WorldWideScience

Sample records for pseudo-diurnal transit technique

  1. Note on the Tableau Technique for Commutative Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2002-01-01

    We define a class of transition systems called effective commutative transition systems (ECTS) and show, by generalising a tableau-based proof for BPP, that strong bisimilarity between any two states of such a transition system is decidable. It gives a general technique for extending decidability...... borders of strong bisimilarity for a wide class of infinite-state transition systems. This is demonstrated for several process formalisms, namely BPP process algebra, lossy BPP processes, BPP systems with interrupt and timed-arc BPP nets....

  2. Orthodontic extrusion in the transitional dentition: a simple technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Darby, Laura J

    2009-11-01

    Extrusion of teeth may be necessary in cases of delayed eruption, primary retention, traumatically intruded teeth, or subgingivally fractured teeth. Removable appliances are advantageous, as anchorage is not as tooth-dependant as in the case of fixed appliances. They are cost-effective, operator friendly, and a valuable treatment option to consider in cases where extrusion of anterior teeth in the transitional dentition is necessary. The purpose of this paper was to describe a simple, cost-effective technique using a removable appliance for extrusion of incisors in the transitional dentition.

  3. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  4. Features improvement techniques supply of highly skilled bodybuilders in transition training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Aghyppo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper is to improve the supply of highly skilled technique bodybuilders training in a transition period with the restoration of lean body mass and functional state of an athlete after a competitive activity. Material and Method: the study involved 18 highly skilled bodybuilders are included in the team of the Kharkiv region of Ukraine and bodybuilding. Results: a comparative characteristic of the conventional technique that is often used in the training process in bodybuilding. Developed and justified the optimal technique for highly skilled bodybuilders, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the transition period of training. Conclusions: on the basis of the study the author suggests best practices in supply depending on the microcycle training in transition training.

  5. Molecular-Based Optical Measurement Techniques for Transition and Turbulence in High-Speed Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    High-speed laminar-to-turbulent transition and turbulence affect the control of flight vehicles, the heat transfer rate to a flight vehicle's surface, the material selected to protect such vehicles from high heating loads, the ultimate weight of a flight vehicle due to the presence of thermal protection systems, the efficiency of fuel-air mixing processes in high-speed combustion applications, etc. Gaining a fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the transition process will lead to the development of predictive capabilities that can identify transition location and its impact on parameters like surface heating. Currently, there is no general theory that can completely describe the transition-to-turbulence process. However, transition research has led to the identification of the predominant pathways by which this process occurs. For a truly physics-based model of transition to be developed, the individual stages in the paths leading to the onset of fully turbulent flow must be well understood. This requires that each pathway be computationally modeled and experimentally characterized and validated. This may also lead to the discovery of new physical pathways. This document is intended to describe molecular based measurement techniques that have been developed, addressing the needs of the high-speed transition-to-turbulence and high-speed turbulence research fields. In particular, we focus on techniques that have either been used to study high speed transition and turbulence or techniques that show promise for studying these flows. This review is not exhaustive. In addition to the probe-based techniques described in the previous paragraph, several other classes of measurement techniques that are, or could be, used to study high speed transition and turbulence are excluded from this manuscript. For example, surface measurement techniques such as pressure and temperature paint, phosphor thermography, skin friction measurements and

  6. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail: Thomas.Richter6@tu-dresden.de; Eckert, K., E-mail: Kerstin.Eckert@tu-dresden.de; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  7. Security Transition Program Office (STPO), technology transfer of the STPO process, tools, and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, J.T.; Forslund, C.R.J.; Underwood, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    In 1990, with the transition from a defense mission to environmental restoration, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site began a significant effort to diagnose, redesign, and implement new safeguards and security (SAS) processes. In 1992 the Security Transition Program Office (STPO) was formed to address the sweeping changes that were being identified. Comprised of SAS and other contractor staff with extensive experience and supported by staff experienced in organizational analysis and work process redesign, STPO undertook a series of tasks designed to make fundamental changes to SAS processes throughout the Hanford Site. The goal of STPO is to align the SAS work and organization with the new Site mission. This report describes the key strategy, tools, methods, and techniques used by STPO to change SAS processes at Hanford. A particular focus of this review is transferring STPO`s experience to other DOE sites and federal agency efforts: that is, to extract, analyze, and provide a critical review of the approach, tools, and techniques used by STPO that will be useful to other DOE sites and national laboratories in transitioning from a defense production mode to environmental restoration and other missions. In particular, what lessons does STPO provide as a pilot study or model for implementing change in other transition activities throughout the DOE complex? More broadly, what theoretical and practical contributions do DOE transition efforts, such as STPO, provide to federal agency streamlining efforts and attempts to {open_quotes}reinvent{close_quotes} government enterprises in the public sector? The approach used by STPO should provide valuable information to those examining their own processes in light of new mission requirements.

  8. Unified zero-current-transition techniques for high-power three-phase PWM inverters

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation is devoted to a unified and comprehensive study of zero-current-transition (ZCT) soft-switching techniques for high-power three-phase PWM inverter applications. Major efforts in this study are as follows: 1) Conception of one new ZCT scheme and one new ZCT topology; 2) Systematic comparison of a family of ZCT inverters; 3) Design, implementation and experimental evaluation of two 55-kW prototype inverters for electric vehicle (EV) motor drives that are developed based on the...

  9. A technique for relining transitional removable denture – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasser Alhajj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional denture is a removable dental prosthesis serving as an interim prosthesis to which artificial teeth will be added as natural teeth are lost and that will be replaced after postextraction tissue changes have occurred. Its role is important in protecting the socket against trauma from tongue, food, or the opposing teeth. The aim in this report is to describe a new simple technique to create limited room on the tissue surface of the transitional denture to receive a relatively even thickness of a resilient material. A male patient, aged 48 years old, came to the prosthodontic clinics seeking replacement of the maxillary anterior teeth. After clinical and radiographic examination the treatment plan included extraction of the offending teeth (#13 and #24, the necessary wait for healing to occur, and providing the patient with a definitive partial denture. The esthetic appearance was of the utmost importance for the patient. Therefore, the treatment plan was modified to construct a transitional partial denture to be inserted following teeth extraction during the same appointment. A tissue-conditioning material of suitable thickness was applied on the tissue surface of the denture limited to the extraction area. Application of the resilient materials in such a manner may be more effective and should fulfill all the intended uses appropriately.

  10. Effects of anatomical position on esophageal transit time: A biomagnetic diagnostic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro; Sosa, Modesto; Wiechers, Carlos; la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria De; Moreles, Alejandro Maldonado; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesus; Huerta-Franco, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the esophageal transit time (ETT) and compare its mean value among three anatomical inclinations of the body; and to analyze the correlation of ETT to body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A biomagnetic technique was implemented to perform this study: (1) The transit time of a magnetic marker (MM) through the esophagus was measured using two fluxgate sensors placed over the chest of 14 healthy subjects; (2) the ETT was assessed in three anatomical positions (at upright, fowler, and supine positions; 90º, 45º and 0º, respectively). RESULTS: ANOVA and Tuckey post-hoc tests demonstrated significant differences between ETT mean of the different positions. The ETT means were 5.2 ± 1.1 s, 6.1 ± 1.5 s, and 23.6 ± 9.2 s for 90º, 45º and 0º, respectively. Pearson correlation results were r = -0.716 and P 0.05 according the subject’s BMI. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that using this biomagnetic technique, it is possible to measure the ETT and the effects of the anatomical position on the ETT. PMID:18837088

  11. Soil Structure Evaluation Across Geologic Transition Zones Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine C Anukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes the electrical resistivity values obtained using 2-D Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI technique to evaluate the subsurface lithology across different geological units. The primary objective was to determine the effect of subsurface lithology on the integrity of a road pavement, which had developed cracks and potholes at various locations. The dipole-dipole configuration was utilized and a total of nine traverses were established in the study area, whose geology cuts across both the basement and sedimentary complexes. The inverted resistivity section obtained showed significant variation in resistivity along established traverses and also across the different rock units, with the resistivity value ranging from about 4 ohm-m to greater than 7000 ohm- m. The lithology as interpreted from the resistivity section revealed the presence topsoil, clay, sandy clay, sand, sand stones/basement rocks, with varying vertical and horizontal arrangements to a depth of 40m. Results suggest that the geologic sequence and structure might have contributed to the observed pavement failure. The capability of the 2D ERI as an imaging tool is observed, especially across the transition zones as depicted in this study. The study further stressed the ability of this technique if properly designed and implemented, to be capable of providing a wealth of information that could complement other traditional geotechnical and geologic techniques.

  12. Improved Satellite Techniques for Monitoring and Forecasting the Transition of Hurricanes to Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, M. J.; Halverson, J. B.; Berndt, E.; Goodman, S. J.; Goldberg, M.; Demaria, M.; Dunion, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites R-Series (GOES-R) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Satellite Proving Grounds have introduced multiple proxy and operational products into operations over the last few years. Some of these products have proven to be useful in current operations at various National Weather Service (NWS) offices and national centers as a first look at future satellite capabilities. Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) and the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) field campaign have had access to a few of these products to assist in monitoring extratropical transitions of hurricanes. The red, green, blue (RGB) Air Mass product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses in one complete image to help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. As a compliment to this product, a new Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Ozone product was introduced in the past year to assist in diagnosing the dry air intrusions seen in the RGB Air Mass product. Finally, a lightning density product was introduced to forecasters as a precursor to the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) that will be housed on GOES-R, to monitor the most active regions of convection, which might indicate a disruption in the tropical environment and even signal the onset of extratropical transition. This presentation will focus on a few case studies that exhibit extratropical transition and point out the usefulness of these new satellite techniques in aiding forecasters forecast these challenging events.

  13. Improved Satellite Techniques for Monitoring and Forecasting the Transition of Hurricanes to Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael; Halverson, Jeffrey; Berndt, Emily; Dunion, Jason; Goodman, Steve; Goldberg, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites R-Series (GOES-R) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Satellite Proving Grounds have introduced multiple proxy and operational products into operations over the last few years. Some of these products have proven to be useful in current operations at various National Weather Service (NWS) offices and national centers as a first look at future satellite capabilities. Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) and the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) field campaign have had access to a few of these products to assist in monitoring extratropical transitions of hurricanes. The red, green, blue (RGB) Air Mass product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses in one complete image to help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. As a compliment to this product, a new Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Ozone product was introduced in the past year to assist in diagnosing the dry air intrusions seen in the RGB Air Mass product. Finally, a lightning density product was introduced to forecasters as a precursor to the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) that will be housed on GOES-R, to monitor the most active regions of convection, which might indicate a disruption in the tropical environment and even signal the onset of extratropical transition. This presentation will focus on a few case studies that exhibit extratropical transition and point out the usefulness of these new satellite techniques in aiding forecasters forecast these challenging events.

  14. Recent advances in controlled synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides via vapour deposition techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yumeng

    2014-10-20

    In recent years there have been many breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attract significant attention owing to their unusual properties associated with their strictly defined dimensionalities. TMD materials with a generalized formula of MX2, where M is a transition metal and X is a chalcogen, represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. Semiconducting TMD monolayers such as MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and WS2 have been demonstrated to be feasible for future electronics and optoelectronics. The exotic electronic properties and high specific surface areas of 2D TMDs offer unlimited potential in various fields including sensing, catalysis, and energy storage applications. Very recently, the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMD layers with a scalable size, controllable thickness and excellent electronic properties. Wafer-scale deposition of mono to few layer TMD films has been obtained. Despite the initial success in the CVD synthesis of TMDs, substantial research studies on extending the methodology open up a new way for substitution doping, formation of monolayer alloys and producing TMD stacking structures or superlattices. In this tutorial review, we will introduce the latest development of the synthesis of monolayer TMDs by CVD approaches.

  15. Discharge phone calls: a technique to improve patient care during the transition from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Kristin A; Lin, Szu-Hsuan; Gamm, Larry D; Edwardson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The discharge process is a transitional period when the patient's care is shifted from the hospital to the home and can be stressful for patients. One technique used to improve the quality and continuity of care is the discharge phone call (DPC). A large, metropolitan hospital implemented the DPC program to improve quality of care and decrease readmission rates. Qualitative interviews were performed with 24 hospital leaders, managers, and staff to determine the impact of the DPC program on the quality of care during the discharge process. Interviewees responded that the main benefits to the DPCs related to patient's medication management, follow-up appointment reminders, and answering questions. From a hospital perspective, the DPC can provide feedback to help improve the care delivery process related to discharge planning through improved discharge instructions and reinforcement of prescribed steps upon the patient's return home.

  16. Estimation of gross primary production of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest by remote sensing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Caldas Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross primary production (GPP of ecosystems is an important variable in the study of global climate change. Generally, the GPP has been estimated by micrometeorological techniques. However, these techniques have a high cost of implantation and maintenance, making the use of orbital sensor data an option to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD17A2 product and the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to predict the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest. The GPP predicted by MOD17A2 (GPP MODIS and VPM (GPP VPM were validated with the GPP estimated by eddy covariance (GPP EC. The GPP MODIS, GPP VPM and GPP EC have similar seasonality, with higher values in the wet season and lower in the dry season. However, the VPM performed was better than the MOD17A2 to estimate the GPP, due to use local climatic data for predict the light use efficiency, while the MOD17A2 use a global circulation model and the lookup table of each vegetation type to estimate the light use efficiency.

  17. Using combined computational techniques to predict the glass transition temperatures of aromatic polybenzoxazines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumzile Mhlanga

    Full Text Available The Molecular Operating Environment software (MOE is used to construct a series of benzoxazine monomers for which a variety of parameters relating to the structures (e.g. water accessible surface area, negative van der Waals surface area, hydrophobic volume and the sum of atomic polarizabilities, etc. are obtained and quantitative structure property relationships (QSPR models are formulated. Three QSPR models (formulated using up to 5 descriptors are first used to make predictions for the initiator data set (n = 9 and compared to published thermal data; in all of the QSPR models there is a high level of agreement between the actual data and the predicted data (within 0.63-1.86 K of the entire dataset. The water accessible surface area is found to be the most important descriptor in the prediction of T(g. Molecular modelling simulations of the benzoxazine polymer (minus initiator carried out at the same time using the Materials Studio software suite provide an independent prediction of T(g. Predicted T(g values from molecular modelling fall in the middle of the range of the experimentally determined T(g values, indicating that the structure of the network is influenced by the nature of the initiator used. Hence both techniques can provide predictions of glass transition temperatures and provide complementary data for polymer design.

  18. A technique for relining transitional removable denture – A case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed Nasser Alhajj; Ibrahim A. Ismail; Nadia Khalifa

    2017-01-01

    Transitional denture is a removable dental prosthesis serving as an interim prosthesis to which artificial teeth will be added as natural teeth are lost and that will be replaced after postextraction...

  19. Phase transition of TiO{sub 2} thin films detected by the pulsed laser photoacoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Pacheco, A.; Castaneda-Guzman, R.; Oliva Montes de Oca, C.; Esparza-Garcia, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CCADET-UNAM, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez Ruiz, S.J. [CCADET-UNAM, Acustica y Vibraciones, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    In this work, we present characterization of titanium oxide thin films by photoacoustic measurements to determine the ablation threshold and phase transitions from amorphous to crystalline states. The important advantages of this method are that it does not require amplification at the detection stage and that it is a non-destructive technique. The correlation analysis of the photoacoustic signals allows us to visualize the ablation threshold and the phase transitions with enhanced sensitivity. This correlation analysis clearly exhibits the changes in the thin-film morphology due to controlled variations of the fluence (energy/area) and the temperature of the surrounding medium. This is particularly important for those cases where the crystalline changes caused by temperature variations need to be monitored. The thin-film samples were prepared by the sputtering technique at room temperature in the amorphous state. The phase transformations were induced by controlled temperature scanning and then corroborated with Raman spectroscopy measurements. (orig.)

  20. Inspiraling black-hole binary spacetimes: Challenges in transitioning from analytical to numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlochower, Yosef; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Mundim, Bruno C.; Campanelli, Manuela; Noble, Scott; Zilhão, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    We explore how a recently developed analytical black-hole binary spacetime can be extended using numerical simulations to go beyond the slow-inspiral phase. The analytic spacetime solves the Einstein field equations approximately, with the approximation error becoming progressively smaller the more separated the binary. To continue the spacetime beyond the slow-inspiral phase, we need to transition. Such a transition was previously explored at smaller separations. Here, we perform this transition at a separation of D =20 M (large enough that the analytical metric is expected to be accurate), and evolve for six orbits. We find that small constraint violations can have large dynamical effects, but these can be removed by using a constraint-damping system like the conformal covariant formulation of the Z4 system. We find agreement between the subsequent numerical spacetime and the predictions of post-Newtonian theory for the waveform and inspiral rate that is within the post-Newtonian truncation error.

  1. Reproducible technique for fabrication of thin films of high transition temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankiewich, P.M.; Scofield, J.H.; Skocpol, W.J.; Howard, R.E.; Dayem, A.H.; Good, E.

    1987-11-23

    We report on a new process to make films of Y/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ using coevaporation of Y, Cu, and BaF/sub 2/ on SrTiO/sub 3/ substrates. The films have high transition temperatures (up to 91 K for a full resistive transition), high critical current densities (10/sup 6/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 81 K), and a reduced sensitivity to fabrication and environmental conditions. Because of the lower reactivity of the films, we have been able to pattern them in both the pre-annealed and post-annealed states using conventional positive photoresist technology.

  2. Two-dimensional Ising transition through a technique from two-state opinion-dynamics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge; Martins, André C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ising ferromagnetic model on a square lattice is revisited using the Galam unifying frame (GUF), set to investigate two-state opinion-dynamics models. When combined with Metropolis dynamics, an unexpected intermediate "dis/order" regime is found with the coexistence of two attractors associated, respectively, to an ordered and a disordered phases. The basin of attraction of initial conditions for the disordered phase attractor starts from zero size at a first critical temperature Tc 1 to embody the total landscape of initial conditions at a second critical temperature Tc 2, with Tc 1≈1.59 and Tc 2≈2.11 in J /kB units. It appears that Tc 2 is close to the Onsager result Tc≈2.27 . The transition, which is first-order-like, exhibits a vertical jump to the disorder phase at Tc 2, reminiscent of the rather abrupt vanishing of the corresponding Onsager second-order transition. However, using Glauber dynamics combined with GUF does not yield the intermediate phase and instead the expected classical mean-field transition is recovered at Tc≈3.09 . Accordingly, although the "dis/order" regime produced by the GUF-Metropolis combination is not physical, it is an intriguing result to be understood. In particular the fact that Glauber and Metropolis dynamics yield so different results using GUF needs an explanation. The possibility of extending GUF to larger clusters is discussed.

  3. Line group techniques in description of the structural phase transitions in some superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, C.; Bankuti, J. [Roland Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary); Balint, A. [Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Goedoello (Hungary)

    1994-12-31

    The main features of the theory of line groups, and their irreducible representations are briefly discussed, as well as the most important applications of them. A new approach in the general symmetry analysis of the modulated systems is presented. It is shown, that the line group formalism could be a very effective tool in the examination of the structural phase transitions in High Temperature Superconductors. As an example, the material YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} is discussed briefly.

  4. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UT-TCC): evolution of a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, B K; Moseley, H; Eljamel, M S; Nabi, G; Kata, S G

    2010-03-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis and ureter account was traditionally treated with nephroureterectomy. With the advent of rigid and flexible ureteroscopes endoscopic access to the ureter and renal pelvis for diagnosis and treatment has become a reality. We did fluorescence ureteroscopy using oral 5-ALA to diagnose upper tract urothelial tumours for four patients. Here we describe this technique and assess its feasibility to diagnose ureteric and renal pelvicalyceal tumours. A prospective pilot study was performed to assess the feasibility of PDD using oral 5-amino levulinic acid (ALA) for upper urinary tract tumours. Four patients underwent PDD guided flexible ureteroscopy of the upper urinary tract. Obvious exophytic tumour seen on white light was also seen as red fluorescence on blue light. All areas with red fluorescence were biopsied (including additional areas not seen on white light) and were confirmed to be transitional cell carcinoma. Photodynamic diagnosis using oral 5-ALA and subsequent treatment of upper tract urothelial tumours is safe and feasible with additional advantages of detecting lesions not visualised on conventional white light endoscopy. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering excitonic dynamics and environmental stability of post-transition metal chalcogenides by pyridine functionalization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiuqing; Pant, Anupum; Cai, Hui; Kang, Jun; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Wu, Kedi; Yang, Sijie; Suslu, Aslihan; Peeters, F. M.; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2015-10-01

    Owing to their strong photon emission, low excitonic binding energies, and nearly-ideal band offset values for water splitting reactions, direct gap quasi-2D gallium chalcogenides are potential candidates for applications in energy harvesting, optoelectronics, and photonics. Unlike other 2D materials systems, chemical functionalization of gallium chalcogenides is still at its seminal stages. Here, we propose vapor phase pyridine intercalation technique to manipulate optical properties of gallium chalcogenides. After functionalization, the excitonic dynamics of quasi-2D GaSe change significantly as evidenced by an increase in integrated PL intensity and emergence of a new emission feature that is below the band edge. Based on our DFT calculations, we attribute these to formation of bound exciton complexes at the trap sites introduced by chemical reaction between pyridine and GaSe. On the contrary, pyridine functionalization does not impact the optical properties of GaTe, instead treats GaTe surface to prevent oxidization of tellurium atoms. Overall, results suggest novel ways to control properties of gallium chalcogenides on demand and unleash their full potential for a range of applications in photonics and optoelectronics.Owing to their strong photon emission, low excitonic binding energies, and nearly-ideal band offset values for water splitting reactions, direct gap quasi-2D gallium chalcogenides are potential candidates for applications in energy harvesting, optoelectronics, and photonics. Unlike other 2D materials systems, chemical functionalization of gallium chalcogenides is still at its seminal stages. Here, we propose vapor phase pyridine intercalation technique to manipulate optical properties of gallium chalcogenides. After functionalization, the excitonic dynamics of quasi-2D GaSe change significantly as evidenced by an increase in integrated PL intensity and emergence of a new emission feature that is below the band edge. Based on our DFT calculations

  6. Techniques for Surface-Temperature Measurements and Transition Detection on Projectiles at Hypersonic Velocities--Status Report No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Wilder, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    The latest developments in a research effort to advance techniques for measuring surface temperatures and heat fluxes and determining transition locations on projectiles in hypersonic free flight in a ballistic range are described. Spherical and hemispherical titanium projectiles were launched at muzzle velocities of 4.6-5.8 km/sec into air and nitrogen at pressures of 95-380 Torr. Hemisphere models with diameters of 2.22 cm had maximum pitch and yaw angles of 5.5-8 degrees and 4.7-7 degrees, depending on whether they were launched using an evacuated launch tube or not. Hemisphere models with diameters of 2.86 cm had maximum pitch and yaw angles of 2.0-2.5 degrees. Three intensified-charge-coupled-device (ICCD) cameras with wavelength sensitivity ranges of 480-870 nm (as well as one infrared camera with a wavelength sensitivity range of 3 to 5 microns), were used to obtain images of the projectiles in flight. Helium plumes were used to remove the radiating gas cap around the projectiles at the locations where ICCD camera images were taken. ICCD and infrared (IR) camera images of titanium hemisphere projectiles at velocities of 4.0-4.4 km/sec are presented as well as preliminary temperature data for these projectiles. Comparisons were made of normalized temperature data for shots at approx.190 Torr in air and nitrogen and with and without the launch tube evacuated. Shots into nitrogen had temperatures 6% lower than those into air. Evacuation of the launch tube was also found to lower the projectile temperatures by approx.6%.

  7. Electromagnetic Transition Strengths Studied with Doppler-Shift Techniques Across the Contours of the Valley Of Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loelius, Charles Robert

    The electromagnetic transition strengths between bound states in nuclei provide insight into nuclear structure. On one hand, from a single particle perspective the electromagnetic excitation and de-excitation of nuclei quantify the overlaps of nuclear wavefunctions, probing the internal configuration. On the other hand, in a collective model, the shape and dynamics of the nucleus are reflected in the electromagnetic transition strengths. For example, electric quadrupole transitions are sensitive to the deformation of a nucleus and distinguish between various pictures of collectivity, such as rotors and vibrators. In this work, electromagnetic transition strengths are studied through lifetime and Coulomb-excitation measurements. Nuclei across the contours of the valley of stability are studied to investigate features of nuclear structure and how they change near and far from stability. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Technique in analyzing experimental double shock data to infer a solid-solid phase transition within cerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherne, Frank; Jensen, Brian

    2017-06-01

    In the past decade many experiments have been performed looking at various aspects of the dynamic response of cerium metal. Recent experiments looking at off-principle hugoniot have been made and here we present an approach for interpreting the results of these double shock experiments. Double shock experiments are difficult to analyze with the potential of being nearly intractable due to the construction of the experiments. Using a simple one dimensional hydrodynamic code, calculations are performed to match the first and second shock states and the times of arrival. Upon matching velocity time history at the sample window interface, a Us was determined from the calculation. A two state linear Us -up model with a transitional density switch was developed to best model the experimental data set. The best parameter set shows an inflection point around 12-13 GPa which is near where the α - ɛ phase transition has been observed in static compression experiments at a temperature.

  9. A Homogenization Technique for Obtaining Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions (GSTCs) for a Metafilm Embedded in a Magneto-Dielectric Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Christoper L

    2016-01-01

    Using the multiple-scale homogenization method, we derive generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) for electromagnetic fields at the surface of a metafilm. The scatterers that compose the metafilm are of arbitrary shape and are embedded between two different magneto-dielectric media. The parameters in these boundary conditions are interpreted as effective electric and magnetic surface susceptibilities, which themselves are related to the geometry of the scatterers that constitute the metafilm.

  10. A Riding-through Technique for Seamless Transition between Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes of Droop-Controlled Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shang-hung; Lee, Tzung-Lin; Kuo, Chun-Yi

    2016-01-01

    the system. The proposed method allows the droop-controlled inverter to improve the transient response when transferring between modes, by detecting the inrush current, activating a current control loop during transients, and then transferring back to droop-controlled mode smoothly by using a virtual...... a smooth transition between them, requiring neither synchronization signals nor grid-side information. The control algorithm and design procedure are presented. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype validate the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  11. A Riding-through Technique for Seamless Transition between Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes of Droop-Controlled Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Hung Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a seamless transition method for a droop-controlled inverter. The droop control is suitable to make the inverter work as a voltage source in both islanded and grid-connected modes, however, the transfer between theses modes can result in a big inrush current that may damage the system. The proposed method allows the droop-controlled inverter to improve the transient response when transferring between modes, by detecting the inrush current, activating a current control loop during transients, and then transferring back to droop-controlled mode smoothly by using a virtual inductance loop. In addition, a local phase-locked-loop (PLL is proposed to align the inverter voltage with the grid in order to reduce the transient current during the transition. Therefore, the droop-controlled inverter is able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded modes, providing as well a smooth transition between them, requiring neither synchronization signals nor grid-side information. The control algorithm and design procedure are presented. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Fluorescence technique for studying the sol-gel transition in the free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcan, Oe.; Ylmaz, Y.; Okay, O.

    1994-11-01

    The steady-state fluorescence technique was used to study the free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the absence and presence of toluene at 75 C. A sol-gel phase transition was observed and monitored by an excited aromatic molecule during the gelation of the above system. Bond percolation theory was employed to quantify the results. The critical exponent and gel point were found to be around 0.45 and 0.36 both in bulk and solution polymerization.

  13. Fluorescence Technique for Studying the Sol--Gel Transition in the Free--Radical Crosslinking Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate and Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcan, Önder; Yilmaz, Yalçýn; Okay, Oðuz

    1996-01-01

    The steady--state fluorescence technique was used to study the free--radical crosslinking copolymerization [1] of methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the absence and presence of toluene at 74°C. A sol--gel phase transition was observed and monitored by an excited aromatic molecule during the gelation of the above system. Bond percolation theory was employed to qualify the results [2,3]. The critical exponent and gel point were found to be 0.45 and 0.36 both in bulk and solution polymerization [4].

  14. Radical Cystectomy and Cutaneous Ureterostomy in 4 Dogs with Trigonal Transitional Cell Carcinoma: Description of Technique and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Huppes, Rafael; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Barboza De Nardi, Andrigo; Roque Lima, Bruno; Alves Cintra, Cristiane; Luiz Costa Castro, Jorge; Adin, Christopher A

    2017-01-01

    To describe radical cystectomy followed by cutaneous ureterostomy as a treatment of invasive bladder neoplasia in dogs. Retrospective study. Client-owned dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder trigone (n=4). Perioperative complications and long-term outcomes of dogs that underwent cutaneous ureterostomy following radical cystectomy and lymphadenectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder trigone were reviewed. Both ureters were transected and anastomosed to the ventral abdominal skin. Polyvinyl chloride catheters were placed in the ureteral stomas and maintained for 5 days. After catheter removal, dogs were managed with an absorbent diaper over the stomas. Long-term outcome and survival were documented by follow-up visits or phone contact. Median age at the time of surgery was 10.3 years (range, 8-12). Average procedural time was ∼4.7 hours (range, 3.8-6.1). Minor complications occurred in all dogs, including bleeding and edema of the ureterostomy site during the first 2-3 days after surgery. One dog developed urine scald that resolved with improved stoma care and hygiene. Median survival time after surgery was 278.6 days (range, 47-498). Distant metastases were documented in 2 dogs at 47 days (bone) and 369 days (lung) after surgery. Radical cystectomy with cutaneous ureterostomy is a viable salvage procedure for urinary diversion after cystectomy in dogs with invasive bladder neoplasia. Postoperative management and quality of life were considered acceptable by most owners. Future studies are warranted to evaluate survival time in a larger number of animals. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Action reflections: a client-centered technique to bridge the WHY-HOW transition in Motivational Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; McMaster, Fiona; Rollnick, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    When using Motivational Interviewing (MI), once resistance or ambivalence are resolved and motivation is solidified, many practitioners struggle with how best to transition the discussion toward action planning, while still retaining the spirit and style of client centeredness, i.e., moving from the WHY phase to the HOW phase of counseling in a style that is MI-consistent. For many, there is a perception that the counseling style, skills, and strategies used to build motivation are distinct from those used in the action planning phase. The WHY to HOW transition does not, however, necessitate abandoning a client-centered style for a more overtly educational or directive style. Goal setting, action planning, provision of advice, and relapse prevention can be implemented from an autonomy supportive, MI consistent framework. To this end, this article will present a new class of reflection, which we have termed "action reflections", that can be used to help bridge the WHY-HOW gap. Action reflections (AR) allow the clinician to maintain a tone and orientation that are consistent with MI, i.e. autonomy support; guiding versus directing, during the action phase of counseling. They differ from reflecting change talk as they focus not on the WHY of change, but the HOW, WHEN, or WHERE. Action Reflections (ARs) also differ from the more common type of reflections such as those that focus on client feelings, rolling with resistance, or acknowledging ambivalence as ARs usually contain a potential concrete step that the client has directly or obliquely mentioned. Like any type of reflection, ARs represent the clinician's best guess for what the client has said or, more apropos here, where the conversation might be heading. This article describes the various types of ARs and provides examples of each to help clinicians incorporate them into their behavior change counseling.

  16. Effects of deposition methods and processing techniques on band gap, interband electronic transitions, and optical absorption in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwu; Sha, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Yu, Wenlei; Jiang, Kai; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Chuan; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-01

    Despite intensive studies on the improvements of conversion efficiencies in solar cells, many questions regarding the effects of deposition techniques on optical properties and electronic band structures of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) remain unresolved. Here, perovskite MAPbI3 films were prepared using different deposition methods and processing techniques. The effects of deposition and processing parameters on dielectric functions and optical absorption were investigated by fitting the reflectance spectra in the photon energy range of 0.5-5.16 eV. It is found that the bandgap (Eg) of the films deposited by two-step spinning (1.591 eV) is larger than that prepared by evaporations (1.514 eV), due to different Pb-I orbital hybridization and spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, the Eg value of the films increases from 1.543 eV to 1.591 eV after toluene solution dripping. Five interband electronic transitions ( Ep 1, Ep 2, Ep 3, Ep 4 , and Ep 5 ) are observed, and the origins of Ep 2, Ep 3 , and Ep 4 are assigned to the direct transitions between the highest valence band and the lowest lying conduction band at the R, M, and X symmetry points. Further, the transition energies of the films deposited by evaporation are less than those prepared by two-step spinning. The present results shed light on preparing more reliable and reproducible high performance MAPbI3-based solar cells.

  17. Effect of κ-carrageenan on volume phase transition for polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel using the fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Demet Kaya

    2014-03-01

    Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying swelling of polyacrylamide (PAAm) gels with various content of κ-carrageenan ( κC). Disc shaped composite hydrogels were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with various amounts κC. N, N'-methylenebis (acrylamide) (BIS) and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine was monitored during in situ swelling processes of composite gels. It was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, τ and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D from intensity variations during the swelling processes. It was shown that swelling time constants, τ decreased and diffusion coefficients, D increased as the κC content in the composites are increased.

  18. Controlled reactive HiPIMS—effective technique for low-temperature (300 °C) synthesis of VO2 films with semiconductor-to-metal transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlček, J.; Kolenatý, D.; Houška, J.; Kozák, T.; Čerstvý, R.

    2017-09-01

    Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed O2 flow control and to-substrate O2 injection into a high-density plasma in front of the sputtered vanadium target was used for low-temperature (300 °C) deposition of VO2 films with a pronounced semiconductor-to-metal transition onto conventional soda-lime glass substrates without any substrate bias voltage and without any interlayer. The depositions were performed using an unbalanced magnetron with a planar target of 50.8 mm diameter in argon-oxygen gas mixtures at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The deposition-averaged target power density was close to 13 W cm-2 at a fixed duty cycle of 1% with a peak target power density up to 5 kW cm-2 during voltage pulses ranged from 40 µs to 100 µs. A high modulation of the transmittance at 2500 nm (between 51% and 8% at the film thickness of 88 nm) and the electrical resistivity (changed 350 times) at the transition temperature of 56-57 °C was achieved for the VO2 films synthesized using 50 µs voltage pulses when the crystallization of the thermochromic VO2(M1) phase was supported by the high-energy (up to 50 eV relative to ground potential) ions. Principles of this effective low-temperature deposition technique with a high application potential are presented.

  19. Ability of pulse wave transit time to detect changes in stroke volume and to estimate cardiac output compared to thermodilution technique in isoflurane-anaesthetised dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, H; Chambers, J P

    2017-04-26

    To evaluate the ability of pulse wave transit time (PWTT) to detect changes in stroke volume (SV) and to estimate cardiac output (CO) compared with the thermodilution technique in isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. Prospective, experimental study. Eight adult laboratory dogs. The dogs were anaesthetized with isoflurane and mechanically ventilated. Reference CO (TDCO) was measured via a pulmonary artery catheter using the thermodilution technique and reference SV (TDSV) was calculated. PWTT was calculated as the time from the electrocardiogram R-wave peak to the rise point of the pulse oximeter wave. Estimated CO (esCO) was derived from PWTT after calibration with arterial pulse pressure (both non-invasive and invasive methods) and TDCO. Haemodynamic changes were induced by administration of phenylephrine (vasoconstriction), high isoflurane (vasodilatation and negative inotropy) and dobutamine (vasodilatation and positive inotropy). Trending between percentage change in PWTT and TDSV was assessed using concordance analysis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. The agreement between esCO and TDCO was evaluated using the Bland-Altman method. The direction of percentage change between consecutive PWTT and the corresponding TDSV showed a concordance rate of 95%, with correlation coefficients of -0.86 (pblood pressure showed a bias (precision of agreement) of 0.58 (1.54) and 0.57 (1.59) L minute(-1) with a percentage error of ±61% and ±63%, respectively. In isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs, PWTT showed a good trending ability to detect 15% changes in SV. This technique is easy to use, inexpensive, non-invasive and could become routine anaesthetic monitoring. However, the agreement between absolute esCO and TDCO was unacceptable. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Infrared studies of temperature-dependent phase transitions in ammonium sulfate aerosol and the development of a visible light scattering technique to measure atmospheric particle compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy Bruce

    1999-10-01

    Sulfate containing particles exist globally throughout the atmosphere and impact its chemistry and radiative properties. Under the low temperature conditions found in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, sulfate particles act as nuclei for cirrus clouds and facilitate heterogeneous reactions which affect ozone chemistry. Both of these processes are dependent upon the chemical composition and phase of the background aerosol, and thus the behavior of these particles at low temperatures. This thesis represents two approaches undertaken to investigate the composition and phase of atmospheric aerosols. First, a flow tube system has been developed to study the low temperature behavior of atmospherically relevant particles within a controlled laboratory environment. Second, a visible light scattering technique has been developed to characterize the physical properties of particles in situ from an aircraft platform. The relative humidities of temperature-dependent phase transitions in ammonium sulfate aerosols were measured within a flow tube system. A chilled-mirror hygrometer measured the relative humidity and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to probe the phase of the particles and to characterize their microphysical properties. The relative humidity of deliquescence changed from 80% to 82% over the temperature range from 294.8 K to 258.0 K, in agreement with thermodynamic theory. The efflorescence relative humidity of submicron ammonium sulfate particles increased slightly from 32% to 39% as the temperature decreased from 294.8 K to 234.3 K. The latter result suggests that salt particles may exist as metastable solution droplets under low relative humidity conditions for significant time periods in the upper troposphere. To measure particle refractive indices in situ, a visible light scattering technique based on NCAR's Multiangle Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (MASP) was developed. The MASP was calibrated with monodisperse particles having

  1. Transitive probabilistic CLIR models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Transitive translation could be a useful technique to enlarge the number of supported language pairs for a cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) system in a cost-effective manner. The paper describes several setups for transitive translation based on probabilistic translation models. The

  2. Investigation of the Influence of Sucrose and Cholesterol on the Phase Transition Temperature of nanoliposomal formulation besides using particle size Reduction Techniques (Ultrasonication/High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Malaei-Balasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The successful application of nanoliposoms as an effective drug delivery system depends on their stability in the medium. In this article, influence of additive materials such as cholesterol and sucrose besides two natural and synthesized phospholipids have been investigated. Methods: In the present study, designing and synthesis of nanoliposomal formulations were prepared using thin film method. This liposomal suspension was downsized by two methods, the high-pressure homogenizer and ultrasound to form small unilamellar vesicles. The size distributions, zeta potentials and phase transition temperature of formulations were all determined by a zetasizer and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC. In addition, the contribution of nanoliposomal formulation has been investigated by HPLC and FTIR methods. Results: Results of the DSC measurments indicated that incorporation of unsaturated phospholipid (SOY PC may cause phase separation with partial miscibility in the liposome bilayer containing of DPPG. The optimal nanoliposomal formulation was composed of (DPPC: CHOL: mPEG2000-DSPE with the mole percents equal to (83:15:2, respectively. In addition, sucrose has been used in the formulation with a total amounts six times greater than that of the lipids. The properties of optimized nanoliposome have been shown as the size average 104nm, zeta potential 8.04mv and phase transition temperature of lipid less than 37°C which were stable enough to be utilized for loading and releasing bioactives in body temperature. Conclusion: Finally the produced nanoliposomes were stable vesicles in the proper size, phase transition temperature and surface charge without any aggregation and fusion.

  3. Selective Rutherford backscattering techniques in the study of transition-metal implanted YBa{sub 2}C{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.W.; Russell, G.J. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Cohen, D.D.; Evans, P.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Using a metal-vapor vacuum arc ion source, several as-grown, large single crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} were implanted with a dose of 1x10{sup 17} zinc, nickel and iron ions. After implantation the crystal was subjected to two anneal cycles that has allowed to examine crystal structure, superconducting transitions and composition, through X-ray diffraction, rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and AC susceptibility measurements respectively. Although RBS discriminates strongly against light elements, such as oxygen, the use of resonant reaction {sup 16}O ({alpha}, {alpha}){sup 16}O at 3.4 MeV was beneficial, as its cross section is nearly 23 times that of the rutherford cross section. 4 figs.

  4. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...

  5. Development of the high-temperature, solid-state, electromotive force technique to study the thermodynamics of Lewis-acid-base transition metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    The basic principles of the Engel-Brewer theory of metals are summarized and illustrated. Definitions of words used to describe its fundamentals are clarified. The theory predicts the extreme stability of the Lewis-acid-base alloys. The thermodynamics of such alloys may be obtained through the use of oxide-electrolyte, electrochemical cells. Experimental techniques associated with the use of these cells are explained in detail. Much attention is given to the preparation and processing of the materials required. A selective review of the cell literature demonstrates frequent difficulty in obtaining accurate thermodynamic data. In an attempt to correct this situation, as well as to correct problems discovered in this work, the physical processes which create the cell emf are clearly identified. The fundamental understanding afforded by the resulting cell model implies the procedures used to both discover and eliminate errors. Those due to concentration overpotentials, reactive impurities in the gas phase, and interfacial reactions are carefully analyzed. The procedures used to test for and attain equilibrium in an alloy-oxide, powder compact are supported through identification of the transport processes that mediate equilibration.

  6. Does transition from the da Vinci Si to Xi robotic platform impact single-docking technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish N; Aboumohamed, Ahmed; Hemal, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    To describe our robot-assisted nephroureterectomy (RNU) technique for benign indications and RNU with en bloc excision of bladder cuff (BCE) and lymphadenectomy (LND) for malignant indications using the da Vinci Si and da Vinci Xi robotic platform, with its pros and cons. The port placement described for Si can be used for standard and S robotic systems. This is the first report in the literature on the use of the da Vinci Xi robotic platform for RNU. After a substantial experience of RNU using different da Vinci robots from the standard to the Si platform in a single-docking fashion for benign and malignant conditions, we started using the newly released da Vinci Xi robot since 2014. The most important differences are in port placement and effective use of the features of da Vinci Xi robot while performing simultaneous upper and lower tract surgery. Patient positioning, port placement, step-by-step technique of single docking RNU-LND-BCE using the da Vinci Si and da Vinci Xi robot are shown in an accompanying video with the goal that centres using either robotic system benefit from the hints and tips. The first segment of video describes RNU-LND-BCE using the da Vinci Si followed by the da Vinci Xi to highlight differences. There was no need for patient repositioning or robot re-docking with the new da Vinci Xi robotic platform. We have experience of using different robotic systems for single docking RNU in 70 cases for benign (15) and malignant (55) conditions. The da Vinci Xi robotic platform helps operating room personnel in its easy movement, allows easier patient side-docking with the help of its boom feature, in addition to easy and swift movements of the robotic arms. The patient clearance feature can be used to avoid collision with the robotic arms or the patient's body. In patients with challenging body habitus and in situations where bladder cuff management is difficult, modifications can be made through reassigning the camera to a different port with

  7. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C; Moynihan, Paula

    2016-08-03

    Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local resources. The intervention

  8. Outplacement as Transition Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Describes outplacement counseling as a process that enables management to deal with the problem of the employee who must be released or the staff that must be reduced. Discusses the process of outplacement counseling, the stages of transition counseling, and techniques to be implemented. (BH)

  9. Transitional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  10. Transitional determinacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luelsdorff, P A

    1992-01-01

    In classic generative grammar a distinction is drawn between linguistic 'competence' and linguistic 'performance', the former referring to linguistic knowledge, the latter to how linguistic knowledge is used. However, this controversial differentiation obscures the additional dichotomy between linguistic knowledge for production and linguistic knowledge for recognition. In this article it is shown that production and recognition differ, that recognition is not simply the inverse of production, and that the derivation of production from recognition and recognition from production require a small set of generalizable 'transitional determinacies'. Secondly, it is shown that transitional determinacies explain the difference between 'overt' and 'covert' recognition recently observed in prosopagnosics, patients unable to recognize familiar faces. Prosopagnosics and normals are found to differ in their transitional determinacies, such that prosopagnosics require more binders (precisors) for covert recognition than normals. In general, it is concluded that transitional determinacies are as necessary to the theory of grammar as determinacies themselves.

  11. CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

  12. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  13. Multiobjective Optimization and Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Seoane, Luís F

    2015-01-01

    Many complex systems obey to optimality conditions that are usually not simple. Conflicting traits often interact making a Multi Objective Optimization (MOO) approach necessary. Recent MOO research on complex systems report about the Pareto front (optimal designs implementing the best trade-off) in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, research on traditional Simple Objective Optimization (SOO) often finds phase transitions and critical points. We summarize a robust framework that accounts for phase transitions located through SOO techniques and indicates what MOO features resolutely lead to phase transitions. These appear determined by the shape of the Pareto front, which at the same time is deeply related to the thermodynamic Gibbs surface. Indeed, thermodynamics can be written as an MOO from where its phase transitions can be parsimoniously derived; suggesting that the similarities between transitions in MOO-SOO and Statistical Mechanics go beyond mere coincidence.

  14. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Nicola Cufaro [INFN Sezione di Bari, INFM Unitadi Bari and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica dell' Universitae del Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [INFM Unitadi Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli - Gruppo collegato di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universitadi Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno (Italy)

    1999-10-29

    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states. In particular, we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations to account for controlled quantum transitions. As a first significant application we present a detailed treatment of the transition probabilities and of the controlling time-dependent potentials associated to the transitions between the stationary, the coherent, and the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. (author)

  15. Presidential Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-09

    done to facilitate the transition.52 CRS-12 53 David T. Stanley, Changing Administrations (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1965), p. 6. 54 “Pre...Conference of Mayors; Sharleen Hirsch, an educational administrator; and Jule Sugarman , a public administrator. Staff members were assigned to task forces...Issues,” Washington Post, Nov. 13, 1980, p. Al. 77 David Hoffman, “Bush Names Baker Secretary of State,” Washington Post, Nov. 10, 1988, pp. Al and

  16. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  17. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  18. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  19. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  20. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp......-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  1. Learning phase transitions by confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Liu, Ye-Hua; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2017-02-01

    Classifying phases of matter is key to our understanding of many problems in physics. For quantum-mechanical systems in particular, the task can be daunting due to the exponentially large Hilbert space. With modern computing power and access to ever-larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine-learning techniques. Here, we propose a neural-network approach to finding phase transitions, based on the performance of a neural network after it is trained with data that are deliberately labelled incorrectly. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to the development of a generic tool for identifying unexplored phase transitions.

  2. Transition dynamics in two-photon ionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Gaillac, Romain; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie

    2017-11-01

    We review various aspects of photoemission dynamics in the case of two-photon ionisation. We first recall the definition of a transition phase specific to two-photon transitions. Numerical experiments on model atoms are used to show how the group delay associated with the transition phase is actually representative of the early dynamics of the detected photoelectron wave packets. Then we address the question of measuring these transition delays using a standard interferometric technique of experimental attosecond physics, so-called rabbit. Finally, we outline different reinterpretations of rabbit giving access to the more fundamental scattering dynamics affecting any photoemission processes.

  3. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  4. Transit spectroscopy with GTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio M.R. Zapatero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different ground-based surveys and space missions, nowadays we have a fairly large sample of discovered extra-solar planets to study and, without a doubt, this number will increase in the future. One of the most succesful techniques that allows us to prove the physical properties and atmospheric composition of these exoplanets is transmission spectroscopy. The level of precision that is require to measure these effects provides a technical challenge that is solved by using big telescopes and stable instruments to reach low noise levels. In this article, we will discuss the use of the 10m class telescope GTC to observed planetary transits in spectroscopic mode and some of the results that we are currently obtaining.

  5. Army Leader Transitions Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    usacac.army.mil/CAC2/CAL. LEADER TRANSITION MODEL Leader Transitions Handbook 1 The Army Leader Transitions Handbook is designed to help leaders plan and...D-1) Managing transitions is a leadership responsibility. Leader transitions within the Army are significant events for any organization due to...current. Administrative skills - Brush up on personnel management , especially leader development. Know UCMJ, promotions, administrative discharge

  6. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  7. Dating Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absolute dating technique (such as stylistic affiliation, association with datable deposits, amino acid study of protein in pigments, and direct radiocarbon dating of the organic fraction of pigments or desert varnish).

  8. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  9. Gas turbine combustor transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  10. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  11. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  12. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  13. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  14. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  15. Cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  16. Quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachdev, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place atthe ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase

  17. Modeling for transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  18. Origins of evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    An 'evolutionary transition in individuality' or 'major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  19. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  20. Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot of ground to cover! But it’s essential ground, if the student’s transition to the adult ... of transition planning? Here’s a closer look at writing transition-related IEP goals. Students Get Involved ! Very ...

  1. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  2. Miscellaneous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

  3. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Pálffy, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects that can be identified in atomic structure data. An introduction to the theory of isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting of atomic spectra is given, together with an overview of the typical experimental techniques used in high-precision atomic spectroscopy. More exotic effects at the borderline between atomic and nuclear physics, such as parity violation in atomic transitions due to the weak interaction, or nuclear polarization and nuclear excitation by electron capture, are also addressed.

  4. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  5. Transition path time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleman, M.; Carlon, E.; Orland, H.

    2017-12-01

    Biomolecular folding, at least in simple systems, can be described as a two state transition in a free energy landscape with two deep wells separated by a high barrier. Transition paths are the short part of the trajectories that cross the barrier. Average transition path times and, recently, their full probability distribution have been measured for several biomolecular systems, e.g., in the folding of nucleic acids or proteins. Motivated by these experiments, we have calculated the full transition path time distribution for a single stochastic particle crossing a parabolic barrier, including inertial terms which were neglected in previous studies. These terms influence the short time scale dynamics of a stochastic system and can be of experimental relevance in view of the short duration of transition paths. We derive the full transition path time distribution as well as the average transition path times and discuss the similarities and differences with the high friction limit.

  6. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  7. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon....

  8. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  9. Route-Specific Transit Marketing in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    The Minneapolis/St. Paul Transit Marketing Demonstration involved the administration of a combination of marketing techniques on five selected transit routes. The approach employed differed from most previous marketing demonstrations in that 1) prici...

  10. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald

    2012-01-01

    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  11. Discovering phase transitions with unsupervised learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Unsupervised learning is a discipline of machine learning which aims at discovering patterns in large data sets or classifying the data into several categories without being trained explicitly. We show that unsupervised learning techniques can be readily used to identify phases and phases transitions of many-body systems. Starting with raw spin configurations of a prototypical Ising model, we use principal component analysis to extract relevant low-dimensional representations of the original data and use clustering analysis to identify distinct phases in the feature space. This approach successfully finds physical concepts such as the order parameter and structure factor to be indicators of a phase transition. We discuss the future prospects of discovering more complex phases and phase transitions using unsupervised learning techniques.

  12. Economic Transition and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Peter C.B.; Donggyu Sul

    2005-01-01

    Some extensions of neoclassical growth models are discussed that allow for cross section heterogeneity among economies and evolution in rates of technological progress over time. The models offer a spectrum of transitional behavior among economies that includes convergence to a common steady state path as well as various forms of transitional divergence and convergence. Mechanisms for modeling such transitions and measuring them econometrically are developed in the paper. A new regression tes...

  13. Transitions in Mathematics Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verschaffel, Ghislaine GueudetMarianna BoschAndrea A. diSessaOh Nam KwonLieven

    2016-01-01

    .... The book focuses on research in the area of mathematics education, and starts out with a literature review, describing the epistemological, cognitive, institutional and sociocultural perspectives on transition...

  14. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  15. Hospital Culture of Transitions in Care: Survey Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Mark; Lazar, Danielle; Wolfe, Lindsay; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Zocchi, Mark; Twesten, Jenny; Pines, Jesse M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding hospital culture is important to effectively manage patient flow. The purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument that can assess a hospital's culture related to in-hospital transitions in care. Key transition themes were identified using a multidisciplinary team of experts from 3 health care systems. Candidate items were rigorously evaluated using a modified Delphi technique. Findings indicate 8 themes associated with hospital culture-mediating transitions. Forty-four items reflect the themes.

  16. Alternative particle identification techniques to Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnew, Neville, E-mail: n.harnew@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    Alternative particle identification methods to Cherenkov techniques are reviewed. Particular focus is given to recent advances in Transition Radiation Detectors (TRDs), improvements in dE/dx ionization loss by cluster counting, and Time of Flight (ToF) techniques. In each case several state of the art detectors are highlighted. For advances in ToF techniques, the status of fast photon detectors and electronics developments is summarized.

  17. Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack

    OpenAIRE

    S., Siti Rahayu; Y., Robiah; S., Shahrin; A., Faizal M.; M, Mohd Zaki; R, Irda

    2009-01-01

    Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log...

  18. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  19. Interaction network based early-warning indicators of vegetation transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirabassi, Giulio; Viebahn, Jan; Dakos, V.; Dijkstra, Hendrik; Masoller, C.; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vegetation patterns in semi-arid regions can precede the abrupt transition to bare soil. Here, complex network techniques are used to develop novel early-warning indicators for these desertification transitions. These indicators are applied to results from a local positive feedback

  20. Density-correlator signatures of the vulcanization transition

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Weiqun; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Certain density correlators, measurable via various experimental techniques, are studied in the context of the vulcanization transition. It is shown that these correlators contain essential information about both the vulcanization transition and the emergent amorphous solid state. Contact is made with various physical ingredients that have featured in experimental studies of amorphous colloidal and gel systems and in theoretical studies of the glassy state.

  1. Surface Micromachined Arrays of Transition-Edge Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative surface micromachining technique is described for the fabrication of closely-packed arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters....

  2. Phase transitions in the coal-water-methane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.Alexeev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature phase transitions in water and methane occurring in fossil coals were studied experimentally using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR techniques. Contributions of constituent fluids into narrow line of 1H NMR wide line spectrum were analyzed.

  3. Good Transitions = Great Starts!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The smooth transition of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The transition process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly…

  4. Successive Transitions in Ecodesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2008-01-01

    , into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, together providing a historic account of how academic...

  5. Urban renewal in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, P.

    1995-01-01

    Urban renewal in transition consists revised and enlarged version of two papers. The first paper 'urban renewal and restructuring: between economie and social renewal' had been presented at the conference 'Labour on the move and transitions in the building process', organlzed by the Bartlett School

  6. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail...

  7. Ethical considerations in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Hannah; Horricks, Laurie; Kaufman, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore ethical issues in the provision of transitional care. Using five case studies a number of ethical issues in transition and transition care are discussed. These issues include: 1) preserving, promoting and ensuring dignity and respect for patients; 2) fostering and supporting the trusting relationships that young people and their parents have for pediatric providers to their new adult providers by using a graduated system of transfer; 3) recognizing graduated capacity; 4) promoting autonomy and self-management; 5) duties of beneficence and non-maleficence; 6) truthtelling; 7) duty to provide developmentally appropriate care; and 8) duty of pediatric providers to advocate for transitioning patients in the adult system. Attention to the ethical issues surrounding these complex cases has the potential to positively influence a successful transition to adult-oriented health care.

  8. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  9. Fat absorption after total gastrectomy in rats submitted to Roux-en-Y or Rosanov-like double-transit technique Absorção de gordura após gastrectomia total em ratos com reconstrução em Y de Roux e em duplo trânsito tipo Rosanov modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sevá-Pereira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Steatorrhea is one of the most common complications in reconstruction after total gastrectomy. Many reconstruction techniques after total gastrectomy have been developed in order to avoid these undesirable effects, but each one of them has some inconvenience. In this experiment, a modified Rosanov technique that keeps duodenal transit, evaluation of fat absorption after gastrectomy was tested. METHODS: Three groups of rats with the same characteristics were used. Total gastrectomy was performed in two groups: one was operated on and transit was reestablished by the Roux-en-Y technique (group Y, while the other was submitted to the modified Rosanov technique (group R. Following surgery, a handmade hyper fatty diet (11% of fat was offered. A third group (control - group C was not operated but was submitted to the same conditions of the other groups, and used for reference steatocrit values. The animals underwent laparotomy 14 days after surgery and had their feces collected from cecum to determine their steatocrit by analysis of their values. RESULTS: Steatocrit values for groups R and C (mean 5.16% and 4.15% respectively were similar (p > 0.1, while group Y had significantly higher values (mean = 28.18%, p = 0.0001 - p OBJETIVO: Uma das principais complicações tardias da gastrectomia total com reconstrução de trânsito excluindo duodeno é a esteatorréia. Várias técnicas de reconstrução após gastrectomia total foram descritas para que se pudesse evitar esses efeitos indesejáveis, mas cada uma apresentou seus inconvenientes. Nesse estudo foi avaliada a técnica descrita por Rosanov com uma pequena modificação, que mantém o trânsito através do duodeno, para avaliar a absorção de gorduras. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados três grupos de ratos Wistar machos, com peso e características semelhante. Dois grupos foram submetidos à gastrectomia total: o primeiro teve sua reconstrução com técnica de Y de Roux (grupo Y, e o

  10. Predictability of critical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate transitions between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of transitions on the predictive performance.

  11. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  12. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  13. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  14. IR thermography for dynamic detection of laminar-turbulent transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bernhard; Filius, Adrian; Tropea, Cameron; Grundmann, Sven

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of infrared (IR) thermography for the dynamic detection of laminar-turbulent transition. The experiments are conducted on a flat plate at velocities of 8-14 m/s, and the transition of the laminar boundary layer to turbulence is forced by a disturbance source which is turned on and off with frequencies up to 10 Hz. Three different heating techniques are used to apply the required difference between fluid and structure temperature: a heated aluminum structure is used as an internal structure heating technique, a conductive paint acts as a surface bounded heater, while an IR heater serves as an example for an external heating technique. For comparison of all heating techniques, a normalization is introduced and the frequency response of the measured IR camera signal is analyzed. Finally, the different heating techniques are compared and consequences for the design of experiments on laminar-turbulent transition are discussed.

  15. Rural transit emergency planning guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Providing safe, reliable transportation has long been a priority at all levels of the transit industry including the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and individual transit providers. Over the l...

  16. Numerical studies of density transition injection in laser wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, F.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Thaury, C.; Malka, V.

    2017-08-01

    The quality of laser wakefield accelerated electrons beams is strongly determined by the physical mechanism exploited to inject electrons in the wakefield. One of the techniques used to improve the beam quality is the density transition injection, where the electron trapping occurs as the laser pulse passes a sharp density transition created in the plasma. Although this technique has been widely demonstrated experimentally, the literature lacks theoretical and numerical studies on the effects of all the transition parameters. We thus report and discuss the results of a series of particle in cell (PIC) simulations where the density transition height and downramp length are systematically varied, to show how the electron beam parameters and the injection mechanism are affected by the density transition parameters.

  17. A Spectral Approach to Transit Timing Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofir, Aviv; Xie, Ji-Wei; Jiang, Chao-Feng; Sari, Re’em; Aharonson, Oded

    2018-01-01

    The high planetary multiplicity revealed by Kepler implies that transit timing variations (TTVs) are intrinsically common. The usual procedure for detecting these TTVs is biased to long-period, deep transit planets, whereas most transiting planets have short periods and shallow transits. Here we introduce the Spectral Approach technique to TTVs that allows expanding the TTV catalog toward lower TTV amplitude, shorter orbital period, and shallower transit depth. In the spectral approach, we assume that a sinusoidal TTV exists in the data and then calculate the improvement to χ 2 that this model allows over that of the linear-ephemeris model. This enables detection of TTVs even in cases where the transits are too shallow, so that individual transits cannot be timed. The spectral approach is more sensitive because it has fewer free parameters in its model. Using the spectral approach, we (a) detect 129 new periodic TTVs in Kepler data (an increase of ∼2/3 over a previous TTV catalog); (b) constrain the TTV periods of 34 long-period TTVs and reduce amplitude errors of known TTVs; and (c) identify cases of multi-periodic TTVs, for which absolute planetary mass determination may be possible. We further extend our analysis by using perturbation theory assuming a small TTV amplitude at the detection stage, which greatly speeds up our detection (to a level of few seconds per star). Our extended TTV sample shows no deficit of short-period or low-amplitude transits, in contrast to previous surveys, in which the detection schemes were significantly biased against such systems.

  18. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  19. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  20. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    .... From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott...

  1. Transit management certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...

  2. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    2013-01-01

    and thereby facilitating new actor configurations in urban social-technical systems. This perspective may contribute to the study of transition processes that so far have not studied citizens' roles in depth. Based on discussions of theories on transition and institutional capacity building, the article...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...... discusses the mobilisation of citizens through social learning processes and how the develop-ment of new platforms plays a part in societal transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have per-formed innovative forms...

  3. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  4. Transitional Justice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Payero López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate Spanish transitional justice policy. The aspects of transitional justice put forward by L. Joinet –truth, justice and reparation– will frame this analysis. Firstly, the main deficiencies of this policy will be pointed out. Secondly, some measures to be adopted in Spain will be suggested. Their implementation would mean that international standards on the protection of human rights, as agreed within the specialized literature, would be met.

  5. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  6. Electroweak phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gregory W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, <Φ>T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of <Φ>T. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase <Φ>T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value <Φ> = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state <Φ> = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state <Φ> = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  7. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.

  8. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  9. The GRID Technique: Current Status and New Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Jentschel, Michael; B?rner, Hans G.; Lehmann, H.; Doll, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the GRID technique one measures Doppler-broadened line profiles of ? transitions using the high resolution crystal spectrometers GAMS, which are installed at the high flux reactor of the ILL Grenoble. One of the essential applications of this technique is the measurement of nuclear state lifetimes. In the present contribution the precision and the principal limits of the technique are discussed.

  10. The GRID Technique: Current Status and New Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschel, M; Börner, H G; Lehmann, H; Doll, C

    2000-01-01

    In the GRID technique one measures Doppler-broadened line profiles of γ transitions using the high resolution crystal spectrometers GAMS, which are installed at the high flux reactor of the ILL Grenoble. One of the essential applications of this technique is the measurement of nuclear state lifetimes. In the present contribution the precision and the principal limits of the technique are discussed.

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Travel In Transit and at the Destination Special Considerations While Traveling Abroad Transitions People with CF are ... Conference 2017 NACFC Carolyn and C. Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Can You Avoid Germs? What Are Germs? Traveling With CF Preparing to Travel In Transit and at the Destination Special Considerations While Traveling Abroad Transitions People with CF are living longer, ...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Are Germs? Traveling With CF Preparing to Travel In Transit and at the Destination Special Considerations While Traveling Abroad Transitions People with CF are living longer, healthier lives than ...

  14. Measurement techniques for liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hernández, D.; Richter, T.; Otte, D.; Buchenau, D.; Krauter, N.; Wondrak, T.

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of flow properties of liquid metals, such as flow rate, flow structure and gas distribution, is a challenging task due to the opaqueness, the high temperatures (e. g. 1500 °C for liquid steel or liquid silicon) and the corrosiveness of those fluids. In this paper, a short review about the recent developments of measurement techniques in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance Liquid Metal Technologies (LIMTECH) is presented. It focuses on the development of contactless inductive measurement techniques exploiting the high electrical conductivity of those melts. These measurement techniques include the contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT), which is able to reconstruct the mean three-dimensional velocity structure in liquid melts, local Lorentz force velocimetry (local LFV), which enables the local assessment of flows close to the wall, and inductive methods for bubble detection, which are based on mutual inductance tomography (MIT). Additionally, a short overview of contactless inductive flow rate measurement techniques is given. Furthermore, an ultrasound technique called ultrasound transit-time technique (UTTT) will be presented which enables the measurement of position and size of bubbles in large vessels.

  15. Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lesne, Annick

    2012-01-01

    During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...

  16. High Energy Exoplanet Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet transits of exoplanets allow us to probe the atmospheres of these worlds. High energy transits have been shown to be deeper but also more variable than in the optical. By simulating exoplanet transits using high-energy observations of the Sun, we can test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of these planets in the presence of stellar activity. We use both disk-resolved images of the Solar disk spanning soft X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical and also disk-integrated Sun-as-a-star observations of the Lyα irradiance to simulate transits over a wide wavelength range. We find that for stars with activity levels similar to the Sun, the planet-to-star radius ratio can be overestimated by up to 50% if the planet occults an active region at high energies. We also compare our simulations to high energy transits of WASP-12b, HD 189733, 55 Cnc b, and GJ 436b.

  17. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  18. Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running).

  19. Size-change termination and transition invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heizmann, Matthias; Jones, Neil; Podelski, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Two directions of recent work on program termination use the concepts of size-change termination resp. transition invariants. The difference in the setting has as consequence the inherent incomparability of the analysis and verification methods that result from this work. Yet, in order to facilit...... to facilitate the crossover of ideas and techniques in further developments, it seems interesting to identify which aspects in the respective formal foundation are related. This paper presents initial results in this direction....

  20. Spin Transition Molecular Materials: New Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Y., E-mail: garcia@chim.ucl.ac.be; Ksenofontov, V.; Guetlich, P. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany)

    2002-03-15

    This short review article concerns a new family of iron(II) spin transition chain compounds containing 4-R-1,2,4-triazole derivatives whose properties have been followed by several physical techniques. A clear evidence of the LIESST effect at 20 K has been found for one of these materials by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Potential applications in terms of pressure and thermal sensors are discussed.

  1. Transition to the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...... companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......, and find that the relationship between vendor and Value-added-Reseller (VAR) is greatly affected. We conclude by presenting critical issues and challenges for managing such cloud transition....

  2. Phase transition in nanomagnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dézsi, I.; Fetzer, Cs.; Gombkötő, Á.; Szűcs, I.; Gubicza, J.; Ungár, T.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the application of nanosized magnetite particles became an area of growing interest for their potential practical applications. Nanosized magnetite samples of 36 and 9nm sizes were synthesized. Special care was taken on the right stoichiometry of the magnetite particles. Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements were made in 4.2-300K temperature range. The temperature dependence of the intensities of the spectral components indicated size dependent transition taking place in a broad temperature range. For nanosized samples, the hyperfine interaction values and their relative intensities changed above the Verwey transition temperature value of bulk megnetite. The continuous transition indicated the formation of dendritelike granular assemblies formed during the preparation of the samples.

  3. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... amounts of amino acids to the blood. The physiology of the sow ensures that nutrient transfer to the offspring is not being compromised and that nutrients are preferentially being allocated to uterine tissues before parturition and to the udder after parturition. During the transition period, the sow...

  4. Transitions of Creatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjællegaard, Cecilie Bryld

    The degree of transferability of skills and knowledge from an creative occupation in the creative industries to the wider economy is a great point of discussion within research in the arts and cultural and creative industries. By applying human capital theory on the labor market for creatives......, this paper investigates the relationship between creative occupation and industry human capital and hourly wage after transitioning to a non-creative occupation and/ or industry. Further, it is investigated how the distance of the transition mediates the relationship between creative occupation and industry...... specific human capital and hourly wage. By making use of a matched employer-employee dataset from the Denmark from 1994 to 2007, wage equation are estimated. The results suggest that a transition from a creative occupation to a non-creative occupation results in an increase in the hourly wage...

  5. Modelling systematics of ground-based transit photometry I. Implications on transit timing variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, C.; Cellone, S.; Mallonn, M.

    2016-01-01

    , ground-based data acquired using small telescopes limit the technique to the follow-up of hot Jupiters. However, space-based missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have already revealed that hot Jupiters are mainly found in single systems. Thus, it is natural to question ourselves if we are properly using...... the observing time at hand carrying out such follow-ups, or if the use of medium-to-low quality transit light curves, combined with current standard techniques of data analysis, could be playing a main role against exoplanetary search via TTVs. The purpose of this work is to investigate to what extent ground......-based observations treated with current modelling techniques are reliable to detect and characterize additional planets in already known planetary systems. To meet this goal, we simulated typical primary transit observations of a hot Jupiter mimicing an existing system, Qatar-1. To resemble ground-based observations...

  6. An Observational Perspective of Transitional Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espaillat, C.; Muzerolle, J.; Najita, J.; Andrews, S.; Zhu, Z.; Calvet, N.; Kraus, S.; Hashimoto, J.; Kraus, A.; D'Alessio, P.

    Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about to undergo its next burst of growth as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reaches its full potential. We discuss what we have learned about transitional disks from SEDs, color-color diagrams, and imaging in the (sub)millimeter and infrared. We note the limitations of these techniques, particularly with respect to the sizes of the clearings currently detectable, and highlight the need for pairing broadband SEDs with multi-wavelength images to paint a more detailed picture of transitional disk structure. We review the gas in transitional disks, keeping in mind that future observations with ALMA will give us unprecedented access to gas in disks, and also observed infrared variability pointing to variable transitional disk structure, which may have implications for disks in general. We then distill the observations into constraints for the main disk-clearing mechanisms proposed to date (i.e., photoevaporation, grain growth, and companions) and

  7. Electroweak phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  8. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV

    1992-01-01

    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  9. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  10. Trauma in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    An ethnographic study examined the experiences of 23 Canadian Sioux students during their transition from a reservation elementary school to an urban public high school. Students encountered racial bias, low teacher expectations, isolation, frustration, and a lack of understanding by school personnel of cultural conflicts. Eighteen dropped out.…

  11. Military Lives: Coaching Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Nick; Gold, Jeff; Beech, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first consider how veterans use talk to shape interpretations of personal and social identity. Second, this paper seeks to gain an understanding of how veterans see themselves in a civilian world, their ability to re-conceptualise and realign their perspective on life to support their transition in to a…

  12. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... I define an evolutionary transition as a shift in the hierarchical level at which heritable fitness variance ... life, for example in eusocial insects, around 150 million years ago. None of these transformations was ...... affecting and heritable trait, and to introduce a mechanism which inhibits them from subsequent ...

  13. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  14. Gas contracts in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J. [Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The transition of gas marketing by producers from a regulated and structured market to an open competitive and commodity market has created new challenges for attorneys drafting gas sales contracts. This article examines the following related topics: Interruptible contracts; pricing provisions; transport imbalances.

  15. What is Transit?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He set out to Pondicherry with the idea of observing the transit of Venus. Rough seas and the ongoing Anglo-French war delayed his journey and he had to be content watching it from the sea. Determined to see the next one slated after 8 years, he wandered between Madagaskar and Manila studying nature. Unfortunately.

  16. COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    from war to peace. The goal was to better understand how IDRC gathers and shares pertinent information to inform programming and decision- making. How was the Centre alerted to impending transition? How did it ... visited Burma for a first-hand look. Aiming mostly to learn more about Burma's research organizations ...

  17. COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Twenty years of IDRC participation in Palestinian research have demonstrated the value of exploiting even the smallest progress when transition is otherwise failing. ... and the West Bank) served as a catalyst for a new round of intelligence gathering and analysis at IDRC. The Accords generated new hope for Palestinian ...

  18. COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    the early stages, capacity building might necessarily precede actual research. Above all, the particular features of any real or impending transition place a high value on strategic intelligence about local conditions. That means knowing the country, its politics, and its potential research partners even before research starts.

  19. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2011-01-01

    in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  20. Lost in Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Lassen, Claus

    Thinking of Transit Places, the first sites that comes to mind will probably be airports, train stations and motorways. Such places are overall mono-functional with the embedded rationales of people's desires to move (themselves or goods) from one place to another. Often different service functions...

  1. Logic of transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem, Johan van; Bergstra, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Labeled transition systems are key structures for modeling computation. In this paper, we show how they lend themselves to ordinary logical analysis (without any special new formalisms), by introducing their standard first-order theory. This perspective enables us to raise several

  2. Photoinduced phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, K

    2004-01-01

    A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.

  3. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  4. Families in Transition .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  5. Transitions as Speech Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, Alice Ann

    1993-01-01

    Reviews speech act theory to explain the function of writing transitions in terms of the illocutionary and perlocutionary effect of explicit performatives. Identifies explicit performatives in samples of professional writing in technical and academic areas. Suggest ways to revise textbooks to include the findings from speech act theory. (SR)

  6. Structural Phase Transition Accompanied by Metal - Insulator Transition in PrRu4P12

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. H.; Matsuhata, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Ohta, T.; Takazawa, H.; Ueno, K.; Sekine, C.; Shirotani, I.; Hirayama, T.

    2000-01-01

    A structural phase transition has been found using electron diffraction technique in PrRu4P12 accompanied by a metal - insulator (M - I) transition (TMI = 60K). Weak superlattice spots appeared at (H, K, L) (H + K + L = 2n + 1; n is an integer) position at a temperature of T = 12 K and 40 K. Above T = 70 K, the spots completely vanished. The space group of the low temperature phase is probably Pm3. This is the first observation of a symmetry other than Im3 in skutterudite compounds.

  7. Caltrans : transit funding manual : managing the delivery of transit projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    This manual attempts to provide a step by step transit funding process. Included in this manual : is an overview of Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, roles and responsibilities in : assisting local agencies to deliver transit projects. Transi...

  8. The Mongolia experience: transitioning within transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Richard G

    2009-12-01

    Although Mongolia has a long and distinguished history, as a new and emerging democracy it is experiencing the pains of transition-one that is moving the country from its pastoral and nomadic past into the 21st century. Confounded by its previous dependence on socialist Soviet Russia, the concept of a market economy seems opportunistic for some, while for those living within the traditional lifestyle of the herdsman in the countryside it is confusing and threatening to family structure and values. Adolescents and young adults are caught at the interface-not only of their own development, but by the disparities between tradition and Western values, new technology, and freedoms granted by the emerging democracy, and by the civic practice of democracy itself. Conceptually the new belongs to the young, and yet limited health and educational resources are available to modulate and focus both threats and opportunities. Using the analogy of the spirit banner of the warrior, it is the young as the warriors of the 21st century who have the energy and investment in the future that will be needed to shepherd this change. Both personal and public health, within the context of development, the psychobiological model, and the political and social ecology will be strong determinants of success. It is a parallel investment in both youth and the ideals they represent that will ensure success for the new Mongolia.

  9. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PARENT AND GUARDIAN GUIDANCE Working With Your Child's School Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and 504 Plans School Transitions for People With CF and Their Families ...

  11. The Wilson flow and the finite temperature phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandelt, M. [Department of Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstr. 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Knechtli, F. [Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstr. 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Günther, M. [Department of Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstr. 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2016-10-12

    We consider the determination of the finite temperature phase transition in the Yang-Mills SU(3) gauge theory. We compute the difference of the spatial and temporal energy density at a physical Wilson flow time. This difference is zero in the confined phase and becomes non zero in the deconfined phase. We locate the phase transition by using a new technique based on an exponential smoothing spline. This method is an alternative to the determination of the phase transition based on the Polyakov loop susceptibility and can also be used with dynamical fermions.

  12. Jamming transitions in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Smith, David M.; Käs, Josef A.

    2017-12-01

    The traditional picture of tissues, where they are treated as liquids defined by properties such as surface tension or viscosity has been redefined during the last few decades by the more fundamental question: under which conditions do tissues display liquid-like or solid-like behaviour? As a result, basic concepts arising from the treatment of tissues as solid matter, such as cellular jamming and glassy tissues, have shifted into the current focus of biophysical research. Here, we review recent works examining the phase states of tissue with an emphasis on jamming transitions in cancer. When metastasis occurs, cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumour and infiltrate other parts of the body. Recent studies have shown that a linkage between an unjamming transition and tumour progression indeed exists, which could be of importance when designing surgery and treatment approaches for cancer patients.

  13. Map Projection Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Map Projection Transitions is a very successful web application about map projections. The web page (http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/transition pre­sents a world map with graticule and country borders in the oblique Aitoff projection, with the South Pole. The map is not static, but animated. The South Pole moves toward the bottom and Earth rotates around its poles. The animation lasts five seconds, after which the projection changes and movement continues for five seconds, after which the projection changes again. Names of projections appear in a separate window. There are a total of 56 projections. The South Pole eventually becomes invisible and the North Pole appears at the top. Various parts of Earth appear in the center of the map by rotating around the poles.

  14. Global transition i sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2006-01-01

    Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity, and by degener......Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity......, and by degenerative, and man-made diseases in ageing populations. Omran could not foresee the HIV/AIDS pandemic or the dramatic fall in longevity and fertility in, for example, Russia. But his model remains of value for health planners and politicians. We advocate for research in the interplay between diseases...

  15. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2012-01-01

    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  16. Global transition in health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2007-01-01

    "Tempora mutantur et nos in illis" King Lothar I remarked by year 900 AD. What exactly changed in us over time, i.e. how patterns of the epidemiological transition in populations locally and globally might appear, was described by Omran in 1971 [1]. The effect of transition on health and diseases...... in populations was demonstrated by Frenkl et al in 1991 [2]. And which major public health problems following each other, and why, was underscored by LaPorte in 1995 [3]. In 2000, leaders of the world society decided to identify a range of common goals, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), to be reached...... by year 2015. Many of the MDG are directly or indirectly related with the major health problems, particularly those hitting the poorest: lack of clean drinking water, unhealthy environment, high maternal mortality due to lack of care for the pregnant, and lack of control of major communicable, often fatal...

  17. Tracking Transition: Issues in Asynchronous E-Mail Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muir Houston

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and focus of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the methodological issues involved with tracking a mobile population, namely students graduating from university; whose patterns of residence may for some time be transitory in nature. The second is to provide some details from a small sample of graduates on the issues raised in the transition from undergraduate study. The paper will tackle the two issues in order. First, an examination of recent methods of qualitative data collection which the development of information technology, in the form of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC, has allowed is undertaken. Second, the results of using one of these techniques (asynchronous e-mail to gather information on the transition from undergraduate study are reported. In addition, advantages and disadvantages that can arise in the use of these new techniques are reported. This paper engages with the overall theme of transition in a number of ways. First, the students are in a process of transition in status; from undergraduate to graduate. Second, in many cases, they may well be in transition in terms of location; from the university location either back home, or away to a new location. Third, they are in transition in terms of activity; either seeking or into employment or engaging in further study at a higher level. Finally, they may be in transition in relation to developing new social networks. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802116

  18. NPS national transit inventory, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document summarizes key highlights from the National Park Service (NPS) 2013 National Transit Inventory, and presents data for NPS transit systems system-wide. The document discusses statistics related to ridership, business models, fleet charac...

  19. Nav Status & Daily Transit Report -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Displays a breakdown of vessel transit through Eisenhower lock in Massena, NY by different types of vessels and comparing current year transits to the year previous....

  20. 2008 Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    England, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) is the Department of Defense's integrated business transformation plan, which incorporates the transition plans of the Military Services, Components and the DoD Enterprise...

  1. Philosophical explorations on energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Robert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel

  2. ATLAS Transitional Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the transitional radiation tracker within the ATLAS detector. Subjects covered include what the tracker is used to measure, its structure, what happens when particles pass through the tracker, how it distinguishes between different types of particles within it.

  3. Entrepreneurship and Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Ruta Aidis

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the entrepreneur's economic function has engaged economistsfor more than 200 years. In this paper we address the issue of entrepreneurship intwo distinct ways: a) as it has historically developed within the field of economicsand b) as it develops in the transitional context. In contrast to advanced westerneconomies, productive entrepreneurship cannot be taken for granted in transitioncountries. Therefore we propose a working definition and model for productiveentrepreneurshi...

  4. Empowering Students in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Catherine Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students’ attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was str...

  5. Eccentricity from transit photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Albrecht, Simon

    2015-01-01

    and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution with $\\sigma$ = 0.049 $\\pm$ 0.013. This is in full agreement with solar system eccentricities, but in contrast to the eccentricity distributions previously derived for exoplanets from radial velocity studies. Our findings are helpful in identifying which...... (TTVs), and we present some previously unreported TTVs. Finally transit durations help distinguish between false positives and true planets and we use our measurements to confirm six new exoplanets....

  6. The Need for Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Many wonder if the transition that occurred, or failed to occur in Iraq in the spring and summer of 2003, was a byproduct of poor planning or poor...it was believed that Phases I-III would take up to as much as 135 days, while General Tommy Franks, CENTCOM Commander, explained to President Bush on...The Royal United Services Institute 2003. Franks, Tommy , with Malcolm McConnell, American Soldier, New York: Reagan Books, 2004. Gordon

  7. Empowerment translated to transition

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Susmita

    2017-01-01

    This is well noted that women have been subjugated by the throes of patriarchy. They have been bounded by certain gendered social and cultural norms.In this study, we have found that being empowered by joining the self help gropus and with change in lifestyle factors along with sense of self esteem women influence the child birth decision which is leading to demographic transition irrespectiv of their settlement places.

  8. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  9. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  10. Photometric Defocus Observations of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias C. Hinse

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out photometric follow-up observations of bright transiting extrasolar planets using the CbNUOJ 0.6 m telescope. We have tested the possibility of obtaining high photometric precision by applying the telescope defocus technique, allowing the use of several hundred seconds in exposure time for a single measurement. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of obtaining a root-mean-square scatter of sub-millimagnitude order over several hours for a V ~10 host star, typical for transiting planets detected from ground-based survey facilities. We compared our results with transit observations from a telescope operated in in-focus mode. High photometric precision was obtained due to the collection of a larger amount of photons, resulting in a higher signal compared to other random and systematic noise sources. Accurate telescope tracking is likely to further contribute to lowering systematic noise by exposing the same pixels on the CCD. Furthermore, a longer exposure time helps reduce the effect of scintillation noise which otherwise has a significant effect for small-aperture telescopes operated in in-focus mode. Finally we present the results of modelling four light-curves in which a root-mean-square scatter of 0.70 to 2.3 milli-magnitudes was achieved.

  11. [Peruvian demographic transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Chirinos, C

    1988-06-01

    The demographic transition is conceptualized as the historic change from high to low fertility and mortality rates in a population. Peru's population was reduced by an estimated 80% as a result of new diseases, destruction of the economy, and the brutal regime of colonial exploitation after the Spanish conquest. From colonial times to the least the 1940s, Peru's principal population problem was the scarcity of manpower. The population grew at an annual rate of about .03% between 1650 and 1800, increasing to about 1.3% between 1876 and 1940. High fertility throughout the 19th century and a stabilization of mortality due to reduced incidence and deadliness of epidemics contributed to the increased growth rate. In the 1940s the process of demographic transition was initiated by abrupt declines in mortality. The crude death rate declined from 27/1000 in 1940 to 16/1000 in 1961 and 9/1000 in 1988, with the rate still declining. Fertility remained high and possibly increased slightly. The crude birth rate was estimated at 45/1000 in 1940 and 45.4/1000 in 1961. Improvements in infant and general mortality rates in developing countries like Peru result from diffusion of technological advances in prevention and control of diseases and improvement in health services rather than from changes in the economic and social structure. The 3rd phase of the demographic transition began with declines in fertility from 45.4/1000 in 1961 to 42.0/1000 in 1972 and 36.0/1000 in 1981. Despite declines, mortality and fertility continue to be elevated in Peru. The theory of demographic transition views the reduction of infant mortality, improvements in health and educational conditions and the condition of women, and more equitable income distribution as essential for a true decline in birth rates. In Peru, however, fertility has declined in a context of deteriorating living conditions and in the absence of effective family planning programs. The process of demographic transition must be

  12. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  13. Developments in Planet Detection using Transit Timing Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Agol, Eric; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.

    2006-12-01

    In a transiting planetary system, the presence of a second planet will cause the time interval between transits to vary. These transit timing variations (TTV) are particularly large near mean-motion resonances and can be used to infer the orbital elements of planets with masses that are too small to detect by any other means. The author presents the results of a study of simulated data where they show the potential that this planet detection technique has to detect and characterize secondary planets in transiting systems. These results have important ramifications for planetary transit searches since each transiting system presents an opportunity for additional discoveries through a TTV analysis. They present such an analysis for 13 transits of the HD 209458 system that were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. This analysis indicates that a putative companion in a low-order, mean-motion resonance can be no larger than the mass of the Earth and constitutes, to date, the most sensitive probe for extrasolar planets that orbit main sequence stars. The presence or absence of small planets in low-order, mean-motion resonances has implications for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Since TTV is most sensitive in these regimes, it should prove a valuable tool not only for the detection of additional planets in transiting systems, but also as a way to determine the dominant mechanisms of planet formation and the evolution of planetary systems.

  14. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  15. Laminar-Turbulent transition on Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Hernandez, Gabriel Gerardo

    The present thesis deals with the study of the rotational effects on the laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbine blades. Linear stability theory is used to formulate the stability equations that include the effect of rotation. The mean flow required as an input to stability computations...... parametrized and adapted to an wind turbine rotor geometry. The blade is resolved in radial sections along which calculations are performed. The obtained mean flow is classified according to the parameters used on the rotating configuration, geometry and operational conditions. The stability diagrams have been...... to define the resultant wave magnitude and direction. The propagation of disturbances in the boundary layers in three dimensional flows is relatively a complicated phenomena. The report discusses the available methods and techniques used to predict the transition location. Some common wind turbine airfoils...

  16. Scintigraphic study of colonic transit; Etude du transit colique par methode isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemann, M.; Picon, L.; Jian, R.

    1996-12-31

    Colonic radionuclide imaging allows a quantitative assessment of the transit of miscellaneous ingesta with the possibility of performing a great number of image acquisitions. Different techniques have been put forward: some include a colonic intubation, others, the latest ones, use a device allowing to deliver the radiopharmaceutical in the distal part of small intestine without entailing intubation. These techniques allow to get information about the precise area of the abnormalities and their mechanism in the diagnosis of the disorders of colonic motility. They should make patients` cure easier, and will prove useful to assess the value of new pro-kinetic agents. (authors). 241 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Boundary-layer transition on a plate subjected to simultaneous spanwise and chordwise pressure gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

    1974-01-01

    The boundary-layer transition on a short plate was studied by means of the china-clay visual technique. The plate model was mounted in a wind tunnel so that it was subjected to small simultaneous spanwise and chordwise pressure gradients. Results of the experimental study, which was performed at three subsonic velocities, indicated that the transition pattern was appreciably curved in the spanwise direction but quite smooth and well behaved. Reasonable comparisons between predictions of transition and experiment were obtained from two finite-difference two-dimensional boundary-layer calculation methods which incorporated transition models based on the concept of a transition intermittency factor.

  18. Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2016-04-19

    Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems.

  19. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  20. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2015-01-01

    Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...... such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby...

  1. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  2. Online Community Transition Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution...

  3. Semiconducting transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott or charge transfer insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a correlated gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g. for energy applications. In order to place the 3d orbitals and the sp bands into an integrated picture, band structure calculations should treat both contributions on the same footing and, at the same time, account fully for electron correlation in the 3d shell. Fundamentally, this is a rather daunting task for electronic structure calculations, but quasi-particle energy calculations in GW approximation offer a viable approach for band structure predictions in these materials. Compared to conventional semiconductors, the inherent multivalent nature of transition metal cations is more likely to cause undesirable localization of electron or hole carriers. Therefore, a quantitative prediction of the carrier self-trapping energy is essential for the assessing the semiconducting properties and to determine whether the transport mechanism is a band-like large-polaron conduction or a small-polaron hopping conduction. An overview is given for the binary 3d oxides on how the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the O-p orbitals of the ligands affects the effective masses and the likelihood of electron and hole self-trapping, identifying those situations where small masses and band-like conduction are more likely to be expected. The review concludes with an illustration of the implications of the increased electronic complexity of transition metal cations on the defect physics and doping, using

  4. Thesaurus Building With Transitive Closures For Kadre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Gautam; Bezdek, J. C.; Huang, Li-ya

    1987-05-01

    Currently there is a big thrust towards the development of automated, user-friendly online information retrieval systems, which are software packages that allow a user population to query and receive appropriate information that is stored in a computer data-base. Our research adopts a knowledge based approach to the design and development of KADRE (Knowledge Assisted Document Retrieval Expert), an experimental online document retrieval system. Knowledge based techniques allow us to incorporate some of an expert librarian's heuristic techniques into the retrieval process. We present the mathematical model of the retrieval system as a five step process and discuss the system thesaurus in some detail. Six different transitive closures of the relational matrix of term pairs are used to compute the thesaurus, and the retrieval output produced by these techniques are compared. Representation of the thesaurus as a transitive closure offers two very significant advan-tages: this method provides a means for completion of partial knowledge which is represented as numerical relational data; and the ensuing completion has a well defined property of (mathemati-cal) consistency.

  5. Subjection and subjectification / technique and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Clarizio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Course on The Hermeneutic of the Subject problematizes a theme that goes through the whole Foucault’s thought, that of technique. The article, through a dialogue among Foucault, Heidegger and Simondon, aims to trace the development of this theme, also asking the way the technique works when related to processes of subjection and subjectification.

  6. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit... Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA...'s (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

  7. 309 Building transition plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-08-31

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

  8. Physical education in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of physical inactivity and insufficient education about its importance are affecting not only the length and the quality of life, but also the economic aspects, such as health care costs caused by the reduction in labour productivity of the Serbian population. Based on previous experiences of countries in transition and those that have well-arranged systems of education, in terms of teaching of physical education programmes, there are possibilities for the necessary reform of the curriculum, adapted to our abilities and needs. These are primarily related to the objectives of education - proper development and creation of positive habits regarding physical activity and health. So far, the reforms of physical education in Serbia have not produced results. The reform should be the transition from education focused on the program to education focused on the ultimate goals (knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards physical activity, i.e. the lifelong values. The objectives and outcomes of teaching physical education should be individualized according to the psychosomatic status and specific dimensions of that status. Therefore, the role and responsibility of teachers change and it is necessary to reform their education. Of course, government is very involved in all of this, at all levels - throughout strategies and campaigns to raise awareness of the nation and its knowledge about the importance of physical activity through all forms of education.

  9. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  10. Atomic transition probabilities of Gd i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J E; Den Hartog, E A [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bilty, K A, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: biltyka@uwec.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States)

    2011-05-14

    Fourier transform spectra are used to determine emission branching fractions for 1290 lines of the first spectrum of gadolinium (Gd i). These branching fractions are converted to absolute atomic transition probabilities using previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2011 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44 055001). The wavelength range of the data set is from 300 to 1850 nm. A least squares technique for separating blends of the first and second spectra lines is also described and demonstrated in this work.

  11. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouborg, N. Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    in conservation biology. This has allowed assessment of the impact of genetic drift on genetic variation, of the level of inbreeding within populations, and of the amount of gene flow between or within populations. Recent developments in genomic techniques, including next generation sequencing, whole genome scans...... and gene-expression pattern analysis, have made it possible to step up from a limited number of neutral markers to genome-wide estimates of functional genetic variation. Here, we focus on how the transition of conservation genetics to conservation genomics leads to insights into the dynamics of selectively...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... School Transitions for People With CF and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF ... Reproductive System? Sex and CF: Some Practical Advice Family Planning and Parenting With CF Making Your Family ...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cystic fibrosis comes with many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you ... What Are Germs? Traveling With CF Preparing to Travel In Transit and at the Destination Special Considerations ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other organs, and how to treat and live with this chronic disease. Role of Genetics in ... Transitions People with CF are living longer, healthier lives than ever before. As an adult with CF, ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GUIDANCE Working With Your Child's School Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and 504 Plans School Transitions for People ... more than 120 care centers and 53 affiliate programs nationwide. The high quality of specialized care available ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and find the best possible CF care. CF Infant Care PARENT AND GUARDIAN GUIDANCE Working With Your Child's School Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and 504 Plans School Transitions for ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best possible CF care. CF Infant Care PARENT AND GUARDIAN GUIDANCE Working With Your Child's School Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and 504 Plans School Transitions for ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GUARDIAN GUIDANCE Working With Your Child's School Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and 504 Plans School Transitions for ... provides standard care guidelines based on the latest research, medical evidence, and consultation with experts on best ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a Child With CF Daily Life En Español Transitions Treatments & Therapies Care Care Centers Clinical Care ... Opt-Out Legal Terms & Conditions Charity Disclosures En Español

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GUARDIAN GUIDANCE Working With Your Child's School Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and 504 Plans School Transitions for ... Accommodations for College Scholarships and Financial Aid Reproductive Health and Fertility Contraception and Protection How Does CF ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and at the Destination Special Considerations While Traveling Abroad Transitions People with CF are living longer, healthier ... understanding of CF continues to evolve as scientists study what causes the disease and how it affects ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resources to help you manage your child’s daily needs and find the best possible CF care. ... Transitions for People With CF and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... School Transitions for People With CF and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life Living with cystic fibrosis comes with many challenges, ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Are Germs? Traveling With CF Preparing to Travel In Transit and at the Destination Special Considerations ... Appeals Glossary of Common Health Insurance Terms Understanding Travel Insurance Research X close About Our Research The ...

  5. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  6. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  7. Extraction of intermittent waveforms associated with the zonal flow at the transition leading to the edge shear flow layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, B. A.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Perez, R. B.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Silva, C.

    2011-05-01

    A new technique for the detection of (very) low-frequency oscillations with significant long-range correlation is presented. The technique is applied to Langmuir probe data obtained at the TJ-II stellarator in discharges with spontaneous confinement transitions with and without electrode biasing. A succession of low-frequency and very low-frequency oscillations is observed, preceding the confinement transition.

  8. First Results from the Wesleyan Transiting Exoplanet Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Leiner, E. M.; Redfield, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from the first six months of observations of the Wesleyan Transiting Exoplanet Program (WesTEP). A selection of exoplanet transits has been observed using the 24” Perkin Telescope at Wesleyan University's Van Vleck Observatory. The use of defocusing and manual guiding (as no autoguiding is available) has been explored to improve the quality of the data. These techniques allow the achievement of a photometric RMS as low as 1 mmag. The dataset now includes more than two dozen transits, which we use to search for evidence of transit timing variations and refine the ephemerides of recently discovered planets. This research was funded by the NASA CT Space Grant Consortium.

  9. Structures in Transitional Taylor-Couette Flows Identified using POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabani, Stavroula; Imomoh, Eboshogwe; Dusting, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The flow in the gap between concentric cylinders, or Taylor-Couette flow, has been used to study transition to turbulence for decades, and is also utilised for various biotechnological and industrial processes. Transitional flow states depend highly on vessel geometry; they are also three-dimensional and often time dependent limiting the use of experimental techniques for their characterisation. In this talk the transition to turbulence in a Taylor-Couette flow is studied by means of time resolved PIV velocity fields and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). It is found that for the particular geometry studied the transition to turbulence occurs via a quasi periodic regime characterised by a fast moving azimuthal wave (FMAW). Aspects of the FMAW structure, such as a series of co-rotating vortices that increase in strength away from the endwalls, are also revealed by spatially resolved POD.

  10. Transition of natural teeth to denture (Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Anita Kristanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic needs of patients with complete dentures is currently greatly increasing. To encounter of the stages and the process of complete dentures settlement that takes time, the operators must develop a variety of techniques to overcome them. One of it is by considering the transitional denture method to overcome the aesthetics problem during these stages. Various selection methods during this transitional stage are the making of overdenture, immediate dentures or denture after clearance all remaining natural teeth. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages. Principally, the aesthetic needs, adaptation process, masticatory function and the tissues health are the main reason of this transitional denture. As conclusion, dentures transition method is very helpfull to encounter the patients problems to finish the process of definitive dentures settlement.

  11. Early transition into adult roles: some antecedents and some outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, F M; Frese, W

    1982-01-01

    The transition to adult roles usually occurs within a normative age span. By focusing on preadolescence to late adolescence using 2-wave panel data, this research seeks to develop a more informed picture of how "early" exit from the student role and "early" entry into the adult role of parent or spouse reflect factors operating prior to adolescence. The short term consequences of adult role transition on teenage status aspirations, life plans, other psychological orientations, and parental influence are also examined. Even though multiple role transition is frequently observed, only leaving school early appears to be related to preadolescent career decisions and academic performance in high school. The determinants of early transition to the role of parent or spouse do not appear to be socioeconomic origins, parental child rearing techniques or other specific influences, academic ability or performance, or preadolescent aspirations, as has generally been hypothesized in the literature. Research dilemmas and policy implications are discussed.

  12. Steered transition path sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan

    2012-06-21

    We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

  13. Strategic planning in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse how contested transitions in planning rationalities and spatial logics have shaped the processes and outputs of recent episodes of Danish ‘strategic spatial planning’. The practice of ‘strategic spatial planning’ in Denmark has undergone a concerted reorientation...... style of ‘strategic spatial planning’ with its associated spatial logics is continuously challenged by a persistent regulatory, top-down rationality of ‘strategic spatial planning’, rooted in spatial Keynesianism, which has long characterised the Danish approach. The findings reveal the emergence...... of a particularly Danish approach, retaining strong regulatory aspects. However this approach does not sit easily within the current neoliberal political climate, raising concerns of an emerging crisis of ‘strategic spatial planning’....

  14. Transitions in Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social...... problems. The results show that social problems during upbringing have a large and significant effect on children's educational outcome and that the indicators of social problems explain about 20–30 per cent of the class differences in the students’ educational outcomes....

  15. Managing a Leader Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-23

    GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR MILITARY LEADERSHIP WRITING COMPETITION SUBMISSION Managing a Leader Transition Process Major Michael B. Siegl 23...DATE 23 FEB 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing a Leader Transition Process 5a...1 Managing a Leader Transition Process …one should bear in mind that there is nothing more difficult to execute, nor more dubious of

  16. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  17. Linking Complexity and Sustainability Theories: Implications for Modeling Sustainability Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camaren Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deploy a complexity theory as the foundation for integration of different theoretical approaches to sustainability and develop a rationale for a complexity-based framework for modeling transitions to sustainability. We propose a framework based on a comparison of complex systems’ properties that characterize the different theories that deal with transitions to sustainability. We argue that adopting a complexity theory based approach for modeling transitions requires going beyond deterministic frameworks; by adopting a probabilistic, integrative, inclusive and adaptive approach that can support transitions. We also illustrate how this complexity-based modeling framework can be implemented; i.e., how it can be used to select modeling techniques that address particular properties of complex systems that we need to understand in order to model transitions to sustainability. In doing so, we establish a complexity-based approach towards modeling sustainability transitions that caters for the broad range of complex systems’ properties that are required to model transitions to sustainability.

  18. The American Indian: Tradition and Transition through Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrow, Leona M.

    The purpose of this teaching guide is to educate middle school students about American Indian culture reflected through Indian art forms. Ten contemporary Native American artists are featured with works representing both traditional and transitional techniques and materials. Represented art forms include beadwork, carvings, basketry, jewelry,…

  19. Secondary Structures Associated With Alkaline Transition of Horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectra of amide I region (1700-1600cm-1) of horse heart ferricytochrome c at 20oC are reported at low ionic strength at of pH values between 7.0 and 11.5 encompassing the alkaline transition. The mid-infrared spectra can probe the protein secondary structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic technique ...

  20. The thumb rule reveals: facilitating the transition from electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... any difference between the two said geometries and thereby facilitates the transition from electron to molecular geometry and vice versa. The use of this technique is additionally advantageous since it is simple to apply and does not require any materials (and is therefore free of charge). Importantly, it is a fun exercise that ...

  1. Positive Aspects of International Student Transitions: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Lisa; Popadiuk, Natalee

    2011-01-01

    Despite the considerable growth of the international student population, positive aspects of their experience have received little attention. The current study combines a Critical Incident Technique methodology and a positive psychology lens to explore the cross-cultural transition of seven international students, focusing on facilitative factors,…

  2. Flow visualization of swept wing boundary layer transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpieri, J.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the flow visualization of the transition pattern occurring on a swept wing in a subsonic flow is presented. This is done by means of fluorescent oil flow technique and boundary layer hot-wire scans. The experiment was performed at Reynolds number of 2:15 . 106 and at angle of attack of

  3. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  4. Picking up the Pieces: Themes in Macedonian Midcareer Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudnik, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Addressing midcareer transition in post-socialist Macedonia, this work sought to provide practical help to participants through a range of techniques. Four themes are identified as important options for transitioners. Enthusiasm for "entrepreneurship" is tempered by a lack of funds and "portfolio careers" are also viewed with…

  5. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  6. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  7. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2006-01-17

    Radiative transitions between charmonium states offer an insight into the internal structure of heavy-quark bound states within QCD. We compute, for the first time within lattice QCD, the transition form-factors of various multipolarities between the lightest few charmonium states. In addition, we compute the experimentally unobservable, but physically interesting vector form-factors of the {eta}{sub c}, J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c0}. To this end we apply an ambitious combination of lattice techniques, computing three-point functions with heavy domain wall fermions on an anisotropic lattice within the quenched approximation. With an anisotropy {xi} = 3 at a{sub s} {approx} 0.1 fm we find a reasonable gross spectrum and a hyperfine splitting {approx}90 MeV, which compares favorably with other improved actions. In general, after extrapolation of lattice data at non-zero Q{sup 2} to the photopoint, our results agree within errors with all well measured experimental values. Furthermore, results are compared with the expectations of simple quark models where we find that many features are in agreement; beyond this we propose the possibility of constraining such models using our extracted values of physically unobservable quantities such as the J/{psi} quadrupole moment. We conclude that our methods are successful and propose to apply them to the problem of radiative transitions involving hybrid mesons, with the eventual goal of predicting hybrid meson photoproduction rates at the GlueX experiment.

  8. Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.

  9. Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M. A.; Continentino, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.

  10. Increasing Capacity of Intersections with Transit Priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxi Hao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated bus lane (DBL and transit signal priority (TSP are two effective and low-cost ways of improving the reliability of transits. However, these strategies reduce the capacity of general traffic. This paper presents an integrated optimization (IO model to improve the performance of intersections with dedicated bus lanes. The IO model integrated geometry layout, main-signal timing, pre-signal timing and transit priority. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mix-Integer-Non-Linear-Program (MINLP that can be transformed into a Mix-Integer-Linear-Program (MILP and then solved by the standard branch-and-bound technique. The applicability of the IO model is tested through numerical experiment under different intersection layouts and traffic demands. A VISSIM micro simulation model was developed and used to evaluate the performance of the proposed IO model. The test results indicate that the proposed model can increase the capacity and reduce the delay of general traffic when providing priority to buses.

  11. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  12. {epsilon} expansion analysis of very weak first-order transitions in the cubic anisotropy model. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P.; Yaffe, L.G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The cubic anisotropy model provides a simple example of a system with an arbitrarily weak first-order phase transition. We present an analysis of this model using {epsilon}-expansion techniques with results up to next-to-next-to-leading order in {epsilon}. Specifically, we compute the relative discontinuity of various physical quantities across the transition in the limit that the transition becomes arbitrarily weakly first order. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. That eagle covering me: transitioning and connected autonomy for emerging adults with cystinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Maya; Werner-Lin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background Rare diseases pose transitioning challenges owing to limited provider expertise and changing healthcare systems. The timeframe and developmental changes of emerging adulthood overlap with the transition of patients with cystinosis from pediatric to adult-oriented healthcare. Methods This study utilized techniques of qualitative grounded theory to explore the experiences of adults aged 18?47 with cystinosis, and their parents, with a focus on the transition to adulthood and adult-or...

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  15. Representing vertex-transitive Vertex-transitive graphs on Groupoids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertex-transitive graphs are one of the most favoured class of graphs in modelling scientific phenomena if symmetry is at issue. An understanding of these graphs should, therefore, be an obvious undertaking. Here, we present a characterisation of vertex-transitive graphs as left loop graphs and expose the measure of ...

  16. High-pressure phase transition of alkali metal-transition metal deuteride Li2PdD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yansun; Stavrou, Elissaios; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Majumdar, Arnab; Wang, Hui; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Epshteyn, Albert; Purdy, Andrew P.

    2017-06-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of lithium palladium deuteride (Li2PdD2) subjected to pressures up to 50 GPa reveals one structural phase transition near 10 GPa, detected by synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, and metadynamics simulations. The ambient-pressure tetragonal phase of Li2PdD2 transforms into a monoclinic C2/m phase that is distinct from all known structures of alkali metal-transition metal hydrides/deuterides. The structure of the high-pressure phase was characterized using ab initio computational techniques and from refinement of the powder x-ray diffraction data. In the high-pressure phase, the PdD2 complexes lose molecular integrity and are fused to extended [PdD2]∞ chains. The discovered phase transition and new structure are relevant to the possible hydrogen storage application of Li2PdD2 and alkali metal-transition metal hydrides in general.

  17. Analysis on insulator–metal transition in yttrium doped LSMO from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 1 ... LSMO; X-ray diffraction; MEM; charge density; insulator – metal transition. Abstract. Yttrium doped LSMO (La1−SrMnO3) was prepared using sol–gel technique and analysed for the insulator–metal transition fromcharge density variation in the unit cell ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The Basics CF Mutations Video Series CFTR2 Personalized Medicine Types ... of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of ... Pulmonary Exacerbations Clinical Care Guidelines SCREENING & TREATING DEPRESSION & ANXIETY GUIDELINES Clinician Resources As a clinician, you’re ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ... for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can ...

  1. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without ... in expensive cookware. You can use basic cooking techniques to prepare food in healthy ways. By using ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you can manage your disease every day, you can ... Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique (ACBT) Airway Clearance Techniques ( ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear ...

  4. DNS Studies of Transitional Hypersonic Reacting Flows Over 3-D Hypersonic Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xiaolin

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are to develop CFD techniques and to conduct DNS studies of fundamental flow physics leading to boundary-layer instability and transition in hypersonic flows...

  5. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  6. Techniques for characterizing lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Daniel J. Yelle; Umesh P. Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Many techniques are available to characterize lignin. The techniques presented in this chapter are considered nondegradative, which are commonly applied to lignin. A brief discussion of lignin structure is included with this chapter to aid the reader in understanding why the discussed characterization techniques are appropriate for the study of lignin. Because the...

  7. The backcross sterility technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. C. Mastro; A. Pellegrini-Toole

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) and the induced inherited (F1) sterility technique have been investigated for a number of lepidopterous pests, including the gypsy moths. Another technique, backcross sterility, which could potentially prove as or more useful for control of pest species has been developed for the control of only one lepidopteran...

  8. Bank lending in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    Bank privatization and tighter credit enforcement are believed indispensable to facilitate the Eastern European transition process. We analyze lending by value-maximizing banks, the only source of capital in the transition, faced by non-performing loans to the state-owned sector. We show that banks

  9. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, S.A.; Fisher, R.M.; Gardner, A.; Kiers, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed

  10. A simple and accurate relative alternative magnetic susceptibility measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawilski, B.M., E-mail: zawilski@grenoble.cnrs.f [Institut Neel-MCMF--CNRS-UJF 25, Rue des Martyrs, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Marcus, J.; Plaindoux, P. [Institut Neel-MCMF-CNRS-UJF 25, Rue des Martyrs, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    Investigation of relative AC magnetic susceptibility interests for many magnetic transition studies such as superconductor transition. A technique based on mutual or self inductive measure provides a fast and relatively easy (no contact) way to determinate the temperature of any transition affecting the magnetic susceptibility. The half Wheatstone inductive/resistive bridge is used instead of the usual RLC quarter bridge in order to balance the bore inductance of the coil. A comparison between quarter and half bridge measurements illustrates the accuracy of our device.

  11. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Optically Remote Noncontact Heart Rates Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkongoum, W.; Boonduang, S.; Limsuwan, P.

    2017-09-01

    Heart rate monitoring via optically remote noncontact technique was reported in this research. A green laser (5 mW, 532±10 nm) was projected onto the left carotid artery. The reflected laser light on the screen carried the deviation of the interference patterns. The interference patterns were recorded by the digital camera. The recorded videos of the interference patterns were frame by frame analysed by 2 standard digital image processing (DIP) techniques, block matching (BM) and optical flow (OF) techniques. The region of interest (ROI) pixels within the interference patterns were analysed for periodically changes of the interference patterns due to the heart pumping action. Both results of BM and OF techniques were compared with the reference medical heart rate monitoring device by which a contact measurement using pulse transit technique. The results obtained from BM technique was 74.67 bpm (beats per minute) and OF technique was 75.95 bpm. Those results when compared with the reference value of 75.43±1 bpm, the errors were found to be 1.01% and 0.69%, respectively.

  13. Centroid vetting of transiting planet candidates from the Next Generation Transit Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Maximilian N.; Queloz, Didier; Gillen, Edward; McCormac, James; Bayliss, Daniel; Bouchy, Francois; Walker, Simon. R.; West, Richard G.; Eigmüller, Philipp; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Armstrong, David J.; Burleigh, Matthew; Casewell, Sarah L.; Chaushev, Alexander P.; Goad, Michael R.; Grange, Andrew; Jackman, James; Jenkins, James S.; Louden, Tom; Moyano, Maximiliano; Pollacco, Don; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Rauer, Heike; Raynard, Liam; Thompson, Andrew P. G.; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Christopher A.; Wheatley, Peter J.

    2017-11-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), operating in Paranal since 2016, is a wide-field survey to detect Neptunes and super-Earths transiting bright stars, which are suitable for precise radial velocity follow-up and characterization. Thereby, its sub-mmag photometric precision and ability to identify false positives are crucial. Particularly, variable background objects blended in the photometric aperture frequently mimic Neptune-sized transits and are costly in follow-up time. These objects can best be identified with the centroiding technique: if the photometric flux is lost off-centre during an eclipse, the flux centroid shifts towards the centre of the target star. Although this method has successfully been employed by the Kepler mission, it has previously not been implemented from the ground. We present a fully automated centroid vetting algorithm developed for NGTS, enabled by our high-precision autoguiding. Our method allows detecting centroid shifts with an average precision of 0.75 milli-pixel (mpix), and down to 0.25 mpix for specific targets, for a pixel size of 4.97 arcsec. The algorithm is now part of the NGTS candidate vetting pipeline and automatically employed for all detected signals. Further, we develop a joint Bayesian fitting model for all photometric and centroid data, allowing to disentangle which object (target or background) is causing the signal, and what its astrophysical parameters are. We demonstrate our method on two NGTS objects of interest. These achievements make NGTS the first ground-based wide-field transit survey ever to successfully apply the centroiding technique for automated candidate vetting, enabling the production of a robust candidate list before follow-up.

  14. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is satisfied...

  15. Observational biases for transiting planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David M.; Sandford, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Observational biases distort our view of nature, such that the patterns we see within a surveyed population of interest are often unrepresentative of the truth we seek. Transiting planets currently represent the most informative data set on the ensemble properties of exoplanets within 1 au of their star. However, the transit method is inherently biased due to both geometric and detection-driven effects. In this work, we derive the overall observational biases affecting the most basic transit parameters from first principles. By assuming a trapezoidal transit and using conditional probability, we infer the expected distribution of these terms both as a joint distribution and in a marginalized form. These general analytic results provide a baseline against which to compare trends predicted by mission-tailored injection/recovery simulations and offer a simple way to correct for observational bias. Our results explain why the observed population of transiting planets displays a non-uniform impact parameter distribution, with a bias towards near-equatorial geometries. We also find that the geometric bias towards observed planets transiting near periastron is attenuated by the longer durations which occur near apoastron. Finally, we predict that the observational bias with respect to ratio-of-radii is super-quadratic, scaling as (RP/R⋆)5/2, driven by an enhanced geometric transit probability and modestly longer durations.

  16. Transition Probabilities of Gd I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilty, Katherine; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth transition probabilities are needed within the astrophysics community to determine rare earth abundances in stellar photospheres. The current work is part an on-going study of rare earth element neutrals. Transition probabilities are determined by combining radiative lifetimes measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atom beam with branching fractions measured from high resolution Fourier transform spectra. Neutral rare earth transition probabilities will be helpful in improving abundances in cool stars in which a significant fraction of rare earths are neutral. Transition probabilities are also needed for research and development in the lighting industry. Rare earths have rich spectra containing 100's to 1000's of transitions throughout the visible and near UV. This makes rare earths valuable additives in Metal Halide - High Intensity Discharge (MH-HID) lamps, giving them a pleasing white light with good color rendering. This poster presents the work done on neutral gadolinium. We will report radiative lifetimes for 135 levels and transition probabilities for upwards of 1500 lines of Gd I. The lifetimes are reported to ±5% and the transition probabilities range from 5% for strong lines to 25% for weak lines. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CTS 0613277 and the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881.

  17. Transitions in a wicked environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Rhett; Comer, Linda; Whichello, Ramona

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this review is to synthesize the current body of knowledge concerning transitional care for patients 65 years of age and older moving from the acute care setting to home. Transitional care is a timely topic as hospital days of care decrease whereas patient needs grow more complex as a result of aging populations. This review considers evidence-based research as well as reports, case studies and literature reviews related to transitional care. International articles are included. The authors explore transitional care through the lens of wicked problems; problems that appear seemingly intractable and are characterized by inter-related dilemmas, contradictory agendas, and multi-layered societal, economic and political influences. Outcome measures of success, barriers to achieving successful transitional care and effectiveness of interventions are investigated. While the literature offers specific strategies that positively affect transitional care, there are few strategies that do not negatively affect an alternate agenda. Conscientious leaders should consider transitional care in the context of its wicked nature in order to achieve optimal patient care. Stakeholders include: hospital administrators, nurse leaders, direct-care nurses, acute care and primary care clinicians, patients, caregivers, community agencies, health sciences educators and insurers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M

    2017-02-18

    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  20. A Decidable Recursive Logic for Weighted Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop and study the Recursive Weighted Logic (RWL), a multi-modal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties of labelled weighted transition systems (LWSs). LWSs are transition systems labelled with actions and real-valued quantities representing the costs...... satisfied by the recursive variables. We prove that unlike in the case of the timed logics, the satisfiability problem for RWL is decidable. The proof uses a variant of the region construction technique used in literature with timed automata, which we adapt to the specific settings of RWL. This paper...

  1. Fractional Quantum Hall Plateau Transitions and Composite Fermi Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gil Young; Moon, Eun-Gook; Fradkin, Eduardo

    We will investigate relationship between the fractional quantum Hall plateau transition from Laughlin state at ν =1/2 n + 1 to a trivial insulator, and composite Fermi liquid at ν =1/2 (2 n + 1) . We use the recently-developed quantum field theoretic technique, 3d dualities, in combinations with the coupled-wire descriptions for quantum Hall states. We will show that we can also access various other phases, including non-abelian paired states at ν =1/2 (2 n + 1) , from the plateau transition. This work is supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government and KAIST start-up funding (GYC & EGM).

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions because CF affects many aspects of your child’s life. Here you’ll find resources to help you ... for CF Life With CF Caring for a Child With CF Daily Life En Español Transitions Treatments & Therapies Care Care Centers ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is CF? About Cystic Fibrosis CF Genetics Diagnosis Testing for CF Life With CF Caring for a Child With CF Daily Life En Español Transitions Treatments & Therapies Care Care Centers Clinical Care Guidelines Clinician ...

  4. New graduate nurses in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2014-01-01

    was to review existing research literature, and in doing so, investigate transition programmes for new graduate nurses (NGN) into mental health care, and their experiences of role transition and evaluations of participation in transition programmes. The literature review spans literature published after...... the year 2000. The literature search was conducted using the following databases: CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and Pubmed. Search results consisting of 14 articles were analysed using thematic analysis. Results from the analysis showed four overall themes: nursing...

  5. The 2012 Transit of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, P.

    2012-08-01

    On June 5-6, 2012, much of the world will experience an event that will not occur again for another 105 years - a transit of Venus. During the 18th and 19th centuries, astronomers made arduous trips to remote corners of Earth to make Venus transit observations in an attempt to calculate the Earth-Sun distance. Today a transit of Venus is simply a rare spectacle. But it is important to take care when viewing it, because observing the Sun is dangerous if proper filters for eye protection are not used.

  6. Theoretical Studies on Phase Transitions in Quasi-One-Dimensional Molecular Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Otsuka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A review is given for recent theoretical studies on phase transitions in quasi-one-dimensional molecular conductors with a quarter-filled band. By lowering temperature, charge transfer salts exhibit a variety of transitions accompanying symmetry breaking, such as charge ordering, lattice dimerization, antiferromagnetic transition, spin-Peierls distortion, and so on. Analyses on microscopic quasi-one-dimensional models provide their systematic understandings, by the complementary use of different analytical and numerical techniques; they can reproduce finite-temperature phase transitions, whose results can be directly compared with experiments and give feedbacks to material design.

  7. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  8. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  9. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  10. Materials characterization techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Sam; Li, L; Kumar, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    "With an emphasis on practical applications and real-world case studies, Materials Characterization Techniques presents the principles of widely used advanced surface and structural characterization...

  11. Empowering Students in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students' attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they do not feel a lack of power in their lives. This study implemented elements of a quantitative design but a majority utilized a qualitative design based on the assumptions of the Interpretivist paradigm. The quantitative design elements focused on the analysis of two questionnaires: Sports Questionnaire and the Perceived Control Scale Questionnaire. The analysis of the focus group data revealed the following themes as positive effects of the intervention: positive effect on empowerment, how happy the program made the students, what benefits the students gained from the program, the student's familiarity with university students, and the environment, and, lastly, the students ability to ask for assistance when need. Findings from the study determined that the empowerment of the students with disabilities was impacted while participating in the program. In general, the findings of gaining empowerment were similar to previous studies in that students with disabilities are able to gain empowerment from participation in fitness and recreation programs. The researcher noted during focus groups that some of the Best of Both Worlds (BOBW) students were not confident in starting conversations with their university peers. Although the BOBW students felt a sense of losing empowerment with this specific instance, there was an overall positive impact on the BOBW students

  12. Empowering Students in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Catherine Sullivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (a identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus, and (b to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students’ attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they don’t feel a lack of power in their lives. This study implemented elements of a quantitative design but a majority utilized a qualitative design based on the assumptions of the Interpretivist paradigm. The quantitative design elements focused on the analysis of two questionnaires: Sports Questionnaire; and The Perceived Control Scale Questionnaire. The analysis of the focus group data revealed the following themes as positive effects of the intervention; positive effect on empowerment, how happy the program made the students, what benefits the students gained from the program, the student’s familiarity with university students, and the environment and lastly the students ability to ask for assistance when need. Findings from the study determined that the empowerment of the students with disabilities was impacted while participating in the program. In general, the findings of gaining empowerment were similar to previous studies in that students with disabilities are able to gain empowerment from participation in fitness and recreation programs. The researcher noted during focus groups that some of the BOBW students were not confident in starting conversations with their university. Although the BOBW students felt a sense of losing empowerment with this specific instance, there was an overall positive impact on the BOBW students

  13. Empowering Students in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify potential benefits for students with disabilities taking part in a physical activity program with same-age typical peers on a Midwest university campus and (b) to determine if the program impacted the students with disabilities empowerment. Empowerment theory was used to determine how transition students’ attitudes change over the course of the semester while participating in a workout buddy program with same-age college peers. The program was structured to provide a sense of empowerment to students to make their own decisions and learn for themselves so they do not feel a lack of power in their lives. This study implemented elements of a quantitative design but a majority utilized a qualitative design based on the assumptions of the Interpretivist paradigm. The quantitative design elements focused on the analysis of two questionnaires: Sports Questionnaire and the Perceived Control Scale Questionnaire. The analysis of the focus group data revealed the following themes as positive effects of the intervention: positive effect on empowerment, how happy the program made the students, what benefits the students gained from the program, the student’s familiarity with university students, and the environment, and, lastly, the students ability to ask for assistance when need. Findings from the study determined that the empowerment of the students with disabilities was impacted while participating in the program. In general, the findings of gaining empowerment were similar to previous studies in that students with disabilities are able to gain empowerment from participation in fitness and recreation programs. The researcher noted during focus groups that some of the Best of Both Worlds (BOBW) students were not confident in starting conversations with their university peers. Although the BOBW students felt a sense of losing empowerment with this specific instance, there was an overall positive impact on the BOBW students

  14. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  15. NPS National Transit Inventory, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Working in coordination with the NPS regions and the U.S. Department of Transportations Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, the Alternative transportation program (ATP) developed a definition of National Park Service (NPS) transit system...

  16. Transitions to Retirement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Borland

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for thinking about issues associated with the transition to retirement by older workers, and then reviews available Australian and international empirical evidence and literature on this topic.

  17. Multiple paths in educational transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2011-01-01

    In many countries educational branching points consist of more than two qualitatively different alternatives, and only some alternatives provide the opportunity of continuing into higher education. I develop a multinomial transition model for modeling the effects of family background characterist...

  18. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  19. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Moraga-Gonzalez, José Luis; Viaene, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity. These elements are embedded in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation and international trade. First, we show that trade liberalization in transition economies reduces the output of lo...

  20. Non-Transitive Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs-Seliger, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice when preferences are not required to be transitive and complete has been discussed in the literature for years. In this article transitivity and completeness of the preference relation is also not assumed. It will be shown that nevertheless the existence of a competitive equilibrium can be proven when those properties are replaced by a domination property which allows that there could be cicles among those alternatives which are of less importance for the individual and which ...

  1. Investigation of the vortex ring transition using scanning Tomo-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengzhong; Brücker, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The transition of a vortex ring at Re Γ = 5030 is studied by time-resolved scanning tomographic PIV technique. The transition process is first analyzed through flow quantities such as circulation and vorticity components. Using the volumetric measurement technique, vortical organization of the vortex ring at early and late transition stages is visualized, respectively. Focus is paid to the instability phenomenon associated with transition. The present 4D flow data allows analysis of the temporal evolution of the wavenumber spectra. The dominant wavenumbers in transition are identified and the growth of their amplitude is revealed. The vortex ring transition is finally studied through the particle trajectories. A phase difference between the axial velocity and radial velocity is found at the beginning of transition; however, it is subject to change following the progression of transition. Statistical analysis on the velocity components helps to identify the aft portion of the inner ring as the one that is first to lose the original phase relation in velocity, which is caused by the secondary vortical activity during transition.

  2. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Narratives about labour market transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexic......In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research...... on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...

  4. Transition region dynamical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben El Hadj, R.; Gabriel, A. H.; Bely-Dubau, F.

    2002-10-01

    Certain coronal heating theories (e.g. Axford and McKenzie, 1993) propose that small loops of new magnetic fields are born in cell centers of supergranulation. They are carried by convection to the network where they reconnect with network field. We are looking for the observational evidence of this phenomenon. Firstly, we use the differential emission measure (DEM) to identify the plasma associated to these loops. For the first part of this analysis, we develop a numerical technique, using CHIANTI spectroscopic database, to calculate the DEM for given observed spectral intensities obtained by CDS. The method requires an initial input model that is folded through spectral line emissivities. This produces a set of predicted intensities that are then compared with observed values. The DEM is then adjusted iteratively to improve agreement between the observed and predicted intensities. The question which remains, is that of the treatment of the cells alone by separating them from the network. Indeed, cells and network have different properties and should be treated separately. Cell-Network separation is done using image analysis which avoids the errors produced by the histogram method. We measure DEM in cells and network to be able to deduce the loop emissions.

  5. Eskom in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.

    1998-03-01

    The short article is based on a interview with Mr Tito Zwane, general manager of the South African utility, Eskom International. Eskom produces 83% of electricity generated south of the Sahara and supplies 95% of South Africa`s electricity. 90% of Eskom`s power stations are coal-fired. Eskom will continue to use coal as a major energy source and utilize techniques to reduce air pollutants. At the end of the Apartheid period in 1994, over 30% of domestic residences in urban areas had no electricity supply. The Reconstruction and Development Programs (RDP) then got under way, aiming to bring electric power to 2.5 million houses, 20,000 schools and 3,000 clinics by the year 2000. The cost of electrification is very high and although Eskom`s programme is still within budget, other municipalities are struggling to meet targets. Problems of non-payment of electricity bill have not been cured by the pre-payment card system and non-technical losses are still prevalent with residents by-passing the pre-paid meters. Electrification was initially hampered by villagers taking down wooden poles, used to convey the transmission lines for firewood. 2 photos.

  6. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  7. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  8. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  9. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we have learned about the need and importance of wastewater treatment and conven- tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is to develop low power consuming and yet effective techniques to handle complex wastes. As a result, new and advanced techniques are being studied and in ...

  10. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 121-128 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 121-128

  11. Point of Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    Minimally invasive techniques are becoming popular choice for the recent times. These techniques are lowering the cost ... Through a skin incision which extends 2 cm medially from the left anterior-superior iliac Spine ... very invasive surgical procedure , less invasive procedures are becoming the first treatment options and ...

  12. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  13. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  14. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoppert, M

    2003-01-01

    ... techniques. Over the past 50 years, electron microscopy has opened new pathways for biologists to understand structure-function interrelations at the subcellular level. New lightbased optical techniques involving the detection of fluorescent molecules have introduced a new dimension of imaging into light microscopy, enabling cellular events to be studied in vivo d...

  15. Kinetics of Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Iron (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Cynthia, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-27

    Previously, dynamic experiments on iron have observed a non-zero transition time and width in the solid-solid {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition. Using Proton Radiography at the los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have performed plate impact experiments on iron to further study the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition which occurs at 13GPa. A 40mm bore powder gun was coupled to a proton radiography beam line and imaging system and synchronized to the impact of the projectile on the target sample with the proton beam pattern. A typical experimental configuration for the iron study, as shown below in 3 color-enhanced radiographs, is a 40mm diameter aluminum sabot impacting a 40mm diameter of polycrystalline ARMCO iron. The iron is backed by a sapphire optical window for velocimetry measurements. The aluminum flyer on the left of the iron is barely visible for visual display purposes. Direct density jumps were measured which corresponded to calculations to within 1% using a Wondy multi-phase equation of state model. In addition, shock velocities were measured using an edge fitting technique and followed that edge movement from radiograph to radiograph, where rad iographs are separated in time by 500 ns. Preliminary measurements give a shock velocity (P1 wave) of 5.251 km/s. The projectile velocity was 0.725 km/s which translate to a peak stress of 17.5 GPa. Assuming the P1 wave is instantaneous, we are able to calibrate the chromatic, motion, object and camera blur by measuring the width of the P1 wave. This approximation works in this case since each of the two density jumps are small compared to the density of the object. Subtracting the measured width of the P1 wave in quadrature from the width of the P2 wave gives a preliminary measurement of the transition length of 265 {micro}m. Therefore, a preliminary measured phase transition relaxation time {tau} = transition length/u{sub s} = 265 {micro}m/5.251 km/s = 50 ns. Both Boettger1 & Jensen2 conclude that

  16. Structural Phase Transition of ThC Under High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cun; Lin, Jun; Huai, Ping; Guo, Yongliang; Ke, Xuezhi; Yu, Xiaohe; Yang, Ke; Li, Nana; Yang, Wenge; Sun, Baoxing; Xie, Ruobing; Xu, Hongjie

    2017-03-07

    Thorium monocarbide (ThC) as a potential fuel for next generation nuclear reactor has been subjected to its structural stability investigation under high pressure, and so far no one reported the observation of structure phase transition induced by pressure. Here, utilizing the synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique, we for the first time, experimentally revealed the phase transition of ThC from B1 to P4/nmm at pressure of ~58 GPa at ambient temperature. A volume collapse of 10.2% was estimated during the phase transition. A modulus of 147 GPa for ThC at ambient pressure was obtained and the stoichiometry was attributed to the discrepancy of this value to the previous reports.

  17. Problem-solving phase transitions during team collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    ) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem......-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit...... phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams’ CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions...

  18. Application of Two Dimensional Flourescence Spectroscopy to Transition Metal Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkin, Damian L.; Steimle, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Determining the physical properties (bond lengths, angles, dipole moments, etc) of transition metal oxides and dioxides is relevant to catalysis, high temperature chemistry, materials science and astrophysics. Analysis of optical spectra is a convenient method for extraction of physical properties, but can be difficult because of the density of electronic states and in the case of the dioxides, presence of both the oxide and superoxide forms. Here we demonstrate the application of two dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy for aiding in the assignment and analysis. Particular attention will be paid to the spectroscopy of first row transition metal monoxides and dioxides of Nickel, NiO and NiO_2, and Manganese, MnO. Furthermore, the application of this technique to discovering the spectrum of other transition metal systems such as Metal-dicarbides will be outlined. N.J. Reilly, T.W. Schmidt, S.H. Kable, J. Phys. Chem. A., 110(45), 12355-12359, 2006

  19. Capturing Transition Paths and Transition States for Conformational Rearrangements in the Ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jeffrey; Chahine, Jorge; Leite, Vitor; Whitford, Paul

    2015-03-01

    To reveal the molecular determinants of biological function, one seeks to characterize the interactions that are formed in conformational and chemical transition states. In other words, what interactions govern the molecule's energy landscape? To accomplish this, it is necessary to determine which degrees of freedom can unambiguously identify each transition state. Here, we perform simulations of large-scale aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) rearrangements during accommodation on the ribosome and project the dynamics along experimentally-accessible atomic distances. From this analysis, we obtain evidence for which coordinates capture the correct number of barrier-crossing events and accurately indicate when the aa-tRNA is on a transition path. While a currently-used coordinate in single-molecule experiments performs poorly, this study implicates alternative coordinates along which rearrangements are accurately described as diffusive movements across a one-dimensional free-energy profile. From this, we provide the theoretical foundation required for single-molecule techniques to uncover the energy landscape governing aa-tRNA selection by the ribosome. More details can be found at doi:10.1529/biophysj.106.090944.

  20. Transit Analysis Package: An IDL Graphical User Interface for Exoplanet Transit Photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zachary Gazak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an IDL graphical user-interface-driven software package designed for the analysis of exoplanet transit light curves. The Transit Analysis Package (TAP software uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC techniques to fit light curves using the analytic model of Mandal and Agol (2002. The package incorporates a wavelet-based likelihood function developed by Carter and Winn (2009, which allows the MCMC to assess parameter uncertainties more robustly than classic χ2 methods by parameterizing uncorrelated “white” and correlated “red” noise. The software is able to simultaneously analyze multiple transits observed in different conditions (instrument, filter, weather, etc.. The graphical interface allows for the simple execution and interpretation of Bayesian MCMC analysis tailored to a user’s specific data set and has been thoroughly tested on ground-based and Kepler photometry. This paper describes the software release and provides applications to new and existing data. Reanalysis of ground-based observations of TrES-1b, WASP-4b, and WASP-10b (Winn et al., 2007, 2009; Johnson et al., 2009; resp. and space-based Kepler 4b–8b (Kipping and Bakos 2010 show good agreement between TAP and those publications. We also present new multi-filter light curves of WASP-10b and we find excellent agreement with previously published values for a smaller radius.

  1. Transitioning from Clinical to Qualitative Research Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.

  2. Transitional DDES computations of the NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we describe CFD simulations of the well known NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions using a newly developed technique of combining turbulence modeling by the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) technique with laminar/turbulent transition modeling by a correlation...

  3. Investigation of Ternary Transition-Metal Nitride Systems by Reactive Cosputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dover, R.B. Van; Hessen, B.; Werder, D.; Chen, C.-H.; Felder, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactive dc cosputtering technique has been used to evaluate compound formation in bimetallic transition-metal nitride systems. A wide range in M-M’ composition can be studied in a single deposition run, and the method is applicable to nonalloying metal combinations. Using this technique, it was

  4. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  5. Evaluation of transition zone and lateral sextant biopsies for prostate cancer detection after initial sextant biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Klaus G; Hutarew, Georg; Esterbauer, Brigitte; Pytel, Akos; Jungwirth, Andreas; Dietze, Otto; Schmeller, Nikolaus T

    2003-04-01

    To assess the value of transition zone and lateral sextant biopsies for the detection of prostate cancer after a previous sextant biopsy was negative. A total of 74 prostates after radical prostatectomy were used to perform biopsies ex vivo. First, a sextant biopsy was taken, then two different rebiopsy techniques were performed. Rebiopsy technique A consisted of a laterally placed sextant biopsy and two cores per side of the transition zones only. Rebiopsy technique B included a standard sextant biopsy and two cores per side from the lateral areas of the prostate. The biopsies were taken using ultrasound guidance to sample the areas of interest precisely. The initial sextant biopsy found 39 prostate cancers. Rebiopsy technique A found 12 cancers (34%). In this group, a laterally placed sextant biopsy found 12 cancers; transition zone biopsies revealed cancer in 5 cases, but no additional tumor was found. Rebiopsy technique B detected 23 prostate cancers (66%). Fourteen tumors were found after a second standard sextant biopsy, and nine additional tumors were found in the lateral areas. Sextant biopsy has a low sensitivity of only 53%. A biopsy including the transition zones is not the ideal technique for detecting the remaining tumors. Therefore, transition zone biopsies should be reserved for patients with multiple previous negative biopsies of the peripheral zone. A subsequent sextant biopsy with additional cores from the lateral areas of the prostate is favorable if rebiopsy is necessary after a negative sextant biopsy.

  6. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  7. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  8. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  9. TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaftiyatur Rohaniyah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to explore a particular technique in literature classroom. Literature is a content subject and compulsory subject, such as: poetry, prose, drama, etc. which give for the college students who take course in English language education. The paper focuses on using small group discussion technique included pre-discussion activities, whilst-discussion activities, and postdiscussion activities and how to implement them in teaching English poetry for the EFL/ESL students of English language education program. This technique is intended to help students in improving their poetry comprehension and motivating them to learn literary subject especially poetry.

  10. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  11. Electrical termination techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  12. Spectrometric techniques 3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  13. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Gim Ming Ong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS, sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity

  14. Abating New York city transit noise: A matter of will, not way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arline L Bronzaft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the latter part of the 19 th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City′s Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City′s transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York′s transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority′s efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  15. Hypocritical transitions? The challenge of urban sustainable mobility transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Nina

    This paper addresses the issue of sustainable urban mobility and the still persisting problems of implementing this objective, illuminated by current planning practice in the municipality of Fredericia in the so called Triangle Region of southern Denmark. The core questions are whether any imprints...... of a sustainable mobility discourse can be traced in the policy documents, how mobility is framed, and which arguments are used to legitimate or envision strategies and planning practices. Is Fredericia performing a transition towards low-carbon mobility? The paper will draw on concepts from transition theory...

  16. Major transitions in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-05

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Clinical techniques of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Matthew E; Heatley, J Jill; Chitty, John

    2006-05-01

    This article highlights techniques and equipment needed to successfully restrain, diagnose, and treat gastropods (including snails and slugs) and arthropods (including spiders, scorpions, honey-bees, cockroaches, silkworms, phasmids, centipedes, and millipedes). A review of current clinical techniques for invertebrates kept as pets and those kept for agricultural use is provided. The specific techniques of restraint, assessment of hydration, fluid therapy, diagnostic sampling, imaging, exoskeleton repair, ectoparasite control and removal, euthanasia, and postmortem examination are reviewed for use in the invertebrate patient. The authors intend this article to stimulate further research and reporting on appropriate and humane techniques for use in these species and to increase the ability of the veterinary practitioner to successfully attend to these animals.

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CYSTIC FIBROSIS Learn about cystic fibrosis, a genetic lung disorder that affects the pancreas and other organs, ... Clearance Techniques (ACTs) Autogenic Drainage (AD) Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High- ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments & Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments & Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ( ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  4. RFCM Techniques Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to develop radio-frequency countermeasure (RFCM) techniques in a controlled environment from 2.0 to 40.0 GHz. The configuration of...

  5. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall ... Clinical Care Guidelines Chronic Medications to Maintain Lung Health Clinical Care Guidelines Lung Transplants Clinical Care Guidelines ...

  7. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  8. The MST Radar Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace Engagement DONATE YOUR PROPERTY eCards for a Cure About ... airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  10. Efficient Vocabulary Testing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mykhailiuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of teaching vocabulary. Different aspects of vocabulary (pronunciation, spelling, grammar, collocation, meaning, word formation are considered alongside with efficient vocabulary testing techniques.

  11. Assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) encompass fertility treatments, which involve manipulations of both oocyte and sperm in vitro. This chapter provides a brief overview of ART, including indications for treatment, ovarian reserve testing, selection of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols, laboratory techniques of ART including in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer techniques, and luteal phase support. This chapter also discusses potential complications of ART, namely ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple gestations, and the perinatal outcomes of ART.

  12. TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.). Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complic...

  13. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  14. Statistical significance of spectral lag transition in GRB 160625B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Shalini; Desai, Shantanu

    2017-09-01

    Recently Wei et al.[1] have found evidence for a transition from positive time lags to negative time lags in the spectral lag data of GRB 160625B. They have fit these observed lags to a sum of two components: an assumed functional form for intrinsic time lag due to astrophysical mechanisms and an energy-dependent speed of light due to quadratic and linear Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) models. Here, we examine the statistical significance of the evidence for a transition to negative time lags. Such a transition, even if present in GRB 160625B, cannot be due to an energy dependent speed of light as this would contradict previous limits by some 3-4 orders of magnitude, and must therefore be of intrinsic astrophysical origin. We use three different model comparison techniques: a frequentist test and two information based criteria (AIC and BIC). From the frequentist model comparison test, we find that the evidence for transition in the spectral lag data is favored at 3.05σ and 3.74σ for the linear and quadratic models respectively. We find that ΔAIC and ΔBIC have values ≳ 10 for the spectral lag transition that was motivated as being due to quadratic Lorentz invariance violating model pointing to ;decisive evidence;. We note however that none of the three models (including the model of intrinsic astrophysical emission) provide a good fit to the data.

  15. The [epsilon] expansion and the electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P.; Yaffe, L.G. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-03-15

    Standard perturbative (or mean field theory) techniques are not adequate for studying the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition in some cases of interest to scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. We instead study the properties of this transition using the renormalization group and the [epsilon] expansion. This expansion, based on dimensional continuation from 3 to 4--[epsilon] spatial dimensions, provides a systematic approximation for computing the effects of (near-)critical fluctuations. The [epsilon] expansion is known to predict a first-order transition in Higgs theories, even for heavy Higgs boson masses. The validity of this conclusion in the standard model is examined in detail. A variety of physical quantities are computed at leading and next-to-leading order in [epsilon]. For moderately light Higgs boson masses (below 100 GeV), the [epsilon] expansion suggests that the transition is more strongly first order than is predicted by the conventional analysis based on the one-loop (ring-improved) effective potential. Nevertheless, the rate of baryon nonconservation after the transition is found to be [ital larger] than that given by the one-loop effective potential calculation. Detailed next-to-leading order calculations of some sample quantities suggests that the [epsilon] expansion is reasonably well behaved for Higgs boson masses below 100--200 GeV. We also compare the [epsilon] expansion with large-[ital N] results (where [ital N] is the number of scalar fields) and find that the [epsilon] expansion is less well behaved in this limit.

  16. Energy probability distribution zeros: A route to study phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, B. V.; Mól, L. A. S.; Rocha, J. C. S.

    2017-07-01

    In the study of phase transitions a very few models are accessible to exact solution. In most cases analytical simplifications have to be done or some numerical techniques have to be used to get insight about their critical properties. Numerically, the most common approaches are those based on Monte Carlo simulations together with finite size scaling analysis. The use of Monte Carlo techniques requires the estimation of quantities like the specific heat or susceptibilities in a wide range of temperaturesor the construction of the density of states in large intervals of energy. Although many of these techniques are well developed they may be very time consuming when the system size becomes large enough. It should be suitable to have a method that could surpass those difficulties. In this work we present an iterative method to study the critical behavior of a system based on the partial knowledge of the complex Fisher zeros set of the partition function. The method is general with advantages over most conventional techniques since it does not need to identify any order parameter a priori. The critical temperature and exponents can be obtained with great precision even in the most unamenable cases like the two dimensional XY model. To test the method and to show how it works we applied it to some selected models where the transitions are well known: The 2D Ising, Potts and XY models and to a homopolymer system. Our choices cover systems with first order, continuous and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions as well as the homopolymer that has two pseudo-transitions. The strategy can easily be adapted to any model, classical or quantum, once we are able to build the corresponding energy probability distribution.

  17. Tunable Superconducting Phase Transition in Metal-Decorated Graphene Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, B. M.; Girit, C. O.; Zettl, A.; Bouchiat, V.

    2009-01-01

    Using typical experimental techniques it is difficult to separate the effects of carrier density and disorder on the superconducting transition in two dimensions. Using a simple fabrication procedure based on metal layer dewetting, we have produced graphene sheets decorated with a non-percolating network of nanoscale tin clusters. These metal clusters both efficiently dope the graphene substrate and induce long-range superconducting correlations. This allows us to study the superconducting tr...

  18. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  19. Bandt-Pompe-Tsallis quantifier and quantum-classical transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, A. M.; Plastino, A.

    2009-10-01

    We concern ourselves with statistical quantifiers of semiclassical time-evolutions and their classical limit. The system of interest represents the interaction between matter and a given field. Our tool here is the so-called Permutation Entropy, evaluated by recourse to the so-called Bandt-Pompe technique, within a Tsallis scenario. We encounter that the most salient details of the quantum-classical transition are well-described, indeed, in a better fashion than that of previous approaches.

  20. Phase transitions and adsorbate restructuring at metal surface

    CERN Document Server

    King, DA

    1994-01-01

    The objective in initiating this series in 1980 was to provide an in-depth review of advances made in the understanding key aspects of surface chemistry and physics through the application of new techniques to the study of well-defined surfaces. Since then the field of surface science has greatly matured, and further important techniques, particularly scanning probe microscopies, have been successfully assimilated into the applications armoury of the surface scientist. The present volume is a series of timely reviews by many of the current experts in the field of phase transitions an

  1. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  2. Researching literacy practices in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Researching literacy practices in transition Postmodern societies are characterized by constant, fast and unpredictable mobility of people, goods, ideas and values. These mobilities are often visualized as a movement from one place to another, as a temporary interference of the stability of fixed...... places. An alternative take on mobilty sees movement as the default and change as the normal way of being rather than the exception (Barton, 2012). This understanding of change is central to the framing concept of this symposium: transition. Transitional processes around literacy are significant because...... literacy is something that is taught and learned, that is adopted, transformed and appropriated and that is used to categorize and classify people (Holm & Pitkänen-Huhta, 2012). Based on detailed empirical studies in the Nordic countries, the aim of this symposium is to discuss how to explore and research...

  3. Citizen involvement in green transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Citizen involvement in green transition: negotiating the tension between participation and environmental effectiveness Anders Horsbøl, Aalborg University Citizen involvement plays an important role in many governmental and municipal attempts towards green transition, reflecting a departure from...... a deficit model of public communication towards participatory ambitions of engaging citizens in more open-ended decision making (Lassen et al. 2011, Phillips et. al, 2012). However, there is often a tension between the participatory ambitions on the one hand and predetermined environmental goal...... in the form of a case study investigating how four municipality associated partners in Sweden and Denmark embark on a common project on citizen involvement as an avenue to green transition. At the outset of the project each partner identified different environmental goals such as reduction of electricity...

  4. Transition metals in superheat melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Petr; Wolfbauer, Michael-Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments with silicate melts doped with transition element oxides was carried out at atmospheric pressures of inert gas at temperatures exceeding liquidus. As predicted from the shape of fO2 buffer curves in T-fO2 diagrams the reducing conditions for a particular oxide-metal pair can be achieved through the T increase if the released oxygen is continuously removed. Experimental studies suggest that transition metals such as Cr or V behave as siderophile elements at temperatures exceeding liquidus temperatures if the system is not buffered by the presence of other oxide of more siderophile element. For example the presence of FeO prevents the reduction of Cr2O3. The sequence of decreasing siderophility of transition elements at superheat conditions (Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr) matches the decreasing degree of depletion of siderophile elements in mantle rocks as compared to chondrites.

  5. The Transitional Legend of Winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 a number of stories that featured the motive of great gain under dramatic circumstances were repeatedly told in betting-houses in Kragujevac, a town in Serbia. The main character of these legends is an empoverished victim of transition who, thanks to luck and help of friends, wins a great sum of money betting. Besides describing the preceding transitional "fall" of the winner (getting fired, failing in private enterprise, the legends describe his economical and social prosperity initiated by capital gained through betting (starting succesfull enterprises, buying good shares. Diachronically following other "sudden wealth" legends this transitional legend speaks about the establishing of a new system of values that, in the categories of social promotion, makes up for the old principles that marked the period of socialism.

  6. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  7. Power in Transition: Empowering Discourses on Sustainability Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Avelino (Flor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is a book about power and transformative change. It explores how groups of people who are trying to transform the mobility system are affected by notions of change and power, and how they deal with the dilemmas of power. Academic literature on power and transitions offers concepts

  8. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2001-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  9. Dewetting Transitions in Protein Cavities *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tom; Hua, Lan; Huang, Xuhui; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard; Berne, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous analysis of the solvation of protein active sites, a drying transition was observed in the narrow hydrophobic binding cavity of Cox-2. With the use of a crude metric that often seems able to discriminate those protein cavities that dry from those that do not, we made an extensive search of the pdb, and identified five other proteins that, in molecular dynamics simulations, undergo drying transitions in their active sites. Because such cavities need not desolvate before binding hydrophobic ligands they often exhibit very large binding affinities. This paper gives evidence that drying in protein cavities is not unique to Cox-2. PMID:20225258

  10. The work of cultural transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, T. V.; Stambulova, N. B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.

    2016-01-01

    In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting...... cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes' psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews...

  11. Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...

  12. Measurement techniques for radio frequency nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, T Mitch

    2017-01-01

    Connect basic theory with real-world applications with this practical, cross-disciplinary guide to radio frequency measurement of nanoscale devices and materials.• Learn the techniques needed for characterizing the performance of devices and their constituent building blocks, including semiconducting nanowires, graphene, and other two dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides• Gain practical insights into instrumentation, including on-wafer measurement platforms and scanning microwave microscopy• Discover how measurement techniques can be applied to solve real-world problems, in areas such as passive and active nanoelectronic devices, semiconductor dopant profiling, subsurface nanoscale tomography, nanoscale magnetic device engineering, and broadband, spatially localized measurements of biological materialsFeaturing numerous practical examples, and written in a concise yet rigorous style, this is the ideal resource for researchers, practicing engineers, and graduate students new to ...

  13. Clustering Analysis within Text Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina ZURINI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a personal approach upon the main applications of classification which are presented in the area of knowledge based society by means of methods and techniques widely spread in the literature. Text classification is underlined in chapter two where the main techniques used are described, along with an integrated taxonomy. The transition is made through the concept of spatial representation. Having the elementary elements of geometry and the artificial intelligence analysis, spatial representation models are presented. Using a parallel approach, spatial dimension is introduced in the process of classification. The main clustering methods are described in an aggregated taxonomy. For an example, spam and ham words are clustered and spatial represented, when the concepts of spam, ham and common and linkage word are presented and explained in the xOy space representation.

  14. Laser prostate enucleation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Lori B; Rajender, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through enucleation techniques has become increasingly more utilized in the field of urology. Laser enucleation of the prostate (LEP) is a transurethral procedure that employs several different types of lasers to dissect the adenoma from the surgical capsule in a retrograde fashion. We review basic laser physics and current laser prostate enucleation techniques. Holmium-LEP (HoLEP), Thulium-LEP (ThuLEP), Greenlight-LEP (GreenLEP) and Diode-LEP (DiLEP) applications are discussed. We summarize the current literature with respect to functional outcomes and complications. Although each laser device used for prostate enucleation has the same goal of removal of the adenoma from the surgical capsule, each has unique characteristics (i.e. wavelength, absorption rates) that must be understood by the practicing surgeon. Mastery of one LEP technique does not necessarily translate into facile use of an alternative enucleation energy source and/or approach. The various LEP techniques have demonstrated similar, if not superior, postoperative results to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the current gold standard in the treatment of BPH. This article outlines the current LEP techniques and should serve as a quick reference for the practicing urologist.

  15. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity.

  16. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  17. Socialising transgender support in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Kate, Norman

    2017-01-01

    An evaluation of social support to transgender people relating to gender identity, gender transition, discrimination and mental health, leading to consideration of the niche for transgender people in a bi-gendered society, and of the developing socialization of transgender which counter-balances the consequences of its initial medicalization.

  18. The nutrition transition in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1St John's Institute of Population Health and Clinical Research, Bangalore, India, and. 2Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Canada. M Vaz1, S Yusuf2, A V Bharathi1, A V Kurpad1, S Swaminathan1. NUTRITION IN INDIA. The nutrition transition in India. The World Health Report 2002 introduced the ...

  19. Developmental transitions: So what's new?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Hopkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    Structural approaches to development, such as Piaget's stage theory, have proved to be problematic in dealing with developmental transitions. More promising in this respect are models of qualitative change that address macroscopical phase shifts in non-linear dynamicalsystems that arise from

  20. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d <0, and/or with the induced G-non-conser...

  1. The transiting system GJ1214

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West; Hardis, S.; Hinse, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    . The observations are used to determine the photometric parameters and the physical properties of the GJ 1214 system. Our results are in good agreement with published values. Individual times of mid-transit are measured with uncertainites as low as 10 s, allowing us to reduce the uncertainity in the orbital period...

  2. Ecdysone Control of Developmental Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus...

  3. Organizational Transition and Change Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Nicolescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the very important atopic of organizational transition and change resistance. It is divided in four parts. The first part deals with transition inevitability and its content in the change process. The second part of the paper refers to the change resistance. After a short presentation of a recent approach of this topic, elaborated by Rick Maurer, the authors present their point of view, identifying 14 main causes refering to the main factors involved in the organizational transition. In the third part, authors have formulated a set of key elements which should be taken into consideration in order to achieve a rapid and succesful organizational changes. These key elements are valable for any type of organization – entreprise, institution, locality, region, country a.s.a. The last part of the study deals with conflicts approach, which appear almost always during organizational transition. The conflicts are separated in three categories and for whom are presented the methodes recommended in order to solve them with good results.

  4. Metal-to-nonmetal transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hensel, Friedrich; Holst, Bastian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to nonmetal-to-metal transitions. The original ideas of Mott for such a transition in solids have been adapted to describe a broad variety of phenomena in condensed matter physics (solids, liquids, and fluids), in plasma and cluster physics, as well as in nuclear physics (nuclear matter and quark-gluon systems). The book gives a comprehensive overview of theoretical methods and experimental results of the current research on the Mott effect for this wide spectrum of topics. The fundamental problem is the transition from localized to delocalized states which describes the nonmetal-to-metal transition in these diverse systems. Based on the ideas of Mott, Hubbard, Anderson as well as Landau and Zeldovich, internationally respected scientists present the scientific challenges and highlight the enormous progress which has been achieved over the last years. The level of description is aimed to specialists in these fields as well as to young scientists who will get an overview for their own work...

  5. Transition metals in plant photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yruela, Inmaculada

    2013-09-01

    Transition metals are involved in essential biological processes in plants since they are cofactors of metalloproteins and also act as regulator elements. Particularly, plant chloroplasts are organelles with high transition metal ion demand because metalloproteins are involved in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The transition metal requirement of photosynthetic organisms greatly exceeds that of non-photosynthetic organisms, and either metal deficiency or metal excess strongly impacts photosynthetic functions. In chloroplasts, the transition metal ion requirement needs a homeostasis network that strictly regulates metal uptake, chelation, trafficking and storage since under some conditions metals cause toxicity. This review gives an overview of the current understanding of main features concerning the role of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in plant photosynthesis as well as the mechanisms involved in their homeostasis within chloroplasts. The metalloproteins functioning in photosynthetic proteins of plants as well as those proteins participating in the metal transport and metal binding assembly are reviewed. Furthermore, the role of nickel (Ni) in artificial photosynthesis will be discussed.

  6. Phase transitions in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2002-07-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  7. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  8. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  9. Transition Metal Complexes and Catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Transition Metal Complexes and Catalysis. Balaji R Jagirdar. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 63-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0063-0081 ...

  10. Transition From Plan to Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    This paper gives an overview over how far transition has proceeded and what is still lacking in the process. The analytical framework – the PIE model for Politics, Institutions, Economy – is introduced. The model is first used to point to the main reasons for the fall of the command economy. Then...

  11. The transition to hospital consultant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W.; Jorgensen, Rasmus Lundhus

    2013-01-01

    Danish and Dutch new consultants' perceptions regarding the transition to consultant were compared to gain insight into this period, particularly the influence of contextual factors concerning the organisation of specialty training and health care therein. Preparation for medical and generic comp...... competencies, perceived intensity and burnout were compared. Additionally, effects of differences in working conditions and cultural dimensions were explored....

  12. Transitions in a globalising world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Martens (Pim); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe increasing complexity of our global society means that sustainable development cannot be addressed from a single perspective or scientific discipline. By using the concept of transitions, we examine current and future tensions between welfare, well-being and the environment, and

  13. Symmetry in labeled transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. van Langevelde

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSymmetry is defined for labeled transition systems, and it is shown how symmetrical systems can be symmetrically decomposed into components. The central question is under what conditions one such component may represent the whole system, in the sense that one symmetrical system is

  14. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  15. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  16. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... symmetry structure at finite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic field and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and ...

  17. Transition Room Program, 1967 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Leonard E.

    The Transition Room Program of the Pittsburgh Schools was defined and evaluated by the staff, the administration, and a program evaluator from the Office of Research. The definition included general objectives, anticipated outcomes, student criteria and characteristics, staff qualifications and functions, media, student activities, and staff…

  18. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  19. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  20. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  1. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  2. Detection of the Direct Hyperfine Transition of Positronium Atoms using sub-THz High-power Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Suehara, T.; Miyazaki, A.; Yamazaki, T; G. Akimoto; Ishida, A; NAMBA, T; Asai, S.; Kobayashi, T; Saito, H.(Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan); Yoshida, M.; IDEHARA, T; Ogawa, I.; Urushizaki, Y.; SABCHEVSKI, S

    2010-01-01

    Hyperfine splitting of positronium is an important parameter for particle physics. This paper gives experimental techniques and results of R&D studies of our experiment to observe direct hyperfine transition of ortho-positronium to para-positronium.

  3. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  4. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  5. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  6. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  7. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  8. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  9. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tes...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  10. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  11. On P-transitive graphs and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Lenzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of graphs which we call P-transitive graphs, lying between transitive and 3-transitive graphs. First we show that the analogue of de Jongh-Sambin Theorem is false for wellfounded P-transitive graphs; then we show that the mu-calculus fixpoint hierarchy is infinite for P-transitive graphs. Both results contrast with the case of transitive graphs. We give also an undecidability result for an enriched mu-calculus on P-transitive graphs. Finally, we consider a polynomial time reduction from the model checking problem on arbitrary graphs to the model checking problem on P-transitive graphs. All these results carry over to 3-transitive graphs.

  12. Alexander Technique and Dance Technique: Applications in the Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettl-Fiol, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Integrating principles from the Alexander Technique into a dance technique class can provide tools for facilitating a more coordinated use of the self. While the methodologies of Alexander Technique and dance technique may present differences, there are ways of applying the principles of Alexander within the context of a dance technique class that…

  13. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  14. Epipelagic nekton of the North Pacific Subarctic and Transition Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Richard; McKinnell, Skip; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Pearcy, William; Radchenko, Vladimir; Takagi, Shogo

    1999-03-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, scientific research cruises and commercial gillnet operations with scientific observers aboard were conducted throughout much of the Subarctic and Transition Zones of the North Pacific Ocean. These studies produced one of the most extensive databases ever collected on the relative species composition and trophic structure of epipelagic nekton of the Subarctic and Transition Zones in the North Pacific Ocean. Data from Japanese high-seas gillnet research surveys (1981-1991) were examined using multivariate analytical techniques to analyse community structure of nektonic cephalopods, elasmobranchs, and teleosts in the North Pacific Subarctic and Transition Zones during the summer months, emphasizing differences between the eastern and western Subarctic Gyres. Species diversity generally increased going from west to east, which was apparently associated with the greater range of temperatures in the east. Discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify about half the catch locations into their respective regions. Catches from multinational drift gillnet commercial fisheries operations in 1990-1991 mainly in the Transition Zone were also examined. Classification techniques were employed to determine species associations and multivariate analyses were used to examine relationships of these assemblages to environmental data. We found that some species are often captured in the same gillnet sets and form species associations that are distinct in ordination space, but these associations are loose and may vary appreciably from year to year. We review recent studies on the feeding habits and daily ration of the dominant species and construct food webs for the eastern and western Subarctic and Transition Zone systems emphasizing the role that nekton play in these pelagic ecosystems.

  15. The use of transitional implants to support provisional prostheses during the healing phase: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Filho, Homberto Gennari; Goiatto, Marcelo Coelho

    2011-01-01

    transitional implants are indicated for cases in which immediate loading is counterindicated because a healing period is necessary for osseointegration of the definitive implants. These provisional implants were developed to support an implant-supported fixed prosthesis or overdenture to provide retention, stability, and support. The aim of this article was to conduct a literature review on transitional implants to highlight the characteristics of the transitional implants and their advantages, indications, and contraindications, including the level of osseointegration of such implants according to the functional period. the present literature review was based on the Old Medline and Medline databases from 1999 to 2010 using the key words "transitional implants" and "temporary implants." Fourteen articles were found: 11 clinical studies or techniques and three histologic and histomorphometric studies. the transitional immediate prostheses were worn by completely and partially edentulous patients. Advantages of transitional implants include complete denture retention, stability, and support; maintenance of chewing, phonetics, and patient comfort; protection of bone grafts; vertical stop during healing period; easy and fast surgical and prosthetic procedures; lower cost in comparison to the definitive implant; and reestablishment of esthetics. The success of transitional implants as conservative treatment for conventional immediate loading is a reality if correctly indicated. transitional implants are a provisional treatment alternative for completely and partially edentulous patients. However, additional studies are required to evaluate the level of remodeling and repair of the transitional implants under loading.

  16. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    Major ad- vances of the MC techniques were made during World. War II by scientists such as John Von Neumann, En- rico Fermi, S M Ulam and Nicholas Metropolis working on the development of nuclear weapons in Los Alamos. National Laboratory, USA [10, 11]. 3. Monte Carlo Integration Using Importance. Sampling.

  17. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  18. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Techniques of Wastewater Treatment. 1. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni, Mugdha Deshpande and A B Pandit. Amol A Kulkarni is a PhD student from the Chemi- cal Engineering division in UDCT and is working on the characterization of non-linear dynamics in chemical reactors.

  19. Maintenance Resources Evaluation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Happ W. William. Gert: " Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique; Part 1. Fundamentals," The Journal of Industrial Engineering. Vol.: XVII No.5...1975. He received his commission in December 1979 upon graduation from Escuela de Aviation Militär. Then, he attended the Escuela de Ingenieria

  20. Classifying variability modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Marco; Deelstra, Sybren

    Variability modeling is important for managing variability in software product families, especially during product derivation. In the past few years, several variability modeling techniques have been developed, each using its own concepts to model the variability provided by a product family. The

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their ... (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  2. 8. Algorithm Design Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 8. Algorithms - Algorithm Design Techniques. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 8 August 1997 pp 6-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/08/0006-0017 ...

  3. 3. Techniques of Cartography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Mapmakers Techniques of Cartography. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/08/0008-0015 ...

  4. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  5. Multisensor Data Integration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. L.; Blake, P. L.; Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Logan, T. L.; Mcguffie, B. A.; Paylor, E. D.; Singer, R. B.; Schenck, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of data from sensors operating in several different wavelength regions had led to the development of new techniques and strategies for both data management and image analysis. Work is ongoing to develop computer techniques for analysis of integrated data sets. These techniques include coregistration of multisensor images, rectification of radar images in areas of topographic relief to ensure pixel to pixel registration with planimetric data sets, calibration of data so that signatures can be applied to remote areas, normalization of data acquired with disparate sensors and determination of extended spectral signatures of surface units. In addition, software is being developed to analyze coregistrated digital terrain and image data so that automated stratigraphic and structural analyses can be performed. These software procedures include: strike and dip determination, terrain profile generation, stratigraphic column generation, stratigraphic thickness measurements, structural cross-section generation, and creation of 3-D block diagrams. These techniques were applied to coregistered LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and multipolarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data of the Wind River Basin in Wyoming.

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C. Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway ... Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest ...

  7. Very weak [gamma] transitions in the [epsilon]/[beta][sup +] decay of [sup 68]Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, D.T.; Kelly, W.H.; Wohn, F.K.; Hill, J.C.; Vary, J.P. (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)); Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Macchiavelli, A.O. (Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Becker, J.A.; Henry, E.A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Stoyer, M.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)); Draper, J.E. (University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The [gamma] rays associated with the decay of [sup 68]Ga in equilibrium with [sup 68]Ge have been studied using the 20-element High Energy Resolution Array (HERA) facility. Five new transitions were observed along with the known ones from earlier works. The [ital E]2/[ital M]1 mixing ratios for two of these new transitions were obtained by [gamma]-[gamma]([theta]) techniques.

  8. Three-dimensional flow simulation about the AFE vehicle in the transitional regime. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenligil, M. Cevdet; Moss, James N.; Blanchard, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The direct-simulation Monte Carlo technique is used to analyze the hypersonic rarefied flow about the three-dimensional NASA Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle. Results are given for typical transitional flows encountered during the vehicle's atmospheric entry from altitudes of 200-100 km with an entry velocity of 9.9 km/s. It is found that dissociation is important at altitudes of 110 km and below, and that transitional effects are significant even at an altitude of 200 km.

  9. Plasma density transition trapping as a possible high-brightness electron beam source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Thompson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma density transition trapping is a recently proposed self-injection scheme for plasma wakefield accelerators. This technique uses a sharp downward plasma density transition to trap and accelerate background plasma electrons in a plasma wakefield. This paper examines the quality of electron beams captured using this scheme in terms of emittance, energy spread, and brightness. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that these parameters can be optimized by manipulating the plasma density profile. We also develop, and support with simulations, a set of scaling laws that predicts how the brightness of transition trapping beams scales with the plasma density of the system. These scaling laws indicate that transition trapping can produce beams with brightness ≥5×10^{14}   A/(mrad^{2}. A proof-of-principle transition trapping experiment is planned for the near future. The proposed experiment is described in detail.

  10. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C M; Brimblecombe, P; Menéndez, B; Benavente, D; Harris, I; Déqué, M

    2011-06-01

    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Köppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Köppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Care Transitions in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, Mary S; Wertman, Eleanor A; Barrington, Clare; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2017-03-01

    Most adolescent and young adult (AYA)-aged childhood cancer survivors develop physical and/or psychosocial sequelae; however, many do not receive long-term follow-up (LTF) critical for screening, prevention, and treatment of late effects. To develop a health services research agenda to optimize care models, we conducted qualitative research with LTF providers examining existing models, and successes and challenges in maintaining survivors' connections to care across their transition to adulthood. We interviewed 20 LTF experts (MDs, RNs, social workers, education specialists, psychologists) from 10 Children's Oncology Group-affiliated institutions, and analyzed data using grounded theory and content analysis techniques. Participants described the complexity of survivors' healthcare transitions. Survivors had pressing educational needs in multiple domains, and imparting the need for prevention was challenging. Multidisciplinary LTF teams focused on prevention and self-management. Care and decisions about transfer were individualized based on survivors' health risks, developmental issues, and family contexts. An interplay of provider and institutional factors, some of which were potentially modifiable, also influenced how transitions were managed. Interviewees rarely collaborated with community primary care providers to comanage patients. Communication systems and collective norms about sharing care limited comanagement capacity. Interviewees described staffing practices, policies, and informal initiatives they found reduced attrition. Results suggest that survivors will benefit from care models that better connect patients, survivorship experts, and community providers for uninterrupted LTF across transitions. We propose research priorities, framing attrition from LTF as a public health concern, transition as the central challenge in LTF, and transition readiness as a multilevel concept.

  12. Advanced techniques for microwave reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, B.; Luna, E. de la; Estrada, T. [Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Zhuravlev, V. [Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]|[Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hartfuss, H.J.; Hirsch, M.; Geist, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Segovia, J.; Oramas, J.L. [Univ. Politecnica, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Microwave reflectometry has been applied during the last years as a plasma diagnostic of increasing interest, mainly due to its simplicity, no need for large access ports and low radiation damage of exposed components. Those characteristics make reflectometry an attractive diagnostic for the next generation devices. Systems used either for density profile or density fluctuations have also shown great development, from the original single channel heterodyne to the multichannel homodyne receivers. In the present work we discuss three different advanced reflectometer systems developed by CIEMAT members in collaboration with different institutions. The first one is the broadband heterodyne reflectometer installed on W7AS for density fluctuations measurements. The decoupling of the phase and amplitude of the reflected beam allows for quantitative analysis of the fluctuations. Recent results showing the behavior of the density turbulence during the L-H transition on W7AS are shown. The second system shows how the effect of the turbulence can be used for density profile measurements by reflectometry in situations where the complicated geometry of the waveguides cannot avoid many parasitic reflections. Experiments from the TJ-I tokamak will be shown. Finally, a reflectometer system based on the Amplitude Modulation (AM) technique for density profile measurements is discussed and experimental results from the TJ-I tokamak are shown. The AM system offers the advantage of being almost insensitive to the effect of fluctuations. It is able to take a direct measurement of the time delay of the microwave pulse which propagates to the reflecting layer and is reflected back. In order to achieve fast reconstruction for real time monitoring of the density profile application of Neural Networks algorithms will be presented the method can reduce the computing times by about three orders of magnitude. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Out-of-transit Refracted Light in the Atmospheres of Transiting and Non-transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalba, Paul A.

    2017-10-01

    Before an exoplanet transit, atmospheric refraction bends light into the line of sight of an observer. The refracted light forms a stellar mirage—a distorted secondary image of the host star. I model this phenomenon and the resultant out-of-transit flux increase across a comprehensive exoplanetary parameter space. At visible wavelengths, Rayleigh scattering limits the detectability of stellar mirages in most exoplanetary systems with semimajor axes ≲ 6 {au}. A notable exception is almost any planet orbiting a late M or ultra-cool dwarf star at ≳ 0.5 {au}, where the maximum relative flux increase is >50 parts per million. Based partly on previous work, I propose that the importance of refraction in an exoplanet system is governed by two angles: the orbital distance divided by the stellar radius and the total deflection achieved by a ray in the optically thin portion of the atmosphere. Atmospheric lensing events caused by non-transiting exoplanets, which allow for exoplanet detection and atmospheric characterization, are also investigated. I derive the basic formalism to determine the total signal-to-noise ratio of an atmospheric lensing event, with application to Kepler data. It is unlikely that out-of-transit refracted light signals are clearly present in Kepler data due to Rayleigh scattering and the bias toward short-period exoplanets. However, observations at long wavelengths (e.g., the near-infrared) are significantly more likely to detect stellar mirages. Lastly, I discuss the potential for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite to detect refracted light and consider novel science cases enabled by refracted light spectra from the James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. Central Okanagan smart transit plan : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, R.A. [IBI Group, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-04-15

    This report outlines the steps and financial aspects of implementing the smart transit plan for the Central Okanagan region, one of British Columbia's fastest growing regions. The plan, which is designed to enhance transit services, is affordable by all stakeholders and is adjustable, based on levels of ridership and availability of resources. The region is expected to grow from 160,000 to 225,000 people by 2021. Transit ridership has grown from just over 1 million passengers per year 10 years ago to almost 3 million passengers in 2003. This strong growth provides an opportunity to pursue a transit plan and land use plan that supports efficient modes of transportation such as transit, walking and cycling. This Smart Transit project involved collaboration with stakeholders to develop a vision for sustainable transit for the region; guidelines for promoting transit-supportive land use development and a business plan to direct transit investments to achieve the transit vision. The existing conditions of the transit system were described with reference to ridership performance by route, current transit ridership, recommended priorities, bus stop inventory, and comparison to other transit systems. Currently, the transit system in the Okanagan region has higher than average ridership compared to similar Canadian systems. It is also as cost-effective as similar sized transit systems. Areas of improvement include better on-time transit service reliability; reduction in the level of graffiti and vandalism and the need to expand off-peak services. Historical and projected future transit system performance was also discussed with reference to system growth, productivity and cost. tabs., figs.

  15. Magnetic transition in double perovskite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, O., E-mail: navarro@servidor.unam.m [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Aguilar, B. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de Magnetismo Natural, Instituto de Geofisica, Sede Michoacan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); Avignon, M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The search for materials having complete spin polarization and high Curie temperature have received a lot of attention in view of spintronics applications, especially the ferromagnetic (F) Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6}, because of its fairly high Curie temperature (T{sub C}= 450 K), half-metallic character, large magnetoresistance and potential applications. On the other hand, Sr{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} is insulating and antiferromagnetic (AF) with T{sub N}=37K. With a double exchange type model it has been shown that F-AF transition can be driven by super-exchange interactions with increasing Fe-M (M=Mo, W) charge transfer energy. So, the charge transfer energy is expected to be larger in FeW than in FeMo compounds. Using a tight-binding model with the renormalized perturbation expansion technique, we determine the density of states for the AF phase and the electronic energy difference for the F- and AF-phases as a function of the Fe-M charge transfer energy. The F-AF transition in the ordered system Sr{sub 2}FeMo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} occurs for xapprox0.3, in good agreement with the experimental value. We also studied the effect of the diagonal disorder in the variation of the number of conduction electrons on Fe and M sites. Finally, the behavior of the Curie temperature as a function of the Mo/W concentration is determined.

  16. Structure Identification Within a Transitioning Swept-Wing Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Keith; Glauser, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Extensive measurements are made in a transitioning swept-wing boundary layer using hot-film, hot-wire and cross-wire anemometry. The crossflow-dominated flow contains stationary vortices that breakdown near mid-chord. The most amplified vortex wavelength is forced by the use of artificial roughness elements near the leading edge. Two-component velocity and spanwise surface shear-stress correlation measurements are made at two constant chord locations, before and after transition. Streamwise surface shear stresses are also measured through the entire transition region. Correlation techniques are used to identify stationary structures in the laminar regime and coherent structures in the turbulent regime. Basic techniques include observation of the spatial correlations and the spatially distributed auto-spectra. The primary and secondary instability mechanisms are identified in the spectra in all measured fields. The primary mechanism is seen to grow, cause transition and produce large-scale turbulence. The secondary mechanism grows through the entire transition region and produces the small-scale turbulence. Advanced techniques use Linear Stochastic Estimation (LSE) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to identify the spatio-temporal evolutions of structures in the boundary layer. LSE is used to estimate the instantaneous velocity fields using temporal data from just two spatial locations and the spatial correlations. Reference locations are selected using maximum RMS values to provide the best available estimates. POD is used to objectively determine modes characteristic of the measured flow based on energy. The stationary vortices are identified in the first laminar modes of each velocity component and shear component. Experimental evidence suggests that neighboring vortices interact and produce large coherent structures with spanwise periodicity at double the stationary vortex wavelength. An objective transition region detection method is developed using

  17. Transits and Occultations of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Korey

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy has rapidly progressed from the first discovery of an extrasolar planet less than two decades ago to today's age of abundant exoplanet characterization observations. However, interpretation of these observations remains challenging. Resolved spectra of exoplanets, particularly in the infrared, where strong features due to H2O, CO, CO2, and CH4 are expected, could break model degeneracies and answer many questions about C/O ratios and pressure-temperature atmospheric structures. While not the first, Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope is the only current space-based opportunity to study spectrally resolved exoplanet atmospheres in the infrared. We focus on hot Jupiter type exoplanets, and use WFC3 (as well as ancillary data from Spitzer and ground based facilities) to try to break degeneracies between models, resolve past observing conflicts, and determine these planets' atmospheric composition and structure. I report spectroscopic analysis of the transit of WASP-17 b, the occultation of WASP-4 b and WASP-33 b, and both the transit and occultation of WASP-12 b and WASP-19 b. I analyze the data for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al. (2012), but extend their methodology to allow for correction of channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. For WASP-33 we find evidence for an oxygen rich atmosphere. The final transit spectra for all three objects in the study are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of

  18. Strong Coupling on a Forbidden Transition in Strontium and Nondestructive Atom Counting

    CERN Document Server

    Norcia, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    We observe strong collective coupling between an optical cavity and the forbidden spin singlet to triplet optical transition $^1$S$_0$ to $^3$P$_1$ in an ensemble of $^{88}$Sr. Despite the transition being 1000 times weaker than a typical dipole transition, we observe a well resolved vacuum Rabi splitting. We use the observed vacuum Rabi splitting to make non-destructive measurements of atomic population with the equivalent of projection-noise limited sensitivity and minimal heating ($<0.01$ photon recoils/atom). This technique may be used to enhance the performance of optical lattice clocks by generating entangled states and reducing dead time.

  19. The finite temperature phase transition in the lattice SU(2)-Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, K; Rummukainen, K; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E

    1994-01-01

    We study the finite temperature transition of SU(2)-Higgs model with lattice Monte Carlo techniques. We use dimensional reduction to transform the original 4-dimensional SU(2)-gauge + fundamental Higgs theory to an effective 3-dimensional SU(2) + adjoint Higgs + fundamental Higgs model. The simulations were performed with Higgs masses of 35 and 80 GeV; in both cases we observe a stronger first order transition than the perturbation theory predicts, indicating that the dynamics of the transition strongly depend on non-perturbative effects.

  20. The Mott metal-insulator transition in half-filled two-dimensional Hubbard models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Sahebsara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the Mott transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model by using the variational cluster approximation. The transition potential obtained is roughly Uc ≈ 2 and 6 for square and triangular lattices, respectively. A comparison between results of this approximation and other quantum cluster methods is presented. Our zero-temperature calculation at strong coupling show that the transition on the triangular and square lattices occur at lower values of compared with other numerical techniques such as DMFT, CDMFT, and DCA. We also study the thermodynamic limit by an extrapolation to infinite size.

  1. Children’s everyday transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses children’s everyday transitions across home and the day-care institution, as well as between different activities and communities. Employing a cultural-historical approach, historical and socio-structural conditions for everyday life are analysed on the basis of subjective...... meanings and experiences of action possibilities (Chaiklin, Hedegaard, & Jensen, 1999). Employing the concept of conduct of everyday life (Dreier, 2008, 2011; Holzkamp, 2013; Højholt & Kousholt, 2017), this chapter analyses the active, creative and coordinating processes involved in leading a compound...... everyday life. Analysing transitions from the children’s perspective produces knowledge about how children actively deal with and arrange their conditions as they move between different communities and practices, as well as the struggles and possibilities involved, which are not always visible to adult...

  2. Intermediaries in sustainable urban transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    processes in sustainable urban management and the paper explores the development of communities of practise as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of involving citizens and how they contribute to the development of new actor configurations in urban social...... the development of new practises plays a part in multi level transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have performed innovative forms of involving citizens in sustainable urban development. The empirical material......The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate projects, which promote sustainable transi-tion in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local intermediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing associations; NGO...

  3. Distress During the Menopause Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianna Nosek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

  4. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  5. Electroweak phase transition recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc

    2000-01-01

    Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.

  6. Dark photons from nuclear transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczuk, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Light new particles can be emitted in decays of excited nuclear states. Experiments analyzing such transitions and incorporating high-resolution detectors can be sensitive to new MeV-scale physics at a level competitive with upcoming collider and other fixed target experiments, provided sufficient luminosity. We demonstrate this in the case of the Be 8 system, showing that searches targeting the reported anomaly in Be 8 nuclear transitions can also be sensitive to currently unexplored regions of the canonical dark photon parameter space with 1 MeV ≲mA'≲18 MeV and ɛ2≳10-7 . These experiments could be performed on a short time scale, at low cost, and directly probe both the hadronic and leptonic couplings of light hidden particles.

  7. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    . To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia......Mainstream transitional justice and peacebuilding practices tend to re-entrench gendered hierarchies by ignoring women or circumscribing their presence to passive victims in need of protection. As a consequence we have limited knowledge about the multifaceted ways women do justice and build peace......-Herzegovina, where we point out instances of critical, creative, and transformative agency performed by women that challenge or negotiate patterns of gendered relations of domination. We collect women’s oral narratives and explore new sets of questions to capture women’s unique experiences in doing justice...

  8. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD: Lifestyle Management Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Make an Appointment Refer ... breathing may become difficult, and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  9. Accurate Lifetimes and Absolute Transition Rates for Ultraviolet Transitions from 3D5(4G) 4P and 3D5(4P) 4P levels in MN II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Rainer; Schnabel, Roman; Griesmann, Ulf

    2001-05-01

    A recently developed, laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to measure the lifetimes of 14 3d5(4G)4p and 3d5(4P)4p levels in the Mn+ ion. Branching fractions for electric dipole transitions from these levels were measured with a vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer, using a hollow-cathode lamp and a Penning discharge source. Based on these new measurements, absolute electric dipole transition rates for about 170 spectral lines in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet were determined. The uncertainty of the transition rates is less than 5% for the strong transitions.

  10. Transitions from High School to College

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrea Venezia; Laura Jaeger

    2013-01-01

    .... Andrea Venezia and Laura Jaeger look at the state of college readiness among high school students, the effectiveness of programs in place to help them transition to college, and efforts to improve those transitions...

  11. How Theories of Organization Inform Transition Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mossel, Allard; van Rijnsoever, Frank; Hekkert, Marko

    In historical socio-technical transitions, organizations functioned as the principal drivers of transitions, invented the defining innovations, and created the cognitive and normative rules that led industries to embrace the innovation and associated behavior. Yet, despite their importance, the

  12. Solar transit stops on Central Avenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders therefore making the Capital District Tra...

  13. Solar transit stops on Central Avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders therefore making the Capital District Tra...

  14. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  15. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  16. Women in Transition at Midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Rawson, Kay T.

    1994-01-01

    Women in modern America are living longer than ever before and society 's expectations are changing. In 1900, it was expected that most women would die in their forties or early fifties. However, with today's life expectancy of approximately 80 years. midlife is a viable component of a woman's total life course. Since midlife is an important part of the lives of today's women, this study examines the elements of well-being in midlife women over three transitional periods surrounding the half ...

  17. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available the statuses. Status models the normal behaviour of the life cycle in the real world, items are first scheduled, then become active, can be suspended and reactivated again and finally may become disabled, when they reached their expiry. These are the four... of the four status attributes, while scheduled, suspended and disabled classes can only have their corresponding attributes, i.e. scheduled, suspended or disabled only. Transition records migration of elements from source to target element, be they objects...

  18. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 µ2(σ2 +π2) + 1. 4λ(σ2 +π2)2. (2). For µ2. 0 chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. Theσ field can be used to represent the quark condensate, the order parameter for chiral phase transition and the pions are the. Goldstone bosons. At the tree level the sigma, pion and the quark masses are given by m2 σ =3λσ2 cl µ2; m2.

  19. Latent entrepreneurship in transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Atasoy, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Because entrepreneurial activity can stimulate job creation and long-term economic growth, promoting entrepreneurship is an important goal. However, many financial, bureaucratic, and social barriers can short-circuit the process of actually starting a business, especially in transition economies that lack established institutional systems and markets. The main obstacles are underdeveloped financial markets, perceptions of administrative complexity, political and economic instability, and lack...

  20. Nucleon Resonance Transition Form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Volker D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mokeev, Viktor I. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Aznauryan, Inna G. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (YerPhI) (Armenia)

    2016-08-01

    We discuss recent results from CLAS on electromagnetic resonance transition amplitudes and their dependence on the distance scale (Q2). From the comparison of these results with most advanced theoretical calculations within QCD-based approaches there is clear evidence that meson-baryon contributions are present and important at large distances, i.e. small Q2, and that quark core contributions dominate the short distance behavior.

  1. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further...... divided into cyclization reactions to carbocycles and branching reactions at terminal and non-terminal positions. In addition, carbon-oxygen and carbon-hydrogen bond forming reactions are illustrated by various oxidation and reduction procedures...

  2. TRANSITION COUNTRIES TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazmend Qorraj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the transition countries in Europe had significant benefits from the EU enlargement but the positive effects depend also from the structure of the economy and reforms of these countries. It’s important to analyze: if transition countries ensured sustainable economic reforms or just short term stability and emergent solutions. This paper will address international competitiveness which is the main challenge for the transition countries but also for the EU. First, monopoly position of some international firms in local markets and lack of creativity and innovations of the local firms, especially in Western Balkans due to lack of institutional support and non-stable business environment. The problem of creativity and lack of innovations by the firms is also a serious issue for the EU countries. The second important issue is large productivity gap. The recent global financial crisis as well as EU crises present the difficulties in the Euro zone and highlighted the interdependence of national economies and the convergence problems within European Union. The third challenge is absorption capacity for the structural and cohesion funds. The past experience of Central European countries shows that success in effectively using the EU financial and technical assistance is positively related with the success of countries on creating sustainable economic development and international competitiveness. Fourth issue is that some transition countries achieved economic growth but due to unequal distribution of welfare on these countries there is no significant reduce of unemployment and social cohesion. Last but not least the international competitiveness in most of the countries is harmed by the lack of functional institutions due to high level of corruption, inefficiency, rule of law, the lack of transparency and accountability.

  3. Geometrical Aspects of Venus Transit

    CERN Document Server

    Bertuola, Alberto C; Magalhães, N S; Filho, Victo S

    2016-01-01

    We obtained two astronomical values, the Earth-Venus distance and Venus diameter, by means of a geometrical treatment of photos taken of Venus transit in June of 2012. Here we presented the static and translational modelsthat were elaborated taking into account the Earth and Venus orbital movements. An additional correction was also added by considering the Earth rotation movement. The results obtained were compared with the values of reference from literature, showing very good concordance.

  4. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bàrbara Laviña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases.

  5. Network acceleration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  6. Review of halftoning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulichney, Robert A.

    1999-12-01

    Digital halftoning remains an active area of research with a plethora of new and enhanced methods. While several fine overviews exist, this purpose of this paper is to review retrospectively the basic classes of techniques. Halftoning algorithms are presented by the nature of the appearance of resulting patterns, including white noise, recursive tessellation, the classical screen, and blue noise. The metric of radially averaged power spectra is reviewed, and special attention is paid to frequency domain characteristics. The paper concludes with a look at the components that comprise a complete image rendering system. In particular when the number of output levels is not restricted to be a power of 2. A very efficient means of multilevel dithering is presented based on scaling order- dither arrays. The case of real-time video rendering is considered where the YUV-to-RGB conversion is incorporated in the dithering system. Example illustrations are included for each of the techniques described.

  7. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  8. [Molecular techniques in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel; Gómez-López, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    An increasing number of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of fungal infections have been developed in the last few years, due to the growing prevalence of mycoses and the length of time required for diagnosis when classical microbiological methods are used. These methods are designed to resolve the following aspects of mycological diagnosis: a) Identification of fungi to species level by means of sequencing relevant taxonomic targets; b) early clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; c) detection of molecular mechanisms of resistance to antifungal agents; and d) molecular typing of fungi. Currently, these methods are restricted to highly developed laboratories. However, some of these techniques will probably be available in daily clinical practice in the near future.

  9. Nozzle fabrication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  10. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  11. Landing techniques in volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobietti, Roberto; Coleman, Simon; Pizzichillo, Eduardo; Merni, Franco

    2010-11-01

    Knee injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament lesions and patellar tendonitis are very frequent in volleyball, and are often attributed to micro traumas that occur during the landing phase of airborne actions. The aim of the present study was to compare different jumping activities during official men's and women's volleyball games. Twelve top-level matches from the Italian men's and women's professional leagues were analysed. The jumps performed during the games were classified according to the landing technique used by the player (left or right foot or both feet together), court position, and ball trajectory. Chi-square analyses were performed to detect differences in landing techniques between the sexes, court positions, and trajectories when serving, attacking, blocking, and setting. Significant differences (P injuries.

  12. Whole cell entrapment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  13. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  14. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Richters

    Full Text Available Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers.

  15. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2003-05-27

    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  16. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mellon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for the surgical treatment of most adrenal conditions. The benefits of a minimally invasive approach to adrenal resection such as decreased hospital stay, shorter recovery time and improved patient satisfaction are widely accepted. However, as this procedure becomes more widespread, critical steps of the operation must be maintained to ensure expected outcomes and success. This article reviews the surgical techniques for the laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

  17. Streak camera techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avara, R.

    1977-06-01

    An introduction to streak camera geometry, experimental techniques, and limitations are presented. Equations, graphs and charts are included to provide useful data for optimizing the associated optics to suit each experiment. A simulated analysis is performed on simultaneity and velocity measurements. An error analysis is also performed for these measurements utilizing the Monte Carlo method to simulate the distribution of uncertainties associated with simultaneity-time measurements.

  18. Emerging technology and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Naveen Chander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of fabricating feldspathic porcelain pressable ingots was proposed. A 5 ml disposable syringe was used to condense the powder slurry. The condensed porcelain was sintered at 900΀C to produce porcelain ingots. The fabricated porcelain ingots were used in pressable ceramic machines. The technological advantages of pressable system improve the properties, and the fabricated ingot enhances the application of feldspathic porcelain.

  19. Suggestive techniques in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sora, Olena

    2011-01-01

    In my thesis I focused on a detailed analysis of suggestive techniques that appear in contemporary advertising. The issue of the effects of advertising has existed for many years and still staying timely. On the one side there are entrepreneurs and advertising agencies that are trying to influence opinions and suggest motivation for consuming. On the other side there is a potential customer, who is trying to obtain information about the product he needs and at the same time not letting anybod...

  20. Site characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Geoelectrical methods have been used since the 1920's to search for metallic ore deposits. During the last decade, traditional mining geophysical techniques have been adapted for environmental site characterization. Geoelectrical geophysics is now a well developed engineering specialty, with different methods to focus both on a range of targets and on depths below the surface. Most methods have also been adapted to borehole measurements.

  1. Transition Delay in Hypersonic Boundary Layers via Optimal Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nonlinear optimal streaks on disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7deg half-angle cone is investigated in an e ort to expand the range of available techniques for transition control. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone, but subharmonic first mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. These results suggest a passive flow control strategy of using micro vortex generators to induce streaks that would delay transition in hypersonic boundary layers.

  2. Analysis of differential infrared thermography for boundary layer transition detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A. D.; Eder, C.; Wolf, C. C.; Raffel, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the differential infrared thermography (DIT) technique, a contactless method of measuring the unsteady movement of the boundary layer transition position on an unprepared surface. DIT has been shown to measure boundary layer transition positions which correlate well with those from other measurement methods. In this paper unsteady aerodynamics from a 2D URANS solution are used and the resulting wall temperatures computed. It is shown that the peak of the temperature difference signal correlates well with the boundary layer transition position, but that the start and end of boundary layer transition cannot be extracted. A small systematic time-lag cannot be reduced by using different surface materials, but the signal strength can be improved by reducing the heat capacity and heat transfer of the surface layer, for example by using a thin plastic coating. Reducing the image time separation used to produce the difference images reduces the time-lag and also the signal level, thus the optimum is when the signal to noise ratio is at the minimum which can be evaluated.

  3. Spectroscopic Studies of Diatomic Transition Metal Oxides and Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, John Edward

    Wavelength selected fluorescence excitation spectroscopy (WSFES) techniques and ligand field theory (LFT) calculations have been applied to the following transition metal diatomics: CeO, UO, LaF, YF, ScF, HfO, TiO, and ZrO. All of the rotational spectra recorded for these molecules were at a resolution of 0.03 cm^{-1}, and, with few exceptions, Omega assignments for electronic states were unambiguously determined from observations of the first lines in at least two rotational branches. Accurate term energies and rotational constants are reported. Thirty one electronic transitions of CeO were recorded, and all of the sixteen states that correlate with rm Ce^{2+}(4f6s)O^ {2-} were characterized. The results are in good accord with a ligand field theory model of the low-lying states. New assignments were established for four previously observed transitions, and spectra for three new excited states were analyzed. LFT calculations have been used in an attempt to provide configurational assignments for the excited states (including those from previous studies). Twenty two states are tentatively assigned to the rm Ce^{2+}(4f6p)O ^{2-} configuration. Twelve others are tentatively assigned to rm Ce^ {2+}(4f5d)O^{2-}.. Rotation-electronic interactions between states of the 4f6s configuration of CeO, mediated by the operator {-}B(R)( J^+ cdot J_sp{a}{-}+ J^-cdot J_sp{a} {+}), have been calculated. Second-order perturbation theory was used to account for the effect of heterogeneous interactions on the rotation constants within a single configuration. Thirty-three electronic transitions of UO were analyzed, and nine low-lying electronic states that correlated with either rm U^{2+}(5f ^37s)O^{2-} or rm U^{2+}(5f^27s^2)O ^{2-} were characterized. Ligand field theory calculations were also used in an attempt to provide configurational assignments for the excited states of UO and ThO. Experimentally derived values for Delta B_sp{0} {0}(nl/n^' l^') parameters were used to predict

  4. Scalp imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otberg, Nina; Shapiro, Jerry; Lui, Harvey; Wu, Wen-Yu; Alzolibani, Abdullateef; Kang, Hoon; Richter, Heike; Lademann, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Scalp imaging techniques are necessary tools for the trichological practice and for visualization of permeation, penetration and absorption processes into and through the scalp and for the research on drug delivery and toxicology. The present letter reviews different scalp imaging techniques and discusses their utility. Moreover, two different studies on scalp imaging techniques are presented in this letter: (1) scalp imaging with phototrichograms in combination with laser scanning microscopy, and (2) follicular measurements with cyanoacrylate surface replicas and light microscopy in combination with laser scanning microscopy. The experiments compare different methods for the determination of hair density on the scalp and different follicular measures. An average terminal hair density of 132 hairs cm-2 was found in 6 Caucasian volunteers and 135 hairs cm-2 in 6 Asian volunteers. The area of the follicular orifices accounts to 16.3% of the skin surface on average measured with laser scanning microscopy images. The potential volume of the follicular infundibulum was calculated based on the laser scanning measurements and is found to be 4.63 mm3 per cm2 skin on average. The experiments show that hair follicles are quantitatively relevant pathways and potential reservoirs for topically applied drugs and cosmetics.

  5. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  6. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  7. Exploring the new phase transition of CDT

    OpenAIRE

    Coumbe, D. N.; Gizbert-Studnicki, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the newly discovered bifurcation phase transition of CDT quantum gravity. We define various order parameters and investigate which is most suitable to study this transition in numerical simulations. By analyzing the behaviour of the order parameters we present evidence that the transition separating the bifurcation phase and the physical phase of CDT is likely a second or higher-order transition, a result that may have important implications for the continuum limit of CDT.

  8. Exploring the new phase transition of CDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumbe, D.N. [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gizbert-Studnicki, J.; Jurkiewicz, J. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,ul. prof. Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, PL 30-348 (Poland)

    2016-02-22

    This work focuses on the newly discovered bifurcation phase transition of CDT quantum gravity. We define various order parameters and investigate which is most suitable to study this transition in numerical simulations. By analyzing the behaviour of the order parameters we present evidence that the transition separating the bifurcation phase and the physical phase of CDT is likely a second or higher-order transition, a result that may have important implications for the continuum limit of CDT.

  9. Transition on Hypersonic Vehicles with Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    t=520 seconds, the rest of the payload was turbulent. Mach number varied slightly throughout the test window from M=7.7 to M=7.9. During the same...and the transitional heat transfer. Heat transfer near the shoulder of the model at φ=45° also showed a periodic transition progression. Figure 2...wind tunnel experiments showed that the shoulder area transition was more closely correlated with yaw. Figure 2-16 shows that transition occurred

  10. Transitions - opportunities for growth, renewal, and gratitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitions in life and career represent significant milestones and are cause for both celebration and renewed interest and commitment. The new year brings a transition in leadership of the American Society of Agronomy, and new leadership is welcomed. Transitions can include retirement, as in the c...

  11. Functional Assessment and Intervention for Transition Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Vorndran, Christina M.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the use of functional assessment for the transition difficulties of an 11-year-old girl with multiple disabilities who engaged in flopping to the ground during transitions. Assessment information led to the scheduling of a period for interaction immediately following problematic transitions and resulted in reduced rates of…

  12. A Smoother Transition for Black Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    For all students, the transition to high school may lead to lower academic achievement and adjustment problems. Black students are at greater risk for academic and social decline during this transition. Holcomb-McCoy identifies four obstacles that make black students more vulnerable as they navigate the transition into high school: stereotyping in…

  13. Managing Change and Transition, Creating a Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in childhood and on into adulthood, people experience many transitions and changes in their lives. Some people cope with change better than others and make transitions easily; some people may experience a longer transition in order to integrate change. Most people have a fear of change due to uncertainty. Once a person releases that…

  14. Fluor Hanford (FH) River Corridor Transition Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCBRIDE, D.J.

    2002-08-28

    This Transition Plan defines the scope and schedule for actions that are critical for a smooth transition of the River Corridor scope of work and to ensure the achievement of transition as planned, with minimal or no impact to ongoing baseline activities.

  15. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval th...

  16. Fundamental Elements of Transition Program Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmelita, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    Adult learners require supports and services to help them successfully transition into taking on the demands and expectations of college students. Transition programs have grown in popularity as a means to aid adult learners as they transition to higher education. Unfortunately, previous research on adult learner participation in transition…

  17. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  18. Electromagnetic transitions in the algebraic cluster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, R.; Díaz-Caballero, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    We study electromagnetic transition rates in the framework of the algebraic cluster model. The concept of shape-phase transitions is used to propose a mechanism that allows to have interband and intraband quadrupole transitions of comparable strength, as observed in 12C.

  19. No Wasted Moments: Planning Purposeful Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the "transitional minutes" in "any" music class. When transitional minutes before, during, and after rehearsals and classes are unplanned and left to chance, much viable and valuable teaching time is lost. When transitional minutes are well structured, learning can proceed efficiently. One…

  20. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The shift from high to low levels of mortality and fertility called the demographic transition occurred over a century ago in the developed world. While the reasons for the transition in Western Europe and North America are well documented, little is known about the transition in developing countries except that it is reported to ...