can measure and analyze ion concentrations in solution is developed and comprises homemade conditioning circuit, data acquiring board, and computer. It can calibrate slope, temperature, and positioning automatically. When applied to determine the reaction rate constant by pX, it achieved live acquiring, real-time displaying, automatical processing of testing data, generating the report of results; and other functions. This method simplifies the experimental operation greatly, avoids complicated procedures of manual processing data and personal error, and improves veracity and repeatability of the experiment results.

  7. Estimating background rates of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Ontario in order to respond to safety concerns during pandemic H1N1/09 immunization campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosella Laura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The province of Ontario, Canada initiated mass immunization clinics with adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in October 2009. Due to the scale of the campaign, temporal associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and vaccination were expected. The objectives of this analysis were to estimate the number of background GBS cases expected to occur in the projected vaccinated population and to estimate the number of additional GBS cases which would be expected if an association with vaccination existed. The number of influenza-associated GBS cases was also determined. Methods Baseline incidence rates of GBS were determined from published Canadian studies and applied to projected vaccine coverage data to estimate the expected number of GBS cases in the vaccinated population. Assuming an association with vaccine existed, the number of additional cases of GBS expected was determined by applying the rates observed during the 1976 Swine Flu and 1992/1994 seasonal influenza campaigns in the United States. The number of influenza-associated GBS cases expected to occur during the vaccination campaign was determined based on risk estimates of GBS after influenza infection and provincial influenza infection rates using a combination of laboratory-confirmed cases and data from a seroprevalence study. Results The overall provincial vaccine coverage was estimated to be between 32% and 38%. Assuming 38% coverage, between 6 and 13 background cases of GBS were expected within this projected vaccinated cohort (assuming 32% coverage yielded between 5-11 background cases. An additional 6 or 42 cases would be expected if an association between GBS and influenza vaccine was observed (assuming 32% coverage yielded 5 or 35 additional cases; while up to 31 influenza-associated GBS cases could be expected to occur. In comparison, during the same period, only 7 cases of GBS were reported among vaccinated persons. Conclusions Our analyses do not

  8. Hydrolysis of VX on concrete: rate of degradation by direct surface interrogation using an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Gary S; Williams, John M; Appelhans, Anthony D; Gresham, Garold L; Olson, John E; Jeffery, Mark T; Rowland, Brad

    2002-11-15

    The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) is lethal at very low levels of exposure, which can occur by dermal contact with contaminated surfaces. Hence, behavior of VX in contact with common urban or industrial surfaces is a subject of acute interest. In the present study, VX was found to undergo complete degradation when in contact with concrete surfaces. The degradation was directly interrogated at submonolayer concentrations by periodically performing secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses after exposure of the concrete to VX. The abundance of the [VX + H]+ ion in the SIMS spectra was observed to decrease in an exponential fashion, consistent with first-order or pseudo-first-order behavior. This phenomenon enabled the rate constant to be determined at 0.005 min(-1) at 25 degrees C, which corresponds to a half-life of about 3 h on the concrete surface. The decrease in [VX + H]+ was accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the principal degradation product diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), which arises by cleavage of the P-S bond. Degradation to form DESH is accompanied by the formation of ethyl methylphosphonic acid, which is observable only in the negative ion spectrum. A second degradation product was also implicated, which corresponded to a diisopropylvinylamine isomer (perhaps N,N-diisopropyl aziridinium) that arose via cleavage of the S-C bond. No evidence was observed for the formation of the toxic S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothioic acid. The degradation rate constants were measured at four different temperatures (24-50 degrees C), which resulted in a linear Arrhenius relationship and an activation energy of 52 kJ mol(-1). This value agrees with previous values observed for VX hydrolysis in alkaline solutions, which suggests that the degradation of submonolayer VX is dominated by alkaline hydrolysis within the adventitious water film on the concrete surface.

  9. Cooperation between bound waters and hydroxyls in controlling isotope-exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasci, Adele F.; McAlpin, J. Gregory; Ohlin, C. André; Christensen, Shauna; Fettinger, James C.; Britt, R. David; Rustad, James R.; Casey, William H.

    2012-02-01

    Mineral oxides differ from aqueous ions in that the bound water molecules are usually attached to different metal centers, or vicinal, and thus separated from one another. In contrast, for most monomeric ions used to establish kinetic reactivity trends, such as octahedral aquo ions (e.g., Al(H 2O) 63+), the bound waters are closely packed, or geminal. Because of this structural difference, the existing literature about ligand substitution in monomer ions may be a poor guide to the reactions of geochemical interest. To understand how coordination of the reactive functional groups might affect the rates of simple water-exchange reactions, we synthesized two structurally similar Rh(III) complexes, [Rh(phen) 2(H 2O) 2] 3+ [ 1] and [Rh(phen) 2(H 2O)Cl] 2+ [ 2] where (phen) = 1,10-phenanthroline. Complex [ 1] has two adjacent, geminal, bound waters in the inner-coordination sphere and [ 2] has a single bound water adjacent to a bound chloride ion. We employed Rh(III) as a trivalent metal rather than a more geochemically relevant metal like Fe(III) or Al(III) to slow the rate of reaction, which makes possible measurement of the rates of isotopic substitution by simple mass spectrometry. We prepared isotopically pure versions of the molecules, dissolved them into isotopically dissimilar water, and measured the rates of exchange from the extents of 18O and 16O exchange at the bound waters. The pH dependency of rates differ enormously between the two complexes. Pseudo-first-order rate coefficients at 298 K for water exchanges from the fully protonated molecules are close: k0298 = 5 × 10 -8(±0.5 × 10 -8) s -1 for [ 1] and k0298 = 2.5 × 10 -9(±1 × 10 -9) for [ 2]. Enthalpy and entropy activation parameters (Δ H‡ and Δ S‡) were measured to be 119(±3) kJ mol -1, and 14(±1) J mol -1 K -1, respectively for [ 1]. The corresponding parameters for the mono-aquo complex, [ 2], are 132(±3) kJ mol -1 and 41.5(±2) J mol -1 K -1. Rates increase by many orders of magnitude

  10. Stittco Utilities Man Ltd. application for an interim ex parte order under section 45 of the Public Utilities Board Act for the approval of a change to its schedule of rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-15

    Stittco Utilities, a company distributing propane in Manitoba, applied to the Manitoba Public Utilities Board for an interim order authorizing an increase in rates for all domestic and commercial customers in 3 Manitoba localities. The rate increase requested is based on the increase in the commodity price of propane and related changes in freight rates. If approved, the average rate will increase by ca 28% for residential customers and 27% for commercial customers. With the expectation that the price of propane would decrease in the near future, Stittco proposed to base its rates on a propane price lower than the current market price, in an effort to retain existing customers. Stittco also proposed to establish a variance account, in which the difference between the cost of propane built into the rates and the actual market price would be accumulated. From time to time Stittco would apply to adjust the rate schedule to refund overages or collect shortfalls contained in this variance account. It is Stittco's intention to cancel its new propane supply contract when propane prices stabilize and enter into a new fixed-price contract. Stittco would then apply for a new rate schedule based on the long-term price of propane. Based on the evidence, the Board decided that a prima facie case has been made showing a 105% increase in Stittco's cost of product and delivery, and that this increase should be passed through to Stittco customers effective November 16, 1990. Status reports were required for the variance account starting December 1990.

  11. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  12. Shock tube measurements of the rate constants for seven large alkanes+OH

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Reaction rate constants for seven large alkanes + hydroxyl (OH) radicals were measured behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The alkanes, n-hexane, 2-methyl-pentane, 3-methyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-butane, 2,3-dimethyl-butane, 2-methyl-heptane, and 4-methyl-heptane, were selected to investigate the rates of site-specific H-abstraction by OH at secondary and tertiary carbons. Hydroxyl radicals were monitored using narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1(5) transition of the OH spectrum near 306.7 nm. The high sensitivity of the diagnostic enabled the use of low reactant concentrations and pseudo-first-order kinetics. Rate constants were measured at temperatures ranging from 880 K to 1440 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. High-temperature measurements of the rate constants for OH + n-hexane and OH + 2,2-dimethyl-butane are in agreement with earlier studies, and the rate constants of the five other alkanes with OH, we believe, are the first direct measurements at combustion temperatures. Using these measurements and the site-specific H-abstraction measurements of Sivaramakrishnan and Michael (2009) [1,2], general expressions for three secondary and two tertiary abstraction rates were determined as follows (the subscripts indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon): S20=1.58×10-11exp(-1550K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(887-1327K)S30=2.37×10-11exp(-1850K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(887-1327K)S21=4.5×10-12exp(-793.7K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(833-1440K)T100=2.85×10-11exp(-1138.3K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(878-1375K)T101=7.16×10-12exp(-993K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(883-1362K) © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  13. The Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at T = 295 - 150K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Andre S.; Payne, Walter A.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.; Stief, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction between the hydrogen atom and the ethyl (C2H3) radical is predicted by photochemical modeling to be the most important loss process for C2H5 radicals in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. This reaction is also one of the major sources for the methyl radicals in these atmospheres. These two simplest hydrocarbon radicals are the initial species for the synthesis of larger hydrocarbons. Previous measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction varied by a factor of five at room temperature, and some studies showed a dependence upon temperature while others showed no such dependence. In addition, the previous studies were at higher temperatures and generally higher pressures than that needed for use in planetary atmospheric models. The rate constant for the reaction H + C2H5 has been measured directly at T = 150, 202 and 295 K and at P = 1.0 Torr He for all temperatures and additionally at P = 0.5 and 2.0 Torr He at T = 202 K. The measurements were performed in a discharge - fast flow system. The decay of the C2H5 radical in the presence of excess hydrogen was monitored by low-energy electron impact mass spectrometry under pseudo-first order conditions. H atoms and C2H5 radicals were generated rapidly and simultaneously by the reaction of fluorine atoms with H2 and C2H6, respectively. The total rate constant was found to be temperature and pressure independent. The measured total rate constant at each temperature are: k(sub 1)(295K) = (1.02+/-0.24)x10(exp -10), k(sub 1)(202K) = (1.02+/-0.22)x10(exp -10) and k(sub 1)(150K) = (0.93+/-0.21)x10(exp -10), all in units of cu cm/molecule/s. The total rate constant derived from all the combined measurements is k(sub 1) = (l.03+/-0.17)x10(exp -10) cu cm/molecule/s. At room temperature our results are about a factor of two higher than the recommended rate constant and a factor of three lower than the most recently published study.

  14. Reaction F + C2H4: Rate Constant and Yields of the Reaction Products as a Function of Temperature over 298-950 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedjanian, Yuri

    2018-03-29

    The kinetics and products of the reaction of F + C 2 H 4 have been studied in a discharge flow reactor combined with an electron impact ionization mass spectrometer at nearly 2 Torr total pressure of helium in the temperature range 298-950 K. The total rate constant of the reaction, k 1 = (1.78 ± 0.30) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , determined under pseudo-first-order conditions, monitoring the kinetics of F atom consumption in excess of C 2 H 4 , was found to be temperature independent in the temperature range used. H, C 2 H 3 F, and HF were identified as the reaction products. Absolute measurements of the yields of these species allowed to determine the branching ratios, k 1b / k 1 = (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and k 1a / k 1 = 1 - (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and partial rate constants for addition-elimination (H + C 2 H 3 F) and H atom abstraction (HF + C 2 H 3 ) pathways of the title reaction: k 1a = (0.80 ± 0.07) × 10 -10 exp(189 ± 37/ T) and k 1b = (1.26 ± 0.13) × 10 -10 exp(-414 ± 45/ T) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , respectively, at T = 298-950 K and with 2σ quoted uncertainties. The overall reaction rate constant can be adequately described by both the temperature independent value and as a sum of k 1a and k 1b . The kinetic and mechanistic data from the present study are discussed in comparison with previous absolute and relative measurements and theoretical calculations.

  15. An application by Centra Gas Manitoba Inc. for an order of the Manitoba Public Utilities Board approving: Rates for the sale of natural gas and the provision of transportation services, to be effective with respect to all gas consumed on and after January 1, 1994; determination of a year-end rate base, rate of return and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year including new gas supply arrangements; confirmation of interim ex parte order 113/93 related to franchise agreements with the rural municipality of Elton and the rural municipality of Grey; and other related matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-28

    Centra Gas Manitoba, a gas utility, applied before the Manitoba Public Utilities Board for an order approving a year-end rate base, rate of return, cost of service, and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year and increased rates to be effective in 1994. A hearing was held to consider matters related to Centra's application, and views of intervenors at the hearings, the utility, and the Board are summarized along with the Board decision. Issues considered at the hearings include year-end net plant values, computer expenditures, working capital allowance, capital structure and risk, cost adjustments, gas sales and cost of gas, operating and maintenance expenses, financial expenses, cost allocation, rate design, and other matters including service policies. The revenue requirement increase approved was $30.4 million, which included a $24.8 million increase in the commodity cost of gas. The allowed overall rate of return was 10.17%. 2 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2016-11-15

    This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus on assessing the efficiency of an adaptive hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and optimal interpolation (EnKF-OI) and the exact second-order sampling formulation (EnKFESOS) for mitigating the undersampling of the estimation and observation errors covariances, respectively. A multi-dimensional and multi-species reactive transport model is coupled to simulate the migration of contaminants within a Pleistocene aquifer layer located around 25 m below mean sea level. The biodegradation chain of chlorinated hydrocarbons starting from tetrachloroethene and ending with vinyl chloride is modeled under anaerobic environmental conditions for 5 decades. Yearly pseudo-concentration data are used to condition the forecast concentration and degradation rates in the presence of model and observational errors. Assimilation results demonstrate the robustness of the hybrid EnKF-OI, for accurately calibrating the uncertain biodegradation rates. When implemented serially, the adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme efficiently adjusts the weights of the involved covariances for each individual measurement. The EnKFESOS is shown to maintain the parameter ensemble spread much better leading to more robust estimates of the states and parameters. On average, a well tuned hybrid EnKF-OI and the EnKFESOS respectively suggest around 48 and 21 % improved concentration estimates, as well as around 70 and 23 % improved anaerobic degradation rates, over the standard EnKF. Incorporating large uncertainties in the flow model degrades the accuracy of the estimates of all schemes. Given that the performance of the hybrid EnKF-OI depends on the quality of the background statistics, satisfactory results were obtained only when the uncertainty imposed on the background

  17. The rate constant of the reaction NCN + H2 and its role in NCN and NO modeling in low pressure CH4/O2/N2-flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faßheber, Nancy; Lamoureux, Nathalie; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2015-06-28

    Bimolecular reactions of the NCN radical play a key role in modeling prompt-NO formation in hydrocarbon flames. The rate constant of the so-far neglected reaction NCN + H2 has been experimentally determined behind shock waves under pseudo-first order conditions with H2 as the excess component. NCN3 thermal decomposition has been used as a quantitative high temperature source of NCN radicals, which have been sensitively detected by difference UV laser absorption spectroscopy at [small nu, Greek, tilde] = 30383.11 cm(-1). The experiments were performed at two different total densities of ρ≈ 4.1 × 10(-6) mol cm(-3) and ρ≈ 7.4 × 10(-6) mol cm(-3) (corresponding to pressures between p = 324 mbar and p = 1665 mbar) and revealed a pressure independent reaction. In the temperature range 1057 K rate constant can be represented by the Arrhenius expression k/(cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) = 4.1 × 10(13) exp(-101 kJ mol(-1)/RT) (Δlog k = ±0.11). The pressure independent reaction as well as the measured activation energy is consistent with a dominating H abstracting reaction channel yielding the products HNCN + H. The reaction NCN + H2 has been implemented together with a set of reactions for subsequent HNCN and HNC chemistry into the detailed GDFkin3.0_NCN mechanism for NOx flame modeling. Two fuel-rich low-pressure CH4/O2/N2-flames served as examples to quantify the impact of the additional chemical pathways. Although the overall NCN consumption by H2 remains small, significant differences have been observed for NO yields with the updated mechanism. A detailed flux analysis revealed that HNC, mainly arising from HCN/HNC isomerization, plays a decisive role and enhances NO formation through a new HNC → HNCO → NH2→ NH → NO pathway.

  18. Pseudo-extravasation rate constant of dynamic susceptibility contrast-MRI determined from pharmacokinetic first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Varallyay, Csanad G; Gahramanov, Seymur; Fu, Rongwei; Rooney, William D; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) is widely used to obtain informative perfusion imaging biomarkers, such as the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV). The related post-processing software packages for DSC-MRI are available from major MRI instrument manufacturers and third-party vendors. One unique aspect of DSC-MRI with low-molecular-weight gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast reagent (CR) is that CR molecules leak into the interstitium space and therefore confound the DSC signal detected. Several approaches to correct this leakage effect have been proposed throughout the years. Amongst the most popular is the Boxerman-Schmainda-Weisskoff (BSW) K 2 leakage correction approach, in which the K 2 pseudo-first-order rate constant quantifies the leakage. In this work, we propose a new method for the BSW leakage correction approach. Based on the pharmacokinetic interpretation of the data, the commonly adopted R 2 * expression accounting for contributions from both intravascular and extravasating CR components is transformed using a method mathematically similar to Gjedde-Patlak linearization. Then, the leakage rate constant (K L ) can be determined as the slope of the linear portion of a plot of the transformed data. Using the DSC data of high-molecular-weight (~750 kDa), iron-based, intravascular Ferumoxytol (FeO), the pharmacokinetic interpretation of the new paradigm is empirically validated. The primary objective of this work is to empirically demonstrate that a linear portion often exists in the graph of the transformed data. This linear portion provides a clear definition of the Gd CR pseudo-leakage rate constant, which equals the slope derived from the linear segment. A secondary objective is to demonstrate that transformed points from the initial transient period during the CR wash-in often deviate from the linear trend of the linearized graph. The inclusion of these points will have a negative impact on the accuracy of the leakage

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of (Z)-CF3CH═CHCF3: OH radical reaction rate coefficient and global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2011-09-29

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) (cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene) were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) to produce OH and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to detect it. Rate coefficients were measured over a range of temperatures (212-374 K) and bath gas pressures (20-200 Torr; He, N(2)) and found to be independent of pressure over this range of conditions. The rate coefficient has a non-Arrhenius behavior that is well-described by the expression k(1)(T) = (5.73 ± 0.60) × 10(-19) × T(2) × exp[(678 ± 10)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) where k(1)(296 K) was measured to be (4.91 ± 0.50) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and the uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the analogous OD radical reaction were determined over a range of temperatures (262-374 K) at 100 Torr (He) to be k(2)(T) = (4.81 ± 0.20) × 10(-19) × T(2) × exp[(776 ± 15)/T], with k(2)(296 K) = (5.73 ± 0.50) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). OH radical rate coefficients were also measured at 296, 345, and 375 K using a relative rate technique and found to be in good agreement with the PLP-LIF results. A room-temperature rate coefficient for the O(3) + (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) reaction was measured using an absolute method with O(3) in excess to be reaction was estimated to be ~20 days. Infrared absorption spectra of (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) measured in this work were used to determine a (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) global warming potential (GWP) of ~9 for the 100 year time horizon. A comparison of the OH reactivity of (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) with other unsaturated fluorinated compounds is presented.

  20. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  1. Removal Rate of Organic Matter Using Natural Cellulose via Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Low, Wen-Pei; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Iwao, Kenzo; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Ismail, Zulhilmi; Jamal, Mohamad Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using coconut fiber (CF) and palm oil fiber (POF) was investigated. Preliminary analysis was performed using a jar test for the selection of optimal medium before the fabricated column model experiment. The equilibrium studies on isotherms and kinetic models for NOM adsorption were analyzed using linearized correlation coefficient. Results showed that the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir isotherm model for both CF and POF. The most suitable adsorption model was the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for POF and pseudo-second-order kinetic model for CF. The adsorption capacities achieved by the CF and POF were 15.67 and 30.8 mg/g respectively. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that the POF is the most suitable material for the removal of NOM in semi polluted river water.

  2. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  3. Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of reaction of l-aryl-3,3-diethyltriazines with. B-naphthol in acid media to yield azo ayes have been measured in dimethylformamide solution at 25°. For a series of four acids of different acid strengths, pseudo-first-order rate constants were obtained, and the reaction was found to be follow third order kinetics, first order ...

  5. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  6. Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH with CO, NO and NO2, and of HO2 with NO2 in the Presence of Water Vapour at Lower-Tropospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolletter, Michael; Fuchs, Hendrik; Novelli, Anna; Ehlers, Christian; Hofzumahaus, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the chemistry of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) in the lower troposphere is not fully understood. Aside from heterogenous reactions, the daytime HONO formation in the gas-phase is not well understood (Li et al., Science, 2014). For a better understanding of HONO in the gas-phase, we have reinvestigated the reaction rate constants of important tropospheric reactions of the HOx radical family (OH and HO2) with nitrogen oxides at realistic conditions of the lower troposphere (at ambient temperature/pressure and in humid air). In this study we apply a direct pump and probe technique with high accuracy, using small radical concentrations to avoid secondary chemistry. Pulsed laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) was used to investigate the reaction rate constants of OH with CO, NO, NO2, and HO2 with NO2 in synthetic air at different water vapor concentrations (up to 5 x 1017 molecules cm-3). Photolysis of ozone in the presence of gaseous water was the source of OH. The reactions took place in a flow-tube at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The chemical decay of the radicals was monitored by laser-induced fluorescence detection in a low-pressure cell, which sampled air continuously from the end of the flow-tube. Knowing the reactant concentrations subsequently allowed to calculate the bimolecular reaction rate constants at 1 atm from the pseudo-first-order decays. In order to observe HO2 reactions, OH was converted into HO2 with an excess of CO in the flow-tube. The newly measured rate constants for OH with CO, NO and NO2 agree very well with current recommendations by NASA/JPL and IUPAC and have an improved accuracy (uncertainty < 5%). These rate coefficients are independent of the presence of water vapour. The measured rate constant of HO2 with NO2 was found to depend significantly on the water-vapour concentration (probably due to formation of HO2*H2O complexes) and to exceed current recommendations by NASA/JPL and

  7. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Valstar, Johan; Janssen, Gijs; Marsman, Annemieke; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus

  8. AGORAPHOBIC, ANIMAL, DEATH-INJURY-ILLNESS AND SOCIAL-STIMULI CLUSTERS AS MAJOR ELEMENTS IN A 4-DIMENSIONAL TAXONOMY OF SELF-RATED FEARS - 1ST-ORDER LEVEL CONFIRMATORY EVIDENCE FROM AN AUSTRALIAN SAMPLE OF ANXIETY DISORDER PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA; OEI, TPS; EVANS, L; VANDERENDE, J

    1991-01-01

    In a recent review article, Arrindell, Pickersgill, Merckelbach, Ardon, and Cornet (1991) (Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 73-130) proposed an a priori four-dimensional categorization system for the description of self-rated fears on the basis of suggestions from previous reviews and

  9. Certified higher-order recursive path ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koprowski, A.; Pfenning, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on a formalization of a proof of wellfoundedness of the higher-order recursive path ordering (HORPO) in the proof checker Coq. The development is axiom-free and fully constructive. Three substantive parts that could be used also in other developments are the formalizations of the

  10. Default settings of computerized physician order entry system order sets drive ordering habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jordan; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Donaldson, Keri; Abendroth, Thomas; Castellani, William

    2015-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are quickly becoming ubiquitous, and groups of orders ("order sets") to allow for easy order input are a common feature. This provides a streamlined mechanism to view, modify, and place groups of related orders. This often serves as an electronic equivalent of a specialty requisition. A characteristic, of these order sets is that specific orders can be predetermined to be "preselected" or "defaulted-on" whenever the order set is used while others are "optional" or "defaulted-off" (though there is typically the option is to "deselect" defaulted-on tests in a given situation). While it seems intuitive that the defaults in an order set are often accepted, additional study is required to understand the impact of these "default" settings in an order set on ordering habits. This study set out to quantify the effect of changing the default settings of an order set. For quality improvement purposes, order sets dealing with transfusions were recently reviewed and modified to improve monitoring of outcome. Initially, the order for posttransfusion hematocrits and platelet count had the default setting changed from "optional" to "preselected." The default settings for platelet count was later changed back to "optional," allowing for a natural experiment to study the effect of the default selections of an order set on clinician ordering habits. Posttransfusion hematocrit values were ordered for 8.3% of red cell transfusions when the default order set selection was "off" and for 57.4% of transfusions when the default selection was "preselected" (P default order set selection was "optional," increased to 59.4% when the default was changed to "preselected" (P default selection was returned to "optional." The posttransfusion platelet count rates during the two "optional" periods: 7.0% versus 7.5% - were not statistically different (P = 0.620). Default settings in CPOE order sets can significantly influence physician selection of

  11. Wetting transitions: First order or second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teletzke, G.F.; Scriven, L.E.; Davis, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization of Sullivan's recently proposed theory of the equilibrium contact angle, the angle at which a fluid interface meets a solid surface, is investigated. The generalized theory admits either a first-order or second-order transition from a nonzero contact angle to perfect wetting as a critical point is approached, in contrast to Sullivan's original theory, which predicts only a second-order transition. The predictions of this computationally convenient theory are in qualitative agreement with a more rigorous theory to be presented in a future publication

  12. Kinetics of the Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin of White Wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the kinetics of adsorption of bovine serum albumin, BSA, in white wine model solutions onto activated carbon, AC, and alumina, AL. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to determine the rate and mechanism of adsorption of the white wine protein during the haze removal ...

  13. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.; Usman, M.; Rasul, Shahid; Arshad, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    . The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  14. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-06

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  15. Reaction rate and isomer-specific product branching ratios of C2H + C4H8: 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene at 79 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Jordy; Fournier, Martin; Sims, Ian R; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2013-06-20

    The reactions of C2H radicals with C4H8 isomers 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene are studied by laser photolysis-vacuum ultraviolet mass spectrometry in a Laval nozzle expansion at 79 K. Bimolecular-reaction rate constants are obtained by measuring the formation rate of the reaction product species as a function of the reactant density under pseudo-first-order conditions. The rate constants are (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (2.1 ± 0.7) × 10(-10), and (1.8 ± 0.9) × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) for the reaction of C2H with 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene, respectively. Bimolecular rate constants for 1-butene and isobutene compare well to values measured previously at 103 K using C2H chemiluminescence. Photoionization spectra of the reaction products are measured and fitted to ionization spectra of the contributing isomers. In conjunction with absolute-ionization cross sections, these fits provide isomer-resolved product branching fractions. The reaction between C2H and 1-butene yields (65 ± 10)% C4H4 in the form of vinylacetylene and (35 ± 10)% C5H6 in the form of 4-penten-1-yne. The cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene reactions yield solely 3-penten-1-yne, and no discrimination is made between cis- and trans-3-penten-1-yne. Last, the isobutene reaction yields (26 ± 15)% 3-penten-1-yne, (35 ± 15)% 2-methyl-1-buten-3-yne, and (39 ± 15)% 4-methyl-3-penten-1-yne. The branching fractions reported for the C2H and butene reactions indicate that these reactions preferentially proceed via CH3 or C2H3 elimination rather than H-atom elimination. Within the experimental uncertainties, no evidence is found for the formation of cyclic species.

  16. Persistence and fate of some organophosphorus pesticides in sea sediments along east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    and fate of these pesticides Rate of hydrolysis of these pesticides in freshwater, brackish water and sea-sediments followed the path of pseudo first order reaction The rate constants (K1) and the half life periods (T2) of these pesticides were determined...

  17. Reductieve dehalogenering van heterocyclische verbindingen, relatie tussen structuur en omzettingssnelheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer KGM; Peijnenburg WJGM; Verboom JH

    1992-01-01

    A relationship was derived between the structure of halogenated heterocyclic aromatic compounds and their rate of dehalogenation in anaerobic sediment-water mixtures. Of all compounds selected, the pseudo-first order reaction rate constant was determined from the concentration-time profile, as

  18. Modelling diurnal courses of photosynthesis and transpiration of leaves on the basis of stomatal and non-stomatal responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Goudriaan, J.; Wang, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model for photoinhibition of leaf photosynthesis was developed by formalising the assumptions that (1) the rate of photoinhibition is proportional to irradiance; and (2) the rate of recovery, derived from the formulae for a pseudo first-order process, is proportional to the extent of

  19. First-order inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been reviewed. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. (orig.)

  20. First-order inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs

  1. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  2. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  3. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari

    1996-01-01

    Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre...... to the final product.In the paper, a new method for improving order flow is presented, including an extended use of activity chain models....

  4. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  5. Order in Chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2014-01-01

    Ballot order effects are well documented in established democracies, but less so in fragile post-conflict settings. We test for the presence of ballot order effects in the 2010 parliamentary election in Afghanistan. Turning out for the 2010 election was a potentially life-threatening endeavor for...

  6. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  7. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  8. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...... Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination...

  9. peroxo complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    present kinetic studies of the decomposition of a group of closely related ... tuted benzoic acid; n = 1 or 2) at low temperature shows a pseudo first order rate of decay. ... species. References. 1. Que Jr L 1997 J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 3933.

  10. An Analogy Using Pennies and Dimes to Explain Chemical Kinetics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Perez, Wanda I.; Lopez, Jose R.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an analogy that uses coins and graphical analysis to teach kinetics concepts and resolve pseudo-first-order rate constants related to transition-metal complexes ligand-solvent exchange reactions. They describe an activity that is directed to upper-division undergraduate and graduate students. The activity…

  11. Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water using TiO 2 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a pseudo first order model and the apparent rate constant may depend on several factors such as, the nature and concentration of the organic compound, radiant flux, the solution pH and the presence of other organic substances. KEY WORDS: Photoelectrocatalysis, Titanium dioxide, Cuprous oxide, Composite thin film, ...

  12. Mathematics of aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Daniel; Savinien, Jean

    2015-01-01

    What is order that is not based on simple repetition, that is, periodicity? How must atoms be arranged in a material so that it diffracts like a quasicrystal? How can we describe aperiodically ordered systems mathematically? Originally triggered by the – later Nobel prize-winning – discovery of quasicrystals, the investigation of aperiodic order has since become a well-established and rapidly evolving field of mathematical research with close ties to a surprising variety of branches of mathematics and physics. This book offers an overview of the state of the art in the field of aperiodic order, presented in carefully selected authoritative surveys. It is intended for non-experts with a general background in mathematics, theoretical physics or computer science, and offers a highly accessible source of first-hand information for all those interested in this rich and exciting field. Topics covered include the mathematical theory of diffraction, the dynamical systems of tilings or Delone sets, their cohomolog...

  13. Order-Disorder Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasteleyn, P.W.

    1971-01-01

    Apology. 1. Order-disorder transitions; 2. The Ising model; 3. The classical theories; 4. The exact analysis of the Ising model; 5. Series expansions; 6. Relations between critical indices; 7. Other models; 8. Concluding remarks. (author)

  14. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  15. Mobile food ordering application

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a food ordering client server application for Tom Yum Thai Oy, which is a Thai restaurant in Vaasa. For the customer, this application provides a view of current food information (category, name, image,price, description etc.) on the website and Android application. The customer can order food from these two platforms. For the administrator in restaurant, this application offers a series of operations to add, update, delete and query the information of ...

  16. Operator ordering and causality

    OpenAIRE

    Plimak, L. I.; Stenholm, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that causality violations [M. de Haan, Physica 132A, 375, 397 (1985)], emerging when the conventional definition of the time-normal operator ordering [P.L.Kelley and W.H.Kleiner, Phys.Rev. 136, A316 (1964)] is taken outside the rotating wave approximation, disappear when the amended definition [L.P. and S.S., Annals of Physics, 323, 1989 (2008)] of this ordering is used.

  17. Ordered Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  18. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  19. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  20. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  1. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  2. The birth order puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R B; Markus, H; Markus, G B

    1979-08-01

    Studies relating intellectual performance to birth order report conflicting results, some finding intellectual scores to increase, others to decrease with birth order. In contrast, the relationship between intellectual performance and family size is stable and consistently replicable. Why do these two highly related variables generate such divergent results? This birth order puzzle is resolved by means of the confluence model that quantifies the influences upon intellectual growth arising within the family context. At the time of a new birth, two opposing influences act upon intellectual growth of the elder sibling: (a) his or her intellectual environment is "diluted" and (b) he or she loses the "last-born's handicap" and begins serving as an intellectual resource to the younger sibling. Since these opposite effects are not equal in magnitude, the differences in intellectual performance among birth ranks are shown to be age dependent. While elder children may surpass their younger siblings in intellectual performance at some ages, they may be overtaken by them at others. Thus when age is taken into consideration, the birth order literature loses its chaotic character and an orderly pattern of results emerges.

  3. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  4. First order electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Fodor, Z.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, the authors have studied the phase transition in the SU(2)gauge theory at finite temperature. The authors' improved perturbative approach does not suffer from the infrared problems appearing in the ordinary loop expansion. The authors have calculated the effective potential up to cubic terms in the couplings. The higher order terms suggest that the method is reliable for Higgs masses smaller than 80 GeV. The authors have obtained a non-vanishing magnetic mass which further weakens the transitions. By use of Langer's theory of metastability, the authors have calculated the nucleation rate for critical bubbles and have discussed some cosmological consequences. For m H <80 GeV the phase transition is first order and proceeds via bubble nucleation and growth. The thin wall approximation is only marginally applicable. Since the phase transition is quite weak SM baryogenesis is unlikely. 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  6. Nuclear order in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annila, A.J.; Clausen, K.N.; Lindgård, P-A.

    1990-01-01

    A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show the prese......A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show...

  7. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...... focused on local needs even after the creation of a royal police office in 1682. Policing mainly concerned the welfare and privileges of burghers in market towns until the introduction of a country police in 1791, when agrarian reforms began to erode the patriarchal order in the countryside. As a new way...

  8. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  9. The Ordered Apology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    Psychological research has demonstrated that an apology can contribute to the well-being of the receiver of the apology. However, the legal community has only cautiously embraced the idea of claiming and ordering apologies in a legal procedure. The conventional wisdom is that apologies that are

  10. Even order snake resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    We found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune shift of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two

  11. On Todorcevic orderings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Bohuslav; Pazák, Tomáš; Thümmel, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 2 (2015), s. 173-192 ISSN 0016-2736 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : partial ordering * countable chain condition * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/pazak-0437623.pdf

  12. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  13. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  14. Order Division Automated System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniemeyer, Justin M.; And Others

    This publication was prepared by the Order Division Automation Project staff to fulfill the Library of Congress' requirement to document all automation efforts. The report was originally intended for internal use only and not for distribution outside the Library. It is now felt that the library community at-large may have an interest in the…

  15. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  16. Synthesis of magnetic CoFe2O4/ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposites and application in Fenton-like oxidation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing; Chen, Yi-Jing; Lu, Yu-An; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Feng, Shan-Fang; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Jun

    2017-06-01

    CoFe 2 O 4 /ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) nanocomposites were synthesized and tested as heterogeneous peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator for the removal of rhodamine B. Characterization confirmed that CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were tightly bonded to OMC, and the hybrid catalyst possessed high surface area, pore volume, and superparamagnetism. Oxidation experiments demonstrated that CoFe 2 O 4 /OMC nanocomposites displayed favorable catalytic activity in PMS solution and rhodamine B degradation could be well described by pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Sulfate radicals (SO 4 - ·) were verified as the primary reactive species which was responsible for the decomposition of rhodamine B. The optimum loading ratio of CoFe 2 O 4 and OMC was determined to be 5:1. Under optimum operational condition (catalyst dosage 0.05 g/L, PMS concentration 1.5 mM, pH 7.0, and 25 °C), CoFe 2 O 4 /OMC-activated peroxymonosulfate system could achieve almost complete decolorization of 100 mg/L rhodamine B within 60 min. The enhanced catalytic activity of CoFe 2 O 4 /OMC nanocomposites compared to that of CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles could be attributable to the increased adsorption capacity and accelerated redox cycles between Co(III)/Co(II) and Fe(III)/Fe(II).

  17. Symbols of a cosmic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  18. Robert's rules of order

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Henry M; Balch, Thomas J; Seabold, Daniel E; Gerber, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The only authorized edition of the classic work on parliamentary procedure, with new and enhanced features, including how to conduct electronic meetings. Robert's Rules of Order is the book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and anyone involved in an organization, association, club, or group and the authoritative guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings and assemblies. This newly revised edition is the only book on parliamentary procedure to have been updated since 1876 under the continuing program of review established by General Henry M. Robert himself, in cooperation with the official publisher of Robert's Rules. The eleventh edition has been thoroughly revised to address common inquiries and incorporate new rules, interpretations, and procedures made necessary by the evolution of parliamentary procedure, including new material relating to electronic communication and "electronic meetings."

  19. Fragile Thermodynamic Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhoeft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Colineau, E.

    2003-01-01

    An asymmetric shift in the position of the magnetic Bragg peak with respect to the fiducial lattice has been observed by resonant X-ray scattering in a diverse series of antiferromagnetic compounds. This apparent violation of Bragg's law is interpreted in terms of a dynamically phased order parameter. We demonstrate the use of this effect as a novel probe of fragile or dynamic thermodynamic order in strongly correlated electronic systems. In particular, fresh light is shed on the paradoxical situation encountered in URu 2 Si 2 where the measured entropy gain on passing through T Neel is incompatible with the ground state moment estimated by neutron diffraction. The intrinsic space-time averaging of the probe used to characterise the thermodynamic macroscopic state may play a crucial and previously neglected role. In turn, this suggests the further use of resonant X-ray scattering in investigations of systems dominated by quantum fluctuations. (author)

  20. Transnational Normative Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Poul F.

    2013-01-01

    No weakening, but rather an expansion, of statehood can be observed in the contemporary world. This does not, on the other hand, imply that extensive forms of constitutional ordering do not exist outside the realm of states. Instead, the evolution of world society has been characterized by a prot......No weakening, but rather an expansion, of statehood can be observed in the contemporary world. This does not, on the other hand, imply that extensive forms of constitutional ordering do not exist outside the realm of states. Instead, the evolution of world society has been characterized...... as represented by the constitutional subject. Third, constitutionalism denotes the institutionalization of a double function, in the form of a principle-based and legally fortified striving toward universal inclusion, providing a sense of direction in time through an articulated form of constitutional...

  1. Transnational Normative Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    No weakening, but rather an expansion, of statehood can be observed in the contemporary world. This does not, on the other hand, imply that extensive forms of constitutional ordering do not exist outside the realm of states. Instead, the evolution of world society has been characterized by a prot......No weakening, but rather an expansion, of statehood can be observed in the contemporary world. This does not, on the other hand, imply that extensive forms of constitutional ordering do not exist outside the realm of states. Instead, the evolution of world society has been characterized...... as represented by the constitutional subject. Third, constitutionalism denotes the institutionalization of a double function, in the form of a principle-based and legally fortified striving toward universal inclusion, providing a sense of direction in time through an articulated form of constitutional...

  2. Ordered cones and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Keimel, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.

  3. Are Limit Orders Rational?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2007), s. 32-38 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417; GA ČR GA402/04/1294; GA ČR GD402/03/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : market microstructure * limit order market * portfolio selection Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  4. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  5. Testing hypotheses in order

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Rosenbaum

    2008-01-01

    In certain circumstances, one wishes to test one hypothesis only if certain other hypotheses have been rejected. This ordering of hypotheses simplifies the task of controlling the probability of rejecting any true hypothesis. In an example from an observational study, a treated group is shown to be further from both of two control groups than the two control groups are from each other. Copyright 2008, Oxford University Press.

  6. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  7. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  8. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...

  9. Fractional Order Generalized Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tenreiro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a novel expression for entropy inspired in the properties of Fractional Calculus. The characteristics of the generalized fractional entropy are tested both in standard probability distributions and real world data series. The results reveal that tuning the fractional order allow an high sensitivity to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. The concepts are also extended to relative distances and tested with several sets of data, confirming the goodness of the generalization.

  10. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  11. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism......, followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations...... into the ontological condition of tourism....

  12. Gender Orders Unbound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity....

  13. Ordered photonic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin Ming

    2001-09-01

    This thesis examines novel photonic materials systems possessing order in the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic dimensional regimes. In the atomic order regime, a structure-property investigation is done for Er2O3 in which the first report of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) is provided. Thin films of the rare earth oxide were deposited via reactive sputtering of Er metal in an Ar/O2 ambient, and subsequently annealed to promote grain growth. Heat treatment consisting of a 650°C followed by 1000°C anneal produces maximum crystallinity as measured by glancing angle x-ray diffraction. These films show characteristic PL at λ = 1.54 μm. In the microscopic order regime, omnidirectional reflectors and thin film microcavities are demonstrated using sol-gel and solid-state materials. A first demonstration of omnidirectional reflectivity in sol-gel structures was accomplished using a dielectric stack consisting of 12 spin-on SiO 2/TiO2 quarterwave sol-gel films. Similarly, solid-state dielectric stacks consisting of 6 Si/SiO2 sputtered films were used to demonstrate the same principle. Microcavities were formed using solgel structures, producing a low quality factor Q = 35 due to limitations in film thickness control and lossy interfaces from stress-induced cracks. The high index contrast Si/SiO2 microcavities enabled Q ~ 1000 using 17 total layers following hydrogenation of dangling bonds within the amorphous Si films. Combining fabrication processes for the solid-state microcavity and Er2O3 films, a device was fabricated to demonstrate photoluminescence enhancement of an Er2O3 film embedded in a microcavity. The structure consisted of 3-bilayer mirrors on either side of an SiO2/Er2O3/SiO2 cavity. The Q ~ 300 was near the theoretical value for such a structure. At room temperature, PL of Er2O3 was enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the microcavity compared to a single thin film. In the macroscopic order regime, self-assembly of micron- sized SiO 2 and

  14. 15 CFR 700.16 - Changes or cancellations of priority ratings and rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700...

  15. Effects of Order of Presentation on Perceptions of the Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jody L.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether order in which two counselors were presented on videotape would affect ratings of their performances. Seventy subjects viewed and rated counseling interviews conducted by Carl Rogers and Everett Shostrom. Groups differed only in order of presentation of counselors. Found that order in which counselors were evaluated significantly…

  16. The Emerging World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER COLLECOTT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common ground amongst almost all commentators that the world has changed radically over the past 25 years – the 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall heralded the ending of the Cold War, the reunification of a tragically divided Europe, and the acceleration of the process of globalisation which has its only comparable period in the decades leading up to the First World War in 1914. When analyzing the Emerging World Order it is important to cover more than Brazil economy or any other individual BRICs or other Emerging Powers. Instead, our analysis will provide a global view about the economic and political global power structures which are evolving and forming before our eyes, and then to talk about the challenges these emerging realities pose for us in Europe, and in the West in general.

  17. The new Wuergassen order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In the contentious administrative matter concerning the contestation of several partial licenses for the Wuergassen nuclear power station, the Supreme Court of Administration for Nordrhein-Westfalen, has also dismissed the appeal of the plaintiff from the dismissal of the action delivered by the Minden administrative court. The order was passed on 20th February, 1975 - VII A 911/69 - and agrees with the dismissal by the Federal Administrative Court. The plaintiff was a private person. The defendants were the licensing authorities, the Minister for Economy, and the Minister fuer Wirtschaft, Mittelstand und Verkehr of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Also summoned was the Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG, Hannover, to whom the contested licenses had been issued. The value in litigation was fixed at DM 10,000. One half of the extra-judicial costs of the summoned was declared repayable. Some of the grounds upon which the judgment was based are presented in detail. (orig./AK) [de

  18. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  19. Birth order and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.

  20. The Impact of Order Source Misattribution on Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) Performance Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, George A; Catzoela, Linda; Patel, Lajja; Bruner, Kylynn; Friedman, Felix; Ramirez, Ricardo; Saucedo, Lilliana; Webster, S Luke; Gillean, John A

    2017-01-01

    One strategy to foster adoption of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) by physicians is the monthly distribution of a list identifying the number and use rate percentage of orders entered electronically versus on paper by each physician in the facility. Physicians care about CPOE use rate reports because they support the patient safety and quality improvement objectives of CPOE implementation. Certain physician groups are also motivated because they participate in contracted financial and performance arrangements that include incentive payments or financial penalties for meeting (or failing to meet) a specified CPOE use rate target. Misattribution of order sources can hinder accurate measurement of individual physician CPOE use and can thereby undermine providers' confidence in their reported performance, as well as their motivation to utilize CPOE. Misattribution of order sources also has significant patient safety, quality, and medicolegal implications. This analysis sought to evaluate the magnitude and sources of misattribution among hospitalists with high CPOE use and, if misattribution was found, to formulate strategies to prevent and reduce its recurrence, thereby ensuring the integrity and credibility of individual and facility CPOE use rate reporting. A detailed manual order source review and validation of all orders issued by one hospitalist group at a midsize community hospital was conducted for a one-month study period. We found that a small but not dismissible percentage of orders issued by hospitalists-up to 4.18 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 3.84-4.56 percent) per month-were attributed inaccurately. Sources of misattribution by department or function were as follows: nursing, 42 percent; pharmacy, 38 percent; laboratory, 15 percent; unit clerk, 3 percent; and radiology, 2 percent. Order management and protocol were the most common correct order sources that were incorrectly attributed. Order source misattribution can negatively affect

  1. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  2. Court orders on procreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Naira R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically evaluate judgments entered from 1913 to 2013 in the matters of compulsory sterilization. Holdings and dispositions at the U.S. Appellate and Supreme courts are randomly located in LexisNexis using Shepard's symbols. Continuous variables are processed with the Mantel-Haenszel method. Court orders are used as units of analysis. The majority of cases (56.4 %) concern minors at a mean age of 11.7 years. Forty-four (80 %) petitions are filed by the parents or guardians; 11 (20 %) are parens patriae. Petitions for female sterilization are denied in 56.4 % cases under the Federal Laws (2 U.S.C. 431; 28 U.S.C; 29 U.S.C; 42 U.S.C; 424 U.S.), Procedural due process clause of the 14th Amendment, statutes, and common law precedents. Petitions for female sterilization are granted in 36.4 % cases under the statutory penal codes, the Law of the land, precedents, and the dicta. No significant associations are found between the parity and degree of mental impairment (r = 0.342). Substantial correlations are met between the gender, degree of impairment (r (2) = 0.724), and dispositions (r (2) = 802). The mean age of women is 20.78 years; the mean age of men is 30.25 years. Correlations fail to establish reasoning between the age of the subjects and the entered judgments (r (2) = 0. 356). (1) The female/male ratio (8:1) and age gap of the respondents indicate on a disproportionate impact of the statutes. (2) The procedure of sterilization in itself is incommensurate with equality, as the volume of surgery is uneven in males and females. (3) The case law is instructive with respect to which arguments have not been advanced. (4) Lastly, due to the etiological intricacy of mental impairment, with genetic transmission strikingly different in men and women, expert-witnesses ought to act in a medical vacuum because there is no mathematical certainty as to the transmission mode of the traits in question (exon and intron mutations, triplet repeat

  3. Aggressive Orders and the Resiliency of a Limit Order Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; de Jong, F.C.J.M.; van Ravenswaaij, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the resiliency of a pure limit order market for large and small capitalization stocks as well as stocks with different tick sizes.We explore the issue of resiliency by investigating the order flow around aggressive orders that move prices.The impact of aggressive orders is gauged in three

  4. Streamflow ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous direct determination of a continuous time series of streamflow is not economically feasible at present (2014). As such, surrogates are used to derive a continuous time series of streamflow. The derivation process entails developing a streamflow rating, which can range from a simple, single-valued relation between stage and streamflow to a fully dynamic one-dimensional model based on hydraulics of the flow.

  5. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  6. CH3CO + O2 + M (M = He, N2) Reaction Rate Coefficient Measurements and Implications for the OH Radical Product Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Karafas, Emmanuel S; Gierczak, Tomasz; Burkholder, James B

    2015-07-16

    The gas-phase CH3CO + O2 reaction is known to proceed via a chemical activation mechanism leading to the formation of OH and CH3C(O)OO radicals via bimolecular and termolecular reactive channels, respectively. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the CH3CO + O2 reaction were measured over a range of temperature (241-373 K) and pressure (0.009-600 Torr) with He and N2 as the bath gas and used to characterize the bi- and ter-molecular reaction channels. Three independent experimental methods (pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF), pulsed laser photolysis-cavity ring-down spectroscopy (PLP-CRDS), and a very low-pressure reactor (VLPR)) were used to characterize k(T,M). PLP-LIF was the primary method used to measure k(T,M) in the high-pressure regime under pseudo-first-order conditions. CH3CO was produced by PLP, and LIF was used to monitor the OH radical bimolecular channel reaction product. CRDS, a complementary high-pressure method, measured k(295 K,M) over the pressure range 25-600 Torr (He) by monitoring the temporal CH3CO radical absorption following its production via PLP in the presence of excess O2. The VLPR technique was used in a relative rate mode to measure k(296 K,M) in the low-pressure regime (9-32 mTorr) with CH3CO + Cl2 used as the reference reaction. A kinetic mechanism analysis of the combined kinetic data set yielded a zero pressure limit rate coefficient, kint(T), of (6.4 ± 4) × 10(-14) exp((820 ± 150)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (with kint(296 K) measured to be (9.94 ± 1.3) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)), k0(T) = (7.39 ± 0.3) × 10(-30) (T/300)(-2.2±0.3) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1), and k∞(T) = (4.88 ± 0.05) × 10(-12) (T/300)(-0.85±0.07) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with Fc = 0.8 and M = N2. A He/N2 collision efficiency ratio of 0.60 ± 0.05 was determined. The phenomenological kinetic results were used to define the pressure and temperature dependence of the OH radical yield in the CH3CO + O2 reaction. The

  7. A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and Monod biotransformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K S , this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. The authors present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K S and in the zero-order approximation the error is K S /S. They then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K S , it may be better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of K S for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, the authors apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set

  8. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  9. Order Quantity Distributions in Make-to-Order Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    and control with a special emphasis on the make-to-order environment is presented. A methodological framework for analyzing the behavior of orders and investigate the validity of the assumptions is given. Furthermore, an analytical approach to identify the horizon needed for aggregating orders to achieve...

  10. Mechanical properties of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1977-06-01

    A survey is given of the metallophysical fundamentals of the mechanical properties of ordered two-phase alloys. Alloys of this type have a superlattice structure in a substitution mixed crystal. Ordering is achieved by slow cooling or by annealing below the critical temperature, during which ordering domains (antiphase domains) are formed. At a high degree of ordering, the dislocations are concentrated to form pairs, so-called super-dislocations. The mechanical properties may be selectively changed by varying different parameters (size of the ordering domains, degree of ordering, energy of the antiphase boundaries) by a special composition and heat treatment.(GSC) [de

  11. XY model with higher-order exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, Milan; Kalagov, Georgii

    2017-08-01

    An XY model, generalized by inclusion of up to an infinite number of higher-order pairwise interactions with an exponentially decreasing strength, is studied by spin-wave theory and Monte Carlo simulations. At low temperatures the model displays a quasi-long-range-order phase characterized by an algebraically decaying correlation function with the exponent η=T/[2πJ(p,α)], nonlinearly dependent on the parameters p and α that control the number of the higher-order terms and the decay rate of their intensity, respectively. At higher temperatures the system shows a crossover from the continuous Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless to the first-order transition for the parameter values corresponding to a highly nonlinear shape of the potential well. The role of topological excitations (vortices) in changing the nature of the transition is discussed.

  12. Rate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, S.; Skorek, R.; Maugis, P.; Dumont, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the basic principles of cluster dynamics as a particular case of mesoscopic rate theory models developed to investigate fuel behaviour under irradiation such as in UO 2 . It is shown that as this method simulates the evolution of the concentration of every type of point or aggregated defect in a grain of material. It produces rich information that sheds light on the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and gas behaviour that are not accessible through conventional models but yet can provide for improvements in those models. Cluster dynamics parameters are mainly the energetic values governing the basic evolution mechanisms of the material (diffusion, trapping and thermal resolution). In this sense, the model has a general applicability to very different operational situations (irradiation, ion-beam implantation, annealing) provided that they rely on the same basic mechanisms, without requiring additional data fitting, as is required for more empirical conventional models. This technique, when applied to krypton implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps assess migration mechanisms and the krypton diffusion coefficient, for which data is very difficult to obtain due to the low solubility of the gas. (authors)

  13. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  14. Olson Order of Quantum Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2016-11-01

    M.P. Olson, Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 28, 537-544 (1971) showed that the system of effect operators of the Hilbert space can be ordered by the so-called spectral order such that the system of effect operators is a complete lattice. Using his ideas, we introduce a partial order, called the Olson order, on the set of bounded observables of a complete lattice effect algebra. We show that the set of bounded observables is a Dedekind complete lattice.

  15. Order Theory in Environmental Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Brüggemann, R.; Lerche, D. B.

    This is the proceeding from the fifth workshop in Order Theory in Environ-mental Science. In this workshop series the concept of Partial Order Theory is development in relation to application and the use is tested based on specific problems. The Partial Order Theory will have a potential use...

  16. Archimedeanization of ordered vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Emelyanov, Eduard Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In the case of an ordered vector space with an order unit, the Archimedeanization method has been developed recently by V.I Paulsen and M. Tomforde. We present a general version of the Archimedeanization which covers arbitrary ordered vector spaces.

  17. Base stock policies with degraded service to larger orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    We study an inventory system controlled by a base stock policy assuming a compound renewal demand process. We extend the base stock policy by incorporating rules for degrading the service of larger orders. Two specific rules are considered, denoted Postpone(q,t) and Split(q), respectively. The aim...... of using these rules is to achieve a given order fill rate of the regular orders (those of size less than or equal to the parameter q) having less inventory. We develop mathematical expressions for the performance measures order fill rate (of the regular orders) and average on-hand inventory level. Based...

  18. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  19. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  20. Study on autoradiolysis of 5-hydroxymethyl[hydroxy-methyl-3H]uracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittag, E.; Noll, S.; Grosse, B.

    1990-01-01

    The autoradiolysis of 5-hydroxymethyl-[hydroxymethyl 3 H]uracil with a specific radioactivity of about 2200 GBq per mmol has been studied. The investigations were carried out in aqueous solutions with radiochemical concentrations between 70 and 1200 MBq/ml using UV-spectroscopy. Tritiated 5-hydroxymethyl-5,6-dihydrouracil in a first order respectively pseudo-first order reaction, was obtained. The determined rate constants were correlated with the radiochemical concentration. (author)

  1. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  2. Competition for order flow and smart order routing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Foucault, Thierry; Menkveld, Albert

    2006-01-01

    We study changes in liquidity following the introduction of a new electronic limit order market when, prior to its introduction, trading is centralized in a single limit order market. We also study how automation of routing decisions and trading fees affect the relative liquidity of rival markets. The theoretical analysis yields three main predictions: (i) consolidated depth is larger in the multiple limit order markets environment, (ii) consolidated bid-ask spread is smaller in the multiple ...

  3. The Impact of Order Source Misattribution on Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, George A.; Catzoela, Linda; Patel, Lajja; Bruner, Kylynn; Friedman, Felix; Ramirez, Ricardo; Saucedo, Lilliana; Webster, S. Luke; Gillean, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Background One strategy to foster adoption of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) by physicians is the monthly distribution of a list identifying the number and use rate percentage of orders entered electronically versus on paper by each physician in the facility. Physicians care about CPOE use rate reports because they support the patient safety and quality improvement objectives of CPOE implementation. Certain physician groups are also motivated because they participate in contracted financial and performance arrangements that include incentive payments or financial penalties for meeting (or failing to meet) a specified CPOE use rate target. Misattribution of order sources can hinder accurate measurement of individual physician CPOE use and can thereby undermine providers’ confidence in their reported performance, as well as their motivation to utilize CPOE. Misattribution of order sources also has significant patient safety, quality, and medicolegal implications. Objective This analysis sought to evaluate the magnitude and sources of misattribution among hospitalists with high CPOE use and, if misattribution was found, to formulate strategies to prevent and reduce its recurrence, thereby ensuring the integrity and credibility of individual and facility CPOE use rate reporting. Methods A detailed manual order source review and validation of all orders issued by one hospitalist group at a midsize community hospital was conducted for a one-month study period. Results We found that a small but not dismissible percentage of orders issued by hospitalists—up to 4.18 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 3.84–4.56 percent) per month—were attributed inaccurately. Sources of misattribution by department or function were as follows: nursing, 42 percent; pharmacy, 38 percent; laboratory, 15 percent; unit clerk, 3 percent; and radiology, 2 percent. Order management and protocol were the most common correct order sources that were incorrectly attributed

  4. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  5. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  6. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  7. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  8. Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings.

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R; Taubman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Birth-order effects are posited by many to affect earnings and schooling. The authors show how such effects can be interpreted to shift either the earnings possibility frontier for siblings or parental preferences. The authors find empirical evidence for birth- order effects on (age-adjusted) schooling and on earnings for young U.S. adults, though the latter is not robust for all specifications. The examination of intrahousehold allocations suggests that these birth-order differences occur, d...

  9. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  10. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  11. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  12. Ordering variable for parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  13. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  14. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  15. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  16. Quadratic gravity in first order formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Anero, Jesus; Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio, E-mail: enrique.alvarez@uam.es, E-mail: jesusanero@gmail.com, E-mail: sergio.gonzalez.martin@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT-UAM/CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-10-01

    We consider the most general action for gravity which is quadratic in curvature. In this case first order and second order formalisms are not equivalent. This framework is a good candidate for a unitary and renormalizable theory of the gravitational field; in particular, there are no propagators falling down faster than 1/ p {sup 2}. The drawback is of course that the parameter space of the theory is too big, so that in many cases will be far away from a theory of gravity alone. In order to analyze this issue, the interaction between external sources was examined in some detail. We find that this interaction is conveyed mainly by propagation of the three-index connection field. At any rate the theory as it stands is in the conformal invariant phase; only when Weyl invariance is broken through the coupling to matter can an Einstein-Hilbert term (and its corresponding Planck mass scale) be generated by quantum corrections.

  17. Warehouse order-picking process. Order-picker routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Korobkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article continues “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle and describes order-picker routing sub-problem of a warehouse order-picking process. It draws analogies between the orderpickers’ routing problem and traveling salesman’s problem, shows differences between the standard problem statement of a traveling salesman and routing problem of warehouse orderpickers, and gives the particular Steiner’s problem statement of a traveling salesman.Warehouse layout with a typical order is represented by a graph, with some its vertices corresponding to mandatory order-picker’s visits and some other ones being noncompulsory. The paper describes an optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal algorithm to solve order-picker’s routing problem for the single-block warehouses, i.e. warehouses with only two crossing aisles, defines seven equivalent classes of partial routing sub-graphs and five transitions used to have an optimal routing sub-graph of a order-picker. An extension of optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal order-picker routing algorithm for multi-block warehouses is presented and also reasons for using the routing heuristics instead of exact optimal algorithms are given. The paper offers algorithmic description of the following seven routing heuristics: S-shaped, return, midpoint, largest gap, aisle-by-aisle, composite, and combined as well as modification of combined heuristics. The comparison of orderpicker routing heuristics for one- and two-block warehouses is to be described in the next article of the “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle.

  18. Generation of high order modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gassian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order TEMp0 Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...

  19. Order and disorder in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Careri, Giorgio

    1984-01-01

    Order and Disorder in Matter offers a comprehensive and up-to-date view of structures and processes in matter, in terms of the evolving concepts of order and disorder. Particular emphasis is given to the recent evolution of these concepts and their relationship to the more complex systems in nature.

  20. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  1. Operon Gene Order Is Optimized for Ordered Protein Complex Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan N.; Bergendahl, L. Therese; Marsh, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The assembly of heteromeric protein complexes is an inherently stochastic process in which multiple genes are expressed separately into proteins, which must then somehow find each other within the cell. Here, we considered one of the ways by which prokaryotic organisms have attempted to maximize the efficiency of protein complex assembly: the organization of subunit-encoding genes into operons. Using structure-based assembly predictions, we show that operon gene order has been optimized to match the order in which protein subunits assemble. Exceptions to this are almost entirely highly expressed proteins for which assembly is less stochastic and for which precisely ordered translation offers less benefit. Overall, these results show that ordered protein complex assembly pathways are of significant biological importance and represent a major evolutionary constraint on operon gene organization. PMID:26804901

  2. Waltzing between Order and Ordering - a Social Practice Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Organisations are often depicted as strategic intention seeking entities creating strategic objects that form pockets of order in uncertain environments. This design-based view of strategic development is challenged in this paper. The paper illustrates that organisations in building dynamic capab...... change. We find that potentially stabilising objects are underutilised as part of the ongoing ordering process, because they are generally treated as fixed objects rather than as common ground for negotiation and thus dynamic capabilities. ...

  3. Counterbalancing for serial order carryover effects in experimental condition orders

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Joseph L

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed for generating counterbalanced sequences for repeated-measures designs including those with multiple observations of each condition on one participant...

  4. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  5. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  6. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat; Patole, Shashikant P.; Farhat, Mohamed; Elwakil, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  7. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with th...... to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees....

  8. High order depletion sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations

  9. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  10. THE EMERGING INTERNATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    CFI) affirmed ... primarily include the value system of the international legal order, meaning norms of ... the existence of such a traditional constitutional demos. Europe's ..... between the African Development Bank (BAD) and one of its employees,.

  11. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  12. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  13. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  14. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  15. Topological orders in rigid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation

  16. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.

  17. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  18. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-01-01

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 (micro)m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation

  19. 77 FR 34868 - Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to the Order To Raise the Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... entities Funds collected under the programs are used for promotion, information, research, and advertising... total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $37.16 to $39.34 in additional lamb sales per dollar spent on advertising and promotion. Copies of this study can be obtained from the...

  20. 78 FR 28121 - Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to the Order To Raise the Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $37.16 to $39.34 in additional lamb sales per dollar spent on advertising and promotion. Copies of this study can... advertising, retail promotions, public relations campaigns and media outreach, foodservice programs, consumer...

  1. Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, L.; Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W.; Willert, J.A.; Womeldorff, G.

    2017-01-01

    We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.

  2. Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacón, L., E-mail: chacon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Willert, J.A. [Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Womeldorff, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.

  3. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefmann, K.

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of 109 Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 μT. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs

  4. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefmann, K

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of {sup 109}Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 {mu}T. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of microwave treated TiO2 pillared montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shenmei; Jiang Yinshan; Yu Lixin; Li Fangfei; Yang Zhengwen; Hou Tianyi; Hu Daqiang; Xia Maosheng

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 pillared montmorillonite synthesized by microwave irradiation, exhibited good photocatalytic degradation performance of methyl orange, whose pseudo first order reaction rate constant was nearly four times than that of conventional method, because of its enhanced crystalline, preferred anatase phase and improved porosity performance, which were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), far Fourier transform infrared ray spectroscopy (FTIR) and nitrogen adsorption isotherms

  6. Ordered particles versus ordered pointers in the hybrid ordered plasma simulation (HOPS) code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.V.; Shumaker, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    From a computational standpoint, particle simulation calculations for plasmas have not adapted well to the transitions from scalar to vector processing nor from serial to parallel environments. They have suffered from inordinate and excessive accessing of computer memory and have been hobbled by relatively inefficient gather-scatter constructs resulting from the use of indirect indexing. Lastly, the many-to-one mapping characteristic of the deposition phase has made it difficult to perform this in parallel. The authors' code sorts and reorders the particles in a spatial order. This allows them to greatly reduce the memory references, to run in directly indexed vector mode, and to employ domain decomposition to achieve parallelization. The field model solves pre-maxwell equations by interatively implicit methods. The OSOP (Ordered Storage Ordered Processing) version of HOPS keeps the particle tables ordered by rebuilding them after each particle pushing phase. Alternatively, the RSOP (Random Storage Ordered Processing) version keeps a table of pointers ordered by rebuilding them. Although OSOP is somewhat faster than RSOP in tests on vector-parallel machines, it is not clear this advantage will carry over to massively parallel computers

  7. Teat order affects postweaning behaviour in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate if piglets that suck anterior teats differ from the others in the litter in birth weight, if they have higher growth rate during lactation, and if this affects behaviour and post-weaning weight gain, when piglets change to a solid diet. For this, the teat order of 24 litters was determined during suckling. Piglets were weaned on the 28thday of age, and 24 groups were formed, composed of one piglet that sucked on the first two pairs of teats (AT and three piglets that sucked on the other teats (OT. Even though weight at birth did not vary according to teat order, weight gain at weaning differed between the groups (AT: 6.64, S.E. 0.20kg, OT: 5.73, S.E. 0.13kg; P

  8. Ordering alternatives in MCDM problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baets, B.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to the study of a set of alternatives in a multi-criteria decision making problem is presented. Alternatives are described by means of fuzzy sets in the set of criteria, expressing the degrees to which they fulfill the different criteria. The concept of a fuzzy inclusion is introduced and is discussed from an axiomatic point of view. To each implication operator corresponds a fuzzy inclusion. The fuzzy inclusion corresponding to the Goedel operator is used to measure the degree to which the scores of one alternative are contained in the scores of another one. Repeating this for all couples of alternatives yields a fuzzy quasi-order relation in a set of alternatives. The cuts of this fuzzy relation are then classical quasi-order relations: they express orderings of the alternatives, allowing alternatives to be indifferent or incomparable, corresponding to different degrees of confidence

  9. An Ordering Linear Unification Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运发

    1989-01-01

    In this paper,we present an ordering linear unification algorithm(OLU).A new idea on substituteion of the binding terms is introduced to the algorithm,which is able to overcome some drawbacks of other algorithms,e.g.,MM algorithm[1],RG1 and RG2 algorithms[2],Particularly,if we use the directed eyclie graphs,the algoritm needs not check the binding order,then the OLU algorithm can also be aplied to the infinite tree data struceture,and a higher efficiency can be expected.The paper focuses upon the discussion of OLU algorithm and a partial order structure with respect to the unification algorithm.This algorithm has been implemented in the GKD-PROLOG/VAX 780 interpreting system.Experimental results have shown that the algorithm is very simple and efficient.

  10. Irrational Charge from Topological Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-10-01

    Topological or deconfined phases of matter exhibit emergent gauge fields and quasiparticles that carry a corresponding gauge charge. In systems with an intrinsic conserved U(1) charge, such as all electronic systems where the Coulombic charge plays this role, these quasiparticles are also characterized by their intrinsic charge. We show that one can take advantage of the topological order fairly generally to produce periodic Hamiltonians which endow the quasiparticles with continuously variable, generically irrational, intrinsic charges. Examples include various topologically ordered lattice models, the three-dimensional resonating valence bond liquid on bipartite lattices as well as water and spin ice. By contrast, the gauge charges of the quasiparticles retain their quantized values.

  11. Towards Good Order at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Vreÿ, Francois

    . The problems originating from the resultant “bad order at sea” can be directly felt on land, when smuggling, terrorism and related criminal activities operate more or less unhindered. The book provides an important mapping of the challenges preventing good order at sea off the African coast and East Africa...... in particular. The chapters offer suggestions for increased maritime security in the future and go some way to assist the African Union to implement its maritime strategy and raise the maritime security awareness of its member states....

  12. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  14. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  15. A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...

  16. Birth Order, Club Membership and Mass Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeh, Aida K.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationship between birth order, club membership and mass media exposure for women college students in Lebanon. Findings show the total membership rate and mass media consumption are higher among last born girls than first born. Birth order differences are explained in terms of the differential socialization of children. (Author)

  17. 7 CFR 1000.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal milk order each handler shall pay to the market administrator its pro rata share of the expense of administration of the order at a rate specified by the market administrator that is no more than 5 cents per... disposition in the marketing area from a partially regulated distributing plant that exceeds the skim milk and...

  18. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  19. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  20. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove

  1. The meaning of ordered SOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Phillips, I.C.C.; Reniers, M.A.; Ulidowski, I.; Arun-Kumar, S.; Garg, N.

    2006-01-01

    Structured Operational Semantics (SOS) is a popular method for defining semantics by means of deduction rules. An important feature of deduction rules, or simply SOS rules, are negative premises, which are crucial in the definitions of such phenomena as priority mechanisms and time-outs. Orderings

  2. Formalisation of the ordering process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Gera A.; Vries, Jan de

    2002-01-01

    In this article a conceptual framework of the ordering process, especially the formalisation of this process, is presented. The fundaments of the framework are grounded on the observation that due to information technology and the necessity of reducing control complexity, companies often try to

  3. Ordering in the skyrmions quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananias Neto, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Using collective coordinates for quantization, we show that exits a ordering problem in the definition of momentum operator. We suggest that a new definition for this operator can solve the infrared problem which rises when an attempt to minimize all the quantum Hamiltonian is made

  4. Towards Successful Cloud Ordering Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Kwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rise of cloud services has led to a drastic growth of e-commerce and a greater investment in development of new cloud services systems by related industries. For SaaS developers, it is important to understand customer needs and make use of available resources at as early as the system design and development stage. Objectives: This study integrates E-commerce Systems (ECS Success model and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA into empirical research of the critical factors for cloud ordering system success. Methods/Approach: A survey research is conducted to collect data on customer perceptions of the importance and performance of each attribute of the particular cloud ordering service. The sample is further divided according to the degree of use of online shopping into high-usage users and low-usage users in order to explore their views regarding the system and generate adequate coping strategies. Results: Developers of online ordering systems can refer to the important factors obtained in this study when planning strategies of product/service improvement. Conclusions: The approach proposed in this study can also be applied to evaluation of other kinds of cloud services systems.

  5. Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.

    1972-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.

  6. Birth Order and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert M.; Lynch, Janet

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between vocational preferences of adolescents and their birth order was examined. Firstborns were found to be overrepresented in the conventional and enterprising areas; later borns were found to be overrepresented in the social and investigative areas. (Author/GK)

  7. Order, disorder and generalized statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.C.; Swieca, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    We generalize the prescription of Kadanoff and Ceva for the computation of disorder variables correlation functions in the Ising model for continuous field theories with U(1) symmetry. By considering the product of order and disorder variables, we obtain a path integral representation for fields with generalized statistics. We discuss in detail the cases of massless Thirring and Schwinger models. (Author) [pt

  8. Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…

  9. Order, disorder and generalized statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.C.; Swieca, J.A.; Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro

    1980-01-01

    We generalize the prescription of Kadanoff and Ceva for the computation of disorder variable correlation functions in the Ising model for continuous field theories with U(1) symmetry. By considering the product of order and disorder variables, we obtain a path integral representation for fields with generalized statistics. We discuss in detail the cases of massless Thirring and Schwinger models. (orig.)

  10. Correlation order, merging and diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaene, J.; Denuit, M.; Vanduffel, S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the dependence between random losses on the shortfall and on the diversification benefit that arises from merging these losses. We prove that increasing the dependence between losses, expressed in terms of correlation order, has an increasing effect on the shortfall,

  11. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  12. The characterization of the adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution using natural fibers treated with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediske, Nicole M.

    The objective of this research was to characterize natural carbon fibers from coconut husks, both bare and impregnated with metallic nanoparticles, in removing cadmium from aqueous media. The adsorbent load, kinetics, isotherm parameters, removal efficiencies, desorption capacity and possible contaminant removal mechanisms were evaluated. It was found that the fibers treated with metallic nanoparticles performed better than the bare fibers in removing cadmium from water. The ideal conditions were found to be neutral pH with low initial cadmium concentrations. Through the kinetic analyses, the adsorption process was first thought to be pseudo first order with two separate adsorption mechanisms apparent. Upon further analysis, it was seen that the first mechanism does not follow the pseudo first order kinetics model. An increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations was observed as the cadmium concentrations decreases. This increase corresponds with first mechanism. This suggests the cadmium removal in the first mechanism is due to ion exchange. The second mechanism's rate constant was consistently lower than the first mechanisms rate constant by an order of magnitude. This led to the hypothesis that the second mechanism is controlled by van de Waals forces, specifically ion-induced dipole interactions, and physical adsorption. It was also found that the cadmium does not effectively desorb from the wasted fibers in DI water. Keywords: Adsorption; kinetics; pseudo first order; cadmium; metallic nanoparticles; natural fibers; removal efficiencies; ion exchange.

  13. Stability analysis of fractional-order generalized chaotic susceptible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    susceptible–infected–recovered epidemic model and its ... engineering and biology have already been studied by a number of ... In contrast to integer-order ... sures the inhibitory effect, β is the transmission or contact rate, γ is the rate of ...

  14. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts within...

  15. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  16. Material control and accountability orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Orders were revised during this past year. The primary focus of the revision process was to eliminate any policy gaps that existed between current orders and the standards and criteria and to examine current policy where questions of completeness or effectiveness may be of concern. The MC and A Subtask Group identified the following three major areas for change: (1) the need to expand the graded safeguards concept; (2) the need to provide for defense in depth; and (3) the need to include system performance requirements. Operational and cost impacts were of primary consideration in these changes. The subtask group accomplished its goal as directed and within the required time frames. The revision process benefitted tremendously from the earlier works of the numerous standards and criteria committees and the Operation Cerberus Committees

  17. Emotions and the moral order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we follow Averill, who tells us that emotions reflect “the thought of an epoch, the secret of a civilization”. In this light, to understand the meaning of an emotion is to understand the relevant aspects of the sociocultural systems of which the emotion is a part. We argue...... that a number of the most central emotions in human lives are identified with reference to the moral order of the sociocultural system rather than with reference to physiological conditions or body states. We present a normative theory of emotions and refer to research on “emotionologies” of different cultures...... to demonstrate that specific moral orders are associated with specific forms of emotionality. If properly cultivated, moral emotions become “orientation guides” that enable persons to respond adequately to what happens in their local, moral worlds, and, as researchers, we can only grasp what such emotions...

  18. Higher-Order Program Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    for OCaml, a dialect of ML, that provides run-time code generation for OCaml programs. We apply these byte-code combinators in semantics-directed compilation for an imperative language and in run-time specialization using type-directed partial evaluation. Finally, we present an approach to compiling goal......This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generation....... It is our thesis that they synergize well in the development of customizable software. Recent research on domain-specific languages propose to embed them into existing general-purpose languages. Typed higher-order languages have proven especially useful as meta languages because they provide a rich...

  19. Order against chaos in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    Order and chaos and order-to-chaos transition are treated in terms of nuclear wave functions. A quasiparticle-phonon interaction is responsible for the fragmentation of one- and many-quasiparticle and phonon states and for the mixing of closely spaced states. Complete damping of one-quasiparticle states cannot be considered as a transition to chaos due to large many-quasiparticle or quasiparticle-phonon terms in their wave functions. An experimental investigation of the strength distribution of many-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon states should uncover a new region of a regularity in nuclei at intermediate excitation energy. A chaotic behaviour of nuclear states can be shifted to higher excitation energies. ((orig.))

  20. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. Their attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at elevated temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past ten years, considerable effort has been devoted to the research and development of ordered intermetallic alloys, and good progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel efforts on alloy design have led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni(3)Al, NiAl, Fe(3)Al, FeAl, Ti(3)Al and TiAl systems for structural applications. (orig.)

  1. Large-order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.

    1982-01-01

    The original motivation for studying the asymptotic behavior of the coefficients of perturbation series came from quantum field theory. An overview is given of some of the attempts to understand quantum field theory beyond finite-order perturbation series. At least is the case of the Thirring model and probably in general, the full content of a relativistic quantum field theory cannot be recovered from its perturbation series. This difficulty, however, does not occur in quantum mechanics, and the anharmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the methods used in large-order perturbation theory. Two completely different methods are discussed, the first one using the WKB approximation, and a second one involving the statistical analysis of Feynman diagrams. The first one is well developed and gives detailed information about the desired asymptotic behavior, while the second one is still in its infancy and gives instead information about the distribution of vertices of the Feynman diagrams

  2. Second-Order Footsteps Illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Kitaoka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the “footsteps illusion”, light and dark squares travel at constant speed across black and white stripes. The squares appear to move faster and slower as their contrast against the stripes varies. We now demonstrate some second-order footsteps illusions, in which all edges are defined by colors or textures—even though luminance-based neural motion detectors are blind to such edges.

  3. Destabilizing the American Racial Order

    OpenAIRE

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla; Burch, Traci

    2011-01-01

    Are racial disparities in the United States just as deep-rooted as they were before the 2008 presidential election, largely eliminated, or persistent but on the decline? One can easily find all of these pronouncements; rather than trying to adjudicate among them, this essay seeks to identify what is changing in the American racial order, what persists or is becoming even more entrenched, and what is likely to affect the balance between change and continuity. The authors focus on young America...

  4. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done. PMID:6707558

  5. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  6. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  7. The microstructures of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, G.M.K.; Ranganathan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of ordering in substitutional alloys confers special properties on them by introducing various types of structures and structural defects. Some of the important structural defects (translational and rotational antiphase boundaries, dissociated antiphase boundaries and superdislocations) and their observation by various microscopical methods, with particular emphasis on the applications of the electron microscope are described with illustrations drawn from the studies on nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten alloys. (M.G.B.)

  8. Understanding the Current International Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    a basic conflict between the idea of freedom under a government of laws, and the idea of slavery under the grim oligarchy of the Kremlin . . . . We...such as the India-Brazil-South Africa group of nations) that provide opportunities for more-private dialogues. Region- ally, dozens of forums, such...the beginning—especially during the Cold War, and even afterward. But the order also was based from the start on a vision of the future of world

  9. On Uselessness of Limit Orders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 24 (2007), s. 45-57 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/03/H057; GA ČR GA402/07/1113; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : market microstructure * limit order market * portfolio selection Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  10. Advanced online food ordering application

    OpenAIRE

    VOLER, STAŠ

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to produce a web application for ordering food (pizzas) online. The thesis mainly focuses on providing the most effective sales possible. For that reason we built a special mechanism for automatic categorisation of pizzas in different categories, which combined with data on a user's past purchases provided a selection of the most appropriate pizzas for that specific user. The first part of the thesis describes the technologies and tools used. In developing t...

  11. Perturbation theory in large order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    For many quantum mechanical models, the behavior of perturbation theory in large order is strikingly simple. For example, in the quantum anharmonic oscillator, which is defined by -y'' + (x 2 /4 + ex 4 /4 - E) y = 0, y ( +- infinity) = 0, the perturbation coefficients, A/sub n/, in the expansion for the ground-state energy, E(ground state) approx. EPSILON/sub n = 0//sup infinity/ A/sub n/epsilon/sup n/, simplify dramatically as n → infinity: A/sub n/ approx. (6/π 3 )/sup 1/2/(-3)/sup n/GAMMA(n + 1/2). Methods of applied mathematics are used to investigate the nature of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics and show that its large-order behavior is determined by the semiclassical content of the theory. In quantum field theory the perturbation coefficients are computed by summing Feynman graphs. A statistical procedure in a simple lambda phi 4 model for summing the set of all graphs as the number of vertices → infinity is presented. Finally, the connection between the large-order behavior of perturbation theory in quantum electrodynamics and the value of α, the charge on the electron, is discussed. 7 figures

  12. VAP rates unchanged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In a research letter to JAMA Metersky and colleagues (1 report that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP rates have remained near 10% since 2005. The authors reviewed Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS data on a representative sample of more than 86,000 critically ill patients treated at 1330 US hospitals between 2005 and 2013. To meet a diagnosis of VAP patients were required to have at least 2 days' ventilation in intensive care units; a chest radiograph with a new finding suggesting pneumonia; a physician diagnosis of pneumonia; and an order for antibiotics. VAP incidence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.4% - 14.4% during 2005 to 2006 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval, 5.1% - 14.9% during 2012 to 2013. In contrast, data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN have shown declines in VAP rates of 71% and 62% in medical and surgical intensive care units, respectively, between 2006 and 2012 …

  13. Multi-Criteria Model for Determining Order Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jakowska-Suwalska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-criteria model for determining the order size for materials used in production has been presented. It was assumed that the consumption rate of each material is a random variable with a known probability distribution. Using such a model, in which the purchase cost of materials ordered is limited, three criteria were considered: order size, probability of a lack of materials in the production process, and deviations in the order size from the consumption rate in past periods. Based on an example, it has been shown how to use the model to determine the order sizes for polyurethane adhesive and wood in a hard-coal mine. (original abstract

  14. Second order pedagogy as an example of second order cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B. Reinertsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about seeing/creating/trying out an idea of pedagogy and pedagogical/ educational research in/as/with self-reflexive, circular and diffractive perspectives and about using second order cybernetics as thinking tool. It is a move away from traditional hypothesis driven activities and a move towards data driven pedagogies and research: Teachers, teacher researchers and researchers simultaneously producing and theorizing our practices and ourselves. Deleuzian becomings- eventually becomings with data - theory - theodata is pivotal. It is a move towards a Derridean bricolage. A different science of pedagogy operating as a circular science of self-reflexivity and diffraction in search of quality again and again and again: Theopractical becomings and inspiractionresearch.

  15. Order statistics & inference estimation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N

    1991-01-01

    The literature on order statistics and inferenc eis quite extensive and covers a large number of fields ,but most of it is dispersed throughout numerous publications. This volume is the consolidtion of the most important results and places an emphasis on estimation. Both theoretical and computational procedures are presented to meet the needs of researchers, professionals, and students. The methods of estimation discussed are well-illustrated with numerous practical examples from both the physical and life sciences, including sociology,psychology,a nd electrical and chemical engineering. A co

  16. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  17. China And The International Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    existing order, it stated that China will “take an active part in reforming and developing 13 Feng Zhang, “Chinese Thinking on the South China Sea and the...interests and those that do not align as closely with U.S. interests. China might be challenging 19 Zhang’s “Chinese Thinking on the South China...China Bets on Sensitive U.S. Start-Ups, Worrying the Pentagon,” New York Times, March 22, 2017a; Paul Mozur and Jane Perlez, “China Tech Investment

  18. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired...... by the Higher-Order Π-calculus. The key to our calculus is that sequents are asymmetric: one side types sessions as in CP and the other types process variables, which can be instantiated with process values. The controlled interaction between the two sides ensures that process variables can be used at will......, but always respecting the linear usage of sessions expected by the environment....

  19. Working for the New Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    Damned if you do - damned if you don't. During the Second World War, the collaboration dilemma regarding Europe's business life came to the forefront as business leaders were faced with the necessity of cooperating with the German enemy in order to maintain production and essing a wide range......, Europe's business life contributed substantially to the Nazi German war effort. It was working for the oachim Lund is an historian, Ph.D. and Associate Professor at the Centre for European Cultural Studies, Copenhagen Business School. He is the author of a number of books and articles on Denmark...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an order..., research, and information regarding agricultural commodities authorized under the Act. ...

  1. AKTIS Nr. 12: To better understand radioactive aerosol deposit in order to better measure it; Radio-induced lesions: a new step towards healing; Modelling the collapse of an immersed grain column; To better model soot deposit; Towards the prediction of the leakage rate of containment enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, Marc; Perales, Frederic; Monerie, Yann; Maro, Denis; Boyer, Patrick; Lemaitre, Pascal; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Depuydt, Guillaume; Masson, Olivier; Gensdarmes, Francois

    2013-04-01

    This publication presents the main results of researches undertaken by the IRSN in the field of radiation protection, nuclear safety and security. The topics herein addressed are: radio-induced lesions as a new step towards healing (case of injection mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of induced severe colorectal lesions), the modelling of the collapse of an immersed grain column (to study the nuclear fuel behaviour in an accidental situation through a modelling of fluid-grain interactions), a better understanding of radioactive aerosol deposit (to study particle or aerosol deposits after radioactive releases in the atmosphere in case of accident), a better modelling of soot deposits (in case of fire), the prediction of leakage rates of containment enclosures (ageing phenomena of installations, systems and equipment, with the case of cracks due to material ageing and resulting in confinement losses which could thus be quantified)

  2. Higher-order Nielsen numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveliev Peter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose , are manifolds, are maps. The well-known coincidence problem studies the coincidence set . The number is called the codimension of the problem. More general is the preimage problem. For a map and a submanifold of , it studies the preimage set , and the codimension is . In case of codimension , the classical Nielsen number is a lower estimate of the number of points in changing under homotopies of , and for an arbitrary codimension, of the number of components of . We extend this theory to take into account other topological characteristics of . The goal is to find a "lower estimate" of the bordism group of . The answer is the Nielsen group defined as follows. In the classical definition, the Nielsen equivalence of points of based on paths is replaced with an equivalence of singular submanifolds of based on bordisms. We let , then the Nielsen group of order is the part of preserved under homotopies of . The Nielsen number of order is the rank of this group (then . These numbers are new obstructions to removability of coincidences and preimages. Some examples and computations are provided.

  3. Competing p-wave orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P; Pantelidou, Christiana

    2014-01-01

    We construct electrically charged, asymptotically AdS 5 black hole solutions that are dual to d = 4 CFTs in a superfluid phase with either p-wave or (p + ip)-wave order. The two types of black holes have non-vanishing charged two-form in the bulk and appear at the same critical temperature in the unbroken phase. Both the p-wave and the (p + ip)-wave phase can be thermodynamically preferred, depending on the mass and charge of the two-form, and there can also be first order transitions between them. The p-wave black holes have a helical structure and some of them exhibit the phenomenon of pitch inversion as the temperature is decreased. Both the p-wave and the (p + ip)-wave black holes have zero entropy density ground states at zero temperature and we identify some new ground states which exhibit scaling symmetry, including a novel scenario for the emergence of conformal symmetry in the IR. (paper)

  4. Ordered random variables theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaz, Muhammad Qaiser; Hanif Shahbaz, Saman; Al-Zahrani, Bander M

    2016-01-01

    Ordered Random Variables have attracted several authors. The basic building block of Ordered Random Variables is Order Statistics which has several applications in extreme value theory and ordered estimation. The general model for ordered random variables, known as Generalized Order Statistics has been introduced relatively recently by Kamps (1995).

  5. National supply-chain survey of drug manufacturer back orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, G S

    2001-07-01

    The impact of manufacturer back orders on the supply chain for pharmaceuticals in the institutional setting was studied. A questionnaire was distributed during May and June 2000 to 600 institutional pharmacies affiliated with a major national drug and supply group purchasing organization. The instrument included questions on basic institutional demographics, perceptions about the frequency of manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals, the quality of communication with manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders, the two most significant back orders that had occurred in the 12 months preceding the survey, and the reasons for and impact of back orders. A total of 170 usable surveys were returned (net response rate, 28.3%). Reported manufacturer back orders included an array of drug classes, including blood products, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepine antagonists, thrombolytics, corticosteroids, and antihypertensives. Respondents perceived significant back orders as increasing in frequency. Communication by manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders was reported to be relatively poor. A raw-material shortage was the most common reason given by manufacturers for back orders (36.5%), followed by a regulatory issue (23.2%). In most cases (92%), medical staff members had to be contacted, indicating an interruption in the normal drug distribution process. In over a third of instances, respondents stated that the back order resulted in less optimal therapy. A survey found that manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals were increasing in frequency and that information flow within the supply chain was insufficient to meet the needs of end users.

  6. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  7. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  8. Narrating Global Order and Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Levinger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This thematic issue addresses how strategic narratives affect international order. Strategic narratives are conceived of as stories with a political purpose or narratives used by political actors to affect the behavior of others. The articles in this issue address two significant areas important to the study of international relations: how strategic narratives support or undermine alliances, and how they affect norm formation and contestation. Within a post-Cold War world and in the midst of a changing media environment, strategic narratives affect how the world and its complex issues are understood. This special issue speaks to the difficulties associated with creating creative and committed international cooperation by noting how strategic narratives are working to shape the Post-Cold War international context.

  9. Dependency Ordering of Atomic Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cīrulis, Jānis

    2015-12-01

    The notion of atomic observable was introduced by S.Gudder for effect test spaces in 1997. In this paper an observable is a σ-homomorphism from the Borel algebra on a line to some logic. Roughly, an observable on a logic is atomic, if it is completely determined by its restriction to one-element subsets of its point spectrum. In particular, every discrete observable is atomic. We study some elementary properties of such observables, and discuss a possible notion of functional dependency between them. Algebraically, a dependency is a certain preorder relation on the set of all atomic observables, which induces an order relation on the set of all maximal orthogonal subsets of the logic. Several properties, as well as characteristics in terms of the underlying logic, of these relations are stated.

  10. ETPM starts up again with new orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    According to the expectations, ETPM's turnover has significantly decreased from 1994 to 1995 (from 2572 to 1372 MF (millions of French Francs)) because of a reduction of petroleum investments in North Sea. However, the rate of profitability could be maintained with a 51 MF profit and the company has gained new confidence in the year 1996 according to the new orders recorded and which totalize 3.2 GF (billions of French Francs). Thus a 1580 MF of turnover is expected for 1996, which should increase to 1800 MF in 1997. This short paper summarizes the main significant realizations of the company in 1995, mainly in Africa (Congo, Angola, Nigeria), for its first year of association with McDermott, and the new 1996 contracts of McDermott-ETPM International in Myanmar, Indonesia, North Sea and Nigeria. (J.S.)

  11. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  12. Higher-order Nielsen numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Saveliev

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppose X, Y are manifolds, f,g:X→Y are maps. The well-known coincidence problem studies the coincidence set C={x:f(x=g(x}. The number m=dim X−dim Y is called the codimension of the problem. More general is the preimage problem. For a map f:X→Z and a submanifold Y of Z, it studies the preimage set C={x:f(x∈Y}, and the codimension is m=dim X+dim Y−dim Z. In case of codimension 0, the classical Nielsen number N(f,Y is a lower estimate of the number of points in C changing under homotopies of f, and for an arbitrary codimension, of the number of components of C. We extend this theory to take into account other topological characteristics of C. The goal is to find a “lower estimate” of the bordism group Ωp(C of C. The answer is the Nielsen group Sp(f,Y defined as follows. In the classical definition, the Nielsen equivalence of points of C based on paths is replaced with an equivalence of singular submanifolds of C based on bordisms. We let Sp'(f,Y=Ωp(C/∼N, then the Nielsen group of order p is the part of Sp'(f,Y preserved under homotopies of f. The Nielsen number Np(F,Y of order p is the rank of this group (then N(f,Y=N0(f,Y. These numbers are new obstructions to removability of coincidences and preimages. Some examples and computations are provided.

  13. Synchronization from Second Order Network Connectivity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqiong; Beverlin, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden; Nykamp, Duane Q.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how network structure can influence the tendency for a neuronal network to synchronize, or its synchronizability, independent of the dynamical model for each neuron. The synchrony analysis takes advantage of the framework of second order networks, which defines four second order connectivity statistics based on the relative frequency of two-connection network motifs. The analysis identifies two of these statistics, convergent connections, and chain connections, as highly influencing the synchrony. Simulations verify that synchrony decreases with the frequency of convergent connections and increases with the frequency of chain connections. These trends persist with simulations of multiple models for the neuron dynamics and for different types of networks. Surprisingly, divergent connections, which determine the fraction of shared inputs, do not strongly influence the synchrony. The critical role of chains, rather than divergent connections, in influencing synchrony can be explained by their increasing the effective coupling strength. The decrease of synchrony with convergent connections is primarily due to the resulting heterogeneity in firing rates. PMID:21779239

  14. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  15. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  16. Ordering Strategy for Fresh Agricultural Products in External Financing Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi; DU

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the two stage supply chain consisting of single agricultural product producer and fund restraint retailer.Then,it analyzed the influence of bank interest rate on order quantity,wholesale price and expected profit of retailer and producer on the condition of retailer taking external loan strategy.Studies have shown that when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.9),the order quantity of agricultural products is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),wholesale price of agricultural products decreases with increase in the bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.6),the expected profit of retailer is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),the expected profit of producer decreases with increase in the bank interest rate.Finally,through simulation calculation examples,it verified suitability of the conclusion,in the hope of providing reference and application value for management of supply chain.

  17. Ordering in classical Coulombic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the properties of classical Coulombic matter at low temperatures. It has been well known for some time [1,2] that infinite Coulombic matter will crystallize in body-centered cubic form when the quantity Λ (the dimensionless ratio of the average two-particle Coulomb energy to the kinetic energy per particle) is larger than approximately175. But the systems of such particles that have been produced in the laboratory in ion traps, or ion beams, are finite with surfaces defined by the boundary conditions that have to be satisfied. This results in ion clouds with sharply defined curved surfaces, and interior structures that show up as a set of concentric layers that are parallel to the outer surface. The ordering does not appear to be cubic, but the charges on each shell exhibit a ''hexatic'' pattern of equilateral triangles that is the characteristic of liquid crystals. The curvature of the surfaces prevents the structures on successive shells from interlocking in any simple fashion. This class of structures was first found in simulations [3] and later in experiments [4

  18. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  19. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  20. Finite difference order doubling in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingbeck, John P; Jolicard, Georges

    2008-01-01

    An order doubling process previously used to obtain eighth-order eigenvalues from the fourth-order Numerov method is applied to the perturbed oscillator in two dimensions. A simple method of obtaining high order finite difference operators is reported and an odd parity boundary condition is found to be effective in facilitating the smooth operation of the order doubling process

  1. Order Entry Protocols Are an Amenable Target for Workflow Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, James; Klochko, Chad; Patel, Milind; Siegal, Daniel

    2018-04-21

    Order entry protocol selection of advanced imaging studies is labor-intensive, can disrupt workflow, and may displace staff from more valuable tasks. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the behaviors of radiologic technologists and radiologists when determining protocol to identify opportunities for workflow automation. A data set of over 273,000 cross-sectional examination orders from four hospitals within our health system was created. From this data set, we isolated the 12 most frequently requested examinations, which represent almost 50% of the entirety of advanced imaging volume. Intergroup comparisons were made between behavior of radiologic technologists and radiologists or residents when determining protocol. Frequencies of changes were calculated. Common parameters of changed examinations were identified. The overall change rate for both radiologists and residents (4%) is very low and comparable to the overall change rate of radiologic technologists (1%). The change rates for the 12 most ordered examinations were calculated and compared individually. Most examinations that underwent change involved a patient with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate, a patient with a contrast allergy, or a provider ordering a general examination but in fact wanting an organ-specific protocol or an angiographic study. Order entry protocol selection of the most frequently ordered advanced imaging examinations was rarely a value-added activity because these examinations are rarely changed. Changes follow predictable patterns that make order entry protocol selection of most radiology orders for advanced imaging amenable to workflow automation. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Valery E.; Cherenkov, Artem V.; Shitikov, Artem E.; Bilenko, Igor A.; Gorodetsky, Michael L.

    2017-07-01

    Dynamics of platicons caused by the third-order dispersion is studied. It is shown that under the influence of the third-order dispersion platicons obtain angular velocity depending both on dispersion and on detuning value. A method of tuning of platicon associated optical frequency comb repetition rate is proposed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  3. Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Junyi, Cao; Binggang, Cao

    2011-01-01

    A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo ...

  4. Order-constrained linear optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Higher order field equations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolhoek, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper wave propagation was studied according to a sixth-order partial differential equation involving a complex mass M. The corresponding Yang-Feldman integral equations (indicated as SM-YF-equations), were formulated using modified Green's functions Gsub(R)sup(M)(x) and Gsub(A)sup(M)(x), which then incorporate the partial differential equation together with certain boundary conditions. In this paper certain limit properties of these modified Green's functions are derived: (a) It is shown that for mod(M)→infinity the Green's functions Gsub(R)sup(M)(x) and Gsub(A)sup(M)(x) approach the Green's functions Δsub(R)(x) and Δsub(A)(x) of the corresponding KG-equation (Klein-Gordon equation). (b) It is further shown that the asymptotic behaviour of Gsub(R)sup(M)(x) and Gsub(A)sup(M)(x) is the same as of Δsub(R)(x) and Δsub(A)(x)-and also the same as for Dsub(R)(x) and Dsub(A)(x) for t→+-infinity;, where Dsub(R) and Dsub(A) are the Green's functions for the KG-equation with mass zero. It is essential to take limits in the sense of distribution theory in both cases (a) and (b). The property (b) indicates that the wave propagation properties of the SM-YF-equations, the KG-equation with finite mass and the KG-equation with mass zero are closely related in an asymptotic sense. (Auth.)

  6. Army Industrial Fund Rate Stabilization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    orders. Most cost reimbursable orders fall outside of the four exclusions authorized by the revised DA policy on fixed rate orders. Of the cost reimbur ... reimbursable programs. , . 20 DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRArT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION M UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED 0 SAME AS RPT - DTIC USERS...customers who reimburse the fund. Industrial funds are intended to be self-sustaining. Department of Defense (DOD) policy as enumerated in DOD

  7. Laboratory Study of the OH + Permethylsiloxane (L2, L3, D3, and D4) Reaction Rate Coefficients Between 240 and 370 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Bernard, F.; Papadimitriou, V. C.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of organosiloxanes has recently been implicated in the formation of new particles as well as regional and indoor air quality. Methylsiloxanes with Sitextiles, health care and household products and in industrial applications as solvents and lubricants. They are released into the atmosphere during manufacturing, use, and disposal and have been observed in the atmosphere in ppb levels in certain locations. However, the fundamental chemical properties of this class of compounds, particularly their reactivity with the OH radical, are presently not fully characterized. In this work, the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients for the OH radical reaction with the simplest linear (L2 and L3) and cyclic (D3 and D4) siloxanes were measured: OH + (CH3)3SiOSi(CH3)3 = Products L2OH + [(CH3)3SiO]2Si(CH3)2 = Products L3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]3 = Products D3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]4 = Products D4OH rate coefficients were measured under pseudo-first conditions in OH over the temperature range 240-370 K using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique and at 296 K using a relative rate method. The present results are compared with available literature data where possible and discrepancies are discussed. The results from this work will be discussed in terms of the atmospheric lifetimes of these methylsiloxanes and the reactivity trends for this class of compound.

  8. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  9. Evaporation rate of nucleating clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapadinsky, Evgeni

    2011-11-21

    The Becker-Döring kinetic scheme is the most frequently used approach to vapor liquid nucleation. In the present study it has been extended so that master equations for all cluster configurations are included into consideration. In the Becker-Döring kinetic scheme the nucleation rate is calculated through comparison of the balanced steady state and unbalanced steady state solutions of the set of kinetic equations. It is usually assumed that the balanced steady state produces equilibrium cluster distribution, and the evaporation rates are identical in the balanced and unbalanced steady state cases. In the present study we have shown that the evaporation rates are not identical in the equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. The evaporation rate depends on the number of clusters at the limit of the cluster definition. We have shown that the ratio of the number of n-clusters at the limit of the cluster definition to the total number of n-clusters is different in equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. This causes difference in evaporation rates for these cases and results in a correction factor to the nucleation rate. According to rough estimation it is 10(-1) by the order of magnitude and can be lower if carrier gas effectively equilibrates the clusters. The developed approach allows one to refine the correction factor with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamic simulations.

  10. Nucleation of relativistic first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    The authors apply the general formalism of Langer to compute the nucleation rate for systems of relativistic particles with zero or small baryon number density and which undergo first-order phase transitions. In particular, the pre-exponential factor is computed and it is proportional to the viscosity. The initial growth rate of a critical size bubble or droplet is limited by the ability of dissipative processes to transport latent heat away from the surface. 30 refs., 4 figs

  11. US gas pipelines respond to FERC Order 636

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. pipelines are continuing to examine the react to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636. Among the latest responses: Bill Vititoe, president and chief executive officer of ANR Pipeline Co., a subsidiary of Coastal Corp., Houston, the his company's recently proposed comprehensive service restructuring and rate settlement basically is consistent with Order 636. Paul M. Anderson, executive vice-president of Panhandle Eastern Corp., Houston, the Order 63 likely will increase reliance on long term gas sales contracts and shrink or eliminate spot market sales

  12. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  13. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  14. Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2+ has a higher sedimentation rate of 5.10x10-2 s-1 while Ni2+ has the lowest sedimentation rates of 1.10 x10-3. The rate of sedimentation of the metal carbonates decreased in the order: Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Co2+ > Ni2+. The order ...

  15. Measuring heart rate with optical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barachi, M. (Mitra)

    2014-01-01

    The problem addressed in this report is to verify the possibility of using an optical sensor in the SaxShirt in order to extract the heart rate. There are specifically three questions that we try to address. 1) How is it possible to extract heart rate (BPM) from the optical sensor? 2) Is it

  16. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. PI2010-3; Order No. 456] Postal Rate Case Management AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is seeking comments relevant to management of an anticipated exigent postal rate case. It has scheduled a technical conference...

  17. [Resonance hypothesis of heart rate variability origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheĭkh-Zade, Iu R; Mukhambetaliev, G Kh; Cherednik, I L

    2009-09-01

    A hypothesis is advanced of the heart rate variability being subjected to beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac cycle duration in order to ensure the resonance interaction between respiratory and own fluctuation of the arterial system volume for minimization of power expenses of cardiorespiratory system. Myogenic, parasympathetic and sympathetic machanisms of heart rate variability are described.

  18. Evaluation of the kinetic oxidation of aqueous volatile organic compounds by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Hartog, Niels

    2014-07-01

    The use of permanganate solutions for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a well-established groundwater remediation technology, particularly for targeting chlorinated ethenes. The kinetics of oxidation reactions is an important ISCO remediation design aspect that affects the efficiency and oxidant persistence. The overall rate of the ISCO reaction between oxidant and contaminant is typically described using a second-order kinetic model while the second-order rate constant is determined experimentally by means of a pseudo first order approach. However, earlier studies of chlorinated hydrocarbons have yielded a wide range of values for the second-order rate constants. Also, there is limited insight in the kinetics of permanganate reactions with fuel-derived groundwater contaminants such as toluene and ethanol. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the oxidation kinetics of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene in an aqueous potassium permanganate solution. The overall second-order rate constants were determined directly by fitting a second-order model to the data, instead of typically using the pseudo-first-order approach. The second-order reaction rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) for TCE, toluene, and ethanol were 8.0×10(-1), 2.5×10(-4), and 6.5×10(-4), respectively. Results showed that the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach in several previous studies produced biased estimates of the second-order rate constants. In our study, this error was expressed as a function of the extent (P/N) in which the reactant concentrations deviated from the stoichiometric ratio of each oxidation reaction. The error associated with the inappropriate use of the pseudo-first-order approach is negatively correlated with the P/N ratio and reached up to 25% of the estimated second-order rate constant in some previous studies of TCE oxidation. Based on our results, a similar relation is valid for the other volatile

  19. Airline Quality Rating 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1996-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1996, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  20. Reaction rate of propene pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Su, Kehe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2011-10-01

    The reaction rate of propene pyrolysis was investigated based on the elementary reactions proposed in Qu et al., J Comput Chem 2009, 31, 1421. The overall reaction rate was developed with the steady-state approximation and the rate constants of the elementary reactions were determined with the variational transition state theory. For the elementary reaction having transition state, the vibrational frequencies of the selected points along the minimum energy path were calculated with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level and the energies were improved with the accurate model chemistry method G3(MP2). For the elementary reaction without transition state, the frequencies were calculated with CASSCF/6-311G(d,p) and the energies were refined with the multireference configuration interaction method MRCISD/6-311G(d,p). The rate constants were evaluated within 200-2000 K and the fitted three-parameter expressions were obtained. The results are consistent with those in the literatures in most cases. For the overall rate, it was found that the logarithm of the rate and the reciprocal temperature have excellent linear relationship above 400 K, predicting that the rate follows a typical first-order law at high temperatures of 800-2000 K, which is also consistent with the experiments. The apparent activation energy in 800-2000 K is 317.3 kJ/mol from the potential energy surface of zero Kelvin. This value is comparable with the energy barriers, 365.4 and 403.7 kJ/mol, of the rate control steps. However, the apparent activation energy, 215.7 kJ/mol, developed with the Gibbs free energy surface at 1200 K is consistent with the most recent experimental result 201.9 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effectiveness of a real-time clinical decision support system for computerized physician order entry of plasma orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Triulzi, Darrell J; Reddy, Vivek; Waters, Jonathan H

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of implementing adaptive plasma ordering criteria in the computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system, with alerts that were automatically generated if the recipient's antecedent international normalized ratio (INR) did not meet the institutional criteria. In a regional health care system consisting of 11 hospitals using a common CPOE, data on the number of plasma orders and alerts that were generated were collected over a 4-month period before prescribers were required to select an indication for plasma. When adaptive ordering was implemented prescribers had to choose from prepopulated indications for plasma: INR of 1.6 or greater with bleeding, INR of 1.6 or greater before an invasive procedure, therapeutic exchange, massive transfusion, and other. Regardless of the antecedent INR the alert did not trigger if massive transfusion or plasmapheresis was selected. Information on prescribers and recipients was collected during this 5-month period. In the 4-month period before the adaptive alerts were implemented, 42.9% of the plasma orders generated an alert; in the 5-month period thereafter the alert rate was significantly lower at 27.9% (p plasma orders were for periprocedure or bleeding patients whose antecedent INR was less than 1.6. There were significant differences in prescriber specialties among those who ordered plasma using the other indication compared to all plasma orders. Electronic interventions improve compliance with plasma guidelines but as implemented are not sufficient to completely curtail non-evidence-based ordering. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. High-order finite volume advection

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, James

    2018-01-01

    The cubicFit advection scheme is limited to second-order convergence because it uses a polynomial reconstruction fitted to point values at cell centres. The highOrderFit advection scheme achieves higher than second order by calculating high-order moments over the mesh geometry.

  3. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to...

  4. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California... marketing year. The proposed assessment rate would continue in effect indefinitely unless modified..., August 16, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 50703

  5. 75 FR 55255 - Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...-0116] Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Marketing Service (AMS) will use in conducting a referendum to determine whether egg producers favor increasing the assessment they pay to the American Egg Board (AEB) from a rate of 10 cents per 30- dozen case...

  6. 7 CFR 1030.85 - Assessment for order administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handler shall pay to the market administrator its pro rata share of the expense of administration of the order at a rate specified by the market administrator that is no more than 8 cents per hundredweight... distributing plant that exceeds the skim milk and butterfat subtracted pursuant to § 1000.76(a)(1)(i) and (ii...

  7. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Les

    1992-01-01

    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  8. 5 CFR 302.304 - Order of consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... her right of appeal to the Merit Systems Protection Board. (b) Consideration of other candidates... eligible ratings for professional and scientific positions at the GS-9 level and above, or equivalent, in... of the following orders: (i) By preference status. Under this method, preference eligibles having a...

  9. A REVIEW OF ORDER PICKING IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial and one of the most important parts of warehousing, order picking often raises discussion between warehousing professionals, resulting in various studies aiming to analyze how order picking activity can be improved from various perspective. This paper reviews various past researches on order picking improvement, and the various methods those studies analyzed or developed. This literature review is based on twenty research articles on order picking improvement viewed from four different perspectives: Automation (specifically, stock-to-picker system, storage assignment policy, order batching, and order picking sequencing. By reviewing these studies, we try to identify the most prevalent order picking improvement approach to order picking improvement. Keywords: warehousing; stock-to-picker; storage assignment; order batching; order picking sequencing; improvement

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of fractional order Duffing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zengshan; Chen, Diyi; Zhu, Jianwei; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear dynamics of fractional order Duffing system. First, we present the fractional order Duffing system and the numerical algorithm. Second, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of Duffing system with a fixed fractional order is studied by using bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits, Poincare maps and time domain waveforms. The fractional order Duffing system shows some interesting dynamical behaviors. Third, a series of Duffing systems with different fractional orders are analyzed by using bifurcation diagrams. The impacts of fractional orders on the tendency of dynamical motion, the periodic windows in chaos, the bifurcation points and the distance between the first and the last bifurcation points are respectively studied, in which some basic laws are discovered and summarized. This paper reflects that the integer order system and the fractional order one have close relationship and an integer order system is a special case of fractional order ones.

  11. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  12. Crystal Thermoelasticity at Extreme Loading Rates and Pressures: Analysis of Higher-Order Energy Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    defined as [6,7] E = 1 2 (F ETF E − 1), EIJ = 1 2 (F EkIF E kJ − δIJ). (3) Also considered here are theories incorporating the elastic Eulerian material...lnU E = 1 2 ln(F ETF E) = 1 2 ln CE, eIJ = 1 2 ln(F ETF E)IJ . (5) Complete presentations of thermodynamic theories can be found in [12–16] and are

  13. Order quantities for perishable inventory control with non-stationary demand and a fill rate constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauls-Worm, K.G.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Alcoba, A.G.; Haijema, R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the practical decision problem of fresh food production with a long production lead time to decide every period (e.g. week) how many items to produce. When a batch is ready for use, its items have a fixed shelf life, after which the items become waste in the sense that they cannot be sold

  14. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region..., Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ... Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ 85005-6457, (602...

  15. 76 FR 55139 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... U.S.C. 77f(b). \\2\\ 15 U.S.C. 78m(e). \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 78n(g). The Investor and Capital Markets Fee... model [Delta] t = [alpha] + [beta]e t-1 + e t , where e t denotes the forecast error for month t. The... [Delta] t . The forecast error is expressed as e t = [Delta] t - [alpha] - [beta]e t-1 . The model can be...

  16. 77 FR 55240 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... U.S.C. 77f(b). \\2\\ 15 U.S.C. 78m(e). \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 78n(g). The Investor and Capital Markets Fee... model [Delta] t = [alpha] + [beta]e t - 1 + e t , where e t denotes the forecast error for month t. The... [Delta] t . The forecast error is expressed as e t = [Delta] t - [alpha] - [beta]e t - 1 . The model can...

  17. 78 FR 35022 - Parker-Davis Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...), a power marketing administration within the Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to extend the... transmission service, firm transmission service of Salt Lake City Area/Integrated Projects power, and non-firm...

  18. 78 FR 25515 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... collected under Section 31(d) of the Exchange Act for all of fiscal year 2013 \\8\\ from an amount equal to... Act of 1934 (``Exchange Act'') requires each national securities exchange and national securities association to pay transaction fees to the Commission.\\1\\ Specifically, Section 31(b) requires each national...

  19. 75 FR 73137 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemption for Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...) (i.e., disclosed the type of conflict of interest in Exhibit 6 to Form NRSRO in accordance with... specifically prohibits seven types of conflicts of interest. Consequently, an NRSRO is prohibited from issuing...). II. Background Rule 17g-5 identifies, in paragraphs (b) and (c) of the rule, a series of conflicts of...

  20. Next-to-next-leading order correction to 3-jet rate and event-shape ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    portunity to test QCD by measuring the energy dependence of different ... event shape data was not satisfactory largely due to the scale uncertainty of the pertur- .... )3 d ¯C dy. + O. ( α4 s. ) . (5). Here the event-shape distribution is normalized to the ..... [1] A Gehrmann-De Ridder, T Gehrmann, E W N Glover and G Heinrich, J.

  1. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.; Wing, A.D.; Alidina, M.; Drewes, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory

  2. Charting an Alternate Pathway to Reaction Orders and Rate Laws in Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Criswell, Brett A.; McAllister, Nicole D.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Moore, Lamesha A.; Pierre, Michelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction kinetics is an axiomatic topic in chemistry that is often addressed as early as the high school course and serves as the foundation for more sophisticated conversations in college-level organic, physical, and biological chemistry courses. Despite the fundamental nature of reaction kinetics, students can struggle with transforming their…

  3. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... per capita consumption would equate to a level of 50 ounces per person by 2015. \\4\\ Kaiser, Henry M... of supply is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the quantity...

  4. 75 FR 6380 - Provo River Project Rate Order No. WAPA-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... kilowatts. The PRP power is marketed according to a marketing plan that was approved and published in the Federal Register on November 21, 1994. This marketing plan allows Western to market the output of the PRP to customers of Utah Municipal Power Agency, Utah Associated Municipal Power Systems, and Heber Light...

  5. 77 FR 13663 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Mid-Year Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... on transactions in the six months before the effective date of the mid-year adjustment. The... series {[Delta] 1 , [Delta] 2 , * * *, [Delta] 120 {time} . These are given by [mu] = 0.007 and [sigma...] + [sigma]\\2\\/2), or on average ADS t = 1.015 x ADS t-1 . 6. For February 2012, this gives a forecast ADS of...

  6. 75 FR 5315 - Boulder Canyon Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ..., and uprating program payments. The total costs are offset by the projected revenue from water sales, visitor center, water pump energy sales, facilities use charges, regulation, reactive supply and voltage...

  7. 77 FR 3818 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... the business day following the date of the appropriation is equal to or subsequent to the date the... association to pay transaction fees to the Commission.\\1\\ Specifically, Section 31(b) requires each national securities exchange to pay to the Commission fees based on the aggregate dollar amount of sales of certain...

  8. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Commission and the Food and Drug Administration requirements for the advertising of food. The USHBC uses its... effectiveness of the USHBC's promotion program. The studies were conducted by Dr. Harry M. Kaiser at Cornell... domestic promotion activities on blueberry disappearance (a measure of demand), an econometric demand model...

  9. Rate Adaptive OFDMA Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the varying nature of the wireless channels, adapting the transmission parameters, such as code rate, modulation order and power, in response to the channel variations provides a significant improvement in the system performance. In the OFDM systems, Per-Frame adaptation (PFA) can be employed where the transmission variables are fixed over a given frame and may change from one frame to the other. Subband (tile) loading offers more degrees of adaptation such that each group of carriers (subband) uses the same transmission parameters and different subbands may use different parameters. Changing the code rate for each tile in the same frame, results in transmitting multiple codewords (MCWs) for a single frame. In this thesis a scheme is proposed for adaptively changing the code rate of coded OFDMA systems via changing the puncturing rate within a single codeword (SCW). In the proposed structure, the data is encoded with the lowest available code rate then it is divided among the different tiles where it is punctured adaptively based on some measure of the channel quality for each tile. The proposed scheme is compared against using multiple codewords (MCWs) where the different code rates for the tiles are obtained using separate encoding processes. For bit interleaved coded modulation architecture two novel interleaving methods are proposed, namely the puncturing dependant interleaver (PDI) and interleaved puncturing (IntP), which provide larger interleaving depth. In the PDI method the coded bits with the same rate over different tiles are grouped for interleaving. In IntP structure the interleaving is performed prior to puncturing. The performance of the adaptive puncturing technique is investigated under constant bit rate constraint and variable bit rate. Two different adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) selection methods are examined for variable bit rate adaptive system. The first is a recursive scheme that operates directly on the SNR whereas the second

  10. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  11. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  12. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...

  13. Interest Rate Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Pepic

    2014-01-01

    Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are many modific...

  14. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  15. Airline Quality Rating 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month qualit...

  16. Airline Quality Rating 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  17. Effectiveness of the Community Treatment Order in streamlining psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Mahmoud A; Jaffar, Khalid; Roberts, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    The implementation of the Community Treatment Order (CTO) has created controversy surrounding its beneficence. The study aims at examining the effectiveness of the CTO in reducing the rate and duration of revolving door admissions for patients who were made subject to this Order. All patients who were made subject to CTO between November 2008 and August 2009 in South Essex were involved in the study where patients acted as their own control through comparing their pre-CTO, during CTO and post-CTO's admission rate and duration. There was a significant reduction in the rate and duration of admissions in the period during and post-CTO state. The CTO proved to be effective in reducing revolving door admissions and it has a beneficial carryover effect in the post-CTO state.

  18. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  19. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  20. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxia; Ma Shanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  1. Patterns of order processing : a study of the formalization of the ordering process in order-driven manufacturing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Geertruida Annigje

    2004-01-01

    It is essential for many order-driven manufacturing companies to be able to respond quickly to changing customer demand. In this respect, the ordering process plays a central role, as coordination between demand and production takes places within this process. The ordering process must contribute to

  2. Credit Rating and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Camanho; Pragyan Deb; Zijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    In principle, credit rating agencies are supposed to be impartial observers that bridge the gap between private information of issuers and the information available to the wider pool of investors. However, since the 1970s, rating agencies have relied on an issuer-pay model, creating a conflict of interest the largest source of income for the rating agencies are the fees paid by the issuers the rating agencies are supposed to impartially rate. In this paper, we explore the trade-off between re...

  3. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    In mesh-free particle methods a high order solution to the unbounded Poisson equation is usually achieved by constructing regularised integration kernels for the Biot-Savart law. Here the singular, point particles are regularised using smoothed particles to obtain an accurate solution with an order...... of convergence consistent with the moments conserved by the applied smoothing function. In the hybrid particle-mesh method of Hockney and Eastwood (HE) the particles are interpolated onto a regular mesh where the unbounded Poisson equation is solved by a discrete non-cyclic convolution of the mesh values...... and the integration kernel. In this work we show an implementation of high order regularised integration kernels in the HE algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve an arbitrary high order convergence. We further present a quantitative study of the convergence rate to give further insight...

  4. Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Junyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo system is established. The fractional-order controller for pneumatic position servo and its implementation in industrial computer is designed. The experiments with fractional-order controller are carried out under various conditions, which include sine position signal with different frequency and amplitude, step position signal, and variety inertial load. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and verify their fine control performance for pneumatic position servo system.

  5. One- and two-dimensional chemical exchange nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the creatine kinase catalyzed reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gober, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium chemical exchange dynamics of the creatine kinase enzyme system were studied by one- and two-dimensional 31 P NMR techniques. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants were measured by the saturation transfer method under an array of experimental conditions of pH and temperature. Quantitative one-dimensional spectra were collected under the same conditions in order to calculate the forward and reverse reaction rates, the K eq , the hydrogen ion stoichiometry, and the standard thermodynamic functions. The pure absorption mode in four quadrant two-dimensional chemical exchange experiment was employed so that the complete kinetic matrix showing all of the chemical exchange process could be realized

  6. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  7. Regularities and irregularities in order flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.

  8. MODELLING OF KINETICS OF FLUORINE ADSORPTION ONTO MODIFIED DIATOMITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEACESLAV ZELENTSOV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents kinetics modelling of adsorption of fluorine onto modified diatomite, its fundamental characteristics and mathematical derivations. Three models of defluoridation kinetics were used to fit the experimental results on adsorption fluorine onto diatomite: the pseudo-first order model Lagergren, the pseudo-second order model G. McKay and H.S. Ho and intraparticle diffusion model of W.J. Weber and J.C. Morris. Kinetics studies revealed that the adsorption of fluorine followed second-order rate model, complimented by intraparticle diffusion kinetics. The adsorption mechanism of fluorine involved three stages – external surface adsorption, intraparticle diffusion and the stage of equilibrium.

  9. Examples of Entropy-driven Ordering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven Ordering. Orientational ordering of long objects. Entropy of sliding increases. Freezing in hard-sphere systems. Vibrational entropy increases. Phase separation in hard-sphere binary mixtures with disparate sizes. More room for smaller ...

  10. Algorithm of resonance orders for the objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YongGang; Zhang, JianXue

    2018-03-01

    In mechanical engineering, the object resonance phenomena often occur when the external incident wave frequency is close to object of the natural frequency. Object resonance phenomena get the maximum value when the external incident frequency is equal to object the natural frequency. Experiments found that resonance intension of the object is changed, different objects resonance phenomena present different characteristics of ladders. Based on object orders resonance characteristics, the calculation method of object orders resonance is put forward in the paper, and the application for the light and sound waves on the seven order resonance characteristics by people feel, the result error is less than 1%.Visible in this paper, the method has high accuracy and usability. The calculation method reveals that some object resonance occur present order characteristic only four types, namely the first-orders resonance characteristics, third-orders characteristics, five orders characteristic, and seven orders characteristic.

  11. Alphabetical order effects in school admissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 483-498 ISSN 0267-1522 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : admissions * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2016

  12. China and the New International Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian.......This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian....

  13. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    of their last names, implying that all contributed equally, and by contribution, where authors are listed in decreasing order of their contribution to the paper. We perform a game theoretic analysis of the impact of author ordering schemes, uncovering two considerable advantages of alphabetical ordering......The order in which authors are listed on an academic paper determines the credit that each receives on a co-authored publication, influencing hiring, tenure and promotions. Two of the prevalent author ordering schemes are alphabetical, which involves listing authors in lexicographical order......: it leads to improved research quality, and it is the more fair of the two approaches in the worst case. On the other hand, contribution-based ordering results in a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications than is achieved using alphabetical author ordering. Furthermore, authors can...

  14. Word Order Acquisition in Persian Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Despite the fact that the spoken-Persian language has no strict word order, Persian-speaking children tend to use other logically possible orders of subject (S, verb (V, and object (O lesser than the SOV structure.

  15. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  16. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  17. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  18. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  19. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha

  20. Order units in a C-algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  1. Critical thickness of atomically ordered III-V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, R. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Guthrey, H. L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    The critical thickness model is modified with a general boundary energy that describes the change in bulk energy as a dislocation regularly alters the atomic structure of an ordered material. The model is evaluated for dislocations gliding through CuPt-ordered GaInP and GaInAs, where the boundary energy is negative and the boundary is stable. With ordering present, the critical thickness is significantly lowered and remains finite as the mismatch strain approaches zero. The reduction in critical thickness is most significant when the order parameter is greatest and the amount of misfit energy is low. The modified model is experimentally validated for low-misfit GaInP epilayers with varying order parameters using in situ wafer curvature and ex situ cathodoluminescence. With strong ordering, relaxation begins at a lower thickness and occurs at a greater rate, which is consistent with a lower critical thickness and increased glide force. Thus, atomic ordering is an important consideration for the stability of lattice-mismatched devices.

  2. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  3. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  4. Source of second order chromaticity in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this note we will answer the following questions: (1) what is the source of second order chromaticities in RHIC? (2) what is the dependence of second order chromaticity on the on-momentum β-beat? (3) what is the dependence of second order chromaticity on β* at IP6 and IP8? To answer these questions, we use the perturbation theory to numerically calculate the contributions of each quadrupole and sextupole to the first, second, and third order chromaticities.

  5. Higher Order Expectations in Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe BACCHETTA; Eric VAN WINCOOP

    2004-01-01

    We examine formally Keynes' idea that higher order beliefs can drive a wedge between an asset price and its fundamental value based on expected future payoffs. Higher order expectations add an additional term to a standard asset pricing equation. We call this the higher order wedge, which depends on the difference between higher and first order expectations of future payoffs. We analyze the determinants of this wedge and its impact on the equilibrium price. In the context of a dynamic noisy r...

  6. Tunable fractional-order Fourier transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyutin, A A

    2006-01-01

    A fractional two-dimensional Fourier transformer whose orders are tuned by means of optical quadrupoles is described. It is shown that in the optical scheme considered, the Fourier-transform order a element of [0,1] in one of the mutually orthogonal planes corresponds to the transform order (2-a) in another plane, i.e., to inversion and inverse Fourier transform of the order a. (laser modes and beams)

  7. On Orders of Observables on Effect Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2017-12-01

    On the set of bounded observables on an effect algebra, the Olson order defined by spectral resolutions and the standard order defined by a system of σ-additive states are introduced. We show that sharp bounded observables form a Dedekind σ-complete sublattice of a Dedekind complete lattice under the Olson order. In addition, we compare both orders, and we illustrate them on different effect algebras.

  8. Higher order harmonics of reactor neutron equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fu; Hu Yongming; Luo Zhengpei

    1996-01-01

    The flux mapping method using the higher order harmonics of the neutron equation is proposed. Based on the bi-orthogonality of the higher order harmonics, the process and formulas for higher order harmonics calculation are derived via the source iteration method with source correction. For the first time, not only any order harmonics for up-to-3-dimensional geometry are achieved, but also the preliminary verification to the capability for flux mapping have been carried out

  9. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or restriction...

  10. An Analysis of Second-Order Autoshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Robinson, Jasper

    2004-01-01

    Three mechanisms can explain second-order conditioning: (1) The second-order conditioned stimulus (CS2) could activate a representation of the first-order conditioned stimulus (CS1), thereby provoking the conditioned response (CR); The CS2 could enter into an excitatory association with either (2) the representation governing the CR, or (3) with a…

  11. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default order. 209.24 Section 209.24... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a) Default. Respondent may be found to be in default upon failure to comply with a prehearing or hearing ruling of the...

  12. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to appear...

  13. Higher-order (non-)modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting...... systems modularity of confluence, normalization, and termination can be recovered by imposing suitable linearity constraints....

  14. Overshooting Effects in Nonequilibrium Ordering Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1995-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulation on the simplest possible statistical mechanical model, the two-dimensional, nonconserved kinetic Ising model that undergoes an order-disorder transition, we show that the local order of the ordering domains, subsequent to a temperature quench, transiently overshoots...

  15. Relevant cost information for order acceptance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .

  16. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  17. 6 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective order. 13.24 Section 13.24 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order...

  18. 48 CFR 16.505 - Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... factors in the selection decision. (iii) Orders exceeding $5 million. For task or delivery orders in... procedures in 5.705. (11) When using the Governmentwide commercial purchase card as a method of payment, orders at or below the micro-purchase threshold are exempt from verification in the Central Contractor...

  19. 12 CFR 19.132 - Disciplinary orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURE Disciplinary Proceedings Involving the Federal Securities Laws § 19.132 Disciplinary orders. (a... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disciplinary orders. 19.132 Section 19.132... Comptroller may serve on the bank or persons concerned a disciplinary order, as provided in the Exchange Act...

  20. Electric rate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The share of nuclear power in EDF production implies multiple rate structures. How are these rates determined. What are the new applications of electricity, and in particular those that make use of the especially low summer prices for electricity. These are topics of interest to the man in the street (witness EDF's recent 'red-white-blue' rates). This prompted the 'Nuclear Power in the Financial, Energy and Economic situation' department of France's nuclear power company to organize a conference bringing together an expert on rates - M.P. Bernard, head of the rate fixing service at the EDF's headquarters - and representatives from suppliers of equipment taking advantage of the various EDF rate options

  1. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  2. Understanding Rig Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Osmundsen; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Terje Skjerpen

    2013-01-01

    We examine the largest cost component in offshore development projects, drilling rates, which have been high over the last years. To our knowledge, rig rates have not been analysed empirically before in the economic literature. By econometric analysis we examine the effects on Gulf of Mexico rig rates of gas and oil prices, rig capacity utilization, contract length and lead time, and rig specific characteristics. Having access to a unique data set containing contract information, we are able ...

  3. Airline Quality Rating 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2013, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2012. AQR scores for 2013 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers over the calendar year of 2012. The Airline Quality...

  4. Universal Rate Model Selector: A Method to Quickly Find the Best-Fit Kinetic Rate Model for an Experimental Rate Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    k2 – k1) 3.3 Universal Kinetic Rate Platform Development Kinetic rate models range from pure chemical reactions to mass transfer...14 8. The rate model that best fits the experimental data is a first-order or homogeneous catalytic reaction ...Avrami (7), and intraparticle diffusion (6) rate equations to name a few. A single fitting algorithm (kinetic rate model ) for a reaction does not

  5. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  6. Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pepić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are manymodifications of the standard swap created to better satisfy the different needs of market players.

  7. 75 FR 7985 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ..., advertising, and promotion of highbush blueberries in the marketplace. The Council recommended increasing the...-09-0021; FV-09-704] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Withdrawal of a Proposed... amend the Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) by increasing the assessment rate...

  8. Optimization of an intracavity Q-switched solid-state second order Raman laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiong; Fu, Xihong; Peng, Hangyu; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Li; Ning, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the model of an intracavity Q-switched second order Raman laser is established, the characteristics of the output 2nd Stokes are simulated. The dynamic balance mechanism among intracavity conversion rates of stimulated emission, first order Raman and second order Raman is obtained. Finally, optimization solutions for increasing output 2nd Stokes pulse energy are proposed.

  9. High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...

  10. Manipulation and application of orbital ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhigao; Sun Yuping

    2014-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the orbits of the outmost shell electrons in strong correlated materials can be localized in order, which gives birth to so-called orbital ordering. During the construction or destruction of the orbital ordering, strongly correlated materials show fruitful quantum critical phenomena with great potential for future applications. We first present the mechanism for the construction of orbital ordering. Then, some physical properties associated with orbits are discussed. Finally, we emphasize the key points and progress in the research of orbital ordering controlling. (authors)

  11. On the structure of order domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Olav; Pellikaan, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    The notion of an order domain is generalized. The behaviour of an order domain by taking a subalgebra, the extension of scalars, and the tensor product is studied. The relation of an order domain with valuation theory, Gröbner algebras, and graded structures is given. The theory of Gröbner bases...... for order domains is developed and used to show that the factor ring theorem and its converse, the presentation theorem, hold. The dimension of an order domain is related to the rank of its value semigroup....

  12. Mechanical model for filament buckling and growth by phase ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Alejandro D; Abukhdeir, Nasser M

    2008-02-05

    A mechanical model of open filament shape and growth driven by phase ordering is formulated. For a given phase-ordering driving force, the model output is the filament shape evolution and the filament end-point kinematics. The linearized model for the slope of the filament is the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal decomposition, where the buckling corresponds to concentration fluctuations. Two modes are predicted: (i) sequential growth and buckling and (ii) simultaneous buckling and growth. The relation among the maximum buckling rate, filament tension, and matrix viscosity is given. These results contribute to ongoing work in smectic A filament buckling.

  13. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  15. BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Agarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the medical entrance examination from responded 360 medical students among 494 students admitted during 2005 – 2010. Results: The study revealed insignificant relationship between ages of entrance in medical college in both sexes. of 360 students responded 37% students were of first Birth order. Among those admitted in first attempt, 67% students were of first birth order and proportion of success in first attempt reduced with increasing birth order. Conclusion: Birth Order strongly influences academic achievements.

  16. High-order passive photonic temporal integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Wang, Chao; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2010-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, an ultrafast photonic high-order (second-order) complex-field temporal integrator. The demonstrated device uses a single apodized uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and it is based on a general FBG design approach for implementing optimized arbitrary-order photonic passive temporal integrators. Using this same design approach, we also fabricate and test a first-order passive temporal integrator offering an energetic-efficiency improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude as compared with previously reported passive first-order temporal integrators. Accurate and efficient first- and second-order temporal integrations of ultrafast complex-field optical signals (with temporal features as fast as approximately 2.5ps) are successfully demonstrated using the fabricated FBG devices.

  17. 76 FR 67572 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... section 1839 of the Act, requires that, starting on January 1,2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays... private sector costs of this notice fall below this threshold as well. Executive Order 13132 establishes... B premium rate for 2012 is $99.90, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly actuarial rate for...

  18. 75 FR 68790 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... the Act, requires that, starting on January 1, 2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays each month... private sector costs of this notice fall below this threshold as well. Executive Order 13132 establishes... B premium rate for 2011 is $115.40, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly actuarial rate for...

  19. Analysis and Design of High-Order Parallel Resonant Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarseh, Issa Eid

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis, a special state variable transformation technique has been derived for the analysis of high order dc-to-dc resonant converters. Converters comprised of high order resonant tanks have the advantage of utilizing the parasitic elements by making them part of the resonant tank. A new set of state variables is defined in order to make use of two-dimensional state-plane diagrams in the analysis of high order converters. Such a method has been successfully used for the analysis of the conventional Parallel Resonant Converters (PRC). Consequently, two -dimensional state-plane diagrams are used to analyze the steady state response for third and fourth order PRC's when these converters are operated in the continuous conduction mode. Based on this analysis, a set of control characteristic curves for the LCC-, LLC- and LLCC-type PRC are presented from which various converter design parameters are obtained. Various design curves for component value selections and device ratings are given. This analysis of high order resonant converters shows that the addition of the reactive components to the resonant tank results in converters with better performance characteristics when compared with the conventional second order PRC. Complete design procedure along with design examples for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order converters are presented. Practical power supply units, normally used for computer applications, were built and tested by using the LCC-, LLC- and LLCC-type commutation schemes. In addition, computer simulation results are presented for these converters in order to verify the theoretical results.

  20. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force devel...

  1. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  2. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  3. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  4. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  5. Interest rates mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  6. Global warming and interest rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco C.

    1999-01-01

    The socio-economical growth of our country will yield unavoidably a sustained growth on the energy demand, particularly on the electricity demand. If the expected assumptions are fulfilled, the needed power needed to cover the electrical demand between 1997 and 2020 will almost triple, and the natural gas consumption by the generating facilities and CO 2 emissions in that sector will multiply by five. If the emissions of other sector grow at the same rate as those of the electric sector the level of the emissions in our country will be equivalent to those of the developed countries at present. It is imperative to put limits to the growth of those emissions. In order to avoid that limiting of the emissions to be just a declaration, it is necessary to find and implement mechanisms that will lead to that goal. In the electric sector, and in order to promote the use of energy sources free of those emissions, the possible measures are: Application of an emission tax of U$ 10 (or higher) per ton of CO 2 and use of the resulting funds to cause a decrease in the interest rate applied to electric generation projects which do not emit greenhouse gases. Contributions by the countries responsible for the present level of CO 2 in the atmosphere to lower the incidence of the initial capital costs on the generation costs for the same type of projects (via low rate loans or subsidies). Being active any one of these two mechanisms (or both), will provoke those clean generation sources to compete successfully and will allow them to be a valuable tool to effectively diminish the growth of the emissions of those gases from the electric sector. Besides, a tax of such magnitude would not provoke an important increase on the electric energy prices. If any mechanism is implemented which intends to effectively diminish the CO 2 emissions, the first important project to be completed is the completion of the Atucha II power station. (author)

  7. 75 FR 81817 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Order 13561 of December 22, 2010 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as..., it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Continuing... ``Continuing Appropriations Act''), the rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined...

  8. Reconstructing the temporal ordering of biological samples using microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwene, Paul M; Lizardi, Paul; Kim, Junhyong

    2003-05-01

    Accurate time series for biological processes are difficult to estimate due to problems of synchronization, temporal sampling and rate heterogeneity. Methods are needed that can utilize multi-dimensional data, such as those resulting from DNA microarray experiments, in order to reconstruct time series from unordered or poorly ordered sets of observations. We present a set of algorithms for estimating temporal orderings from unordered sets of sample elements. The techniques we describe are based on modifications of a minimum-spanning tree calculated from a weighted, undirected graph. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by applying these techniques to an artificial data set as well as several gene expression data sets derived from DNA microarray experiments. In addition to estimating orderings, the techniques we describe also provide useful heuristics for assessing relevant properties of sample datasets such as noise and sampling intensity, and we show how a data structure called a PQ-tree can be used to represent uncertainty in a reconstructed ordering. Academic implementations of the ordering algorithms are available as source code (in the programming language Python) on our web site, along with documentation on their use. The artificial 'jelly roll' data set upon which the algorithm was tested is also available from this web site. The publicly available gene expression data may be found at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/cellcycle/ and http://caulobacter.stanford.edu/CellCycle/.

  9. Loading rates in California inferred from aftershocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narteau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the loading rate in southern California and the change in stress induced by a transient slip event across the San Andreas fault (SAF system in central California, using a model of static fatigue. We analyze temporal properties of aftershocks in order to determine the time delay before the onset of the power law aftershock decay rate. In creep-slip and stick-slip zones, we show that the rate of change of this delay is related to seismic and aseismic deformation across the SAF system. Furthermore, we show that this rate of change is proportional to the deficit of slip rate along the SAF. This new relationship between geodetic and seismological data is in good agreement with predictions from a Limited Power Law model in which the evolution of the duration of a linear aftershock decay rate over short time results from variations in the load of the brittle upper crust.

  10. The weak conversion rate in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    The weak conversion rate of strange to down quarks, s + u ↔ u + d, is calculated analytically for degenerate u, d and s quark matter to leading orders in temperature and deviations from chemical equilibrium. The rate is applied to burning of neutron matter into quark matter, to evaporation from quark nuggets in the early universe, for estimating the lifetime of strangelets, and to pulsar glitches

  11. Rate of nova production in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liller, W.; Mayer, B.; PROBLICOM Sky Survey, Los Angeles, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The ongoing PROBLICOM program in the Southern Hemisphere now makes it possible to derive a reliable value for the overall production rate of Galactic novae. The results, 73 + or - 24/y, indicates that the Galaxy outproduces M 31 by a factor of two or three. It is estimated that the rate of supernova ejecta is one and a half orders of magnitude greater than that of novae in the Galaxy. 15 references

  12. A curious example involving ordered compactifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Richmond

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available For a certain product X x Y where X is compact, connected, totally ordered space, we find that the semilattice K0 (X x Y of ordered compactifications of X x Y is isomorphic to a collection of Galois connections and to a collection of functions F which determines a quasi-uniformity on an extended set X U {+∞}, from which the topology and order on X is easily recovered. It is well-known that each ordered compactification of an ordered space X x Y corresponds to a totally bounded quasi-uniformity on X x Y compatible with the topology  and order on X x Y, and thus K0 (X x Y may be viewed as a collection of quasi-uniformities on X x Y. By the results here, these quasi-uniformities on X x Y determine a quasi-uniformity on the related space X U {+∞}.

  13. Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains where...... there are many different scientific knowledges on any complex problem. Method: We synthesize and elaborate a framework for second-order science in interdisciplinary research based on a number of earlier publications, experiences from large interdisciplinary research projects, and a perspectivist theory...... of science. Results: The second-order polyocular framework for interdisciplinary research is characterized by five principles. Second-order science of interdisciplinary research must: 1. draw on the observations of first-order perspectives, 2. address a shared dynamical object, 3. establish a shared problem...

  14. Ordering effects in nonstoichiometric titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Zueva, L.V.; Gusev, A.I.; Kottar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of nonstoichiometry and ordering on crystalline structure and specific electric resistance (ρ) of TiC y (0.52≤y≤0.98) is studied within the temperature range of 300-1100 K. It is shown that the titanium carbide ordering in the areas 0.52≤y≤0.55, 0.56≤y≤0.58 and 0.62≤y≤0.68 leads to formation of the Ti 2 C cubic and trigonal ordered phase and the Ti 3 C 2 rhombic ordered phase correspondingly. Availability of hysteresis on the ρ(T) dependences in the area of the disorder-order reversible equilibrium transition points out to the fact that the TiC y ↔Ti 2 C and TiC y ↔Ti 3 C 2 transformations are the first order phase transitions [ru

  15. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE=TdS−PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called “Legendre transformation” at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  16. River rating complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  17. 17 CFR 201.141 - Orders and decisions: Service of orders instituting proceedings and other orders and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on each person named in the order as a party. The Secretary may direct an interested division to... securities dealer, investment adviser, investment company or transfer agent by sending a copy of the order... in a foreign country. Notice of a proceeding to a person in a foreign country may be made by any...

  18. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  19. Numerical investigation of sixth order Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovska, N.; Vucheva, V.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a family of conservative finite difference schemes for the Boussinesq equation with sixth order dispersion terms. The schemes are of second order of approximation. The method is conditionally stable with a mild restriction τ = O(h) on the step sizes. Numerical tests are performed for quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The numerical experiments show second order of convergence of the discrete solution to the exact one.

  20. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.