Sample records for pseudo-binary ionic crystals

  1. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals


    Sabine Laschat; Axenov, Kirill V


    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  2. Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid Crystals


    Goossens, Karel; Lava, Kathleen; Nockemann, Peter; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Driesen, Kris; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen; Cardinaels, Thomas


    N-Alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium cations have been used for the design of ionic liquid crystals, including a new type of uranium-containing metallomesogen. Pyrrolidinium salts with bromide, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, thiocyanate, tetrakis(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonato)europate(III) and tetrabromouranyl] counteranions were prepared. For the bromide salts and tetrabromouranyl compounds, the chain length of the alkyl group CnH2n+1 was varied from eight...

  3. 'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 8. 'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and polyoxometalate anions exhibiting single crystal to single crystal transformation: breathing of crystals. T ARUMUGANATHAN ASHA SIDDIKHA SAMAR K DAS. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 ...

  4. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez


    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  5. Coexistence of several sillenite-like phases in pseudo-binary and pseudo-ternary systems based on Bi2O3 (United States)

    Dapčević, Aleksandra; Poleti, Dejan; Karanović, Ljiljana; Rogan, Jelena; Dražič, Goran


    A series of polycrystalline samples containing sillenite-like (doped γ-Bi2O3) phases were prepared by high-temperature reactions from α-Bi2O3 powder and different oxides in six pseudo-binary Bi2O3-MxOy (M = Mn, Ti, V) and six pseudo-ternary Bi2O3-M1xOy-M2xOy (M1 = Pb, Zn, Ti and M2 = Zn, Ti, Si) systems. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX, HRTEM, SAED and DTA techniques. It is shown that for pseudo-binary systems, the phase composition of specimens depends on dopant content, while, for pseudo-ternary systems, depends on dopants radii, as well. In pseudo-binary systems, single-phase sillenites are obtained if the dopant content is in accordance with formula Bi12M4+O20, for M = Mn and Ti, and Bi(M0.85+)O, for M = V. However, two coexisting sillenite-like phases, doped compound and nominally undoped solid solution, are found if a half of that dopant quantity is applied. In pseudo-ternary systems, the phase-pure double-doped sillenite specimens are identified if ionic radii of dopants differ less than 40%. Otherwise, two coexisting sillenites were obtained. The possibility to prepare the undoped γ-Bi2O3 phase was also discussed.

  6. Ionic conduction of lithium hydride single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipenko, G.I.; Oparin, D.V.; Zhuravlev, N.A.; Gavrilov, F.F.


    Using the electrical-conductivity- and NMR-measurement- methods, the ionic-conduction mechanism is established in stoichiometric lithium hydride single crystals. The activation energies of migration of anion- and cation-vacancies and the formation of Schottky-pair defects are determined. They assume that the mechanisms of self-diffusion and conductivity are different in lithium hydride.

  7. New triazolium based ionic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappert, Kathrin [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Unal, Derya [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Mallick, Bert [Ruhr Universitat Bochum; Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory


    A set of novel 1,2,3-triazolium based ionic liquid crystals was synthesized and their mesomorphic behaviour studied by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), POM (polarizing optical microscopy) and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering). Beside the variation of the chain length (C10, C12 and C14) at the 1,2,3-triazolium cation also the anion has been varied (Br-, I-, I3-, BF4-, SbF6-, N(CN)2-, Tf2N-) to study the influence of ion size, symmetry and H-bonding capability on the mesophase formation. Interestingly, for the 1,3-didodecyl-1,2,3-triazolium cation two totally different conformations were found in the crystal structure of the bromide (U-shaped) and the triiodide (rod shaped).

  8. Smectic phases in ionic liquid crystals. (United States)

    Bartsch, Hendrik; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S


    Ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) are anisotropic mesogenic molecules which carry charges and therefore combine properties of liquid crystals, e.g. the formation of mesophases, and of ionic liquids, such as low melting temperatures and tiny triple-point pressures. Previous density functional calculations have revealed that the phase behavior of ILCs is strongly affected by their molecular properties, i.e. their aspect ratio, the loci of the charges, and their interaction strengths. Here, we report new findings concerning the phase behavior of ILCs as obtained by density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The most important result is the occurrence of a novel, wide smectic-A phase [Formula: see text], at low temperature, the layer spacing of which is larger than that of the ordinary high-temperature smectic-A phase [Formula: see text]. Unlike the ordinary smectic S A phase, the structure of the [Formula: see text] phase consists of alternating layers of particles oriented parallel to the layer normal and oriented perpendicular to it.

  9. Directionally solidified pseudo-binary eutectics of Ni-Cr-/Hf,Zr/ (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Ashbrook, R. L.


    This report is concerned with the experimental determination of pseudo binary eutectic compositions and the directional solidification of the Ni-Cr-Hf,Zr, and Ni-Cr-Zr eutectic alloys. To determine unknown eutectics, chemical analyses were made of material bled from near eutectic ingots during incipient melting. Nominal compositions in weight per cent of Ni-18.6Cr-24.0Hf, Ni-19.6Cr-12.8Zr-2.8Hf, and Ni-19.2Cr-14.8Zr formed aligned pseudo-binary eutectic structures. The melting points were about 1270 C. The reinforcing intermetallic phases were identified as noncubic (Ni,Cr)7Hf2 and (Ni,Cr)7(Hf,Zr)2, and face centered cubic (Ni,Cr)5Zr. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phases were about 0.5.

  10. Directionally solidified pseudo-binary eutectics of Ni-Cr-(Hf, Zr) (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Ashbrook, R. L.


    A pseudo-binary eutectic, in which the intermetallic Ni7Hf2 reinforces the Ni-Cr solid solution phase, was previously predicted in the Ni-Cr-Hf system by a computer analysis. The experimental determination of pseudo binary eutectic compositions and the directional solidification of the Ni-Cr-Hf, Zr, and Ni-Cr-Zr eutectic alloys are discussed. To determine unknown eutectics, chemical analyses were made of material bled from near eutectic ingots during incipient melting. Nominal compositions in weight percent of Ni-18.6Cr-24.0HF, Ni19.6Cr-12.8Zr-2.8Hf, and Ni-19.2Cr-14.8Zr formed aligned pseudo-binary eutectic structures. The melting points were about 1270 C. The reinforcing intermetallic phases were identified as noncubic (Ni,Cr)7Hf2 and (Ni,Cr)7(Hf,Zr)2, and face centered cubic (Ni,Cr)5Zr. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phases were about 0.5.

  11. Facilitated Ion Transport in Smectic Ordered Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hong [Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5 Seongbuk-gu Seoul 136-791 South Korea; School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro Gwanak-gu Seoul 151-742 South Korea; Han, Kee Sung [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Lee, Je Seung [Department of Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro Dongdaemun-gu Seoul 02447 South Korea; Lee, Albert S. [Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5 Seongbuk-gu Seoul 136-791 South Korea; Park, Seo Kyung [Department of Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro Dongdaemun-gu Seoul 02447 South Korea; Hong, Sung Yun [Department of Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro Dongdaemun-gu Seoul 02447 South Korea; Lee, Jong-Chan [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro Gwanak-gu Seoul 151-742 South Korea; Mueller, Karl T. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA 16802 USA; Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Hong, Soon Man [Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5 Seongbuk-gu Seoul 136-791 South Korea; Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro Yuseong-gu Daejeon 305-350 South Korea; Koo, Chong Min [Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5 Seongbuk-gu Seoul 136-791 South Korea; Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro Yuseong-gu Daejeon 305-350 South Korea


    We investigated a novel ionic mixture of an imidazolium-based room temperature IL containing ethylene oxide functionalized phosphite anion and a lithium salt that self-assembles into a smectic-ordered IL crystal. The two key features in this work are the unique origin of the smectic order of the ionic mixtures and the facilitated ion transport behavior in the smectic ordered IL crystal. In fact, the IL crystals are self-assembled through Coulombic interactions between ion species, not through the hydrophilic-phobic interactions between charged ion heads and hydrophobic long alkyl pendants or the steric interaction between mesogenic moieties. Furthermore, the smectic order in the IL crystal ionogel facilitates exceptional and remarkable ionic transport. Large ionic conductivity, viscoelastic robustness, and additional electrochemical stability of the IL crystal ionogels provide promising opportunities for future electrochemical applications.

  12. Crystal Structure-Ionic Conductivity Relationships in Doped Ceria Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Wachsman, Eric D.; Jones, Jacob L.


    lattice strain of 10 mol% trivalent cation-doped ceria systems at the same temperatures. A consistent set of ionic conductivity data is developed, where the samples are synthesized under similar experimental conditions. On comparing the grain ionic conductivity, Nd0.10Ce0.90O2−δ exhibits the highest ionic...... conductivity among other doped ceria systems. The grain ionic conductivity is around 17% higher than that of Gd0.10Ce0.90O2−δ at 500°C, in air. X-ray diffraction profiles are collected on the sintered powder of all the compositions, from room temperature to 600°C, in air. From the lattice expansion data...... crystal structure–ionic conductivity relationship based on minimum elastic strain is not sufficient to explain the ionic conductivity behavior in ceria-based system....

  13. Study of the refractive index of gasoline+alcohol pseudo-binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Irina


    Full Text Available The properties of gasoline change as a result of blending with a bioalcohol, affecting the behavior of the pseudo-binary system. The aim of this paper is to present experimental data of the refractive index for pseudobinary mixtures of a reformate gasoline with ethanol, isopropanol and n-butanol over the entire composition range and for temperature ranging from 293.15 K to 313.15 K. The accuracy of different equations to predict the refractive index of the mixtures was tested. The best prediction accuracy (the lower AAD corresponded to Eykman and Lorentz-Lorenz mixing rules. A logarithmic equation proposed to correlate the refractive index with composition and temperature of gasoline+alcohol mixtures showed a good accuracy (the absolute average deviation AAD < 0.052%. The deviations in refractive index for investigated systems are negative over the entire composition range and at all investigated temperatures.

  14. Phase and structural behaviour of the PrAlO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3} pseudo-binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basyuk, T. [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera St., 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)], E-mail:; Vasylechko, L.; Fadeev, S. [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera St., 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Syvorotka, I.I. [SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska St., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Trots, D. [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Niewa, R. [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)


    High-resolution in situ X-ray powder diffraction applying synchrotron radiation has been used to examine the occurring crystal structures and the thermal behaviour of the solid solution Pr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}AlO{sub 3} in a wide temperature range 12-1173 K. At room temperature all studied samples in the whole composition range of the pseudo-binary system PrAlO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3} adopt a rhombohedral perovskite structure. The phases Pr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}AlO{sub 3} with x=0.56 and 0.66 undergo a sequence of three phase transitions I2/m{r_reversible}Imma{r_reversible}R3-bar c{r_reversible}Pm3-bar m. For the sample with x=0.24 a series of four (I4/mcm{r_reversible}I2/m{r_reversible}Imma{r_reversible}R3-bar c{r_reversible}Pm3-bar m) phase transitions has been observed and for x=0.86 two transformations were apparent (I2/m{r_reversible}R3-bar c{r_reversible}Pm3-bar m). Crystal structure parameters for all studied compositions Pr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}AlO{sub 3} have been determined. Based on in situ powder diffraction and DTA/DSC data, the phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system PrAlO{sub 3}-LaAlO{sub 3} has been constructed.

  15. Novel types of ionic thermotropic liquid crystals (United States)

    Bruce, Duncan W.; Dunmur, David A.; Lalinde, Elena; Maitlis, Peter M.; Styring, Peter


    Liquid crystals are usually categorized as either lyotropic mesophases in which fluid anisotropy results from polar headgroup packing of amphiphilic molecules, or as thermotropic mesophases where the orientational order arises from interactions between partially rigid anisotropic molecules. The phase types exhibited by lyotropic and thermotropic liquid crystals have distinctive structures, optical textures and physical properties. Inclusion of a rigid anisotropic moiety into a lyotropic liquid crystal gives an additional source of orientational ordering, and can lead to phase behaviour encompassing both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals. We have prepared a series of silver-containing thermotropic liquid crystals based on the bis(stilbazole) silver (I) cation. Some members of this series, in association with the amphiphilic counter-ion lauryl sulphate, form liquid crystal mesophases characteristic of both lyotropic and thermotropic liquid crystals.

  16. Theoretical analysis of static properties of mixed ionic crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BM form; by Murthy and Murthy [2] using the extended-BM form; by Thakur and. Sinha [12] using the logarithmic form; and by Shukla et al [13] using the charge- transfer model with varying degrees of success. The static properties of ammonium halides are determined in the BM model of ionic crystals using the modified form.

  17. Synthesis and mesomorphic properties of rigid-core ionic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwer, P.H.J.; Swager, T.M.


    Ionic liquid crystals combine the unique solvent properties of ionic liquids with self-organization found for liquid crystals. We report a detailed analysis of the structure-property relationship of a series of new imidazolium-based liquid crystals with an extended aromatic core. Investigated

  18. Photonic crystal carbohydrate sensors: low ionic strength sugar sensing. (United States)

    Asher, Sanford A; Alexeev, Vladimir L; Goponenko, Alexander V; Sharma, Anjal C; Lednev, Igor K; Wilcox, Craig S; Finegold, David N


    We developed a carbohydrate sensing material, which consists of a crystalline colloidal array (CCA) incorporated into a polyacrylamide hydrogel (PCCA) with pendent boronic acid groups. The embedded CCA diffracts visible light, and the PCCA diffraction wavelength reports on the hydrogel volume. This boronic acid PCCA responds to species containing vicinal cis diols such as carbohydrates. This PCCA photonic crystal sensing material responds to glucose in low ionic strength aqueous solutions by swelling and red shifting its diffraction as the glucose concentration increases. The hydrogel swelling results from a Donnan potential due to formation of boronate anion; the boronic acid pK(a) decreases upon glucose binding. This sensing material responds to glucose and other sugars at <50 microM concentrations in low ionic strength solutions.

  19. Improving Lithium Therapeutics by Crystal Engineering of Novel Ionic Cocrystals (United States)


    Current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lithium salts are plagued with a narrow therapeutic window. Recent attempts to find alternative drugs have identified new chemical entities, but lithium’s polypharmacological mechanisms for treating neuropsychiatric disorders are highly debated and are not yet matched. Thus, re-engineering current lithium solid forms in order to optimize performance represents a low cost and low risk approach to the desired therapeutic outcome. In this contribution, we employed a crystal engineering strategy to synthesize the first ionic cocrystals (ICCs) of lithium salts with organic anions. We are unaware of any previous studies that have assessed the biological efficacy of any ICCs, and encouragingly we found that the new speciation did not negatively affect established bioactivities of lithium. We also observed that lithium ICCs exhibit modulated pharmacokinetics compared to lithium carbonate. Indeed, the studies detailed herein represent an important advancement in a crystal engineering approach to a new generation of lithium therapeutics. PMID:24191685

  20. Investigations of crystallization and ionic interactions of sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene ionomers (United States)

    Gummaraju, Raghuram


    Syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) is a semicrystalline polymer that crystallizes rapidly and exhibits several polymorphic crystal structures. Crystallization of sPS from the melt results in an all-trans chain conformation comprised of alpha (hexagonal unit cell) and beta (orthorhombic unit cell) crystal forms. Crystallization of sPS from solution produces helical crystal structures. To ascertain the link between ionic aggregation and crystallization in semicrystalline ionomers, sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene (SsPS) has been selected as a model system. 23Na SSNMR (Solid-state NMR) spectra have also been utilized to analyze the influence of a surfactant (i.e., dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSNa)) on the state of ionic aggregation. Increasing the surfactant content within SsPS ionomers caused a downfield shift coupled with a decrease in width, for the peak corresponding to the ionic aggregates. Added DBSNa molecules can disrupt interactions within the ionic aggregates and consequently weaken the electrostatic network in SsPS. The influence of nonpolar/polar additives on syndiotactic polystyrene was also evaluated utilizing isothermal crystallization, 23Na SSNMR, 13C CPMAS (Cross-polarization Magic-angle spinning) NMR and WAXD (Wide-angle X-ray Diffraction) investigations. To evaluate the influence of crystallization on ionic aggregation in SsPS ionomers, 23Na and 13C SSNMR techniques have been utilized. Polymorphic nature was not significantly affected by the incorporation of ionic groups, as indicated by the identical 13C spectra for sPS and SsPS polymers. A densification of the crystalline domains is likely to affect the conformations of amorphous chains attached to the crystallite surfaces. This perturbation in chain conformation may then result in a disruption of the state of ionic aggregation. The retention of the state of ionic aggregation within SaPS upon annealing clearly indicates that the disruption in the ionic domains of the SsPS ionomer originates

  1. Page 1 Ionic Polarisation in Crystals: Additivity in Double Salts 319 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which is valid only for crystals of cubic symmetry with non-overlapping ions. The ionic polarisation of the composite Salt is in general slightly higher than the sum of the ionic polarisations of the constituent molecules except in the case of dolomite and the electronic polarisation under the same circumstances is slightly lower.

  2. Structural Variation in Polyoxomolybdate Hybrid Crystals Comprising Ionic-Liquid Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito


    Full Text Available Polyoxomolybdate inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were synthesized with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium as ionic-liquid surfactants. Both hybrid crystals possessed alternate stacking of surfactant layers and octamolybdate (Mo8 monolayers, while the molecular structures of Mo8 were different depending on the surfactants and solvents employed for crystallization. Each Mo8 anion was connected by two sodium cations to form infinite one-dimensional chain. The surfactant chains in these crystals were arranged in a complicatedly bent manner, which will be induced by the weak C–H···O hydrogen bonds between the Mo8 anions and ionic-liquid surfactants.

  3. Magnetocaloric properties of the pseudo-binary Er-rich lanthanide dialuminide compounds (United States)

    Lima, A. L.


    The compounds (REEr)Al (where RE=Gd, Ho, Pr for x⩾0.75) were studied experimentally and theoretically in order to evaluate their magnetocaloric properties and suitability for use as working media in magnetic refrigeration devices operating at low temperatures. I propose a theoretical description of these systems which are composed of two rare-earth ions with different total angular momentum ( JRE1 and JRE2) Our model Hamiltonian is solved self-consistently, taking into account crystal electric fields, exchange interactions, the Zeeman effect and second-order effects. From the eigenvalues and eigenstates, the partition function from which thermodynamic quantities may be calculated is obtained, including the isothermal magnetic entropy change, Δ Smag. In order to validate the theoretical results, Δ Smag obtained from heat capacity measurements using Maxwell's relations is compared to the calculated one. The results indicate that for Er-rich compositions fairly good agreement between theoretical and experimental Δ Smag is obtained.

  4. Magneto-caloric effect in the pseudo-binary intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sanchez Llamazares, Jose L. [Division de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Perez, Maria J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Franco, Victorino [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Reiffers, Marian; Kovac, Jozef [Institute of Experimental Physics, Watsonova 47, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Puente-Orench, Ines [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YPrFe{sub 17} exhibits a broad {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain |{Delta}S{sub M}| Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} and RCP Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}for a magnetic field change of 1.5 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} is found when compared with other isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} binary alloys. - Abstract: We have synthesized the intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound by arc-melting. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction show that the crystal structure is rhombohedral with R3{sup Macron }m space group (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type). The investigated compound exhibits a broad isothermal magnetic entropy change {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). The |{Delta}S{sub M}| ( Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and the relative cooling power ( Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}) have been calculated for applied magnetic field changes up to 1.5 T. A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} under different values of the magnetic field change can be obtained by a rescaling of the temperature axis. The results are compared and discussed in terms of the magneto-caloric effect in the isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (R = Y, Pr and Nd) binary intermetallic alloys.

  5. Low energy recycling of ionic liquids via freeze crystallization during cellulose spinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi


    A new method for recycling ionic liquids (ILs) from a cellulose spinning process is suggested. The method involves the combination of freeze crystallization and evaporation of H2O from IL + H2O mixtures to recycle the ILs. Processes with EmimAc and EmimDep were used as references to develop this ...

  6. Crystal structure of dimethylformamidium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamide: an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Jay P. Cardenas


    Full Text Available At 100 K, the title molecular salt, C3H8NO+·C2F6NO4S2−, has orthorhombic (P212121 symmetry; the amino H atom of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamine (HNTf2 was transferred to the basic O atom of dimethylformamide (DMF when the ionic liquid components were mixed. The structure displays an O—H...N hydrogen bond, which links the cation to the anion, which is reinforced by a non-conventional C—H...O interaction, generating an R22(7 loop. A further very weak C—H...O interaction generates an [001] chain.

  7. Grotthuss Transport of Iodide in EMIM/I3 Ionic Crystal. (United States)

    McDaniel, Jesse Gatten; Yethiraj, Arun


    Highly ionic environments can mediate unusual chemical reactions that would otherwise be considered impossible based on chemical intuition. For example, the formation of a chemical bond between two iodide anions to form a divalent polyiodide anion is seemingly prohibited due to Coulombic repulsion. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we show that in the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM)/I3 ionic crystal, the reactive formation of divalent and even trivalent polyiodide anions occurs with extremely small energetic barriers, due to the electrostatic field of the ionic lattice. A practical consequence of this anomalous reactivity is that iodide anions are efficiently transported within the crystal through a "Grotthuss-exchange" mechanism involving bond-breaking and forming events. We characterize two distinct transport pathways, involving both I2- 4 and I3- 7 intermediates, with fast transport of iodide resulting from the release of an I- anion on the opposite side of the intermediate species from the initial bond formation. The ordered cation arrangement in the crystal provides the necessary electrostatic screening for close approach of anions, suggesting a new counter-intuitive approach to obtain high ionic conductivity. This new design principle could be used to develop better solid-state electrolytes for batteries, fuel cells and super-capacitors.

  8. Theoretical analysis of static properties of mixed ionic crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 6. Theoretical analysis of static properties of mixed ... The results for the mixed crystal counterparts are also in fair agreement with the pseudo-experimental data generated from the application of Vegard's law. The results for the end point members ( = 0 and ...

  9. Lattice Energies and Bulk Moduli of Ionic Crystals | Abdulsalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These computations were carried out by means of a FORTRAN code, whose basic inputs are the name of crystal, the Born exponent, the number of charges and the lattice constant The lattice energies obtained are in close agreement with both the theoretical and the experimental reported values. It has been found that as ...

  10. Conductive Hybrid Crystal Composed from Polyoxomolybdate and Deprotonatable Ionic-Liquid Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi


    Full Text Available A polyoxomolybdate inorganic-organic hybrid crystal was synthesized with deprotonatable ionic-liquid surfactant. 1-dodecylimidazolium cation was employed for its synthesis. The hybrid crystal contained δ-type octamolybdate (Mo8 isomer, and possessed alternate stacking of Mo8 monolayers and interdigitated surfactant bilayers. The crystal structure was compared with polyoxomolybdate hybrid crystals comprising 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium surfactant, which preferred β-type Mo8 isomer. The less bulky hydrophilic moiety of the 1-dodecylimidazolium interacted with the δ-Mo8 anion by N–H···O hydrogen bonds, which presumably induced the formation of the δ-Mo8 anion. Anhydrous conductivity of the hybrid crystal was estimated to be 5.5 × 10−6 S·cm−1 at 443 K by alternating current (AC impedance spectroscopy.

  11. A structural study of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe sub 0 sub . sub 7 S sub 0 sub . sub 3 at high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlenko, D P; Hull, S; Knorr, K; Savenko, B N; Shchennikov, V V; Voronin, V I


    The structure of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe sub 0 sub . sub 7 S sub 0 sub . sub 3 has been studied by means of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction at pressure up to 8.5 GPa. A phase transition from the cubic zinc blende structure to the hexagonal cinnabar structure was observed at P approx 1 GPa. The obtained structural parameters were used for the analysis of the geometrical relationship between the zinc blende and the cinnabar phases. The zinc blende-cinnabar phase transition is discussed in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. It was found that the possible order parameter for the structural transformation is the spontaneous strain e sub 4. This assignment agrees with previously observed high pressure behaviour of the elastic constants of other mercury chalcogenides

  12. A Structural Study of the Pseudo-Binary Mercury Chalcogenide Alloy HgSe_{0.7}S_{0.3} at High Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlenko, D P; Ehm, L; Knorr, K; Hull, S; Shchennikov, V V; Voronin, V I


    The structure of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe_{0.7}S_{0.3} has been studied by means of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction at pressure up to 8.5 GPa. A phase transition from the cubic zinc blende structure to the hexagonal cinnabar structure was observed at P{\\sim}1 GPa. The obtained structural parameters were used for the analysis of the geometrical relationship between the zinc blende and the cinnabar phases. The zinc blende-cinnabar phase transition is discussed in the framework of Landau theory of the phase transitions. It was found that the possible order parameter for the structural transformation is the spontaneous strain e_{4}. This assignment agrees with previously observed high pressure behaviour of the elastic constants of other mercury chalcogenides.

  13. Theta series and magic numbers for diamond and certain ionic crystal structures (United States)

    Sloane, N. J. A.


    Two earlier papers by Teo and the author [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 6520 (1985); Inorg. Chem. 25, 2315 (1986)] studied circular and spherical clusters in the simplest close-packed structures in two and three dimensions. The present work considers clusters in other fundamental structures (the hexagonal net, diamond), and applies the results to study clusters in related structures (Lonsdaleite, graphite) and in binary arrays with the structure of the idealized ionic crystals NaCl, CsCl, ZnS, CaF2, TiO2, O3Bi2.

  14. Fast calculation of the electrostatic potential in ionic crystals by direct summation method (United States)

    Gellé, Alain; Lepetit, Marie-Bernadette


    An efficient real space method is derived for the evaluation of the Madelung's potential of ionic crystals. The proposed method is an extension of Evjen's method. It takes advantage of a general analysis of the potential convergence in real space. Indeed, we show that the series convergence is exponential as a function of the number of canceled multipolar moments in the unit cell. The method proposed in this work reaches such an exponential convergence rate. Its efficiency is comparable to Ewald's method. However, unlike the latter, it uses only simple algebraic functions.

  15. Effects of ionic inflow and organic matrix on crystal growth of octacalcium phosphate; relevant to tooth enamel formation (United States)

    Iijima, Mayumi; Moriwaki, Yutaka


    The mechanism of the lengthwise and oriented growth of enamel apatite crystals was studied on the basis of a hypothesis that (1) enamel crystals grow initially as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) as a precursor of apatite and (2) a one-directional Ca 2+ ion supply from the ameloblasts promotes the lengthwise and oriented growth of the crystals. To test this, OCP crystals were grown in a model system of enamel formation, where a cation selective membrane was used to control the Ca 2+ ion diffusion, at 37°C and at pH 6.3-7.4. The lengthwise and oriented growth of OCP was enhanced by the Ca influx from the membrane. H + ion enhanced while F -, Mg 2+ and CO 32- ions decreased the growth in the c-axis direction. F - induced an epitaxial overgrowth of apatite on the (1 0 0) of OCP, embedding an OCP lamella in the center of a crystal. When 5% polyacrylamide gel was attached to the membrane, OCP grew in long plate-like or ribbon-like crystals at pHs between 6.5 and 7.4. The length of these crystals was greater than that of those grown on the membrane without gel. The crystal size decreased with an increase in gel concentration from 5 to 20%. When a thin slice of tendon was used in place of the membrane, long OCP crystals grew along the collagen fibrils; these crystals were oriented with their axis of elongation perpendicular to the direction of ionic inflow. The size of crystals grown inside the collagenous matrix was much smaller than the size of crystals formed outside of the matrix and on the membrane. Thus, crystal growth was regulated by ionic diffusion and the matrix. When there were no constituents which regulated the growth direction, OCP crystals tended to grow along the direction of ionic inflow.

  16. Photoresponsive ionic liquid crystals assembled via halogen bond: en route towards light-controllable ion transporters. (United States)

    Saccone, Marco; Palacio, Francisco Fernandez; Cavallo, Gabriella; Dichiarante, Valentina; Virkki, Matti; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Priimagi, Arri; Metrangolo, Pierangelo


    We demonstrate that halogen bonding (XB) can offer a novel approach for the construction of photoresponsive ionic liquid crystals. In particular, we assembled two new supramolecular complexes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodides and azobenzene derivatives containing an iodotetrafluoro-benzene ring as XB donor, where the iodide anion acted as an XB acceptor. DSC and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the preferred stoichiometry between the XB donors and acceptors is 2 : 1, and that the iodide anions act as bidentate XB-acceptors, binding two azobenzene derivatives. Due to the high directionality of the XB, calamitic superanions are obtained, while the segregation occurring between the charged and uncharged parts of the molecules gives rise to a layered structure in the crystal lattice. Despite the fact that the starting materials are non-mesomorphic, the halogen-bonded supramolecular complexes exhibited monotropic lamellar liquid-crystalline phases over broad temperature ranges, as confirmed with polarized optical microscopy. Due to the presence of the azobenzene moieties, the LCs were photoresponsive, and a LC-to-isotropic phase transition could be obtained by irradiation with UV light. We envisage that the light-induced phase transition, in combination with the ionic nature of the LC, provides a route towards light-induced control over ion transport and conductance in these supramolecular complexes.

  17. Ionic liquid accelerates the crystallization of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Sang, Xinxin; Zhang, Jianling; Xiang, Junfeng; Cui, Jie; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhonghua; Li, Zhihong; Mo, Guang; Xu, Yuan; Song, Jinliang; Liu, Chengcheng; Tan, Xiuniang; Luo, Tian; Zhang, Bingxing; Han, Buxing


    The Zr-based metal-organic frameworks are generally prepared by solvothermal procedure. To overcome the slow kinetics of nucleation and crystallization of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks is of great interest and challenging. Here, we find that an ionic liquid as solvent can significantly accelerate the formation of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks at room temperature. For example, the reaction time is shortened to 0.5 h in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride for Zr-based metal-organic framework formation, while that in the conventional solvent N,N-dimethylformamide needs at least 120 h. The reaction mechanism was investigated in situ by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, spectroscopy synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption fine structure. This rapid, low-energy, and facile route produces Zr-based metal-organic framework nanoparticles with small particle size, missing-linker defects and large surface area, which can be used as heterogeneous catalysts for Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction.Crystallization kinetics of metal-organic frameworks in conventional organic solvents are usually very slow. Here, the authors show that an ionic liquid medium accelerates considerably the formation of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks that are active catalysts in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction.

  18. Responsive ionic liquid-polymer 2D photonic crystal gas sensors. (United States)

    Smith, Natasha L; Hong, Zhenmin; Asher, Sanford A


    We developed novel air-stable 2D polymerized photonic crystal (2DPC) sensing materials for visual detection of gas phase analytes such as water and ammonia by utilizing a new ionic liquid, ethylguanidine perchlorate (EGP) as the mobile phase. Because of the negligible ionic liquid vapor pressure these 2DPC sensors are indefinitely air stable and, therefore, can be used to sense atmospheric analytes. 2D arrays of ~640 nm polystyrene nanospheres were attached to the surface of crosslinked poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)-based polymer networks dispersed in EGP. The wavelength of the bright 2D photonic crystal diffraction depends sensitively on the 2D array particle spacing. The volume phase transition response of the EGP-pHEMA system to water vapor or gaseous ammonia changes the 2DPC particle spacing, enabling the visual determination of the analyte concentration. Water absorbed by EGP increases the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, which shrinks the polymer network and causes a blue shift in the diffracted light. Ammonia absorbed by the EGP deprotonates the pHEMA-co-acrylic acid carboxyl groups, swelling the polymer which red shifts the diffracted light.

  19. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito


    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  20. Molecular simulation of homogeneous nucleation of crystals of an ionic liquid from the melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaoxia; Shen, Yan [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Hung, Francisco R., E-mail: [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Santiso, Erik E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)


    The homogeneous nucleation of crystals of the ionic liquid [dmim{sup +}][Cl{sup −}] from its supercooled liquid phase in the bulk (P = 1 bar, T = 340 K, representing a supercooling of 58 K) was studied using molecular simulations. The string method in collective variables [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] was used in combination with Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589–2594 (2009)] and order parameters for molecular crystals [E. E. Santiso and B. L. Trout, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064109 (2011)] to sketch a minimum free energy path connecting the supercooled liquid and the monoclinic crystal phases, and to determine the free energy and the rates involved in the homogeneous nucleation process. The physical significance of the configurations found along this minimum free energy path is discussed with the help of calculations based on classical nucleation theory and with additional simulation results obtained for a larger system. Our results indicate that, at a supercooling of 58 K, the liquid has to overcome a free energy barrier of the order of 60 kcal/mol and to form a critical nucleus with an average size of about 3.6 nm, before it reaches the thermodynamically stable crystal phase. A simulated homogeneous nucleation rate of 5.0 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} s{sup −1} was obtained for our system, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental and simulation rates for homogeneous nucleation of ice at similar degrees of supercooling. This study represents our first step in a series of studies aimed at understanding the nucleation and growth of crystals of organic salts near surfaces and inside nanopores.

  1. On the mobility of delocalized and self-trapped positronium states in ionic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarev, I V


    The temperature dependence of the diffusivity is studied for delocalized and self-trapped positronium (Ps) atoms in ionic crystals. Detailed calculations taking into account low-temperature and inelastic scattering corrections and a Ps scattering form-factor have been performed for delocalized Ps. Low-temperature and inelastic corrections to the delocalized Ps diffusivity are shown to be essential below several tens of K, while the form-factor contribution is negligibly small up to thousand K. The mobility of self-trapped Ps is analyzed within the framework of a small polaron approach. The hopping contribution to the self-trapped Ps diffusivity is shown to be adiabatic in its physical nature. The tunnel contribution is in general not small and may turn out to be dominating even at very high temperatures. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Toward organization of cyano-bridged coordination polymer nanoparticles within an ionic liquid crystal. (United States)

    Larionova, Joulia; Guari, Yannick; Blanc, Christophe; Dieudonne, Philippe; Tokarev, Alexei; Guerin, Christian


    Size controlled cyano-bridged coordination polymer nanoparticles Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6] have been synthesized and organized at the nanolevel by using the room temperature ionic liquid crystal (ILC) C12-MIMBF4. The as-obtained material was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses reveal the presence of a long-range organization of cyano-bridged nanoparticles at the nanoscale level within the ILC phase. The magnetic study of these nanoparticles reveals an appearance of a nanocluster-glass-like regime caused by magnetostatic interactions between neighboring nanoparticles. The properties of these organized nanoparticles have been compared with the properties of nanoparticles of the same composition and stoichiometry obtained and randomly dispersed into the isotropic IL C10-MIMBF4.

  3. The growth of ionic crystals based on the halogenation of copper cluster anions. (United States)

    Luo, Zhixun; Smith, Jordan C; Woodward, W Hunter; Castleman, A W


    We investigated the halogenation reactivity of copper cluster anions produced via a magnetron-sputter source after introduction into a fast-flow tube reaction apparatus simultaneously with chlorine gas. Interesting cluster products corresponding to [Cu(n)Cl(n+1)](-) (n = 1-6) were observed with notable stability, and the mass distribution of these clusters exhibits an exponential decay with increasing values of n. Reaction kinetics analysis is provided on the gas-phase reactivity of copper cluster anions with chlorine. First-principle calculations suggest a series of cubic-like structures for these species similar to the structure of alkali halide clusters due to their similar electronic configurations. These structures act as a starting point in the formation of ionic crystals.

  4. Direct Observation of Impurity Segregation at Dislocation Cores in an Ionic Crystal. (United States)

    Tochigi, Eita; Kezuka, Yuki; Nakamura, Akiho; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi


    Dislocations, one-dimensional lattice defects, are known to strongly interact with impurity atoms in a crystal. This interaction is generally explained on the basis of the long-range strain field of the dislocation. In ionic crystals, the impurity-dislocation interactions must be influenced by the electrostatic effect in addition to the strain effect. However, such interactions have not been verified yet. Here, we show a direct evidence of the electrostatic impurity-dislocation interaction in α-Al2O3 by visualizing the dopant atom distributions at dislocation cores using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). It was found that the dopant segregation behaviors strongly depend on the kind of elements, and their valence states are considered to be a critical factor. The observed segregation behaviors cannot be explained by the elastic interactions only, but can be successfully understood if the electrostatic interactions are taken into account. The present findings will lead to the precise and quantitative understanding of impurity induced dislocation properties in many materials and devices.

  5. Self-Assembly of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow and Effects of Ionic Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Nastishin, Yuriy; Finotello, Daniele; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (NSF); (Institute of Physical Optics, Ukraine); (Kent)


    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) are formed by molecules with ionic groups at the periphery that associate into stacks through noncovalent self-assembly while in water. The very existence of the nematic (N) phase in the typical LCLC, the dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) is a puzzle, as the correlation length associated with the stacking, as measured in the X-ray experiments, is too short to explain the orientational order by the Onsager model. We propose that the aggregates can be more complex than simple rods and contain 'stacking faults' such as junctions with a shift of neighboring molecules, 3-fold junctions, etc. We study how ionic additives, such as salts of different valency and pH-altering agents, alter the N phase of SSY purified by recrystallization. The additives induce two general trends: (a) stabilization of the N phase, caused by the mono and divalent salts (such as NaCl), and evidenced by the increase of the N-to-I transition temperature and the correlation length; (b) suppression of the N phase manifested in the decrease of the N-to-I transition temperature and in separation of the N phase into a more densely packed N phase or the columnar (C) phase, coexisting with a less condensed I phase. The scenario (b) can be triggered by simply increasing pH (adding NaOH). The effects produced by tetravalent spermine fall mostly into the category (b), but the detail depends on whether this additive is in its salt form or a free base form. The base form causes changes through changes in pH and possible excluded volume effects whereas the salt form might disrupt the structure of SSY aggregates.

  6. Salting-out in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Liquids and K3PO4: Aqueous Biphasic Systems and Salt Precipitation


    Najdanovic-Visak, Vesna; Canongia Lopes, Jos? N.; Visak, Zoran P.; Trindade, J.; Rebelo, Lu?s P. N.


    The salting-out effect produced by the addition of potassium phosphate, K3PO4 to aqueous solutions of water-miscible ionic liquids, viz. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate, or 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ( alkyl = butyl, octyl or decyl) is investigated. The effects are analyzed using both the corresponding temperature-composition pseudo-binary and composition ternary phase diagrams. Different regions of liquid-liquid and solid-liquid...

  7. Modelling and Experiments on a Quartz Crystal Resonator Sensor for Conductivity Measurements of Low-Concentration Ionic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Cesar DE PAULA


    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of the electrical parameters of ionic solutions have different applications in industry and are particularly important in medical and biochemical studies, where ionic solutions are commonly used. This paper analyzes the effect of the conductivity of a low-concentration ionic solution on the resonant response of a Quartz Crystal Resonator (QCR sensor with asymmetric electrodes put in contact with the solution. A model of the QCR sensor is presented, and experimental results obtained with a 6-MHz sensor exposed to low-concentration solutions of NaCl in water are reported. The model and experimental results are in very good agreement throughout the explored conductivity range between around 10 and 200 mS/m.

  8. Stress induced polarization currents and electromagnetic emission from rocks and ionic crystals, accompanying their deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hadjicontis


    Full Text Available A crucial question of the scientific community nowadays, concerns the existence of electric signals preceding earthquakes. In order to give a plausible answer to this question, we carried out two kinds of laboratory experiments of uniaxial deformation of ionic crystals and rock samples: a In the first kind, stress induced polarization currents are detected and recorded. Our experimental results showed not only the existence of stress induced polarization currents before the fracture of the samples, but the possibility of the propagation of these signals, as well, through conductive channels, for distances much longer than the source dimensions. b In the second, acoustic and electromagnetic signals are detected and recorded in the frequency range from 1KHz to some MHz. The mechanism of generation of these signals is shown to be different for those emitted from piezoelectric and from non-piezoelectric materials. A plausible model is also suggested, on the compatibility of our laboratory results with the processes occurring in the earth during the earthquake preparatory stage.

  9. Ionic strength assay via polyacrylate-ferriferrous oxide magnetic photonic crystals. (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ran; Sun, Ye; Wang, He-Fang


    Convenient reading out and/or determination of ionic strength (IS) is of great significance for both scientific research and real life applications. We presented here a novel method for the rapid and sensitive IS assay based on the electrolyte-induced sensitive wavelength blueshifts of the reflection spectra of polyacrylate capped Fe3O4 magnetic photonic crystals (PA-Fe3O4-MPCs). For HCl, MgSO4 and the common electrolytes corresponding to the salinity of seawater (including NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, Na2SO4 and their mixtures), the PA-Fe3O4-MPCs displayed wavelength blueshifts identical to the total IS of the aqueous solutions, regardless of the kind of above-mentioned electrolytes in the solutions. Besides, the PA-Fe3O4-MPCs exhibited relatively high sensitivity (an average of 294 nm L mmol(-1) in the range of 0.05-0.30 mmol L(-1), and an even higher value of 386 nm L mmol(-1) at 0.05-0.15 mmol L(-1)) and fast response (within 8 s) to the IS of aqueous solutions. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for IS (NaCl, 0.1 mmol L(-1)) was 4.4% (n = 5). The developed method was applied to determine the salinity of seawater samples, and the determined results were validated by the traditional standard chlorinity titration and electric conductimetry method. The recoveries were in the range of 92-104%. The proposed PA-Fe3O4-MPCs based reflectometry method would have great potential for IS and salinity assays.

  10. Electrostatic interactions between ions near Thomas-Fermi substrates and the surface energy of ionic crystal at imperfect metals (United States)

    Kaiser, V.; Comtet, J.; Niguès, A.; Siria, A.; Coasne, B.; Bocquet, L.


    The electrostatic interaction between two charged particles is strongly modified in the vicinity of a metal. This situation is usually accounted for by the celebrated image charges approach, which was further extended to account for the electronic screening properties of the metal at the level of the Thomas-Fermi description. In this paper we build upon the approach by [Kornyshev et al. Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 78(3):1008–1019, 1980] and successive works to calculate the 1-body and 2-body electrostatic energy of ions near a metal in terms of the Thomas-Fermi screening length. We propose workable approximations suitable for molecular simulations of ionic systems close to metallic walls. Furthermore, we use this framework to calculate analytically the electrostatic contribution to the surface energy of a one dimensional crystal at a metallic wall and its dependence on the Thomas-Fermi screening length. These calculations provide a simple interpretation for the surface energy in terms of image charges, which allow for an estimate of interfacial properties in more complex situations of a disordered ionic liquid close to a metal surface. A counterintuitive outcome is that electronic screening, as characterized by a molecular Thomas-Fermi length ℓTF, profoundly affects the wetting of ionic systems close to a metal, in line with the recent experimental observation of capillary freezing of ionic liquids in metallic confinement. PMID:28436506

  11. Electrostatic interactions between ions near Thomas-Fermi substrates and the surface energy of ionic crystals at imperfect metals. (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Comtet, J; Niguès, A; Siria, A; Coasne, B; Bocquet, L


    The electrostatic interaction between two charged particles is strongly modified in the vicinity of a metal. This situation is usually accounted for by the celebrated image charges approach, which was further extended to account for the electronic screening properties of the metal at the level of the Thomas-Fermi description. In this paper we build upon a previous approach [M. A. Vorotyntsev and A. A. Kornyshev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 1980, 78(3), 1008-1019] and successive works to calculate the 1-body and 2-body electrostatic energy of ions near a metal in terms of the Thomas-Fermi screening length. We propose workable approximations suitable for molecular simulations of ionic systems close to metallic walls. Furthermore, we use this framework to calculate analytically the electrostatic contribution to the surface energy of a one dimensional crystal at a metallic wall and its dependence on the Thomas-Fermi screening length. These calculations provide a simple interpretation for the surface energy in terms of image charges, which allows for an estimation of the interfacial properties in more complex situations of a disordered ionic liquid close to a metal surface. The counter-intuitive outcome is that electronic screening, as characterized by a molecular Thomas-Fermi length lTF, profoundly affects the wetting of ionic systems close to a metal, in line with the recent experimental observation of capillary freezing of ionic liquids in metallic confinement.

  12. Critical Role of the Spacer Length of Gemini Surfactants on the Formation of Ionic Liquid Crystals and Thermotropic Behavior. (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo M F; Wang, Yujie; Tavares, Pedro B; Nunes, Sandra C C; Pais, Alberto A C C; Marques, Eduardo F


    Numerous reports have shown that the self-assembling properties of 12-s-12 bis(quaternary ammonium) gemini surfactants in aqueous solution are significantly influenced by s, the number of methylene groups in the covalent spacer. However, the role played by s on the phase behavior of the single compounds has not been investigated in a similarly systematic way. Here, we report on the thermotropic phase behavior of the anhydrous compounds with s = 2-6, 8, 10 and 12, resorting to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All of the compounds show a stepwise melting behavior, decomposing at 200 ºC. As the spacer length increases non-monotonic trends are observed for the thermodynamic parameters of the thermotropic phase transitions, mesophase formation and solid-state d00l spacings. In particular, the number and type of mesophases (ordered smectic phases and/or fluid smectic liquid crystals) depend critically on s. Further, upon heating molecules with s < 8 decompose before the liquid phase, while those with long spacers, s = 8-12, reach the isotropization (clearing) temperature hence forming both ionic liquid crystals and ionic liquid phases. We demonstrate that the melting behavior and type of ionic mesophases formed by gemini molecules can be usefully manipulated by a simple structural parameter like the length of the covalent linker.

  13. Kinetics of gypsum crystal growth from high ionic strength solutions: A case study of Dead Sea - seawater mixtures (United States)

    Reznik, Itay J.; Gavrieli, Ittai; Antler, Gilad; Ganor, Jiwchar


    Gypsum precipitation kinetics were examined from a wide range of chemical compositions (11Bosbach and Rammensee, 1994). Under further-away-from-equilibrium conditions, the reaction is dominated by an apparent 10th order reaction. A conceptual model for gypsum growth kinetics is presented. The model is based on the 2nd order kinetic coefficients determined in the present study and data from the literature and is valid under a wide range of ionic strengths and Ca/SO42- ratios. According to this model, the integration of SO42- to kinks on the surface of the growing crystals is the rate-limiting step in the precipitation reaction. At ionic strengths above 8.5 m the precipitation rate of gypsum is enhanced, possibly due to the formation of CaSO4° ion pairs and/or a decrease in hydration frequencies.

  14. UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies and characterization of ionic-pair crystal violet-oxytetracycline. (United States)

    Orellana, Sandra; Soto, César; Toral, M Inés


    The present study shows the formation and characterization of the ionic-pair between the antibiotic oxytetracycline and the dye crystal violet in ammonia solution pH 9.0+/-0.2 extracted into chloroform. The characterization was demonstrated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, (1)H NMR, measurement of relaxation times T(1) and IR spectroscopy, using a comparison between the signals of individual pure compounds with the signals with the mixture CV-OTC in different alkaline media. The formation of ionic-pair was also corroborated by new signals and chemical shifts. (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments show that the interaction is electrostatic. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation processes allow a photonic crystal to replace an ionic crystal along lattice planes (United States)

    Liesegang, Moritz; Milke, Ralf


    structural and chemical reorganization mechanisms behind silica pseudomorphism. Fundamental knowledge about the highly selective replacement process is absent so far, impeding an adequate interpretation of the observations. The replacement of calcitic shells by amorphous silica spheres (~300 nm in size) is a unique example for the transformation of an ionic to a photonic crystal accompanied by a large size contrast of ions and spheres, respectively, but preserving lattice planes. The observed replication of polysynthetic twinning and cleavage planes of calcite by opal-A spheres indicates that silicification occurs via dissolution of shell material and immediate precipitation of amorphous silica. This follows the interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism model (Putnis and Putnis, 2007), but requires some modification to allow for open space necessary to form spheres in the 100s-nm size range with a core-shell structure. While sphere growth by a gravitational ordering process is implausible, we assume that the ordered array of monodisperse spheres forms via layer-by-layer deposition. References: Putnis A. and Putnis C.V. (2007), J. Solid State Chem., 180, 1783-1786

  16. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joel Glenn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  17. Recognition of small polar molecules with an ionic crystal of alpha-Keggin-type polyoxometalate with a macrocation. (United States)

    Uchida, Sayaka; Kawamoto, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Noritaka


    The complexation of Keggin-type polyoxometalates [alpha-XW12O40]n- (X = P, Si, B, Co), macrocation [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3]+, and alkali-metal ions forms ionic crystals of Na2[Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3][alpha-PW12O40].16H2O (1a), K3[Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3][alpha-SiW12O40].16H2O (2a), Rb4[Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3][alpha-BW12O40].16H2O (3a), and Cs5[Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3][alpha-CoW12O40].7.5H2O (4a). The space volumes of the ionic crystals decrease in the order of 1a > 2a > 3a > 4a. The water of crystallization in 1a-3a is completely desorbed by evacuation at room temperature, while about 50% of the water of crystallization in 4a is desorbed. The respective 1a-4a after evacuation at room temperature are denoted by 1b-4b, which show the close packing of the constituent ions. The calculated cell volumes per formula decreased in the order of 1b > 2b > 3b > 4b, which would be related to the increase in n. Compound 1b sorbs various butanol, valeronitrile, and methyl propionate. Compound 2b sorbs ethanol, acetonitrile, and methyl formate. Compound 3b sorbs water and methanol, and 4b sorbs only water. Thus, the ionic crystals can discriminate < or =C5 polar organic molecules such as alcohols, nitriles, and esters by one methylene chain, and the decrease in n of [alpha-XW12O40]n- enables the sorption of molecules with the longer methylene chain. The nature of the sorption properties of 1b-4b can be explained by the lattice energy needed for the expansion of 1b-4b. The selective sorption properties of 1b-4b are successfully applied to the separation of mixtures of alcohols, nitriles, esters, and water.

  18. The pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe sub 0 sub . sub 7 S sub 0 sub . sub 3 at high pressure: a mechanism for the zinc blende to cinnabar reconstructive phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlenko, D P; Ehm, L; Hull, S; Savenko, B N; Shchennikov, V V; Voronin, V I


    The structure of the pseudo-binary mercury chalcogenide alloy HgSe sub 0 sub . sub 7 S sub 0 sub . sub 3 has been studied by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction at pressures up to 8.5 GPa. A phase transition from the cubic zinc blende structure to the hexagonal cinnabar structure was observed at P approx 1 GPa. A phenomenological model of this reconstructive phase transition based on a displacement mechanism is proposed. Analysis of the geometrical relationship between the zinc blende and the cinnabar phases has shown that the possible order parameter for the zinc blende-cinnabar structural transformation is the spontaneous strain e sub 4. This assignment agrees with the previously observed high pressure behaviour of the elastic constants of some mercury chalcogenides.

  19. Role of the Electrostatic Interactions in the Stabilization of Ionic Liquid Crystals: Insights from Coarse-Grained MD Simulations of an Imidazolium Model. (United States)

    Saielli, Giacomo; Wang, Yanting


    In order to investigate the role of the electrostatic interactions in stabilizing various phases of ionic liquids, especially smectic ionic liquid crystals, we have employed a coarse-grained model of 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, [C16mim][NO3], to perform molecular dynamics simulations with the partial charges artificially rescaled by a factor from 0.7 to 1.2. The simulated systems have been characterized by means of orientational and translational order parameters and by distribution functions. We have found that increasing the total charge of the ions strongly stabilizes the ionic smectic phase by shifting the clearing point (melting into the isotropic liquid phase) to higher temperatures, while a smaller effect is observed on the stability of the crystal phase. Our results highlight the importance of the electrostatic interactions in promoting the formation of ionic liquid crystals through microphase segregation. Moreover, as the total charge of the model is increased, we observe a transformation from a homogeneous to a nanosegregated isotropic structure typical of ionic liquids. Therefore, a connection can be established between the degree of nanosegregation of ILs and the stability of ILC phases. All the above can be understood by the competition among electrostatic interactions between charged groups (cationic head groups and anions), van der Waals interactions between nonpolar cationic tail groups, and thermal fluctuations.

  20. Crystal structure and ionic conductivity of the new cobalt polyphosphate NaCo(PO3)3 (United States)

    Ben Smida, Youssef; Guesmi, Abderrahmen; Georges, Samuel; Avdeev, Maxim; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi


    Polycrystalline sample of sodium cobalt triphosphate NaCo(PO3)3 was obtained by solid-state reaction and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The title compound is isostructural to NaZn(PO3)3 and its structure was refined by the Rietveld refinement in the cubic system, space group Pa 3 ̅, with a=14.2484(4) Å. The obtained structural model is supported by bond valence sum (BVS) and charge distribution (CD) methods. The structure is described as a three-dimensional open-anionic framework built up of corner-sharing CoO6 and PO4 polyhedra with interconnecting channels along the 3-axis, in which the Na+ cations are located. The ionic conductivity measurements are performed on pellets with relative density of 84%. The electrical conductivity is 1.01×10-5 S cm-1 at 480 °C and the activation energy deduced from the slope is 1.1 eV. The correlation between crystal structure and ionic conductivity was studied by the means of the bond-valence-site-energy (BVSE) model. The main result is that sodium transport is made mainly via Na2 and Na3 sites.

  1. Silica nanoparticle doped organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Shi, Chengzhen; Qiu, Lihua; Chen, Xiaojian; Zhang, Haigang; Wang, Lei; Yan, Feng


    Organic ionic plastic crystal, 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium iodide (P₁₃I), which possesses a broad plastic phase from -36 to 135 °C, was doped with silica nanoparticles (SiO₂ NPs) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (EMII), for the preparation of SiO₂/EMII/P₁₃I solid-state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thermal properties of all the electrolytes, including solid-solid phase transitions and melting temperatures, were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of silica particles on the ionic conductivity, diffusion of I⁻/I₃⁻ redox couple in electrolytes, and photovoltaic performance for solid-state DSSCs were investigated. The fabricated solid-state DSSCs yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 5.25% under simulated air mass 1.5 solar spectrum illuminations at 50 mW cm⁻². Furthermore, the DSSCs based on SiO₂/EMII/P₁₃I solid-state electrolytes show good stability after an accelerating aging test, demonstrating potential practical applications.

  2. Photo-Responsive Soft Ionic Crystals: Ion-Pairing Assemblies of Azobenzene Carboxylates. (United States)

    Yamakado, Ryohei; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Seki, Takahiro; Maeda, Hiromitsu


    This report delineates the design and synthesis of negatively charged azobenzene derivatives that form photo-responsive ion-pairing assemblies. The azobenzene carboxylates possessing aliphatic chains were prepared as photo-responsive anions that promote the formation of ion-pairing dimension-controlled assemblies, including mesophases, when used in conjunction with a tetrabutylammonium (TBA) cation. The photo-responsive properties of the ion pairs and the precursory carboxylic acids in the bulk state were examined by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), demonstrating that liquid crystal (LC)-liquid and crystal-liquid phase transitions occurred, depending on the number and lengths of the aliphatic chains of each assembly. An ion pair exhibited photo-induced crystal-crystal phase transitions upon switching between two irradiation wavelengths (365/436 nm). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. X-ray reflectivity reveals ionic structure at liquid crystal-aqueous interfaces. (United States)

    Hallett, James E; Hayward, Dominic W; Arnold, Thomas; Bartlett, Paul; Richardson, Robert M


    Here X-ray reflectivity has been used to determine the structure of liquid crystal monolayers for different cyanobiphenyl homologues supported on aqueous solutions of two different salt species. Sodium iodide induces homeotropic ordering for all of the monolayer forming liquid crystal homologues studied here, and forms a Stern layer of iodide ions at the liquid crystal cyano headgroup, similar to the case of lipids or surfactants supported on electrolyte solutions. The liquid crystal headgroups were also found to penetrate into the water surface when binding with iodide ions. Sodium bromide, however, does not form the same localisation of ions close to a liquid crystal monolayer, and instead appears to produce no noticeable change in the scattering length density of the liquid crystal monolayer compared to pure water. However, on further compression the X-ray reflectivity dramatically changes, revealing the emergence of the so-called "trilayer" structure for 5CB and 8CB. This transition occurs at a lower areal density for sodium bromide than for pure water, and unlike for the uncompressed film, a layer of bromide ions was found at the trilayer-water interface.

  4. A Technique for High-Throughput Protein Crystallization in Ionically Cross-Linked Polysaccharide Gel Beads for X-Ray Diffraction Experiments (United States)

    Sugahara, Michihiro


    A simple technique for high-throughput protein crystallization in ionically cross-linked polysaccharide gel beads has been developed for contactless handling of crystals in X-ray crystallography. The method is designed to reduce mechanical damage to crystals caused by physical contact between crystal and mount tool and by osmotic shock during various manipulations including cryoprotection, heavy-atom derivatization, ligand soaking, and diffraction experiments. For this study, protein crystallization in alginate and κ-carrageenan gel beads was performed using six test proteins, demonstrating that proteins could be successfully crystallized in gel beads. Two complete diffraction data sets from lysozyme and ID70067 protein crystals in gel beads were collected at 100 K without removing the crystals; the results showed that the crystals had low mosaicities. In addition, crystallization of glucose isomerase was carried out in alginate gel beads in the presence of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves (MS), a hetero-epitaxic nucleant; the results demonstrated that MS can reduce excess nucleation of this protein in beads. To demonstrate heavy-atom derivatization, lysozyme crystals were successfully derivatized with K2PtBr6 within alginate gel beads. These results suggest that gel beads prevent serious damage to protein crystals during such experiments. PMID:24740192

  5. A technique for high-throughput protein crystallization in ionically cross-linked polysaccharide gel beads for X-ray diffraction experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Sugahara

    Full Text Available A simple technique for high-throughput protein crystallization in ionically cross-linked polysaccharide gel beads has been developed for contactless handling of crystals in X-ray crystallography. The method is designed to reduce mechanical damage to crystals caused by physical contact between crystal and mount tool and by osmotic shock during various manipulations including cryoprotection, heavy-atom derivatization, ligand soaking, and diffraction experiments. For this study, protein crystallization in alginate and κ-carrageenan gel beads was performed using six test proteins, demonstrating that proteins could be successfully crystallized in gel beads. Two complete diffraction data sets from lysozyme and ID70067 protein crystals in gel beads were collected at 100 K without removing the crystals; the results showed that the crystals had low mosaicities. In addition, crystallization of glucose isomerase was carried out in alginate gel beads in the presence of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves (MS, a hetero-epitaxic nucleant; the results demonstrated that MS can reduce excess nucleation of this protein in beads. To demonstrate heavy-atom derivatization, lysozyme crystals were successfully derivatized with K2PtBr6 within alginate gel beads. These results suggest that gel beads prevent serious damage to protein crystals during such experiments.

  6. In situ direct observation of photocorrosion in ZnO crystals in ionic liquid using a laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ishioka


    Full Text Available ZnO photocatalysts in water react with environmental water molecules and corrode under illumination. ZnO nanorods in water can also grow because of water splitting induced by UV irradiation. To investigate their morphological behavior caused by crystal growth and corrosion, here we developed a new laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope and observed crystal ZnO nanorods immersed in ionic liquid. Exposing the specimen holder to a laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, we observed the photocorrosion in situ at the atomic scale for the first time. This experiment revealed that Zn and O atoms near the interface between the ZnO nanorods and the ionic liquid tended to dissolve into the liquid. The polarity and facet of the nanorods were strongly related to photocorrosion and crystal growth.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and electrochemical studies of ionic iron(III) dipicolinato complex (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul


    The new complex (NH4)[Fe(dipic)2] (1) (dipicH2 = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray method. The crystal system is tetragonal with space group I41/a. The FeIII ion and the N atom of the ammonium cation are located on a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis (4 bar). The Nsbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bonding and π⋯π stacking interactions play an important role in the formation of a 3-dimensional anion-cation network and stabilization of the crystal structure. The redox behavior of the complex was also investigated by cyclic voltammetry.

  8. Sonochemical synthesis of polyoxometalate based of ionic crystal nanostructure: A photocatalyst for degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol. (United States)

    Shahrnoy, Abdolghafar Abolhosseini; Mahjoub, Ali Reza; Morsali, Ali; Dusek, Michal; Eigner, Vaclav


    Single crystals of new polyoxometalate based ionic crystal [Fe(phen)3]2[SiW12O40]·3DMF (IC-Fe), (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide) and their nanoparticles (IC-Fe-NPs) have been synthesized via self-assembly of constituent ions and sonochemical reaction, respectively. All materials have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetric (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. Effect of sonication conditions on size and morphology of IC-Fe was investigated including time, concentrations of initial reagents and power of irradiation. Further studies have shown that IC-Fe is not only active in photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol under visible light irradiation, but also is very stable in the various solvents and it can be easily separated and reused for cycles of reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling of the radiation-induced microstructural evolution in ionic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are presented on heavily irradiated natural and synthetic NaCl crystals in the temperature range where anion defects are mobile. They give a strong evidence for the formation of vacancy voids, which cannot be explained by the Jain-Lidiard model

  10. Fluid-crystal coexistence for proteins and inorganic nanocolloids : Dependence on ionic strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, P.; Odijk, T.


    We investigate theoretically the fluid-crystal coexistence of solutions of globular charged nanoparticles such as proteins and inorganic colloids. The thermodynamic properties of the fluid phase are computed via the optimized Baxter model P. Prinsen and T. Odijk [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 6525 (2004)].

  11. Oriented growth of porphyrin-based molecular wires on ionic crystals analysed by nc-AFM (United States)

    Zimmerli, Lars; Kawai, Shigeki; Meyer, Ernst; Fendt, Leslie-Anne; Diederich, Francois


    Summary The growth of molecular assemblies at room temperature on insulating surfaces is one of the main goals in the field of molecular electronics. Recently, the directed growth of porphyrin-based molecular wires on KBr(001) was presented. The molecule–surface interaction associated with a strong dipole moment of the molecules was sufficient to bind them to the surface; while a stabilization of the molecular assemblies was reached due to the intermolecular interaction by π–π binding. Here, we show that the atomic structure of the substrate can control the direction of the wires and consequently, complex molecular assemblies can be formed. The electronic decoupling of the molecules by one or two monolayers of KBr from the Cu(111) substrate is found to be insufficient to enable comparable growth conditions to bulk ionic materials. PMID:21977413

  12. Crystal structure of dimethylformamidium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide: an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Allan Jay P.; O' Hagan, Molly


    At 100 K, the title molecular salt, C3H8NO+·C2F6NO4S2-, has orthorhombic (P212121) symmetry; the amino H atom of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amine (HNTf2) was transferred to the basic O atom of dimethylformamide (DMF) when the ionic liquid components were mixed. The structure displays an O—H...N hydrogen bond, which links the cation to the anion, which is reinforced by a non-conventional C—H...O interaction, generating anR22(7) loop. A further very weak C—H...O interaction generates an [001] chain.

  13. Growth and characterization of binary and pseudo-binary 3-5 compounds exhibiting non-linear optical behavior. Undergraduate research opportunities in microgravity science and technology (United States)

    Witt, August F.


    In line with the specified objectives, a Bridgman-type growth configuration in which unavoidable end effects - conventionally leading to growth interface relocation - are compensated by commensurate input-power changes is developed; the growth rate on a microscale is predictable and unaffected by changes in heat transfer conditions. To permit quantitative characterization of the growth furnace cavity (hot-zone), a 3-D thermal field mapping technique, based on the thermal image, is being tested for temperatures up to 1100 C. Computational NIR absorption analysis was modified to now permit characterization of semi-insulating single crystals. Work on growth and characterization of bismuth-silicate was initiated. Growth of BSO (B12SiO20) for seed material by the Czochralski technique is currently in progress. Undergraduate research currently in progress includes: ground based measurements of the wetting behavior (contact angles) of semiconductor melts on substrates consisting of potential confinement materials for solidification experiments in a reduced gravity environment. Hardware modifications required for execution of the wetting experiments in a KC-135 facility are developed.

  14. Dependence of Ion Transport on the Electronegativity of the Constituting Atoms in Ionic Crystals. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Kaghazchi, Payam


    Ion transport in electrode and electrolyte materials is a key process in Li-based batteries. In this work, we study the mechanism and activation energy of ion transport (Ea ) in rock-salt Li-based LiX (X=Cl, Br, and I) materials. It is found that Ea at low external voltages, where Li-X Schottky pairs are the most favorable defect types, is about 0.42 times the Gibbs energy of formation of LiX compound (ΔGf ). The value of 0.42 is the slope of the electronegativity of anions of binary Li-based materials as a function of ΔGf . At high voltages, where the Fermi level is located very close to the valence band maximum (VBM), electrons can be excited from the VB to Li vacancy-induced states close to the Fermi level. Under this condition, the formation of Li vacancies that are compensated by holes is energetically more favorable than that of Li-X Schottky pairs, and therefore, the activation energies are lower in the former case. The wide range of reported experimental values of activation energies lies between calculated values at low and high voltage regimes. This work motivates further studies on the relation between the activation energy for ionic conductivity in solid materials and the intrinsic ground-state properties of their free atoms. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A convenient method for preparing rigid-core ionic liquid crystals (United States)

    Fouchet, Julien; Heinrich, Benoît; Welter, Richard; Louati, Alain


    Summary An efficient, solvent free method for the N-arylation of imidazole by 1-(dodecyloxy)-4-iodobenzene using Cu(II)-NaY as catalyst and K2CO3 as base is reported. By this synthetic approach, mesomorphic 3-[4-(dodecyloxy)phenyl]-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium iodide was synthesized in a two-step procedure, and its mesomorphism has been fully investigated by polarised optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. In addition its lamellar crystal structure, electrochemical behaviour and UV (absorption and emission) properties are reported. PMID:20224627

  16. A convenient method for preparing rigid-core ionic liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fouchet


    Full Text Available An efficient, solvent free method for the N-arylation of imidazole by 1-(dodecyloxy-4-iodobenzene using Cu(II-NaY as catalyst and K2CO3 as base is reported. By this synthetic approach, mesomorphic 3-[4-(dodecyloxyphenyl]-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium iodide was synthesized in a two-step procedure, and its mesomorphism has been fully investigated by polarised optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. In addition its lamellar crystal structure, electrochemical behaviour and UV (absorption and emission properties are reported.

  17. 1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate as an archetypal pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal electrolyte for all-solid-state fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Brooks, Neil R.


    1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate (1), a novel, pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal (POIPC) with a wide plastic crystalline phase, has been explored as a proof-of-principle anhydrous proton conductor for all-solid-state high temperature hydrogen/air fuel cells. Its physicochemical...... properties, including thermal, mechanical, structural, morphological, crystallographic, spectral, and ion-conducting properties, as well as fuel cell performances, have been studied comprehensively in both fundamental and device-oriented aspects. With superior thermal stability, 1 exhibits crystal (phase III...... patterns further illustrate the structural changes. Electrochemical hydrogen pumping tests confirm the protonic nature of the ionic conduction observed in the lower plateau region. Finally, measurements of the open circuit voltages (OCVs) and the polarization curves of a dry hydrogen/air fuel cell prove...

  18. Crystal Structure, Vibrational Spectroscopy and ab Initio Density Functional Theory Calculations on the Ionic Liquid forming 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}amide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Riisager, Anders; Nguyen van Buu, Olivier


    The salt 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}amide, [((CH3)(2)N)(2)C=NH2](+)[N(SO2-CF3)(2)](-) or [tmgH][NTf2], easily forms an ionic liquid with high SO2 absorbing capacity. The crystal structure of the salt was determined at 120(2) K by X-ray diffraction. The structure...

  19. Self-assembly, aggregates morphology and ionic liquid crystal of polyoxometalate-based hybrid molecule: From vesicles to layered structure (United States)

    Tan, Chunxia


    Polyoxometalate anions [SiW12O40]4- were encapsulated by four 1, 3-dioctadecylimidazolium cations (labeled as L+) driven by electrostatic interaction to obtain hybrid molecule L4[SiW12O40]. The composition and ingredients of L4[SiW12O40] were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. In mixedsolvent (chloroform/methanol volume of 4:1), the self-assembled aggregates of L4[SiW12O40] appear at multilamllar vesicles under optical microscopy and the micron-size bulky flower-like aggregates in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and small-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) of L4[SiW12O40] demonstrate that spherical aggregations in mixed-solvent are densely packed by flakes, which can self-assembly into ordered one dimension layered structure. In addition, L4[SiW12O40] shows typical thermotropic liquid crystal behavior similar to imidazole cations. The ordered self-assembly hybrid molecule materials based on organic-polyoxometalate ionic liquids would be exciting branch of nanostructure functional materials.

  20. Electro-optical study of chiral nematic liquid crystal/chiral ionic liquid composites with electrically controllable selective reflection characteristics. (United States)

    Hu, Wang; Zhang, Lipei; Cao, Hui; Song, Li; Zhao, Haiyan; Yang, Zhou; Cheng, Zihui; Yang, Huai; Guo, Lin


    A chiral nematic liquid crystal (N*-LC)/chiral ionic liquid (CIL) composite with unique electro-optical characteristics was prepared and filled into a planar treated cell. When an electric field was applied to the cell, the anions and the cations of CIL moved towards the anode and the cathode of the power supply, respectively, thus forming a density gradient of the chiral groups, which resulted in wideband reflection. By adjusting the intensity of the electric field, the reflection bandwidth can be controlled accurately and reversibly. Moreover, the electric field-induced states can be memorized after the applied electric field is turned off. The reflective properties of the composite are investigated in the visible and near-infrared region, respectively. Additionally, the changes of the reflection bandwidths with the intensity and the applied time of the electric field were also investigated. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations, the mechanism of the electrically controllable reflection was demonstrated. Potential applications of the composite are related to reflective, color electronic paper (E-paper) and smart reflective windows for the solar light management.

  1. Molecular simulation study of CO2 and N2 absorption in a phosphonium based organic ionic plastic crystal (United States)

    Kandagal, Vinay S.; Chen, Fangfang; Jónsson, Erlendur; Pringle, Jennifer M.; Forsyth, Maria


    An organic ionic plastic crystal (OIPC), methyl(diethyl)isobutylphosphonium hexafluorophosphate [P122i4][PF6], was investigated for CO2 and N2 absorption using molecular simulations. Ab initio calculations showed that both the cation and anion exhibit larger binding energy for CO2 compared with N2. The CO2 absorption, as calculated from classical molecular dynamics simulations, increased by a factor of 7.5 from 275 K to 325 K, while that of N2 showed low absorption at both temperatures. The simulations suggest that the significant increase in CO2 absorption at 325 K is attributed to a higher degree of disorder and increase in the free volume due to the gas/solid interfaces. While the ab initio calculations were helpful in identifying specific interaction sites on the constituent ions, the classical MD simulations elucidated the importance of interfaces in gas absorption studies in this material. The results show that the OIPC can be a promising material for CO2 separations from CO2/N2 mixture.

  2. Nanotribology at single crystal electrodes: Influence of ionic adsorbates on friction forces studied with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausen, Florian; Nielinger, Michael; Ernst, Siegfried [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Baltruschat, Helmut [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail:


    We present friction force measurements on Au(1 1 1) single crystal electrode surfaces performed under electrochemical conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). At monoatomic steps friction is increased in both scan directions. In 0.05 M sulfuric acid an increase of friction is observed with the increase of adsorbed sulfate. Friction force increases non-linearly with load. Cu UPD also increases friction in presence of sulfate. However, in presence of 4 x 10{sup -4} M chloride friction is much smaller for all deposited Cu coverages - ranging from a submonolayer up to bulk copper compared to the solution without chloride. After dissolution of bulk copper clusters deposited on Au(1 1 1) we observed an area with higher friction forces due to the formation of an alloy between gold and copper.

  3. Superior effect of Ni-substitution on the hydrogenation kinetics of Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 1−x}TM{sub x} (TM = Ag, Cu, Ni) pseudo-binary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthieu, M. [MIRE-Group, Laboratorio de Física de Materiales de Interés Energético, Dpto Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); ICMPE/CNRS-UPEC, UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Fernández, J.F., E-mail: [MIRE-Group, Laboratorio de Física de Materiales de Interés Energético, Dpto Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuevas, F. [ICMPE/CNRS-UPEC, UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Laversenne, L. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Bodega, J.; Ares, J.R.; Sánchez, C. [MIRE-Group, Laboratorio de Física de Materiales de Interés Energético, Dpto Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: • Kinetics of (de)hydrogenation of Mg{sub 6}(Pd,TM) TM = Ag, Cu and Ni compared. • Faster hydrogenation kinetics for the Ni compound. • Faster H-desorption for the Ni compound due to MgH{sub 2}/Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} synergy. - Abstract: In this investigation, the H-sorption kinetics of Mg{sub 6}Pd and Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 1−x}TM{sub x} (TM = Ag, Cu, Ni) pseudo-binary compounds at the TM solubility limit have been studied by isothermal hydrogen absorption, thermal desorption spectroscopy and in situ neutron diffraction. Among all studied compounds, the fastest absorption kinetics takes place for the Ni-substituted one. The fit of the absorption curves to established model equations for solid–gas reaction shows that hydrogenation is controlled by diffusion. As for desorption, the peak temperature for the Ni-substituted compound is 90 K below that of MgH{sub 2}/Mg system and is characterised by a low activation energy of 68 kJ/molH{sub 2}. To better understand these results, neutron diffraction experiments during in situ thermal desorption of deuterated Mg{sub 6}Pd and Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.75} compounds were carried out. These experiments demonstrate a synergetic effect between MgH{sub 2} and Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} hydrides as responsible for the remarkable kinetics of the Ni-containing compound.

  4. "Rigid" Luminescent Soft Materials: Europium-Containing Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Based on Polyoxyethylene Phytosterols and Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Yi, Sijing; Wang, Jiao; Feng, Zhenyu; Chen, Xiao


    Soft materials of europium β-diketonate complexes constructed in lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) mediated by ionic liquids (ILs) are impressive for their excellent luminescence performance and stability. For the aim to further improve their mechanical processability and luminescent tunablility, the polyoxyethylene phytosterols (BPS-n) were introduced here as structure directing agents to prepare relatively "rigid" lamellar luminescent LLCs in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate by doping europium β-diketonate complexes with different imidazolium counterions. As a result of the solvophobic sterol ring structure of BPS-n, the more effective isolation and confinement effects of europium complexes could be achieved. The longest fluorescence lifetime and the highest quantum efficiency reported so far for europium containing lyotropic organized soft materials were thus obtained. Changing the molecular structures of BPS-n with different oxyethylene chains or doped complexes with imidazolium counterions of different alkyl chain lengths, the spacings of lamellar LLC matrixes and position of dispersed complexes became tunable. The measured luminescent and rheological properties for such composite LLCs showed a dependence on the rigidity and isolation capability afforded by sterol molecules. It was also found that the increase of counterion alkyl chain length would weaken the LLC matrix's confinement and isolation effects and therefore exhibit the deteriorated luminescence performance. The enhanced luminescence efficiency and stability of doped BPS-n LLCs reflected the excellent segregation of europium complexes from each other and therefore the reduced self-quenching process. The obtained results here present the designability of LLC matrixes and their great potential to promote achieving the luminescence tunability of soft materials.

  5. Salting-out in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Liquids and K3PO4: Aqueous Biphasic Systems and Salt Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís P. N. Rebelo


    Full Text Available The salting-out effect produced by the addition of potassium phosphate, K3PO4to aqueous solutions of water-miscible ionic liquids, viz. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazoliumethyl sulfate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate, or 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (alkyl = butyl, octyl or decyl is investigated. The effects areanalyzed using both the corresponding temperature–composition pseudo-binary andcomposition ternary phase diagrams. Different regions of liquid-liquid and solid-liquidphase demixing are mapped. The phase behavior is interpreted taking into account thecomplex and competing nature of the interactions between the ionic liquid, the inorganicsalt and water. In the case of solutions containing 1-octyl- or 1-decyl-3-methylimidazoliumchloride, the smaller magnitude of the salting-out effects is explained in terms of thepossibility of self-aggregation of the ionic liquid.

  6. Reversible hydrogen storage in the Ni-rich pseudo-binary Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.75} intermetallic compound: Reaction pathway, thermodynamic and kinetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthieu, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); ICMPE/CNRS-UPEC UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Fernandez, J.F., E-mail: [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuevas, F. [ICMPE/CNRS-UPEC UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Ares, J.R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Sanchez, C. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg{sub 6.2}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.65} reversibly absorbs 5.6 wt.% H in a two plateau pressure PCI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ternary phase depletes in Mg and Ni at low hydrogen pressure to form Mg{sub 2}Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reaction pathway of hydrogenation has been determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enthalpy of the high pressure plateau is less negative than the one of pure Mg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low activation energy for desorption has been found for highly hydrided material. - Abstract: To improve the hydrogen storage properties of Mg{sub 6}Pd and to reduce its cost, Pd has been partly substituted by Ni at the solubility limit of the Mg{sub 6}(Pd,Ni) {rho}-phase. The attained composition is Mg{sub 6.2}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.65} as determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Hydrogenation of this compound has been investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX), Pressure-Composition-Isotherms (PCI) and thermal desorption analysis. On absorption, it decomposes in two steps as evidenced by two distinct plateau pressures. At low pressure, a partial segregation of Mg and Ni out of the pseudo-binary Mg{sub 6.2}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.65} {rho}-phase occurs leading to the formation of MgH{sub 2}, Mg{sub 2}Ni and Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3} phases. At high pressure, the Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3} phase disproportionates into MgH{sub 2}, Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, MgPd and Mg{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} phases. The hydrogenation reaction is reversible providing a hydrogen capacity of 5.6 wt.% H. The reaction enthalpy of the high pressure plateau is less negative than for pure Mg. Furthermore, the activation energy for H-desorption exhibits a dramatic decrease for hydrogen contents above 4 wt.% H, i.e. after the alloy disproportionation.

  7. Theoretical Probing of Weak Anion-Cation Interactions in Certain Pyridinium based Ionic Liquid Ion-Pairs and the Application of Molecular Electrostatic Potential in their Ionic Crystal Density Determination : A Comparative Study Using Density Functional Approach. (United States)

    Joseph, Aswathy; Thomas, Vibin Ipe; Żyła, Gaweł; Alapat, Padmanabhan Sridharan; Mathew, Suresh


    -butylpyridinium ion-pairs (R2 = 0.9918). The ionic crystal density values calculated using DFT based MESP showed only slight variations from experimentally reported values.

  8. High resolution, low hν photoelectron spectroscopy with the use of a microwave excited rare gas lamp and ionic crystal filters. (United States)

    Suga, S; Sekiyama, A; Funabashi, G; Yamaguchi, J; Kimura, M; Tsujibayashi, M; Uyama, T; Sugiyama, H; Tomida, Y; Kuwahara, G; Kitayama, S; Fukushima, K; Kimura, K; Yokoi, T; Murakami, K; Fujiwara, H; Saitoh, Y; Plucinski, L; Schneider, C M


    The need for not only bulk sensitive but also extremely high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy for studying detailed electronic structures of strongly correlated electron systems is growing rapidly. Moreover, easy access to such a capability in one's own laboratory is desirable. Demonstrated here is the performance of a microwave excited rare gas (Xe, Kr, and Ar) lamp combined with ionic crystal filters (sapphire, CaF(2), and LiF), which can supply three strong lines near the photon energy of hnyu hν=8.4, 10.0, and 11.6 eV, with the hν resolution of better than 600 μeV for photoelectron spectroscopy. Its performance is demonstrated on some materials by means of both angle-integrated and angle-resolved measurements.

  9. Ionic conductivity of crystallization products of Ba1- x Yb x F2 + x melts ( x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.25) (United States)

    Sorokin, N. I.; Sul'yanova, E. A.; Sobolev, B. P.


    The ionic conductivity σ of the crystallization products of Ba1 - x Yb x F2 + x melts with 10, 20 and 25 mol % YbF3 has been studied. A Ba0.9Yb0.1F2.1 sample is a solid solution with the CaF2 structure type, sp. gr. Fmoverline 3 m. A Ba0.8Yb0.2F2.2 sample contains two cubic forms with sp. gr. Fmoverline 3 m and Pmoverline 3 m. The σ values for Ba0.9Yb0.1F2.1 and Ba0.8Yb0.2F2.2 coincide and are equal to 3 × 10-5 S/cm at 500 K. A Ba0.75Yb0.25F2.25 sample is heterogeneous, despite its monolithic nature and transparency. A greater part of its volume has a cubic lattice with sp. gr. Pmoverline 3 m, while the smaller part is a phase crystallizing in the orthorhombic system. A change of composition from x = 0.2 to 0.25 leads to a change in the symmetry group and type of the cluster defects in the Ba1 - x Yb x F2 + x phase. The sp. gr. Fmoverline 3 m is replaced by the sp. gr. Pmoverline 3 m, and octahedral‒cubic {Ba8Yb6F69} clusters are transformed into "inverse" octahedral‒cubic {Yb8Ba6F71} clusters. These changes in the defect structure lead to an increase in conductivity by a factor of about 100. The fluorine-ionic conductivity of Ba0.75Yb0.25F2.25 is 2.5 × 10-3 S/cm at 500 K. This value exceeds the conductivity of Ba0.69La0.31F2.31 crystal by a factor of 15 (Ba0.69La0.31F2.31 has the best conducting properties among the fluorite phases of the Ba1 - x R x F2 + x family, for which σ was found to increase with a decrease in the atomic number of rare earth element (REE)).

  10. Ionic conductivity in single-crystal LiAlSi2O6: influence of structure on lithium mobility (United States)

    Welsch, A.-M.; Murawski, D.; Prekajski, M.; Vulic, P.; Kremenovic, A.


    With the increased interest in application of Li aluminosilicate materials as solid electrolytes, this study focuses on investigating the influence of structure on conductivity properties in single-crystal LiAlSi2O6 which is characterized by three crystal polymorphs where only structural arrangements differ while the amount of mobile carriers is identical. Two single-crystal polymorphic phases produced at ambient pressure are with tetragonal P41212 symmetry and hexagonal P6222 symmetry, also referred to as β- and γ-spodumene in the older literature. For this study, flux-grown hexagonal spodumene single-crystals were measured for conductivity parallel to the crystallographic c-axis and the results were compared with previously published results for tetragonal spodumene, both as single-crystal and polycrystalline aggregate, monoclinic spodumene ( α-spodumene) and LiAlSi2O6 glass. The activation energy E a of 79.69 ± 0.38 kJ/mol for hexagonal phase is very similar to the other crystalline polymorphs with the same orientation. However, the σ DC in hexagonal spodumene was determined to be higher than other crystalline phases and about 1.5 orders of magnitude lower than the conductivity in glass LiAlSi2O6 phase. Additionally, the densities of atomic packing were compared between phases, and the differences in the openness of the structures indicate that the more dominant effect on the Li mobility lies with the actual spatial arrangement of Li sites and the Si/Al sublattice.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, and ionic conductivity of a new layered metal phosphate, Li{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Al(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Chul; Kwak, Hyun-Jung [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chung-Yul [Advanced Materials & Devices Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 34129 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hoseop [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Joo, E-mail: [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of)


    A new layered metal phosphate, Li{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Al(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, was synthesized in the form of either a single-crystal or polycrystalline powder using the molten hydroxide flux method or a solid-state reaction, respectively. Li{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Al(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystallizes to the P2{sub 1}/n (Z=4) monoclinic space group with lattice parameters a≈4.95 Å, b≈22.06 Å, c≈8.63 Å, and β≈91.5°. The structure is composed of stacked [LiSrAl(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] layers alternating regularly with [LiSrPO{sub 4}] layers. In the [LiSrAl(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] sublattice, the AlO{sub 6} octahedra and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra are tilted cooperatively to form an anionic, corrugated, two-dimensional [Al(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 3−} framework that can be regarded as a “distorted-glaserite” structure. The [LiSrPO{sub 4}] sublattice is that of a layered block containing a six-membered ring formed from alternating linkages of LiO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The six-membered rings show a boat-type arrangement with the up(U) or down(D) pointing sequence, UUDUUD. The interspace between the two sublattices generates a two-dimensional pathway for Li{sup +} ion conduction. The impedance measurement indicated that Li{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Al(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} had a moderate ion conductivity (σ≈1.30×10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 667 K), with an activation energy E{sub a}≈1.02 eV. - Graphical abstract: Polyhedral view of Li{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Al(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Li{sup +} ions are represented by green spheres, Sr atoms by white spheres, AlO{sub 6} groups by octahedra, and PO{sub 4} groups by tetrahedra. - Highlights: • New compound Li{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Al(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is reported. • The crystal structure is investigated by single-crystal XRD analysis. • The structure is formed by the alternate stacking of two different sublattices. • Correlation between the crystal structure and ionic conductivity is discussed.

  12. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil


    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Betaine Chloride-Betaine Tetrachloridoferrate(III—An Ionic Liquid Related Crystal Structure Governed by the Pearson Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja-Verena Mudring


    Full Text Available The first betaine chloride tetrachloroidoferrate(III  double salt, (Hbet2Cl[FeCl4] = (HbetCl·(Hbet[FeCl4], was obtained from a solution of betaine hydrochloride (HbetCl and FeCl3∙6 H2O in water. The crystal structure (orthorhombic, Pbcm, a = 6.2717(13, b = 12.841(3, c = 25.693(5 Å, Z = 4 is characterized by layers of tetrachloridoferrate(III anions separated by chloride-bridged, H-bond mediated cationic (Hbet dimers. The hydrogen bonding network in the crystal structure follows the Pearson HSAB (hard acid-soft base concept: According to the Pearson concept, the chloride anions show high affinity to the carboxyl group (hard acid and base, and the tetrachloroidoferrate(III anion preferentially interacts with the activated methyl donors (soft acid and base. These interactions between the COOH group, as hard H-bond donor, and chloride as hard acceptor besides those between the soft, activated methyl groups and the soft tetrachloridoferrate(III anions are the major structure-directing forces in the crystal structure of (Hbet2Cl[FeCl4].

  14. Tyrosine-Based Ionic Liquid Crystals: Switching from a Smectic A to a Columnar Mesophase by Exchange of the Spherical Counterion. (United States)

    Neidhardt, Manuel M; Wolfrum, Manpreet; Beardsworth, Stuart; Wöhrle, Tobias; Frey, Wolfgang; Baro, Angelika; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Giesselmann, Frank; Laschat, Sabine


    Synthetic strategies were developed to prepare l-tyrosine-based ionic liquid crystals with structural variations at the carboxylic and phenolic OH groups as well as the amino functionality. Salt metathesis additionally led to counterion variation. The liquid-crystalline properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction (WAXS, SAXS). The symmetrical ILC chlorides bearing the same alkyl chain at both the ester and ether but either an acyclic or cyclic guanidinium group displayed enantiotropic SmA2 mesophases with phase widths of 31-88 K irrespective of the head group. It was particularly the replacement of chloride in the acyclic guanidinium ILC by hexafluorophosphate that induced a phase change from SmA2 to Colr . This phase change was attributed to a higher curvature of the interface due to the larger anion, which increased the effective head group cross-sectional area of the amphiphilic ILC. The unsymmetrical acyclic guanidinium chlorides, bearing a constant C14 ester and variable alkyl chains on the phenolic position, formed enantiotropic SmA2 phases. The derivative with the largest difference in chain lengths, however, displayed a Colr phase, resulting from discoid aggregates of the cone-shaped guanidinium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of the packing parameters, which indicate that the phase behaviour of the thermotropic tyrosine-based ILCs shows analogies to those of lyotropic liquid crystals. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Quartz crystal microbalance study of ionic strength and pH-dependent polymer conformation and protein adsorption/desorption on PAA, PEO, and mixed PEO/PAA brushes. (United States)

    Delcroix, M F; Demoustier-Champagne, S; Dupont-Gillain, C C


    The conformation of polymer chains grafted on a substrate influences protein adsorption. In a previous study, adsorption/desorption of albumin was demonstrated on mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes, triggered by solutions of adequate pH and ionic strength (I). In the present work, homolayers of PEO or PAA are submitted to saline solutions with pH from 3 to 9 and I from 10(-5) to 10(-1) M, and their conformation is evaluated in real time using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Shrinkage/swelling of PAA chains and hydration and salt condensation in the brush are evidenced. The adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) onto such brushes is also monitored in these different saline solutions, leading to a deep understanding of the influence of polymer chain conformation, modulated by pH and I, on protein adsorption. A detailed model of the conformation of PEO/PAA mixed brushes depending on pH and I is then proposed, providing a rationale for the identification of conditions for the successive adsorption and desorption of proteins on such mixed brushes. The adsorption/desorption of albumin on PEO/PAA is demonstrated using QCM-D.

  16. Interaction of slow, highly charged ions with the surface of ionic crystals; Wechselwirkung langsamer hochgeladener Ionen mit der Oberflaeche von Ionenkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Rene


    In this thesis the creation of permanent nanostructures induced by the impact of very slow (v{<=}5 x 10{sup 5} m/s) highly charged (q{<=}40) ions on the ionic crystal surfaces of CaF{sub 2} and KBr is investigated. The systematic analysis of the samples surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy supplies information on the influence of the potential as well as the kinetic projectile energy on the process of structure creation. The individual impact of highly charged ions on the KBr(001) surface can initiate the creation of mono-atomic deep pit-like structures -nanopits- with a lateral size of a few 10 nm. The volume of these pits and the corresponding number of sputtered secondary particles show a linear dependence on the projectiles potential energy. For the onset of pit formation a kinetic energy dependent threshold in the potential energy E{sup grenz}{sub pot}(E{sub kin}) could be identified. Based on the defect-mediated desorption by electrons and by including effects of defect agglomeration a consistent model for the process of pit formation was drawn. In this work the recently discovered creation of hillock-like structures by impact of highly charged ions on CaF{sub 2}(111) surfaces could be verified for lowest kinetic energies (E{sub kin}{<=}150 eV x q). For the first time the potential energy of impinging projectiles could be identified to be exclusively responsible for the creation of nanostructures. Furthermore, a shift of potential energy threshold for hillock formation was observed for very small projectile velocities. Within the framework of cooperation with the Vienna University of Technology simulations based on the inelastic thermal spike model were performed, which allowed to interlink the individual hillock formation with a local melting of the ionic lattice. The essential influence of electron emission during the interaction of the highly charged ions with the surface on the process of nanostructuring was taken into consideration by

  17. Pressure-induced instability of magnetic order in Kondo-lattice system. Neutron diffraction study of the pseudo-binary alloy system Ce(Ru sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 0 Rh sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 0) sub 2 (Si sub 1 sub - sub y Ge sub y) sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, K; Kanadani, C; Taniguchi, T; Kawarazaki, S; Uwatoko, Y; Kadowaki, H


    Neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the nature of the magnetic order of the pseudo-binary alloy system Ce(Ru sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 0 Rh sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 0) sub 2 (Si sub 1 sub - sub y Ge sub y) sub 2. Response of the ordered atomic magnetic moment, mu, the transition temperature, T sub N , and the magnitude of the magnetic modulation vector, q, to the chemical pressure and also to the applied hydrostatic pressure, P, were examined at low temperatures. When y changes, all of mu, T sub N and q show a sudden alteration of the manner of the y-dependence at around y - 0.08. The P-dependence of q shows quite different features for different y's of 0.0, 0.2 and 0.25. On the basis of these observations the possibility of a pressure-induced alternation of the magnetic regime of the order is discussed. (author)

  18. Learning Ionic

    CERN Document Server

    Ravulavaru, Arvind


    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to build hybrid mobile applications using Ionic. It is also ideal for people who want to explore theming for Ionic apps. Prior knowledge of AngularJS is essential to complete this book successfully.

  19. Ionic crystals [M3O(OOCC6H5)6(H2O)3]4[α-SiW12O40] (M = Cr, Fe) as heterogeneous catalysts for pinacol rearrangement. (United States)

    Uchida, Sayaka; Lesbani, Aldes; Ogasawara, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Noritaka


    Complexation of trinuclear oxo-centered carboxylates with a silicododecatungstate resulted in the formation of ionic crystals of [M(3)O(OOCC(6)H(5))(6)(H(2)O)(3)](4)[α-SiW(12)O(40)]·nH(2)O·mCH(3)COCH(3) [M = Cr (Ia), Fe (IIa)]. Treatments of Ia and IIa at 373 K in vacuo formed guest-free phases Ib and IIb, respectively. Compounds Ib and IIb heterogeneously catalyzed the pinacol rearrangement to pinacolone with high conversion at 373 K, and the catalysis is suggested to proceed size selectively in the solid bulk.

  20. Crystal chemical infrared and Raman study of new rare earth fluorophosphates with zircon structure. Etude cristallographique, infra-rouge et Raman de nouveaux fluorophosphates de terres rares de structure zircon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, D.; El-Ghozzi, M.; Avignant, D. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (FR)); Ben Said, N.; Mansouri, I. (Universite Hassan II, Casablanca (MA))


    Single-phase compositions of general formula Li{sub x}Ln{sub x}Y{sub 1-x} (PO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}F{sub 4x} where Ln = Gd to Lu, Y and 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.45 with the zircon like structure were characterized during the study of LiLnF{sub 4} - YPO{sub 4} pseudo-binary systems. Their crystal chemical characteristics have been determined from polycrystalline samples using X-ray diffraction. The infra-red and Raman spectra of members of them have been recorded for the x = 0.40 composition and analyzed.

  1. Thermally-induced crystallization behaviour of 80GeSe{sub 2}–20Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glass as probed by combined X-ray diffraction and PAL spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: [Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202, Stryjska str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland); Calvez, L.; Petracovschi, E. [Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Institute des Sciences chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Klym, H. [Lviv polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera str., Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Ingram, A. [Physics Faculty of Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Demchenko, P. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 6, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str., Lviv 79005 (Ukraine)


    Highlights: • Chalcogenide Ge–Ga–Se glasses were annealed at 380 °C for 10, 25 and 50 h. • Crystallization of glasses during annealing indicates formation of crystals. • Structural changes are described by two-state positron trapping model. • Modification leading to nucleation and fragmentation of free volume of glasses. • The Ge–Ga–Se systems cannot be classified as typical pseudo-binary system. -- Abstract: Crystallization behaviour of 80GeSe{sub 2}–20Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glass caused by thermal annealing at 380 °C for 10, 25 and 50 h are studied using X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that the structural changes caused by crystallization can be adequately described by positron trapping modes determined within two-state model. The observed changes in defect-related component in the fit of experimental positron lifetime spectra for annealed glasses testifies in a favour of structural fragmentation of larger free volume entities into smaller ones with preceding nucleation in the initial stage of thermal annealing. Because of strong deviation in defect-free bulk positron lifetime from corresponding additive values proper to boundary constituents, the studied glasses cannot be considered as typical representatives of pseudo-binary cut-section.

  2. Synthesis and single-crystal structure of the pseudo-ternary compounds LiA[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} (A = K or Rb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckeweg, Olaf; DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Baker Lab.


    Crystals of LiA[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} were obtained from the reaction of LiCl and ACl (A = K or Rb) with Ag[N(CN){sub 2}] in water and subsequent evaporation of the filtered solution at 80 C under normal atmospheric conditions. Crystals of the title compound form thin rectangular plates that are transparent, colorless, and very fragile. Single-crystal structure analyses have shown that both compounds are isotypic and adopt the tetragonal space group I4/mcm (no. 140, Z = 4) with the cell parameters a = 701.53(12) and c = 1413.7(5) pm for LiK[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} and a = 730.34(10) and c = 1414.4(4) pm for LiRb[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2}. The crystal structure is described and compared to that of the pseudo-binary alkali metal dicyanamides.

  3. imide, crystal structure, thermal and dielectric studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IR and Raman spectroscopies and its crystal structure is confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The X-ray studies on ... Di-cationic ionic liquids; crystal structure; dielectric; thermal properties. 1. Introduction. The chemistry of ionic ... exposed in various emerging areas as solvents of high tem- perature organic ...

  4. Crystal structure, ionic conductivity and dielectric relaxation studies in the (C{sub 5}H{sub 10}N){sub 2}BiBr{sub 5} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masmoudi, W., E-mail: [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Industrielle et Materiaux, ENIS, BP 1173, Sfax (Tunisia); Kamoun, S.; Ayedi, H.F. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Industrielle et Materiaux, ENIS, BP 1173, Sfax (Tunisia); Guidara, K. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax 3018, Sfax (Tunisia)


    The synthesis and crystal structure of the bis (3-dimethylammonium-1-propyne) pentabromobismuthate(III) salt are given in the present paper. After an X-ray investigation, it has been shown that the title compound crystallizes at 298 K in a centrosymmetric monoclinic system, in the space group C{sub 2}/c with the following lattice parameters a=12.9034(3) A, b=19.4505(6) A, c=8.5188(2) A, {beta}=102.449(2). Not only were the impedance spectroscopy measurements of (C{sub 5}H{sub 10}N){sub 2}BiBr{sub 5} carried out from 209 Hz to 5 MHz over the temperature range of 318 K-373 K, but also its ac conductivity evaluated. Besides, the dielectric relaxation was examined using the modulus formalism. Actually, the near values of activation energies obtained from the impedance and modulus spectra confirms that the transport is of an ion hopping mechanism, dominated by the motion of the H{sup +} ions in the structure of the investigated material.

  5. Relation between the swelling and the disordering in ionic crystals irradiated by fast heavy ions; Relation entre le gonflement et la creation de defauts dans les cristaux ioniques irradies par des ions lourds rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccanfuso, M


    When fast heavy ions penetrate in matter, they slow down essentially by depositing their energy on the electrons. This can lead to strong electronic excitation densities in the solid and then to structural modifications. In this work, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) was used to look further into the damage induced by irradiation with fast heavy ions in ionic crystals. Four techniques were mainly employed to characterise this damage. These techniques of analysis are wide angle X-ray diffraction, surface profilometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy. The results of this work show that CaF{sub 2} answers in a multiple way to the electronic excitations. For stopping powers higher than approximately 5 keV/nm, a polygonization seems to occur. This causes a structural disorder, a swelling of 0.27 % and the formation of fractures in the material. A second damage mechanism is caused above approximately 13 keV/nm and results in a loss of the initial crystalline structure. However, optical centres appear whatever the ion stopping power, which indicates that these defects cannot be the cause of the two above mentioned damage mechanisms. According to a thermal spike model, the two thresholds can be linked to melting and sublimation energy of the material, respectively. (author)

  6. Formation, Crystallization Behavior, and Soft Magnetic Properties of FeCSiBP Bulk Metallic Glass Fabricated Using Industrial Raw Materials (United States)

    Li, H. X.; Gao, J. E.; Wang, S. L.; Yi, S.; Lu, Z. P.


    Formation of pseudo-binary Fe-C-Si-B-P bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with good glass-forming ability (GFA) and soft magnetic properties prepared using industrial pig-iron and P-Fe alloys as raw materials was investigated. It was found that the GFA could be enhanced by tuning the content of carbon, and fully glassy rods with a maximum diameter of 2 mm were obtained in the Fe77.3C5.9Si3.3B4.8P8.7 alloy. The crystallization behavior and its effects on the soft magnetic properties of the Fe77.3C5.9Si3.3B4.8P8.7 alloy were analyzed. The superior magnetic properties, coupled with large GFA and low cost of raw materials, make the current Fe-based BMGs promising for potential applications in electric industries.

  7. 'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arumuganathan

    All the chemicals were reagent grade and used without any further purification. The distilled water was used through- out the work. H4SiW12O40, hydrochloric acid and anhydrous. FeCl3 were acquired from Merck. ClCH2COOH was received from S. D. Fine Chemicals. Cr(NO3)3 · 9H2O was obtained from Loba Chemicals.

  8. Ionic Nanofluids in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Saurín


    Full Text Available This overview covers the most recent developments in the field of ionic nanofluid lubricants, defined as dispersions of nanoparticles with ionic liquids through the activation of nanophases. The nanophases range from metal nanoparticles and ceramic inorganic nanoparticles, to different carbon nanophases. The combinations with room-temperature ionic liquids can be in the form of mixtures, dispersions, surface-modified nanophases, or chemically-functionalized nanophases. The new ionic nanofluids can be used as base lubricants, as lubricant additives, or as anti-friction and wear-reducing additives in new nanocomposite materials.

  9. Functional ionic liquids; Funktionelle ionische Fluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baecker, Tobias


    In the thesis at hand, new functional ionic liquids were investigated. Main focus was attended to their structure property relations and the structural features leading to a decrease of the melting point. New compounds of the type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(N,Ndialkyldithiocarbamato) uranylate with variously substituated dithiocarbamato ligands were synthesized and characterized. Ligands with asymmetrical substitution pattern proved to be most suitable for ionic liquid formation. The single-crystal X-ray structures revealed the interactions in the solid state. Here, the first spectroscopic investigation of the U-S bond in sulfur donated uranyl complexes, up to now only observed in single-crystal X-ray structures, is presented, and the participation of the uranium f-orbitals is shown by theoretical calculations. Electrochemical investigations showed the accessibility of the respective U{sup V}O{sub 2}{sup +} compounds. As well, ionic liquids with [FeCl{sub 4}]{sup -} and [Cl{sub 3}FeOFeCl{sub 3}]{sup 2-} as anion were synthesized. Both of these anions contain high-spin Fe(III) centres in distorted tetrahedral environment, but exhibit different magnetic behaviour. The tetrachloroferrates show the usual paramagnetism, the m-oxobis(trichloroferrate) exhibits unexpectedly strong antiferromagnetic coupling, as was observed by NMR experiments and susceptibility measurements. To investigate structure-property relations in functionalized ionic liquids, a set of protic, primary alkylammonium and aprotic, quarternary trimethylalkylammonium based ionic liquids was synthesized, and characterized. The length of the alkyl chain was systematically varied, and all compounds were synthesized with and without hydroxyl group, as well as formate and bis(triflyl)amide salts, aiming at getting insight into the influence of the different structure parts on the respective ionic liquid's properties.

  10. Crystal chemistry and the role of ionic radius in rare earth tetrasilicates: Ba2RE2Si4O12F2 (RE = Er(3+)-Lu(3+)) and Ba2RE2Si4O13 (RE = La(3+)-Ho(3+)). (United States)

    Fulle, Kyle; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; McMillen, Colin D; Kolis, Joseph W


    Structural variations across a series of barium rare earth (RE) tetrasilicates are studied. Two different formulas are observed, namely those of a new cyclo-silicate fluoride, BaRE2Si4O12F2 (RE = Er(3+)-Lu(3+)) and new compounds in the Ba2RE2Si4O13 (RE = La(3+)-Ho(3+)) family, covering the whole range of ionic radii for the rare earth ions. The Ba2RE2Si4O13 series is further subdivided into two polymorphs, also showing a dependence on rare earth ionic radius (space group P{\\overline 1} for La(3+)-Nd(3+), and space group C2/c for Sm(3+)-Ho(3+)). Two of the structure types identified are based on dinuclear rare earth units that differ in their crystal chemistries, particularly with respect to the role of fluorine as a structural director. The broad study of rare earth ions provides greater insight into understanding structural variations within silicate frameworks and the nature of f-block incorporation in oxyanion frameworks. The single crystals are grown from high-temperature (ca 953 K) hydrothermal fluids, demonstrating the versatility of the technique to access new phases containing recalcitrant rare earth oxides, enabling the study of structural trends.

  11. Photophysics of ionic biochromophores

    CERN Document Server

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen


    This concise guide to studying ionic biochromophores features the first integrated overview of the photophysics of differing classes of biomolecules, from single amino acids to DNA. It includes an appraisal of the latest theories and experimental techniques.

  12. Ionic liquids in tribology. (United States)

    Minami, Ichiro


    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  13. The facile construction of an anion exchange membrane with 3D interconnected ionic nano-channels. (United States)

    Gao, Xinpei; Lu, Fei; Liu, Yizhi; Sun, Na; Zheng, Liqiang


    The co-organization of polymerizable imidazolium-based ionic liquids and p-xylene led to the formation of a bicontinuous cubic phase with a primitive-type periodic minimal surface, and for the first time an anion exchange membrane preserving 3D interconnected ionic nano-channels was fabricated through in-phase photopolymerization of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals.

  14. Are Ionic Liquids Chemically Stable? (United States)

    Wang, Binshen; Qin, Li; Mu, Tiancheng; Xue, Zhimin; Gao, Guohua


    Ionic liquids have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years, illustrated by their applications in a variety of areas involved with chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. Usually, the stabilities of ionic liquids are highlighted as one of their outstanding advantages. However, are ionic liquids really stable in all cases? This review covers the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids. It focuses on the reactivity of the most popular imidazolium ionic liquids at structural positions, including C2 position, N1 and N3 positions, and C4 and C5 positions, and decomposition on the imidazolium ring. Additionally, we discuss decomposition of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids and hydrolysis and nucleophilic reactions of anions of ionic liquids. The review aims to arouse caution on potential decomposition of ionic liquids and provides a guide for better utilization of ionic liquids.

  15. Functionalized ionic liquids and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariprakasha, Humcha Krishnamurthy; Rangan, Krishnaswamy Kasthuri; Sudarshan, Tirumalai Srinivas


    Disclosure of functionalized ionic liquids. Use of disclosed ionic liquids as solvent for carbon dioxide. Use of disclosed ionic liquids as flame retardant. Use of disclosed ionic liquids for coating fabric to obtain flame retardant fabric.

  16. Ionic liquids in chemical engineering. (United States)

    Werner, Sebastian; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter


    The development of engineering applications with ionic liquids stretches back to the mid-1990s when the first examples of continuous catalytic processes using ionic liquids and the first studies of ionic liquid-based extractions were published. Ever since, the use of ionic liquids has seen tremendous progress in many fields of chemistry and engineering, and the first commercial applications have been reported. The main driver for ionic liquid engineering applications is to make practical use of their unique property profiles, which are the result of a complex interplay of coulombic, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Remarkably, many ionic liquid properties can be tuned in a wide range by structural modifications at their cation and anion. This review highlights specific examples of ionic liquid applications in catalysis and in separation technologies. Additionally, the application of ionic liquids as working fluids in process machines is introduced.

  17. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server


    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  18. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.


    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  19. Variation of ionic conductivity in a plastic-crystalline mixture (United States)

    Reuter, D.; Geiß, C.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.


    Ionically conducting plastic crystals (PCs) are possible candidates for solid-state electrolytes in energy-storage devices. Interestingly, the admixture of larger molecules to the most prominent molecular PC electrolyte, succinonitrile, was shown to drastically enhance its ionic conductivity. Therefore, binary mixtures seem to be a promising way to tune the conductivity of such solid-state electrolytes. However, to elucidate the general mechanisms of ionic charge transport in plastic crystals and the influence of mixing, a much broader database is needed. In the present work, we investigate mixtures of two well-known plastic-crystalline systems, cyclohexanol and cyclooctanol, to which 1 mol. % of Li ions were added. Applying differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric spectroscopy, we present a thorough investigation of the phase behavior and the ionic and dipolar dynamics of this system. All mixtures reveal plastic-crystalline phases with corresponding orientational glass-transitions. Moreover, their conductivity seems to be dominated by the "revolving-door" mechanism, implying a close coupling between the ionic translational and the molecular reorientational dynamics of the surrounding plastic-crystalline matrix. In contrast to succinonitrile-based mixtures, there is no strong variation of this coupling with the mixing ratio.

  20. Defect structure and ionic conductivity of as-grown R 1- y Sr y F3- y ( R = Ce, Pr, or Nd) crystals with high SrF2 content (United States)

    Khrykina, O. N.; Sorokin, N. I.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.; Sobolev, B. P.


    The structure of defect nonstoichiometric phases of Ce0.88Sr0.12F2.88, Pr0.85Sr0.15F2.85, and Nd0.85Sr0.15F2.85 single crystals has been investigated by X-ray diffraction at room temperature. Crystals R 1-ySryF3-y ( R = Ce, Pr, or Nd) belong to the tysonite structural type (LaF3), which has two forms (α and β). The morphotropic transition from the trigonal β form of the crystals to the hexagonal α form is confirmed, which was previously found for the first time when analyzing the nonstoichiometric phase of La1-ySryF3-y with a SrF2 content above 10 mol % ( y ≥ 0.1). Temperature dependences of fluorine-ion conductivity are obtained. It is established that the conductivity of the α form of Ce0.88Sr0.12F2.88 and R0.85Sr0.15F2.85 crystals ( R = Pr or Nd) is lower than that for the β form of R0.95Sr0.05F2.95 ( R = La-Nd) by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The sublattice of fluorine atoms in the α-form crystals is characterized by an elevated (in comparison with the β form) content of vacancies and more uniform structural and dynamic properties, which leads to a decrease in the mean diffusion mobility of fluorine ions and an increase in the ion-transport activation enthalpy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulkefly Kuang Abdullah


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are considered as an ideal alternative to volatile organic solvents and chemical industries in the future,because they are non-volatile. Ionic liquids are also considered as new novel chemical agents and widely regarded as agreener alternative to many commonly used solvents. Ionic liquids have been studied for a wide range of syntheticapplications and have attracted considerable interest for use as electrolytes in the areas of organic synthesis, catalysis,solar cell, fuel cells, electrodeposition and supercapacitors. However, some ionic liquids suffer from more or less somedrawbacks such as toxicity, preparation and high cost in the process for use. Most recently, three types of ionic liquidsare attracted much attentions specifically traditional ionic liquid, protic ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent, wheretheir preparation, mechanism and limitation were differentiated. However, those liquids are having their ownadvantages and limitations based on applications. Traditional ionic liquid and protic ionic liquid are highly cost andtoxic for applied engineering research, but they consist of micro-biphasic systems composed of ionic compounds whichhave more varieties in the applications. The deep eutectic solvent is very economic for large-scale possessing but thereare only limited ionic mixtures to certain application such as electrochemistry.

  2. Aluminium electrodeposition in chloroaluminate ionic liquid. (United States)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Wang, Enqi; Mu, Jiechen; Yu, Xianjin; Wang, Qiannan; Yang, Lina; Zhao, Zengdian


    An efficient microwave enhanced synthesis of ambient temperature chloroaluminate ionic liquid ([EMIM]Br) that preceeds reaction of 1-methylimidazolium with bromoethane in a closed vessel, was described in our work. The reaction time was drastically reduced as compared to the conventional methods. The electrochemical techniques of impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the mechanism of Al electrodeposition from 2:1 (molar ratio) AlCl3/[EMIM]Br ionic liquid at room temperature. Results indicated that Al electrode- position from this ionic liqud was a quasi-reversible process, and the kinetic complications during the reaction was probably attributed to the electron transfer or mass transport cooperative controlled processes, instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth was also investigated. Electrodepositon experiment was conducted using constant current density of 40 mA·cm(-2) for 20 minutes at room temperature and the qualitative analysis of the deposits were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). The deposits obtained on copper cathode were dense and compact and most Al crystal shows granular structure spherical with high purity.

  3. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The

  4. Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert


    Polymer nanocomposites (nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix) have been the subject of intense research for almost two decades in both academic and industrial settings. This interest has been fueled by the ability of nanocomposites to not only improve the performance of polymers, but also by their ability to introduce new properties. Yet, there are still challenges that polymer nanocomposites must overcome to reach their full potential. In this Research News article we discuss a new class of hybrids termed nanoparticle ionic materials (NIMS). NIMS are organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising a nanoparticle core functionalized with a covalently tethered ionic corona. They are facilely engineered to display flow properties that span the range from glassy solids to free flowing liquids. These new systems have unique properties that can overcome some of the challenges facing nanocomosite materials. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Super ionic conductive glass (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  6. Ionic contamination detection (United States)

    Benkovich, M. G.


    The effectiveness of Meter A and B for detecting ionic contamination was evaluated and compared on the following types of samples: (1) copper panels; (2) printed wiring boards with through-hold components (IC's); (3) printed wiring boards with surface-mounted components; and (4) mixed-technology printed wiring boards (both through-hole and surface-mount components). The extraction efficiency of the two meters was calculated.

  7. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server


    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  8. A single crystal neutron diffraction study on mixed crystal (K)0.25 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 2, 2018 ... A single crystal neutron diffraction study on mixed crystal. (K)0.25(NH4)0.75H2PO4: tuning of short strong hydrogen bonds by ionic interactions. RAJUL RANJAN CHOUDHURY. ∗ and R CHITRA. Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, ...

  9. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL; Conductiviad ionica de KCL irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignolo Rubio, J.


    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCL single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 degree centigree. the radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 degree centigree respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. However. It has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that, samples radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (Author)

  10. Synthesis and properties of chiral ammonium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Feder-Kubis, Joanna


    New chiral ammonium-based ionic liquids containing the (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthyl group can be easily and efficiently prepared under ambient conditions. The preparation and characterization of trialkyl[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]ammonium salts is reported. The salts have been demonstrated to be air- and moisture-stable under ambient conditions and can be readily used in a variety of standard experimental procedures. The single-crystal X-ray structure of butyldimethyl[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]ammonium chloride has been determined. The chiral, room-temperature ionic liquids have been characterized by physical properties such as specific rotation, density, viscosity, thermal degradation, and glass transition temperature. Trialkyl[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]ammonium chloride prototype ionic liquids have also been found to exhibit strong antimicrobial and high antielectrostatic activities.

  11. Graphene-ionic liquid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksay, Ilhan A.; Korkut, Sibel; Pope, Michael; Punckt, Christian


    Method of making a graphene-ionic liquid composite. The composite can be used to make elec-trodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors. Dis-closed and claimed herein is method of making a graphene-ionic liquid com-posite, comprising combining a graphene source with at least one ionic liquid and heating the combination at a temperature of at least about 130 .degree. C.

  12. Crystal growth and characterization of SrFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglatzi, Fryni; Adamski, Agnes; Krellner, Cornelius [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, D-60438, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    The discovery of iron-based superconductors brought new excitement to the field of unconventional superconducting (SC). Most studied are the so called (122 compounds), the AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} with A=Ba, Sr or Ca. An important point is, that different substitution series reveal different temperature-concentration phase diagrams, including varying SC order parameters and coexistence regions of magnetism and SC. The crystal growth of SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} can be achieved by using the self-flux technique. However, exact melting temperatures of various flux to composition ratios are not reported in literature. We determined the melting points for various flux concentrations, using differential thermal analysis (DTA) in order to find out the pseudo binary phase diagram. Furthermore, crystal growth was conducted on the phosphorous doped series. Our samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and powder diffractometry, in order to determine the phase relations and distribution coefficients.

  13. Low-dimensional compounds containing cyanide groups. XXV. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties and crystal structures of two ionic iron(II) complexes with tricyanomethanide: tris(1,10-phenanthroline-κ(2)N,N')iron(II) bis(tricyanomethanide) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine-κ(2)N,N')iron(II) bis(tricyanomethanide) sesquihydrate. (United States)

    Potočňák, Ivan; Váhovská, Lucia; Herich, Peter


    Two new diamagnetic coordination compounds, [Fe(phen)3][C(CN)3]2, (I), and [Fe(bpy)3][C(CN)3]2·1.5H2O, (II), have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, C12H8N2, and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, C10H8N2). Both compounds are ionic with distorted octahedral [Fe(phen)3](2+) or [Fe(bpy)3](2+) complex cations, with average Fe-N distances of 1.977 (2) and 1.971 (3) Å, respectively, and two uncoordinated planar tricyanomethanide, or [C(CN)3](-), counter-anions balancing the positive charges of the cations. Solvent water molecules and tcm anions in (II) are linked via O-H...N hydrogen bonds into negatively charged layers and the interlayer space is filled by [Fe(bpy)3](2+) cations. The structures of (I) and (II) are stabilized by π-π interactions between the stacked aromatic rings of the phen ligands of two adjacent cations and by O-H...N hydrogen bonds, respectively, and also by π-π stacking interactions between phen and tcm units in (I).

  14. Specialist gelator for ionic liquids. (United States)

    Hanabusa, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Shirai, Hirofusa


    Cyclo(l-beta-3,7-dimethyloctylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (1) and cyclo(L-beta-2-ethylhexylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2), prepared from L-asparaginyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, have been found to be specialist gelators for ionic liquids. They can gel a wide variety of ionic liquids, including imizazolium, pyridinium, pyrazolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and ammonium salts. The mean minimum gel concentrations (MGCs) necessary to make gels at 25 degrees C were determined for ionic liquids. The gel strength increased at a rate nearly proportional to the concentration of added gelator. The strength of the transparent gel of 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([C(4)py]BF(4)), prepared at a concentration of 60 g L(-1) (gelator 1/[C(4)py]BF(4)), was ca. 1500 g cm(-2). FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that a driving force for gelation was intermolecular hydrogen bonding between amides and that the phase transition from gel to liquid upon heating was brought about by the collapse of hydrogen bonding. The gels formed from ionic liquids were very thermally stable; no melting occurs up to 140 degrees C when the gels were prepared at a concentration of 70 g L(-1) (gelator/ionic liquid). The ionic conductivities of the gels were nearly the same as those of pure ionic liquids. The gelator had electrochemical stability and a wide electrochemical window. When the gels were prepared from ionic liquids containing propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivities of the resulting gels increased to levels rather higher than those of pure ionic liquids. The gelators also gelled ionic liquids containing supporting electrolytes.

  15. Ionic Liquids and Poly(ionic liquid)s for Morphosynthesis of Inorganic Materials. (United States)

    Gao, Min-Rui; Yuan, Jiayin; Antonietti, Markus


    Ionic liquids (ILs) are new, innovative ionic solvents with rich physicochemical properties and intriguing pre-organized solvent structures; these materials offer great potential to impact across versatile areas of scientific research, for example, synthetic inorganic chemistry. Recent use of ILs as precursors, templates, and solvents has led to inorganic materials with tailored sizes, dimensionalities, morphologies, and functionalities that are difficult to obtain, or even not accessible, by using conventional solvents. Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) polymerized from IL monomers also raise the prospect of modifying nucleation, growth, and crystallization of inorganic objects, shedding light on the synthesis of a wide range of new materials. Here we survey recent key progress in using ILs and PILs in the field of synthetic inorganic chemistry. As well as highlighting the unique features of ILs and PILs that enable advanced synthesis, the effects of adding other solvents to the final products, along with the emerging applications of the created inorganic materials will be discussed. We finally provide an outlook on several development opportunities that could lead to new advancements of this exciting research field. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Investigations on Green Blends Comprising Biodegradable Polymer and Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Lee


    Full Text Available The green blends of an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide {[EPrI][TFSI]}, and a biodegradable polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, were investigated in this study. The influence of an ionic liquid on the crystallization behaviors of a biodegradable polymer was explored. In the blends, the presence of [EPrI][TFSI] decreased the Tg and Tm of PHB. Incorporating [EPrI][TFSI] in the blends reduced the degree of crystallinity of PHB, inferring that the [EPrI][TFSI] weakened the crystallization of PHB. It further showed retarded isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization for PHB with the presence of [EPrI][TFSI]. The smaller K and 1/t0.5 estimated by the Avrami equation for the blends indicated that [EPrI][TFSI] weakened the isothermal crystallization of PHB with exhibiting the slower crystallization rate. The present study also discussed non-isothermal crystallization of the blends. We found that the Mo model, which is generally used to discuss the non-isothermal crystallization, adequately described the non-isothermal behaviors of the [EPrI][TFSI]/PHB blends. By increasing the [EPrI][TFSI] content, the rate-related parameter F(T systematically increased, inferring a decreased crystallization rate of PHB with the addition of [EPrI][TFSI] in the blends. The FTIR results suggested an ion–dipole interaction between [EPrI][TFSI] and PHB. This proposes the occurrence of possible complexation between [EPrI][TFSI] and PHB.

  17. High-Pressure Synthesis and Study of NO+NO3− and NO2+NO3− Ionic Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available Nitrosonium-nitrate NO+NO3− and dinitrogen pentoxide NO2+NO3− ionic crystals were synthesized by laser heating of a condensed oxygen-rich O2-N2 mixture compressed to different pressures, up to 40 GPa, in a diamond anvil cell (DAC. High-pressure/high-temperature Raman and X-ray diffraction studies of synthesized samples disclosed a transformation of NO+NO3− compound to NO2+NO3− crystal at temperatures above ambient and pressures below 9 GPa. High-pressure experiments revealed previously unreported bands in Raman spectra of NO+NO3− and NO2+NO3− ionic crystals. Structural properties of both ionic compounds are analyzed. Obtained experimental results support a hypothesis of a rotational disorder of NO+ complexes in NO+NO3− and indicate a rotational disorder of ionic complexes in NO2+NO3− solid.

  18. Introduction to protein crystallization. (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A


    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies.

  19. Choline-derivative-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Syguda, Anna; Mirska, Ilona; Pernak, Anna; Nawrot, Jan; Pradzyńska, Aleksandra; Griffin, Scott T; Rogers, Robin D


    A total of sixty-three choline derivative-based ionic liquids in the forms of chlorides, acesulfamates, and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides have been prepared and their physical properties (density, viscosity, solubility, and thermal stability) have been determined. Thirteen of these salts are known chlorides: precursors to the 26 water-soluble acesulfamates, 12 acesulfamates only partially miscible with water, and 12 water-insoluble imides. The crystal structures for two of the chloride salts-(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylundecyloxymethylammonium chloride and cyclododecyloxymethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium chloride-were determined. The antimicrobial (cocci, rods, and fungi) activities of the new hydrophilic acesulfamate-based ILs were measured and 12 were found to be active. The alkoxymethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium acesulfamates have been shown to be insect feeding deterrents and thus open up a new generation of synthetic deterrents based on ionic liquids. The alkoxymethyl(2-decanoyloxyethyl)dimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides have also been shown to act as fixatives for soft tissues and can furthermore be used as substitutes for formalin and also preservatives for blood.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of some pseudo-binary and ternary compounds at high curie temperature prepared in the systems: -) rare earth (Nd, Sm) iron hydrogen, -) gadolinium iron aluminium, and -) uranium iron or cobalt silicon or germanium; Proprietes structurales et magnetiques de quelques composes pseudobinaires et ternaires ferromagnetiques a temperature de curie elevee prepares dans les systemes: -) terres rares Nd Sm fer hydrogene, -) gadolinium fer aluminium, and -) uranium fer ou cobalt silicium ou germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlureau, T


    This work highlights the importance of crystal and chemical studies for understanding the magnetic properties of systems as complex as inter-metallic compounds involving rare-earth elements, uranium, silicon or germanium. With a view of finding new compounds with high Curie temperature and strong magneto-crystal anisotropy, it appears that uranium compounds such as UFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, UCo{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, U(Fe{sub 10-x}Co{sub x})Si{sub 2} and U{sub 2}M{sub 17-y}X{sub y} where M is Fe or Co and Y is Si or Ge, are interesting because of the 5f orbital that can form bands through direct overlapping and can link itself very strongly with orbitals of nearby atoms.

  1. A biological macromolecule crystallization database: A basis for a crystallization strategy (United States)

    Gilliland, Gary L.


    A crystallization database, the Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database, containing crystal data and the crystallization conditions for more than 1000 crystal forms of over 600 biological macromolecules, has been compiled from the scientific literature. Data for proteins, protein: protein complexes, nucleic acids, nucleic-acid: nucleic-acid complexes, protein: nucleic-acid complexes and viruses have been included. The general information catalogued for each macromolecule. The crystal data molecular weight, the subunit composition, the presence of prosthetic group(s), and the source of the macromolecule. The crystal data include the unit cell parameters, space group, crystal density, crystal habit and size, and diffraction limit and lifetime. The crystallization data consist of the crystallization method, chemical additions to the crystal growth medium, macromolecule concentration, temperature, pH, and growth time. A result of the compilation of the crystallization data was the development of a general strategy for the crystallization of soluble proteins. The strategy employs vapor diffusion experiments with the most frequently used crystallization agents and microdialysis against low ionic strength to maximize the possiblity of obtaining crystals. A detailed outline of this strategy is presented.

  2. Liquid crystals in tribology. (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores


    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  3. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P


    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  4. Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Bao, Jie; Pan, Wenxiao; Sun, Xin


    Using direct numerical simulations, we provide a thorough study regarding the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects characteristic of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations are coupled with Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel charged surfaces, charging dynamics in a nanopore, capacitance of electric double-layer capacitors, electroosmotic flow in a nanochannel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective flow on a curved ion-selective surface. We also discuss how crowding and overscreening and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ionic thermoelectric gating organic transistors (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Fabiano, Simone; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier


    Temperature is one of the most important environmental stimuli to record and amplify. While traditional thermoelectric materials are attractive for temperature/heat flow sensing applications, their sensitivity is limited by their low Seebeck coefficient (∼100 μV K−1). Here we take advantage of the large ionic thermoelectric Seebeck coefficient found in polymer electrolytes (∼10,000 μV K−1) to introduce the concept of ionic thermoelectric gating a low-voltage organic transistor. The temperature sensing amplification of such ionic thermoelectric-gated devices is thousands of times superior to that of a single thermoelectric leg in traditional thermopiles. This suggests that ionic thermoelectric sensors offer a way to go beyond the limitations of traditional thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. These findings pave the way for new infrared-gated electronic circuits with potential applications in photonics, thermography and electronic-skins. PMID:28139738

  6. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Resin Monomers (United States)

    Paley, Mark S. (Inventor)


    Ionic liquid epoxide monomers capable of reacting with cross-linking agents to form polymers with high tensile and adhesive strengths. Ionic liquid epoxide monomers comprising at least one bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cation are made from nitrogen heterocycles corresponding to the bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cations by a method involving a non-nucleophilic anion, an alkali metal cation, epichlorohydrin, and a strong base.

  7. Ionic emission from Taylor cones (United States)

    Castro Reina, Sergio

    Electrified Taylor cones have been seen as an efficient way to generate thrust for space propulsion. Especially the pure ionic regime (PIR) combines a very high specific impulse (thrust per unit mass) and efficiency, which is very important to reduce fuel transportation costs. The PIR has been primarily based on electrosprays of liquid metals [Swatik and Hendricks 1968, Swatik 1969]. However, emissions dominated by or containing exclusively ions have also been observed from nonmetallic purely ionic substances, initially sulfuric acid [Perel et al. 1969], and more recently room temperature molten salts referred to as ionic liquids (ILs) [Romero-Sanz et al. 2003]. The recent use of the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) with ILs, becoming this "new" source to be known as ionic liquid ion source (ILIS) [Lozano and Martinez-Sanchez 2005], has shown important differences on the emission from Taylor cones with the traditional hollow capillary. This new source seems to be more flexible than the capillary [Paulo, Sergio, carlos], although its low emission level (low thrust) is an important drawback from the space propulsion point of view. Throughout the thesis I have studied some aspects of the ionic emission from ionic liquid Taylor cones and the influence of the properties of the liquids and the characteristic of source on the emission. I have unraveled the reason why ILIS emits such low currents (˜200 nA) and found a way to solve this problem increasing the current up to capillary levels (˜1000 nA) [Castro and Fernandez de la Mora 2009]. I have also tried to reduce ion evaporation while reducing the emitted droplet size in order to increase the thrust generated while keeping the efficiency relatively high and I have measured the energy of evaporation of several cations composing ionic liquids, mandatory step to understand ionic evaporation.

  8. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)


    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.

  9. luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron emission and luminescence associated with the plastic deformation of ionic crys- tals. Chandra [28,29] has reported the dependence of ML of coloured alkali halide crystals on different parameters. Several workers have reported that post-irradiation deformation causes deformation bleaching in coloured alkali ...

  10. A novel lattice energy calculation technique for simple inorganic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Cemal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Banerjee, Priyabrata [Surface Engineering and Tribology Group, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209 (India)


    In this pure theoretical study, a hitherto unexplored equation based on Shannon radii of the ions forming that crystal and chemical hardness of any crystal to calculate the lattice energies of simple inorganic ionic crystals has been presented. To prove the credibility of this equation, the results of the equation have been compared with experimental outcome obtained from Born-Fajans-Haber- cycle which is fundamentally enthalpy-based thermochemical cycle and prevalent theoretical approaches proposed for the calculation of lattice energies of ionic compounds. The results obtained and the comparisons made have demonstrated that the new equation is more useful compared to other theoretical approaches and allows to exceptionally accurate calculation of lattice energies of inorganic ionic crystals without doing any complex calculations.

  11. Axion crystals (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Yamamoto, Naoki


    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity ɛ, permeability μ, and theta angle θ. Crystals with periodic ɛ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic θ (modulo 2 π) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent mass gap and nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems and high-energy physics.

  12. Ionic Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels. (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Jung; Wu, Haiyan; Hu, Yang; Young, Megan; Wang, Huifeng; Lynch, Dylan; Xu, Fujian; Cong, Hongbo; Cheng, Gang


    Polyelectrolytes have many important functions in both living organisms and man-made applications. One key property of polyelectrolytes is the ionic conductivity due to their porous networks that allow the transport of water and small molecular solutes. Among polyelectrolytes, zwitterionic polymers have attracted huge attention for applications that involve ion transport in a polyelectrolyte matrix; however, it is still unclear how the functional groups of zwitterionic polymer side chains affect their ion transport and swelling properties. In this study, zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogels were synthesized and their ionic conductivity was studied and compared to cationic, anionic, and nonionic hydrogels. The change of the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic and nonionic hydrogels in different saline solutions was investigated in detail. Zwitterionic hydrogels showed much higher ionic conductivity than that of the widely used nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate hydrogel in all tested solutions. For both cationic and anionic hydrogels, the presence of mobile counterions led to high ionic conductivity in low salt solutions; however, the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic hydrogels surpassed that of cationic and ionic hydrogels in high salt solutions. Cationic and anionic hydrogels showed much higher water content than that of zwitterionic hydrogels in deionized water; however, the cationic hydrogels shrank significantly with increasing saline concentration. This work provides insight into the effects of polyelectrolyte side chains on ion transport. This can guide us in choosing better polyelectrolytes for a broad spectrum of applications, including bioelectronics, neural implants, battery, and so on.

  13. Crystal morphology of ADP (NH4H2PO4) : A qualitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilo, M.; Woensdregt, C.F.


    The Hartman-Perdok theory enables one to establish the order of morphological importance of the ADP (NH4H2PO4) crystal faces from its crystal structure. Periodic Bond Chains (PBC's) have been obtained using the N−HN…O strong bonds between the ionic [NH4]+ and [H2PO4]- crystallization units. The

  14. Novel ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Kim, Kwang J.


    It is now well recognized that a strip of ionic polymer- metal composite (IPMC) exhibits a spontaneous bending capability under the influence of an electric potential. A key observation is the appearance and disappearance of water on the expansion and contraction surfaces of the strip, respectively. Such water appearing/disappearing activities occur near the permeable metal electrodes. The imposition of en elctric field causes the mobile cations that are conjugated to the polymeric anions to undergo electrophoretic dynamic migration that can result in local deformation of the material. Such an electrophoretic behavior of the IPMC causes the water to leak out of the permeable electroded boundary so as to lower the actuation performance. This situation is similar to a leaking hydraulic actuator (hydraulic jack), which has the highest force density notwithstanding the compressor unit weight. Herein, a new category of actuators as ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators (IPHA's) is defined. The IPMC is a good example of such ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators. The advantage of ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators is their potential to generate substantially high force densities, theoretically better than current hydraulic actuators. Based upon this ionic polymer hydraulic actuator concept, a certain manufacturing technique was developed to increase the force density of the conventional IPMC's by a factor of two (100% improvement in force). This technology and associated experimental results are presented in this paper.

  15. Local Structural Investigations, Defect Formation, and Ionic Conductivity of the Lithium Ionic Conductor Li 4 P 2 S 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Christian; Sadowski, Marcel; Sicolo, Sabrina; Weber, Dominik A.; Sedlmaier, Stefan J.; Weldert, Kai S.; Indris, Sylvio; Albe, Karsten; Janek, Jurgen; Zeier, Wolfgang G. (JLU); (TU Darmstadt); (Karlsruher)


    Glassy, glass–ceramic, and crystalline lithium thiophosphates have attracted interest in their use as solid electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries. Despite similar structural motifs, including PS43–, P2S64–, and P2S74– polyhedra, these materials exhibit a wide range of possible compositions, crystal structures, and ionic conductivities. Here, we present a combined approach of Bragg diffraction, pair distribution function analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the underlying crystal structure of Li4P2S6. In this work, we show that the material crystallizes in a planar structural arrangement as a glass ceramic composite, explaining the observed relatively low ionic conductivity, depending on the fraction of glass content. Calculations based on density functional theory provide an understanding of occurring diffusion pathways and ionic conductivity of this Li+ ionic conductor.

  16. Selective occupancy of methane by cage symmetry in TBAB ionic clathrate hydrate. (United States)

    Muromachi, Sanehiro; Udachin, Konstantin A; Alavi, Saman; Ohmura, Ryo; Ripmeester, John A


    Methane trapped in the two distinct dodecahedral cages of the ionic clathrate hydrate of TBAB was studied by single crystal XRD and MD simulation. The relative CH4 occupancies over the cage types were opposite to those of CO2, which illustrates the interplay between the cage symmetry and guest shape and dynamics, and thus the gas selectivity.

  17. Two-dimensional structural ordering in a chromophoric ionic liquid for triplet energy migration-based photon upconversion. (United States)

    Hisamitsu, Shota; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Kouno, Hironori; Magome, Eisuke; Matsuki, Masaya; Yamada, Teppei; Monguzzi, Angelo; Kimizuka, Nobuo


    A novel chromophoric ionic liquid (IL) with two-dimensional (2D) nanostructural order is developed, and its structure-property relationship is investigated by harnessing photon upconversion based on triplet energy migration. An ion pair of 9,10-diphenylanthracene-2-sulphonate (DPAS) and asymmetric quaternary phosphonium ion exhibited both ionic crystal (IC) and supercooled IL phases at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray analysis of the IC phase showed an alternate alignment of polar (ionic) and non-polar (non-ionic) layers, and this layered structure was basically maintained even in the IL phase. The diffusion length of triplet excitons in the IL phase, obtained by the analysis of upconverted emission in succession to triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA), is larger than the domain size estimated from powder X-ray analysis. This suggests that triplet excitons in chromophoric ILs can diffuse over the nanostructured domains.

  18. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Funke


    Full Text Available Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an 'evolving scheme of materials science', point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals, by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  19. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions (United States)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N.; Giles, Carlos


    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  20. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C., E-mail: [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Giles, Carlos [Depto. de Física da Matéria Condensada, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  1. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes (United States)

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle


    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  2. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes (United States)

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.


    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  3. Surface tension of ionic liquids and ionic liquid solutions. (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Freire, Mara G; Saramago, Benilde; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N


    Some of the most active scientific research fronts of the past decade are centered on ionic liquids. These fluids present characteristic surface behavior and distinctive trends of their surface tension versus temperature. One way to explore and understand their unique nature is to study their surface properties. This critical review analyses most of the surface tension data reported between 2001 and 2010 (187 references).

  4. Ionic liquid-tolerant cellulase enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John; Park, Joshua; Singer, Steven; Simmons, Blake; Sale, Ken


    The present invention provides ionic liquid-tolerant cellulases and method of producing and using such cellulases. The cellulases of the invention are useful in saccharification reactions using ionic liquid treated biomass.

  5. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Polo, G; Valdes, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mijngos, R. R; Duarte, D. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCI{sub x}KBr{sub y}RbCl{sub z} maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard's law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The values of the lattice parameter given X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se calcula el valor de la energia de amarre de una estructura ternaria cristalina nueva formada por halogenuros alcalinos. La estructura ternaria preparada con diferentes concentraciones KCI{sub x}KBr{sub y}RbCl{sub z} mantiene una muy buena estabilidad y miscibilidad. El calculo se basa en el uso de una generalizacion de la ley de Vegard (que en general es valida para compuestos binarios) para calcular los valores de la constante de red y de exponente repulsivo m. El valor del parametro de red medido por difractometria de rayos X, concuerda en buena aproximacion con el valor calculado por el metodo usado. Tambien se compara el valor de la energia de cohesion obtenido por la expresion de Born con aproximaciones mas complejas.

  6. Crystal structure and ionic conductivity of a new bismuth tungstate,

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    5 Hz and 13 MHz on a Hewlett–Packard HP4192A impedance gain phase analyzer. A home built cell assembly with a 2-terminal capacitor configuration and stainless steel electrodes were used for the ex- periment. The sample temperature was measured us- ing a Pt–Rh thermocouple positioned very close to the sample.

  7. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mijangos, R.R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Valdez, E. [Escuela Nacional de Estudios Profesionales Acatlan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Santa Cruz Acatlan, Naucalpan (Mexico); Duarte, C. [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Sonora, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl{sub x}KBrRbCl{sub 2} maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  8. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids (United States)

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.


    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  9. Ionic-Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticles: Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moganty, Surya S.


    A new class of solventless electrolytes was created by tethering ionic liquids to hard inorganic ZrO2 nanostructures (see picture; NIM=nanoscale ionic material). These hybrid fluids exhibit exceptional redox stability windows, excellent thermal stability, good lithium transference numbers, long-term interfacial stability in the presence of a lithium anode and, when doped with lithium salt, reasonable ionic conductivities.

  10. High-flux ionic diodes, ionic transistors and ionic amplifiers based on external ion concentration polarization by an ion exchange membrane: a new scalable ionic circuit platform. (United States)

    Sun, Gongchen; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia


    A microfluidic ion exchange membrane hybrid chip is fabricated using polymer-based, lithography-free methods to achieve ionic diode, transistor and amplifier functionalities with the same four-terminal design. The high ionic flux (>100 μA) feature of the chip can enable a scalable integrated ionic circuit platform for micro-total-analytical systems.

  11. High-flux ionic diodes, ionic transistors and ionic amplifiers based on external ion concentration polarization by an ion exchange membrane: a new scalable ionic circuit platform† (United States)

    Sun, Gongchen; Senapati, Satyajyoti


    A microfluidic-ion exchange membrane hybrid chip is fabricated by polymer-based, lithography-free methods to achieve ionic diode, transistor and amplifier functionalities with the same four-terminal design. The high ionic flux (> 100 μA) feature of the chip can enable a scalable integrated ionic circuit platform for micro-total-analytical systems. PMID:26960551

  12. Lipid processing in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been touted as “green” alternatives to traditional molecular solvents and have many unique properties which make them extremely desirable substitutes. Among their most attractive properties are their lack of vapour pressure, broad liquid range, strong solvating power...

  13. Catalysis in Molten Ionic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    This chapter deals with catalysis in molten salts and ionic liquids, which are introduced and reviewed briefly, while an in-depth review of the oxidation catalyst used for the manufacturing of sulfuric acid and cleaning of flue gas from electrical power plants is the main topic of the chapter...

  14. Retarded ionic motion in flourites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, J.

    Metals halides with the fluorite structure attain conductivity values typical of ionic melts far below their melting points, and also go through a second-order transition. Conductivity data for the fluorites are reviewed, and it is shown that the anion vacancies have a large and unique mobility

  15. Crystal rainbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neskovic, N. E-mail:; Petrovic, S


    This review is devoted to ion transmission through axial channels of thin crystals. In this process the rainbows occur. The effect is called the crystal rainbow effect. We shall describe its origin and present the experiments in which it has been observed. We shall explain also how the crystal rainbows can be classified using catastrophe theory. This classification has resulted in a universal, simple and accurate approximation to the continuum potential in the channels. Besides, the periodicity of the angular distributions of transmitted ions with the reduced crystal thickness will be considered. It will be introduced via the effect of zero-degree focusing of channeled ions. In addition, we shall mention the doughnut effect in ion channeling, which has proven to be the rainbow effect with tilted crystals. All these considerations will demonstrate clearly the usefulness of the theory of crystal rainbows, which is the proper theory of ion channeling in thin crystals00.

  16. Application of ionic liquids in hydrometallurgy. (United States)

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Lee, Jinyoung; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung


    Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry.

  17. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL


    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  18. Noncovalent interactions in halogenated ionic liquids: theoretical study and crystallographic implications. (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Lu, Yunxiang; Wu, Weihong; Liu, Yingtao; Peng, Changjun; Liu, Honglai; Zhu, Weiliang


    In recent years, several specific imidazolium-based ionic liquids with halogen substituents on the imidazole ring as well as on the alkyl chains have been reported. In this work, noncovalent interactions in four halogenated ionic liquids, i.e. 2-bromo-/iodo- and 4,5-dibromo-/diiodo-1,3-dimethylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates, were systematically investigated using density functional theory calculations. The structural and energetic properties of the ion pairs for such ionic liquids have been fully examined and compared with the non-halogenated ones. It was found that C-X···O halogen bonds, C-H···O hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic interactions with the anion located over the imidazole ring in the ion pairs. In addition, the structures and energetics of two ion pairs for such ionic liquids were also explored to reproduce experimental observations. The halogen-bonded ring structures and the conformers with the concurrent C-H···O and C-X···O contacts were predicted, consistent with the X-ray crystal structures of corresponding organic salts. Finally, the implications of the observed structural and energetic features of ion pairs on the design of halogen-bonding ionic liquids were discussed. The results presented herein should provide useful information in the development of novel halogenated ionic liquids used for specific tasks ranging from organic synthesis to gas absorption.

  19. Ionic conductivity studies of gel polyelectrolyte based on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, E.H. [The Faculty of Liberal Arts (Chemistry), Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Lim, S.A. [Functional Proteomics Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Park, J.H. [Department of Herbal Medicine, Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Kim, D.W. [Department of Chemical Technology, Han Bat National University, Daejon 305-719 (Korea); Macfarlane, D.R. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)


    Novel lithium polyelectrolyte-ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized of their properties. Poly(lithium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonate) (PAMPSLi) and its copolymer with N-vinyl formamide (VF) also has been prepared as a copolymer. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide (emImTCM) and N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-N-butyl ammonium tricyanomethanide (N{sub 1134}TCM) which are chosen because of the same with the anion of ionic liquid were prepared. The ionic conductivity of copolymer system (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM: 5.43 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C) exhibits about over four times higher than that of homopolymer system (PAMPSLi/emImTCM: 1.28 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C). Introduction of vinyl formamide into the copolymer type can increase the dissociation of the lithium cations from the polymer backbone. The ionic conductivity of copolymer with emImTCM (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM) exhibits the higher conductivity than that of PAMPSLi/PVF/N{sub 1134}TCM (2.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}). Because of using the polymerizable anion it is seen to maintain high flexibility of imidazolium cation effectively to exhibit the higher conductivity. And also the viscosity of emImTCM (19.56 cP) is lower than that of N{sub 1134}TCM (28.61 cP). Low viscosity leads to a fast rate of diffusion of redox species. (author)

  20. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide


    Wei Song; Yu Deng; Hong Zhu


    In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br) as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulos...

  1. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song


    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  2. Protein Crystallization (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.


    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  3. Computational crystallization. (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H


    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular and ionic hydrogen bond formation in fluorous solvents. (United States)

    O'Neal, Kristi L; Weber, Stephen G


    There are only a few studies of noncovalent association in fluorous solvents and even fewer that are quantitative. A full understanding, particularly of stoichiometry and binding strength of noncovalent interactions in fluorous solvents could be very useful in improved molecular-receptor-based extractions, advancements in sensor technologies, crystal engineering, and supramolecular chemistry. This work investigates hydrogen bonding between heterocyclic bases and a perfluoropolyether with a terminal carboxylic acid group (Krytox 157FSH (1)), chiefly in FC-72 (a mixture of perfluorohexanes). In particular, we were interested in whether or not proton transfer occurs, and if so, under what conditions in H-bonded complexes. Continuous variations experiments show that in FC-72 weaker bases (pyrazine, pyrimidine, and quinazoline) form 1:1 complexes with 1, whereas stronger bases (quinoline, pyridine, and isoquinoline) form 1:3 complexes. Ultraviolet and infrared spectral signatures reveal that the 1:1 complexes are molecular (B.HA) whereas the 1:3 complexes are ionic (BH+.A-HAHA). Infrared spectra of 1:3 ionic complexes are discussed in detail. Literature and experimental data on complexes between N-heterocyclic bases and carboxylic acids in a range of solvents are compiled to compare solvent effects on proton transfer. Polar solvents support ionic hydrogen bonds at a 1:1 mol ratio. In nonpolar organic solvents, ionic hydrogen bonds are only observed in complexes with 1:2 (base/acid) stoichiometries. In fluorous solvents, a larger excess of acid, 1:3, is necessary to facilitate proton transfer in hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and the bases studied.

  5. Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine (United States)

    Koelfgen, Syri; Sims, Joe; Forton, Melissa; Allan, Barry; Rogers, Robin; Shamshina, Julia


    A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids (ILs) or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below 100 deg C. Many ILs have melting points near, or even below, room temperature (room temperature ionic liquids, RTILs). More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants. In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized. Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point (if applicable), and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine, ranging between 10 and 113 seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant. To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families. Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts.

  6. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob


    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  7. Ionic and superionic phases in ammonia dihydrate N H3.2 H2O under high pressure (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Wu, Xue; Zheng, Zhaoyang; Huang, Yingying; Zhao, Jijun


    Water and ammonia have long been seen as the main species of extraterrestrial space, especially on solar giants, moons, comets, and numerous extrasolar planets. The phases formed by their admixtures under temperature and pressure conditions of the giant planets are important for understanding many observable properties (gravitational moments, atmospheric composition, and magnetic field). Here we employ a Monte Carlo packing algorithm combined with first-principles calculations to search the low-energy crystal structures of ammonia dihydrate (ADH). At high pressure above 11.81 GPa, we predict an unusual ionic phase (tetragonal, I 41c d ) consisting of three alternating layers of H2O ,NH4+ , and O H- . The occurrence of ionic phase is attributed to the NH4+ and O H- electrostatic interaction induced volume reduction, which lowers the energy barrier of molecular to ionic phase transition. Analysis of proton transfer under pressure further supports the transformation mechanism between molecular and ionic phase. According to the mobility of hydrogen atoms from ab initio molecular dynamics, this ionic crystal will transform into a superionic phase under high temperature and high pressure. The existence of ionic or superionic ADH may have important implications for understanding the interiors of Neptune, Uranus, and many extrasolar planets.

  8. Infrared Investigations of the Neutral-Ionic Phase Transition in TTF-CA and Its Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dressel


    Full Text Available The neutral-ionic phase transition in TTF-CA was investigated by steady-state and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. We describe the growth of high-quality single crystals and their characterization. Extended theoretical calculations were performed in order to obtain the band structure, the molecular vibrational modes and the optical spectra along all crystallographic axes. The theoretical results are compared to polarization-dependent infrared reflection experiments. The temperature-dependent optical conductivity is discussed in detail. We study the photo-induced phase transition in the vicinity of thermally-induced neutral-ionic transition. The observed temporal dynamics of the photo-induced states is attributed to the random-walk of neutral-ionic domain walls. We simulate the random-walk annihilation process of domain walls on a one-dimensional chain.

  9. On the Synthesis of Molybdenum Nanoparticles under Reducing Conditions in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi A. Ayi


    Full Text Available We report on attempts to synthesize Mo nanoparticles under reducing conditions in ionic liquids (ILs. Ionic liquids were based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (Emim and Bmim, resp. cations and the dicyanamide N(CN2, triflate (OTf, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide-(NTf2, tetrafluoroborate (BF4, ethyl sulfate (ES, and methylsulfonate (MS anions. (NH46Mo7O24∗4H2O and NaBH4 were reacted in a set of imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs at 180°C to evaluate the potential of the ILs for stabilization of metallic Mo nanoparticles. XRD and TEM reveal a strong influence of the IL anion on the particle sizes, shapes, and crystal structures. The influence of the IL cation and the reaction temperature is much less pronounced.

  10. Raman Spectroscopy and Ab-Initio Model Calculations on Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    A review of the recent developments in the study and understanding of room temperature ionic liquids are given. An intimate picture of how and why these liquids are not crystals at ambient conditions is attempted, based on evidence from crystallographical results combined with vibrational...... spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular orbital calculations. A discussion is given, based mainly on some recent FT-Raman spectroscopic results on the model ionic liquid system of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim][X]) salts. The rotational isomerism of the [C4mim]þ cation is described: the presence of anti...... and gauche conformers that has been elucidated in remarkable papers by Hamaguchi et al. Such presence of a conformational equilibrium seems to be a general feature of the room temperature liquids. Then the ‘‘localized structure features’’ that apparently exist in ionic liquids are described. It is hoped...

  11. Transformations of Liquid Metals in Ionic Liquid


    Liu, Fujun; Yu, Yongze; Liu, Jing


    Experimental studies were carried out on the motions and transformations of liquid metal in ionic liquid under applied electric field. The induced vortex rings and flows of ionic liquid were determined via the photographs taken sequentially over the experiments. The polarization of electric double layer of liquid metals was employed to explain the flow of ionic liquid with the presence of liquid metal. Unlike former observation of liquid metal machine in conventional solution, no gas bubble w...

  12. Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart


    A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.

  13. Improved Ionic Liquids as Space Lubricants Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionic liquids are candidate lubricant materials. However for application in low temperature space mechanisms their lubrication performance needs to be enhanced. UES...

  14. "Practical" Electrospinning of Biopolymers in Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Shamshina, Julia L; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Bonner, Jonathan R; Gurau, Gabriela; Di Nardo, Thomas; Rogers, Robin D


    To address the need to scale up technologies for electrospinning of biopolymers from ionic liquids to practical volumes, a setup for the multi-needle electrospinning of chitin using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2 mim]-[OAc], was designed, built, and demonstrated. Materials with controllable and high surface area were prepared at the nanoscale using ionic-liquid solutions of high-molecular-weight chitin extracted with the same ionic liquid directly from shrimp shells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Crystal Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong


    Full Text Available Crystal dislocations were invisible until the mid-20th century although their presence had been inferred; the atomic and molecular scale dimensions had prevented earlier discovery. Now they are normally known to be just about everywhere, for example, in the softest molecularly-bonded crystals as well as within the hardest covalently-bonded diamonds. The advent of advanced techniques of atomic-scale probing has facilitated modern observations of dislocations in every crystal structure-type, particularly by X-ray diffraction topography and transmission electron microscopy. The present Special Issue provides a flavor of their ubiquitous presences, their characterizations and, especially, their influence on mechanical and electrical properties.

  16. Ionic hydrogenation of organosulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Maksic, M.; Margetic, D. (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry)

    Ionic hydrogenation of the three most abundant types of organosulfur constituents of coal, aromatic sulfides, aromatic disulfides, and benzo(b)thiophene derivatives, in BF{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O-Et{sub 3}SiH is studied. Reduction of aromatic sulfides results in partial saturation of the aromatic moiety and cleavage of the corresponding SR group. Aromatic disulfides undergo quantitative sulfur-sulfur bond cleavage, while benzo(b)thiophene derivatives produce 2,3-dihydrobenzo(b)thiophenes in high yields. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron


    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  18. Optimization of crystallization conditions for biological macromolecules (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Cudney, Bob


    For the successful X-ray structure determination of macromolecules, it is first necessary to identify, usually by matrix screening, conditions that yield some sort of crystals. Initial crystals are frequently microcrystals or clusters, and often have unfavorable morphologies or yield poor diffraction intensities. It is therefore generally necessary to improve upon these initial conditions in order to obtain better crystals of sufficient quality for X-ray data collection. Even when the initial samples are suitable, often marginally, refinement of conditions is recommended in order to obtain the highest quality crystals that can be grown. The quality of an X-ray structure determination is directly correlated with the size and the perfection of the crystalline samples; thus, refinement of conditions should always be a primary component of crystal growth. The improvement process is referred to as optimization, and it entails sequential, incremental changes in the chemical parameters that influence crystallization, such as pH, ionic strength and precipitant concentration, as well as physical parameters such as temperature, sample volume and overall methodology. It also includes the application of some unique procedures and approaches, and the addition of novel components such as detergents, ligands or other small molecules that may enhance nucleation or crystal development. Here, an attempt is made to provide guidance on how optimization might best be applied to crystal-growth problems, and what parameters and factors might most profitably be explored to accelerate and achieve success. PMID:25372810

  19. Raman spectroscopy, ab-initio model calculations, and conformational, equilibria in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    that the structural resolving power of Raman spectroscopy will be appreciated by the reader, when used on crystals of known conformation and on the corresponding liquids, especially in combination with modern quantum mechanics calculations. It is hoped that these inetrdisciplinary methods will be applied to many more......A review of the recent developments in the study and understanding of room temperature ionic liquids are given. An intimate picture of how and why these liquids are not crystals at ambient conditions is attempted, based on evidence from crystallographical results combined with vibrational...... spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular orbital calculations. A discussion is given, based mainly on some recent FT- Raman spectroscopic results on the model ionic liquid system of 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C4C1Im]+X-) salts. The rotational isomerism of the [C4C1Im]+ cation is described: the presence of anti...

  20. On multiferroicity of TTF-CA molecular crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatov, Michael


    Magnetic properties of the TTF-CA molecular crystal below the neutral to ionic transition temperature are studied using the embedded cluster approach in combination with density functional theory. The calculated values of the Heisenberg exchange integral between the neighboring TTF and CA molecules

  1. Task-specific thioglycolate ionic liquids for heavy metal extraction: Synthesis, extraction efficacies and recycling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kar, Mega [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leyma, Raphlin; Chib, Sonia; Roller, Alexander [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Krachler, Regina [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); MacFarlane, Douglas R. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria)


    Highlights: • Thioglycolate-based ionic liquids have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been examined. • The developed ionic liquids can efficiently remove Cu(II) and Cd(II). • Loaded ionic liquids can be recycled by application of different stripping protocols. - Abstract: Eight novel task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) based on the thioglycolate anion designed for heavy metal extraction have been prepared and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, UV-Vis, infrared, ESI-MS, conductivity, viscosity, density and thermal properties. Evaluation of their time-resolved extraction abilities towards cadmium(II) and copper(II) in aqueous solutions have been investigated where distribution ratios up to 1200 were observed. For elucidation of the IL extraction mode, crystals were grown where Cd(II) was converted with an excess of S-butyl thioglycolate. It was found by X-ray diffraction analysis that cadmium is coordinated by five oxygen and one sulfur donor atoms provided by two thioglycolate molecules and one water molecule. Leaching behavior of the hydrophobic ionic liquids into aqueous systems was studied by TOC (total dissolved organic carbon) measurements. Additionally, the immobilization on polypropylene was elucidated and revealed slower metal extraction rates and similar leaching behavior. Finally, recovery processes for cadmium and copper after extraction were performed and recyclability was successfully proven for both metals.

  2. Improved ionic model of liquid uranium dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryaznov, [No Value; Iosilevski, [No Value; Yakub, E; Fortov, [No Value; Hyland, GJ; Ronchi, C

    The paper presents a model for liquid uranium dioxide, obtained by improving a simplified ionic model, previously adopted to describe the equation of state of this substance [1]. A "chemical picture" is used for liquid UO2 of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric composition. Several ionic species

  3. Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids: microscopic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicent-Luna, J.M.; Dubbeldam, D.; Gómez-Álvarez, P.; Calero, S.


    Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids are of special interest, due to the distinctive properties of ionic liquids, in particular, their amphiphilic character. A better understanding of the structure-property relationships of such systems is hence desirable. One of the crucial molecular-level

  4. Dielectric study on mixtures of ionic liquids. (United States)

    Thoms, E; Sippel, P; Reuter, D; Weiß, M; Loidl, A; Krohns, S


    Ionic liquids are promising candidates for electrolytes in energy-storage systems. We demonstrate that mixing two ionic liquids allows to precisely tune their physical properties, like the dc conductivity. Moreover, these mixtures enable the gradual modification of the fragility parameter, which is believed to be a measure of the complexity of the energy landscape in supercooled liquids. The physical origin of this index is still under debate; therefore, mixing ionic liquids can provide further insights. From the chemical point of view, tuning ionic liquids via mixing is an easy and thus an economic way. For this study, we performed detailed investigations by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry on two mixing series of ionic liquids. One series combines an imidazole based with a pyridine based ionic liquid and the other two different anions in an imidazole based ionic liquid. The analysis of the glass-transition temperatures and the thorough evaluations of the measured dielectric permittivity and conductivity spectra reveal that the dynamics in mixtures of ionic liquids are well defined by the fractions of their parent compounds.

  5. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco


    Applications of ionic liquids to replace conventional solvents in homogeneous transition-metal catalysis have increased significantly during the last decade. Biphasic ionic liquid/organic liquid systems offer advantages with regard to product separation, catalyst stability, and recycling but util...

  6. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.


    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  7. Application of Ionic Liquids in Hydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesik Park


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry.

  8. Comparison of intravenous drip infusion excretory urography using ionic and non-ionic contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onitsuka, Hideo; Araki, Akiteru; Torii, Yoshikuni; Tsukuda, Masaaki; Murakami, Junji; Ino, Akihiro; Hashiguchi, Norihisa; Masuda, Kouji (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    Ionic and non-ionic contrast media were compared for use in intravenous drip infusion excretory urography. Sixty consecutive cases were classified alternately into two groups, ionic and non-ionic, excluding cases which were known to have factors affecting contrast ability adversely, such as hydronephrosis, renal failure and so on. Each group consisted of 30 cases. A hundred ml of the ionic contrast medium (Diatrizoate-60% Urografin) or non-ionic contrast medium (Iopamidol-Iopamiron 300) was administered I.V. by drip infusion, each infusion taking less than 10 minutes, using a 18 G needle, and 0-minute, 10-minute and 20-minute films were obtained. Visibility of nephrogram, calyceal system, renal pelvis, ureters and bladder were evaluated, ranging from 0 to 3, by six radiologists who were not informed of the contrast medium used. Some detailed factors such as radiographic contrast and fullness of the collecting system and of the bladder were also analyzed. Visualization rate of the ureters was defined as the length of visualized ureters divided by the distance between the renal pelvis and the ureteral orifice of the bladder. There was no significant difference in visualization of nephrogram between the two groups. However, the non-ionic group was superior to the ionic group in visualization of the calyceal system and ureters with statistical significance, probably due to higher radiogrpahic contrast of non-ionic medium. There was no statistical significance between the two groups, in fullness of the calyceal system and visualization rate of the ureters, whereas the ionic group was superior to the non-ionic group in fullness of the bladder. In the ionic and non-ionic groups, side effects were seen in 6 and 2 cases, respectively, although this was not statistically significant. We conclude that non-ionic contrast medium is excellent for drip infusion excretory urography. (author).

  9. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength - Simple Conceptual Diagram (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  10. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength - Detailed Conceptual Diagram (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  11. Liquid Crystals (United States)


    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))


    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Tamam; D Pontoni Z Sapir; S Yefet; S Sloutskin; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch


    Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

  14. $\\beta$-NMR of copper isotopes in ionic liquids

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to test the feasibility of spin-polarization and $\\beta$-NMR studies on several short-lived copper isotopes, $^{58}$ Cu, $^{74}$Cu and $^{75}$Cu in crystals and liquids. The motivation is given by biological studies of Cu with $\\beta$-NMR in liquid samples, since Cu is present in a large number of enzymes involved in electron transfer and activation of oxygen. The technique is based on spin-polarization via optical pumping in the new VITO beamline. We will use the existing lasers, NMR magnet and NMR chambers and we will prepare a new optical pumping system. The studies will be devoted to tests of achieved $\\beta$-asymmetry in solid hosts, the behaviour of asymmetry when increasing vacuum, and finally NMR scans in ionic liquids. The achieved spin polarization will be also relevant for the plans to measure with high precision the magnetic moments of neutron-rich Cu isotopes.

  15. Ionic Liquids: Synthesis and Applications in Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Ratti


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids have emerged as an environmentally friendly alternative to the volatile organic solvents. Being designer solvents, they can be modulated to suit the reaction conditions, therefore earning the name “task specific ionic liquids.” Though primarily used as solvents, they are now finding applications in various fields like catalysis, electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and material science to mention a few. The present review is aimed at exploring the applications of ionic liquids in catalysis as acid, base, and organocatalysts and as soluble supports for catalysts.

  16. Simulation and understanding of quantum crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Cazorla, Claudio


    Quantum crystals abound in the whole range of solid-state species. Below a certain threshold temperature the physical behavior of rare gases (4He and Ne), molecular solids (H2 and CH4), and some ionic (LiH), covalent (graphite), and metallic (Li) crystals can be only explained in terms of quantum nuclear effects (QNE). A detailed comprehension of the nature of quantum solids is critical for achieving progress in a number of fundamental and applied scientific fields like, for instance, planetary sciences, hydrogen storage, nuclear energy, quantum computing, and nanoelectronics. This review describes the current physical understanding of quantum crystals and the wide variety of simulation techniques that are used to investigate them. Relevant aspects in these materials such as phase transformations, energy and structural properties, elasticity, and the effects of crystalline defects and dimensionality, are discussed thoroughly. An introduction to quantum Monte Carlo techniques, which in the present context are ...

  17. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesters, Michael


    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  18. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eSalminen


    Full Text Available The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs. Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC. The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  19. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal (United States)

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka


    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  20. Synthesis of hetero ionic compounds using dialkylcarbonate quaternization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan


    Methods of preparing hetero ionic complexes, and ionic liquids from bisulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkylcarbonates as a primary quaternizing reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids, and an electrochemical cell comprising an alkaline electrolyte and a hetero ionic complex additive.

  1. Hydrochloride salt co-crystals: preparation, characterization and physicochemical studies. (United States)

    Parmar, Vijaykumar K; Shah, Shailesh A


    Co-crystallization approach for modification of physicochemical properties of hydrochloride salt is presented. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of co-crystallization with different co-crystal formers on physicochemical properties of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH). FH was screened for co-crystallization with a series of carboxylic acid co-formers by slow evaporation method. Photomicrographs and melting points of crystalline phases were determined. The co-crystals were characterized by FTIR, DSC and PXRD methods. Solubility of co-crystals was determined in water and buffer solutions. Powder and intrinsic dissolution profiles were assessed for co-crystals. Physical mixtures of drug and co-formers were used for comparisons at characterizations and physicochemical properties evaluation stages. Four co-crystals of FH viz. Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid (FH-MA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-glutaric acid (FH-GA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-L-tartaric acid (FH-LTA) and Fluoxetine hydrochloride-DL-tartaric acid (FH-DLTA) were obtained from screening experiments. Physical characterization showed that they have unique crystal morphology, thermal, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction properties. Solubility and dissolution studies showed that Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid co-crystal possess high aqueous solubility in distilled water, pH 4.6, 7.0 buffer solutions and dissolution rate in distilled water than that of pure drug. Co-crystal formation approach can be used for ionic API to tailor its physical properties.

  2. Structure and properties of MTiOXO sub 4 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Latham, T J


    linked to chains of particular atoms along the three crystallographic axes. Dielectric measurements of a series of arsenate crystals and various doped phosphate crystals demonstrate that MTiOXO sub 4 isomorphs exhibit dielectric relaxation of a non-Debye type and appear to conform to the hopping charge-carrier and low frequency dispersion response models. A reduction in the ionic conductivity is observed in the arsenate crystals and phosphate crystals doped with trivalent ions. Arrhenius plots indicate that the activation energies of the mixed cation arsenate crystals are significantly higher than the other KTiOPO sub 4 isomorphs. This observation suggests that the modified oxygen framework in these mixed arsenate crystals contributes intrinsically to the large activation energies required for ionic conduction. This thesis is a study of the structural, optical and electrical properties of MTiOXO sub 4 crystals, where M is a monovalent cation such as K, Rb etc and X is P or As. Low and high-temperature single-...

  3. Selective gas absorption by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren; Due-Hansen, Johannes


    Reversible absorption performance for the flue gas components CO 2, NO and SO2 has been tested for several different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions. Furthermore, different porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids...... to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow...... processes for flue gas cleaning. The results show that CO 2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperatures...

  4. Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids: General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bao, Jie [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Pan, Wenxiao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI USA; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    Using direct numerical simulations we provide a thorough study on the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, the modfied Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects that are the characteristics of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the MPNP equations are coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel plates, charging dynamics in a 2D straight-walled pore, electro-osmotic ow in a nano-channel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective ow on a curved ion-selective surface. We discuss how the crowding and overscreening effects and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems.

  5. A silica nanoparticle based ionic material (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Azad, Zubair; Giannelis, Emmanuel


    We report an ionic fluid consisting of silica nanoparticles as the anion, and amine-terminated polyethylene glycol as the cation. Unlike previous work that has required chemical functionalization of the silica surface, the charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the intrinsic surface hydroxyls, simplifying the synthesis, and thus making this a simple test system to probe the physics of these nanoscale ionic materials. Charge and steric factors result in excellent dispersion of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The resulting material is a soft glass that has thermal and rheological properties that depend on the silica:polymer ratio. In particular, at a critical silica:polymer ratio, the ionic material shows a significant depression of the normalized heat of melting and the melting temperature compared to samples with higher or lower silica content (showing eutectic-like behaviour), and to controls without the ionic interaction between the polymer and the particle. Funded by KAUST-CU.

  6. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying


    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Composite Cryotanks Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to determine the optimal process for manufacturing lightweight linerless cryogenic storage tanks using ionic liquid epoxy composite...

  8. Ionic liquid polyoxometalates as light emitting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Del Sesto, Rico E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Purdy, Geraldine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Kigney, Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilbertson, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The low melting point, negligible vapor pressure, good solubility, and thermal and chemical stability make ionic liquids useful materials for a wide variety of applications. Polyoxometalates are early transition metal oxygen clusters that can be synthesized in many different sizes and with a variety of heterometals. The most attractive feature of POMs is that their physical properties, in particular electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, can be easily modified following known procedures. It has been shown that POMs can exhibit cooperative properties, as superconductivity and energy transfer. POM ionic liquids can be obtained by selecting the appropliate cation. Different alkyl ammonium and alkyl phosphonium salts are being used to produce new POM ionic liquids together with organic or inorganic luminescent centers to design light emitting materials. Ammonium and phosphonium cations with activated, polymerizable groups are being used to further polymerize the ionic liquid into transparent, solid materials with high metal density.

  9. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marciniak


    Full Text Available The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated.

  10. Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.


    Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These nonadditive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge...... interactions changes negligibly between 300 and 900 K, while the average dipole moment increases due to thermal fluctuations of geometries. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of electronic effects in the condensed phase of ionic systems and foster progress in physical chemistry...

  11. Study of thioglycosylation in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragauskas Arthur


    Full Text Available Abstract A novel, green chemistry, glycosylation strategy was developed based upon the use of ionic liquids. Research studies demonstrated that thiomethyl glycosides could readily be activated with methyl trifluoromethane sulfonate, using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a solvent. This green chemistry glycosylation strategy provided disaccharides with typical yields averaging 75%. The ionic liquid solvent could be readily reused for five sequential glycosylation reactions with no impact on product yield.

  12. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.


    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  13. Metathesis and hydroformylation reactions in ionic liquids.



    Ionic liquids (ILs), consisting of ions that are liquid at ambient temperatures, can act as solvents for a broad spectrum of chemical processes. These ionic liquids are attracting increasing attention from industry because they promise significant environmental as well as product and process benefits. ILs were used as solvents for two industrially important homogeneous reactions namely metathesis of 1-octene and the hydroformylation of vinyl acetate. In the metathesis of 1-octene, several rea...

  14. The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids (United States)

    Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.


    It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

  15. The structure of ionic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Gontrani, Lorenzo


    This volume describes the most recent findings on the structure of ILs interpreted through cutting-edge experimental and theoretical methods. Research in the field of ionic liquids (ILs) keeps a fast and steady pace. Since these new-generation molten salts first appeared in the chemistry and physics landscape, a large number of new compounds has been synthesized. Most of them display unexpected behaviour and possess stunning properties. The coverage in this book ranges from the mesoscopic structure of ILs to their interaction with proteins. The reader will learn how diffraction techniques (small and large angle X-Ray and neutron scattering, powder methods), X-Ray absorption spectroscopies (EXAFS/XANES), optical methods (IR, RAMAN), NMR and calorimetric methods can help the study of ILs, both as neat liquids and in mixtures with other compounds. It will enable the reader to choose the best method to suit their experimental needs. A detailed survey of theoretical methods, both quantum-chemical and classical, ...

  16. Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites for photoelectric conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yù; Pei, Qi; Feng, Ting; Mao, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shuyao; Liu, Daliang; Wang, Hongyu; Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal sulfide (CdS, ZnS, Ag{sub 2}S)/GO nanocomposites were prepared by electrostatic adherence. • Ionic liquid was used to link the metal sulfide and GO in the electrostatic adherence process. • The as-prepared samples showed enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared via a facile electrostatic adsorption. Ionic liquid (IL) is firstly used as surface modifier and structure-directing agent of metal sulfide (MS) crystallization process, obtaining ionic liquid modified-MS (IL-MS) nanoparticles with positive charges on surface. IL-MS/GO is obtained by electrostatic adherence between positively charged IL-MS and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared sample shows enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, indicating IL-MS/GO nanocomposites greatly promoted the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.

  17. Synergistic Effects of Mixing Sulfone and Ionic Liquid as Safe Electrolytes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng


    Here we report a strategy of mixing both the ionic liquid and sulfone with synergistic effects of reducing viscosity, increasing ionic conductivity, reducing the polysulfide dissolution, and improving the safety. The mixtures of the ionic liquids and sulfones also show distinctly different physicochemical properties, including the thermal properties and crystallization behavior. Using these electrolytes, lithium sulfur batteries assembled with lithium and mesoporous carbon composites show a reversible specific capacity of 1265 mAh g-1 (second cycle) by using 40% 1.0 M LiTFSI in MPPY∙TFSI with 60% 1.0 M LiTFSI in MIPS in the first cycle. This capacity is slightly lower than what was obtained in the pure 1.0 M LiTFSI in the sulfone electrolytes; however, it exhibits an excellent cycling stability and remains as high as 655 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles. Our strategy provides a method to alleviate the polysulfide dissolution and redox shuttle phenomenon, with an improved ionic conductivity at the same time.

  18. Correlation between ion diffusional motion and ionic conductivity for different electrolytes based on ionic liquid. (United States)

    Kaur, Dilraj Preet; Yamada, K; Park, Jin-Soo; Sekhon, S S


    Room temperature ionic liquid 2,3-dimethyl-1-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (DMHxImTFSI) has been synthesized and used in the preparation of polymer gel electrolytes containing polymethylmethacrylate and propylene carbonate (PC). The onset of ion diffusional motion has been studied by (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy and the results obtained for ionic liquid, liquid electrolytes, and polymer gel electrolytes have been correlated with the ionic conductivity results for these electrolytes in the 100-400 K temperature range. The temperature at which (1)H and (19)F NMR lines show motional narrowing and hence ion diffusional motion starts has been found to be closely related to the temperature at which a large increase in ionic conductivity has been observed for these electrolytes. Polymer gel electrolytes have high ionic conductivity over a wide range of temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the ionic liquid (DMHxImTFSI) used in the present study is thermally stable up to 400 degrees C, whereas the addition of PC lowers the thermal stability of polymer gel electrolytes containing the ionic liquid. Different electrolytes have been observed to show high ionic conductivity in different range of temperatures, which can be helpful in the design of polymer gel electrolytes for specific applications.

  19. Design and optimization of production parameters for boric acid crystals with the crystallization process in an MSMPR crystallizer using FBRM® and PVM® technologies (United States)

    Kutluay, Sinan; Şahin, Ömer; Ceyhan, A. Abdullah; İzgi, M. Sait


    In crystallization studies, newly developed technologies, such as Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM) and Particle Vision and Measurement (PVM) are applied for determining on-line monitoring of a representation of the Chord Length Distribution (CLD) and observe the photographs of crystals respectively; moreover recently they are widely used. Properly installed, the FBRM ensures on-line determination of the CLD, which is statistically associated to the Crystal Size Distribution (CSD). In industrial crystallization, CSD and mean crystal size as well as external habit and internal structure are important characteristics for further use of the crystals. In this paper, the effect of residence time, stirring speed, feeding rate, supersaturation level and the polyelectrolytes such as anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on the CLD as well as the shape of boric acid crystals were investigated by using the FBRM G600 and the PVM V819 probes respectively in an MSMPR (Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal) crystallizer. The CSD and kinetic data were determined experimentally using continuous MSMPR crystallizer running at steady state. The population density of nuclei, the nucleation rate and the growth rate were determined from the experimental population balance distribution when the steady state was reached.

  20. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T; Henderson, Wesley A; Israelachvili, Jacob N


    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force-distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion-surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high-free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends.

  1. Ionic liquid processing of cellulose. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D


    Utilization of natural polymers has attracted increasing attention because of the consumption and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources, such as coal and oil. The development of green processing of cellulose, the most abundant biorenewable material on Earth, is urgent from the viewpoints of both sustainability and environmental protection. The discovery of the dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs, salts which melt below 100 °C) provides new opportunities for the processing of this biopolymer, however, many fundamental and practical questions need to be answered in order to determine if this will ultimately be a green or sustainable strategy. In this critical review, the open fundamental questions regarding the interactions of cellulose with both the IL cations and anions in the dissolution process are discussed. Investigations have shown that the interactions between the anion and cellulose play an important role in the solvation of cellulose, however, opinions on the role of the cation are conflicting. Some researchers have concluded that the cations are hydrogen bonding to this biopolymer, while others suggest they are not. Our review of the available data has led us to urge the use of more chemical units of solubility, such as 'g cellulose per mole of IL' or 'mol IL per mol hydroxyl in cellulose' to provide more consistency in data reporting and more insight into the dissolution mechanism. This review will also assess the greenness and sustainability of IL processing of biomass, where it would seem that the choices of cation and anion are critical not only to the science of the dissolution, but to the ultimate 'greenness' of any process (142 references).

  2. Crystallization of Zr2PdxCu1-x and Zr2NixCu1-x Metallic Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Min [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    One interesting aspect of rretallic glasses is the numerous instances of the deviation of the phase selection from the amorphous state to thermodynamically stable phases during the crystallization process. Their devitrification pathways allow us to study the relationship between the original amorphous structure and their crystalline counter parts. Among the various factors of phase selections, size and electronic effects have been most extensively studied. Elucidating the phase selection process of a glassy alloy will be helpful to fill in the puzzle of the changes from disordered to ordered structures. In this thesis, Two model Zr2PdxCu1-x and Zr2NixCu1-x (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) glassy systems were investigated since: (1) All of the samples can be made into a homogenous metallic glass; (2) The atomic radii differ from Pd to Cu is by 11%, while Ni has nearly the identical atomic size compare to Cu. Moreover, Pd and Ni differ by only one valence electron from Cu. Thus, these systems are ideal to test the idea of the effects of electronic structure and size factors; (3) The small number of components in these pseudo binary systems readily lend themselves to theoretical modeling. Using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) and thermal analysis, topological, size, electronic, bond and chemical distribution factors on crystallization selections in Zr2PdxCu1-x and Zr2NixCu1-x metallic glass have been explored. All Zr2PdxCu1-x compositions share the same Cu11b phase with different pathways of meta-stable, icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase), and C16 phase formations. The quasicrystal phase formation is topologically related to the increasing icosahedral short range order (SRO) with Pd content in Zr2PdxCu1-x system. Meta-stable C16 phase is competitive with

  3. The law of constant rejection. [chemical bonding in crystals (United States)

    Philpotts, J. A.


    Improvements in analytical technique, study of multielement partitioning in natural systems, and improvements in ionic radius values have permitted construction of Onuma diagrams, in which the logarithm of partition coefficient is plotted versus ionic radius. The optimum radii, corresponding to crystallographic sites, do change in response to changes in major element composition for any particular mineral-type. In natural systems elements compete for sites rather than substituting for another element. It is proposed on empirical grounds, for equilibrium ionic bonding, that Onuma diagram curves for a particular lattice site are parabolic near optimum radius, linear elsewhere, parallel for different valences, and mirror images on opposite sides of optimum. Deviations may be due to overlapping peaks, liquid structure, polyvalence, bonding differences, contamination, kinetics, alteration, etc. However, dominant crystal-chemical control is indicated.

  4. Molecular Design of Polymerized Ionic Liquids (United States)

    Sanoja, Gabriel Eduardo

    Polymerized ionic liquids are an emerging class of functional materials with ionic liquid moieties covalently attached to a polymer backbone. As such, they synergistically combine the structural hierarchy of polymers with the versatile physicochemical properties of ionic liquids. Unlike other ion-containing polymers that are typically constrained to high glass transition temperatures, polymerized ionic liquids can exhibit low glass transition temperatures due to weak electrostatic interactions even at high charge fractions. Promising applications relevant to electrochemical energy conversion and CO2 capture and sequestration have been demonstrated for polymerized ionic liquids, but a molecular design strategy that allows for elucidation of their structure-property relationships is yet to be developed. A combination of anionic polymerization, click chemistry, and ion metathesis allows for fine and independent control over polymer properties including the number of repeat units, fraction of ionic liquid moieties, composition, and architecture. This strategy has been exploited to elucidate the effect of lamellar domain spacing on the ionic conductivity of block copolymers based on hydrated protic polymerized ionic liquids. The conductivity relationship demonstrated in this study suggests that a mechanically robust material can be designed without compromising its ability to transport ions. The vast set of ion pair combinations in polymerized liquids provides a unique opportunity to develop functional materials where properties can be controlled with subtle changes in molecular structure via ion metathesis. We illustrate the case of a polymerized ionic liquid that combines the low toxicity and macromolecular dimensions of poly(ethylene glycol) with the magnetic functionality of ion pairs containing iron(III). This material can yield novel theranostic agents with controlled residence time within the human body, and paramagnetic functionality to enhance 1H nuclei

  5. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field. (United States)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V


    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. The demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.

  6. Water Contaminant Mitigation in Ionic Liquid Propellant (United States)

    Conroy, David; Ziemer, John


    Appropriate system and operational requirements are needed in order to ensure mission success without unnecessary cost. Purity requirements applied to thruster propellants may flow down to materials and operations as well as the propellant preparation itself. Colloid electrospray thrusters function by applying a large potential to a room temperature liquid propellant (such as an ionic liquid), inducing formation of a Taylor cone. Ions and droplets are ejected from the Taylor cone and accelerated through a strong electric field. Electrospray thrusters are highly efficient, precise, scaleable, and demonstrate low thrust noise. Ionic liquid propellants have excellent properties for use as electrospray propellants, but can be hampered by impurities, owing to their solvent capabilities. Of foremost concern is the water content, which can result from exposure to atmosphere. Even hydrophobic ionic liquids have been shown to absorb water from the air. In order to mitigate the risks of bubble formation in feed systems caused by water content of the ionic liquid propellant, physical properties of the ionic liquid EMI-Im are analyzed. The effects of surface tension, material wetting, physisorption, and geometric details of the flow manifold and electrospray emitters are explored. Results are compared to laboratory test data.

  7. DHS Internship Summary-Crystal Assembly at Different Length Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, L


    I was part of a project in which in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor growth and dissolution of atomic and colloidal crystals. At both length scales, the chemical environment of the system greatly altered crystal growth and dissolution. Calcium phosphate was used as a model system for atomic crystals. A dissolution-reprecipitation reaction was observed in this first system, involving the conversion of brushite (DCPD) to octacalcium phosphate (OCP). In the second system, polymeric colloidal crystals were dissolved in an ionic solvent, revealing the underlying structure of the crystal. The dissolved crystal was then regrown through an evaporative step method. Recently, we have also found that colloids can be reversibly deposited in situ onto an ITO (indium tin oxide) substrate via an electrochemistry setup. The overall goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control crystallization and order, so that these might be controlled during material synthesis. Controlled assembly of materials over a range of length scales from molecules to nanoparticles to colloids is critical for designing new materials. In particular, developing materials for sensor applications with tailorable properties and long range order is important. In this work, we examine two of these length scales: small molecule crystallization of calcium phosphate (whose crystal phases include DCPD, OCP, and HAP) and colloidal crystallization of Poly(methyl methacrylate) beads. Atomic Force Microscopy is ideal for this line of work because it allows for the possibility of observing non-conducting samples in fluid during growth with high resolution ({approx} 10 nm). In fact, during atomic crystal growth one can observe changes in atomic steps, and with colloidal crystals, one can monitor the individual building blocks of the crystal. Colloids and atoms crystallize under the influence of different forces acting at different length scales as seen in Table 1

  8. Crystal structures of MBi{sub 2}Br{sub 7} (M = Rb, Cs) - filled variants of AX{sub 7} sphere packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jen-Hui; Wolff, Alexander [Fachrichtung Chemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Ruck, Michael [Fachrichtung Chemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)


    The reinvestigation of the pseudo-binary systems MBr-BiBr{sub 3} (M = Rb, Cs) revealed two new phases with composition MBi{sub 2}Br{sub 7}. Both compounds are hygroscopic and show brilliant yellow color. The crystal structures were solved from X-ray single crystal diffraction data. The isostructural compounds adopt a new structure type in the triclinic space group P anti 1. The lattice parameters are a = 755.68(3) pm, b = 952.56(3) pm, c = 1044.00(4) pm, α = 76.400(2) , β = 84.590(2) , γ = 76.652(2) for RbBi{sub 2}Br{sub 7} and a = 758.71(5) pm, b = 958.23(7) pm, c = 1060.24(7) pm, α = 76.194(3) , β = 83.844(4) , γ = 76.338(3) for CsBi{sub 2}Br{sub 7}. The crystal structures consist of M{sup +} cations in anticuboctahedral coordination by bromide ions and bromidobismuthate(III) layers {sup 2}{sub ∞}[Bi{sub 2}Br{sub 7}]{sup -}. The 2D layers comprise pairs of BiBr{sub 6} octahedra sharing a common edge. The Bi{sub 2}Br{sub 10} double octahedra are further connected by common vertices. The bismuth(III) atoms increase their mutual distance in the double octahedra by off-centering so that the BiBr{sub 6} octahedra are distorted. The CsBi{sub 2}Br{sub 7} type can be interpreted as a common hexagonal close sphere packing of M and Br atoms, in which 1/4 of the octahedral voids are filled by Bi atoms. The structure type was systematically analyzed and compared with alternative types of common packings. The existence of a compound with the suggested composition CsBiBr{sub 4} could not be verified experimentally. (Copyright copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Low severity coal conversion by ionic hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Maioriello, J.; Cheng, J.C.


    The work accomplished in this project will be reported in two parts. Part one will focus on the development of catalytic ionic hydrogenation reactions utilizing a transition metal-H{sub 2} complex as the hydride donor and BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O as proton donor. This part reports the results of prelimiary work leading to the development of a new catalytic ionic hydrogenation system (MeCN){sub 2}PtCl{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/BF{sub 3}: H{sub 2}O. The results from some of this work have been published and the paper is included as the appendix. The second part focuses on the newly developed catalytic and other well characterized ionic hydrogenation reactions applied to lignites (Beulah-Zap), sub-bitumiuous (Wyodak), and bituminous coals (Pittsburgh {number sign}8). 19 refs., 10 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE was used to extract uranium (VI from an aqueous solution in acetate media. The methodology used is based on the formation of uranyl-ionic liquid (I complexes and uranyl-D2EHPA soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100. The uranium (VI complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at ambient temperature. The ionic liquid (IL used as a chelating agent was synthesized and characterized in this study. It is composed of N-butyl N’-triethoxy methyl imidazolium cation and diethylhexylphosphate (D2EHPA-H as anion. The effect of the IL on the extraction efficiency was studied in presence and in absence of IL’s cation in acetate medium.

  11. Modeling the Shape of Ions in Pyrite-Type Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Birkholz


    Full Text Available The geometrical shape of ions in crystals and the concept of ionic radii are re-considered. The re-investigation is motivated by the fact that a spherical modelling is justified for p valence shell ions on cubic lattice sites only. For the majority of point groups, however, the ionic radius must be assumed to be an anisotropic quantity. An appropriate modelling of p valence ions then has to be performed by ellipsoids. The approach is tested for pyrite-structured dichalcogenides MX2, with chalcogen ions X = O, S, Se and Te. The latter are found to exhibit the shape of ellipsoids being compressed along the <111> symmetry axes, with two radii r|| and r⊥ describing their spatial extension. Based on this ansatz, accurate interatomic M–X distances can be derived and a consistent geometrical model emerges for pyrite-structured compounds. Remarkably, the volumes of chalcogen ions are found to vary only little in different MX2 compounds, suggesting the ionic volume rather than the ionic radius to behave as a crystal-chemical constant.

  12. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Balducci, Andrea


    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  13. Inadvertent intrathecal use of ionic contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leede, H. van der; Jorens, P.G. [Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Parizel, P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Cras, P. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium)


    Intrathecal administration of ionic contrast media may cause severe and fatal neurotoxic reactions due to their hyperosmolarity and ionic nature. They are therefore strictly contraindicated for all radiologic applications involving the central nervous system (e.g., myelography). We present a case in which ioxitalamate was accidentally injected intrathecally. The patient recovered completely due to a combination of the different therapeutic options reported in the literature, including early mechanical ventilation and neuromuscular paralysis, aggressive control of seizures, elevation of head and trunk to prevent cephalad migration of contrast, steroids, cerebrospinal fluid drainage and lavage and prophylactic antibiotics. (orig.)

  14. Ionic conductivity of rare earth doped phase stabilized Bi2O3: Effect of ionic radius (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Anirban, Sk.; Sinha, A.; Dutta, A.


    Nanostructured Bi2O3 was prepared through citrate auto ignition method and stabilized down to room temperature into rhombohedral phase by 30% doping of rare earth cations (Eu3+, Sm3+, Nd3+, La3+), which was experimentally confirmed by the XRD patterns of the doped compositions. The average crystallite size increases with increase of ionic radius. The ionic conductivity of the La-doped compound was found to be highest among other doped compounds. The change in structural and electrical properties were discussed and correlated with the ionic radius of the dopants.

  15. Physical Chemistry of Reaction Dynamics in Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroncelli, Mark [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Work completed over the past year mainly involves finishing studies related to solvation dynamics in ionic liquids, amplifying and extending our initial PFG-NMR work on solute diffusion, and learning how to probe rotational dynamics in ionic liquids.

  16. Applications of ionic liquids in polymer science and technology

    CERN Document Server


    This book summarizes the latest knowledge in the science and technology of ionic liquids and polymers in different areas. Ionic liquids (IL) are actively being investigated in polymer science and technology for a number of different applications. In the first part of the book the authors present the particular properties of ionic liquids as speciality solvents. The state-of-the art in the use of ionic liquids in polymer synthesis and modification reactions including polymer recycling is outlined. The second part focuses on the use of ionic liquids as speciality additives such as plasticizers or antistatic agents.  The third part examines the use of ionic liquids in the design of functional polymers (usually called polymeric ionic liquids (PIL) or poly(ionic liquids)). Many important applications in diverse scientific and industrial areas rely on these polymers, like polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, building blocks in materials science, nanocomposites, gas membranes, innovative anion sensitive...

  17. Crystallization process (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey


    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  18. Catalytic Ionic-Liquid Membranes: The Convergence of Ionic-Liquid Catalysis and Ionic-Liquid Membrane Separation Technologies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Bobbink, F.D.; Hulla, M.; Klepic, M.; Friess, K.; Hovorka, Š.; Dyson, P.J.


    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2018), s. 7-18 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00089S; GA ČR GA17-05421S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysis * ionic liquids * membranes Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2016

  19. Synthetic Organic Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids: The Viscosity Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Handy


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are obvious candidates for use in electrochemical applications due to their ionic character. Nevertheless, relatively little has been done to explore their application in electrosynthesis. We have studied the Shono oxidation of arylamines and carbamates using ionic liquids as recyclable solvents and have noted that the viscosity of the medium is a major problem, although with the addition of sufficient co-solvent, good results and excellent recovery and recycling of the ionic liquid can be achieved.

  20. Ionic liquid containing hydroxamate and N-alkyl sulfamate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan


    Embodiments of the invention are related to ionic liquids and more specifically to ionic liquids used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the ionic liquid includes a cation and an anion selected from hydroxamate and/or N-alkyl sulfamate anions.

  1. Ionic liquid based multifunctional double network gel (United States)

    Ahmed, Kumkum; Higashihara, Tomoya; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Toshio; Morinaga, Takashi; Sato, Takaya; Furukawa, Hidemitsu


    Gels are a promising class of soft and wet materials with diverse application in tissue engineering and bio-medical purpose. In order to accelerate the development of gels, it is required to synthesize multi-functional gels of high mechanical strength, ultra low surface friction and suitable elastic modulus with a variety of methods and new materials. Among many types of gel ionic gel made from ionic liquids (ILs) could be used for diverse applications in electrochemical devices and in the field of tribology. IL, a promising materials for lubrication, is a salt with a melting point lower than 100 °C. As a lubricant, ILs are characterized by an extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and high ion conductivity. In this work a novel approach of making double network DN ionic gel using IL has been made utilizing photo polymerization process. A hydrophobic monomer Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been used as a first network and a hydrophobic IL monomer, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-mthacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMM-TFSI) has been used as a second network using photo initiator benzophenon and crosslinker triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The resulting DN ionic gel shows transparency, flexibility, high thermal stability, good mechanical toughness and low friction coefficient value which can be a potential candidate as a gel slider in different mechanical devices and can open a new area in the field of gel tribology.

  2. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids (United States)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  3. Supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Wasserscheid, P.


    The concept of supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysis has been demonstrated for gas- and liquid-phase continuous fixed-bed reactions using rhodium phosphine catalyzed hydroformylation of propene and 1-octene as examples. The nature of the support had important influence on both the catalytic...

  4. Ionic-liquid based electrochemical ethylene sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, M.A.G.; Wouters, D.; Dam, V.-A.T.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.


    We present an electrochemical ethylene sensor that exploits a thin ionic-liquid (IL) layer as electrolyte. ILs are fluids that completely consist of ions at room temperature and have emerged as extremely promising electrolytes for the following reasons: first, the vapor pressure is practically

  5. Catalytic Alkene Metathesis in Ionic Liquids (United States)

    Fischmeister, Cédric

    Olefin metathesis has found a tremendous number of application in the past 25 years. Immobilisation of olefin metathesis (pre)catalysts in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) offers the opportunity to recover and reuse the catalyst and also to reduce the level of ruthenium (Ru) contaminants in the products.

  6. Neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in zebrafish. (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F


    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging model for integrative physiological research. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in this species, and identify current knowledge gaps and issues that would benefit from further investigation. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-ionic environment and therefore are challenged by a continual loss of ions to the water. To maintain ionic homeostasis, they must actively take up ions from the water and reduce passive ion loss. The adult gill or the skin of larvae are the primary sites of ionic regulation. Current models for the uptake of major ions in zebrafish incorporate at least three types of ion transporting cells (also called ionocytes); H(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Na(+) uptake, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Ca(2+) uptake, and Na(+)/Cl(-)-cotransporter expressing cells for both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. The precise molecular mechanisms regulating the paracellular loss of ions remain largely unknown. However, epithelial tight junction proteins, including claudins, are thought to play a critical role in reducing ion losses to the surrounding water. Using the zebrafish model, several key neuroendocrine factors were identified as regulators of epithelial ion movement, including the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), cortisol, the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone and prolactin. Increasing evidence also suggests that gasotransmitters, such as H2S, are involved in regulating ion uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics for a multicomponent ionic mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvati, G.A.Q.; Suttorp, L.G.


    The magnetohydrodynamical equations for a multi-component magnetized ionic mixture are used to derive the spectrum of collective modes for small wavenumbers. The results are compared with those from formal kinetic theory, which is based on the microscopic balance equations and a projection-operator

  8. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li


    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy

  9. Low Frequency Mechanical Spectroscopy Study of Three Pyrrolidinium Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trequattrini F.


    Full Text Available In this work we present our recent results on three ionic liquids (ILs, which share bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide (TFSI as anion and have different pyrrolidinium based cations. By means of a combination of mechanical spectroscopy and thermal analysis, many of the physical processes occurring during cooling down from the liquid phase, can be studied. Depending both on the diverse cation and the different thermal history, crystallization from the melt or glass transition, cold-crystallization, solid-solid phase transitions and thermally activated processes are observed. In one of the ILs, which could be easily undercooled, a prominent thermally activated peak could be observed above the glass transition. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time is approximated by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation, as usual for fragile glass forming liquids, and the apparent activation energy of W = 0.36 eV with a pre-exponential factor of the relaxation time τ0 = 1.7 · 10−13s were derived supposing jumps between asymmetrical potential wells. The kinetics of the crystallization processes have been studied in the framework of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theory and the Avrami parameters have been derived for both the crystallization from the melt and for the cold crystallization observed on heating.

  10. Multimodal porous carbon derived from ionic liquids: correlation between pore sizes and ionic clusters. (United States)

    Jeong, Jun Hui; Lee, Je Seung; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum


    In this proof of concept study on the synthesis of ionic liquid (IL)-derived multimodal porous carbon using ionic clusters of different sizes as porogens, the carbonization behaviors of binary IL mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-dca) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIM-Tf 2 N) were systematically investigated to demonstrate the formation of multimodal porous carbons with hierarchical structures originating from the ionic cluster porogens. The multimodal porous structures of the resulting IL-derived porous carbons were characterized based on the quenched solid density functional theory, and the role of the ionic clusters as porogens is discussed. From the viewpoint of green and sustainable chemistry, the IL-based synthesis using ionic clusters as porogens is a simple, effective, and sustainable technique for synthesizing multimodal porous carbons with hierarchical structures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that a multimodal porous structure of IL-derived porous carbons could be systematically manipulated with the aid of ionic clusters of different sizes as porogens.

  11. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu


    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-x Y x O3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  12. Effects of ionic liquid to water ratio as a composite medium for the synthesis of LiFePO4 for battery (United States)

    Tith, Rany; Dutta, Jaydeep; Jung, Kichang; Martinez-Morales, Alfredo A.


    LiFePO4 is a highly researched cathode material that serves as an alternative material for traditional commercial lithiumion batteries such as LiCoO2. Currently, there are a number of different methods to synthesize LiFePO4 including: hydrothermal, solid state, spray pyrolysis, and coprecipitation. Our proposed method has the potential to provide an ecologically friendly and economically competitive way to synthesize LiFePO4 by utilizing ionic liquid and water, as a composite synthesis medium. The addition of water to ionic liquid can be beneficial as it can act as a mineralizer to bring insoluble precursors to form LiFePO4 seed crystals. Furthermore, this method provides the possibility of recycling the ionic liquid for repeated synthesis processes. In this work, we study the effects of ionic liquid to water ratio on the crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized material. Our group was able to conclude a reaction medium utilizing a ratio of equal parts of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate (EMIM Otf) and water, or a slightly favored ionic liquid ratio, increases the efficacy of the synthesis route. Crystallinity and purity was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine morphology and crystal sizes, and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDX) was used for elemental analysis.

  13. The Heck Reaction in Ionic Liquids: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bellina


    Full Text Available As the interest for environmental increases and environmental laws become more stringent, the need to replace existing processes with new more sustainable technologies becomes a primary objective. The use of ionic liquids to replace organic solvents in metal catalyzed reactions has recently gained much attention and great progress has been accomplished in this area in the last years. This paper reviews the recent developments in the application of ionic liquids and related systems (supported ionic liquids, ionic polymers, and so on in the Heck reaction. Merits and achievements of ionic liquids were analyzed and discussed considering the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of industrial processes.

  14. A DFT investigation on interactions between lignin and ionic liquids (United States)

    Wang, Ju; Shi, Xiaoqin; Du, Xihua; Cao, Weiliang


    The interactions of the lignin model, the lignin oligomer with degree of polymerization n = 2, with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid were investigated through DFT calculations in detail. Computational results revealed that lignin dissolution in ionic liquids should be a result of the joint interactions of lignin with anion and cation of ionic liquid, and the formation of ion pair weakens the interactions between lignin and ionic liquid components. Unlike the dominant H-bonds within the lignin-anion interactions, the lignin-cation interactions involve a combination of hydrogen bond and π-stacking. These results would provide mechanistic insights and suggestions for lignocellulosic dissolution in ionic liquids.

  15. Large-pore mesoporous Mn3O4 crystals derived from metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Peng, Li; Zhang, Jianling; Xue, Zhimin; Han, Buxing; Li, Jianshen; Yang, Guanying


    The large-pore mesoporous Mn3O4 crystals with tunable morphologies, size and porosities were synthesized via the conversion of metal-organic frameworks, which were fabricated by utilizing the nanostructural organizations of ionic liquid-water mixtures as templates. Mn3O4 showed high catalytic activity for the degradation of methyl blue in the wastewater treatment.

  16. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture. (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang


    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  17. Interactions in ion pairs of protic ionic liquids: Comparison with aprotic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji, E-mail: [Research Initiative of Computational Sciences (RICS), Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shinoda, Wataru [Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Miran, Md. Shah; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)


    The stabilization energies for the formation (E{sub form}) of 11 ion pairs of protic and aprotic ionic liquids were studied by MP2/6-311G{sup **} level ab initio calculations to elucidate the difference between the interactions of ions in protic ionic liquids and those in aprotic ionic liquids. The interactions in the ion pairs of protic ionic liquids (diethylmethylammonium [dema] and dimethylpropylammonium [dmpa] based ionic liquids) are stronger than those of aprotic ionic liquids (ethyltrimethylammonium [etma] based ionic liquids). The E{sub form} for the [dema][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] and [dmpa][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] complexes (−95.6 and −96.4 kcal/mol, respectively) are significantly larger (more negative) than that for the [etma][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] complex (−81.0 kcal/mol). The same trend was observed for the calculations of ion pairs of the three cations with the Cl{sup −}, BF{sub 4}{sup −}, TFSA{sup −} anions. The anion has contact with the N–H bond of the dema{sup +} or dmpa{sup +} cations in the most stable geometries of the dema{sup +} and dmpa{sup +} complexes. The optimized geometries, in which the anions locate on the counter side of the cations, are 11.0–18.0 kcal/mol less stable, which shows that the interactions in the ions pairs of protic ionic liquids have strong directionality. The E{sub form} for the less stable geometries for the dema{sup +} and dmpa{sup +} complexes are close to those for the most stable etma{sup +} complexes. The electrostatic interaction, which is the major source of the attraction in the ion pairs, is responsible for the directionality of the interactions and determining the magnitude of the interaction energy. Molecular dynamic simulations of the [dema][TFSA] and [dmpa][TFSA] ionic liquids show that the N–H bonds of the cations have contact with the negatively charged (oxygen and nitrogen) atoms of TFSA{sup −} anion, while the strong directionality of the interactions was not suggested from the simulation

  18. Structure, ionic conductivity and mobile carrier density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Wenlong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M2S + (0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2 was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M2S + (0.1Ga2S3 + 0.9 GeS2) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na2S + B2S3 (x ≤ 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction

  19. Hydrogen production from glucose in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenbaum, D.W.; Taccardi, N.; Berger, M.E.M.; Boesmann, A.; Enzenberger, F.; Woelfel, R.; Wasserscheid, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer chemische Reaktionstechnik


    technologies suffer from the fact that the overall reaction rates are often restricted by mass and heat transport problems. Lastly, there are severe limitations concerning the feedstock selection as for some important substrates, such as e.g. glucose, the process can only be operated in very diluted systems to avoid rapid tar formation [22,23,24]. In this contribution we describe for the first time a catalytic reaction system producing hydrogen from glucose in astonishingly high selectivities using a single reaction step under very mild conditions. The catalytic reaction system is characterized by its homogeneous nature and comprises a Ru-complex catalyst dissolved and stabilized in an ionic liquid medium. Ionic liquids are salts of melting points below 100 C [25]. These liquid materials have attracted much interest in the last decade as solvents for catalytic reactions [26] and separation technologies (extraction, distillation) [27,28,29,30,31,32]. Besides, these liquids have found industrial applications as process fluids for mechanic [33] and electrochemical applications [34]. Finally, from the pioneering work of Rogers and co-workers, it is known that ionic liquids are able to dissolve significant amounts of water-insoluble biopolymers (such as e.g. cellulose and chitin)[35] and even complex biopolymer mixtures, such as e.g. wood, have been completely dissolved in some ionic liquids [36]. In our specific application, the role of the ionic liquid is threefold: a) the ionic liquid dissolves the carbohydrate starting material thus expanding the range of applicable carbohydrate to water insoluble polymers; b) the ionic liquid provides a medium to dissolve and stabilize the catalyst; c) the ionic liquid dissolves hydrogen at a very low level, so inhibiting any possible collateral hydrogen-consuming process (detailed investigation of the hydrogen solubility in ionic liquids have been reported by e.g. Brennecke and coworkers [37]). (orig.)

  20. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science]. (United States)

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang


    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials.

  1. Local Order-Disorder Transition Driving by Structural Heterogeneity in a Benzyl Functionalized Ionic Liquid. (United States)

    Faria, Luiz F O; Paschoal, Vitor H; Lima, Thamires A; Ferreira, Fabio F; Freitas, Rafael S; Ribeiro, Mauro C C


    A local order-disorder transition has been disclosed in the thermophysical behavior of the ionic liquid 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, [Bzmim][N(CN)2], and its microscopic nature revealed by spectroscopic techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry and specific heat measurements show a thermal event of small enthalpy variation taking place in the range 250-260 K, which is not due to crystallization or melting. Molecular dynamic simulations and X-ray diffraction measurements have been used to discuss the segregation of domains in the liquid structure of [Bzmim][N(CN)2]. Raman and NMR spectroscopy measurements as a function of temperature indicate that the microscopic origin of the event observed in the calorimetric measurements comes from structural rearrangement involving the benzyl group. The results indicate that the characteristic structural heterogeneity allow for rearrangements within local domains implying the good glass-forming ability for the low viscosity ionic liquid [Bzmim][N(CN)2]. This work sheds light on our understanding of the microscopic origin behind complex thermal behavior of ionic liquids.

  2. Structural and electrochemical properties of succinonitrile-based gel polymer electrolytes: role of ionic liquid addition. (United States)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S A


    Experimental studies on the novel compositions of gel polymer electrolytes, comprised of plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN) dispersed with pyrrolidinium and imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) entrapped in a host polymer poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), are reported. The gel electrolytes are in the form of free-standing films with excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical stability. The introduction of even a small content (~1 wt %) of ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMITf) in the PVdF-HFP/SN system (1:4 w/w) enhances the electrical conductivity by 4 orders of magnitude, that is, from ~10(-7) to ~10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The structural changes due to the entrapment of SN or SN/ILs mixtures and ion-SN-polymer interactions are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimmetry (DSC). Various physicochemical properties and fast ion conduction in the gel polymer membranes show their promising characteristics as electrolytes in different ionic devices including supercapacitors.

  3. Self-segregated nanostructure in room temperature ionic liquids. (United States)

    Pontoni, Diego; Haddad, Julia; Di Michiel, Marco; Deutsch, Moshe


    The nanosegregated bulk structure, and its evolution with the cation's alkyl length n, are studied by X-ray scattering for an unprecedentedly broad homologous series of a model room-temperature ionic liquid, [CnMIM][NTf2] (n = 4-22). A tri-periodic local structure is found, with the lateral periodicities, dII and dIII independent of n, and a longitudinal one, dI, linearly increasing with n. The results are consistent with a local structure comprising alternating layers of polar headgroups and apolar, interdigitated, partly overlapping, cations' alkyl tails, of an average macroscopic mass density close to that of liquid alkanes. A slope decrease in the linear dI(n) suggests a change from a lower to a higher rate of increase with n of chain overlap for n ≥ 12. The order decay lengths of the layering, and of the lateral chain packing, increase with n, as expected from the increasing van der Waals interaction's domination of the structure. The headgroups' lateral packing decay length decreases with n, due to increasing frustration between the longer lateral periodicity preferred by the headgroups, and the shorter lateral periodicity preferred by the chains. A comparison of the bulk and surface structures highlights the surface's ordering effect, which, however, does not induce here a surface phase different from the bulk, as it does in liquid crystals and liquid alkanes.

  4. Preparation of polyoxometalates in ionic liquids by ionothermal synthesis. (United States)

    Lin, Shiwei; Liu, Wenli; Li, Yangguang; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Enbo; Zhang, Zhiming


    Ionothermal synthesis was applied to the formation of polyoxometalates (POMs) and two new compounds [EMIM](8)Na(9)[WFe(9)(micro(3)-O)(3)(micro(2)-OH)(6)O(4)H(2)O(SiW(9)O(34))(3)].7H(2)O (, [EMIM](8)Na(9)[].7H(2)O, EMIM = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [EMIM](4)[SiMo(12)O(40)].12H(2)O (), have been successfully produced in the ionic liquid (IL) [EMIM](4)Br. They were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and TG analysis. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of and the electrochemical properties of were studied. is a high-nuclear transition metal substituted polyoxometalate (TMSP) and the unprecedented polyoxoanion of is composed of three [alpha-SiW(9)O(34)](10-) Keggin moieties connected by a {WFe(9)} cluster core. is a heteropolyoxometalate with the polyoxoanion of alpha-Keggin type.

  5. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang


    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  6. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY


    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  7. Quartz dissolution. I - Negative crystal experiments and a rate law. II - Theory of rough and smooth surfaces (United States)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Bird, Peter


    The range of the measured quartz dissolution rates, as a function of temperature and pOH, extent of saturation, and ionic strength, is extended to cover a wider range of solution chemistries, using the negative crystal methodology of Gratz et al. (1990) to measure the dissolution rate. A simple rate law describing the quartz dissolution kinetics above the point of zero charge of quartz is derived for ionic strengths above 0.003 m. Measurements were performed on some defective crystals, and the mathematics of step motion was developed for quartz dissolution and was compared with rough-face behavior using two different models.

  8. Task-specific microextractions using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qichao; Anderson, Jared L. [University of Toledo, Department of Chemistry, Toledo, OH (United States)


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been the focus of many scientific investigations including the field of analytical microextractions. ILs have many advantages over traditional organic solvents making them excellent candidates as extraction media for a variety of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design and make-up can be tuned to impart desired functionality for enhancement of analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides a brief overview of ionic liquids and highlights trends in three important sample-preparation techniques, namely, single drop microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in terms of performing task-specific extractions using these highly versatile solvents. (orig.)

  9. Ion density deviations in semipermeable ionic microcapsules. (United States)

    Tang, Qiyun; Denton, Alan R


    By implementing the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory in a cell model, we theoretically investigate the influence of polyelectrolye gel permeability on ion densities and pH deviations inside the cavities of ionic microcapsules. Our calculations show that variations in permeability of a charged capsule shell cause a redistribution of ion densities within the capsule, which ultimately affects the pH deviation and Donnan potential induced by the electric field of the shell. We find that semipermeable capsules can induce larger pH deviations inside their cavities that can permeable capsules. Furthermore, with increasing capsule charge, the influence of permeability on pH deviations progressively increases. Our theory, while providing a self-consistent method for modeling the influence of permeability on fundamental properties of ionic microgels, makes predictions of practical significance for the design of microcapsules loaded with fluorescent dyes, which can serve as biosensors for diagnostic purposes.

  10. Computationally Efficient Prediction of Ionic Liquid Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.


    Due to fundamental differences, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) are significantly more viscous than conventional molecular liquids and require long simulation times. At the same time, RTILs remain in the liquid state over a much broader temperature range than the ordinary liquids. We exploit...... the ability of RTILs to stay liquid at several hundred degrees Celsius and introduce a straightforward and computationally efficient method for predicting RTIL properties at ambient temperature. RTILs do not alter phase behavior at 600-800 K. Therefore, their properties can be smoothly extrapolated down...... to ambient temperatures. We numerically prove the validity of the proposed concept for density and ionic diffusion of four different RTILs. This simple method enhances the computational efficiency of the existing simulation approaches as applied to RTILs by more than an order of magnitude....

  11. Nontoxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications (United States)

    Coil, Millicent


    The toxicity of propellants used in conventional propulsion systems increases not only safety risks to personnel but also costs, due to special handling required during the entire lifetime of the propellants. Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has developed and tested novel nontoxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. In Phase I of the project, the company demonstrated the feasibility of several ionic liquid formulations that equaled the performance of conventional rocket propellant monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and also provided low volatility and low toxicity. In Phase II, ORBITEC refined the formulations, conducted material property tests, and investigated combustion behavior in droplet and microreactor experiments. The company also explored the effect of injector design on performance and demonstrated the fuels in a small-scale thruster. The ultimate goal is to replace propellants such as MMH with fuels that are simultaneously high-performance and nontoxic. The fuels will have uses in NASA's propulsion applications and also in a range of military and commercial functions.

  12. The crystal chemistry of inorganic metal borohydrides and their relation to metal oxides. (United States)

    Černý, Radovan; Schouwink, Pascal


    The crystal structures of inorganic homoleptic metal borohydrides are analysed with respect to their structural prototypes found amongst metal oxides in the inorganic databases such as Pearson's Crystal Data [Villars & Cenzual (2015). Pearson's Crystal Data. Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic Compounds, Release 2014/2015, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA]. The coordination polyhedra around the cations and the borohydride anion are determined, and constitute the basis of the structural systematics underlying metal borohydride chemistry in various frameworks and variants of ionic packing, including complex anions and the packing of neutral molecules in the crystal. Underlying nets are determined by topology analysis using the program TOPOS [Blatov (2006). IUCr CompComm. Newsl. 7, 4-38]. It is found that the Pauling rules for ionic crystals apply to all non-molecular borohydride crystal structures, and that the latter can often be derived by simple deformation of the close-packed anionic lattices c.c.p. and h.c.p., by partially removing anions and filling tetrahedral or octahedral sites. The deviation from an ideal close packing is facilitated in metal borohydrides with respect to the oxide due to geometrical and electronic considerations of the BH4(-) anion (tetrahedral shape, polarizability). This review on crystal chemistry of borohydrides and their similarity to oxides is a contribution which should serve materials engineers as a roadmap to design new materials, synthetic chemists in their search for promising compounds to be prepared, and materials scientists in understanding the properties of novel materials.

  13. Is Geometric Frustration-Induced Disorder a Recipe for High Ionic Conductivity? (United States)

    Düvel, Andre; Heitjans, Paul; Fedorov, Pavel; Scholz, Gudrun; Cibin, Giannantonio; Chadwick, Alan V; Pickup, David M; Ramos, Silvia; Sayle, Lewis W L; Sayle, Emma K L; Sayle, Thi X T; Sayle, Dean C


    transport in glassy materials is well documented [for example, J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 138 , 12A538 ]. Possible crystallographic nomenclatures, to be used to describe long-range order in disordered systems, may include, for example, the shape, length, and branching of the "snake" arrays. Such characterizations may ultimately provide insight and differences between long-range order in disordered, amorphous, or liquid states and processes such as ionic conductivity, melting, and crystallization.

  14. Improved ionic conductivity of lithium-zinc-tellurite glass-ceramic electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widanarto

    Full Text Available An enhancement in the secondary battery safety demands the optimum synthesis of glass-ceramics electrolytes with modified ionic conductivity. To achieve improved ionic conductivity and safer operation of the battery, we synthesized Li2O included zinc-tellurite glass-ceramics based electrolytes of chemical composition (85-xTeO2·xLi2O·15ZnO, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%. Samples were prepared using the melt quenching method at 800 °C followed by thermal annealing at 320 °C for 3 h and characterized. The effects of varying temperature, alternating current (AC frequency and Li2O concentration on the structure and ionic conductivity of such glass-ceramics were determined. The SEM images of the annealed glass-ceramic electrolytes displayed rough surface with a uniform distribution of nucleated crystal flakes with sizes less than 1 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the well crystalline nature of achieved electrolytes. Incorporation of Li2O in the electrolytes was found to generate some new crystalline phases including hexagonal Li6(TeO6, monoclinic Zn2Te3O8 and monoclinic Li2Te2O5. The estimated crystallite size of the electrolyte was ranged from ≈40 to 80 nm. AC impedance measurement revealed that the variation in the temperatures, Li2O contents, and high AC frequencies have a significant influence on the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes. Furthermore, electrolyte doped with 15 mol% of Li2O exhibited the optimum performance with an ionic conductivity ≈2.4 × 10−7 S cm−1 at the frequency of 54 Hz and in the temperature range of 323–473 K. This enhancement in the conductivity was attributed to the sizable alteration in the ions vibration and ruptures of covalent bonds in the electrolytes network structures. Keywords: Zinc-tellurite, Glass-ceramics, X-ray diffraction, Ionic conductivity, Lithium oxide


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    has all the characteristics associated with the reaction of CysF9(93)β, a sulphydryl group that is invariant in all mammalian haemoglobins. The slow kinetic phase is assigned to CysH3(125)β. Quantitative analysis of the pH dependence of kapp for this phase at 50 mM ionic strength gave an unusually low pKa of 6.0 for this ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    dependence of kapp for this phase at 50 mM ionic strength gave an unusually low pKa of 6.0 for this sulphydryl group. Published data on guinea pig haemoglobin show that it has a much-enhanced acid Bohr effect compared to human haemoglobin. This indicates that CysH3(125)β functions as an acid Bohr group in guinea ...

  17. The nature of criticality in ionic fluids (United States)

    Fisher, Michael E.


    Experiments on critical behaviour in certain electrolytes pose puzzling theoretical challenges. Some recent progress by the author and his co-workers in meeting these challenges through the study of the restricted primitive model (hard spheres carrying charges 0953-8984/8/47/002/img1) is summarized briefly. However, basic questions regarding the universality class(es) of ionic criticality and the factors determining cross-over from mean-field to Ising behaviour remain unresolved.

  18. Electrical screening procedure for solid ionic conductors (United States)

    Kautz, H. E.; Singer, J.; Fielder, W. L.; Fordyce, J. S.


    An electrical screening method has been developed for preliminary evaluation of polycrystalline specimens of candidates for use as solid ionic conductive electrolytes in batteries. The procedure measures dielectric loss and capacitance, from which are calculated an ac conductivity attributed provisionally to ions and an activation energy for that conductivity. Electronic conductivity is directly measured. The screening procedure applied to sodium beta-alumina yielded acceptable values for conductivity and activation energy.

  19. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.


    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  20. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.


    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  1. Supported ionic liquids fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco


    This unique book gives a timely overview about the fundamentals and applications of supported ionic liquids in modern organic synthesis. It introduces the concept and synthesis of SILP materials and presents important applications in the field of catalysis (e.g. hydroformylation, hydrogenation, coupling reactions, fine chemical synthesis) as well as energy technology and gas separation. Written by pioneers in the field, this book is an invaluable reference book for organic chemists in academia or industry.

  2. Ionic Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticle Suspensions: A Novel Class of Ionogels

    KAUST Repository

    Moganty, Surya S.


    We report a novel class of silica ionogels created by dispersing silica nanoparticles densely grafted with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-trimethoxysilyl propyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis- (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (SpmImTSFI) in a 1-butyl-3- methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BmpyrTFSI) IL host. We find that over the entire range of nanoparticle volume fractions studied the systems exist as stable suspensions of SiO 2-SpmImTFSI in the BmpyrTFSI host. Remarkably, we also find that addition of even minute quantities of SiO 2-SpmImTFSI to the BmpyrTFSI IL suppresses crystallization of the host. The resulting disordered hybrid fluids exhibit liquid-like transport properties over a vastly extended temperature range; they open the way for facile synthesis of ILs with extended operating temperature windows. These observations are explained in terms of ionic coupling of the nanoparticle-tethered and free TFSI anions, which is thought to suppress crystallization of BmpyrTFSI. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. An ionic electro-active actuator made with graphene film electrode, chitosan and ionic liquid (United States)

    He, Qingsong; Yu, Min; Yang, Xu; Kim, Kwang Jin; Dai, Zhendong


    A newly developed ionic electro-active actuator composed of an ionic electrolyte layer sandwiched between two graphene film layers was investigated. Scanning electronic microscopy observation and x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the graphene sheets in the film stacked in a nearly face-to-face fashion but did not restack back to graphite, and the resulting graphene film with low sheet resistance (10 Ω sq-1) adheres well to the electrolyte membrane. Contact angle measurement showed the surface energy (37.98 mJ m-2) of the ionic electrolyte polymer is 2.67 times higher than that (14.2 mJ m-2) of the Nafion membrane, contributing to the good adhesion between the graphene film electrode and the electrolyte membrane. An electric double-layer is formed at the interface between the graphene film electrode and the ionic electrolyte membrane under the input potential, resulting in a higher capacitance of 27.6 mF cm-2. We report that this ionic actuator exhibits adequate bending strain, ranging from 0.032 to 0.1% (305 to 945 μm) as functions of voltage.

  4. Canopy Dynamics in Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.


    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMS) are organic - inorganic hybrids in which a core nanostructure is functionalized with a covalently attached corona and an ionically tethered organic canopy. NIMS are engineered to be liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and are of interest for a variety of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulse-field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments to measure the canopy dynamics of NIMS prepared from 18-nm silica cores modified by an alkylsilane monolayer possessing terminal sulfonic acid functionality, paired with an amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer canopy. Carbon NMR studies show that the block copolymer canopy is mobile both in the bulk and in the NIMS and that the fast (ns) dynamics are insensitive to the presence of the silica nanoparticles. Canopy diffusion in the NIMS is slowed relative to the neat canopy, but not to the degree predicted from the diffusion of hard-sphere particles. Canopy diffusion is not restricted to the surface of the nanoparticles and shows unexpected behavior upon addition of excess canopy. Taken together, these data indicate that the liquid-like behavior in NIMS is due to rapid exchange of the block copolymer canopy between the ionically modified nanoparticles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Ionic-Functionalized Polymeric Microporous Materials (United States)

    Rukmani, Shalini J.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga; Hart, Kyle; Colina, Coray

    Ionic-functionalized microporous materials are attractive for gas adsorption and separation applications. In this study, we investigate the effect of changing ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Mg2+) on the porosity, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas adsorption, and selectivity in ionic functionalized polymers of intrinsic microporosity (IonomIMs). Structure generation and gas adsorption are studied using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations respectively. The IonomIMs show an enhanced performance for CO2 selectivity in CO2 /CH4 and CO2 /N2 gas mixtures at pressure swing adsorption and vacuum swing adsorption conditions. For 100% ionic concentration, ions with the same charge show a decrease in the adsorption capacity with increasing cation size. Mg2+ has the highest pure CO2 adsorption and lowest mixed gas separation performance. The increasing concentration of ions decreases the porosity of the framework and increases the tunability of structural and adsorption properties. Hence, the concentration of ions, size, and charge play a vital role in determining the optimum adsorbent for a targeted industrial application.

  6. Thermoluminescence response of a mixed ternary alkali halide crystals exposed to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Vazquez P, G.; Riveros, H. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez M, P., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Ionic crystals, mainly alkali halide crystals have been the subject of intense research for a better understanding of the luminescence properties of defects induced by ionizing radiation. The defects in crystals can be produced in appreciable concentration due to elastic stresses, radiation, and addition of impurities. These defects exhibit remarkable thermoluminescence properties. This work is concerned with the Tl properties of a ternary alkali halide crystal after being irradiated with gamma and beta rays. It has been found that the Tl glow peak of the crystal follows a rule of average associated to the Tl Temperatures of the components of the mixture, similarly to the response of europium doped binary mixed crystals KCl{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x} and KBr{sub x}RbBr{sub 1-x}. (Author)

  7. Ion exchange on mixed ionic forms of montmorillonite at high ionic strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W. J.; Shiao, S. Y.; Meyer, R. E.; Westmoreland, C. G.; Lietzke, M. H.


    This paper summarizes studies of the distribution of sodium and calcium ions between a common clay, montmorillonite, as well as several other clays, and a series of solutions of constant total ionic strength (I) with varying ionic strength fraction of sodium. Distribution coefficients D for Na(I) and Ca(II) were determined by batch equilibrations using isotope dilutions with radioactive tracers. Equilibrium quotients (K/GAMMA) for the exchange of sodium and calcium were then calculated and the effects of solution composition, of solution phase activity coefficients, of ionic strength, of degree of purification, and of source of clay were investigated. Equilibrium quotients with adjustment for solution-phase activity coefficients did not vary greatly with I, except at low loading of sodium on the calcium form of montmorillonite, where D/sub Na/ became anomalously high. Values of K/GAMMA for illite and attapulgite were within an order of magnitude of those for montmorillonite.

  8. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.


    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  10. Positrons, Positronium, Positron and Positronium Complexes in Crystal. Features of Their Properties in Phonon Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene P. Prokopev


    Full Text Available The article, Basing on the example of ionic crystals shows that polarization of crystal framework by oppositely charged polarons (positronium atom (ps invokes the change of positronium binding energy and leads to the renormalization of electron and positron effective masses as well. Such interaction of electron and positronium atom of positron with optical phonons leads to additional repelling interaction, besides coulomb attractive. Furthermore, the existence of positronium atom with major and minor radius is possible in the atmosphere of crystal phonons.

  11. Crystal growth and mechanical hardness of In{sub 2}Se{sub 2.7}Sb{sub 0.3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Piyush, E-mail:; Vyas, S. M., E-mail:; Patel, Vimal; Pavagadhi, Himanshu [Department of Physics, School of Science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India-380009 (India); Solanki, Mitesh [panditdindayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar. Gujarat (India); Jani, Maunik P. [BITS Edu Campus, Varnama, Vadodara, Gujarat (India)


    The III-VI compound semiconductors is important for the fabrication of ionizing radiation detectors, solid-state electrodes, and photosensitive heterostructures, solar cell and ionic batteries. In this paper, In{sub 2}Se{sub 2.7} Sb{sub 0.3} single crystals were grown by the Bridgman method with temperature gradient of 60 °C/cm and the growth velocity 0.5cm/hr. The as-grown crystals were examined under the optical microscope for surface study, a various growth features observed on top free surface of the single crystal which is predominant of layers growth mechanism. The lattice parameters of as-grown crystal was determined by the XRD analysis. A Vickers’ projection microscope were used for the study of microhardness on the as-cleaved, cold-worked and annealed samples of the crystals, the results were discussed, and reported in detail.

  12. Origin of fast ion diffusion in super-ionic conductors (United States)

    He, Xingfeng; Zhu, Yizhou; Mo, Yifei


    Super-ionic conductor materials have great potential to enable novel technologies in energy storage and conversion. However, it is not yet understood why only a few materials can deliver exceptionally higher ionic conductivity than typical solids or how one can design fast ion conductors following simple principles. Using ab initio modelling, here we show that fast diffusion in super-ionic conductors does not occur through isolated ion hopping as is typical in solids, but instead proceeds through concerted migrations of multiple ions with low energy barriers. Furthermore, we elucidate that the low energy barriers of the concerted ionic diffusion are a result of unique mobile ion configurations and strong mobile ion interactions in super-ionic conductors. Our results provide a general framework and universal strategy to design solid materials with fast ionic diffusion.

  13. Ionic liquids for addressing unmet needs in healthcare. (United States)

    Agatemor, Christian; Ibsen, Kelly N; Tanner, Eden E L; Mitragotri, Samir


    Advances in the field of ionic liquids have opened new applications beyond their traditional use as solvents into other fields especially healthcare. The broad chemical space, rich with structurally diverse ions, and coupled with the flexibility to form complementary ion pairs enables task-specific optimization at the molecular level to design ionic liquids for envisioned functions. Consequently, ionic liquids now are tailored as innovative solutions to address many problems in medicine. To date, ionic liquids have been designed to promote dissolution of poorly soluble drugs and disrupt physiological barriers to transport drugs to targeted sites. Also, their antimicrobial activity has been demonstrated and could be exploited to prevent and treat infectious diseases. Metal-containing ionic liquids have also been designed and offer unique features due to incorporation of metals. Here, we review application-driven investigations of ionic liquids in medicine with respect to current status and future potential.

  14. Theoretical study on interactions between lignocellulose components and ionic liquids (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhuang, W. C.; Shi, X. Q.; Cao, W. L.


    Interactions between lignocellulose and ionic liquids have been studied by designed lignocellulose components models, and their complexes with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. All the structures were optimized by DFT methods and hydrogen bonds within lignocelluloses components, and their complexes with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride were investigated by AIM calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that when dissolved in ionic liquids, the stable intermolecular hydrogen bonds and weak π-stacking interactions between ionic liquids and lignocelluloses components reduce the energy of complex systems, which are advantageous for lignocelluloses components dissolution in ionic liquids. Moreover, there are deformation accrued for both lignocelluloses components and ionic liquids, which may be a prerequisite for lignocelluloses components dissolution in ionic liquids.

  15. Aerobic, catalytic oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Roberto F. de


    Full Text Available An efficient and simple catalytic system based on RuCl3 dissolved in ionic liquids has been developed for the oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones under mild conditions. A new fluorinated ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate, was synthesized and demonstrated better performance that the other ionic liquids employed. Moreover this catalytic system utilizes molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent, producing water as the only by-product.

  16. Fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids with high oxygen solubility


    Vanhoutte, Gijs; Hojniak, Sandra; Bardé, Fanny; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan


    Eight fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids were synthesized and the oxygen solubility was compared to commercial ionic liquids without the extra fluorinated chain. The concentration of dissolved oxygen increased with the fluorine content of the alkyl chain, which can be attached either to the cation or the anion. This approach maintains the freedom to design an ionic liquid for a specific application, while at the same time the oxygen solubility is increased.

  17. Harnessing Poly(ionic liquid)s for Sensing Applications


    Guterman, Ryan; Ambrogi, Martina; Yuan, Jiayin


    The interest in poly(ionic liquids) for sensing applications are derived from their strong interactions to a variety of analytes. By combining the desirable mechanical properties of polymers with the physical and chemical properties of ILs, new materials can be created. The tunable nature of both ionic liquids and polymers allows for incredible diversity, which is exemplified in their broad applicability. In this article we examine the new field of poly(ionic liquid) sensors by providing a de...

  18. Ionic Liquids in HPLC and CE: A Hope for Future. (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Suhail, Mohd; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y


    The ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with melting points below 100°C. These are called as ionic fluids, ionic melts, liquid electrolytes, fused salts, liquid salts, ionic glasses, designer solvents, green solvents and solvents of the future. These have a wide range of applications, including medical, pharmaceutical and chemical sciences. Nowadays, their use is increasing greatly in separation science, especially in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis due to their remarkable properties. The present article describes the importance of ILs in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Efforts were also made to highlight the future expectations of ILs.

  19. Predictions of Physicochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids with DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Karu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, density functional theory (DFT-based high-throughput computational approach is becoming more efficient and, thus, attractive for finding advanced materials for electrochemical applications. In this work, we illustrate how theoretical models, computational methods, and informatics techniques can be put together to form a simple DFT-based throughput computational workflow for predicting physicochemical properties of room-temperature ionic liquids. The developed workflow has been used for screening a set of 48 ionic pairs and for analyzing the gathered data. The predicted relative electrochemical stabilities, ionic charges and dynamic properties of the investigated ionic liquids are discussed in the light of their potential practical applications.

  20. Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts (United States)

    Li, Zaiwei [Moreno Valley, CA; Tang, Yongchun [Walnut, CA; Cheng,; Jihong, [Arcadia, CA


    Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

  1. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo


    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  2. Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Shiyanovskii, S. V.; Lavrentovich, O. D.


    Electric heating effects in the nematic liquid crystal change the liquid crystal physical properties and dynamics. We propose a model to quantitatively describe the heating effects caused by dielectric dispersion and ionic conductivity in the nematic liquid crystals upon the application of an ac electric field. The temperature increase of the liquid crystal cell is related to the properties of the liquid crystal such as the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity, thermal properties of the bounding plates, and the surrounding medium as well as frequency and amplitude of the electric field. To study the temperature dynamics experimentally, we use a small thermocouple inserted directly into the nematic bulk; we assure that the thermocouple does not alter the thermal behavior of the system by comparing the results to those obtained by a noncontact birefringent probing technique recently proposed by Wen and Wu [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231104 (2005)]. We determine how the temperature dynamics and the stationary value of the temperature increase depend on the parameters of the materials and the applied field. We used different surrounding media, from extremely good heat conductors such as aluminum cooling device to extremely poor conductor, Styrofoam; these two provide two limiting cases as compared to typical conditions of nematic cell exploitation in a laboratory or in commercial devices. The experiments confirm the theoretical predictions, namely, that the temperature rise is controlled not only by the heat transfer coefficient of the surrounding medium (as in the previous model) but also by the thickness and the thermal conductivity coefficient of the bounding plates enclosing the nematic layer. The temperature increase strongly depends on the director orientation and can change nonmonotonously with the frequency of the applied field.

  3. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail:; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)


    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  4. Crystals in Urine Test (United States)

    ... crystals or specific types of crystals can become kidney stones . Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like substances that can get ... big as a pea, or even larger. While kidney stones rarely cause serious damage, they can be very ...

  5. Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion Triazolide Ionic Liquids - A New Class of Ionic Liquid Anion Accessed by the Huisgen Cycloaddition Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Robert [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Damodaran, Krishnan [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh; Luebke, David [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Nulwala, Hunaid [National Energy Technology Laboratory


    The triazole core is a highly versatile heterocyclic ring which can be accessed easily with the Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition reaction. Herein we present the preparation of ionic liquids that incorporate a 1,2,3-triazolide anion. These ionic liquids were prepared by a facile procedure utilizing a base-labile pivaloylmethyl group at the 1-position, which can act as precursors to 1H- 4-substituted 1,2,3-triazole. These triazoles were then subsequently converted into ionic liquids after deprotonation using an appropriate ionic liquid cation hydroxide. The densities and thermal decompositions of these ionic liquids were measured. These novel ionic liquids have potential applications in gas separations and in metal-free catalysis.

  6. Crystallization of the Large Membrane Protein Complex Photosystem I in a Microfluidic Channel (United States)

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Kupitz, Christopher; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra


    Traditional macroscale protein crystallization is accomplished non-trivially by exploring a range of protein concentrations and buffers in solution until a suitable combination is attained. This methodology is time consuming and resource intensive, hindering protein structure determination. Even more difficulties arise when crystallizing large membrane protein complexes such as photosystem I (PSI) due to their large unit cells dominated by solvent and complex characteristics that call for even stricter buffer requirements. Structure determination techniques tailored for these ‘difficult to crystallize’ proteins such as femtosecond nanocrystallography are being developed, yet still need specific crystal characteristics. Here, we demonstrate a simple and robust method to screen protein crystallization conditions at low ionic strength in a microfluidic device. This is realized in one microfluidic experiment using low sample amounts, unlike traditional methods where each solution condition is set up separately. Second harmonic generation microscopy via Second Order Nonlinear Imaging of Chiral Crystals (SONICC) was applied for the detection of nanometer and micrometer sized PSI crystals within microchannels. To develop a crystallization phase diagram, crystals imaged with SONICC at specific channel locations were correlated to protein and salt concentrations determined by numerical simulations of the time-dependent diffusion process along the channel. Our method demonstrated that a portion of the PSI crystallization phase diagram could be reconstructed in excellent agreement with crystallization conditions determined by traditional methods. We postulate that this approach could be utilized to efficiently study and optimize crystallization conditions for a wide range of proteins that are poorly understood to date. PMID:24191698

  7. Speciation of copper(II) complexes in an ionic liquid based on choline chloride and in choline chloride/water mixtures. (United States)

    De Vreese, Peter; Brooks, Neil R; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Matthijs, Edward; Binnemans, Koen; Van Deun, Rik


    A deep-eutectic solvent with the properties of an ionic liquid is formed when choline chloride is mixed with copper(II) chloride dihydrate in a 1:2 molar ratio. EXAFS and UV-vis-near-IR optical absorption spectroscopy have been used to compare the coordination sphere of the cupric ion in this ionic liquid with that of the cupric ion in solutions of 0.1 M of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O in solvents with varying molar ratios of choline chloride and water. The EXAFS data show that species with three chloride ions and one water molecule coordinated to the cupric ion as well as species with two chloride molecules and two water molecules coordinated to the cupric ion are present in the ionic liquid. On the other hand, a fully hydrated copper(II) ion is formed in an aqueous solution free of choline chloride, and the tetrachlorocuprate(II) complex forms in aqueous choline chloride solutions with more than 50 wt % of choline chloride. In solutions with between 0 and 50 wt % of choline chloride, mixed chloro-aquo complexes occur. Upon standing at room temperature, crystals of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O and of Cu(choline)Cl(3) formed in the ionic liquid. Cu(choline)Cl(3) is the first example of a choline cation coordinating to a transition-metal ion. Crystals of [choline](3)[CuCl(4)][Cl] and of [choline](4)[Cu(4)Cl(10)O] were also synthesized from molecular or ionic liquid solvents, and their crystal structures were determined.

  8. Notre Dame Geothermal Ionic Liquids Research: Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)


    The goal of this project was to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications. The first goal was to design ionic liquids as high temperature heat transfer fluids. We identified appropriate compounds based on both experiments and molecular simulations. We synthesized the new ILs, and measured their thermal stability, measured storage density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. We found that the most promising compounds for this application are aminopyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ILs. We also performed some measurements of thermal stability of IL mixtures and used molecular simulations to better understand the thermal conductivity of nanofluids (i.e., mixtures of ILs and nanoparticles). We found that the mixtures do not follow ideal mixture theories and that the addition of nanoparticles to ILs may well have a beneficial influence on the thermal and transport properties of IL-based heat transfer fluids. The second goal was to use ionic liquids in geothermally driven absorption refrigeration systems. We performed copious thermodynamic measurements and modeling of ionic liquid/water systems, including modeling of the absorption refrigeration systems and the resulting coefficients of performance. We explored some IL/organic solvent mixtures as candidates for this application, both with experimentation and molecular simulations. We found that the COPs of all of the IL/water systems were higher than the conventional system – LiBr/H2O. Thus, IL/water systems appear very attractive for absorption refrigeration applications.

  9. Nonextensive statistical mechanics of ionic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, L.M. [Grupo de Nanomateriales y Materia Blanda, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail:; Carrete, J. [Grupo de Nanomateriales y Materia Blanda, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Munoz-Sola, R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez, J.R.; Gallego, J. [Grupo de Nanomateriales y Materia Blanda, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    Classical mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory of ionic solutions is revisited in the theoretical framework of nonextensive Tsallis statistics. The nonextensive equivalent of Poisson-Boltzmann equation is formulated revisiting the statistical mechanics of liquids and the Debye-Hueckel framework is shown to be valid for highly diluted solutions even under circumstances where nonextensive thermostatistics must be applied. The lowest order corrections associated to nonadditive effects are identified for both symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes and the behavior of the average electrostatic potential in a homogeneous system is analytically and numerically analyzed for various values of the complexity measurement nonextensive parameter q.

  10. Electro-tactic ionic liquid droplets


    Francis, Wayne; Wagner, Klaudia; Beirne, Stephen; Officer, David; Wallace, Gordon; Florea, Larisa; Diamond, Dermot


    Here we report for the first time electro-guided, self-propelled droplets, which are composed solely of an ionic liquid (IL), namely trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P6,6,6,14][Cl]). These self-propelled droplets travel along an aqueous-air boundary and are guided to specific destinations within the fluidic network through the use of electro-chemically generated Cl- gradients. The direction of movement can be controlled by switching the impressed voltage (9V, ON or OFF) and polarity...

  11. Pycnonuclear reaction rates for binary ionic mixtures (United States)

    Ichimaru, S.; Ogata, S.; Van Horn, H. M.


    Through a combination of compositional scaling arguments and examinations of Monte Carlo simulation results for the interparticle separations in binary-ionic mixture (BIM) solids, we have derived parameterized expressions for the BIM pycnonuclear rates as generalizations of those in one-component solids obtained previously by Salpeter and Van Horn and by Ogata et al. We have thereby discovered a catalyzing effect of the heavier elements, which enhances the rates of reactions among the lighter elements when the charge ratio exceeds a critical value of approximately 2.3.

  12. Design of Separation Processes with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng-noo, Worawit; Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Gani, Rafiqul


    A systematic methodology for screening and designing of Ionic Liquid (IL)-based separation processes is proposed and demonstrated using several case studies of both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, for instance, ethanol + water, ethanol + hexane, benzene + hexane, and toluene + methylcyclohexane....... The best four ILs of each mixture are [mmim][dmp], [emim][bti], [emim][etso4] and [hmim][tcb], respectively. All of them were used as entrainers in the extractive distillation. A process simulation of each system was carried out and showed a lower both energy requirement and solvent usage as compared...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

  14. ZnO-ionic liquid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanes, Jose; Carrion, Francisco-Jose [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Bermudez, Maria-Dolores, E-mail: [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)


    The mixture of nanostructures derived from the surface interactions and reactivity of ZnO nanoparticles with the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL1) 1-hexyl, 3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been studied. Results are discussed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) determinations. Size and morphology changes in ZnO nanoparticles by surface modification with IL1 are observed. ZnF{sub 2} crystalline needles due to reaction with the hexafluorophosphate anion are also formed.

  15. Research and Development of Energetic Ionic Liquids (United States)


    certainly achieved • Performance near TNT • Synthesis undertaken seeking IL with higher energy cation, AMT (1-amino-3- methyl -1,2,3 triazolium...Distribution A: Public Release, Distribution unlimited.” AMT-DNT Properties Properties of AMT-DNT improvement over HEAT-DNT 1-amino-3- methyl -1,2,3- triazolium...Navy/AF) – USAF AF-M315E • Propellant uses ionic liquids to yield low vapor toxicity 22 – Sweden/ECAPS LMP-103S • Propellant uses ADN -based formulation

  16. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.


    Some fundamentals of the ion chemistry of flames are summarized. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames have been studied using a VG PlasmaQuad, the ICP-system being substituted by a simple quartz burner. Simple hydrocarbon flames as well as sulfur-containing flames have been investigated....... The simple hydrocarbon flames are dominated by a series of hydrocarbonic ions and, to a minor extent, protonated oxo-compounds. The introduction of sulfur to the flames leads to significant changes in the ion composition, as sulfur-containing species become dominant. The ability of the technique to study...

  17. High CO{sub 2} solubility in ionic liquids and a tetraalkylammonium-based poly(ionic liquid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supasitmongkol, S.; Styring, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption in several imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), pyridinium-based ionic liquids and a tetraalkylammonium-based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL), poly((p-vinylbenzyl) trimethylammonium hexafluorophosphate) P((VBTMA)(PF6)), was studied. The trend of CO{sub 2} solubility in all of the ILs increases dramatically with decreasing absorption temperature. Based on the same bis(triflamide) (Tf2N) anion, imidazolium, pyridinium and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium-based ionic liquids all show relatively similar CO{sub 2} solubilities, which were higher than for the ES anion. The highest CO{sub 2} absorption was found in a poly(ionic liquid) P((VBTMA)(PF6)); however, the monomer also showed higher CO{sub 2} capacity than the other ionic liquids. The poly(ionic liquid) is remarkable in that it can adsorb 77% of its body weight of CO{sub 2} with a selectivity over nitrogen of 70:1. The absorbed CO{sub 2} gas can be readily desorbed from ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid) and the selectivity for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} was consistent over repeated cycles. The materials can be reused several times for consecutive sorption/desorption cycles, without loss of performance in a large-scale reactor and therefore represent serious candidates for use in commercial adsorbers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mudzakir


    Full Text Available A new series of ionic liquids based on 1,3-alkylmethyl-1,2,3-benzotriazolium cation has been prepared. The spectroscopic, physical and electrochemical characteristics of this family of salts have been investigated with respect to potential usage as ionic solvents, electrolytes and engineering fluids. Incorporation of diverse anions including weak coordinating anion and pseudohalide with this benzotriazolium cation produces ionic liquids with advantageously low melting points and good thermal stability. Thermal analyses of these very stable salts included the determination of melting points (-65 to 164 oC and decomposition temperatures (up to 291 oC. The electrochemical windows of representative benzotriazolium species has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and determined to be ~ 3 V. The X-ray single crystal and spectroscopic studies revealed that weak hydrogen-bonding interactions between the benzotriazolium ring protons and the anions are present both in the solid state as well as in solution.   Keywords: ionic liquids, X-ray single crystal, thermal analysis, electrochemical analysis, benzotriazolium salt

  19. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid. (United States)

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie


    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct observation of a non-isothermal crystallization process in precursor Li10GeP2S12 glass electrolyte (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Mori, Shigeo; Shiotani, Shinya; Yamamura, Hideyuki; Iba, Hideki


    Crystallization of a precursor Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) glass electrolyte by heat treatment significantly improves its ionic conductivity. The LGPS crystalline phase obtained by heat treatment above 450 °C shows an ionic conductivity on the order of 10-2 S/cm. To clarify the correlation between the crystallization behavior of precursor LGPS glasses and ionic conductivity, we developed an observation technique to visualize precipitated nanocrystallites and a new method to evaluate the crystallization degree via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM observation revealed that LGPS nanocrystallites precipitated above 450 °C and their size remained fundamentally intact during heating. That is, the crystallization behavior could be characterized by only the formation of LGPS nanocrystallites in an amorphous matrix. In addition, the crystallization degree was quantitatively evaluated from electron diffraction patterns. The crystallization degree remarkably increased at around 450 °C and reached more than 60% above 450 °C. Based on these results, a high ionic conductivity of approximately 1.0 × 10-2 S/cm was confirmed to be directly associated with the appearance of the LGPS crystalline phase.

  1. Highly efficient conductivity modulation of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Huiyong; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Yue; Guo, Zhongjia


    A new class of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids was synthesized and characterized, and these ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains showed a remarkable increase in ionic conductivity under UV light irradiation in aqueous solutions.

  2. Ionic Liquid-Modified Thermosets and Their Nanocomposites: Dispersion, Exfoliation, Degradation, and Cure (United States)

    Throckmorton, James A.

    properties and provide insight into the theory of the chemical and physical exfoliation of graphite crystals and the resulting polymer matrix dispersion. Cyanate Ester Cure: Dicyanamide-containing ionic liquids decrease the cure temperature of bi- and tri-functional CEs. During the cure reaction, the dicyanamide anion completely reacts and is incorporated into the triazine network. The cure effect was found in many dicyanamide-containing ionic liquids with diverse cations. This invention creates a novel, ionic thermoset polymer. The dicyanamide initiator provides an alternative to metal and hydroxyl catalysts (which have been shown to accelerate degradation and possess human and environmental toxicity). Additionally, the ionic character of the new polymer, rare among thermosets, lends itself to future research and novel applications. RTIL initiation also paves the way to new CE technologies, including RTIL-CE nanocomposites, prepared by graphite exfoliation and nanocomposite dispersion techniques developed herin.

  3. Anodic dissolution of metals in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Abbott


    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of metals is an important topic for battery design, material finishing and metal digestion. Ionic liquids are being used in all of these areas but the research on the anodic dissolution is relatively few in these media. This study investigates the behaviour of 9 metals in an ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] and a deep eutectic solvent, Ethaline, which is a 1:2 mol ratio mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. It is shown that for the majority of metals studied a quasi-passivation of the metal surface occurs, primarily due to the formation of insoluble films on the electrode surface. The behaviour of most metals is different in [C4mim][Cl] to that in Ethaline due in part to the differences in viscosity. The formation of passivating salt films can be decreased with stirring or by increasing the electrolyte temperature, thereby increasing ligand transport to the electrode surface.

  4. Aerogels from Chitosan Solutions in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Santos-López


    Full Text Available Chitosan aerogels conjugates the characteristics of nanostructured porous materials, i.e., extended specific surface area and nano scale porosity, with the remarkable functional properties of chitosan. Aerogels were obtained from solutions of chitosan in ionic liquids (ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIMAc, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate (EMIMAc, in order to observe the effect of the solvent in the structural characteristics of this type of materials. The process of elaboration of aerogels comprised the formation of physical gels through anti-solvent vapor diffusion, liquid phase exchange, and supercritical CO2 drying. The aerogels maintained the chemical identity of chitosan according to Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR spectroscopy, indicating the presence of their characteristic functional groups. The internal structure of the obtained aerogels appears as porous aggregated networks in microscopy images. The obtained materials have specific surface areas over 350 m2/g and can be considered mesoporous. According to swelling experiments, the chitosan aerogels could absorb between three and six times their weight of water. However, the swelling and diffusion coefficient decreased at higher temperatures. The structural characteristics of chitosan aerogels that are obtained from ionic liquids are distinctive and could be related to solvation dynamic at the initial state.

  5. Sequencing proteins with transverse ionic transport (United States)

    Boynton, Paul; di Ventra, Massimiliano


    De novo protein sequencing is essential for understanding cellular processes that govern the function of living organisms. By obtaining the order of the amino acids that composes a given protein one can determine both its secondary and tertiary structures through protein structure prediction, which is used to create models for protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease. Mass spectrometry is the current technique of choice for de novo sequencing, but because some amino acids have the same mass the sequence cannot be completely determined in many cases. In this paper we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a polypeptide through a synthetic nanochannel and measuring the ionic current of each amino acid through an intersecting perpendicular nanochannel, similar to that proposed in for DNA sequencing. Indeed, we find that the distribution of ionic currents for each of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids encoded by eukaryotic genes is statistically distinct, showing this technique's potential for de novo protein sequencing.

  6. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Livazovic, Sara


    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  7. Toxicity of ionic liquids prepared from biomaterials. (United States)

    Gouveia, W; Jorge, T F; Martins, S; Meireles, M; Carolino, M; Cruz, C; Almeida, T V; Araújo, M E M


    In search of environmentally-friendly ionic liquids (ILs), 14 were prepared based on the imidazolium, pyridinium and choline cations, with bromide and several amino acids as anions. Good yields were obtained in the synthesis of pyridinium ILs and those prepared from choline and amino acids. Four of the ILs synthesized from choline and the amino acids arginine, glutamine, glutamic acid and cystine are described here for the first time. The toxicity of the synthesized ILs was checked against organisms of various levels of organization: the crustacean Artemia salina; Human cell HeLa (cervical carcinoma); and bacteria with different types of cell wall, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The toxicity was observed to depend on both the cation and anion. Choline-amino acid ILs showed a remarkable low toxicity to A. salina and HeLa cell culture, ten times less than imidazolium and pyridinium ILs. None of ionic liquids exhibited marked toxicity to bacteria, and the effect was 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anion exchange in ionic liquid mixtures. (United States)

    Cha, Seoncheol; Kim, Doseok


    Advantage of ionic liquids as designer solvents can be maximized by mixing different ionic liquids (ILs) for a possibility of continuous tunability of material properties. The property of these mixed ILs would be determined by their microscopic conformation between cations and anions. The mixtures of two ILs having 1-butyl-3-methylimidaolium cations and different anions were investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy, utilizing that the vibrational frequencies of the C-H stretching and bending modes of the most acidic proton in the imidazolium ring of the cation and the NMR chemical shift for the corresponding proton were clearly distinct between the ILs having different anions. The IR absorption spectra of the IL mixtures at different concentrations were well-matched to weighted sums of the two spectra of the pure ILs. In contrast, the two distinct peaks in the NMR spectra of the pure ILs coalesced into a single peak, which shifted continuously following the relative portion of two different ILs in the mixture. IR spectroscopy in the optical frequency range seems to take the instantaneous snapshot of the cation-anion interaction, while NMR spectroscopy in the radio-frequency (∼500 MHz) range samples over a much longer timescale, enough for the cation to interact with different anion species in the mixture.

  9. Photonic crystal light source (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM


    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  10. Investigation of 1, 10-Phenanthroline based Ionic Liquids using X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data (fitting models) for other than 1, 3-dialkyimidazolium based ionic liquids are required and need to be developed. 1, 10-Phenanthrolinium based ionic liquids are among the new compounds reported recently. However, no attempt is observed to investigate the electronic ...

  11. Silica coated ionic liquid templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis indicates that the particles obtained were in spherical shape with decreasing size as the alkyl chain length of ionic liquid increases. The materials also show increase of BET surface value as the alkyl chain length increases from the range 19 m2/g to 23 m2/g. Keywords: mesoporous silica; ionic liquid, pyridinium; ...

  12. Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteillet, H.; Workamp, M.; Li, X.; Schuur, Boelo; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.; Sprakel, J.


    We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be

  13. An Ionic Liquid Solution of Chitosan as Organocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Wilhelm


    Full Text Available Chitosan, which is derived from the biopolymer chitin, can be readily dissolved in different ionic liquids. The resulting homogeneous solutions were applied in an asymmetric Aldol reaction. Depending on the type of ionic liquid used, high asymmetric inductions were found. The influence of different additives was also studied. The best results were obtained in [BMIM][Br] without an additive.

  14. Absorption and oxidation of no in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns the absorption and in situ oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of water and oxygen in ionic liquid compositions at ambient temperature.......The present invention concerns the absorption and in situ oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of water and oxygen in ionic liquid compositions at ambient temperature....

  15. Absorption of Flue-Gas Components by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Mossin, Susanne


    Gas separation by ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising new research field with several potential applications of industrial interest. Thus cleaning of industrial off gases seems to be attractive by use of ILs and Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) materials. The potential of selected ILs...

  16. CO2 sorption by supported amino acid ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials.......The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials....

  17. Near-wall molecular ordering of dilute ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jitvisate, Monchai; Seddon, James Richard Thorley


    The interfacial behavior of ionic liquids promises tunable lubrication as well as playing an integral role in ion diffusion for electron transfer. Diluting the ionic liquids optimizes bulk parameters, such as electric conductivity, and one would expect dilution to disrupt the near-wall molecular

  18. Reversible physical absorption of SO2 by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Ionic liquids can reversibly absorb large amounts of molecular SO2 gas under ambient conditions with the gas captured in a restricted configuration, possibly allowing SO2 to probe the internal cavity structures in ionic liquids besides being useful for SO2 removal in pollution control....

  19. Study of effect of composition, irradiation and quenching on ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Co γ-rays to an accumulated dose of 10 kGy to study the effect on ionic conductivity. The electrolyte samples are also quenched at liquid nitrogen temperature and conductivity measurements are carried out. The ionic conductivity at room temperature exhibits a characteristic peak for the composition, x = 46. Electron beam ...

  20. Optical absorption and fluorescence studies on imidazolium ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Imidazolium ionic liquids; UV-Vis absorption; excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence; red-edge effect; solvent effect. ... gives rise to the long absorption tail and shifting fluorescence maximum, which appears to be common to most of the imidazolium ionic liquids, is evident from the effect of the conventional solvents.

  1. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Ionic Liquids and Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.


    A corresponding-states form of the generalized van der Waals equation, previously developed for mixtures of an ionic liquid and a supercritical solute, is here extended to mixtures including an ionic liquid and a solvent (water or organic). Group contributions to characteristic parameters...

  2. Polarity of the interface in ionic liquid in oil microemulsions. (United States)

    Andújar-Matalobos, María; García-Río, Luis; López-García, Susana; Rodríguez-Dafonte, Pedro


    Ionic liquid based microemulsions were characterized by absorption solvatochromic shifts, (1)H NMR and kinetic measurements in order to investigate the properties of the ionic liquid within the restricted geometry provided by microemulsions and the interactions of the ionic liquid with the interface. Experimental results show a significant difference between the interfaces of normal water and the new ionic liquid microemulsions. Absorption solvatochromic shift experiments and kinetic studies on the aminolysis of 4-nitrophenyl laurate by n-decylamine show that the polarity at the interface of the ionic liquid in oil microemulsions (IL/O) is higher than at the interface of water in oil microemulsions (W/O) despite the fact that the polarity of [bmim][BF(4)(-)] is lower than the polarity of water. (1)H NMR experiments showed that an increase in the ionic liquid content of the microemulsion led to an increase in the interaction between [bmim][BF(4)(-)] and TX-100. The reason for the higher polarity of the microemulsions with the ionic liquid can be explained in terms of the incorporation of higher levels of the ionic liquid at the interface of the microemulsions, as compared to water in the traditional systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined reactions and separations using ionic liquids and carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.


    A new and general type of process for the chemical industry is presented using ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide as combined reaction and separation media. In this process, the carbon dioxide pressure controls the miscibility of reactants, products, catalyst and ionic liquid, enabling

  4. Investigation of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    1-Butyl 3-methyl imidazolium bromide; molecular material; phosphotungstic acid; near IR. 1. Introduction. Ionic liquids are gaining importance in the synthesis of hybrid materials. 1. The 'ionic liquid' moniker is used for low melting point salts that contain organic cations. 2 ... class of solid acid catalytic materials with Brønsted.

  5. Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment (United States)

    Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd


    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

  6. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic/Microwave-Assisted Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a more green, efficient and low cost process for the extraction of steroidal saponins from Dioscorea Zingiberensis C. H. Wright. Methods: Six kinds of ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated. In addition, the extraction parameters of the ionic liquid based ultrasonic/microwave ...

  7. Optical absorption and fluorescence studies on imidazolium ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    are often described as 'designer solvents', as it is possible to design an ionic liquid with the desired properties using appropriate combinations of cationic and anionic constituents. Since application of the ionic liquids as media of photophysical studies depends on how transparent these substances are in the optical region, ...

  8. Tabular silver halide crystals prepared by controlled Ostwald growth in the presence of dimethyl sulphoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyonizy, A.; Nowak, P.; Mora, C.; Krol-Gracz, A.; Michalak, E. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze St. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)


    The results of research in the size and shape of silver bromide crystals precipitated by the Ostwald controlled growth method at the presence of dimethyl sulphoxide were presented in the paper. The silver bromide crystals were produced in the form of microcrystal suspension stabilised by gelatine. In the course of the synthesis of crystals, the constant concentration of dimethyl sulphoxide, concentration of excessive bromide ions and the constant ionic strength were achieved. The tabular crystals of silver bromide with their average size of 50 {mu}m and their aspect ratio equal to 100 were obtained by means of this method. The suspensions of flat silver bromide crystals produced in this manner can be used in the production of high-sensitivity materials. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Characterization of the pH-Mediated solubility of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego native δ-endotoxin crystals (United States)

    C. N. Koller; L. S. Bauer; R. M. Hollingworth


    Native crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego, a coleopteran-specific δ-endotoxin, were metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine. Specific activity was 82,000 CPM/μg (2.44 Ci/mmol). Using a universal buffer formulated with the same ionic strength at every pH, we determined that...

  10. Crystal growth and characterization of mixed lead halides PbCl2xBr2(1-x)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumbreras, M.; Protas, J.; Jebbari, S.; Dirksen, G.J.; Schoonman, J.


    Single crystals of PbCl2-type solid solutions PbCl2xBr2(1−x) have been grown using the Bridgeman technique. XRD measurements reveal preferential site occupancy for Cl and Br, while the anion array of PbClBr is completely ordered. The temperature and composition dependence of the ionic conductivity

  11. Formamidinium iodide: crystal structure and phase transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Petrov


    Full Text Available At a temperature of 100 K, CH5N2+·I− (I, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The formamidinium cation adopts a planar symmetrical structure [the r.m.s. deviation is 0.002 Å, and the C—N bond lengths are 1.301 (7 and 1.309 (8 Å]. The iodide anion does not lie within the cation plane, but deviates from it by 0.643 (10 Å. The cation and anion of I form a tight ionic pair by a strong N—H...I hydrogen bond. In the crystal of I, the tight ionic pairs form hydrogen-bonded zigzag-like chains propagating toward [20-1] via strong N—H...I hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains are further packed in stacks along [100]. The thermal behaviour of I was studied by different physicochemical methods (thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and powder diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed three narrow endothermic peaks at 346, 387 and 525 K, and one broad endothermic peak at ∼605 K. The first and second peaks are related to solid–solid phase transitions, while the third and fourth peaks are attributed to the melting and decomposition of I. The enthalpies of the phase transitions at 346 and 387 K are estimated as 2.60 and 2.75 kJ mol−1, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction data collected at different temperatures indicate the existence of I as the monoclinic (100–346 K, orthorhombic (346–387 K and cubic (387–525 K polymorphic modifications.

  12. Visualization of ionic wind in laminar jet flames

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun


    Electric field, when it is applied to hydrocarbon flames, generates ionic wind due to the electric body force on charge carrying species. Ionic wind has been shown to influence soot emission, propagation speed, and stability of flames; however, a detailed behavior of ionic wind and its effects on flames is still not clear. Here, we investigated the dynamic behaviors of flames and ionic wind in the presence of direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) electric fields in nonpremixed and premixed jet flames with a jet nozzle placed between two parallel electrodes. We observed a skewed flame toward a lower potential electrode with DC and lower frequency AC (e.g., 10Hz) and a steady flame with higher frequencies AC (1000Hz), while we found that the ionic wind blew toward both the anode and cathode regardless of flame type (nonpremixed or premixed) or the source of the electric field (DC and AC).

  13. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich


    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  14. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang


    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids. (United States)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A; Husson, Pascale; DeVine, Jessalyn A; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Greenbaum, Steven G; Castner, Edward W


    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies.

  16. Vapor pressures of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids with long alkyl chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Marisa A. A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Coutinho, João A. P. [CICECO, Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Santos, Luís M. N. B. F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)


    This work presents the vapor pressure at several temperatures for the 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide series, [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (N = 14, 16, 18, and 20), measured by a Knudsen effusion method combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. The thermodynamic properties of vaporization of the ionic liquids under study are analysed together with the results obtained previously for the shorter alkyl chain length [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (N = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), in order to evaluate the effect of the alkyl side chains of the cation and to get additional insights concerning the nanostructuration of ionic liquids. The symmetry effect is explored, based on the comparison with the asymmetric imidazolium based ionic liquids, [C{sub N-1}C{sub 1}im][NTf{sub 2}]. A trend shift on the thermodynamic properties of vaporization along the alkyl side chains of the extended symmetric ionic liquids, around [C{sub 6}C{sub 6}im][NTf{sub 2}], was detected. An intensification of the odd-even effect was observed starting from [C{sub 6}C{sub 6}im][NTf{sub 2}], with higher enthalpies and entropies of vaporization for the odd numbered ionic liquids, [C{sub 7}C{sub 7}im][NTf{sub 2}] and [C{sub 9}C{sub 9}im][NTf{sub 2}]. Similar, but less pronounced, odd-even effect was found for the symmetric ionic liquids with lower alkyl side chains length, [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (with N = 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12). This effect is related with the predominant orientation of the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain to the imidazolium ring and their influence in the cation-anion interaction. The same Critical Alkyl length at the hexyl, (C{sub 6}C{sub 1}and C{sub 6}C{sub 6}) was found for both asymmetric and symmetric series indicating that the nanostructuration of the ionic liquids is related with alkyl chain length.

  17. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquid)s into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air


    Yongjun Men; Martina Ambrogi; Baohang Han; Jiayin Yuan


    Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.


    SiO[symbol]) ceramics via solid state sintering of Zr)[symbol] and SiO[symbol] and the effect of dopants on the zircon yield / U. Dhanayake, B. S. B. Karunaratne. Preparation and properties of vanadium doped ZnTe cermet thin films / M. S. Hossain, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Dynamical properties and electronic structure of lithium-ion conductor / M. Kobayashi ... [et al.]. Cuprous ion conducting Montmorillonite-Polypyrrole nanocomposites / D. M. M. Krishantha ... [et al.]. Frequency dependence of conductivity studies on a newly synthesized superionic solid solution/mixed system: [0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl] / R. K. Nagarch, R. Kumar. Diffuse X-ray and neutron scattering from Powder PbS / X. Lian ... [et al.]. Electron affinity and work function of Pyrolytic MnO[symbol] thin films prepared from Mn(C[symbol]H[symbol]O[symbol])[symbol].4H[symbol]) / A. K. M. Farid Ul Islam, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Crystal structure and heat capacity of Ba[symbol]Ca[symbol]Nb[symbol]O[symbol] / T. Shimoyama ... [et al.]. XPS and impedance investigations on amorphous vanadium oxide thin films / M. Kamalanathan ... [et al.]. Sintering and mixed electronic-ionic conducting properties of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]NiO[symbol] derived from a polyaminocarboxylate complex precursor / D.-P. Huang ... [et al.]. Preparation and characteristics of ball milled MgH[symbol] + M (M= Fe, VF[symbol] and FeF[symbol]) nanocomposites for hydrogen storage / N. W. B. Balasooriya, Ch. Poinsignon. Structural studies of oxysulfide glasses by X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation / R. Prasada Rao, M. Seshasayee, J. Dheepa. Synthesis, sintering and oxygen ionic conducting properties of Bi[symbol]V[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / F. Zhang ... [et al.]. Synthesis and transport characteristics of PbI[symbol]-Ag[symbol]O-Cr[symbol]O[symbol] superioninc system / S. A. Suthanthiraraj, V. Mathew. Electronic conductivity of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ga[symbol]Mg[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] electrolytes / K. Yamaji ... [et al.] -- pt. II. Electrode materials

  20. Influence of organic solvent on the separation of an ionic liquid from a lignin-ionic liquid mixture. (United States)

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Lim, Kok Hwa; Lee, Jong-Min


    Sixteen solvents added in lignin-ionic liquid mixture provide four types of solubility characteristics. The distinct characteristics can be classified by considering solubility parameters including ET Scale, Kamlet-Taft parameters and solubility parameters. Group 1 solvent shows promising solvents for lignin-ionic liquid separation, contributing full dissolution of ionic liquid with lignin precipitation. Isopropanol, the most potential solvent has solubility properties as following normalized molar electronic transition energies (ET(N))=0.57, hydrogen-bond acidity (α)=0.76 and Hildebrand solubility parameter (δT)=23.58. This study examines potential solvents for ionic recovery, provides simple method of separation and leads to the feasibility of using ionic liquids in industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conductivity depends on a number of factors such as presence of interstitial sites, ion size, temperature, crystal structure etc. We discuss the recent results from atomistic computer simulations on the dependence of conductivity in NASICONs as a function of composition, temperature, phase change and cation among others.

  2. Crystallization of Macromolecules (United States)

    Friedmann, David; Messick, Troy; Marmorstein, Ronen


    X-ray crystallography has evolved into a very powerful tool to determine the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. The major bottleneck in structure determination by X-ray crystallography is the preparation of suitable crystalline samples. This unit outlines steps for the crystallization of a macromolecule, starting with a purified, homogeneous sample. The first protocols describe preparation of the macromolecular sample (i.e., proteins, nucleic acids, and macromolecular complexes). The preparation and assessment of crystallization trials is then described, along with a protocol for confirming whether the crystals obtained are composed of macromolecule as opposed to a crystallization reagent . Next, the optimization of crystallization conditions is presented. Finally, protocols that facilitate the growth of larger crystals through seeding are described. PMID:22045560

  3. Electronic crystal growth (United States)

    Sato, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Kanoda, K.


    Interacting atoms or molecules condense into liquid, and, when cooled further, they form a crystal. The time evolution of the atomic or molecular ordering has been widely studied as a nonequilibrium emergence of order from a supercooled liquid or a glass. Interacting electrons in a variety of correlated electron systems also form crystals, but observing the time evolution of electronic crystallization has been experimentally challenging. Here, working with an organic conductor exhibiting a supercooled charge liquid or charge glass as a metastable state, we observed electronic crystal growth through resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The temperature profile of the crystal growth is similar to those observed in classical systems and reveals two distinct regimes for the mechanism of electronic crystallization.

  4. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic......This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...

  5. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids. (United States)

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo


    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties.

  6. Magneto-ionic control of interfacial magnetism. (United States)

    Bauer, Uwe; Yao, Lide; Tan, Aik Jun; Agrawal, Parnika; Emori, Satoru; Tuller, Harry L; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Beach, Geoffrey S D


    In metal/oxide heterostructures, rich chemical, electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties can emerge from interfacial chemistry and structure. The possibility to dynamically control interface characteristics with an electric field paves the way towards voltage control of these properties in solid-state devices. Here, we show that electrical switching of the interfacial oxidation state allows for voltage control of magnetic properties to an extent never before achieved through conventional magneto-electric coupling mechanisms. We directly observe in situ voltage-driven O(2-) migration in a Co/metal-oxide bilayer, which we use to toggle the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy by >0.75 erg cm(-2) at just 2 V. We exploit the thermally activated nature of ion migration to markedly increase the switching efficiency and to demonstrate reversible patterning of magnetic properties through local activation of ionic migration. These results suggest a path towards voltage-programmable materials based on solid-state switching of interface oxygen chemistry.

  7. Metsulfuron-methyl-based herbicidal ionic liquids. (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Niemczak, Michał; Shamshina, Julia L; Gurau, Gabriela; Głowacki, Grzegorz; Praczyk, Tadeusz; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Rogers, Robin D


    Ten sulfonylurea-based herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) were prepared by combining the metsulfuron-methyl anion with various cation types including quaternary ammonium ([bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyloleylammonium](+), [2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium](+)), pyridinium ([1-dodecylpyridinium](+)), piperidinium ([1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium](+)), imidazolium ([1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium](+), [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium](+)), pyrrolidinium ([1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium](+)), morpholinium ([4-decyl-4-methylmorpholinium](+)), and phosphonium ([trihexyltetradecylphosphonium](+) and [tetrabutylphosphonium](+)). Their herbicidal efficacy was studied in both greenhouse tests and field trials. Preliminary results for the greenhouse tests showed at least twice the activity for all HILs when compared to the activity of commercial Galmet 20 SG, with HILs with phosphonium cations being the most effective. The results of two-year field studies showed significantly less enhancement of activity than observed in the greenhouse; nonetheless, it was found that the herbicidal efficacy was higher than that of the commercial analog, and efficacy varied depending on the plant species.

  8. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak


    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  9. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  10. Ionic Liquids as Advanced Lubricant Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-José Carrión


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are finding technological applications as chemical reaction media and engineering fluids. Some emerging fields are those of lubrication, surface engineering and nanotechnology. ILs are thermally stable, non-flammable highly polar fluids with negligible volatility, these characteristics make them ideal candidates for new lubricants under severe conditions, were conventional oils and greases or solid lubricants fail. Such conditions include ultra-high vacuum and extreme temperatures. Other very promising areas which depend on the interaction between IL molecules and material surfaces are the use of ILs in the lubrication of microelectromechanic and nanoelectromechanic systems (MEMS and NEMS, the friction and wear reduction of reactive light alloys and the modification of nanophases.

  11. Ionic Adsorption and Desorption of CNT Nanoropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jun Shang


    Full Text Available A nanorope is comprised of several carbon nanotubes (CNTs with different chiralities. A molecular dynamic model is built to investigate the ionic adsorption and desorption of the CNT nanoropes. The charge distribution on the nanorope is obtained by using a modified gradient method based on classical electrostatic theory. The electrostatic interactions among charged carbon atoms are calculated by using the Coulomb law. It was found here that the charged nanorope can adsorb heavy metal ions, and the adsorption and desorption can be realized by controlling the strength of applied electric field. The distance between the ions and the nanorope as well as the amount of ions have an effect on the adsorption capacity of the nanorope. The desorption process takes less time than that of adsorption. The study indicates that the CNT nanorope can be used as a core element of devices for sewage treatment.

  12. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems (United States)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.


    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1 /D κ2 , where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ-1 is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L2/D , where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  13. Chelating ionic liquids for reversible zinc electrochemistry. (United States)

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R


    Advanced, high energy-density, metal-air rechargeable batteries, such as zinc-air, are of intense international interest due to their important role in energy storage applications such as electric and hybrid vehicles, and to their ability to deal with the intermittency of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Ionic liquids offer a number of ideal thermal and physical properties as potential electrolytes in such large-scale energy storage applications. We describe here the synthesis and characterisation of a family of novel "chelating" ILs designed to chelate and solubilize the zinc ions to create electrolytes for this type of battery. These are based on quaternary alkoxy alkyl ammonium cations of varying oligo-ether side chains and anions such as p-toluene sulfonate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and dicyanoamides. This work shows that increasing the ether chain length in the cation from two to four oxygens can increase the ionic conductivity and reduce the melting point from 67 °C to 15 °C for the tosylate system. Changing the anion also plays a significant role in the nature of the zinc deposition electrochemistry. We show that zinc can be reversibly deposited from [N(222(20201))][NTf2] and [N(222(202020201))][NTf2] beginning at -1.4 V and -1.7 V vs. SHE, respectively, but not in the case of tosylate based ILs. This indicates that the [NTf2] is a weaker coordinating anion with the zinc cation, compared to the tosylate anion, allowing the coordination of the ether chain to dominate the behavior of the deposition and stripping of zinc ions.

  14. Ionic liquids-mediated interactions between nanorods (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Zhang, Fei; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Qiao, Rui


    Surface forces mediated by room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) play an essential role in diverse applications including self-assembly, lubrication, and electrochemical energy storage. Therefore, their fundamental understanding is critical. Using molecular simulations, we study the interactions between two nanorods immersed in model RTILs at rod-rod separations where both structural and double layer forces are important. The interaction force between neutral rods oscillates as the two rods approach each other, similar to the classical structural forces. Such oscillatory force originates from the density oscillation of RTILs near each rod and is affected by the packing constraints imposed by the neighboring rods. The oscillation period and decay length of the oscillatory force are mainly dictated by the ion density distribution near isolated nanorods. When charges are introduced on the rods, the interaction force remains short-range and oscillatory, similar to the interactions between planar walls mediated by some protic RTILs reported earlier. Nevertheless, introducing net charges to the rods greatly changes the rod-rod interactions, e.g., by delaying the appearance of the first force trough and increasing the oscillation period and decay length of the interaction force. The oscillation period and decay length of the oscillatory force and free energy are commensurate with those of the space charge density near an isolated, charged rod. The free energy of rod-rod interactions reaches local minima (maxima) at rod-rod separations when the space charges near the two rods interfere constructively (destructively). The insight on the short-range interactions between nanorods in RTILs helps guide the design of novel materials, e.g., ionic composites based on rigid-rod polyanions and RTILs.

  15. Ionically Bound Peroxidase from Peach Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Valdir Augusto


    Full Text Available Soluble, ionically bound peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO were extracted from the pulp of peach fruit during ripening at 20°C. Ionically bound form was purified 6.1-fold by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzyme showed only one peak of activity on Sephadex G-100 and PAGE revealed that the enzyme was purified by the procedures adopted. The purified enzyme showed a molecular weight of 29000 Da, maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 40ºC. The calculated apparent activation energy (Ea for the reaction was10.04 kcal/mol. The enzyme was heat-labile in the temperature range of 60 to 75ºC with a fast inactivation at 75ºC. Measurement of residual activity showed a stabilizing effect of sucrose at various temperature/sugar concentrations (0, 10, 20 %, w/w, with an activation energy (Ea for inactivation increasing with sucrose concentration from 0 to 20% (w/w. The Km and Vmax values were 9.35 and 15.38 mM for 0-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The bound enzyme was inhibited competitively by ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids with different values of Ki,. L-cysteine, p-coumaric and indolacetic acid and Fe++ also inhibited the enzyme but at a lower grade. N-ethylmaleimide and p-CMB were not effective to inhibit the enzyme demonstrating the non-essentiality of SH groups.

  16. Single Crystal Faceplate Evaluation (United States)


    7]. Much the research at Allied-Signal, Inc. in garnet layer growth has been involved with the kinetics of crystallization of garnet from LPE melts...acceptable resolution and light output characteristics. Single crystal faceplates being evaluated are composed of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) with an...1.1 Single Crystal Faceplate Developments Allied Signal, Inc. has done extensive development work in epitaxial layering of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG

  17. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei


    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends...

  18. Unusual molecular-ionic complex of tetrabutylammonium 5,5'-dibromo-2,2'-biphenolate (United States)

    Wojciechowski, G.; Katrusiak, A.; Brzezinski, B.


    Very unusual coexistence of neutral and ionic forms of identical molecules have been found in the molecular ionic crystal of one neutral 5,5'-dibromo-2,2'-biphenol molecule, its two anions and two tetrabutylammonium cations [C 12H 8O 2Br 2(C 12H 7O 2Br 2-) 2(C 16H 36N +) 2, 1:2:2 complex]. This exceptional structure is stabilised by intramolecular and intermolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The FTIR spectrum of the complex in the solid shows intense bands of the hydrogen-bonded motif as well as the continuous absorption indicating fluctuation of the proton in the OH +⋯O - intramolecular hydrogen bond. In chloroform and acetonitrile solutions the structure of the complex is completely different from the solid: fast fluctuations of the protons in circular hydrogen-bonded arrangement is proposed and these hydrogen bonds show large proton polarisability indicated by intense continuous absorption in the FTIR spectrum below 2000 cm -1.

  19. Interactions of Aqueous Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Mixtures with Solid-Supported Phospholipid Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Losada-Pérez

    Full Text Available Despite the environmentally friendly reputation of ionic liquids (ILs, their safety has been recently questioned given their potential as cytotoxic agents. The fundamental mechanisms underlying the interactions between ILs and cells are less studied and by far not completely understood. Biomimetic films are here important biophysical model systems to elucidate fundamental aspects and mechanisms relevant for a large range of biological interaction ranging from signaling to drug reception or toxicity. Here we use dissipative quartz crystal microbalance QCM-D to examine the effect of aqueous imidazolium-based ionic liquid mixtures on solid-supported biomimetic membranes. Specifically, we assess in real time the effect of the cation chain length and the anion nature on a supported vesicle layer of the model phospholipid DMPC. Results indicate that interactions are mainly driven by the hydrophobic components of the IL, which significantly distort the layer and promote vesicle rupture. Our analyses evidence the gradual decrease of the main phase transition temperature upon increasing IL concentration, reflecting increased disorder by weakening of lipid chain interactions. The degree of rupture is significant for ILs with long hydrophobic cation chains and large hydrophobic anions whose behavior is reminiscent of that of antimicrobial peptides.

  20. Energetic multifunctionalized nitraminopyrazoles and their ionic derivatives: ternary hydrogen-bond induced high energy density materials. (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M


    Diverse functionalization was introduced into the pyrazole framework giving rise to a new family of ternary hydrogen-bond induced high energy density materials. By incorporating extended cationic interactions, nitramine-based ionic derivatives exhibit good energetic performance and enhanced molecular stability. Performance parameters including heats of formation and detonation properties were calculated by using Gaussian 03 and EXPLO5 v6.01 programs, respectively. It is noteworthy to find that 5-nitramino-3,4-dinitropyrazole, 4, has a remarkable measured density of 1.97 g cm(-3) at 298 K, which is consistent with its crystal density (2.032 g cm(-3), 150 K), and ranks highest among azole-based CHNO compounds. Energetic evaluation indicates that, in addition to the molecular compound 4, some ionic derivatives, 9, 11, 12, 17, 19, and 22, also have high densities (1.83-1.97 g cm(-3)), excellent detonation pressures and velocities (P, 35.6-41.6 GPa; vD, 8880-9430 m s(-1)), as well as acceptable impact and friction sensitivities (IS, 4-30 J; FS, 40-240 N). These attractive features highlight the application potential of nitramino hydrogen-bonded interactions in the design of advanced energetic materials.

  1. Ionic Colloidal Molding as a Biomimetic Scaffolding Strategy for Uniform Bone Tissue Regeneration. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Jia, Jinpeng; Kim, Jimin P; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Meng; Bi, Wenzhi; Wang, Xing; Yang, Jian; Wu, Decheng


    Inspired by the highly ordered nanostructure of bone, nanodopant composite biomaterials are gaining special attention for their ability to guide bone tissue regeneration through structural and biological cues. However, bone malformation in orthopedic surgery is a lingering issue, partly due to the high surface energy of traditional nanoparticles contributing to aggregation and inhomogeneity. Recently, carboxyl-functionalized synthetic polymers have been shown to mimic the carboxyl-rich surface motifs of non-collagenous proteins in stabilizing hydroxyapatite and directing intrafibrillar mineralization in-vitro. Based on this biomimetic approach, it is herein demonstrated that carboxyl functionalization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) can achieve great material homogeneity in nanocomposites. This ionic colloidal molding method stabilizes hydroxyapatite precursors to confer even nanodopant packing, improving therapeutic outcomes in bone repair by remarkably improving mechanical properties of nanocomposites and optimizing controlled drug release, resulting in better cell in-growth and osteogenic differentiation. Lastly, better controlled biomaterial degradation significantly improved osteointegration, translating to highly regular bone formation with minimal fibrous tissue and increased bone density in rabbit radial defect models. Ionic colloidal molding is a simple yet effective approach of achieving materials homogeneity and modulating crystal nucleation, serving as an excellent biomimetic scaffolding strategy to rebuild natural bone integrity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Crystallization Formulation Lab (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  3. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia


    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  4. Automation in biological crystallization. (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen


    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  5. Tunable plasmonic crystal (United States)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory


    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  6. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch. (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi


    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatially resolved electrochemistry in ionic liquids: surface structure effects on triiodide reduction at platinum electrodes. (United States)

    Aaronson, Barak D B; Lai, Stanley C S; Unwin, Patrick R


    Understanding the relationship between electrochemical activity and electrode structure is vital for improving the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, the reduction of triiodide to iodide in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is investigated on polycrystalline platinum using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and correlated to the crystallographic orientation from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Although the rate determining step in all grains was the first electron transfer, significant grain-dependent variations in activity were revealed, with grains with a dominant (110) crystallographic character exhibiting higher catalytic activity compared to those with a major (100) orientation. The SECCM technique is demonstrated to resolve heterogeneity in activity, highlighting that methods incorporating polycrystalline electrodes miss vital details for understanding and optimizing electrocatalysts. An additional advantage of the SECCM over single-crystal techniques is its ability to probe high index facets.

  8. Nacre-like calcium carbonate controlled by ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite template. (United States)

    Yao, Chengli; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying


    Nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures have been mediated by an ionic liquid (IL)-graphene oxide (GO) composite template. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) or graphene oxide can act as a soft template for calcium carbonate formation with unusual morphologies. Based on the time-dependent morphology changes of calcium carbonate particles, it is concluded that nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures can be formed gradually utilizing [BMIM]BF4/GO composite template. During the process of calcium carbonate formation, [BMIM]BF4 acted not only as solvents but also as morphology templates for the fabrication of calcium carbonate materials with nacre-like morphology. Based on the observations, the possible mechanisms were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Shock Wave Energy Dissipation using Polymerized Ionic Liquids (United States)

    Lee, Jaejun; Ren, Yi; Evans, Christopher; Moore, Jeffrey; Sottos, Nancy


    Polymerized ionic liquids composed of alkyl-imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide anions exhibit intriguing shock wave energy absorption performance. In prior work, we observed a shock-induced disorder-to-order change in network forming ionic liquids. We hypothesize that this shock-induced ordering is strongly associated with the microstructure of the ionic liquids. Polymerized ionic liquids, which have similar microstructures but slower relaxation times compared to the ionic liquids, are prepared to demonstrate the ordering transition mechanism and to exploit relaxation processes for the energy dissipation. By employing size-tunable alkyl backbone spacers between cations, we explore the effect of the relative microstructural heterogeneity on the activation of shock-induced ordering. Relaxation time, which is adjustable by the alkyl spacer length, also plays an important role in the energy dissipation process. Absorption properties of a series of thin film (ca. 50 μm) polymerized ionic liquids are evaluated using a laser-induced shock wave testing protocol. Superior shock wave mitigating performance of polymerized ionic liquids was achieved compared to polyurea films.

  10. Adsorption Kinetics at Silica Gel/Ionic Liquid Solution Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Flieger


    Full Text Available A series of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids with different anions (Cl−, Br−, BF4−, PF6− has been evaluated for their adsorption activity on silica gel. Quantification of the ionic liquids has been performed by the use of RP-HPLC with organic-aqueous eluents containing an acidic buffer and a chaotropic salt. Pseudo-second order kinetic models were applied to the experimental data in order to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption process. The experimental data showed good fitting with this model, confirmed by considerably high correlation coefficients. The adsorption kinetic parameters were determined and analyzed. The relative error between the calculated and experimental amount of ionic liquid adsorbed at equilibrium was within 7%. The effect of various factors such as initial ionic liquid concentration, temperature, kind of solvent, kind of ionic liquid anion and cation on adsorption efficiency were all examined in a lab-scale study. Consequently, silica gel showed better adsorptive characteristics for imidazolium-based ionic liquids with chaotropic anions from aqueous solutions in comparison to pyridinium ionic liquids. The adsorption was found to decrease with the addition of organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile but it was not sensitive to the change of temperature in the range of 5–40 °C.

  11. Ionic structure in liquids confined by dielectric interfaces (United States)

    Jing, Yufei; Jadhao, Vikram; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica


    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as in the design of double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and in the extraction of metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations and liquid state theory. We explore the effects of high electrolyte concentrations, multivalent ions, dielectric contrasts, and external electric field on the ionic distributions. We observe the presence of non-monotonic ionic density profiles leading to a layered structure in the fluid which is attributed to the competition between electrostatic and steric (entropic) interactions. We find that thermal forces that arise from symmetry breaking at the interfaces can have a profound effect on the ionic structure and can oftentimes overwhelm the influence of the dielectric discontinuity. The combined effect of ionic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity significantly changes the character of the effective interaction between the two interfaces.

  12. Electroactive Ionic Soft Actuators with Monolithically Integrated Gold Nanocomposite Electrodes. (United States)

    Yan, Yunsong; Santaniello, Tommaso; Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Minnai, Chloé; Bellacicca, Andrea; Porotti, Riccardo; Denti, Ilaria; Faraone, Gabriele; Merlini, Marco; Lenardi, Cristina; Milani, Paolo


    Electroactive ionic gel/metal nanocomposites are produced by implanting supersonically accelerated neutral gold nanoparticles into a novel chemically crosslinked ion conductive soft polymer. The ionic gel consists of chemically crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) and polyacrylonitrile networks, blended with halloysite nanoclays and imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The material exhibits mechanical properties similar to that of elastomers (Young's modulus ≈ 0.35 MPa) together with high ionic conductivity. The fabrication of thin (≈100 nm thick) nanostructured compliant electrodes by means of supersonic cluster beam implantation (SCBI) does not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the soft polymer and provides controlled electrical properties and large surface area for ions storage. SCBI is cost effective and suitable for the scaleup manufacturing of electroactive soft actuators. This study reports the high-strain electromechanical actuation performance of the novel ionic gel/metal nanocomposites in a low-voltage regime (from 0.1 to 5 V), with long-term stability up to 76 000 cycles with no electrode delamination or deterioration. The observed behavior is due to both the intrinsic features of the ionic gel (elasticity and ionic transport capability) and the electrical and morphological features of the electrodes, providing low specific resistance (<100 Ω cm-2 ), high electrochemical capacitance (≈mF g-1 ), and minimal mechanical stress at the polymer/metal composite interface upon deformation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Soft Ionization of Thermally Evaporated Hypergolic Ionic Liquid Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Christine J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Chen-Lin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harmon, Christopher W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strasser, Daniel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Golan, Amir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kostko, Oleg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chambreau, Steven D. [Edwards Air Force Base, ERC Inc., CA (United States); Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N–]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca–]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicrometer aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Also, hotoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. Lastly, the method of ionic liquid submicrometer aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally “cooler” source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  14. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.


    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  15. Kinetics and enthalpy of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sádovská, Galina, E-mail:; Honcová, Pavla; Sádovský, Zdeněk


    Highlights: • The kinetic constant and growth order of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate was calculated. • The equation describing first-order crystal growth was derived. • The enthalpy of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate was determined. - Abstract: The kinetics of crystallization of uric acid dihydrate in aqueous solution with a constant ionic strength 0.3 mol dm{sup −3} NaCl and at thermodynamic and physiological temperature (25 and 37 °C) was studied using isoperibolic reaction twin calorimeter. The enthalpy of crystallization Δ{sub cr}H = −47.3 ± 0.9 and −46.2 ± 1.4 kJ mol{sup −1}and kinetic constant k{sub g} = 2.0 × 10{sup −8} and 9.6 × 10{sup −8} m{sup 4} s{sup −1} mol{sup −1} were determined at 25 and 37 °C, respectively.

  16. Mesoscale studies of ionic closed membranes with polyhedral geometries (United States)


    the B-component (in red) has YB= 5.77 and κB= 28.9. The radius of the shell is about R ∼ 11.3 in units of the average bond length. The fraction f...addition of salt up to salt concentration n = 500 mM NaCl . In order to reveal the structure of the faceted vesicles at low pH, simulations with a...induced by ionic correlations among the headgroups and van der Waals interactions between the tails. These ionic correlations, as in ionic bonding , are

  17. Structural simulations of nanomaterials self-assembled from ionic macrocycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B.; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)


    Recent research at Sandia has discovered a new class of organic binary ionic solids with tunable optical, electronic, and photochemical properties. These nanomaterials, consisting of a novel class of organic binary ionic solids, are currently being developed at Sandia for applications in batteries, supercapacitors, and solar energy technologies. They are composed of self-assembled oligomeric arrays of very large anions and large cations, but their crucial internal arrangement is thus far unknown. This report describes (a) the development of a relevant model of nonconvex particles decorated with ions interacting through short-ranged Yukawa potentials, and (b) the results of initial Monte Carlo simulations of the self-assembly binary ionic solids.

  18. Spectral SAR Ecotoxicology of Ionic Liquids: The Daphnia magna Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz


    Full Text Available Aiming to provide a unified theory of ionic liquids ecotoxicity, the recent spectral structure activity relationship (S-SAR algorithm is employed for testing the two additive models of anionic-cationic interaction containing ionic liquid activity: the causal and the endpoint, |0+〉 and |1+〉 models, respectively. As a working system, the Daphnia magna ecotoxicity was characterized through the formulated and applied spectral chemical-ecobiological interaction principles. Specific anionic-cationic-ionic-liquid rules of interaction along the developed mechanistic hypersurface map of the main ecotoxicity paths together with the so-called resonance limitation of the standard statistical correlation analysis were revealed.

  19. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)


    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  20. Protic Cationic Oligomeric Ionic Liquids of the Urethane Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Stryutsky, A. V.; Klymenko, N. S.


    Protic oligomeric cationic ionic liquids of the oligo(ether urethane) type are synthesized via the reaction of an isocyanate prepolymer based on oligo(oxy ethylene)glycol with M = 1000 with hexamethylene-diisocyanate followed by blocking of the terminal isocyanate groups with the use of amine der...... orders of magnitude. The resulting compounds are thermally stable up to 200-270 degrees C....... derivatives of imidazole, pyridine, and 3-methylpyridine and neutralization of heterocycles with ethanesulfonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid. The structures and properties of the synthesized oligomeric ionic liquids substantially depend on the structures of the ionic groups. They are amorphous at room...

  1. Theoretical studies of ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ernesto Lopez [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular y Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, 1er. Piso, Col Centro, Mexico D.F. CP 06080 (Mexico); Oviedo-Roa, R.; Contreras-Perez, Gustavo; Martinez-Magadan, Jose Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, CP 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castillo-Alvarado, F.L. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 de la UPALM, Colonia Lindavista, Mexico D.F. CP 07738 (Mexico)


    Ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes was studied using techniques of molecular modeling and simulation. The COMPASS force field was used. The simulation allows the description of the mechanism of ionic conductivity along the polymer matrix. The theoretical results obtained are compared with experimental results for chitosan membranes. The analysis suggests that the conduction mechanism is portrayed by the overlapping large Polaron tunneling model. In addition, when the chitosan membrane was crosslinked with an appropriate degree of crosslinking its ionic conductivity, at room temperature, was increased by about one order of magnitude. The chitosan membranes can be used as electrolytes in solid state batteries, electric double layer capacitors and fuel cells. (author)

  2. Role of the Strength of Drug-Polymer Interactions on the Molecular Mobility and Crystallization Inhibition in Ketoconazole Solid Dispersions. (United States)

    Mistry, Pinal; Mohapatra, Sarat; Gopinath, Tata; Vogt, Frederick G; Suryanarayanan, Raj


    The effects of specific drug-polymer interactions (ionic or hydrogen-bonding) on the molecular mobility of model amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) were investigated. ASDs of ketoconazole (KTZ), a weakly basic drug, with each of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared. Drug-polymer interactions in the ASDs were evaluated by infrared and solid-state NMR, the molecular mobility quantified by dielectric spectroscopy, and crystallization onset monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and variable temperature X-ray diffractometry (VTXRD). KTZ likely exhibited ionic interactions with PAA, hydrogen-bonding with PHEMA, and weaker dipole-dipole interactions with PVP. On the basis of dielectric spectroscopy, the α-relaxation times of the ASDs followed the order: PAA > PHEMA > PVP. In addition, the presence of ionic interactions also translated to a dramatic and disproportionate decrease in mobility as a function of polymer concentration. On the basis of both DSC and VTXRD, an increase in strength of interaction translated to higher crystallization onset temperature and a decrease in extent of crystallization. Stronger drug-polymer interactions, by reducing the molecular mobility, can potentially delay the crystallization onset temperature as well as crystallization extent.

  3. Ionic and Optical Properties of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite across the Tetragonal-Cubic Structural Phase Transition. (United States)

    Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Islam, Nazifah; Li, Zhen; Ren, Guofeng; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang


    Practical hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) must endure temperatures above the tetragonal-cubic structural phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3 ). However, the ionic and optical properties of MAPbI3 in such a temperature range, and particularly, dramatic changes in these properties resulting from a structural phase transition, are not well studied. Herein, we report a striking contrast at approximately 45 °C in the ionic/electrical properties of MAPbI3 owing to a change of the ion activation energy from 0.7 to 0.5 eV, whereas the optical properties exhibit no particular transition except for the steady increase of the bandgap with temperature. These observations can be explained by the "continuous" nature of perovskite phase transition. We speculate that the critical temperature at which the ionic/electrical properties change, although related to crystal symmetry variation, is not necessarily the same temperature as when tetragonal-cubic structural phase transition occurs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ionic and Optical Properties of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite across the Tetragonal-Cubic Structural Phase Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas 79409 USA; Islam, Nazifah [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas 79409 USA; Li, Zhen [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Ren, Guofeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas 79409 USA; Zhu, Kai [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Fan, Zhaoyang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas 79409 USA


    Practical hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) must endure temperatures above the tetragonal-cubic structural phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). However, the ionic and optical properties of MAPbI3 in such a temperature range, and particularly, dramatic changes in these properties resulting from a structural phase transition, are not well studied. Herein, we report a striking contrast at approximately 45 degrees C in the ionic/electrical properties of MAPbl3 owing to a change of the ion activation energy from 0.7 to 0.5 eV, whereas the optical properties exhibit no particular transition except for the steady increase of the bandgap with temperature. These observations can be explained by the 'continuous' nature of perovskite phase transition. We speculate that the critical temperature at which the ionic/electrical properties change, although related to crystal symmetry variation, is not necessarily the same temperature as when tetragonal-cubic structural phase transition occurs.

  5. Crystal structure of 4-benzylcarbamoyl-1-methylpyridin-1-ium iodide: an efficient multimodal antiviral drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Drebushchak


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [MeC5H4NCONHCH2C6H5]I or C14H15N2O+·I−, a cation and an anion form an ionic pair linked by a strong N—H...I hydrogen bond. In the crystal, ionic pairs linked by weak C—H...I hydrogen bonds form infinite ribbons along the crystallographic a axis. Polymorphism screening varying crystallization solvents (water, acetone 90%–water, ethanol 90%–water, 2-propanol 90%–water, DMF, DMSO, methanol, acetonitrile and conditions (solution temperature, heating and cooling protocols did not reveal any other polymorphs than the one reported in this work.

  6. Manipulation of colloidal crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, E.C.M.


    Colloidal particles (approximately a micrometer in diameter) that are dispersed in a fluid, behave thermodynamically similar to atoms and molecules: at low concentrations they form a fluid, while at high concentrations they can crystallize into a colloidal crystal to gain entropy. The analogy with

  7. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D


    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  8. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  9. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo


    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  10. Protic Organic Ionic Plastic Crystals: Fast Solid-State Proton Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Aili, David; Pan, Chao


    High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating between 100 °C and 200 °C are desirable because they offer significant benefits, such as improved electrode kinetics, simpler water and heat management, and better tolerance to fuel impurities, leading to higher overall s...

  11. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart


    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  12. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C


    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  13. Electron Spin Resonance investigation of undoped and Li-doped CdWO_4 scintillator crystals


    Laguta, V. V.; Nikl, M.; Buryi, M.


    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of Fe3+ and Mn2+ ions have been studied in the nominally pure and 0.05% Li-doped single crystals of CdWO4. The zero-field splitting parameters are determined with a high precision for both of the impurities. The result suggest that the Li-doping leads to the increase of the ionic charge of iron from 3+ to 4+ and of manganese, from 1+ to 2+.

  14. Crystallization phenomena of isotactic polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Peter Jan


    In this thesis the crystallization behavior of isotactic polystyrene has been described. The kinetics of the crystallization process and the crystalline structure were studied both for crystallization in the bulk and from dilute solutions. ... Zie Summary

  15. Counterion condensation in ionic micelles as studied by a combined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to the study of counterion condensation in ionic micelles. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering measurements have been carried out on two surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and ...

  16. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakanta Behera


    Full Text Available Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability, ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2 gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  17. Ionic potential as a controller of seawater composition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    Attempts have been made to study whether linear relations exist between ionic potentials (IP) and factors determining their fate in seawater. Various elements have been studied according to the geochemical classification. Lithophilic 1 (L1) elements...

  18. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquid: A review (United States)

    Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. S.; Salleh, M. S. N.; Yusof, N. B.


    Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids (IL) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) lets the comprehensive dissolution of cellulose. Basically, cellulose can be dissolved, in some hydrophilic ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). Chloride based ionic liquids are suitable solvents for cellulose dissolution. Although the ILs is very useful in fine chemical industry, its application in the pharmaceutical and food industry have been very limited due to issues with toxicity, purity, and high cost. Seeing to these limitations, new green alternative solvent which is DES was used. This green solvents, may be definitely treated as the next-generation reagents for more sustainable industrial development. Thus, this review aims to discuss the dissolution of cellulose either with ionic liquids or DES and its application.

  19. A pressure sensitive ionic gel FET for tactile sensing (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Sato, T.; Toshiyoshi, H.


    Field-effect-transistor (FET) is combined with an ionic gel to realize a pressure sensitive ionic-gel field-effect-transistor (PSG-FET) of high sensitivity and low operational voltage. The ionic gels form a layer of charge accumulation in a nanometric scale called the electrical double layer (EDL) on each electrode upon voltage application and exhibit quite high capacitance. The source-drain current through the ZnO channel increases from the initial 44 nA (without pressure) to 783 μA (with pressure, 7 kPa), yielding an ON/OFF contrast as large as 1.7 × 104, due to EDLs, which is interpreted as a pressure sensitivity of 2.2 × 103 kPa-1. Judging from the drain current and the gate voltage properties, the threshold voltage is calculated to be 2.8 V owing the large capacitance created by the ionic gel.

  20. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and test new, non-toxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. Vintage propulsion systems frequently use highly toxic...

  1. Production of biofuels and chemicals with ionic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhen; Qi, Xinhua


    This book explores the application of ionic liquids to biomass for producing biofuels and chemicals. Covers pretreatment, fermentation, cellulose transformation, reaction kinetics and more, as well as subsequent production of biofuels and platform chemicals.

  2. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ISHWARYA( R SARANI( M KIRTI VAISHNAVI and K SEKAR. Supplementary table 1. List of complete water-mediated ionic interactions formed by different combinations of charged atoms and their corresponding occurrences. S. No. Type.

  3. Ionic Liquids – Development and Challenges in Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetko Bubalo, M.


    Full Text Available Establishment of novel, highly productive, and sustainable processes for the production of industrially important compounds is becoming a growing area of research. Due to non-volatility, inflammability, great thermal, chemical and electrochemical stability and also recyclability, ionic liquids are extensively studied as possible green replacement for widely used conventional molecular solvents. Due to the extremely large number of possible chemical structures of ionic liquids, the ability to design ionic liquids for specific applications makes them unique solvents in electrochemistry, analytical chemistry, organic synthesis and (biocatalysis, separation processes, as well as functional fluids (lubricants, heat transfer fluids, corrosion inhibitors etc.. This paper presents a review of the scientific and technical literature related to ionic liquids, their basic properties, preparation and application, as well as the challenges of their application on an industrial scale.

  4. Advanced Ionic Liquid Monopropellant for Payload Ascent Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a monopropellant replacement for hydrazine using eutectic mixtures of ionic liquids (EILs). These liquids offer us the ability to tailor fluid...

  5. A new approach for understanding ion transport in glasses; example ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, only minor importance is given to the influence of structure of the glass on the ionic conductivity behaviour. In this paper, we have examined several general aspects of ion transport taking the example of ionically conducting glasses in pseudo binary, yNa2B4O7·(1−y) MaOb (with y = 0·25–0·79 and MaOb = PbO,.

  6. Thermo-responsive poly(ionic liquid) valves for microfluidic devices


    Tudor, Alexandru; Saez, Janire; Florea, Larisa; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot


    Poly(ionic liquid)s (PIL) are a class of ionic liquids that feature polymerizable groups in the cation, the anion or both. They retain most of the properties present in ionic liquids, including ionic conductivity, low vapour pressure and tunable physico-chemical properties. Several phosphonium ionic liquids have been shown to possess a lower critical solution temperature, making them suitable materials for the synthesis of temperature-responsive smart materials.1,2 Herein, we present the synt...

  7. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL


    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  8. Lead-Salt Quantum-Dot Ionic Liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng


    PbS quantum dots (QDs) are functionalized using ionic liquids with thiol moieties as capping ligands. The resulting amphiphilic QD ionic liquids exhibit fluidlike behavior at room temperature, even in the absence of solvents. The photostability of the QDs is dramatically improved compared to the as-synthesized oleic acid-capped QDs dispersed in toluene. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Microstructures and dynamics of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Li, Bin; Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto


    Atomistic simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations on liquid morphologies, microscopic ionic structures, and dynamical quantities of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids. The liquid morphologies are characterized by sponge-like interpenetrating polar and apolar networks in ionic liquids consisting of tetraalkylphosphonium cations with short aliphatic chains. The lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations lead to polar domains consisting of chloride anions and central polar groups in cations being partially or totally segregated in ionic liquid matrices due to a progressive expansion of apolar domains in between. Prominent polarity alternation peaks and adjacency correlation peaks are observed at low and high q range in total X-ray scattering structural functions, respectively, and their peak positions gradually shift to lower q values with lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations. The charge alternation peaks registered in the intermediate q range exhibit complicated tendencies due to a cancellation of peaks and anti-peaks in partial structural functions for ionic subcomponents. The particular microstructures and liquid morphologies in tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids intrinsically contribute to distinct dynamics characterized by mean square displacements, van Hove correlation functions, and non-Gaussian parameters for ionic species in the heterogeneous ionic environment. Most tetraalkylphosphonium cations have higher translational mobilities than their partner anions due to strong coordination of chloride anions with central polar groups in tetraalkylphosphonium cations through strong Coulombic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The increase of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations leads to a concomitant shift of van Hove correlation functions and non-Gaussian parameters to larger radial distances and longer time

  10. The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids (United States)


    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT During the reporting period the development of the ionic liquid ferrofluid (ILFF) based on EMIM-NTf2 was continued. The...nitrate (EAN) miscible ferrofluid based on the high-boiling-point solvent sulfolane. As part of this collaboration we have also been investigating new... ferrofluids based on other high-boiling solvents. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Electric Propulsion, Ionic liquids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  11. Magnetic field tunable capacitive dielectric:ionic-liquid sandwich composites (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan


    We examined the tunability of the capacitance for GaFeO3-ionic liquid-GaFeO3 composite material by external magnetic and electric field. Up to 1.6 folds of capacitance tunability could be achieved at 957 kHz with voltage 4 V and magnetic field 0.02 T applied. We show that the capacitance enhancement is due to the polarization coupling between dielectric layer and ionic liquid layer.

  12. Molecular Orbital Based Design Guidelines for Hypergolic Energetic Ionic Liquids (United States)


    Paper from semi-empirical quantum calculations. Chambreau et al. [10] reported Fourier transform infrared experiments and ab initio calculations to... Fourier Transform In- frared Studies in Hypergolic Ignition of Ionic Liquids, J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 7816. [11] D. Sengupta, J. V. Cole, Quantum...D. McCrary, G. Chatel, S. A. Alaniz, O. A. Cojocaru, P. A. Beas- ley , L. A. Flores, S. P. Kelley, P. S. Barber, R. D. Rogers, Evaluating Ionic

  13. The Twentieth International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids (United States)


    Heterocyclic Carbene Involved?" by Hyung Kim "Carbon Dioxide Absorption Behavior and Cabronate Ion Transport of Lithium Orthosilicate/Molten Carbonate...Electrodeposition of Metals" by Remana Reddy "In Situ TEM Observations of Lithium Electrodeposition/Stripping Process in Ionic Liquid" by Tetsuya Tsuda "Green... America . iii Preface The 20th International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids Symposium was held on October 2 - 7, 2016, in Honolulu, Hawaii as

  14. Conformational behavior of ionic self-complementary peptides.


    Altman, M; Lee, P; Rich, A.; Zhang, S.


    Several de novo designed ionic peptides that are able to undergo conformational change under the influence of temperature and pH were studied. These peptides have two distinct surfaces with regular repeats of alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic side chains. This permits extensive ionic and hydrophobic interactions resulting in the formation of stable beta-sheet assemblies. The other defining characteristic of this type of peptide is a cluster of negatively charged aspartic or glutamic aci...

  15. Mechanical properties of monolayer GaS and GaSe crystals


    Yağmurcukardeş, Mehmet; Senger, Ramazan Tuğrul; Peeters, François M.; Şahin, Hasan


    The mechanical properties of monolayer GaS and GaSe crystals are investigated in terms of their elastic constants: in-plane stiffness (C), Poisson ratio (ν), and ultimate strength (σU) by means of first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants are compared with those of graphene and monolayer MoS2. Our results indicate that monolayer GaS is a stiffer material than monolayer GaSe crystals due to the more ionic character of the Ga-S bonds than the Ga-Se bonds. Although their Po...

  16. A (3 + 3)-dimensional "hypercubic" oxide-ionic conductor: type II Bi2O3-Nb2O5. (United States)

    Ling, Chris D; Schmid, Siegbert; Blanchard, Peter E R; Petříček, Vaclav; McIntyre, Garry J; Sharma, Neeraj; Maljuk, Andrey; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A; Kharton, Vladislav V; Gutmann, Matthias; Withers, Ray L


    The high-temperature cubic form of bismuth oxide, δ-Bi2O3, is the best intermediate-temperature oxide-ionic conductor known. The most elegant way of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 to room temperature, while preserving a large part of its conductivity, is by doping with higher valent transition metals to create wide solid-solutions fields with exceedingly rare and complex (3 + 3)-dimensional incommensurately modulated "hypercubic" structures. These materials remain poorly understood because no such structure has ever been quantitatively solved and refined, due to both the complexity of the problem and a lack of adequate experimental data. We have addressed this by growing a large (centimeter scale) crystal using a novel refluxing floating-zone method, collecting high-quality single-crystal neutron diffraction data, and treating its structure together with X-ray diffraction data within the superspace symmetry formalism. The structure can be understood as an "inflated" pyrochlore, in which corner-connected NbO6 octahedral chains move smoothly apart to accommodate the solid solution. While some oxide vacancies are ordered into these chains, the rest are distributed throughout a continuous three-dimensional network of wide δ-Bi2O3-like channels, explaining the high oxide-ionic conductivity compared to commensurately modulated phases in the same pseudobinary system.

  17. Molecular Simulation of Ionic Polyimides and Composites with Ionic Liquids as Gas-Separation Membranes. (United States)

    Abedini, Asghar; Crabtree, Ellis; Bara, Jason E; Turner, C Heath


    Polyimides are at the forefront of advanced membrane materials for CO2 capture and gas-purification processes. Recently, ionic polyimides (i-PIs) have been reported as a new class of condensation polymers that combine structural components of both ionic liquids (ILs) and polyimides through covalent linkages. In this study, we report CO2 and CH4 adsorption and structural analyses of an i-PI and an i-PI + IL composite containing [C4mim][Tf2N]. The combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations is used to compute the gas solubility and the adsorption performance with respect to the density, fractional free volume (FFV), and surface area of the materials. Our results highlight the polymer relaxation process and its correlation to the gas solubility. In particular, the surface area can provide meaningful guidance with respect to the gas solubility, and it tends to be a more sensitive indicator of the adsorption behavior versus only considering the system density and FFV. For instance, as the polymer continues to relax, the density, FFV, and pore-size distribution remain constant while the surface area can continue to increase, enabling more adsorption. Structural analyses are also conducted to identify the nature of the gas adsorption once the ionic liquid is added to the polymer. The presence of the IL significantly displaces the CO2 molecules from the ligand nitrogen sites in the neat i-PI to the imidazolium rings in the i-PI + IL composite. However, the CH4 molecules move from the imidazolium ring sites in the neat i-PI to the ligand nitrogen atoms in the i-PI + IL composite. These molecular details can provide critical information for the experimental design of highly selective i-PI materials as well as provide additional guidance for the interpretation of the simulated adsorption systems.

  18. Hydrogen-bonding networks from first-principles: exploring the guanidine crystal. (United States)

    Hoepfner, Veronika; Deringer, Volker L; Dronskowski, Richard


    Hydrogen bonding is among the most important interactions in molecular crystals, and examples are abundant. As a consequence of such interactions, many molecules crystallize in complex but intriguing structures, in contrast to the relatively simple packing principles of metallic or ionic solids. In this work, we present a computational approach based on plane-wave density-functional theory (DFT) and supercell techniques, aiming to understand and quantify hydrogen-bonded networks in the solid state and in two-, one-, and zero-dimensional fragments derived from the molecular crystal. With such methodology at hand, we investigate guanidine, a fitting example of a molecular crystal and an important compound for inorganic and organic chemistry alike. On the basis of our computations, we discuss the initially proposed layered structure of guanidine and identify both stabilizing and destabilizing cooperative interactions in the three crystalline dimensions.

  19. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Dobbs, Howard A; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N


    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems.

  20. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Truhan, Jr., John J [ORNL


    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  1. Ionic Liquid Immobilized Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Reactions in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan D. Headley


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are organic salts with melting points typically below ambient or reaction temperature. The unique combination of physical properties of ionic liquids, such as lack of measurable vapor pressure, high thermal and chemical stability, make them ideal to be used as reusable homogenous support for catalysts. In addition, the solubility of ionic liquids in various reaction media can be controlled and easily fine-tuned by modification of the structures of their cations and anions. As a result, ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are very effective in aqueous media and can be separated easily from organic solvents, as well as aqueous phases by simply adjusting the polarity of the media. Ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are not only very versatile compounds that are effective catalysts for a wide spectrum of reactions, but are also environmentally friendly and recyclable organocatalysts. Herein, we provide a summary of the past decade in the area of asymmetric catalysis in aqueous media for a wide variety of reactions in which ionic liquid and related ammonium salt immobilized organocatalysts are used.

  2. Simultaneous Design of Ionic Liquids and Azeotropic Separation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock C.; White, John; Camarda, Kyle V.


    A methodology for the design of azeotrope separation processes using ionic liquids as entrainers is outlined. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model has been developed to screen for or design an ionic liquid entrainer that is soluble with the azeotropic components. Using the b...... % [BMPy][BF4] added. The driving force concept is used to design an extractive distillation process that minimizes energy inputs. The methodology given can be expanded to the use of ionic liquids as entrainers in any azeotropic system of interest.......A methodology for the design of azeotrope separation processes using ionic liquids as entrainers is outlined. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model has been developed to screen for or design an ionic liquid entrainer that is soluble with the azeotropic components. Using...... the best candidate, vapor-liquid equilibria data is predicted using a new ionic liquid UNIFAC model that has been developed. The UNIFAC model is used to confirm the breaking of the azeotrope. The methanol-acetone azeotrope at 1 atm is used as an example. The azeotrope was predicted to break with 10 mol...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Hernani


    Full Text Available One way to improve students’ chemistry literacy which is demanded in the modernization of modern technology-based chemistry learning is by studying ionic liquids. Low level of scientific literacy of students in Indonesia as revealed in the PISA in 2012 was the main reason of the research. Ionic liquids-based technology are necessary to be applied as a context for learning chemistry because: (1 the attention of the scientific an technology community in the use of ionic liquids as a new generation of green solvent, electrolyte material and fluidic engineering in recent years becomes larger, in line with the strong demands of the industry for the provision of new materials that are reliable, safe, and friendly for various purposes; (2 scientific explanations related to the context of the ionic liquid contains a lot of facts, concepts, principles, laws, models and theories can be used to reinforce the learning content as a media to develop thinking skill (process/competence as demanded by PISA; (3 The modern technology-based ionic liquid can also be used as a discourse to strengthen scientific attitude. The process of synthesis of ionic liquid involves fairly simple organic reagents, so it deserves to be included in the chemistry subject in school.

  4. Thermal boundary conductance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ionic liquids (United States)

    Oyake, Takafumi; Sakata, Masanori; Yada, Susumu; Shiomi, Junichiro


    A solid/liquid interface plays a critical role for understanding mechanisms of biological and physical science. Moreover, carrier density of the surface is dramatically enhanced by electric double layer with ionic liquid, salt in the liquid state. Here, we have measured the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) across an interface of gold thin film and ionic liquid by using time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Following the prior researches, we have identified the TBC of two interfaces. One is gold and hydrophilic ionic liquid, N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEME-BF4), which is a hydrophilic ionic liquid, and the other is N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (DEME-TFSI), which is a hydrophobic ionic liquid. We found that the TBC between gold and DEME-TFIS (19 MWm-2K-1) is surprisingly lower than the interface between gold and DEME-BF4 (45 MWm-2K-1). With these data, the importance of the wetting angle and ion concentration for the thermal transport at the solid/ionic liquid interface is discussed. Part of this work is financially supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Japan Science and Technology Agency. The author is financially supported by JSPS Fellowship.

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of magnetic ionic liquids. (United States)

    Sintra, Tânia E; Nasirpour, Maryam; Siopa, Filipa; Rosatella, Andreia A; Gonçalves, Fernando; Coutinho, João A P; Afonso, Carlos A M; Ventura, Sónia P M


    Although magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are not yet industrially applied, their continued development and eventual commercial use may lead to their appearance into the aquatic ecosystem through accidental spills or effluents, consequently promoting aquatic contaminations. Furthermore, the deficient information and uncertainty surrounding the environmental impact of MILs could be a major barrier to their widespread industrial application and international registration. Thus, in the present work, a range of cholinium salt derivatives with magnetic properties was synthesized and their ecotoxicity was evaluated towards the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The results suggest that all MILs structures tested are moderately toxic, or even toxic, to the bacteria. Furthermore, their toxicity is highly dependent on the structural modifications of the cation, namely the alkyl side chain length and the number of hydroxyethyl groups, as well as the atomic number of the metal anion. Finally, from the magnetic anions evaluated, the [MnCl4](2-) is the less toxic. In order to improve the knowledge for the prospective design of environmentally safer MILs, it is important to expand this study to other aquatic organisms at different trophic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass-imbalanced ionic Hubbard chain (United States)

    Sekania, Michael; Baeriswyl, Dionys; Jibuti, Luka; Japaridze, George I.


    A repulsive Hubbard model with both spin-asymmetric hopping (t↑≠t↓ ) and a staggered potential (of strength Δ ) is studied in one dimension. The model is a compound of the mass-imbalanced (t↑≠t↓ ,Δ =0 ) and ionic (t↑=t↓ ,Δ >0 ) Hubbard models, and may be realized by cold atoms in engineered optical lattices. We use mostly mean-field theory to determine the phases and phase transitions in the ground state for a half-filled band (one particle per site). We find that a period-two modulation of the particle (or charge) density and an alternating spin density coexist for arbitrary Hubbard interaction strength, U ≥0 . The amplitude of the charge modulation is largest at U =0 , decreases with increasing U and tends to zero for U →∞ . The amplitude for spin alternation increases with U and tends to saturation for U →∞ . Charge order dominates below a value Uc, whereas magnetic order dominates above. The mean-field Hamiltonian has two gap parameters, Δ↑ and Δ↓, which have to be determined self-consistently. For U Uc they have different signs, and for U =Uc one gap parameter jumps from a positive to a negative value. The weakly first-order phase transition at Uc can be interpreted in terms of an avoided criticality (or metallicity). The system is reluctant to restore a symmetry that has been broken explicitly.

  7. A Review of Ionic Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E. Somers


    Full Text Available Due to ever increasing demands on lubricants, such as increased service intervals, reduced volumes and reduced emissions, there is a need to develop new lubricants and improved wear additives. Ionic liquids (ILs are room temperature molten salts that have recently been shown to offer many advantages in this area. The application of ILs as lubricants in a diverse range of systems has found that these materials can show remarkable protection against wear and significantly reduce friction in the neat state. Recently, some researchers have shown that a small family of ILs can also be incorporated into non-polar base oils, replacing traditional anti-wear additives, with excellent performance of the neat IL being maintained. ILs consist of large asymmetrical ions that may readily adsorb onto a metal surface and produce a thin, protective film under boundary lubrication conditions. Under extreme pressure conditions, certain IL compounds can also react to form a protective tribofilm, in particular when fluorine, phosphorus or boron atoms are present in the constituent ions.

  8. Enhanced Mixed Feedstock Processing Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Biomass pretreatment using certain ionic liquids (ILs) is very efficient, generally producing a substrate that is amenable to saccharification with fermentable sugar yields approaching theoretical limits. Although promising, several challenges must be addressed before IL pretreatment technology becomes commercially viable. Once of the most significant challenges is the affordable and scalable recovery and recycle or the IL itself. Pervaporation is a highly selective and scalable membrane separation process for quantitatively recovering volatile solutes or solvents directly from non-volatile solvents that could prove more versatile for IL dehydration than traditional solvent extraction processes, as well as efficient and energetically more advantageous than standard evaporative techniques. In this study we evaluated a commercially available pervaporation system for IL dehydration and recycling as part of an integrated IL pretreatment process using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) that has been proven to be very effective as a biomass pretreatment solvent. We demonstrate that >99.9 wt% [C2C1Im][OAc] can be recovered from aqueous solution and recycled at least five times. A preliminary techno-economic analysis validated the promising role of pervaporation in improving overall biorefinery process economics, especially in the case where other IL recovery technologies might lead to significant losses. These findings establish the foundation for further development of pervaporation as an effective method of recovering and recycling ILs using a commercially viable process technology.

  9. Ionomigration of neutral phases in ionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I. Wei; Li, Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kim, Seung-Wan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Suk-Joong L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Huang, Fuqiang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance, Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)


    Without sensing any physical force, a neutral object in an ion conducting solid can move in a uniform electrochemical field by coupling a global ion wind with localized counterion diffusion at the interface. This happens to pores and gas bubbles at 840 C in a fast O{sup 2-} conductor, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), despite having cations that are essentially frozen with lattice diffusivities 10{sup 12} times slower than the O{sup 2-} diffusivity. Through-thickness migration and massive electro-sintering in thin YSZ ceramics are observed at voltages similar to those in YSZ fuel cells and electrolysis cells. This effect should apply to any electrochemically-loaded multiphase ionic conducting solid, with or without an electric field, and can lead to electrolyte sintering, phase accumulation and electrode debonding, resulting in unexpected benefit or damage in electrochemical devices. As the velocity obeys a pseudo Stokes-Einstein equation, inversely proportional to the object size, an especially enhanced size effect is expected in nanocomposites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Membrane potential in multi-ionic mixtures. (United States)

    Lanteri, Y; Szymczyk, A; Fievet, P


    The membrane potential arising through charged porous membranes separating electrolyte mixtures at identical hydrostatic pressures but different concentrations was investigated theoretically by means of the steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion (SEDE) model. Transport phenomena were described through the Nernst-Planck formalism, while ion partitioning at the membrane/solution interfaces was accounted for by means of modified Donnan equations including steric and dielectric effects. The high concentration limit of the membrane potential depends on the mixture composition and the pore size as well. A specific feature of membrane potential in multi-ionic systems is the dependence at high concentration on the effective dielectric constant of the solution confined inside pores. Indeed, the effective dielectric constant inside pores does not affect the high concentration limit of the membrane potential in the case of single salt solutions. The low concentration limit of the membrane potential is independent of the mixture composition, the effective dielectric constant inside pores, and the pore radius, but it is ruled by counterions with the highest charge number. The membrane potential measured at high salt concentration with single salt solutions and electrolyte mixtures could be used to determine the pore size and the effective dielectric constant inside pores, respectively. This may constitute an alternative way for membrane characterization with the advantage of avoiding the need for additional rejection rate measurements.

  11. Permeation of Ionic Liquids through the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlio


    Full Text Available Alternative forms of drug delivery such as delivery through the skin, have been developed to explore other routes. However, the incorporation of poorly soluble or partially insoluble drugs into these delivery systems represents a major problem. Ionic liquids (ILs may be incorporated in aqueous, oily or hydroalcoholic solutions and thus, may be used as excipients in drug delivery systems to increase/improve the topical and transdermal drug delivery. However, it is fundamental to consider the cytotoxicity of these salts and it is also crucial to evaluate if these compounds permeate through the skin. Herein, three imidazole-based ILs: [C2mim][Br], [C4mim][Br] and [C6mim][Br], were synthesized and each IL was incorporated within caffeine saturated solutions. Permeation studies of the active (caffeine in these solutions were performed to evaluate the amount of IL that permeated through the porcine ear skin in the presence of the active. To achieve this, gravimetric studies of the receptor compartment were performed. Results showed that the more lipophilic IL [C6mim][Br] presented the highest permeation through the skin. The permeation is dependent upon the size of the alkyl chain of the IL, and as more than 60% of the ILs permeate is it vital to consider the cytotoxicity of these salts when considering their incorporation in topical systems.

  12. Nanofluidics: Ionic transport through a nanochannel (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Cristophe; Bocquet, Lyderic


    Nanopore based membranes find nowadays interesting applications such as water treatment [1] and power energy conversion [2]. We consider a single micrometric glass channel. We show how surface effect can modify the channel trasport properties. We measure the ionic conductance through the channel as a function of the electrolyte concentration showing a saturation effect in the very low concentration regime. Such effect is due to the surface correction to the channel conductance [3]. The effective surface charge obtained by the conductance measurements, is largely higher than what commonly measured for glass surfaces [4]. Introducing a moderate hydrodynamic slippage of the fluid at the solid-fluid interface allows us to obtain surface charge values in agreement with what presented in literature. A quantitave agreement with independent measurement of electro-osmotic mobility and streaming current allows us to fully characterize the slippage effect on the channel electokinetic properties.[4pt] [1] H. Liu et al., 64 (2009)[0pt] [2] F.H.J. van der Heyden et al. Nanoletters 7, 4, 1022 (2007)[0pt] [3] D. Stein et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 3, 035901 (2004)[0pt] [4] L. Bocquet et al. Chem Soc, Rev. (2010)

  13. Influence of methyl red as a dopant on the electrical properties and device performance of liquid crystals. (United States)

    Wu, Po-Chang; Hou, Chien-Tsung; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wei


    The ionic effect in nematic liquid-crystal (LC) cells containing the azo dye methyl red was investigated by means of dielectric spectroscopy, measurements of voltage holding ratio (VHR) and ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that incorporating a minute amount of the methyl red (< 0.03 wt%) in the LC host leads to the suppression of the ionic effect caused by impurity ions. Practically, the doped LC cells with a dye content of 0.02 wt% showed improved VHR and promoted lifetime by 15% and 180%, respectively, in virtually no expense of the optical transmittance.

  14. Quartz crystal growth (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.


    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  15. Thermodynamic studies of ionic hydration and interactions for amino acid ionic liquids in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K. (United States)

    Dagade, Dilip H; Madkar, Kavita R; Shinde, Sandeep P; Barge, Seema S


    Amino acid ionic liquids are a special class of ionic liquids due to their unique acid-base behavior, biological significance, and applications in different fields such as templates in synthetic chemistry, stabilizers for biological macromolecules, etc. The physicochemical properties of these ionic liquids can easily be altered by making the different combinations of amino acids as anion along with possible cation modification which makes amino acid ionic liquids more suitable to understand the different kinds of molecular and ionic interactions with sufficient depth so that they can provide fruitful information for a molecular level understanding of more complicated biological processes. In this context, volumetric and osmotic coefficient measurements for aqueous solutions containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Emim]) based amino acid ionic liquids of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine are reported at 298.15 K. From experimental osmotic coefficient data, mean molal activity coefficients of ionic liquids were estimated and analyzed using the Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models. The hydration numbers of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions were obtained using activity data. Pitzer ion interaction parameters are estimated and compared with other electrolytes reported in the literature. The nonelectrolyte contribution to the aqueous solutions containing ionic liquids was studied by calculating the osmotic second virial coefficient through an application of the McMillan-Mayer theory of solution. It has been found that the second osmotic virial coefficient which includes volume effects correlates linearly with the Pitzer ion interaction parameter estimated independently from osmotic data as well as the hydrophobicity of ionic liquids. The enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, explained using the Starikov-Nordén model of enthalpy-entropy compensation, and partial molar entropy analysis for aqueous [Emim][Gly] solutions are made by using experimental Gibb

  16. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquids into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Men


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquids have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  17. Crystals in light. (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica


    We have made images of crystals illuminated with polarized light for almost two decades. Early on, we abandoned photosensitive chemicals in favor of digital electrophotometry with all of the attendant advantages of quantitative intensity data. Accurate intensities are a boon because they can be used to analytically discriminate small effects in the presence of larger ones. The change in the form of our data followed camera technology that transformed picture taking the world over. Ironically, exposures in early photographs were presumed to correlate simply with light intensity, raising the hope that photography would replace sensorial interpretation with mechanical objectivity and supplant the art of visual photometry. This was only true in part. Quantitative imaging accurate enough to render the separation of crystalloptical quantities had to await the invention of the solid-state camera. Many pioneers in crystal optics were also major figures in the early history of photography. We draw out the union of optical crystallography and photography because the tree that connects the inventors of photography is a structure unmatched for organizing our work during the past 20 years, not to mention that silver halide crystallites used in chemical photography are among the most consequential "crystals in light", underscoring our title. We emphasize crystals that have acquired optical properties such as linear birefringence, linear dichroism, circular birefringence, and circular dichroism, during growth from solution. Other crystalloptical effects were discovered that are unique to curiously dissymmetric crystals containing embedded oscillators. In the aggregate, dyed crystals constitute a generalization of single crystal matrix isolation. Simple crystals provided kinetic stability to include guests such as proteins or molecules in excited states. Molecular lifetimes were extended for the preparation of laser gain media and for the study of the photodynamics of single

  18. Magnetic ions in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, K W


    There have been many demonstrations, particularly for magnetic impurity ions in crystals, that spin-Hamiltonians are able to account for a wide range of experimental results in terms of much smaller numbers of parameters. Yet they were originally derived from crystal field theory, which contains a logical flaw; electrons on the magnetic ions are distinguished from those on the ligands. Thus there is a challenge: to replace crystal field theory with one of equal or greater predictive power that is based on a surer footing. The theory developed in this book begins with a generic Hamiltonian, on

  19. Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.


    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Silumins alloy crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research, by ATD method, of hypo-, near- and hyperutectic silumins crystallization containing the following alloying additives: Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo, W, V. It has been shown that, depending on their concentration may crystallize pre-eutectic or eutectic multicomponent phases containing these alloy additives. It has been revealed that any subsequent crystallizable phase nucleate and grows near the liquid/former crystallized phase interface. In multiphases compound also falls the silicon, resulting in a reduction in its quantity and the fragmentation in the eutectic mixture. As a result, it gets a high hardness of silumins in terms of 110-220HB.

  1. Determination of Ionic Carriers in Polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld; Gunaratne, L.M.W.K.


    interactions between the ions, the polymer and the electrolyte solvent. When using a large, immobile anion (dodecyl benzene sulphonate) incorporated in PPy, the results in the NaCl/H2O electrolyte indicate mainly Na- ion motion, as expected. Simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and quartz crystal microbalance...... measurements indicate that the Na+ ions are accompanied by a large number (10-20) of H2O molecules. Force measurements show that the full variation in force occurs over a relatively small potential range. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Phase behavior and ionic conductivity of concentrated solutions of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers in an ionic liquid. (United States)

    Simone, Peter M; Lodge, Timothy P


    Concentrated solutions of poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymers were prepared using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMI][TFSI] as the solvent. The self-assembled microstructures adopted by the copolymer solutions have been characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering. Lyotropic mesophase transitions were observed, with a progression from hexagonally packed cylinders of PEO, to lamellae, to hexagonally packed cylinders of PS upon increasing [EMI][TFSI] content. The change in lamellar domain spacing with ionic liquid concentration was found to be comparable to that reported for other block copolymers in strongly selective solvents. The ionic conductivity of the concentrated PS-PEO/[EMI][TFSI] solutions was measured via impedance spectroscopy, and ranged from 1 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-3) S/cm at temperatures from 25 - 100 degrees C. Additionally, the ionic conductivity of the solutions was found to increase with both ionic liquid concentration and molecular weight of the PEO blocks. The ionic conductivity of PEO homopolymer/[EMI][TFSI] solutions was also measured in order to compare the conductivity of the PS-PEO solutions to the expected limit for a lamellar sample with randomly oriented microstructure grains.

  3. Cylindrical crystals of molybdenite-3R:sem- and x-ray investigations (United States)

    Yushkin, N.; Zhabin, A.


    Flat faces are the characteristic feature of ionic crystals; nevertheless, among them there are cleavage-faced ones, up to the crystals with cylindrical shapes. More often they occur among minerals with layer structure or minerals with higher tendency to structural defectiveness (cylindrite, franckeite, asbestos, jamesonite, boulangerite and etc.). We studied exotic cylindrical crystals of molybdenite, discovered in the pegmatite veins of Slyudyanogorsky deposit of muscovite in Middle Ural by Kobyashev Yu. S., Zverev G. F. in 1973. Crystals have cylindrical shape, sometimes with sharpened or flattened wedge-shaped edges. Their length is 2-10 mm, diameter 0.8-mm. At the cross section crystals possess concentrically-laminar composition with tabulated axled canal with diameter about 120mkm. Thin layers arise packages about 15 mkm thickness. In the section crystals are fixed up to 6 such packages visually as well as by methods of X-ray phase-dispersed introscopy. According to the data of monocrystal and powder X-ray molybdenite represents as trigonal polytype 3R-R3m with insignificant quantity of hexagonal polytype 2H-P6@3/mmc. Twisting of leaf-like crystalline germs is one of the reasons of formation of cylindrical crystals due to syngenetic shistosity of containing rocks with crystallization.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ionic polymer networks in a room-temperature ionic liquid. (United States)

    Stanzione, Joseph F; Jensen, Robert E; Costanzo, Philip J; Palmese, Giuseppe R


    Ionic liquid gels (ILGs) for potential use in ion transport and separation applications were generated via a free radical copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and N,N'-methylene(bis)acrylamide (MBA) using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate (IL) as a room temperature ionic liquid solvent medium. The AMPS and MBA monomer solubility window in the IL in the temperature range of 25 to 65 °C was determined. In situ ATR-FTIR showed near complete conversion of monomers to a cross-linked polymer network. ILGs with glass transition temperatures (T(g)s) near -50 °C were generated with T(g) decreasing with increasing IL content. The elastic moduli in compression (200 to 6600 kPa) decreased with increasing IL content and increasing AMPS content while the conductivities (0.35 to 2.14 mS cm⁻¹) increased with increasing IL content and decreasing MBA content. The polymer-IL interaction parameter (χ) (0.48 to 0.55) was determined via a modified version of the Bray and Merrill equation.

  5. Effects of ionic liquids on cation dynamics in amorphous polyethylene oxide electrolytes. (United States)

    Chattoraj, Joyjit; Diddens, Diddo; Heuer, Andreas


    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte material containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt for a wide temperature regime above and below the experimental crystallization temperature with and without N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (IL). The impact of the IL-concentration on the cation dynamics is studied. The increase of the cation mobility upon addition of IL is significant but temperature-independent. This can be related to distinct variations of the underlying transport properties as expressed within the previously introduced transport model of polymer electrolytes. Even for the largest IL concentration the transport model perfectly predicts the non-trivial time-dependence of the cationic mean square displacement for all temperatures. Finally, we compare our numerical and theoretical findings with the results of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. In this way we can exclusively relate the strong experimentally observed dependence of the low-temperature Li-diffusivity on the IL concentration to the impact of IL on crystallization.

  6. Phase behavior in quaternary ammonium ionic liquid-propanol solutions: Hydrophobicity, molecular conformations, and isomer effects (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Kohki, Erica; Nakada, Ayumu; Kishimura, Hiroaki


    In ionic liquids (ILs), the effects of a quaternary ammonium cation containing a hydroxyl group were investigated and compared with the effect of a standard quaternary ammonium cation. The cation possessing a hydroxyl group is choline, Chol+, and the anion is bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, TFSI-. Crystal polymorphism of pure [Chol][TFSI] was observed upon both cooling and heating by simultaneous X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. In contrast, [N3111][TFSI] (N3111+: N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium), a standard IL, demonstrated simple crystallization upon cooling. By adding 1-propanol or 2-propanol, the phase behaviors of the [Chol][TFSI]-based and [N3111][TFSI]-based mixtures were clearly distinguished. By Raman spectroscopy, the TFSI- anion conformers in the liquid state were shown to vary according to the propanol concentration, propanol isomer, and type of cation. The anomalous behaviors of pure [Chol][TFSI] and its mixtures are derived from hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group of Chol+ cation coupled with the hydrophobicity and packing efficiency of propanol.

  7. Overview of Ionic Liquids Used as Working Fluids in Absorption Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khamooshi


    Full Text Available The cycle performance of refrigeration cycles depends not only on their configuration, but also on thermodynamic properties of working pairs regularly composed of refrigerant and absorbent. The commonly used working pairs in absorption cycles are aqueous solutions of either lithium bromide water or ammonia water. However, corrosion, crystallization, high working pressure, and toxicity are their major disadvantages in industrial applications. Therefore, seeking more advantageous working pairs with good thermal stability, with minimum corrosion, and without crystallization has become the research focus in the past two decades. Ionic liquids (ILs are room-temperature melting salts that can remain in the liquid state at near or below room temperature. ILs have attracted considerable attention due to their unique properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, nonflammability, thermal stability, good solubility, low melting points, and staying in the liquid state over a wide temperature range from room temperature to about 300°C. The previously mentioned highly favorable properties of ILs motivated us for carrying out the present research and reviewing the available ILs found in the literature as the working fluids of absorption cycles. Absorption cycles contain absorption heat pumps, absorption chillers, and absorption transformers.

  8. Crystal Field Handbook (United States)

    Newman, D. J.; Ng, Betty


    List of contributors; Preface; Introduction; 1. Crystal field splitting mechanisms D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 2. Empirical crystal fields D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 3. Fitting crystal field parameters D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 4. Lanthanide and actinide optical spectra G. K. Liu; 5. Superposition model D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 6. Effects of electron correlation on crystal field splitting M. F. Reid and D. J. Newman; 7. Ground state splittings in S-state ions D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; 8. Invariants and moments Y. Y. Yeung; 9. Semiclassical model K. S. Chan; 10. Transition intensities M. F. Reid; Appendix 1. Point symmetry D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; Appendix 2. QBASIC programs D. J. Newman and Betty Ng; Appendix 3. Accessible program packages Y. Y. Yeung, M. F. Reid and D. J. Newman; Appendix 4. Computer package CST Cz. Rudowicz; Bibliography; Index.

  9. Hybrid photonic crystal fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arismar Cerqueira S. Jr; F. Luan; C. M. B. Cordeiro; A. K. George; J. C. Knight


    We present a hybrid photonic crystal fiber in which a guided mode is confined simultaneously by modified total internal reflection from an array of air holes and antiresonant reflection from a line...

  10. Crystal-Clear Technology. (United States)

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate J.; And Others


    Provides diagrams to aid in discussing polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) technology. Equipped with a knowledge of PDLC, teachers can provide students with insight on how the gap between basic science and technology is bridged. (ZWH)

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure and Hirschfeld surface analyses of an alkyl amine based salt, [C5H16N2][ZnCl4] and its enzyme inhibition activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud I. Al-Resayes


    Full Text Available A novel ionic zinc salt based on alkyl amine is reported. The structure of the studied salt is established by crystal X-ray crystallography, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, Hirschfeld surface analyses of the studied salt have also been carried out. In addition, reported salt shows significant enzyme inhibition activity against acetylcholinesterase.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and Hirschfeld surface analyses of an alkyl amine based salt, [C5H16N2][ZnCl4] and its enzyme inhibition activity


    Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Azam, Mohammad; Alam, Mahboob; Suresh Kumar, Raju; Adil, S. F.


    A novel ionic zinc salt based on alkyl amine is reported. The structure of the studied salt is established by crystal X-ray crystallography, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, Hirschfeld surface analyses of the studied salt have also been carried out. In addition, reported salt shows significant enzyme inhibition activity against acetylcholinesterase.

  13. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display (United States)


    with the drive capability of the present state-of-the- art microm.ziiaturized integi ated circuits. The impact of microminiaturizing the drive circuits...7 Advantages /Disadvantages of Prior Art .........- 8 Performance of the Liquid Crystal Matrix Display . . .. 8 Liquid Crystal...Holographic HUD Light Source ...................... .... 99 Design of a Special Purpose Mercury Art - Plo.?hcr La np . 104 V LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION FOR DISPLAY

  14. Active cluster crystals (United States)

    Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio


    We study the appearance and properties of cluster crystals (solids in which the unit cell is occupied by a cluster of particles) in a two-dimensional system of self-propelled active Brownian particles with repulsive interactions. Self-propulsion deforms the clusters by depleting particle density inside, and for large speeds it melts the crystal. Continuous field descriptions at several levels of approximation allow us to identify the relevant physical mechanisms.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The hollow core photonic crystal waveguide biosensor is designed and described. The biosensor was tested in experiments for artificial sweetener identification in drinks. The photonic crystal waveguide biosensor has a high sensitivity to the optical properties of liquids filling up the hollow core. The compactness, good integration ability to different optical systems and compatibility for use in industrial settings make such biosensor very promising for various biomedical applications.

  17. Simulation and understanding of atomic and molecular quantum crystals (United States)

    Cazorla, Claudio; Boronat, Jordi


    Quantum crystals abound in the whole range of solid-state species. Below a certain threshold temperature the physical behavior of rare gases (He 4 and Ne), molecular solids (H2 and CH4 ), and some ionic (LiH), covalent (graphite), and metallic (Li) crystals can be explained only in terms of quantum nuclear effects (QNE). A detailed comprehension of the nature of quantum solids is critical for achieving progress in a number of fundamental and applied scientific fields such as planetary sciences, hydrogen storage, nuclear energy, quantum computing, and nanoelectronics. This review describes the current physical understanding of quantum crystals formed by atoms and small molecules, as well as the wide palette of simulation techniques that are used to investigate them. Relevant aspects in these materials such as phase transformations, structural properties, elasticity, crystalline defects, and the effects of reduced dimensionality are discussed thoroughly. An introduction to quantum Monte Carlo techniques, which in the present context are the simulation methods of choice, and other quantum simulation approaches (e.g., path-integral molecular dynamics and quantum thermal baths) is provided. The overarching objective of this article is twofold: first, to clarify in which crystals and physical situations the disregard of QNE may incur in important bias and erroneous interpretations. And second, to promote the study and appreciation of QNE, a topic that traditionally has been treated in the context of condensed matter physics, within the broad and interdisciplinary areas of materials science.

  18. Crystal growth of drug materials by spherical crystallization (United States)

    Szabó-Révész, P.; Hasznos-Nezdei, M.; Farkas, B.; Göcző, H.; Pintye-Hódi, K.; Erős, I.


    One of the crystal growth processes is the production of crystal agglomerates by spherical crystallization. Agglomerates of drug materials were developed by means of non-typical (magnesium aspartate) and typical (acetylsalicylic acid) spherical crystallization techniques. The growth of particle size and the spherical form of the agglomerates resulted in formation of products with good bulk density, flow, compactibility and cohesivity properties. The crystal agglomerates were developed for direct capsule-filling and tablet-making.

  19. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia


    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  20. High-throughput crystallization screening. (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei


    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.