WorldWideScience

Sample records for pseudo first-order reaction

  1. Pseudo first ordered adsorption of noxious textile dyes by low-temperature synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.; Bhowmick, P.; Pahari, D.; Santra, S.; Sarkar, S.; Das, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2017-03-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) were synthesized by solid state reaction. The as prepared a-CNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. As-synthesized a-CNTs were used for, the first time, for removing different organic dyes from water. The dyes mainly include Rhodamine B and Methyl Orange and systematic batch mode studies of a-CNTs assisted adsorption have been executed in detail. The removing efficiency of a-CNTs has also been investigated for various sorption parameters like contact time, dosage, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time etc. It is seen that a-CNTs can be material of potential for removal of dyes. In case of Rhodamine B, the maximum time for removal was 45 min whereas for Methyl orange rapid removal was plausible in about 30 min even in ambient condition. The experimental data have been well correlated with classical Langmuir-Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models.

  2. Temporal Frequency Modulates Reaction Time Responses to First-Order and Second-Order Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V.; Ledgeway, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of temporal frequency and modulation depth on reaction times for discriminating the direction of first-order (luminance-defined) and second-order (contrast-defined) motion, equated for visibility using equal multiples of direction-discrimination threshold. Results showed that reaction times were heavily…

  3. Is a proposed reaction mechanism free from unnecessary assumptions? Occam's razor applied in a mathematical way to complex first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergson, Göran; Linderberg, Jan

    2008-05-08

    Following Occam's principle, a proposed reaction mechanism should not contain assumptions about the existence of reactive intermediates and reaction paths that are unnecessary for a full description and interpretation of the available facts. A mechanism refers, in this paper, to a proposed reaction scheme or network that represents the reactions supposed to be going on in a complex reaction system with observable species as well as unobservable reactive intermediates. The scope is limited here to (pseudo) first-order reactions and the steady-state approximation is invoked in order to relate unknown mechanistic rate constants to experimentally determined ones, and, when available, theoretically calculated quantities. When the resulting, nonlinear system of equations admits a unique solution within a physically reasonable domain, it is concluded that the reaction mechanism fulfills Occam's principle. Otherwise, there are many or no solutions. No subjective or qualitative arguments enter the procedure and the outcome is not negotiable.

  4. Critical ignition conditions in exothermically reacting systems: first-order reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Valeriy Yu.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the comparative analysis of the thermal explosion (TE) critical conditions on the planes temperature-conversion degree and temperature-time was conducted. It was established that the ignition criteria are almost identical only at relatively small values of Todes parameter. Otherwise, the results of critical conditions analysis on the plane temperature-conversion degree may be wrong. The asymptotic method of critical conditions calculation for the first-order reactions was proposed (taking into account the reactant consumption). The degeneration conditions of TE were determined. The calculation of critical conditions for specific first-order reaction was made. The comparison of the analytical results obtained with the results of numerical calculations and experimental data showed that they are in good agreement.

  5. Aquifer Denitrification: Is it a Zero-Order or First-Order Reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, S. F.

    2007-12-01

    Results from a network of 16 in situ mesocosms (ISMs) used to study aquifer denitrification at 5 sites in North Dakota and 4 sites in Minnesota (with 2 more installations planned for Iowa) are considered. At the Elk Valley aquifer (EVA) site in northeastern North Dakota, denitrification rates from six denitrification experiments were all better modeled as zero-order (0.16 +/- 0.05 mg nitrate-N/L/day), as determined by squared values of the linear correlation coefficient. Denitrification experiments at the other sites showed that denitrification was either below detection (nitrate-N/L/day) or was better modeled as a first-order reaction (0.00021/day to 0.0020/day), although squared values of the linear correlation coefficients for both rate models were nearly equal for some of the experiments. Not only were denitrification rates at the EVA site highest compared to the other sites in the ISM network, but sediment concentrations of electron donors at the EVA site were also greatest [ferrous iron about 0.3%, inorganic S (as pyrite) about 0.4%, organic C about 0.4%, weight basis]. These observations support the Michaelis- Menten model for reaction rates, which indicates that reaction rates will be zero-order when the substrate (electron donor) is abundant and first-order when the substrate availability is limited.

  6. MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS ON ACCELERATED VERTICAL PLATE IN A ROTATING FLUID WITH FIRST ORDER CHEMICAL REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthucumaraswamy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The precise analysis of the rotation effects on the unsteady flow of an incompressible fluid past a uniformly accelerated infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion has been undertaken, in the presence of a homogeneous first order chemical reaction. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The plate temperature as well as the concentration near the plate increase linearly with time. The velocity profiles, temperature and concentration are studied for different physical parameters, like the chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. It is also observed that the velocity increases with decreasing rotation parameter Ω.

  7. Design of experiments for zeroth and first-order reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martín-Martín, Raúl; Rodríguez-Aragón, Licesio J

    2014-09-01

    This work presents optimum designs for reaction rates experiments. In these experiments, time at which observations are to be made and temperatures at which reactions are to be run need to be designed. Observations are performed along time under isothermal conditions. Each experiment needs a fixed temperature and so the reaction can be measured at the designed times. For these observations under isothermal conditions over the same reaction a correlation structure has been considered. D-optimum designs are the aim of our work for zeroth and first-order reaction rates. Temperatures for the isothermal experiments and observation times, to obtain the most accurate estimates of the unknown parameters, are provided in these designs. D-optimum designs for a single observation in each isothermal experiment or for several correlated observations have been obtained. Robustness of the optimum designs for ranges of the correlation parameter and comparisons of the information gathered by different designs are also shown. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Kinetic Analysis of Parallel-Consecutive First-Order Reactions with a Reversible Step: Concentration-Time Integrals Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucientes, A. E.; de la Pena, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration-time integrals method has been used to solve kinetic equations of parallel-consecutive first-order reactions with a reversible step. This method involves the determination of the area under the curve for the concentration of a given species against time. Computer techniques are used to integrate experimental curves and the method…

  9. Transient modeling of non-Fickian transport and first-order reaction using continuous time random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Daniel K.; Hansen, Scott K.; Xu, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Contaminants in groundwater may experience a broad spectrum of velocities and multiple rates of mass transfer between mobile and immobile zones during transport. These conditions may lead to non-Fickian plume evolution which is not well described by the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Simultaneously, many groundwater contaminants are degraded by processes that may be modeled as first-order decay. It is now known that non-Fickian transport and reaction are intimately coupled, with reaction affecting the transport operator. However, closed-form solutions for these important scenarios have not been published for use in applications. In this paper, we present four new Green's function analytic solutions in the uncoupled, uncorrelated continuous time random walk (CTRW) framework for reactive non-Fickian transport, corresponding to the quartet of conservative tracer solutions presented by Kreft and Zuber (1978) for Fickian transport. These consider pulse injection for both resident and flux concentration combined with detection in both resident and flux concentration. A pair of solutions for resident concentration temporal pulses with detection in both flux and resident concentration is also presented. We also derive the relationship between flux and resident concentration for non-Fickian transport with first-order reaction for this CTRW formulation. An explicit discussion of employment of the new solutions to model transport with arbitrary upgradient boundary conditions as well as mobile-immobile mass transfer is then presented. Using the new solutions, we show that first-order reaction has no effect on the anomalous spatial spreading rate of concentration profiles, but produces breakthrough curves at fixed locations that appear to have been generated by Fickian transport. Under the assumption of a Pareto CTRW transition distribution, we present a variety of numerical simulations including results showing coherence of our analytic solutions and CTRW particle

  10. On the ambiguity of the reaction rate constants in multivariate curve resolution for reversible first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Henning; Sawall, Mathias; Kubis, Christoph; Selent, Detlef; Hess, Dieter; Franke, Robert; Börner, Armin; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    If for a chemical reaction with a known reaction mechanism the concentration profiles are accessible only for certain species, e.g. only for the main product, then often the reaction rate constants cannot uniquely be determined from the concentration data. This is a well-known fact which includes the so-called slow-fast ambiguity. This work combines the question of unique or non-unique reaction rate constants with factor analytic methods of chemometrics. The idea is to reduce the rotational ambiguity of pure component factorizations by considering only those concentration factors which are possible solutions of the kinetic equations for a properly adapted set of reaction rate constants. The resulting set of reaction rate constants corresponds to those solutions of the rate equations which appear as feasible factors in a pure component factorization. The new analysis of the ambiguity of reaction rate constants extends recent research activities on the Area of Feasible Solutions (AFS). The consistency with a given chemical reaction scheme is shown to be a valuable tool in order to reduce the AFS. The new methods are applied to model and experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using a CBL Unit, a Temperature Sensor, and a Graphing Calculator to Model the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions as Safe In-Class Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Schuman, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) technology, the graphing calculator, and the cooling and heating of water to model the behavior of consecutive first-order reactions is presented, where B is the reactant, I is the intermediate, and P is the product for an in-class demonstration. The activity demonstrates the spontaneous and consecutive…

  12. SENSMG: First-Order Sensitivities of Neutron Reaction Rates, Reaction-Rate Ratios, Leakage, keff, and α Using PARTISN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-21

    SENSMG is a tool for computing first-order sensitivities of neutron reaction rates, reaction-rate ratios, leakage, keff, and α using the PARTISN multigroup discrete-ordinates code. SENSMG computes sensitivities to all of the transport cross sections and data (total, fission, nu, chi, and all scattering moments), two edit cross sections (absorption and capture), and the density for every isotope and energy group. It also computes sensitivities to the mass density for every material and derivatives with respect to all interface locations. The tool can be used for one-dimensional spherical (r) and two-dimensional cylindrical (r-z) geometries. The tool can be used for fixed-source and eigenvalue problems. The tool implements Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) as discussed by Williams and Stacey. Section II of this report describes the theory behind adjoint-based sensitivities, gives the equations that SENSMG solves, and defines the sensitivities that are output. Section III describes the user interface, including the input file and command line options. Section IV describes the output. Section V gives some notes about the coding that may be of interest. Section VI discusses verification, which is ongoing. Section VII lists needs and ideas for future work. Appendix A lists all of the input files whose results are presented in Sec. VI.

  13. Type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition induced electrocaloric effect in lead-free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Chen, Guorui; Liu, Xing; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Li, Shandong; Li, Peng; Yang, Ke; Zeng, Huarong; Yan, Haixue

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the electrocaloric effect (ECE) of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (BNT-0.06BT) ceramic has been directly measured using a home-made adiabatic calorimeter. The maximum adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) approaches 0.86 K under an electric field of 5 kV/mm at 110 °C, which provides experimental evidence for optimizing the ECE near the type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition (PFOPT). Most importantly, a considerable ΔT value can be maintained over a wide temperature range well above the temperature of the PFOPT under a high electric field. In addition, ΔT is closely related to the structural transition and electric field strength. This work provides a guideline to investigate the high ECE in BNT-based ferroelectric ceramics for applications in cooling technologies.

  14. Fast and calibration free determination of first order reaction kinetics in API synthesis using in-situ ATR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Moritz C; Husmann, Sascha; Lechner, Christian; Kunick, Conrad; Scholl, Stephan

    2017-09-28

    In early stages of drug development only sparse amounts of the key substances are available, which is problematic for the determination of important process data like reaction kinetics. Therefore, it is important to perform experiments as economically as possible, especially in regards to limiting compounds. Here we demonstrate the use of a temperature step experiment enabling the determination of complete reaction kinetics in a single non-isothermal experiment. In contrast to the traditionally used HPLC, the method takes advantage of the high measuring rate and the low amount of labor involved in using in-situ ATR-FTIR to determine time-dependent concentration-equivalent data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First-order inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  16. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS ON FLOW PAST PARABOLIC STARTING MOTION OF ISOTHERMAL VERTICAL PLATE IN THE PRESENCE OF FIRST ORDER CHEMICAL REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthucumaraswamy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution of unsteady flow past a parabolic starting motion of the infinite isothermal vertical plate with uniform mass diffusion, in the presence of a homogeneous chemical reaction of the first order, has been studied. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The effect of velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters, such as chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, and time. It is observed that velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. The trend is reversed with respect to the chemical reaction parameter.

  17. Generalized semi-analytical solutions to multispecies transport equation coupled with sequential first-order reaction network in arbitrary heterogenious medium using GITT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical procedure for solving coupled the multispecies reactive solute transport equations, with a sequential first-order reaction network in arbitrary heterogeneous media using General Integral Transformation Tecgnique(GITT).This proposed approach was developed to describe behavior of reactive multicpecise transport on spatially or temporally varying flow velocities and dispersion coefficients with distinct retardation factors, which might be function of space and time. This proposed approach deals with general initial conditions, and arbitrary temporal variable inlet concentration as well as arbitrary heterogenous media. The proposed approach sequentially calculates the concentration distributions of each species by employing only the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). Because the proposed solutions for each species' concentration distributions have separable forms in space and time, the solution for subsequent species (daughter species) can be obtained using only the GITT without the decomposition by change-of-variables method imposing the limitation of identical retarda- tion values for all the reactive species by directly substituting solutions for the preceding species (parent species) into the transport equation of subsequent species (daughter species). The proposed solutions were compared with previously published analytical solutions or numerical solutions of the numerical code of the Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) in all verification examples. In these examples, the proposed solutions were well matched with previous analytical solutions and the numerical solutions obtained by 2DFATMIC model. A hypothetical single-well push-pull test example and a scale-dependent dispersion example were designed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed solution to a real field problem.

  18. Generalized semi-analytical solutions to multispecies transport equation coupled with sequential first-order reaction network with spatially or temporally variable transport and decay coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical procedure for solving coupled the multispecies reactive solute transport equations, with a sequential first-order reaction network on spatially or temporally varying flow velocities and dispersion coefficients involving distinct retardation factors. This proposed approach was developed to overcome the limitation reported by Suk (2013) regarding the identical retardation values for all reactive species, while maintaining the extensive capability of the previous Suk method involving spatially variable or temporally variable coefficients of transport, general initial conditions, and arbitrary temporal variable inlet concentration. The proposed approach sequentially calculates the concentration distributions of each species by employing only the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). Because the proposed solutions for each species' concentration distributions have separable forms in space and time, the solution for subsequent species (daughter species) can be obtained using only the GITT without the decomposition by change-of-variables method imposing the limitation of identical retardation values for all the reactive species by directly substituting solutions for the preceding species (parent species) into the transport equation of subsequent species (daughter species). The proposed solutions were compared with previously published analytical solutions or numerical solutions of the numerical code of the Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) in three verification examples. In these examples, the proposed solutions were well matched with previous analytical solutions and the numerical solutions obtained by 2DFATMIC model. A hypothetical single-well push-pull test example and a scale-dependent dispersion example were designed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed solution to a real field problem.

  19. [Influence of solvent and drug preparation time on Shuanghuanglian injections induce pseudo-allergic reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yan; Liang, Ai-hua; Li, Chun-ying; Zhang, Yu-shi; Zhao, Yong; Han, Jia-yin; Lu, Yu-ting

    2015-07-01

    Choosing the right solvent and timely use is the basis of rational drug use and the most direct and efficient way to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of solvent and drug preparation time on Shuanghuanglian injection inducing pseudo-allergic reactions with mouse mode. The two tests were carried out: (1) Comparative experiment between different solvent: Shuanghuanglian injection preparation to the appropriate concentration with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection, mixed with Evans blue, at one time intravenous injected into mice, 30 minutes later, the mouse ears vascular permeability were observed and compared. (2) Comparative experiment among different preparation time: placed 10 min, 2.5 h, 6 h and 24 h after Shuanghuanglian injection were prepared and then to detect the pseudo-allergic reactions in mice using the same methods as in (1). The results showed that there was no significant difference in the pseudo-allergic reactions in mice which induced by the same dose of Shuanghuanglian injection, respectively with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection preparation, and with the extension of preparation time, the degree of pseudo-allergic reactions of Shuanghuanglian injection was gradually severe.

  20. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  1. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  2. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  3. First order Galilean superfluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2017-09-01

    We study dynamics of an (anomalous) Galilean superfluid up to first order in derivative expansion, both in parity-even and parity-odd sectors. We construct a relativistic system—null superfluid, which is a null fluid (introduced in N. Banerjee, S. Dutta, and A. Jain Akash, [Phys. Rev. D 93, 105020 (2016)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.105020]) with a spontaneously broken global U(1) symmetry. A null superfluid is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean superfluid in one lower dimension; i.e., they have the same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations and are related to each other by a mere choice of basis. The correspondence is based on null reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean symmetry in one lower dimension. To perform this analysis, we use off-shell formalism of (super)fluid dynamics, adopting it appropriately to null (super)fluids. We also verify these results via c →∞ limit of a parent relativistic system.

  4. Body-Fitted Detonation Shock Dynamics and the Pseudo-Reaction-Zone Energy Release Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Chad; Quirk, James; Short, Mark; Chqiuete, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Programmed-burn methods are a class of models used to propagate a detonation wave, without the high resolution cost associated with a direct numerical simulation. They separate the detonation evolution calculation into two components: timing and energy release. The timing component is usually calculated with a Detonation Shock Dynamics model, a surface evolution representation that relates the normal velocity of the surface (Dn) to its local curvature. The energy release component must appropriately capture the degree of energy change associated with chemical reaction while simultaneously remaining synchronized with the timing component. The Pseudo-Reaction-Zone (PRZ) model is a reactive burn like energy release model, converting reactants into products, but with a conversion rate that is a function of the DSD surface Dn field. As such, it requires the DSD calculation produce smooth Dn fields, a challenge in complex geometries. We describe a new body-fitted approach to the Detonation Shock Dynamics calculation which produces the required smooth Dn fields, and a method for calibrating the PRZ model such that the rate of energy release remains as synced as possible with the timing component. We show results for slab, rate-stick and arc geometries.

  5. reactions of enolisable ketones with dichloroisocyanuric acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ABSTRACT. Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone) with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in ...

  6. Oscillations of first order difference equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oscillations of first order difference equations. N PARHI. Department of Mathematics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. MS received 10 June 1999; revised 28 December 1999. Abstract. The oscillatory and asymptotic behaviour of solutions of first order diff- erence equations is studied. Keywords. Oscillation ...

  7. First Order Characterizations of Pseudoconvex Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vsevolod

    2001-01-01

    First order characterizations of pseudoconvex functions are investigated in terms of generalized directional derivatives. A connection with the invexity is analysed. Well-known first order characterizations of the solution sets of pseudolinear programs are generalized to the case of pseudoconvex programs. The concepts of pseudoconvexity and invexity do not depend on a single definition of the generalized directional derivative.

  8. Chemical Dosing and First-Order Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    College students encounter a variety of first-order phenomena in their mathematics and science courses. Introductory chemistry textbooks that discuss first-order processes, usually in conjunction with chemical kinetics or radioactive decay, stop at single, discrete dose events. Although single-dose situations are important, multiple-dose events,…

  9. First-Order Logic According to Harrison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Alexander Birch; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a certified declarative first-order prover with equality based on John Harrison’s Handbook of Practical Logic and Automated Reasoning, Cambridge University Press, 2009. ML code reflection is used such that the entire prover can be executed within Isabelle as a very simple interactive...

  10. Multi-Centered First Order Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Yeranyan, Armen

    2013-01-01

    We propose a first order formalism for multi-centered black holes with flat tree-dimensional base-space, within the stu model of N=2, D=4 ungauged Maxwell-Einstein supergravity. This provides a unified description of first order flows of this universal sector of all models with a symmetric scalar manifold which can be obtained by dimensional reduction from five dimensions. We develop a D=3 Cartesian formalism which suitably extends the definition of central and matter charges, as well as of black hole effective potential and first order "fake" superpotential, in order to deal with not necessarily axisimmetric solutions, and thus with multi-centered and/or (under-)rotating extremal black holes. We derive general first order flow equations for composite non-BPS and almost BPS classes, and we analyze some of their solutions, retrieving various single-centered (static or under-rotating) and multi-centered known systems. As in the t^3 model, the almost BPS class turns out to split into two general branches, and th...

  11. Multi-centered first order formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Yeranyan, Armen

    2013-05-01

    We propose a first order formalism for multi-centered black holes with flat three-dimensional base-space, within the stu model of N = 2, D = 4 ungauged MaxwellEinstein supergravity. This provides a unified description of first order flows of this universal sector of all models with a symmetric scalar manifold which can be obtained by dimensional reduction from five dimensions. We develop a D = 3 Cartesian formalism which suitably extends the definition of central and matter charges, as well as of black hole effective potential and first order "fake" superpotential, in order to deal with not necessarily axisimmetric solutions, and thus with multi-centered and/or (under-)rotating extremal black holes. We derive general first order flow equations for composite non-BPS and almost BPS classes, and we analyze some of their solutions, retrieving various single-centered (static or under-rotating) and multi-centered known systems. As in the t 3 model, the almost BPS class turns out to split into two general branches, and the well known almost BPS system is shown to be a particular solution of the second branch.

  12. A first-order inquisitive semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, I.A.; Aloni, M.; Bastiaanse, H.; de Jager, T.; Schulz, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the extension of propositional inquisitive semantics [Ciardelli and Roelofsen, 2009a, Groenendijk and Roelofsen, 2009] to the first order setting. We show that such an extension requires essential changes in some of the core notions of inquisitive semantics, and we propose and

  13. First-Order Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovi, Elena; Werner, Philipp; Eckstein, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Recently, dynamical phase transitions have been identified based on the nonanalytic behavior of the Loschmidt echo in the thermodynamic limit [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. By introducing conditional probability amplitudes, we show how dynamical phase transitions can be further classified, both mathematically, and potentially in experiment. This leads to the definition of first-order dynamical phase transitions. Furthermore, we develop a generalized Keldysh formalism which allows us to use nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to study the Loschmidt echo and dynamical phase transitions in high-dimensional, nonintegrable models. We find dynamical phase transitions of first order in the Falicov-Kimball model and in the Hubbard model.

  14. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  15. Novel SVPWM based on first order equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PWM plays an important role in generating sinusoidal waveform for variable voltage variable frequency drives (VVVFD's with a minimum harmonic level. PWM techniques have many methods in implementation ranging from a relatively simple method such as modulating sine wave to the advanced Space Vector PWM technique SVPWM. The SVPWM has a dense calculation that requires considerable processor time for execution. The proposed technique requires simple calculations and can be implemented using simple microcontrollers. The calculations of the proposed SVPWM are based on first order equations rather than trigonometric functions requiring either huge lookup tables for fetching or too many instruction cycles for calculation on a digital controller.

  16. Kinetics of first order phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Slezov, Vitaly V

    2009-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, this crucial publication on the renowned Lifshitz-Slezov-Wagner Theory of first-order phase transitions is authored by one of the scientists who gave it its name. Prof Slezov spent decades analyzing this topic and obtained a number of results that form the cornerstone of this rapidly developing branch of science.Following an analysis of unresolved problems together with proposed solutions, the book develops a theoretical description of the overall course of first-order phase transformations, starting from the nucleation state right up to the late stages of coarsening. In so doing, the author illustrates the results by way of numerical computations and experimental applications. The outline of the general results is performed for segregation processes in solutions and the results used in the analysis of a variety of different topics, such as phase formation in multi-component solutions, boiling in one- and multi-component liquids, vacancy cluster evolution in solids with and wi...

  17. Magnetocaloric materials and first order phase transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique

    and magnetocaloric regenerative tests. The magnetic, thermal and structural properties obtained from such measurements are then evaluated through different models, i.e. the Curie-Weiss law, the Bean-Rodbell model, the free electron model and the Debye model.The measured magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3...... through modelling. Moreover, inverse susceptibility measurements showed what could be evidences of magnetic polarons being formed in the paramagnetic phase of the material. The origin of the first order transition seems to be due to the magneto-elastic coupling observed through isothermal magnetostriction...... and dilatometric measurements. Although the Bean-Rodbell model has described with a good agreement the entropy change, hysteresis, magnetization and heat capacity, it has failed to describe the isothermal magnetostriction. It is suggested that such failure could be related to different factors that might influence...

  18. Fuzzy Reasoning Based on First-Order Modal Logic,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Z.; Sui, Y.; Huang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    As an extension of traditional modal logics, this paper proposes a fuzzy first-order modal logic based on believable degree, and gives out a description of the fuzzy first-order modal logic based on constant domain semantics. In order to make the reasoning procedure between the fuzzy assertions

  19. Optimized first-order methods for smooth convex minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2016-09-01

    We introduce new optimized first-order methods for smooth unconstrained convex minimization. Drori and Teboulle [5] recently described a numerical method for computing the N-iteration optimal step coefficients in a class of first-order algorithms that includes gradient methods, heavy-ball methods [15], and Nesterov's fast gradient methods [10,12]. However, the numerical method in [5] is computationally expensive for large N, and the corresponding numerically optimized first-order algorithm in [5] requires impractical memory and computation for large-scale optimization problems. In this paper, we propose optimized first-order algorithms that achieve a convergence bound that is two times smaller than for Nesterov's fast gradient methods; our bound is found analytically and refines the numerical bound in [5]. Furthermore, the proposed optimized first-order methods have efficient forms that are remarkably similar to Nesterov's fast gradient methods.

  20. Safe design of cooled tubular reactors for exothermic, multiple reactions. Consecutive reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Overtoom, R.R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The model of the pseudo-homogeneous, one-dimensional, cooled tubular reactor is applied to two consecutive, irreversible first order reactions. A criterion is derived to obtain a desired integral yield. Based on this criterion three requirements are formulated, which enable us to choose the relevant

  1. Oscillation of first order neutral delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Graef

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors established some new integral conditions for the oscillation of all solutions of nonlinear first order neutral delay differential equations. Examples are inserted to illustrate the results.

  2. Geometry of Lagrangian first-order classical field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria-Enriquez, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica; Munoz-Lecanda, M.C. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica; Roman-Roy, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica

    1996-10-01

    We construct a lagrangian geometric formulation for first-order field theories using the canonical structures of first-order jet bundles, which are taken as the phase spaces of the systems in consideration. First of all, we construct all the geometric structures associated with a first-order jet bundle and, using them, we develop the lagrangian formalism, defining the canonical forms associated with a lagrangian density and the density of lagrangian energy, obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations in two equivalent ways: as the result of a variational problem and developing the jet field formalism (which is a formulation more similar to the case of mechanical systems). A statement and proof of Noether`s theorem is also given, using the latter formalism. Finally, some classical examples are briefly studied. (orig.)

  3. Gravitational waves from cosmological first order phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David

    2015-01-01

    First order phase transitions in the early Universe generate gravitational waves, which may be observable in future space-based gravitational wave observatiories, e.g. the European eLISA satellite constellation. The gravitational waves provide an unprecedented direct view of the Universe at the time of their creation. We study the generation of the gravitational waves during a first order phase transition using large-scale simulations of a model consisting of relativistic fluid and an order parameter field. We observe that the dominant source of gravitational waves is the sound generated by the transition, resulting in considerably stronger radiation than earlier calculations have indicated.

  4. Studies on magnetic-field-induced first-order transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We shall discuss magnetization and transport measurements in materials exhibiting a broad first-order transition. The phase transitions would be caused by varying magnetic field as well as temperature, and we concentrate on ferro- to antiferromagnetic transitions in magnetic materials. We distinguish between metastable ...

  5. Oscillation criteria for first-order forced nonlinear difference equations

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Said R; Agarwal Ravi P.; Smith Tim

    2006-01-01

    Some new criteria for the oscillation of first-order forced nonlinear difference equations of the form Δx(n)+q1(n)xμ(n+1) = q2(n)xλ(n+1)+e(n), where λ, μ are the ratios of positive odd integers 0 <μ < 1 and λ > 1, are established.

  6. Code Generation for a Simple First-Order Prover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Halkjær From, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present Standard ML code generation in Isabelle/HOL of a sound and complete prover for first-order logic, taking formalizations by Tom Ridge and others as the starting point. We also define a set of so-called unfolding rules and show how to use these as a simple prover, with the aim of using...

  7. Improved Parameter Estimation for First-Order Markov Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Batra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This correspondence presents a linear transformation, which is used to estimate correlation coefficient of first-order Markov process. It outperforms zero-forcing (ZF, minimum mean-squared error (MMSE, and whitened least-squares (WTLSs estimators by controlling output noise variance at the cost of increased computational complexity.

  8. First order magneto-structural transition in functional magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First order magneto-structural transition plays an important role in the functionality of various magnetic materials of current interest like manganese oxide systems showing colossal magnetoresistance, Gd5(Ge, Si)4 alloys showing giant magnetocaloric effects and magnetic shape memory alloys. The key features of this ...

  9. Multidimensional First-order Dominance Comparisons of Population Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Arndt, Channing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter conveys the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. It gives an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD both in the one-dimensional and multidimensional setting, illustrated with...

  10. Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution...

  11. The Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This theory is a formalization of the resolution calculus for first-order logic. It is proven sound and complete. The soundness proof uses the substitution lemma, which shows a correspondence between substitutions and updates to an environment. The completeness proof uses semantic trees, i.e. trees...

  12. Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2018-01-01

    I present a formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic with formal soundness and completeness proofs. To prove the calculus sound, I use the substitution lemma, and to prove it complete, I use Herbrand interpretations and semantic trees. The correspondence...

  13. Pairs, sets and sequences in first order theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    In this paper we study the idea of theories with containers, like sets, pairs, sequences. We provide a modest framework to study such theories. We prove two concrete results. First, we show that first order theories of finite signature that have functional non-surjective ordered pairing

  14. First order normalization in the perturbed restricted three–body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper performs the first order normalization that will be employed in the study of the nonlinear stability of triangular points of the perturbed restricted three – body problem with variable mass. The problem is perturbed in the sense that small perturbations are given in the coriolis and centrifugal forces. It is with variable ...

  15. Studies on magnetic-field-induced first-order transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disorder and by pinning giving rise to a variation of the local field across the sample. It was realized that broad first-order transitions would not show jump discontinu- ities in physical properties, and Clausius–Clapeyron relation cannot be invoked for identifying the order of the transition [1]. Supercooling and superheating ...

  16. First-order transitions for some generalized XY models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Aernout C.D. van; Romano, Silvano; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter we demonstrate the occurrence of first-order transitions in temperature for some recently introduced generalized XY models, and also point out the connection between them and annealed site-diluted (lattice-gas) continuous-spin models.

  17. THERMOKINETIC STUDY OF THE ZERO, FIRST AND SECOND ORDER REACTIONS IN A PSEUDO-ADIABATIC CALORIMETER: Numerical approach and experimental dat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mendoza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The signal produced by a pseudo-adiabaticcalorimeter is simulated by numericalsolution of the differential equations thatmodel the chemical kinetics [1], the thermalproperties of the calorimetric cell[2], and the response of the thermistorused as a thermometric sensor [3]. These equations show that the calorimetricsignal is related with concentrationin a complex way. Therefore, a comparisonbetween the signals of the threebasic kinetics reactions (zero, first andsecond order was made, as a first stepto obtain a standard procedure to followchemical kinetics using a calorimeter. Inorder to help understanding this relationship,the initial rate method was applied to the simulated data to assess the relationshipbetween the order and the kineticconstants calculated with those usedfor the simulations. As it was expected,the initial rate method for the calorimetricdata, do not give a slope directly relatedwith the order of the reaction, as itwould be produced, for example, in datafrom a spectrophotometer. However, alinear relationship was found betweenwhat we call the “calorimetric order”and the kinetic order. Finally, the developedprocedure was applied to the studyof the H2O2 decomposition catalyzedwith Fe3+ in homogeneous phase andwith activated carbon in heterogeneousphase, finding the order and the kineticsconstants of the global processes, whichwere in close agreement with those inthe literature.

  18. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2001-01-01

    We present a new transformation of λ-terms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Previous CPS transformations only enjoyed two out of the three properties of being first-order, one-pass, and compositional......, but the new transformation enjoys all three properties. It is proved correct directly by structural induction over source terms instead of indirectly with a colon translation, as in Plotkin's original proof. Similarly, it makes it possible to reason about CPS-transformed terms by structural induction over...... source terms, directly.The new CPS transformation connects separately published approaches to the CPS transformation. It has already been used to state a new and simpler correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  19. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2002-01-01

    We present a new transformation of call-by-value lambdaterms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Because it operates in one pass, it directly yields compact CPS programs that are comparable to what one would...... write by hand. Because it is compositional, it allows proofs by structural induction. Because it is first-order, reasoning about it does not require the use of a logical relation. This new CPS transformation connects two separate lines of research. It has already been used to state a new and simpler...... correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  20. A First-Order One-Pass CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2003-01-01

    We present a new transformation of λ-terms into continuation-passing style (CPS). This transformation operates in one pass and is both compositional and first-order. Previous CPS transformations only enjoyed two out of the three properties of being first-order, one-pass, and compositional......, but the new transformation enjoys all three properties. It is proved correct directly by structural induction over source terms instead of indirectly with a colon translation, as in Plotkin's original proof. Similarly, it makes it possible to reason about CPS-transformed terms by structural induction over...... source terms, directly.The new CPS transformation connects separately published approaches to the CPS transformation. It has already been used to state a new and simpler correctness proof of a direct-style transformation, and to develop a new and simpler CPS transformation of control-flow information....

  1. Black holes and first order flows in supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Trigiante, M; Ferrara, S

    2011-01-01

    We review the description of static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically- flat black holes in four dimensional supergravity in terms of an autonomous Hamiltonian system. A special role in this analysis is played by the so called fake superpotenti alW, which is identified with a particular solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This function defines a first order, gradient-flow, description of the radial flow of the scalar fields, coupled to the solution, and of the red-shift factor. Identifying W with the Liapunovs function, we can make the general statement that critical points of W are asymptotically stable equilibrium points of the corresponding first order dynamical system (in the sense of Liapunov). Such equilibrium points way only exist f or extremal regular solutions and define their near horizon behavior. Thus the fake superpotential provides an alternative characterization of the attractor phenomenon. We focus on extremal black holes and deduce very general properties of the fake superp otential...

  2. Edge-orientation processing in first-order tactile neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszynski, J Andrew; Johansson, Roland S

    2014-10-01

    A fundamental feature of first-order neurons in the tactile system is that their distal axon branches in the skin and forms many transduction sites, yielding complex receptive fields with many highly sensitive zones. We found that this arrangement constitutes a peripheral neural mechanism that allows individual neurons to signal geometric features of touched objects. Specifically, we observed that two types of first-order tactile neurons that densely innervate the glabrous skin of the human fingertips signaled edge orientation via both the intensity and the temporal structure of their responses. Moreover, we found that the spatial layout of a neuron's highly sensitive zones predicted its sensitivity to particular edge orientations. We submit that peripheral neurons in the touch-processing pathway, as with peripheral neurons in the visual-processing pathway, perform feature extraction computations that are typically attributed to neurons in the cerebral cortex.

  3. First-order error budgeting for LUVOIR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee D.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2017-09-01

    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that will have complex and demanding requirements to meet the science goals. The Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept being assessed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is expected to be 9 to 15 meters in diameter, have a segmented primary mirror and be diffraction limited at a wavelength of 500 nanometers. The optical stability is expected to be in the picometer range for minutes to hours. Architecture studies to support the NASA Science and Technology Definition teams (STDTs) are underway to evaluate systems performance improvements to meet the science goals. To help define the technology needs and assess performance, a first order error budget has been developed. Like the JWST error budget, the error budget includes the active, adaptive and passive elements in spatial and temporal domains. JWST performance is scaled using first order approximations where appropriate and includes technical advances in telescope control.

  4. First-Order Open-Universe POMDPs: Formulation and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-25

    1994. Knowledge preconditions for plans. J. Log. Comput. 4(5):721–766. Davis, E. 2005. Knowledge and communication: A first- order theory. Artif ... Intelligence 101(1-2):99–134. Levesque, H. J., and Lakemeyer, G. 2000. The logic of knowledge bases. MIT Press. Little, R. J. A., and Rubin, D. B. 2002...Dynamical Systems. Massachusetts, MA: The MIT Press. Russell, S. J., and Norvig, P. 1995. Artificial Intelligence - A Modern Approach: The Intelligent

  5. First-order three-point BVPs at resonance (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesliza Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with existence of solutions to three-point BVPs in perturbed systems of first-order ordinary differential equations at resonance. An existence theorem is established by using the Theorem of Borsuk and some examples are given to illustrate it. A result for computing the local degree of polynomials whose terms of highest order have no common real linear factors is also presented.

  6. A Comparison of First-order Algorithms for Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yu; Thomas, Pock

    2014-01-01

    Using an optimization algorithm to solve a machine learning problem is one of mainstreams in the field of science. In this work, we demonstrate a comprehensive comparison of some state-of-the-art first-order optimization algorithms for convex optimization problems in machine learning. We concentrate on several smooth and non-smooth machine learning problems with a loss function plus a regularizer. The overall experimental results show the superiority of primal-dual algorithms in solving a mac...

  7. BRST renormalization of the first order Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J.; Taylor, John C.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the renormalization of the first order formulation of the Yang-Mills theory, by using the BRST identities. These preserve the gauge invariance of the theory and enable a recursive proof of renormalizability to higher orders in perturbation theory. The renormalization involves non-linear mixings as well as re-scalings of the fields and sources, which lead to a renormalized action at all orders.

  8. Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In this paper, we convey the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. We give an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD, illustrated with simple numerical examples. An implementable method...... for detecting dominances is explained along with a bootstrapping procedure that yields additional information relative to what can be obtained from dominance comparisons alone. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of FOD, compared to other multidimensional population comparison concepts, and describe practical...

  9. Numerical integrators for Stiff and Stiff oscillatory First Order initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, efforts are geared towards the numerical solution of the first order initial value problem (I.V.P) of the form Y\\' = F(X,Y), X∈[ a, b] , Y(a) = Y0, where Y\\' is the total derivative of Y with respect to X.. The scheme so developed for the stated equation is in the same line of thought as Fatunla (1980). It is of order 6, ...

  10. Multilevel first-order system least squares for PDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, S.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this talk is to analyze the least-squares finite element method for second-order convection-diffusion equations written as a first-order system. In general, standard Galerkin finite element methods applied to non-self-adjoint elliptic equations with significant convection terms exhibit a variety of deficiencies, including oscillations or nonmonotonicity of the solution and poor approximation of its derivatives, A variety of stabilization techniques, such as up-winding, Petrov-Galerkin, and stream-line diffusion approximations, have been introduced to eliminate these and other drawbacks of standard Galerkin methods. Yet, although significant progress has been made, convection-diffusion problems remain among the more difficult problems to solve numerically. The first-order system least-squares approach promises to overcome these deficiencies. This talk develops ellipticity estimates and discretization error bounds for elliptic equations (with lower order terms) that are reformulated as a least-squares problem for an equivalent first-order system. The main results are the proofs of ellipticity and optimal convergence of multiplicative and additive solvers of the discrete systems.

  11. Tibia Fracture Healing Prediction Using First-Order Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    M Sridevi; Prakasam, P.; Kumaravel, S.; Madhava Sarma, P.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of healing period of a tibia fracture in humans across limb using first-order mathematical model is demonstrated. At present, fracture healing is diagnosed using X-rays. Recent studies have demonstrated electric stimulation as a diagnostic tool in fracture healing. A DC electric voltage of 0.7 V was applied across the fracture and stabilized with Teflon coated carbon rings and the data was recorded at different time intervals until the fracture heals. The experimental data fitt...

  12. First-order chemistry in the surface-flux layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1997-01-01

    We have discussed the behavior of a non-conserved scalar in the stationary, horizontally homogeneous, neutral surface-flux layer and, on the basis of conventional second-order closure, derived analytic expressions for flux and for mean concentration of a gas, subjected to a first-order removal pr...... on the validity of our predictions. The agreement seemed such that a falsification of our model was impossible. It is shown how the model can be used to predict the surface flux of Rn-220 from measured concentration profiles....

  13. Temporal aggregation in first order cointegrated vector autoregressive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Milhøj, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We study aggregation - or sample frequencies - of time series, e.g. aggregation from weekly to monthly or quarterly time series. Aggregation usually gives shorter time series but spurious phenomena, in e.g. daily observations, can on the other hand be avoided. An important issue is the effect of ...... of aggregation on the adjustment coefficient in cointegrated systems. We study only first order vector autoregressive processes for n dimensional time series Xt, and we illustrate the theory by a two dimensional and a four dimensional model for prices of various grades of gasoline....

  14. Temporal aggregation in first order cointegrated vector autoregressive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Milhøj, Anders

    We study aggregation - or sample frequencies - of time series, e.g. aggregation from weekly to monthly or quarterly time series. Aggregation usually gives shorter time series but spurious phenomena, in e.g. daily observations, can on the other hand be avoided. An important issue is the effect of ...... of aggregation on the adjustment coefficient in cointegrated systems. We study only first order vector autoregressive processes for n dimensional time series Xt, and we illustrate the theory by a two dimensional and a four dimensional model for prices of various grades of gasoline...

  15. Fast Edge-Aware Processing via First Order Proximal Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Hicham; Yahia, Hussein; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2015-06-01

    We present a new framework for fast edge-aware processing of images and videos. The proposed smoothing method is based on an optimization formulation with a non-convex sparse regularization for a better smoothing behavior near strong edges. We develop mathematical tools based on first order approximation of proximal operators to accelerate the proposed method while maintaining high-quality smoothing. The first order approximation is used to estimate a solution of the proximal form in a half-quadratic solver, and also to derive a warm-start solution that can be calculated quickly when the image is loaded by the user. We extend the method to large-scale processing by estimating the smoothing operation with independent 1D convolution operations. This approach linearly scales to the size of the image and can fully take advantage of parallel processing. The method supports full color filtering and turns out to be temporally coherent for fast video processing. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on various applications including image smoothing, detail manipulation, HDR tone-mapping, fast edge simplification and video edge-aware processing.

  16. First-order discrete Faddeev gravity at strongly varying fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the Faddeev formulation of general relativity (GR), which can be characterized by a kind of d-dimensional tetrad (typically d = 10) and a non-Riemannian connection. This theory is invariant w.r.t. the global, but not local, rotations in the d-dimensional space. There can be configurations with a smooth or flat metric, but with the tetrad that changes abruptly at small distances, a kind of “antiferromagnetic” structure. Previously, we discussed a first-order representation for the Faddeev gravity, which uses the orthogonal connection in the d-dimensional space as an independent variable. Using the discrete form of this formulation, we considered the spectrum of (elementary) area. This spectrum turns out to be physically reasonable just on a classical background with large connection like rotations by π, that is, with such an “antiferromagnetic” structure. In the discrete first-order Faddeev gravity, we consider such a structure with periodic cells and large connection and strongly changing tetrad field inside the cell. We show that this system in the continuum limit reduces to a generalization of the Faddeev system. The action is a sum of related actions of the Faddeev type and is still reduced to the GR action.

  17. Axiomatization of Special Relativity in First Order Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Chen; Chen, Lei; He, Wan-Ting; Ma, Yong-Ge; Zhang, Xin-Yu

    2016-07-01

    The axiomatization of physical theories is a fundamental issue of science. The first-order axiomatic system SpecRel for special relativity proposed recently by Andréka et al. is not enough to explain all the main results in the theory, including the twin paradox and energy-mass relation. In this paper, from a four-dimensional space-time perspective, we introduce the concepts of world-line, proper time and four-momentum to our axiomatic system SpecRel+. Then we introduce an axiom of mass (AxMass) and take four-momentum conservation as an axiom (AxCFM) in SpecRel+. It turns out that the twin paradox and energy-mass relation can be derived from SpecRel+ logically. Hence, as an extension of SpecRel, SpecRel+ is a suitable first-order axiomatic system to describe the kinematics and dynamics of special relativity. Supported by the National Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11235003 and 11475023, National Social Sciences Foundation of China under Grant No. 14BZX078 and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China, and the Undergraduate Training Program of Beijing

  18. On first-order formalism in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losev, Andrei S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117259 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: losev@itep.ru; Marshakov, Andrei [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation) and Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117259 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: mars@lpi.ru; Zeitlin, Anton M. [St. Petersburg Department of Steklov Mathematical Institute, Fontanka 27, St. Petersburg 191023 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: zam@math.ipme.ru

    2006-02-09

    We consider the first-order formalism in string theory, providing a new off-shell description of the non-trivial backgrounds around an 'infinite metric'. The OPE of the vertex operators, corresponding to the background fields in some 'twistor representation', and conditions of conformal invariance results in the quadratic equation for the background fields, which appears to be equivalent to the Einstein equations with a Kalb-Ramond B-field and a dilaton. Using a new representation for the Einstein equations with B-field and dilaton we find a new class of solutions including the plane waves for metric (graviton) and the B-field. We discuss the properties of these background equations and main features of the BRST operator in this approach.

  19. Basic first-order model theory in Mizar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bright Caminati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has submitted to Mizar Mathematical Library a series of five articles introducing a framework for the formalization of classical first-order model theory.In them, Goedel's completeness and Lowenheim-Skolem theorems have also been formalized for the countable case, to offer a first application of it and to showcase its utility.This is an overview and commentary on some key aspects of this setup.It features exposition and discussion of a new encoding of basic definitions and theoretical gears needed for the task, remarks about the design strategies and approaches adopted in their implementation, and more general reflections about proof checking induced by the work done.

  20. First Order Reliability Application and Verification Methods for Semistatic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderaime, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    Escalating risks of aerostructures stimulated by increasing size, complexity, and cost should no longer be ignored by conventional deterministic safety design methods. The deterministic pass-fail concept is incompatible with probability and risk assessments, its stress audits are shown to be arbitrary and incomplete, and it compromises high strength materials performance. A reliability method is proposed which combines first order reliability principles with deterministic design variables and conventional test technique to surmount current deterministic stress design and audit deficiencies. Accumulative and propagation design uncertainty errors are defined and appropriately implemented into the classical safety index expression. The application is reduced to solving for a factor that satisfies the specified reliability and compensates for uncertainty errors, and then using this factor as, and instead of, the conventional safety factor in stress analyses. The resulting method is consistent with current analytical skills and verification practices, the culture of most designers, and with the pace of semistatic structural designs.

  1. Testing First-Order Logic Axioms in AutoCert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Yung; Denney, Ewen

    2009-01-01

    AutoCert [2] is a formal verification tool for machine generated code in safety critical domains, such as aerospace control code generated from MathWorks Real-Time Workshop. AutoCert uses Automated Theorem Provers (ATPs) [5] based on First-Order Logic (FOL) to formally verify safety and functional correctness properties of the code. These ATPs try to build proofs based on user provided domain-specific axioms, which can be arbitrary First-Order Formulas (FOFs). These axioms are the most crucial part of the trusted base, since proofs can be submitted to a proof checker removing the need to trust the prover and AutoCert itself plays the part of checking the code generator. However, formulating axioms correctly (i.e. precisely as the user had really intended) is non-trivial in practice. The challenge of axiomatization arise from several dimensions. First, the domain knowledge has its own complexity. AutoCert has been used to verify mathematical requirements on navigation software that carries out various geometric coordinate transformations involving matrices and quaternions. Axiomatic theories for such constructs are complex enough that mistakes are not uncommon. Second, adjusting axioms for ATPs can add even more complexity. The axioms frequently need to be modified in order to have them in a form suitable for use with ATPs. Such modifications tend to obscure the axioms further. Thirdly, speculating validity of the axioms from the output of existing ATPs is very hard since theorem provers typically do not give any examples or counterexamples.

  2. Distributions of Autocorrelated First-Order Kinetic Outcomes: Illness Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Englehardt

    Full Text Available Many complex systems produce outcomes having recurring, power law-like distributions over wide ranges. However, the form necessarily breaks down at extremes, whereas the Weibull distribution has been demonstrated over the full observed range. Here the Weibull distribution is derived as the asymptotic distribution of generalized first-order kinetic processes, with convergence driven by autocorrelation, and entropy maximization subject to finite positive mean, of the incremental compounding rates. Process increments represent multiplicative causes. In particular, illness severities are modeled as such, occurring in proportion to products of, e.g., chronic toxicant fractions passed by organs along a pathway, or rates of interacting oncogenic mutations. The Weibull form is also argued theoretically and by simulation to be robust to the onset of saturation kinetics. The Weibull exponential parameter is shown to indicate the number and widths of the first-order compounding increments, the extent of rate autocorrelation, and the degree to which process increments are distributed exponential. In contrast with the Gaussian result in linear independent systems, the form is driven not by independence and multiplicity of process increments, but by increment autocorrelation and entropy. In some physical systems the form may be attracting, due to multiplicative evolution of outcome magnitudes towards extreme values potentially much larger and smaller than control mechanisms can contain. The Weibull distribution is demonstrated in preference to the lognormal and Pareto I for illness severities versus (a toxicokinetic models, (b biologically-based network models, (c scholastic and psychological test score data for children with prenatal mercury exposure, and (d time-to-tumor data of the ED01 study.

  3. A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions are inhibited in a number of ways such as inhibitors competing for the binding site directly, inhibitors deforming the allosteric site or inhibitors changing the structure of active substrate. Using an in silico approach, the concentration of various reaction agents can be monitored ...

  4. Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory reaction. Kinetics of malonic acid decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA KOLAR-ANIC

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ oscillatory reaction was analyzed. With this aim, the time evolution of a reaction mixture composed of malonic acid, bromate, sulfuric acid and cerium(III was studied at 298 K. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to malonic acid as the species undergoing decomposition with a corresponding rate constant, k = 7.5×10-3 min-1, was found.

  5. Insights into antiferroelectrics from first-order reversal curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Schenk, Tony; Pešić, Milan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Antiferroelectric (AFE) HfO2 and ZrO2 based thin films are promising for energy and low power computing related applications. Here, we investigate 10 nm thin AFE Si:HfO2 films by means of first-order reversal curves (FORCs). Polarization-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm typical AFE behavior originating from the tetragonal phase. FORC analysis reveals two oppositely biased switching density peaks with a narrow distribution of coercive fields around 0.23 MV/cm, which is at least 4 times lower than that in typical ferroelectric HfO2 and ZrO2 films. The distributions along the internal bias field axis are much broader compared to the distribution of coercive fields. The exceptional stability of the switching density magnitude and coercive fields for up to 108 electric field cycles is demonstrated. Only small reductions of the internal bias fields are observed with cycling. These results highlight pathways towards improved cycling stability and variability of ferroelectric HfO2 and ZrO2 based devices as well as AFE supercapacitors with enhanced efficiency and energy storage density.

  6. Beyond first-order finite element schemes in micromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsikis, E., E-mail: kritsikis@math.univ-paris13.fr [Laboratoire d' analyse, géométrie et applications, université Paris 13, CNRS UMR 7539, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Vaysset, A.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L.D. [SPINTEC, INAC, UMR CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Alouges, F. [CMAP, CNRS and École polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Toussaint, J.-C. [Institut Néel, CNRS and université Joseph Fourier, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-01

    Magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials is ruled by the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation (LLG). Reliable schemes must conserve the magnetization norm, which is a nonconvex constraint, and be energy-decreasing unless there is pumping. Some of the authors previously devised a convergent finite element scheme that, by choice of an appropriate test space – the tangent plane to the magnetization – reduces to a linear problem at each time step. The scheme was however first-order in time. We claim it is not an intrinsic limitation, and the same approach can lead to efficient micromagnetic simulation. We show how the scheme order can be increased, and the nonlocal (magnetostatic) interactions be tackled in logarithmic time, by the fast multipole method or the non-uniform fast Fourier transform. Our implementation is called feeLLGood. A test-case of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is presented, then another one relevant to spin-transfer effects (the spin-torque oscillator)

  7. Beyond first-order finite element schemes in micromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsikis, E.; Vaysset, A.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Alouges, F.; Toussaint, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials is ruled by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLG). Reliable schemes must conserve the magnetization norm, which is a nonconvex constraint, and be energy-decreasing unless there is pumping. Some of the authors previously devised a convergent finite element scheme that, by choice of an appropriate test space - the tangent plane to the magnetization - reduces to a linear problem at each time step. The scheme was however first-order in time. We claim it is not an intrinsic limitation, and the same approach can lead to efficient micromagnetic simulation. We show how the scheme order can be increased, and the nonlocal (magnetostatic) interactions be tackled in logarithmic time, by the fast multipole method or the non-uniform fast Fourier transform. Our implementation is called feeLLGood. A test-case of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is presented, then another one relevant to spin-transfer effects (the spin-torque oscillator).

  8. A first-order approach to conformal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zlosnik, T G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether a spontaneously-broken gauge theory of the group $SU(2,2)$ may be a genuine competitor to General Relativity. The basic ingredients of the theory are an $SU(2,2)$ gauge field $A_{\\mu}$ and a Higgs field $W$ in the adjoint representation of the group with the Higgs field producing the symmetry breaking $SU(2,2)\\rightarrow SO(1,3)\\times SO(1,1)$. The action for gravity is polynomial in $\\{A_{\\mu},W\\}$ and the field equations are first-order in derivatives of these fields. The new $SO(1,1)$ symmetry in the gravitational sector is interpreted in terms of an emergent scale symmetry and the recovery of conformalized General Relativity and fourth-order Weyl conformal gravity as limits of the theory- following imposition of Lagrangian constraints- is demonstrated. Maximally symmetric spacetime solutions to the full theory are found and stability of the theory around these solutions is investigated; it is shown that regions of the theory's parameter space describe perturbations identical to that...

  9. First order reversal curves diagrams for describing ferroelectric switching characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Mitoseriu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available First Order Reversal Curves (FORC are polarization-field dependences described between saturation field Esat and a variable reversal field Er∈(-Esat, Esat. The FORC diagrams were proposed to describe some characteristics of the switching process in ferroelectrics. The approach is related to the Preisach model which considers the distribution of the elementary switchable units over their coercive and bias fields. The influence of the anisotropic porosity in Pb(Zr,TiO3 bulk ceramics on the FORC distributions demonstrated the existence of a positive/negative bias as a result of the confinement induced by anisotropy. The reducing of grain size in Ba(Zr,TiO3 ceramics causes an increase of the ratio of the reversible/irreversible components of the polarization on the FORC distribution indicating the tendency of system towards the superparaelectric state. The FORC method demonstrates to provide a kind of ‘fingerprinting’ of various types of switching characteristics in ferroic systems.

  10. Quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins with peptide affinity-based enrichment and pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Hoe; Ahn, Yeong Hee; Ji, Eun Sun; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jin Young; An, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-07-02

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is commonly used for the quantitative analysis of proteins during mass pectrometry (MS), and has excellent specificity and sensitivity for an analyte in a complex sample. In this study, a pseudo-MRM method for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins was developed using hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (hybrid Q-TOF) MS and peptide affinity-based enrichment. First, a pseudo-MRM-based analysis using hybrid Q-TOF MS was performed for synthetic peptides selected as targets and spiked into tryptic digests of human serum. By integrating multiple transition signals corresponding to fragment ions in the full scan MS/MS spectrum of a precursor ion of the target peptide, a pseudo-MRM MS analysis of the target peptide showed an increased signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and sensitivity, as well as an improved reproducibility. The pseudo-MRM method was then used for the quantitative analysis of the tryptic peptides of two low-abundance serological proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue-type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPκ), which were prepared with peptide affinity-based enrichment from human serum. Finally, this method was used to detect femtomolar amounts of target peptides derived from TIMP1 and PTPκ, with good coefficients of variation (CV 2.7% and 9.8%, respectively), using a few microliters of human serum from colorectal cancer patients. The results suggest that pseudo-MRM using hybrid Q-TOF MS, combined with peptide affinity-based enrichment, could become a promising alternative for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance target proteins of interest in complex serum samples that avoids protein depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A pseudo-matched filter for chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Seth D.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    A matched filter maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a signal. In the recent work of Corron et al. [Chaos 20, 023123 (2010)], a matched filter is derived for the chaotic waveforms produced by a piecewise-linear system. Motivated by these results, we describe a pseudo-matched filter, which removes noise from the same chaotic signal. It consists of a notch filter followed by a first-order, low-pass filter. We compare quantitatively the matched filter's performance to that of our pseudo-match...

  12. Double sampling control chart for a first order autoregressive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. E. Claro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the Double Sampling control chart for monitoring processes in which the observations follow a first order autoregressive model. We consider sampling intervals that are sufficiently long to meet the rational subgroup concept. The Double Sampling chart is substantially more efficient than the Shewhart chart and the Variable Sample Size chart. To study the properties of these charts we derived closed-form expressions for the average run length (ARL taking into account the within-subgroup correlation. Numerical results show that this correlation has a significant impact on the chart properties.Neste artigo propomos o gráfico de controle de amostragem dupla para monitoramento de processos nos quais as observações seguem um modelo autoregressivo de primeira ordem. Nós consideramos intervalos de amostragem suficientemente longos em linha com o conceito de subgrupos racionais. O gráfico de controle de amostragem dupla é substancialmente mais eficiente que o Gráfico de Shewhart e do que o Gráfico com Amostra de Tamanho Variável. Para estudar as propriedades destes gráficos nós derivamos expressões de forma-fechada para o Numero Médio de Amostras até o Sinal (NMA levando em conta a correlação dentro do subgrupo. Os resultados numéricos mostram que esta correlação tem impacto significante sobre as propriedades do gráfico.

  13. Faster modified protocol for first order reversal curve measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasi, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    In this work we present a faster modified protocol for first order reversal curve (FORC) measurements. The main idea of this procedure is to use the information of the ascending and descending branches constructed through successive sweeps of magnetic field. The new method reduces the number of field sweeps to almost one half as compared to the traditional method. The length of each branch is reduced faster than in the usual FORC protocol. The new method implies not only a new measurement protocol but also a new recipe for the previous treatment of the data. After of these pre-processing, the FORC diagram can be obtained by the conventional methods. In the present work we show that the new FORC procedure leads to results identical to the conventional method if the system under study follows the Stoner-Wohlfarth model with interactions that do not depend of the magnetic state (up or down) of the entities, as in the Preisach model. More specifically, if the coercive and interactions fields are not correlated, and the hysteresis loops have a square shape. Some numerical examples show the comparison between the usual FORC procedure and the propose one. We also discuss that it is possible to find some differences in the case of real systems, due to the magnetic interactions. There is no reason to prefer one FORC method over the other from the point of view of the information to be obtained. On the contrary, the use of both methods could open doors for a more accurate and deep analysis.

  14. Kinetic characteristics of gas-liquid ozone reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    An experimental chemical method for determining the kinetic characteristics (volumetric mass transfer coefficient and rate constant of a second-order reaction) of gas-liquid ozone reactions in a bubble column reactor is described. The calculation formulas are substantiated, and the ranges of values of the experimental factors that determine the method's limits of applicability are found. The conditions under which the boundary-value problem of a gas-liquid ozone reaction of the second order can be reduced to a problem of a pseudo-first order reaction allowing an analytical solution are revealed.

  15. Reaction kinetics of resveratrol with tert-butoxyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džeba, Iva; Pedzinski, Tomasz; Mihaljević, Branka

    2012-09-01

    The rate constant for the reaction of t-butoxyl radicals with resveratrol was studied under pseudo-first order conditions. The rate constant was determined by measuring the phenoxyl radical formation rate at 390 nm as function of resveratrol concentration in acetonitrile. The rate constant was determined to be 6.5×108 M-1s-1. This high value indicates the high reactivity consistent with the strong antioxidant activity of resveratrol.

  16. Discrete pseudo-integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo- multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals. pdf

  17. Almost Automorphic and Pseudo-Almost Automorphic Solutions to Semilinear Evolution Equations with Nondense Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Andrade

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of almost automorphic (resp., pseudo-almost automorphic solutions to a first-order differential equation with linear part dominated by a Hille-Yosida type operator with nondense domain.

  18. Modelling and experimental checking of the influence of substrate concentration on the first order kinetic constant in photo-processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M; Murcia, M D; Gómez, E; Ortega, S; Sánchez, A; Thaikovskaya, O; Briantceva, N

    2016-12-01

    Most photoprocesses follow a pseudo first order kinetic law and, commonly, the kinetic parameter depends on the initial concentration of the substrate. In this work, a kinetic model, which explains this dependence on the substrate concentration and on the other operational variables, has been developed. In the model, mass transfer of substrate from the bulk solution to the wall of the photoreactor was assumed as the step determining the rate of the process. To check the model, methylene blue (MB) has been used as model substrate and photodegradation experiments have been carried out in an exciplex KrCl flow-through photoreactor, It was observed that the methylene blue conversion improved with a decrease in its initial concentration, in good agreement with the model. Also, by fitting the experimental data to the model, high correlation coefficients and a high degree of agreement between experimental and calculated conversion was obtained, which validates the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform

    OpenAIRE

    Imit, Mokhtar; Yamamoto, Takakazu; Imin, Patigul

    2005-01-01

    Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform under irradiation with light were studied. The reactions were separately carried out under air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The obtained results showed that this reaction belongs to the pseudo-first-order reaction with a rate constant k obs of 1.4×10−5 s−1 at room temperature. The presence or absence of air, oxygen, and nitrogen did not have obvious effects on the reaction rate under irradiation with light.

  20. A pseudo-matched filter for chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth D; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    A matched filter maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a signal. In the recent work of Corron et al. [Chaos 20, 023123 (2010)], a matched filter is derived for the chaotic waveforms produced by a piecewise-linear system. This system produces a readily available binary symbolic dynamics that can be used to perform correlations in the presence of large amounts of noise using the matched filter. Motivated by these results, we describe a pseudo-matched filter, which operates similarly to the original matched filter. It consists of a notch filter followed by a first-order, low-pass filter. We compare quantitatively the matched filter's performance to that of our pseudo-matched filter using correlation functions. On average, the pseudo-matched filter performs with a correlation signal-to-noise ratio that is 2.0 dB below that of the matched filter. Our pseudo-matched filter, though somewhat inferior in comparison to the matched filter, is easily realizable at high speed (>1 GHz) for potential radar applications.

  1. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  2. First-Order Parametric Model of Reflectance Spectra for Dyed Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5708--16-9666 First-Order Parametric Model of Reflectance Spectra for Dyed Fabrics D...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT First-Order Parametric Model of Reflectance Spectra for Dyed Fabrics D. Aiken, S. Ramsey, T. Mayo, S.G. Lambrakos, and J. Peak Naval...Unclassified Unlimited 31 Daniel Aiken (202) 279-5293 Parametric modeling Inverse/direct analysis This report describes a first-order parametric model of

  3. Mean value first order second moment analysis of buckling of axially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    These imperfect models are analysed using ANSYS non-linear FE buckling analysis including both geometrical and material ... symmetric I- cross section in compression and bending. Warren .... where, the matrix Φ* is the pseudo-inverse of the matrix Φ. The pseudo-inverse is calculated using the following equation based.

  4. Second derivative multistep method for solving first-order ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Mohammed Yousif; Ismail, Fudziah; Senu, Norazak; Ibrahim, Zarina Bibi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new second derivative multistep method was constructed to solve first order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In particular, we used the new method as a corrector method and 5-steps Adam's Bashforth method as a predictor method to solve first order (ODEs). Numerical results were compared with the existing methods which clearly showed the efficiency of the new method.

  5. On new solutions of linear system of first -order fuzzy differential equations with fuzzy coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimi Dizicheh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we firstly introduce system of first order fuzzy differential equations. Then, we convert the problem to two crisp systems of first order differential equations. For numerical aspects, we apply exponentially fitted Runge Kutta method to solve the fuzzy problems. We solve some well-known examples in order to demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of results.

  6. Compact First-Order Probe for Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements at Low Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for designing compact and lightweight first-order probes for spherical near-field antenna measurements at frequencies below 1 GHz that exploit first-order properties of electrically small self-resonant radiators combined into superdirective endfire arrays are established theoretically...... is just 343 mm above a 720-mm circular ground plane and weighs about 5 kg....

  7. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1998-11-24

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Opseudo-capacitance, affords high energy/power density in the pseudo-capacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity. 8 figs.

  8. First-order Convex Optimization Methods for Signal and Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the use of first-order convex optimization methods applied to problems in signal and image processing. First we make a general introduction to convex optimization, first-order methods and their iteration complexity. Then we look at different techniques, which can...... be used with first-order methods such as smoothing, Lagrange multipliers and proximal gradient methods. We continue by presenting different applications of convex optimization and notable convex formulations with an emphasis on inverse problems and sparse signal processing. We also describe the multiple...

  9. Perturbation of sectorial projections of elliptic pseudo-differential operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Chen, Guoyuan; Lesch, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Over a closed manifold, we consider the sectorial projection of an elliptic pseudo-differential operator A of positive order with two rays of minimal growth. We showthat it depends continuously on A when the space of pseudo-differential operators is equipped with a certain topology whichwe...... explicitly describe. Our main application deals with a continuous curve of arbitrary first order linear elliptic differential operators over a compact manifold with boundary. Under the additional assumption of the weak inner unique continuation property, we derive the continuity of a related curve...

  10. Existence of periodic solution for first order nonlinear neutral delay equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genqiang Wang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper by using the coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are given for the existence of periodic solutions of the first order nonlinear neutral delay differential equation.

  11. A linearly convergent first-order algorithm for total variation minimisation in image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cong D; Dai, Kaiyu; Lan, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new formulation for total variation minimisation in image denoising. We also present a linearly convergent first-order method for solving this reformulated problem and show that it possesses a nearly dimension-independent iteration complexity bound.

  12. Propagators of Generalized Schrödinger Equations Related by First-order Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schulze-Halberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct an explicit relation between propagators of generalized Schrödinger equations that are linked by a first-order supersymmetric transformation. Our findings extend and complement recent results on the conventional case [1].

  13. {epsilon} expansion analysis of very weak first-order transitions in the cubic anisotropy model. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P.; Yaffe, L.G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The cubic anisotropy model provides a simple example of a system with an arbitrarily weak first-order phase transition. We present an analysis of this model using {epsilon}-expansion techniques with results up to next-to-next-to-leading order in {epsilon}. Specifically, we compute the relative discontinuity of various physical quantities across the transition in the limit that the transition becomes arbitrarily weakly first order. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Accelerated Extra-Gradient Descent: A Novel Accelerated First-Order Method

    OpenAIRE

    Diakonikolas, Jelena; Orecchia, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We provide a novel accelerated first-order method that achieves the asymptotically optimal convergence rate for smooth functions in the first-order oracle model. To this day, Nesterov's Accelerated Gradient Descent (AGD) and variations thereof were the only methods achieving acceleration in this standard blackbox model. In contrast, our algorithm is significantly different from AGD, as it relies on a predictor-corrector approach similar to that used by Mirror-Prox [Nemirovski, 2004] and Extra...

  15. First-Order Logic Investigation of Relativity Theory with an Emphasis on Accelerated Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Gergely

    2010-05-01

    This thesis is mainly about extensions of the first-order logic axiomatization of special relativity introduced by Andréka, Madarász and Németi. These extensions include extension to accelerated observers, relativistic dynamics and general relativity; however, its main subject is the extension to accelerated observers (AccRel). One surprising result is that natural extension to accelerated observers is not enough if we want our theory to imply certain experimental facts, such as the twin paradox. Even if we add the whole first-order theory of real numbers to this natural extension, it is still not enough to imply the twin paradox. Nevertheless, that does not mean that this task cannot be carried out within first-order logic since by approximating a second-order logic axiom of real numbers, we introduce a first-order axiom schema that solves the problem. Our theory AccRel nicely fills the gap between special and general relativity theories, and only one natural generalization step is needed to achieve a first-order logic axiomatization of general relativity from it. We also show that AccRel is strong enough to make predictions about the gravitational effect slowing down time. Our general aims are to axiomatize relativity theories within pure first-order logic using simple, comprehensible and transparent basic assumptions (axioms); to prove the surprising predictions (theorems) of relativity theories from a few convincing axioms; to eliminate tacit assumptions from relativity by replacing them with explicit axioms formulated in first-order logic (in the spirit of the first-order logic foundation of mathematics and Tarski's axiomatization of geometry); and to investigate the relationship between the axioms and the theorems.

  16. Moderate deviations for the Durbin-Watson statistic related to the first-order autoregressive process

    OpenAIRE

    Bitseki Penda, Valère; Djellout, Hacène; Proïa, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    24 pages.; The purpose of this paper is to investigate moderate deviations for the Durbin-Watson statistic associated with the stable first-order autoregressive process where the driven noise is also given by a first-order autoregressive process. We first establish a moderate deviation principle for both the least squares estimator of the unknown parameter of the autoregressive process as well as for the serial correlation estimator associated with the driven noise. It enables us to provide a...

  17. Polyoxometalate oxidation of non-phenolic lignin subunits in water : effect of substrate structure on reaction kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoya Yokoyama; Hou-min Chang; Richard S. Reiner; Raja H. Atalla; Ira A. Weinstock; John F. Kadla

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lignin-biopolymer structure on the mechanism of its oxidative depolymerization by polyoxometalates (POMs) was investigated by reacting an equilibrated POM ensemble with a series of ring-substituted benzyl alcohols. Under anaerobic conditions in mixed water/methanol, observed pseudo-first order reaction rates (150°C) of 8.96 x 10–3 and 4.89 x 10–3 sec–1...

  18. A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and monod biotransformation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K(s), this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. We present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K(S) and in the zero-order approximation the error is K(s)/S. We then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K(s), it may better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of KS for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, we apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set.A formal error analysis is presented showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/KS and in the zero-order approximation the error is KS/S where S is the substrate

  19. Improved first-order uncertainty method for water-quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melching, C.S.; Anmangandla, S.

    1992-01-01

    Uncertainties are unavoidable in water-quality modeling and subsequent management decisions. Monte Carlo simulation and first-order uncertainty analysis (involving linearization at central values of the uncertain variables) have been frequently used to estimate probability distributions for water-quality model output due to their simplicity. Each method has its drawbacks: Monte Carlo simulation's is mainly computational time; and first-order analysis are mainly questions of accuracy and representativeness, especially for nonlinear systems and extreme conditions. An improved (advanced) first-order method is presented, where the linearization point varies to match the output level whose exceedance probability is sought. The advanced first-order method is tested on the Streeter-Phelps equation to estimate the probability distribution of critical dissolved-oxygen deficit and critical dissolved oxygen using two hypothetical examples from the literature. The advanced first-order method provides a close approximation of the exceedance probability for the Streeter-Phelps model output estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using less computer time - by two orders of magnitude - regardless of the probability distributions assumed for the uncertain model parameters.

  20. Quantum Pseudo-Telepathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Tapp, Alain

    2005-11-01

    Quantum information processing is at the crossroads of physics, mathematics and computer science. It is concerned with that we can and cannot do with quantum information that goes beyond the abilities of classical information processing devices. Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science that aims at quantifying the amount of communication necessary to solve distributed computational problems. Quantum communication complexity uses quantum mechanics to reduce the amount of communication that would be classically required. Pseudo-telepathy is a surprising application of quantum information processing to communication complexity. Thanks to entanglement, perhaps the most nonclassical manifestation of quantum mechanics, two or more quantum players can accomplish a distributed task with no need for communication whatsoever, which would be an impossible feat for classical players. After a detailed overview of the principle and purpose of pseudo-telepathy, we present a survey of recent and no-so-recent work on the subject. In particular, we describe and analyse all the pseudo-telepathy games currently known to the authors.

  1. Windowed phase unwrapping using a first-order dynamic system following iso-phase contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Julio C; Vargas, Javier; Flores-Moreno, J Mauricio; Quiroga, J Antonio

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we show a windowed phase-unwrapping technique that uses a first-order dynamic system and scans the phase following its iso-phase contours. In previous works, we have shown that low-pass first-order dynamic systems are very robust and useful in phase-unwrapping problems. However, it is well known that all phase-unwrapping methods have a minimum signal-to-noise ratio that they tolerate. This paper shows that scanning the phase within local windows and using a path following strategy, the first-order unwrapping method increases its tolerance to noise. In this way, using the improved approach, we can unwrap phase maps where the basic dynamic phase-unwrapping system fails. Tests and results are given, as well as the source code in order to show the performance of the proposed method.

  2. [Detection of dissolved organic matter based on three-dimensional first-order derivative fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu-Xin; Du, Yang-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Li

    2010-12-01

    Based on three-dimensional first-order derivative fluorescence spectrometry, an analysis method for detecting dissolved organ matter in water is proposed in the present paper. By using simplified least squares differentiation methods presented by Savitzky and Goly, the first-order partial derivatives for emission wavelength and excitation wavelength were calculated. As the fitting polynomial has the smoothing function in the calculation of derivative spectra, a separate smoothing method is not required to remove spectrometry noise. The regression model was calculated by partial least square for 4-dimension fluorescence data including emission wavelength, excitation wavelength and their first-order derivatives. The Experimental results for detecting total organic carbon (TOC) in water show that the proposed method has obvious advantage over the conventional fluorescence spectrometry analysis methods in the aspect of the root mean square error of prediction and correlation coefficient.

  3. Reversible hydrogen storage in the Ni-rich pseudo-binary Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.75} intermetallic compound: Reaction pathway, thermodynamic and kinetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthieu, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); ICMPE/CNRS-UPEC UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Fernandez, J.F., E-mail: josefrancisco.fernandez@uam.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuevas, F. [ICMPE/CNRS-UPEC UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Ares, J.R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Sanchez, C. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg{sub 6.2}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.65} reversibly absorbs 5.6 wt.% H in a two plateau pressure PCI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ternary phase depletes in Mg and Ni at low hydrogen pressure to form Mg{sub 2}Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reaction pathway of hydrogenation has been determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enthalpy of the high pressure plateau is less negative than the one of pure Mg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low activation energy for desorption has been found for highly hydrided material. - Abstract: To improve the hydrogen storage properties of Mg{sub 6}Pd and to reduce its cost, Pd has been partly substituted by Ni at the solubility limit of the Mg{sub 6}(Pd,Ni) {rho}-phase. The attained composition is Mg{sub 6.2}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.65} as determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Hydrogenation of this compound has been investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX), Pressure-Composition-Isotherms (PCI) and thermal desorption analysis. On absorption, it decomposes in two steps as evidenced by two distinct plateau pressures. At low pressure, a partial segregation of Mg and Ni out of the pseudo-binary Mg{sub 6.2}Pd{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.65} {rho}-phase occurs leading to the formation of MgH{sub 2}, Mg{sub 2}Ni and Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3} phases. At high pressure, the Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3} phase disproportionates into MgH{sub 2}, Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, MgPd and Mg{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} phases. The hydrogenation reaction is reversible providing a hydrogen capacity of 5.6 wt.% H. The reaction enthalpy of the high pressure plateau is less negative than for pure Mg. Furthermore, the activation energy for H-desorption exhibits a dramatic decrease for hydrogen contents above 4 wt.% H, i.e. after the alloy disproportionation.

  4. The mass transfer approach to multivariate discrete first order stochastic dominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    of times. This paper provides a new and elementary proof of that result by showing that starting with an arbitrary system of mass transfers, whenever the resulting distribution is first order dominated one can gradually rearrange transfers, according to a certain decentralized procedure, and obtain...... a system of transfers all shifting mass to outcomes that are worse.......A fundamental result in the theory of stochastic dominance tells that first order dominance between two finite multivariate distributions is equivalent to the property that the one can be obtained from the other by shifting probability mass from one outcome to another that is worse a finite number...

  5. Realization of first-order current-mode filters with low number of MOS transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Yuce, Erkan; Minaei, Shahram; Herencsár, Norbert; Koton, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode (CM) circuit for realizing all of the first-order filter responses is suggested. The proposed configuration contains low number of components, only two NMOS transistors both operating in saturation region, two capacitors and two resistors. Major advantages of the presented circuit are low voltage, low noise and high linearity. The proposed filter circuit can simultaneously provide both inverting and non-inverting first-order low-pass, high-pass and all-pass f...

  6. Multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares for Stokes equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chen-Yao G. [National Chung Cheng Univ., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-31

    Recently, The use of first-order system least squares principle for the approximate solution of Stokes problems has been extensively studied by Cai, Manteuffel, and McCormick. In this paper, we study multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares method for the generalized Stokes equations based on the velocity-vorticity-pressure formulation in three dimensions. The least-squares functionals is defined to be the sum of the L{sup 2}-norms of the residuals, which is weighted appropriately by the Reynolds number. We develop convergence analysis for additive and multiplicative multilevel methods applied to the resulting discrete equations.

  7. Closed-Form Equation of Data Dependent Jitter in First Order Low Pass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjin Byun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a closed-form equation of data dependent jitter (DDJ in first order low pass systems. The DDJ relates to the system bandwidth, the bit rate, the input rise/fall time, and the number of maximum consecutive identical bits of the data pattern. To confirm the derived equation, simulations have been done with a first order RC low pass circuit for various system bandwidths, bit rates, input rise/fall times, and data patterns. The simulation results agree well with the calculated DDJ values by the derived equation.

  8. Quantitative analysis of UV-A shock and short term stress using iTRAQ, pseudo selective reaction monitoring (pSRM) and GC-MS based metabolite analysis of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wase, Nishikant; Pham, Trong Khoa; Ow, Saw Yen; Wright, Phillip C

    2014-09-23

    A quantitative proteomics and metabolomics analysis was performed using iTRAQ, HPLC and GC-MS in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to understand the effect of short and long term UV-A exposure. Changes in the proteome were measured for short-term stress (4-24h) using iTRAQ. Changes in the photosynthetic pigments and intracellular metabolites were observed at exposures of up to 7days (pigments) and up to 11days (intracellular metabolites). To assess iTRAQ measurement quality, pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pSRM) was used, with this confirming underestimation of protein abundance levels by iTRAQ. Our results suggest that short term UV-A radiation lowers the abundance of PS-I and PS-II proteins. We also observed an increase in abundance of intracellular redox homeostasis proteins and plastocyanin. Additionally, we observed statistically significant changes in scytonemin, Chlorophyll A, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene. Assessment of intracellular metabolites showed significant changes in several, suggesting their potential role in the Nostoc's stress mitigation strategy. Cyanobacteria under UV-A radiation have reduced growth due to intensive damage to essential functions, but the organism shows a defense response by remodeling bioenergetics pathway, induction of the UV protection compound scytonemin and increased levels of proline and tyrosine as a mitigation response. The effect of UV-A radiation on the proteome and intracellular metabolites of N. punctiforme ATCC 29133 including photosynthetic pigments has been described. We also verify the expression of 13 iTRAQ quantified protein using LC-pSRM. Overall we observed that UV-A radiation has a drastic effect on the photosynthetic machinery, photosynthetic pigments and intracellular amino acids. As a mitigation strategy against UV-A radiation, proline, glycine, and tyrosine were accumulated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A problem with estimating the pseudo-activation energy of kerogen thermal maturation from Connan's time-temperature relation in oil genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Connan's time-temperature relation in oil genesis as derived from first-order reaction kinetics is algebraically correct, but its application to natural petroleum generation is invalidated by the assumption that the ratio of initial kerogen concentration to degraded kerogen concentration is constant from deposition to the initiation of intense oil generation. The ratio can only remain constant if no reaction is occurring and, therefore, Connan's data on ''reaction time'' in petroleum generation (assumed to be the age of the sediment) only measures the time elapsed since the system formed. Thus, the widely cited pseudo-activation energy of 11-14 kcal/mole computed from Connan's equation for the start of oil generation from kerogen is meaningless.

  10. Modeling the Monthly Water Balance of a First Order Coastal Forested Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; T. J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate a spreadsheet-based conceptual Thornthwaite monthly water balance model and the process-based DRAINMOD model for their reliability in predicting monthly water budgets of a poorly drained, first order forested watershed at the Santee Experimental Forest located along the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Measured precipitation...

  11. On Löwenheim-Skolem-Tarski numbers for extensions of first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magidor, M.; Väänänen, J.

    2011-01-01

    We show that, assuming the consistency of a supercompact cardinal, the first (weakly) inaccessible cardinal can satisfy a strong form of a Löwenheim-Skolem-Tarski theorem for the equicardinality logic L(I), a logic introduced in [5] strictly between first order logic and second order logic. On the

  12. Finite nuclear fragmenting systems:. An experimental evidence of a first order liquid gas phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Fiandri, M. L.; Fuschini, E.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Moroni, A.; Vannini, G.; Verondini, E.

    2001-11-01

    An experimental observation of negative heat capacity is inferred from the event by event study of partial energy fluctuations in Quasi-Projectile sources, formed in Au + Au peripheral collisions at 35 A.MeV. Between about 2.5 and 5 A.MeV excitation energy, the system undergoes a first order phase transition.

  13. Novel Resistorless First-Order Current-Mode Universal Filter Employing a Grounded Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arslanalp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new bipolar junction transistor (BJT based configuration for providing first-order resistorless current-mode (CM all-pass, low-pass and high-pass filter responses from the same configuration is suggested. The proposed circuit called as a first-order universal filter possesses some important advantages such as consisting of a few BJTs and a grounded capacitor, consuming very low power and having electronic tunability property of its pole frequency. Additionally, types of filter response can be obtained only by changing the values of current sources. The suggested circuit does not suffer from disadvantages of use of the resistors in IC process. The presented first-order universal filter topology does not need any passive element matching constraints. Moreover, as an application example, a second-order band-pass filter is obtained by cascading two proposed filter structures which are operating as low-pass filter and high-pass one. Simulations by means of PSpice program are accomplished to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the developed first-order universal filter.

  14. First Order Linear Homogeneous Fuzzy Ordinary Differential Equation Based on Lagrange Multiplier Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Prasad Mondal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the First Order Linear Fuzzy Ordinary Differential Equations are described. Here coefficients and /or initial condition of said differential equation are taken as the Generalized Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (GTFNs.The solution procedure of this Fuzzy Differential Equation is developed by Lagrange Multiplier Method. An imprecise barometric pressure problem is described.

  15. Back-and-forth systems for fuzzy first-order models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dellunde, P.; García-Cerdaña, A.; Noguera, Carles

    (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * first-order fuzzy logics * non-classical logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/MTR/noguera-0486421.pdf

  16. Advancing investigation and physical modeling of first-order fire effects on soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Massman; John M. Frank; Sacha J. Mooney

    2010-01-01

    Heating soil during intense wildland fires or slash-pile burns can alter the soil irreversibly, resulting in many significant long-term biological, chemical, physical, and hydrological effects. To better understand these long-term effects, it is necessary to improve modeling capability and prediction of the more immediate, or first-order, effects that fire can have on...

  17. Shear banding of colloidal glasses: Observation of a dynamic first order transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikkadi, V.; Miedema, D.M.; Dang, M.T.; Nienhuis, B.; Schall, P.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that application of an increasing shear field on a glass leads to an intriguing dynamic first-order transition in analogy with equilibrium transitions. By following the particle dynamics as a function of the driving field in a colloidal glass, we identify a critical shear rate upon

  18. Determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Juan; Juan, Liu Xiao; Wu, Ying Hua; Hua, Wu Ying; Zhao, Li Chao; Chao, Zhao Li; Xiao, Su Yao; Yao, Xiao Su; Zhou, Ai Mei; Mei, Zhou Ai; Liu, Xin; Xin, Liu

    2011-01-01

    A highly selective, convenient, and precise method, first-order derivative spectrophotometry, was applied for the determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis. Ethyl acetate and ethanol (1:1, v/v) were found to be the best extraction solvent tested due to their high efficiency and low toxicity compared with nine other organic solvents. Astaxanthin coexisting with chlorophyll and beta-carotene was analyzed by first-order derivative spectrophotometry in order to optimize the conditions for the determination of astaxanthin. The results show that when detected at 432 nm, the interfering substances could be eliminated. The dynamic linear range was 2.0-8.0 microg/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916. The detection threshold was 0.41 microg/mL. The RSD for the determination of astaxanthin was in the range of 0.01-0.06%; the results of recovery test were 98.1-108.0%. The statistical analysis between first-order derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC by T-testing did not exceed their critical values, revealing no significant differences between these two methods. It was proved that first-order derivative spectrophotometry is a rapid and convenient method for the determination of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis that can eliminate the negative effect resulting from the coexistence of astaxanthin with chlorophyll and beta-carotene.

  19. Bifurcation from infinity and multiple solutions for first-order periodic boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyan Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence and multiplicity of solutions for the first-order periodic boundary-value problem $$displaylines{ u'(t-a(tu(t=lambda u(t+g(u(t-h(t, quad tin (0, T,cr u(0=u(T. }$$

  20. On the parameter estimation of first order IMA model corrupted with AR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the parameter estimation of first order IMA model corrupted with AR (1) errors. D Eni, S A Mahmud. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 115-120. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Student Interpretations of the Terms in First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations in Modelling Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2004-01-01

    A study of first-year undergraduate students' interpretational difficulties with first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in modelling contexts was conducted using a diagnostic quiz, exam questions and follow-up interviews. These investigations indicate that when thinking about such ODEs, many students muddle thinking about the function…

  2. On solving large-scale polynomial convex problems by randomized first order algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Tal, A.; Nemirovski, A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most attractive recent approaches to processing well-structured large-scale convex optimization problems is based on smooth convex-concave saddle point reformulation of the problem of interest and solving the resulting problem by a fast first order saddle point method utilizing smoothness

  3. First-order fire effects models for land Management: Overview and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    We give an overview of the science application process at work in supporting fire management. First-order fire effects models, such as those discussed in accompanying papers, are the building blocks of software systems designed for application to landscapes over time scales from days to centuries. Fire effects may be modeled using empirical, rule based, or process...

  4. The first-order Euler-Lagrange equations and some of their uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C.; Santamaria, F. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE),Campus Vida, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2016-12-13

    In many nonlinear field theories, relevant solutions may be found by reducing the order of the original Euler-Lagrange equations, e.g., to first order equations (Bogomolnyi equations, self-duality equations, etc.). Here we generalise, further develop and apply one particular method for the order reduction of nonlinear field equations which, despite its systematic and versatile character, is not widely known.

  5. Explicit solutions of one-dimensional, first-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-01-05

    Here, we consider one-dimensional first-order stationary mean-field games with congestion. These games arise when crowds face difficulty moving in high-density regions. We look at both monotone decreasing and increasing interactions and construct explicit solutions using the current formulation. We observe new phenomena such as discontinuities, unhappiness traps and the non-existence of solutions.

  6. Satisfiability Solving and Model Generation for Quantified First-Order Logic Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladisch, Christoph D.

    The generation of models, i.e. interpretations, that satisfy first-order logic (FOL) formulas is an important problem in different application domains, such as, e.g., formal software verification, testing, and artificial intelligence. Satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) solvers are the state-of-the-art techniques for handling this problem. A major bottleneck is, however, the handling of quantified formulas.

  7. A Simple Method for Estimation of Parameters in First order Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Miklos, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A simple method for estimation of parameters in first order systems with time delays is presented in this paper. The parameter estimation approach is based on a step response for the open loop system. It is shown that the estimation method does not require a complete step response, only a part of...

  8. Poverty Mapping Based on First-Order Dominance with an Example from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel first-order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small-area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly, is straightforward to implement, is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare and accounts rigorously for w...

  9. The logic of propagation strategies : Axiomatizing a fragment of organizational ecology in first-order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peli, G; Masuch, M

    1997-01-01

    As a part of a larger effort to apply formal logic to organization science, we axiomatize the theory of propagation strategies (life history strategies) of Organization Ecology. We provide an axiomatic system in first-order logic that derives the theory's predictions as theorems from a set of

  10. First-Order Logic Investigation of Relativity Theory with an Emphasis on Accelerated Observers

    CERN Document Server

    Székely, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is mainly about extensions of the first-order logic axiomatization of special relativity introduced by Andr\\'eka, Madar\\'asz and N\\'emeti. These extensions include extension to accelerated observers, relativistic dynamics and general relativity; however, its main subject is the extension to accelerated observers (AccRel). One surprising result is that natural extension to accelerated observers is not enough if we want our theory to imply certain experimental facts, such as the twin paradox. Even if we add the whole first-order theory of real numbers to this natural extension, it is still not enough to imply the twin paradox. Nevertheless, that does not mean that this task cannot be carried out within first-order logic since by approximating a second-order logic axiom of real numbers, we introduce a first-order axiom schema that solves the problem. Our theory AccRel nicely fills the gap between special and general relativity theories, and only one natural generalization step is needed to achieve a ...

  11. A Lennard-Jones-like perspective on first order transitions in biological helices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskolkov, Nikolay N.; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Helical structures with Lennard-Jones self-interactions are studied for optimal conformations. For this purpose, their self-energy is analyzed for extrema with respect to the geometric parameters of the helices. It is found that Lennard-Jones helices exhibit a first order phase transition from a ...

  12. Probabilistic modelling of combined sewer overflow using the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2007-01-01

    uncertainties on an application of the commercial urban drainage model MOUSE combined with the probabilistic First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Applying statistical characteristics on several years of rainfall, it is possible to derive a parameterization of the rainfall input and the failure probability...

  13. Probabilistic Modelling of Combined Sewer Overflow Using the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2008-01-01

    uncertainties on an application of the commercial urban drainage model MOUSE combined with the probabilistic First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Applying statistical characteristics on several years of rainfall, it is possible to derive a parameterization of the rainfall input and the failure probability...

  14. First-order correction terms in the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Vinh H.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-01-01

    The weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT) of tunneling ionization in a static electric field is developed to the next order in field. The first-order corrections to the ionization rate and transverse momentum distribution of the ionized electrons are derived. This extends the region of applicability...

  15. Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse-time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid

    2017-02-01

    Surface-related multiples have been utilized in the reverse-time migration (RTM) procedures, and additional illumination for subsurface can be provided. Meanwhile, many cross-talks are generated from undesired interactions between forward- and backward-propagated seismic waves. In this paper, subsequent to analysing and categorizing these cross-talks, we propose RTM of first-order multiples to avoid most undesired interactions in RTM of all-order multiples, where only primaries are forward-propagated and crosscorrelated with the backward-propagated first-order multiples. With primaries and multiples separated during regular seismic data processing as the input data, first-order multiples can be obtained by a two-step scheme: (1) the dual-prediction of higher-order multiples; and (2) the adaptive subtraction of predicted higher-order multiples from all-order multiples within local offset-time windows. In numerical experiments, two synthetic and a marine field data sets are used, where different cross-talks generated by RTM of all-order multiples can be identified and the proposed RTM of first-order multiples can provide a very interpretable image with a few cross-talks.

  16. Algorithms and software for total variation image reconstruction via first-order methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Joahim; Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new algorithms and related software for total variation (TV) image reconstruction, more specifically: denoising, inpainting, and deblurring. The algorithms are based on one of Nesterov's first-order methods, tailored to the image processing applications in such a way that...

  17. Exit from inflation with a first-order phase transition and a gravitational wave blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Ashoorioon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In double-field inflation, which exploits two scalar fields, one of the fields rolls slowly during inflation whereas the other field is trapped in a meta-stable vacuum. The nucleation rate from the false vacuum to the true one becomes substantial enough that triggers a first order phase transition and ends inflation. We revisit the question of first order phase transition in an “extended” model of hybrid inflation, realizing the double-field inflationary scenario, and correctly identify the parameter space that leads to a first order phase transition at the end of inflation. We compute the gravitational wave profile which is generated during this first order phase transition. Assuming instant reheating, the peak frequency falls in the 1 GHz to 10 GHz frequency band and the amplitude varies in the range 10−11≲ΩGWh2≲10−8, depending on the value of the cosmological constant in the false vacuum. For a narrow band of vacuum energies, the first order phase transition can happen after the end of inflation via the violation of slow-roll, with a peak frequency that varies from 1 THz to 100 THz. For smaller values of cosmological constant, even though inflation can end via slow-roll violation, the universe gets trapped in a false vacuum whose energy drives a second phase of eternal inflation. This range of vacuum energies do not lead to viable inflationary models, unless the value of the cosmological constant is compatible with the observed value, M∼10−3 eV.

  18. Numerical solution of first order initial value problem using quartic spline method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala'yed, Osama; Ying, Teh Yuan; Saaban, Azizan

    2015-12-01

    Any first order initial value problem can be integrated numerically by discretizing the interval of integration into a number of subintervals, either with equally distributed grid points or non-equally distributed grid points. Hence, as the integration advances, the numerical solutions at the grid points are calculated and being known. However, the numerical solutions between the grid points remain unknown. This will form difficulty to individuals who wish to study a particular solution which may not fall on the grid points. Therefore, some sorts of interpolation techniques are needed to deal with such difficulty. Spline interpolation technique remains as a well known approach to approximate the numerical solution of a first order initial value problem, not only at the grid points but also everywhere between the grid points. In this short article, a new quartic spline method has been derived to obtain the numerical solution for first order initial value problem. The key idea of the derivation is to treat the third derivative of the quartic spline function to be a linear polynomial, and obtain the quartic spline function with undetermined coefficients after three integrations. The new quartic spline function is ready to be used when all unknown coefficients are found. We also described an algorithm for the new quartic spline method when used to obtain the numerical solution of any first order initial value problem. Two test problems have been used for numerical experimentations purposes. Numerical results seem to indicate that the new quartic spline method is reliable in solving first order initial value problem. We have compared the numerical results generated by the new quartic spline method with those obtained from an existing spline method. Both methods are found to have comparable accuracy.

  19. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  20. Pseudo-Newtonian planar circular restricted 3-body problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubeibe, F.L., E-mail: fldubeibem@unal.edu.co [Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educación, Universidad de los Llanos, Villavicencio (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Lora-Clavijo, F.D., E-mail: fadulora@uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); González, Guillermo A., E-mail: guillermo.gonzalez@saber.uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2017-02-12

    We study the dynamics of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of a pseudo-Newtonian approximation. By using the Fodor–Hoenselaers–Perjés procedure, we perform an expansion in the mass potential of a static massive spherical source up to the first non-Newtonian term, giving place to a gravitational potential that includes first-order general relativistic effects. With this result, we model a system composed by two pseudo-Newtonian primaries describing circular orbits around their common center of mass, and a test particle orbiting the system in the equatorial plane. The dynamics of the new system of equations is studied in terms of the Poincaré section method and the Lyapunov exponents, where the introduction of a new parameter ϵ, allows us to observe the transition from the Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. We show that when the Jacobian constant is fixed, a chaotic orbit in the Newtonian regime can be either chaotic or regular in the pseudo-Newtonian approach. As a general result, we find that most of the pseudo-Newtonian configurations are less stable than their Newtonian equivalent.

  1. A Numerical Iterative Method for Solving Systems of First-Order Periodic Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed AL-Smadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a numerical iterative method for solving systems of first-order ordinary differential equations subject to periodic boundary conditions. This iterative technique is based on the use of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method in which every function satisfies the periodic boundary conditions. The present method is accurate, needs less effort to achieve the results, and is especially developed for nonlinear case. Furthermore, the present method enables us to approximate the solutions and their derivatives at every point of the range of integration. Indeed, three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the present method. Results obtained show that the numerical scheme is very effective and convenient for solving systems of first-order ordinary differential equations with periodic boundary conditions.

  2. Will electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks undergo first-order transition under random attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Zhenshan; Zhu, Xuedong; Wang, Xunting

    2016-10-01

    Whether the realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks will undergo first-order transition under random failures still remains a question. To reflect the reality of Chinese electrical cyber-physical system, the "partial one-to-one correspondence" interdependent networks model is proposed and the connectivity vulnerabilities of three realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks are analyzed. The simulation results show that due to the service demands of power system the topologies of power grid and its cyber network are highly inter-similar which can effectively avoid the first-order transition. By comparing the vulnerability curves between electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks and its single-layer network, we find that complex network theory is still useful in the vulnerability analysis of electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks.

  3. Shear Banding of Colloidal Glasses: Observation of a Dynamic First-Order Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkadi, V.; Miedema, D. M.; Dang, M. T.; Nienhuis, B.; Schall, P.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that application of an increasing shear field on a glass leads to an intriguing dynamic first-order transition in analogy with equilibrium transitions. By following the particle dynamics as a function of the driving field in a colloidal glass, we identify a critical shear rate upon which the diffusion time scale of the glass exhibits a sudden discontinuity. Using a new dynamic order parameter, we show that this discontinuity is analogous to a first-order transition, in which the applied stress acts as the conjugate field on the system's dynamic evolution. These results offer new perspectives to comprehend the generic shear-banding instability of a wide range of amorphous materials.

  4. Quantum criticality and first-order transitions in the extended periodic Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, I.; Itai, K.; Sólyom, J.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the behavior of the periodic Anderson model in the presence of d-f Coulomb interaction (Udf) using mean-field theory, variational calculation, and exact diagonalization of finite chains. The variational approach based on the Gutzwiller trial wave function gives a critical value of Udf and two quantum critical points (QCPs), where the valence susceptibility diverges. We derive the critical exponent for the valence susceptibility and investigate how the position of the QCP depends on the other parameters of the Hamiltonian. For larger values of Udf, the Kondo regime is bounded by two first-order transitions. These first-order transitions merge into a triple point at a certain value of Udf. For even larger Udf valence skipping occurs. Although the other methods do not give a critical point, they support this scenario.

  5. First-order flow equations for extremal and non-extremal black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Jan; Smyth, Paul; Van Riet, Thomas; Vercnocke, Bert

    2009-03-01

    We derive a general form of first-order flow equations for extremal and non-extremal, static, spherically symmetric black holes in theories with massless scalars and vectors coupled to gravity. By rewriting the action as a sum of squares à la Bogomol'nyi, we identify the function governing the first-order gradient flow, the `generalised superpotential', which reduces to the `fake superpotential' for non-supersymmetric extremal black holes and to the central charge for supersymmetric black holes. For theories whose scalar manifold is a symmetric space after a timelike dimensional reduction, we present the condition for the existence of a generalised superpotential. We provide examples to illustrate the formalism in four and five spacetime dimensions.

  6. Implementation of an optimal first-order method for strongly convex total variation regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Hansen, Per Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a practical implementation of an optimal first-order method, due to Nesterov, for large-scale total variation regularization in tomographic reconstruction, image deblurring, etc. The algorithm applies to μ-strongly convex objective functions with L-Lipschitz continuous gradient...... parameter μ for solving ill-conditioned problems to high accuracy, in comparison with an optimal method for non-strongly convex problems and a first-order method with Barzilai-Borwein step size selection........ In the framework of Nesterov both μ and L are assumed known—an assumption that is seldom satisfied in practice. We propose to incorporate mechanisms to estimate locally sufficient μ and L during the iterations. The mechanisms also allow for the application to non-strongly convex functions. We discuss...

  7. Determining the first order perturbation of a polyharmonic operator on admissible manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assylbekov, Yernat M.; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    We consider the inverse boundary value problem for the first order perturbation of the polyharmonic operator L g , X , q, with X being a W 1 , ∞ vector field and q being an L∞ function on compact Riemannian manifolds with boundary which are conformally embedded in a product of the Euclidean line and a simple manifold. We show that the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map determines X and q uniquely. The method is based on the construction of complex geometrical optics solutions using the Carleman estimate for the Laplace-Beltrami operator due to Dos Santos Ferreira, Kenig, Salo and Uhlmann. Notice that the corresponding uniqueness result does not hold for the first order perturbation of the Laplace-Beltrami operator.

  8. The Canonical Structure of the First Order Einstein-Hilbert Action with a Flat Background

    CERN Document Server

    Chishtie, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that the canonical structure of the first order Einstein-Hilbert (1EH) action involves three generations of constraints and that these can be used to find the generator of a gauge transformation which leaves the action invariant; this transformation is a diffeomorphism with field-dependent gauge function while on shell. In this paper we examine the relationship between the canonical structure of this action and that of the first order spin-2 (1S2) action, which is the weak field limit of the Einstein-Hilbert action. We find that the weak field limit of the Possion Brackets (PB) algebra of first class constraints associated with the 1EH action is not that of the 1S2 action.

  9. Anomalous critical slowdown at a first order phase transition in single polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Qi, Shuanhu; Klushin, Leonid I.; Skvortsov, Alexander M.; Yan, Dadong; Schmid, Friederike

    2017-08-01

    Using Brownian dynamics, we study the dynamical behavior of a polymer grafted onto an adhesive surface close to the mechanically induced adsorption-stretching transition. Even though the transition is first order (in the infinite chain length limit, the stretching degree of the chain jumps discontinuously), the characteristic relaxation time is found to grow according to a power law as the transition point is approached. We present a dynamic effective interface model which reproduces these observations and provides an excellent quantitative description of the simulation data. The generic nature of the theoretical model suggests that the unconventional mixing of features that are characteristic for first-order transitions (a jump in an order parameter) and features that are characteristic of critical points (an anomalous slowdown) may be a common phenomenon in force-driven phase transitions of macromolecules.

  10. Discrete gravity as a local theory of the Poincare group in the first-order formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gionti, Gabriele [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Specola Vaticana, V-00120 Citta Del Vaticano (Vatican City State, Holy See,)

    2005-10-21

    A discrete theory of gravity, locally invariant under the Poincare group, is considered as in a companion paper. We define a first-order theory, in the sense of Palatini, on the metric-dual Voronoi complex of a simplicial complex. We follow the same spirit as the continuum theory of general relativity in the Cartan formalism. The field equations are carefully derived taking in account the constraints of the theory. They look very similar to first-order Einstein continuum equations in the Cartan formalism. It is shown that in the limit of small deficit angles these equations have Regge calculus, locally, as the only solution. A quantum measure is easily defined which does not suffer the ambiguities of Regge calculus, and a coupling with fermionic matter is easily introduced.

  11. Automatic blocking of nucleation and the universality of kinetic phenomena in first-order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zel`tser, A.S.; Soboleva, T.K.; Filippov, A.E. [Donetsk Physicotechnical Inst. (Ukraine)

    1995-07-01

    The kinetics of a first-order phase transformation are investigated using a unified mathematical approach based on he generalized Ginaburg-Landau model with a nonlocal thermodynamic potential. It is shown that since the formation of nuclei includes processes that prevent their appearance and growth in other regions in space, it should result in autostabilization of an intermediate mixed state. Various mechanisms for the formation of an effective long-range interaction in such systems are analyzed. The universality of the kinetic phenomena in first-order phase transition, which is due to the self-consistent character of the blocking of the phase-separation process and is manifested by the establishment of universal relations between the effective parameters of the system, is point out for the first time. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Invariant Functions, Symmetries and Primary Branch Solutions of First Order Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Sen-Yue; Yao, Ruo-Xia

    2017-07-01

    An invariant function (IF) is defined as a multiplier of a symmetry that means a symmetry multiplied by an IF is still a symmetry. Primary branch solutions of arbitrary first order scalar systems can be obtained by means of the IF and its related symmetry approach. Especially, one recursion operator and some sets of infinitely many high order symmetries are also explicitly given for arbitrary (1+1)-dimensional first order autonomous systems. Because of the intrusion of the arbitrary function, various implicit special exact solutions can be found by fixing the arbitrary functions and selecting different seed solutions. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 11435005, 11471004, 11175092, and 11205092, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things No. ZF1213 and K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  13. QCD-Electroweak First-Order Phase Transition in a Supercooled Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Serpico, Pasquale D; Shimada, Kengo

    2017-10-06

    If the electroweak sector of the standard model is described by classically conformal dynamics, the early Universe evolution can be substantially altered. It is already known that-contrarily to the standard model case-a first-order electroweak phase transition may occur. Here we show that, depending on the model parameters, a dramatically different scenario may happen: A first-order, six massless quark QCD phase transition occurs first, which then triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking. We derive the necessary conditions for this dynamics to occur, using the specific example of the classically conformal B-L model. In particular, relatively light weakly coupled particles are predicted, with implications for collider searches. This scenario is also potentially rich in cosmological consequences, such as renewed possibilities for electroweak baryogenesis, altered dark matter production, and gravitational wave production, as we briefly comment upon.

  14. Constraint-preserving boundary conditions in the 3+1 first-order approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, C

    2010-01-01

    A set of stable energy-momentum constraint-preserving boundary conditions are proposed for the first-order Z4 case. No linear modes appear in the robust stability test. Also, a modified finite-differences stencil for boundary points is presented, which avoids the corner and vertex points even in cartesian-like grids. Moreover, the proposed boundary conditions are tested in a strong field scenario, the Gowdy waves metric, showing that the accumulated amount of energy-momentum constraint violations is of the same order of magnitude than the one generated by either periodic or reflection conditions, which are exact in the Gowdy waves case. As a side result, a new symmetrizer is explicitly given, which extends the parametric domain of symmetric hyperbolicity for the Z4 formalism. The aplication of these results to first-order BSSN-like formalisms is also considered.

  15. Acceleration time scale for the first-order Fermi acceleration in relativistic shock waves

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarz, J.; Ostrowski, M.

    1996-01-01

    The acceleration time scale for the process of first-order Fermi acceleration in relativistic shock waves with oblique magnetic field configurations is investigated by the method of Monte Carlo particle simulations. We demonstrate the presence of correlation between the particle energy gain at interaction with the shock and the respective time elapsed since the previous interaction. Because of that any derivation of the acceleration time scale can not use the distribution of energy gains and ...

  16. Hydrology and water quality of two first order forested watersheds in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; M. Miwa; C.A. Harrison; C.C. Trettin; G. Sun

    2006-01-01

    Two first-order forested watersheds (WS 80 and WS 77) on poorly drained pine-hardwood stands in the South Carolina Coastal Plain have been monitored since mid-1960s to characterize the hydrology, water quality and vegetation dynamics. This study examines the flow and nutrient dynamics of these two watersheds using 13 years (1 969-76 and 1977-81) of data prior to...

  17. First-order selfadjoint singular differential operators in a Hilbert space of vector functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pembe Ipek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we give a representation of all selfadjoint extensions of the minimal operator generated by first-order linear symmetric multipoint singular differential expression, with operator coefficient in the direct sum of Hilbert spaces of vector-functions defined at the semi-infinite intervals. To this end we use the Calkin-Gorbachuk method. Finally, the geometry of spectrum set of such extensions is researched.

  18. Experimental Determination of System Outage Probability Due to First-Order and Second-Order PMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Henry H.; Peterson, Daniel L., Jr.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) tolerance testing procedure for transponders and transmission systems is described. This method exploits programmable PMD sources for testing the first- and second-order joint probability density function to estimate the total PMD network outage. Experimental data show that first-order-only PMD testing is insufficient to quantify the tolerance of a transponder and may falsely underestimate network outage.

  19. Supplementary First-Order All-Pass Filters with Two Grounded Passive Elements Using FDCCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two novel first-order all-pass filters are proposed using only one grounded resistor and one grounded capacitor along with a fully differential current conveyor (FDCCII. There is no element-matching restriction. The presented all-pass filter circuits can be made electronically tunable due to the electronic resistors. Furthermore, the presented circuits enjoy high-input impedance for easy cascadability. The theoretical results are verified with SPICE simulations.

  20. Comment on "Evidence of a first-order phase transition to metallic hydrogen"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Ross T.; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Gregoryanz, Eugene

    2017-10-01

    A recent article by Zaghoo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 155128 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.155128] presented high-pressure high-temperature optical experiments claiming the observation of a first-order transition to atomic liquid metallic hydrogen. Here, we demonstrate that the experimental evidence presented is unsubstantial for such a claim. Furthermore, the claimed results and conclusions contradict previously published works, including those by the same research group.

  1. Maximum Principles and Boundary Value Problems for First-Order Neutral Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domoshnitsky Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain the maximum principles for the first-order neutral functional differential equation where , and are linear continuous operators, and are positive operators, is the space of continuous functions, and is the space of essentially bounded functions defined on . New tests on positivity of the Cauchy function and its derivative are proposed. Results on existence and uniqueness of solutions for various boundary value problems are obtained on the basis of the maximum principles.

  2. First order mean field games - explicit solutions, perturbations and connection with classical mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-06

    We present recent developments in the theory of first-order mean-field games (MFGs). A standard assumption in MFGs is that the cost function of the agents is monotone in the density of the distribution. This assumption leads to a comprehensive existence theory and to the uniqueness of smooth solutions. Here, our goals are to understand the role of local monotonicity in the small perturbation regime and the properties of solutions for problems without monotonicity. Under a local monotonicity assumption, we show that small perturbations of MFGs have unique smooth solutions. In addition, we explore the connection between first-order MFGs and classical mechanics and KAM theory. Next, for non-monotone problems, we construct non-unique explicit solutions for a broad class of first-order mean-field games. We provide an alternative formulation of MFGs in terms of a new current variable. These examples illustrate two new phenomena: the non-uniqueness of solutions and the breakdown of regularity.

  3. AMD-stability in the presence of first-order mean motion resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A. C.; Laskar, J.; Boué, G.

    2017-11-01

    The angular momentum deficit (AMD)-stability criterion allows to discriminate between a priori stable planetary systems and systems for which the stability is not granted and needs further investigations. AMD-stability is based on the conservation of the AMD in the averaged system at all orders of averaging. While the AMD criterion is rigorous, the conservation of the AMD is only granted in absence of mean-motion resonances (MMR). Here we extend the AMD-stability criterion to take into account mean-motion resonances, and more specifically the overlap of first-order MMR. If the MMR islands overlap, the system will experience generalized chaos leading to instability. The Hamiltonian of two massive planets on coplanar quasi-circular orbits can be reduced to an integrable one degree of freedom problem for period ratios close to a first-order MMR. We use the reduced Hamiltonian to derive a new overlap criterion for first-order MMR. This stability criterion unifies the previous criteria proposed in the literature and admits the criteria obtained for initially circular and eccentric orbits as limit cases. We then improve the definition of AMD-stability to take into account the short term chaos generated by MMR overlap. We analyze the outcome of this improved definition of AMD-stability on selected multi-planet systems from the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopædia.

  4. The weaker effects of First-order mean motion resonances in intermediate inclinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YuanYuan; Quillen, Alice C.; Ma, Yuehua; Chinese Scholar Council, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, the Minor Planet Foundation of the Purple Mountain Observatory

    2017-10-01

    During planetary migration, a planet or planetesimal can be captured into a low-order mean motion resonance with another planet. Using a second-order expansion of the disturbing function in eccentricity and inclination, we explore the sensitivity of the capture probability of first-order mean motion resonances to orbital inclination. We find that second-order inclination contributions affect the resonance strengths, reducing them at intermediate inclinations of around 10-40° for major first-order resonances. We also integrated the Hamilton's equations with arbitrary initial arguments, and provided the varying tendencies of resonance capture probabilities versus orbital inclinations for different resonances and different particle or planetary eccentricities. Resonance-weaker ranges in inclinations generally appear at the places where resonance strengths are low, around 10-40° in general. The weaker ranges disappear with a higher particle eccentricity (≳0.05) or planetary eccentricity (≳0.05). These resonance-weaker ranges in inclinations implies that intermediate-inclination objects are less likely to be disturbed or captured into the first-order resonances, which would make them entering into the chaotic area around Neptune with a larger fraction than those with low inclinations, during the epoch of Neptune's outward migration. The privilege of high-inclination particles leave them to be more likely captured into Neptune Trojans, which might be responsible for the unexpected high fraction of high-inclination Neptune Trojans.

  5. First order leveling: Pleasant Bayou geothermal test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    First order leveling to be conducted as part of an environmental monitoring program for a geopressured test well was reported. 39.43 kilometers of first order levels were run to NGS specifications. Twelve Class B type bench marks were set to NGS specifications. The adjusted elevation of bench mark C-1209 was used as a starting elevation and is based on a supplementary adjustment of April 6, 1979 by NGS. The closure for the loop around the well site is -0.65 millimeters. The distance around the loop is 1.29 kilometers, the allowable error of closure was 4.54 millimeters. The initial leveling of this well was performed in 1977. A thorough search for their monumentation was conducted. No monuments were found due to the lack of adequate monument descriptions. Therefore, an elevation comparison summary for this report is only available along the NGS lines outside the well area. The first order level tie to line No. 101 (BMA-1208) was +3.37 millimeters in 17.21 kilometers. The allowable error of closure was 12.44 millimeters.

  6. Investigation of snow single scattering properties based on first order Legendre phase function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar; Casselgren, Johan; Wåhlin, Johan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    Angularly resolved bidirectional reflectance measurements were modelled by approximating a first order Legendre expanded phase function to retrieve single scattering properties of snow. The measurements from 10 different snow types with known density and specific surface area (SSA) were investigated. A near infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used to measure reflected light above the snow surface over the hemisphere in the wavelength region of 900-1650 nm. A solver based on discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) model was used to retrieve the estimated Legendre coefficients of the phase function and a correlation between the coefficients and physical properties of different snow types is investigated. Results of this study suggest that the first two coefficients of the first order Legendre phase function provide sufficient information about the physical properties of snow where the latter captures the anisotropic behaviour of snow and the former provides a relative estimate of the single scattering albedo of snow. The coefficients of the first order phase function were compared with the experimental data and observed that both the coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental data. These findings suggest that our approach can be applied as a qualitative tool to investigate physical properties of snow and also to classify different snow types.

  7. The first-order theory of ordering constraints over feature trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Müller

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The system FT ≤ of ordering constraints over feature trees has been introduced as an extension of the system FT of equality constraints over feature trees. We investigate the first-order theory of FT ≤ and its fragments in detail, both over finite trees and over possibly infinite trees. We prove that the first-order theory of FT ≤ is undecidable, in contrast to the first-order theory of FT which is well-known to be decidable. We show that the entailment problem of FT ≤ with existential quantification is PSPACE-complete. So far, this problem has been shown decidable, coNP-hard in case of finite trees, PSPACE-hard in case of arbitrary trees, and cubic time when restricted to quantifier-free entailment judgments. To show PSPACE-completeness, we show that the entailment problem of FT ≤ with existential quantification is equivalent to the inclusion problem of non-deterministic finite automata.

  8. Data fusion in cyber security: first order entity extraction from common cyber data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2012-06-01

    The Joint Directors of Labs Data Fusion Process Model (JDL Model) provides a framework for how to handle sensor data to develop higher levels of inference in a complex environment. Beginning from a call to leverage data fusion techniques in intrusion detection, there have been a number of advances in the use of data fusion algorithms in this subdomain of cyber security. While it is tempting to jump directly to situation-level or threat-level refinement (levels 2 and 3) for more exciting inferences, a proper fusion process starts with lower levels of fusion in order to provide a basis for the higher fusion levels. The process begins with first order entity extraction, or the identification of important entities represented in the sensor data stream. Current cyber security operational tools and their associated data are explored for potential exploitation, identifying the first order entities that exist in the data and the properties of these entities that are described by the data. Cyber events that are represented in the data stream are added to the first order entities as their properties. This work explores typical cyber security data and the inferences that can be made at the lower fusion levels (0 and 1) with simple metrics. Depending on the types of events that are expected by the analyst, these relatively simple metrics can provide insight on their own, or could be used in fusion algorithms as a basis for higher levels of inference.

  9. Application of first order kinetics to characterize MTBE natural attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Meredith J.; Stevens, Graham J.; Robbins, Gary A.

    2016-04-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was a gasoline oxygenate that became widely used in reformulated gasoline as a means to reduce air pollution in the 1990s. Unfortunately, many of the underground storage tanks containing reformulated gasoline experienced subsurface releases which soon became a health concern given the increase in public and private water supplies containing MTBE. Many states responded to this by banning the use of MTBE as an additive, including Connecticut. Although MTBE dissipates by natural attenuation, it continues to be prevalent in groundwater long after the Connecticut ban in 2004. This study estimated the rate of the natural attenuation in groundwater following the Connecticut ban by evaluating the MTBE concentration two years prior to and two years after the MTBE ban at eighty-three monitoring wells from twenty-two retail gasoline stations where MTBE contamination was observed. Sites chosen for this study had not undergone active remediation ensuring no artificial influence to the natural attenuation processes that controls the migration and dissipation of MTBE. Results indicate that MTBE has dissipated in the natural environment, at more than 80% of the sites and at approximately 82% of the individual monitoring wells. In general, dissipation approximated first order kinetics. Dissipation half-lives, calculated using concentration data from the two year period after the ban, ranged from approximately three weeks to just over seven years with an average half-life of 7.3 months with little variability in estimates for different site characteristics. The accuracy of first order estimates to predict further MTBE dissipation were tested by comparing predicted concentrations with those observed after the two year post-ban period; the predicted concentrations closely match the observed concentrations which supports the use of first order kinetics for predictions of this nature.

  10. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.

    2015-05-29

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e. redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e. less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR.

  11. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J; Wing, A D; Alidina, M; Drewes, J E

    2015-08-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e., redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e., less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Polarimetric First-Order Model of Soil Moisture Effects on the DInSAR Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zwieback

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil moisture between two radar acquisitions can impact the observed coherence in differential interferometry: both coherence magnitude |Υ| and phase Φ are affected. The influence on the latter potentially biases the estimation of deformations. These effects have been found to be variable in magnitude and sign, as well as dependent on polarization, as opposed to predictions by existing models. Such diversity can be explained when the soil is modelled as a half-space with spatially varying dielectric properties and a rough interface. The first-order perturbative solution achieves–upon calibration with airborne L band data–median correlations ρ at HH polarization of 0.77 for the phase Φ, of 0.50 for |Υ|, and for the phase triplets ≡ of 0.56. The predictions are sensitive to the choice of dielectric mixing model, in particular the absorptive properties; the differences between the mixing models are found to be partially compensatable by varying the relative importance of surface and volume scattering. However, for half of the agricultural fields the Hallikainen mixing model cannot reproduce the observed sensitivities of the phase to soil moisture. In addition, the first-order expansion does not predict any impact on the HV coherence, which is however empirically found to display similar sensitivities to soil moisture as the co-pol channels HH and VV. These results indicate that the first-order solution, while not able to reproduce all observed phenomena, can capture some of the more salient patterns of the effect of soil moisture changes on the HH and VV DInSAR signals. Hence it may prove useful in separating the deformations from the moisture signals, thus yielding improved displacement estimates or new ways for inferring soil moisture.

  13. A novel method for classifying starch digestion by modelling the amylolysis of plant foods using first-order enzyme kinetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Milligan, Peter J; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    Studying starch amylolysis kinetics in vitro is valuable for predicting the postprandial glycaemic response to starch intake. Prediction of starch amylolysis behaviour is challenging however, because of the many physico-chemical factors which influence amylolysis. The Logarithm of Slope (LOS) method for analysis of digestibility curves using first-order enzyme kinetics can identify and quantify nutritionally important starch fractions. The early stages of in vitro amylolysis of hydrothermally processed chickpea and durum wheat with variable degrees of structural integrity were studied. The end-point product concentration (C∞) and the pseudo first-order digestibility rate constant k, obtained from LOS analysis, were then used to compute predictive digestibility curves for evaluation of the model performance. LOS analysis enabled rapid identification of nutritionally important starch-fractions. It was clear that purified starches and flours were digested by a single-phase process, but starch amylolysis in macroparticles occurred by a two-phase system that reflected differences in substrate accessibility. The model gave an excellent fit to data obtained from a range of heterogeneous materials. It provides a rigorous means of studying the mechanisms of starch amylolysis in samples of varying complexity, and we strongly recommend its use for the rapid and accurate predictions of amylolysis. Such predictions have implications for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.

  14. Multidimensional Poverty Indices and First Order Dominance Techniques: An Empirical Comparison of Different Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Permanyer, Iñaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we contrast different perspectives to the measurement of multidimensional poverty. Using data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys around the developing world, we have compared the performance of two broad approaches: multidimensional poverty indices and first order dominance...... techniques (FOD). Our empirical findings suggest that the FOD approach might be a reasonable cost-effective alternative to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)’s flagship poverty indicator: the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). To the extent that the FOD approach is able to uncover the socio...

  15. Poverty Mapping Based on First-Order Dominance with an Example from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Hussain, M. Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel first-order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small-area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly, is straightforward to implement, is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare and accounts rigorously...... for welfare distributions in both levels and trends. An application to Mozambique highlights the value of the approach, including its advantages in the monitoring and evaluation of public expenditures. We conclude that the FOD approach to poverty mapping constitutes a useful addition to the toolkit of policy...

  16. Lie Symmetry Analysis of a First-Order Feedback Model of Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Sinkala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-order feedback model of option pricing consisting of a coupled system of two PDEs, a nonliner generalised Black-Scholes equation and the classical Black-Scholes equation, is studied using Lie symmetry analysis. This model arises as an extension of the classical Black-Scholes model when liquidity is incorporated into the market. We compute the admitted Lie point symmetries of the system and construct an optimal system of the associated one-dimensional subalgebras. We also construct some invariant solutions of the model.

  17. Solution of the first order linear fuzzy differential equations by some reliable methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy differential equations are used in modeling problems in science and engineering. For instance, it is known that the knowledge of dynamical systems modeled by ordinary differential equations is often incomplete or vague. While, fuzzy differential equations represent a proper way to model dynamical systems under uncertainty and vagueness. In this paper, two methods for solving first order linear fuzzy differential equations under generalized differentiability are proposed and compared. These methods are variational iteration method (VIM and Adomian decomposition method (ADM. The comparison of the exact solutions with solutions obtained by VIM and ADM are in details. The comparison shows that solutions are excellent agreement.

  18. Determination of triclosan in antiperspirant gels by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Li, Miao; Jin, Yiguang

    2011-10-01

    A first-order derivative UV spectrophotometric method was developed to determine triclosan, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, in health care products containing fragrances which could interfere the determination as impurities. Different extraction methods were compared. Triclosan was extracted with chloroform and diluted with ethanol followed by the derivative spectrophotometric measurement. The interference of fragrances was completely eliminated. The calibration graph was found to be linear in the range of 7.5-45 microg x mL(-1). The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and proper to determine triclosan in fragrance-containing health care products.

  19. First-order systems of linear partial differential equations: normal forms, canonical systems, transform methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Toparkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider first-order systems with constant coefficients for two real-valued functions of two real variables. This is both a problem in itself, as well as an alternative view of the classical linear partial differential equations of second order with constant coefficients. The classification of the systems is done using elementary methods of linear algebra. Each type presents its special canonical form in the associated characteristic coordinate system. Then you can formulate initial value problems in appropriate basic areas, and you can try to achieve a solution of these problems by means of transform methods.

  20. Ab-initio Based Analytical Evaluation of Entropy in Magnetocaloric Materials with First Order Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Marco; Zemen, Jan; Basso, Vittorio

    We combine spin polarised density functional theory and thermodynamic mean field theory to describe the phase transitions of antiperovskite manganese nitrides. We find that the inclusion of the localized spin contribution to the entropy, evaluated through mean field theory, lowers the transition temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the electronic entropy leads to first order phase transitions in agreement with experiments whereas the localized spin contribution adds second order character to the transition. We compare our predictions to available experimental data to assess the validity of the assumptions underpinning our multilevel modelling.

  1. A Preconditioning Technique for First-Order Primal-Dual Splitting Method in Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a preconditioning technique for the first-order primal-dual splitting method. The primal-dual splitting method offers a very general framework for solving a large class of optimization problems arising in image processing. The key idea of the preconditioning technique is that the constant iterative parameters are updated self-adaptively in the iteration process. We also give a simple and easy way to choose the diagonal preconditioners while the convergence of the iterative algorithm is maintained. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated on an image denoising problem. Numerical results show that the preconditioned iterative algorithm performs better than the original one.

  2. An Implementable First-Order Primal-Dual Algorithm for Structured Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many application problems of practical interest can be posed as structured convex optimization models. In this paper, we study a new first-order primaldual algorithm. The method can be easily implementable, provided that the resolvent operators of the component objective functions are simple to evaluate. We show that the proposed method can be interpreted as a proximal point algorithm with a customized metric proximal parameter. Convergence property is established under the analytic contraction framework. Finally, we verify the efficiency of the algorithm by solving the stable principal component pursuit problem.

  3. First-Order Transitions and the Magnetic Phase Diagram of CeSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    might exist in the magnetic phase diagram of CeSb at 16K for a field of approximately 0.3 T. The present study concludes that the transitions from the paramagnetic to the magnetically ordered states are of first order for fields below 0.8 T. Within the experimental accuracy no change has been observed......The high-temperature (14-17K) low-magnetic field (0-0.8 T) region of the phase diagram of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb has been reinvestigated by neutron diffraction in an attempt to locate a possible tricritical point. Previous neutron diffraction studies indicated that a tricritical point...

  4. Knowledge Representation for Lexical Semantics Is Standard First Order Logic Enough?

    CERN Document Server

    Light, M; Rochester, U; Light, Marc; Schubert, Lenhart; Rochester, University of

    1994-01-01

    Natural language understanding applications such as interactive planning and face-to-face translation require extensive inferencing. Many of these inferences are based on the meaning of particular open class words. Providing a representation that can support such lexically-based inferences is a primary concern of lexical semantics. The representation language of first order logic has well-understood semantics and a multitude of inferencing systems have been implemented for it. Thus it is a prime candidate to serve as a lexical semantics representation. However, we argue that FOL, although a good starting point, needs to be extended before it can efficiently and concisely support all the lexically-based inferences needed.

  5. Commissioning of a first-order matched transition jump at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available When accelerating gold ions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC the transition energy must be crossed. For this purpose, RHIC uses a set of correction quadrupoles and special power supplies which can reverse polarity in less than 40 ms. These quadrupoles are used to produce dispersion bumps which increase the transition energy as the beam approaches transition. The change of polarity will then jump the transition energy across the beam energy. This paper describes the commissioning of the RHIC first-order matched transition crossing system.

  6. First-order, worldwide, ionospheric, time-delay algorithm. Air force surveys in geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobuchar, J.A.

    1975-09-25

    A first-order model algorithm designed to reduce ionospheric time-delay errors by approximately 50% rms on a world-wide basis for single frequency users of the Global Positioning Systen/NAVSTAR is described. The algorithm was designed for greatest accuracy during times of day when ionospheric time-delay errors are expected to be largest. The algorithm is available in several options, from one which requires only a monthly mean solar-flux value to one which requires 9 daily or monthly update coefficients. Several approximations also are made in the geometry calculations to reduce further operational user computer storage and running time requirements. (auth)

  7. Polarization Switching in Ferroelectric Thin Films Undergoing First-Order Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bakaleinikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main switching properties in ferroelectrics undergoing first-order phase transitions are simulated within the framework of the extended Ishibashi dipole-lattice model including the dipole-dipole interaction in a two-dimensional case for ferroelectric nanoscale objects. The peculiarities of the temperature dependence of the switching rate and the pyroelectric coefficient are discussed in the range of coexistence of the metastable states. The used coefficients of the long-range and short-range interactions between the dipoles are taken from the dielectric and structure measurements in BaTiO3.

  8. Finitely Axiomatized Set Theory: a nonclassical first-order theory implying ZF

    OpenAIRE

    Cabbolet, Marcoen

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that a finite axiomatization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF) is not possible in the same first-order language. In this note we show that a finite axiomatization is possible if we extent the language of ZF with the new logical concept of 'universal quantification over a family of variables indexed in an arbitrary set X' and with a concept of generalized disjunction. We axiomatically introduce Finitely Axiomatized Set Theory (FAST), which consists of eleven theorems of ZF p...

  9. Self-Organized Bistability Associated with First-Order Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Santo, Serena; Burioni, Raffaella; Vezzani, Alessandro; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Self-organized criticality elucidates the conditions under which physical and biological systems tune themselves to the edge of a second-order phase transition, with scale invariance. Motivated by the empirical observation of bimodal distributions of activity in neuroscience and other fields, we propose and analyze a theory for the self-organization to the point of phase coexistence in systems exhibiting a first-order phase transition. It explains the emergence of regular avalanches with attributes of scale invariance that coexist with huge anomalous ones, with realizations in many fields.

  10. First-order aerodynamic and aeroelastic behavior of a single-blade installation setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Bergami, Leonardo; Guntur, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    the first-order aerodynamic and aeroelastic behavior of a single blade installation system, where the blade is grabbed by a yoke, which is lifted by the crane and stabilized by two taglines. A simple engineering model is formulated to describe the aerodynamic forcing on the blade subject to turbulent wind...... of arbitrary direction. The model is coupled with a schematic aeroelastic representation of the taglines system, which returns the minimum line tension required to compensate for the aerodynamic forcing. The simplified models are in excellent agreement with the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and provide a solid basis...

  11. Some New First-Order All-Pass Realizations Using CCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirat Pal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new first-order all-pass filters using a second-generation current conveyor are reported. Two circuits have higher input impedance than reported very recently and use a grounded capacitor. Additionally two more circuits have been reported, one of which has minimum passive and active components and has the facility of single resistance tuning. The other circuit has high input impedance and uses two current conveyors but has one passive component less than the similar circuits reported earlier.

  12. Some remarks on real numbers induced by first-order spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of a first-order sentence is the set of natural numbers occurring as the cardinalities of finite models of the sentence. In a recent survey, Durand et al. introduce a new class of real numbers, the spectral reals, induced by spectra and pose two open problems associated to this class...... may occur, and (iv) every right-computable real number between 0 and 1 occurs as the subword entropy of a spectral real. In addition, Durand et al. note that the set of spectral reals is not closed under addition or multiplication. We extend this result by showing that the class of spectral reals...

  13. General first-order mass ladder operators for Klein–Gordon fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    We study the ladder operator on scalar fields, mapping a solution of the Klein–Gordon equation onto another solution with a different mass, when the operator is at most first order in derivatives. Imposing the commutation relation between the d’Alembertian, we obtain the general condition for the ladder operator, which contains a non-trivial case which was not discussed in the previous work (Cardoso et al 2017 Phys. Rev. D 96 024044). We also discuss the relation with supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  14. New Gain Controllable Resistor-less Current-mode First Order Allpass Filter and its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New first order allpass filter (APF in current mode, constructed from 2 CCCCTAs and grounded capacitor, is presented. The current gain and phase shift can be electronically /orthogonally controlled. Low input and high output impedances are achieved which make the circuit to be easily cascaded to the current-mode circuit without additional current buffers. The operation of the proposed filter has been verified through simulation results which confirm the theoretical analysis. The application example as current-mode quadrature oscillator with non-interactive current control for both of oscillation condition and oscillation frequency is included to show the usability of the proposed filter.

  15. Simulation of the first order phase transitions in binary alloys with variable mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, P. E.; Svetukhin, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The first order phase transitions in binary alloys were simulated basing on the Cahn-Hilliard equation for metastable states with mobility depending on the local composition. The simulation was carried out utilizing the semi-implicit Fourier spectral method for 3D fragment of a solid solution satisfying the regular solution approximation. We defined kinetics of the main characteristics of phase distribution: nucleation rate, average size, concentration of precipitates and autocorrelation function etc. Peculiarities of different stages of binary alloy decomposition (nucleation, diffusion growth and coarsening) were analyzed both for constant and variable mobility.

  16. Re-Investigation of Generalized Integrator Based Filters From a First-Order-System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Zhao, Rende; Mattavelli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The generalized integrator (GI)-based filters can be categorized into two types: one is related to quadrature signal generator (QSG), and the other is related to sequence filter (SF). The QSG is used for generating the in-quadrature sinusoidal signals and the SF works for extracting the symmetrical...... extended structures and thus restrict their applications. To overcome the drawback, this paper uses the first-order-system concept to re-investigate the GI-based filters, with which their working principles can be intuitively understood and their structure correlations can be easily discovered. Moreover...

  17. First-Order-hold interpolation digital-to-analog converter with application to aircraft simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Those who design piloted aircraft simulations must contend with the finite size and speed of the available digital computer and the requirement for simulation reality. With a fixed computational plant, the more complex the model, the more computing cycle time is required. While increasing the cycle time may not degrade the fidelity of the simulated aircraft dynamics, the larger steps in the pilot cue feedback variables (such as the visual scene cues), may be disconcerting to the pilot. The first-order-hold interpolation (FOHI) digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is presented as a device which offers smooth output, regardless of cycle time. The Laplace transforms of these three conversion types are developed and their frequency response characteristics and output smoothness are compared. The FOHI DAC exhibits a pure one-cycle delay. Whenever the FOHI DAC input comes from a second-order (or higher) system, a simple computer software technique can be used to compensate for the DAC phase lag. When so compensated, the FOHI DAC has (1) an output signal that is very smooth, (2) a flat frequency response in frequency ranges of interest, and (3) no phase error. When the input comes from a first-order system, software compensation may cause the FOHI DAC to perform as an FOHE DAC, which, although its output is not as smooth as that of the FOHI DAC, has a smoother output than that of the ZOH DAC.

  18. First order flow equations for nonextremal black holes in AdS (super)gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Dietmar; Rabbiosi, Marco

    2017-10-01

    We consider electrically charged static nonextremal black holes in d-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-(A)dS gravity, whose horizon is a generic Einstein space in d - 2 dimensions. It is shown that for this system the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is exactly solvable and admits two branches of solutions. One of them exhibits a non-simply connected domain of integration constants and does not reduce to the well-known solution for the d = 4 BPS case. The principal functions generate two first order flows that are analytically different, but support the same general solution. One of the two sets of flow equations corresponds to those found by Lü, Pope and Vázquez-Poritz in hep-th/0307001 and (for d = 4 and Λ = 0) by Miller, Schalm and Weinberg in hep-th/0612308. This clarifies also the reason for the very existence of first order equations for nonextremal black holes, namely, they are just the expressions for the conjugate momenta in terms of derivatives of the principal function in a Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. In the last part of our paper we analyze how much of these integrability properties generalizes to matter-coupled N = 2, d = 4 gauged supergravity.

  19. Model study of intermediate state blocking in first-order optical potential theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Khin Maung; Tandy, P. C.

    1983-03-01

    Restrictions on the intermediate states allowed for nucleon-nucleon scattering operators embedded in many-nucleon systems can arise in several circumstances. The most familiar is Pauli blocking of the occupied ground-state levels in the nucleon-nucleon G-matrix for nuclear matter. The corresponding projection operator is QNM=θ(p1-kF)θ(p2-kF). The first-order optical potential from Watson multiple scattering thory involves a nucleon-nucleon scattering operator in which intermediate states of the struck nucleo corresponding to the target ground state are projected out. The corresponding projection operator is Q=1-‖φ0≳<φ0‖ where ‖σ0≳ is the target ground state. These statess are introduced elsewhere in the theory, namely, when the optical potential is used in the wave equation for elastic scattering. These latter modifications of intermediate states are not related to the Pauli principle since they operate also for a system of bosons, yet when applied to the scattering problem the operator QNM is qualitatively similar to Q. A simple model of the free NN t-matrix is employed to study and compare the effects of intermediate-state modifications through both these operators. Particular attention is paid to the unitarity properties of the resulting modified NN scatterig operator for first-order optical potentials.

  20. Dynamic Off-Equilibrium Transition in Systems Slowly Driven across Thermal First-Order Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2017-01-20

    We study the off-equilibrium behavior of systems with short-range interactions, slowly driven across a thermal first-order transition, where the equilibrium dynamics is exponentially slow. We consider a dynamics that starts in the high-T phase at time t=t_{i}0 in the low-T phase, with a time-dependent temperature T(t)/T_{c}≈1-t/t_{s}, where t_{s} is the protocol time scale. A general off-equilibrium scaling (OS) behavior emerges in the limit of large t_{s}. We check it at the first-order transition of the two-dimensional q-state Potts model with q=20 and 10. The numerical results show evidence of a dynamic transition, where the OS functions show a spinodal-like singularity. Therefore, the general mean-field picture valid for systems with long-range interactions is qualitatively recovered, provided the time dependence is appropriately (logarithmically) rescaled.

  1. Deterministic simulation of first-order scattering in virtual X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Duvauchelle, P.; Pistrui-Maximean, S.A.; Letang, J.-M.; Babot, D

    2004-07-01

    A deterministic algorithm is proposed to compute the contribution of first-order Compton- and Rayleigh-scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named virtual X-ray imaging. The physical models chosen to account for photon scattering are the well-known form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, which are recalled in this paper and whose limits of validity are briefly discussed. The proposed algorithm, based on a voxel discretization of the inspected object, is presented in detail, as well as its results in simple configurations, which are shown to converge when the sampling steps are chosen sufficiently small. Simple criteria for choosing correct sampling steps (voxel and pixel size) are established. The order of magnitude of the computation time necessary to simulate first-order scattering images amounts to hours with a PC architecture and can even be decreased down to minutes, if only a profile is computed (along a linear detector). Finally, the results obtained with the proposed algorithm are compared to the ones given by the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and found to be in excellent accordance, which constitutes a validation of our algorithm. The advantages and drawbacks of the proposed deterministic method versus the Monte Carlo method are briefly discussed.

  2. Enhanced Modeling of First-Order Plant Equations of Motion for Aeroelastic and Aeroservoelastic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is described for generating first-order plant equations of motion for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic applications. The description begins with the process of generating data files representing specialized mode-shapes, such as rigid-body and control surface modes, using both PATRAN and NASTRAN analysis. NASTRAN executes the 146 solution sequence using numerous Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) calls to import the mode-shape files and to perform the aeroelastic response analysis. The aeroelastic response analysis calculates and extracts structural frequencies, generalized masses, frequency-dependent generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients, sensor deflections and load coefficients data as text-formatted data files. The data files are then re-sequenced and re-formatted using a custom written FORTRAN program. The text-formatted data files are stored and coefficients for s-plane equations are fitted to the frequency-dependent GAF coefficients using two Interactions of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) programs. With tabular files from stored data created by ISAC, MATLAB generates the first-order aeroservoelastic plant equations of motion. These equations include control-surface actuator, turbulence, sensor and load modeling. Altitude varying root-locus plot and PSD plot results for a model of the F-18 aircraft are presented to demonstrate the capability.

  3. COMPARISON OF PI CONTROLLER PERFORMANCE FOR FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS WITH TIME DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMAKOTESWARA RAO ALLA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Delays appear often in all real world engineering systems. Delay systems have the property that the rate of variation in the system state depends on the previous states also. They are frequently a source of instability and poor system performance. In order to get the required performance from the delay system controller design plays a vital role. Because of the robust nature, easy structure Proportional Integral Derivative (PID controllers are extensively used in many industrial loops. Parameter tuning of the PID controller is an essential task. Numerous industrial processes, whose transfer function is of first order, can be easily controlled with PI controllers. This paper presents the comparative analysis of an approach based on Lambert W function for PI controller design for first order systems with time delay among Smith predictor (SP and ZeiglerNichols (ZN methods of design. Performance of the considered methods in terms of various performance specifications through simulation results has been illustrated. Results demonstrate that the Lambert W function based PI tuning results in adequate performance compared to other methods with respect to parameters settling time, overshoot, errors, etc.

  4. Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongliang, E-mail: hjiangag@connect.ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Liu, Tao, E-mail: taoliu@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Sun, Sichun, E-mail: sichun@uw.edu [Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wang, Yi, E-mail: phyw@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-10

    Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs), such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and the electroweak (EW) ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs) which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG). The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.

  5. Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs, such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT and the electroweak (EW ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB. If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG. The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.

  6. Numerical study of Potts models with aperiodic modulations: influence on first-order transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Nilton; Girardi, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We perform a numerical study of Potts models on a rectangular lattice with aperiodic interactions along one spatial direction. The number of states q is such that the transition is a first-order one for the uniform model. The Wolff algorithm is employed, for many lattice sizes, allowing for a finite-size scaling analyses to be carried out. Three different self-dual aperiodic sequences are employed, such that the exact critical temperature is known: this leads to precise results for the exponents. We analyze models with q=6 and 15 and show that the Harris-Luck criterion, originally introduced in the study of continuous transitions, is obeyed also for first-order ones. The new universality class that emerges for relevant aperiodic modulations depends on the number of states of the Potts model, as obtained elsewhere for random disorder, and on the aperiodic sequence. We determine the occurrence of log-periodic behavior, as expected for models with aperiodic modulated interactions.

  7. Renormalization-group theory for cooling first-order phase transitions in Potts models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ning; Zhong, Fan

    2017-03-01

    We develop a dynamic field-theoretic renormalization-group (RG) theory for cooling first-order phase transitions in the Potts model. It is suggested that the well-known imaginary fixed points of the q-state Potts model for q>10/3 in the RG theory are the origin of the dynamic scaling found recently from numerical simulations, apart from logarithmic corrections. This indicates that the real and imaginary fixed points of the Potts model are both physical and control the scalings of the continuous and discontinuous phase transitions, respectively, of the model. Our one-loop results for the scaling exponents are already not far away from the numerical results. Further, the scaling exponents depend on q only slightly, consistent with the numerical results. Therefore, the theory is believed to provide a natural explanation of the dynamic scaling including the scaling exponents and their scaling laws for various observables in the cooling first-order phase transition of the Potts model.

  8. Surface Runoff Contamination by Soil Chemicals: Simulations for Equilibrium and First-Order Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Rony; Shabtai, Rina

    1992-01-01

    A model was developed to predict the potential contamination of overland flow by chemicals removed from soil water by rainfall on sloping soil. The model accounts for transient water infiltration and convective-dispersive solute transport in the soil and also considers rate-limited mass transfer through a laminar boundary layer at the soil surface/runoff water interface. Sorption-desorption interactions between soil and chemicals are assumed to be subject to linear and nonlinear isotherms or to first-order kinetics. The dissolved-chemical concentrations at the soil surface and in the surface runoff were determined for different antecedent soil moistures and rainfall intensities. These concentrations are lower when the antecedent moisture is low because the time of ponding for drier soil is longer and because during that period soil solutes are displaced by greater volumes of infiltrating water. For a specified initial soil water content, higher rainfall rates cause higher dissolved-chemical concentrations at the soil surface. The degree of nonlinearity of the equilibrium isotherm greatly affects the transient dissolved-chemical concentrations and the linear isotherm cannot always be used as an alternative. These concentrations are also greatly affected by the value of the kinetics rate coefficient. In the first-order kinetics model there is a recovery of the dissolved-chemical concentration at the soil surface during the period between rainstorms. As a result, the initial concentration at the soil surface for the subsequent rainstorm is higher than that expected when equilibrium is assumed.

  9. First-order derivative couplings between excited states from adiabatic TDDFT response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qi; Bellchambers, Gregory D; Furche, Filipp; Subotnik, Joseph E

    2015-02-14

    We present a complete derivation of derivative couplings between excited states in the framework of adiabatic time-dependent density functional response theory. Explicit working equations are given and the resulting derivative couplings are compared with derivative couplings from a pseudo-wavefunction ansatz. For degenerate excited states, i.e., close to a conical intersection (CI), the two approaches are identical apart from an antisymmetric overlap term. However, if the difference between two excitation energies equals another excitation energy, the couplings from response theory exhibit an unphysical divergence. This spurious behavior is a result of the adiabatic or static kernel approximation of time-dependent density functional theory leading to an incorrect analytical structure of the quadratic response function. Numerical examples for couplings close to a CI and for well-separated electronic states are given.

  10. The Reaction of Allyl Isothiocyanate with Hydroxyl/Water and β-Cyclodextrin Using Ultraviolet Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Tao Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC with hydroxyl/water and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD in different acidic-alkaline media has been investigated by ultraviolet spectrometry. The kinetic parameters of the reaction were measured. It was found that after AITC translating into thiourea, the absorption peak shifted from 240 to 226 nm and the molar absorptivity increased about 16 times. The reaction can be seen as a pseudo first order reaction because the concentration of hydroxyl was constant. β-CD can inhibit the reaction of AITC with hydroxyl/water, i.e. the hydrolysis of AITC. The formation constant (Ka and thermodynamic parameters of the complex reaction were calculated. Ka decreased with the increase of temperature. The experimental results indicated that the inclusive process was an exothermic and enthalpy-driven process accompanied with a negative entropic contribution.

  11. Dynamo onset as a first-order transition: lessons from a shell model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ganapati; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2010-03-01

    We carry out systematic and high-resolution studies of dynamo action in a shell model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence over wide ranges of the magnetic Prandtl number PrM and the magnetic Reynolds number ReM. Our study suggests that it is natural to think of dynamo onset as a nonequilibrium first-order phase transition between two different turbulent, but statistically steady, states. The ratio of the magnetic and kinetic energies is a convenient order parameter for this transition. By using this order parameter, we obtain the stability diagram (or nonequilibrium phase diagram) for dynamo formation in our MHD shell model in the (PrM-1,ReM) plane. The dynamo boundary, which separates dynamo and no-dynamo regions, appears to have a fractal character. We obtain a hysteretic behavior of the order parameter across this boundary and suggestions of nucleation-type phenomena.

  12. Magnetization reversal in kagome artificial spin ice studied by first-order reversal curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Zhou, C.; Liang, J. H.; Xing, T.; Lei, N.; Murray, P.; Liu, Kai; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetization reversal of interconnected kagome artificial spin ice was studied by the first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique based on the magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetoresistance measurements. The magnetization reversal exhibits a distinct sixfold symmetry with the external field orientation. When the field is parallel to one of the nano-bar branches, the domain nucleation/propagation and annihilation processes sensitively depend on the field cycling history and the maximum field applied. When the field is nearly perpendicular to one of the branches, the FORC measurement reveals the magnetic interaction between the Dirac strings and orthogonal branches during the magnetization reversal process. Our results demonstrate that the FORC approach provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the magnetic interaction in the magnetization reversal processes of spin-frustrated systems.

  13. Classical solutions of mixed problems for quasilinear first order PFDEs on a cylindrical domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czernous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We abandon the setting of the domain as a Cartesian product of real intervals, customary for first order PFDEs (partial functional differential equations with initial boundary conditions. We give a new set of conditions on the possibly unbounded domain \\(\\Omega\\ with Lipschitz differentiable boundary. Well-posedness is then reliant on a variant of the normal vector condition. There is a neighbourhood of \\(\\partial\\Omega\\ with the property that if a characteristic trajectory has a point therein, then its every earlier point lies there as well. With local assumptions on coefficients and on the free term, we prove existence and Lipschitz dependence on data of classical solutions on \\((0,c\\times\\Omega\\ to the initial boundary value problem, for small \\(c\\. Regularity of solutions matches this domain, and the proof uses the Banach fixed-point theorem. Our general model of functional dependence covers problems with deviating arguments and integro-differential equations.

  14. First-Order Hyperbolic System Method for Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    A time-dependent extension of the first-order hyperbolic system method for advection-diffusion problems is introduced. Diffusive/viscous terms are written and discretized as a hyperbolic system, which recovers the original equation in the steady state. The resulting scheme offers advantages over traditional schemes: a dramatic simplification in the discretization, high-order accuracy in the solution gradients, and orders-of-magnitude convergence acceleration. The hyperbolic advection-diffusion system is discretized by the second-order upwind residual-distribution scheme in a unified manner, and the system of implicit-residual-equations is solved by Newton's method over every physical time step. The numerical results are presented for linear and nonlinear advection-diffusion problems, demonstrating solutions and gradients produced to the same order of accuracy, with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than five Newton iterations.

  15. First-order phase transition and tricritical point in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Karl A. H.; Babaev, Egor

    2016-02-01

    The order of the superconducting phase transition is a classical problem. Single-component type-2 superconductors exhibit a continuous "inverted-X Y " phase transition, as was first demonstrated for U (1 ) lattice London superconductors by a celebrated duality mapping with subsequent backing by numerical simulations. Here we study this problem in multiband U (1 ) London superconductors and find evidence that by contrast the model has a tricritical point. The superconducting phase transition becomes first order when the Josephson length is sufficiently large compared to the magnetic field penetration length. We present evidence that the fluctuation-induced dipolar interaction between vortex loops makes the phase transition discontinuous. We discuss that this mechanism is also relevant for the phase transitions in multicomponent gauge theories with higher broken symmetry.

  16. First-order convex feasibility algorithms for x-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, we develop IIR algorithms which solve a certain type of optimization called convex feasibility. The convex feasibility approach can provide alternatives to unconstrained optimization approaches and at the same time allow for rapidly convergent algorithms for their solution—thereby facilitating...... problems. Conclusions: Formulation of convex feasibility problems can provide a useful alternative to unconstrained optimization when designing IIR algorithms for CT. The approach is amenable to recent methods for accelerating first-order algorithms which may be particularly useful for CT with limited......Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms in computed tomography (CT) are based on algorithms for solving a particular optimization problem. Design of the IIR algorithm, therefore, is aided by knowledge of the solution to the optimization problem on which it is based. Often times...

  17. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  18. Periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations in population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Padhi, Seshadev; Srinivasu, P D N

    2014-01-01

    This book provides cutting-edge results on the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations. It demonstrates how the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem can be applied to study the existence of two or three positive periodic solutions of functional differential equations with real-world applications, particularly with regard to the Lasota-Wazewska model, the Hematopoiesis model, the Nicholsons Blowflies model, and some models with Allee effects. Many interesting sufficient conditions are given for the dynamics that include nonlinear characteristics exhibited by population models. The last chapter provides results related to the global appeal of solutions to the models considered in the earlier chapters. The techniques used in this book can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of analysis. This book offers a valuable reference guide for students and researchers in the field of differential equations with applications to biology, ecology, a...

  19. Gravitational waves from the sound of a first order phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J

    2014-01-31

    We report on the first three-dimensional numerical simulations of first-order phase transitions in the early Universe to include the cosmic fluid as well as the scalar field order parameter. We calculate the gravitational wave (GW) spectrum resulting from the nucleation, expansion, and collision of bubbles of the low-temperature phase, for phase transition strengths and bubble wall velocities covering many cases of interest. We find that the compression waves in the fluid continue to be a source of GWs long after the bubbles have merged, a new effect not taken properly into account in previous modeling of the GW source. For a wide range of models, the main source of the GWs produced by a phase transition is, therefore, the sound the bubbles make.

  20. First-order superconducting transition in the inter-band model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes da Silva, M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, Av. 7 de Setembro, 1975 - Centro, Manaus, AM 69020-120 (Brazil); Dinóla Neto, F., E-mail: dinola@ufam.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padilha, I.T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Continentino, M.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    The comprehension about the theoretical features of superconductivity is an interesting and fundamental topic in condensed matter physics. Several theoretical proposals were considered to describe the new classes of superconducting compounds and alloys. In this work we propose to study a non-conventional superconducting system where the Cooper pairs are formed by fermions from different bands described via two band model with hybridization. In this inter-band scenario we find a first-order phase transition at low temperatures and we observe a tricritical point in the phase diagram. In our description, the control parameter is the hybridization that can be tuned by external pressure. This fact indicates the possibility to observe discontinuities in the SC gap amplitude through applying pressure on the system.

  1. Observer-Based Bilinear Control of First-Order Hyperbolic PDEs: Application to the Solar Collector

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2015-12-18

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of bilinear control of a solar collector plant using the available boundary and solar irradiance measurements. The solar collector is described by a first-order 1D hyperbolic partial differential equation where the pump volumetric flow rate acts as the plant control input. By combining a boundary state observer and an internal energy-based control law, a nonlinear observer based feedback controller is proposed. With a feed-forward control term, the effect of the solar radiation is cancelled. Using the Lyapunov approach we prove that the proposed control guarantees the global exponential stability of both the plant and the tracking error. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Thermodynamics of rotating black branes in gravity with first order string corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Dehghani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, the rotating black brane solutions with zero curvature horizon of classical gravity with first order string corrections are introduced. Although these solutions are not asymptotically anti de Sitter, one can use the counterterm method in order to compute the conserved quantities of these solutions. Here, by reviewing the counterterm method for asymptotically anti de Sitter spacetimes, the conserved quantities of these rotating solutions are computed. Also a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy and the angular momenta is obtained, and it is shown that the conserved and thermodynamic quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, a stability analysis in the canonical ensemble is performed, and it is shown that the system is thermally stable. This is in commensurable with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black object with zero curvature horizon.

  3. Analytically solvable chaotic oscillator based on a first-order filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corron, Ned J.; Cooper, Roy M.; Blakely, Jonathan N. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center, U.S. Army RDECOM, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A chaotic hybrid dynamical system is introduced and its analytic solution is derived. The system is described as an unstable first order filter subject to occasional switching of a set point according to a feedback rule. The system qualitatively differs from other recently studied solvable chaotic hybrid systems in that the timing of the switching is regulated by an external clock. The chaotic analytic solution is an optimal waveform for communications in noise when a resistor-capacitor-integrate-and-dump filter is used as a receiver. As such, these results provide evidence in support of a recent conjecture that the optimal communication waveform for any stable infinite-impulse response filter is chaotic.

  4. A Framework for Incorporating General Domain Knowledge into Latent Dirichlet Allocation using First-Order Logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrzejewski, D; Zhu, X; Craven, M; Recht, B

    2011-01-18

    Topic models have been used successfully for a variety of problems, often in the form of application-specific extensions of the basic Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Because deriving these new models in order to encode domain knowledge can be difficult and time-consuming, we propose the Fold-all model, which allows the user to specify general domain knowledge in First-Order Logic (FOL). However, combining topic modeling with FOL can result in inference problems beyond the capabilities of existing techniques. We have therefore developed a scalable inference technique using stochastic gradient descent which may also be useful to the Markov Logic Network (MLN) research community. Experiments demonstrate the expressive power of Fold-all, as well as the scalability of our proposed inference method.

  5. Expanding a First-Order Logic Mitigation Framework to Handle Multimorbid Patient Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Martin; Wilk, Szymon; Rosu, Daniela; Kezadri, Mounira; Michalowski, Wojtek; Carrier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multimorbidity is a challenge for physicians who have to manage a constantly growing number of patients with simultaneous diseases. Adding to this challenge is the need to incorporate patient preferences as key components of the care process, thanks in part to the emergence of personalized and participatory medicine. In our previous work we proposed a framework employing first order logic to represent clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and to mitigate possible adverse interactions when concurrently applying multiple CPGs to a multimorbid patient. In this paper, we describe extensions to our methodological framework that (1) broaden our definition of revision operators to support required and desired types of revisions defined in secondary knowledge sources, and (2) expand the mitigation algorithm to apply revisions based on their type. We illustrate the capabilities of the expanded framework using a clinical case study of a multimorbid patient with stable cardiac artery disease who suffers a sudden onset of deep vein thrombosis.

  6. First-order system least squares for the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Z.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Parter, S.

    1996-12-31

    This talk will develop two first-order system least squares (FOSLS) approaches for the solution of the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity. Both are two-stage algorithms that first solve for the gradients of displacement, then for the displacement itself. One approach, which uses L{sup 2} norms to define the FOSLS functional, is shown under certain H{sup 2} regularity assumptions to admit optimal H{sup 1}-like performance for standard finite element discretization and standard multigrid solution methods that is uniform in the Poisson ratio for all variables. The second approach, which is based on H{sup -1} norms, is shown under general assumptions to admit optimal uniform performance for displacement flux in an L{sup 2} norm and for displacement in an H{sup 1} norm. These methods do not degrade as other methods generally do when the material properties approach the incompressible limit.

  7. A First-order Prediction-Correction Algorithm for Time-varying (Constrained) Optimization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simonetto, Andrea [Universite catholique de Louvain

    2017-07-25

    This paper focuses on the design of online algorithms based on prediction-correction steps to track the optimal solution of a time-varying constrained problem. Existing prediction-correction methods have been shown to work well for unconstrained convex problems and for settings where obtaining the inverse of the Hessian of the cost function can be computationally affordable. The prediction-correction algorithm proposed in this paper addresses the limitations of existing methods by tackling constrained problems and by designing a first-order prediction step that relies on the Hessian of the cost function (and do not require the computation of its inverse). Analytical results are established to quantify the tracking error. Numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results and showcase performance and benefits of the algorithms.

  8. Efficient collective influence maximization in cascading processes with first-order transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Teng, Xian; Shaman, Jeffrey; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-03-01

    In many social and biological networks, the collective dynamics of the entire system can be shaped by a small set of influential units through a global cascading process, manifested by an abrupt first-order transition in dynamical behaviors. Despite its importance in applications, efficient identification of multiple influential spreaders in cascading processes still remains a challenging task for large-scale networks. Here we address this issue by exploring the collective influence in general threshold models of cascading process. Our analysis reveals that the importance of spreaders is fixed by the subcritical paths along which cascades propagate: the number of subcritical paths attached to each spreader determines its contribution to global cascades. The concept of subcritical path allows us to introduce a scalable algorithm for massively large-scale networks. Results in both synthetic random graphs and real networks show that the proposed method can achieve larger collective influence given the same number of seeds compared with other scalable heuristic approaches.

  9. Modelling of an EGSB treating sugarcane vinasse using first-order variable kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iván; Borzacconi, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) anaerobic reactor treating sugar cane vinasse was modelled using a simple model with two steps (acidogenesis and methanogenesis), two populations, two substrates and completely mixed conditions. A first-order kinetic equation for both steps with time-variant kinetic coefficients was used. An observer system was used to estimate the evolution of kinetic constants over time. The model was validated by comparing methane flow predictions with experimental values. An estimation of evolution of populations of microorganisms was also performed. This approach allows calculation of specific kinetic constants that reflect biological activity of microorganisms. Variation of specific kinetic constants reflects the influence of the fraction of raw vinasse in the feed. High salt concentrations in the reactor may have inhibited the process.

  10. First-order transition between adhesion states in a system mimicking cell-tissue interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Z.; Lorz, B.; Sackmann, E.; Boulbitch, A.

    2001-06-01

    We establish a model of cell-tissue interaction consisting of vesicles carrying lipopolymers (to mimic the glycocalix) and mobile specific ligands of the blood platelet integrin αIIbβ3 covering the substrate. We find the phase diagram with a first-order transition between a gravity-controlled weak state of the vesicle-substrate adhesion and a strong-adhesion state governed by receptor-ligand interaction. Adhesion energy ɛadh is measured as a function of ligand and repeller concentration by interferometric contour analysis on the basis of a new refined model of soft shell adhesion (accounting for the membrane bending and stretching at the adhesion rim of the ellipsoidal vesicle). At ligand densities comparable to integrin density, ɛadh decreases sharply. Increasing the repeller content weakens the adhesion strength.

  11. Temperature dependence of the magneto-controllable first-order phase transition in dilute magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of particle size distribution function on the temperature dependent magneto-controllable first-order phase transition of the ;gas-liquid; type in magnetic fluids. The study resolves one crisis situation in ferrohydrodynamic experiment made by several research groups in the 1980-1990s. It is shown that due to polydispersity magnetic fluids exhibit phase diagrams which are divided into three regions by vaporus and liquidus curves. Granulometric data states the primary role of the width of the particle size distribution function in the process of spinodal decomposition. New modified Langevin parameter is introduced for unification of liquidus curves of different ferrofluids despite the significant difference between the curves (one order of magnitude) in (H, T) coordinates.

  12. Partial differential equations of first order and their applications to physics

    CERN Document Server

    López, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This book tries to point out the mathematical importance of the Partial Differential Equations of First Order (PDEFO) in Physics and Applied Sciences. The intention is to provide mathematicians with a wide view of the applications of this branch in physics, and to give physicists and applied scientists a powerful tool for solving some problems appearing in Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Optics, and General Relativity. This book is intended for senior or first year graduate students in mathematics, physics, or engineering curricula. This book is unique in the sense that it covers the applications of PDEFO in several branches of applied mathematics, and fills the theoretical gap between the formal mathematical presentation of the theory and the pure applied tool to physical problems that are contained in other books. Improvements made in this second edition include corrected typographical errors; rewritten text to improve the flow and enrich the material; added exercises in all chapters; new applicati...

  13. First-order derivative spectrophotometric estimation of nabumetone and paracetamol in tablet dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Ambadas R; Bhalerao, Swapnil R

    2011-10-01

    To develop and validate a simple, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of nabumetone and paracetamol in their combined tablet dosage form. This method is based on first-order derivative spectroscopy. For determination of sampling wavelengths, each of nabumetone and paracetamol were scanned in the wavelength range of 200-400 nm in the spectrum mode and sampling wavelengths were selected at 261 nm (zero crossing of nabumetone) where paracetamol showed considerable absorbance and at 248.2 nm (zero crossing of paracetamol) where nabumetone showed considerable absorbance. Beer's law obeyed in the concentration range of 3-18 μg/ml for both the drugs. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9992 and 0.9998 for nabumetone and paracetamol, respectively. Mean recoveries were found satisfactory. The proposed method can be successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of nabumetone and paracetomol.

  14. Efficient design of a truss beam by applying first order optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, Filip

    2013-10-01

    Applications of optimization procedures in structural designs are widely discussed problems, which are caused by currently still-increasing demands on structures. Using of optimization methods in efficient designs passes through great development, especially in duplicate production where even small savings might lead to considerable reduction of total costs. The presented paper deals with application and analysis of the First Order optimization technique, which is implemented in the Design Optimization module that uses the main features of multi-physical FEM program ANSYS, in steel truss-beam design. Constraints of the design are stated by EN 1993 Eurocode 3, for uniform compression forces in compression members and tensile resistance moments in tension members. Furthermore, a minimum frequency of the first natural modal shape of the structure is determined. The aim of the solution is minimizing the weight of the structure by changing members' cross-section properties.

  15. Pseudo-Marginal Slice Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Iain; Graham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods asymptotically sample from complex probability distributions. The pseudo-marginal MCMC framework only requires an unbiased estimator of the unnormalized probability distribution function to construct a Markov chain. However, the resulting chains are harder to tune to a target distribution than conventional MCMC, and the types of updates available are limited. We describe a general way to clamp and update the random numbers used in a pseudo-marginal meth...

  16. O the First-Order Amplitude Statistics of Myocardial Ultrasonic Backscatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Larry Arthur

    Improved understanding of ultrasonic backscatter, particularly of its statistical behavior in the presence of disease, could enhance tissue characterization methods. Historically it has been assumed that the first-order envelope statistics of ultrasonic myocardial backscatter are best described by the Rayleigh probability distribution function (PDF); this assumption has been challenged frequently in recent years, however, the relative goodness-of-fit (GOF) of competing PDFs to actual data has not been tested. This research compares the abilities of five PDFs (the Rayleigh, the Rician, the lognormal, the Nakagami-m, and the K) to describe high-frequency (2.5-15 MHz) ultrasonic backscatter from in vivo canine myocardium, in vitro human myocardium, in vivo (intraoperative) human myocardium, in vivo blood pool, tissue phantoms, and computer simulations. Ordinal GOF rankings of myocardial data from a wide variety of sources show that only in a small minority of cases is the envelope of backscatter from myocardium Rayleigh-distributed, or other than K-distributed. On the other hand, backscatter from sources expected to be Rayleigh-scattering (such as tissue phantom and blood pool) is approximately Rayleigh -distributed, confirming that non-Rayleighness is not simply a system artifact. Furthermore, signal statistics are not found to be sensitive indicators of disease under clinical operating conditions. Analysis of the influence of pulse shape on the backscatter amplitude density using classical Random Walk and probability techniques, followed by application of Monte Carlo methods to the resulting expressions, shows that backscatter statistics depend both on pulse characteristics (in a manner which can be functionally described) and on the heart's collagen microstructure (in a manner which can be approximately modeled). The observed first-order amplitude statistics of myocardial backscatter are thus characterized with new specificity and a theoretical frame offered within

  17. First-order catchment mass balance during the wet season in the Panama Canal Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzialek, Justin M.; Ogden, Fred L.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryTropical hydrology is poorly understood for a number of reasons. Intense biological activity in the tropics introduces complexities to the hydrologic process. Bioturbation, rapid rates of decay, and intensive insect activity all tend to promote rapid flow paths in the upper soil. Aggressive weathering leads to clays depleted of light cations and deep soil profiles. Processes in the seasonal tropics are further complicated by seasonal transitions, and very large changes in catchment storage between seasons. Beginning in 2005, we installed a suite of hydrologic sensors in a 16.7 ha first-order catchment in the Panama Canal Watershed to observe hydrologic variables and identify the dominant streamflow generation processes. The site is located near the village of Gamboa, which is located on the east bank of the Panama Canal at the confluence of Lake Gatun and the Chagres River. The study catchment is located on the north side of a ridge off the eastern flank of a 230 m tall hill known as Cerro Pelado, and is covered by 70-120 year old re-growth triple-canopy forest. Measurements included: rainfall above the canopy, throughfall, stemflow, evapotranspiration, shallow groundwater levels and streamflow. Deep groundwater storage was not measured. This paper describes measurements made, data collected, and the worth of those data in estimating the mass balance closure of a first-order catchment during the wet season. We compare measurements of the different components of the water cycle with observations from other published studies from the tropics. Data analysis results indicate water balance closure errors of approximately 8%.

  18. Phenomenology and Cosmology of an Electroweak Pseudo-Dilaton and Electroweak Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Bruce A; Olive, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    In many strongly-interacting models of electroweak symmetry breaking the lowest-lying observable particle is a pseudo-Goldstone boson of approximate scale symmetry, the pseudo-dilaton. Its interactions with Standard Model particles can be described using a low-energy effective nonlinear chiral Lagrangian supplemented by terms that restore approximate scale symmetry, yielding couplings of the pseudo-dilaton that differ from those of a Standard Model Higgs boson by fixed factors. We review the experimental constraints on such a pseudo-dilaton in light of new data from the LHC and elsewhere. The effective nonlinear chiral Lagrangian has Skyrmion solutions that may be identified with the `electroweak baryons' of the underlying strongly-interacting theory, whose nature may be revealed by the properties of the Skyrmions. We discuss the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition in the low-energy effective theory, finding that the possibility of a first-order electroweak phase transition is resurrected. We disc...

  19. Using a Datalogger to Determine First-Order Kinetics and Calcium Carbonate in Eggshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Martin M. F.; Pui Shan Wong

    2004-01-01

    The applications of a Pasco CI-6532 pressure sensor used in conjunction with a datalogger to monitor the liberation of carbon dioxide in the reaction CaCO3(s) + 2H(super +)(aq) --> Ca(super 2+)(aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O(I) are described. The method serves for the determination of the chemical kinetics of the reaction and also can be extended to…

  20. First-order phase transition in the bosonic Kondo-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria

    2011-05-01

    Recent experimental progress in populating the excited bands of an optical lattice gives rise to the exciting possibility of simulating multi-band condensed matter Hamiltonians. The Kondo lattice model (KLM), in which tightly bound electrons act as spinful scattering centers for electrons in a conduction band, is a typical example of the type of model one would like to simulate. In the KLM, the orbital (band) degree of freedom gives rise to a complex phase diagram, which includes magnetically ordered states, a heavy Fermi liquid, and unconventional superconductors. Here we consider a version of the KLM first proposed in, in which the electrons are replaced by spin-1/2 bosons, which in turn are realized physically by bosonic alkali atoms in an optical lattice. As we demonstrate, the interplay between spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom can drive the Mott insulator to superfluid transition to be first order, without explicit breaking of SU(2) symmetry. The observability of such behavior in the context of current experiments will also be discussed.

  1. Morphing Continuum Theory: A First Order Approximation to the Balance Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnell, Louis; Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Morphing Continuum Theory is constructed under the framework of Rational Continuum Mechanics (RCM) for fluid flows with inner structure. This multiscale theory has been successfully emplyed to model turbulent flows. The framework of RCM ensures the mathematical rigor of MCT, but contains new material constants related to the inner structure. The physical meanings of these material constants have yet to be determined. Here, a linear deviation from the zeroth-order Boltzmann-Curtiss distribution function is derived. When applied to the Boltzmann-Curtiss equation, a first-order approximation of the MCT governing equations is obtained. The integral equations are then related to the appropriate material constants found in the heat flux, Cauchy stress, and moment stress terms in the governing equations. These new material properties associated with the inner structure of the fluid are compared with the corresponding integrals, and a clearer physical interpretation of these coefficients emerges. The physical meanings of these material properties is determined by analyzing previous results obtained from numerical simulations of MCT for compressible and incompressible flows. The implications for the physics underlying the MCT governing equations will also be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  2. The Jump Set under Geometric Regularization. Part 1: Basic Technique and First-Order Denoising

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Let u ∈ BV(Ω) solve the total variation (TV) denoising problem with L2-squared fidelity and data f. Caselles, Chambolle, and Novaga [Multiscale Model. Simul., 6 (2008), pp. 879-894] have shown the containment Hm-1 (Ju \\\\Jf) = 0 of the jump set Ju of u in that of f. Their proof unfortunately depends heavily on the co-area formula, as do many results in this area, and as such is not directly extensible to higher-order, curvature-based, and other advanced geometric regularizers, such as total generalized variation and Euler\\'s elastica. These have received increased attention in recent times due to their better practical regularization properties compared to conventional TV or wavelets. We prove analogous jump set containment properties for a general class of regularizers. We do this with novel Lipschitz transformation techniques and do not require the co-area formula. In the present Part 1 we demonstrate the general technique on first-order regularizers, while in Part 2 we will extend it to higher-order regularizers. In particular, we concentrate in this part on TV and, as a novelty, Huber-regularized TV. We also demonstrate that the technique would apply to nonconvex TV models as well as the Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion, if these approaches were well-posed to begin with.

  3. Fuzzy stochastic generalized reliability studies on embankment systems based on first-order approximation theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yajun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the complex uncertainties caused by interfacing between the fuzziness and randomness of the safety problem for embankment engineering projects, and to evaluate the safety of embankment engineering projects more scientifically and reasonably, this study presents the fuzzy logic modeling of the stochastic finite element method (SFEM based on the harmonious finite element (HFE technique using a first-order approximation theorem. Fuzzy mathematical models of safety repertories were introduced into the SFEM to analyze the stability of embankments and foundations in order to describe the fuzzy failure procedure for the random safety performance function. The fuzzy models were developed with membership functions with half depressed gamma distribution, half depressed normal distribution, and half depressed echelon distribution. The fuzzy stochastic mathematical algorithm was used to comprehensively study the local failure mechanism of the main embankment section near Jingnan in the Yangtze River in terms of numerical analysis for the probability integration of reliability on the random field affected by three fuzzy factors. The result shows that the middle region of the embankment is the principal zone of concentrated failure due to local fractures. There is also some local shear failure on the embankment crust. This study provides a referential method for solving complex multi-uncertainty problems in engineering safety analysis.

  4. Efficient robust control of first order scalar conservation laws using semi-analytical solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using initial density control and boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. We then show that this framework can be extended to arbitrary control problems involving the control of subsets of the initial and boundary conditions. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP/MILP. Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality.

  5. First-order uncertainty analysis using Algorithmic Differentiation of morphodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaret, Catherine; Kopmann, Rebekka; Wyncoll, David; Riehme, Jan; Merkel, Uwe; Naumann, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    We present here an efficient first-order second moment method using Algorithmic Differentiation (FOSM/AD) which can be applied to quantify uncertainty/sensitivities in morphodynamic models. Changes with respect to variable flow and sediment input parameters are estimated with machine accuracy using the technique of Algorithmic Differentiation (AD). This method is particularly attractive for process-based morphodynamic models like the Telemac-2D/Sisyphe model considering the large number of input parameters and CPU time associated to each simulation. The FOSM/AD method is applied to identify the relevant processes in a trench migration experiment (van Rijn, 1987). A Tangent Linear Model (TLM) of the Telemac-2D/Sisyphe morphodynamic model (release 6.2) was generated using the AD-enabled NAG Fortran compiler. One single run of the TLM is required per variable input parameter and results are then combined to calculate the total uncertainty. The limits of the FOSM/AD method have been assessed by comparison with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Similar results were obtained assuming small standard deviation of the variable input parameters. Both settling velocity and grain size have been identified as the most sensitive input parameters and the uncertainty as measured by the standard deviation of the calculated bed evolution increases with time.

  6. First-order irreversible thermodynamic approach to a nonsteady RLC circuit as an energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, G.; Arias, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show a RLC-circuit as energy converter within the context of first-order irreversible thermodynamics (FOIT). For our analysis, we propose an isothermic model with transient elements and passive elements. With the help of the dynamic equations, the Kirchhoff equations, we found the generalized fluxes and forces of the circuit, the equation system shows symmetry of the cross terms, this property is characteristic of the steady state linear systems, but in this case phenomenological coefficients are function of time. Then, we can use these relations, similar to the linear Onsager relations, to construct the characteristic functions of the RLC energy converter: the power output, efficiency, dissipation and ecological function, and study its energetic performance. The study of performance of the converter is based on two parameters, the coupling parameter and the "forces ratio" parameter, in this case as functions of time. We find that the behavior of the non-steady state converter is similar to the behavior of steady state energy converter. We will explain the linear and symmetric behavior of the converter in the frequencies space rather than in the time space. Finally, we establish optimal operation regimes of economic degree of coupling for this energy converter.

  7. A Python Pipeline for the Mercury N-body Code With First-Order GR Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Christopher AM; Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    We present a pipeline for use with the Mercury N-body code (Chambers 1999), which we make publicly available on github. We have modified the standard Mercury integrator to include first-order numerical relativistic effects and a smooth stellar potential for use in the near-Keplerian potential around a massive black hole. Python scripts generate the input files and perform analysis on hundreds of stars, including those in a disk around Sgr A* and in highly-eccentric remnants of disrupted binaries.We use this code to simulate the dynamical effects of an intermediate-mass black hole on the stars in the Galactic center. Preliminary results indicate significant effects on the semi-major axis and eccentricity distribution. Using the h-statistic (Madigan et al. 2014) as a proxy for eccentricity, this should be observable in current observational data, allowing us to constrain the remaining parameter space available to an intermediate-mass black hole in the Galactic center (Gualandris & Merritt, 2009).

  8. Simultaneous determination of the textile dyes in industrial effluents by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Vitor C; Vargas, Alexandro M M; Garcia, Juliana C; Lenzi, Ervim; Oliveira, Cláudio C; Nozaki, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of three textile dyes, Procion Yellow HE4R, Procion Red HE7B and Remazol Black 5 (RB5), has been developed. The effects of pH, heating and ionic strength of the solution on the absorption spectra of the dyes were investigated. The wavelengths selected for the measures of the derivative signals of HE4R (395 nm), HE7B (604 nm) and RB5 (659 nm) presented these coefficients of linear correlation: 0.9978, 0.9992 and 0.9999, and these detection limits: 0.180, 0.317 and 0.0233 mg L(-1), respectively. The reliability and reproducibility of the method were tested and showed recovery values of 95.7 to 109%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of dyes in binary and ternary mixtures of textile effluents and showed an estimate of the loss of dyes for the effluents between 6.67 and 28.9%.

  9. FIRST-ORDER ULTRAVIOLET DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF RESERPINE IN ANTIHYPERTENSION TABLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah K Darusman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new ultraviolet derivative spectrophotometry (UVDS method has been developed for determination of reserpine in antihypertension tablets. A first-order UVDS based on the measurement of the distance between peaks to baseline (DZ at the wavelength of 312 nm was used. Evaluation of analytical performance showed that accuracy as percentage recovery was 99.18-101.13%, precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD was 1.91% and linear correlation was also obtained 0.9998 in the range of 10-50 µg/mL. Estimation of limit of detection and limit of quantitation was 0.8868 µg/mL and 2.6874 µg/mL, respectively. As a reference method, HPLC methods from United States Pharmacopiea (USP were used. Commercially tablets available were analyzed by the two methods. The content of reserpine in tablets was found 0.2260±0.0033 mg by UVDS and 0.2301±0.0051 mg by the USP methods. The result obtained from the two methods was compared statistically using F-test and t-test and showed no significant differences between the variance and mean values of the two methods at 95% confidence level. This method was faster, easier, low cost and gave result as well as the reference method published by USP.

  10. First-order phase transition during displacement of amphiphilic biomacromolecules from interfaces by surfactant molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelaie, Rammile; Dickinson, Eric; Pugnaloni, Luis

    2014-11-01

    The adsorption of surfactants onto a hydrophobic interface, already laden with a fixed number of amphiphilic macromolecules, is studied using the self consistent field calculation method of Scheutjens and Fleer. For biopolymers having unfavourable interactions with the surfactant molecules, the adsorption isotherms show an abrupt jump at a certain value of surfactant bulk concentration. Alternatively, the same behaviour is exhibited when the number of amphiphilic chains on the interface is decreased. We show that this sudden jump is associated with a first-order phase transition, by calculating the free energy values for the stable and the metastable states at both sides of the transition point. We also observe that the transition can occur for two approaching surfaces, from a high surfactant coverage phase to a low surfactant coverage one, at sufficiently close separation distances. The consequence of this finding for the steric colloidal interactions, induced by the overlap of two biopolymer + surfactant films, is explored. In particular, a significantly different interaction, in terms of its magnitude and range, is predicted for these two phases. We also consider the relevance of the current study to problems involving the competitive displacement of proteins by surfactants in food colloid systems.

  11. Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for Predicting Extreme Sea States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contours describing extreme sea states are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea states. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea states is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea state data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable representations of extreme sea states for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea State Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters

  12. Electrodynamics of s-Wave Superconductors Using First-Order Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoum Karchev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a derivation of a system of equations which generalize the London brothers and Ginzburg–Landau systems of equations, to describe the electrodynamics of s-wave superconductors. First, we consider a relativistically covariant theory in terms of gauge four-vector electromagnetic potential and scalar complex field. We use the first-order formalism to obtain the supplemented Maxwell equations for gauge-invariant electric, magnetic, four-vector fields and the modulus of the superconducting order parameter. The new four-vector field appears in some of the equations as a gauge-invariant super-current, and in other ones, while gauge invariant, as a four-vector electromagnetic potential. This dual contribution of the new four-vector field is the basis of the electrodynamics of superconductors. We focus on the system of equations with time-independent fields. The qualitative analysis shows that the applied magnetic field suppresses the superconductivity, while the applied electric field impacts oppositely, supporting it. Secondly, we consider time-dependent non-relativistic Ginzburg–Landau theory.

  13. Retinal vessel extraction by matched filter with first-order derivative of Gaussian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bob; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Karray, Fakhri

    2010-04-01

    Accurate extraction of retinal blood vessels is an important task in computer aided diagnosis of retinopathy. The matched filter (MF) is a simple yet effective method for vessel extraction. However, a MF will respond not only to vessels but also to non-vessel edges. This will lead to frequent false vessel detection. In this paper we propose a novel extension of the MF approach, namely the MF-FDOG, to detect retinal blood vessels. The proposed MF-FDOG is composed of the original MF, which is a zero-mean Gaussian function, and the first-order derivative of Gaussian (FDOG). The vessels are detected by thresholding the retinal image's response to the MF, while the threshold is adjusted by the image's response to the FDOG. The proposed MF-FDOG method is very simple; however, it reduces significantly the false detections produced by the original MF and detects many fine vessels that are missed by the MF. It achieves competitive vessel detection results as compared with those state-of-the-art schemes but with much lower complexity. In addition, it performs well at extracting vessels from pathological retinal images. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic Fields at First Order Phase Transition: A Threat to Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Quiros, Mariano; Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The generation of the observed baryon asymmetry may have taken place during the electroweak phase transition, thus involving physics testable at LHC, a scenario dubbed electroweak baryogenesis. In this paper we point out that the magnetic field which is produced in the bubbles of a first order phase transition endangers the baryon asymmetry produced in the bubble walls. The reason being that the produced magnetic field couples to the sphaleron magnetic moment and lowers the sphaleron energy; this strengthens the sphaleron transitions inside the bubbles and triggers a more effective wash out of the baryon asymmetry. We apply this scenario to the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) where, in the absence of a magnetic field, successful electroweak baryogenesis requires the lightest CP-even Higgs and the right-handed stop masses to be lighter than about 127 GeV and 120 GeV, respectively. We show that even for moderate values of the magnetic field, the Higgs mass required to preserve the ...

  15. First-Order Quantum Phase Transition for Dicke Model Induced by Atom-Atom Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Liu, Ni; Liang, Jiu-Qing

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we use the spin coherent state transformation and the ground state variational method to theoretically calculate the ground function. In order to consider the influence of the atom-atom interaction on the extended Dicke model’s ground state properties, the mean photon number, the scaled atomic population and the average ground energy are displayed. Using the self-consistent field theory to solve the atom-atom interaction, we discover the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from the normal phase to the superradiant phase, but a famous Dicke-type second-order quantum phase transition without the atom-atom interaction. Meanwhile, the atom-atom interaction makes the phase transition point shift to the lower atom-photon collective coupling strength. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275118, 11404198, 91430109, 61505100, 51502189, and the Scientific and Technological Innovation Programs of Higher Education Institutions in Shanxi Province (STIP) under Grant No. 2014102, and the Launch of the Scientific Research of Shanxi University under Grant No. 011151801004, and the National Fundamental Fund of Personnel Training under Grant No. J1103210. The Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province under Grant No. 2015011008

  16. Efficient collective influence maximization in cascading processes with first-order transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Teng, Xian; Shaman, Jeffrey; Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-01-01

    In many social and biological networks, the collective dynamics of the entire system can be shaped by a small set of influential units through a global cascading process, manifested by an abrupt first-order transition in dynamical behaviors. Despite its importance in applications, efficient identification of multiple influential spreaders in cascading processes still remains a challenging task for large-scale networks. Here we address this issue by exploring the collective influence in general threshold models of cascading process. Our analysis reveals that the importance of spreaders is fixed by the subcritical paths along which cascades propagate: the number of subcritical paths attached to each spreader determines its contribution to global cascades. The concept of subcritical path allows us to introduce a scalable algorithm for massively large-scale networks. Results in both synthetic random graphs and real networks show that the proposed method can achieve larger collective influence given the same number of seeds compared with other scalable heuristic approaches. PMID:28349988

  17. Mechanically clamped PZT ceramics investigated by First-order reversal curves diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Stoleriu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The First Order Reversal Curves (FORC diagrams method was developed for characterizing the switching properties of ferroelectrics. In the present paper, the FORC method was applied for hard Pb(Zr,TiO3 ceramics with symmetric and asymmetric clamping. An ideal high-oriented single-crystalline ferroelectric with rectangular P(E loop would be characterised by a delta-function FORC distribution, while real ferroelectrics and mostly the polycrystalline ceramics show dispersed FORC distributions. All the investigated ceramics show FORC distributions with non-Gaussian shape, slightly elongated along the coercitive axis, meaning a high dispersion of the energy barriers separating the two bi-stable polarizations ±P. The degree of dispersion is enhanced by clamping. The maximum FORC coercivity is located at ~ (1.9-2 MV/m for all the hard ceramics. The FORC cycling experiment causes the reversal of the initial poling and result in a positive/negative bias on the FORC diagrams. According to the observed features, it results that FORC coercivity is more related to the nature of the material, while the bias field is more sensitive to the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions in which the ferroelectric ceramics evolves while switching.

  18. Application of magneto-optical Kerr effect to first-order reversal curve measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Joachim; Schmidt, Mathias; Audehm, Patrick; Schütz, Gisela; Goering, Eberhard

    2014-02-01

    First-order reversal curves (FORC) are a powerful method for magnetic sample characterization, separating all magnetic states of an investigated system according to their coercivity and internal magnetic interactions. A major drawback of using measurement techniques like VSM or SQUID, typically applied for FORC acquisition, is the long measurement time, limiting the resolution and the number of measurements due to time constraints. Faster techniques like MOKE result in problems regarding measurement stability over the curse of the acquisition of many minor loops, due to drift and non-absolute magnetization values. Here, we present an approach using a specialized field shape providing two anchor points for each minor loop for applying the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) technique to FORC measurements. This results in a high field resolution while keeping the total acquisition time to only a few minutes. MOKE FORC measurements are exemplarily applied to a simple permalloy film, an exchange-bias system, and a Gd/Fe multilayer system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, showcasing the versatility of the method.

  19. An Arbitrary First Order Theory Can Be Represented by a Program: A Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosheleva, Olga

    1997-01-01

    How can we represent knowledge inside a computer? For formalized knowledge, classical logic seems to be the most adequate tool. Classical logic is behind all formalisms of classical mathematics, and behind many formalisms used in Artificial Intelligence. There is only one serious problem with classical logic: due to the famous Godel's theorem, classical logic is algorithmically undecidable; as a result, when the knowledge is represented in the form of logical statements, it is very difficult to check whether, based on this statement, a given query is true or not. To make knowledge representations more algorithmic, a special field of logic programming was invented. An important portion of logic programming is algorithmically decidable. To cover knowledge that cannot be represented in this portion, several extensions of the decidable fragments have been proposed. In the spirit of logic programming, these extensions are usually introduced in such a way that even if a general algorithm is not available, good heuristic methods exist. It is important to check whether the already proposed extensions are sufficient, or further extensions is necessary. In the present paper, we show that one particular extension, namely, logic programming with classical negation, introduced by M. Gelfond and V. Lifschitz, can represent (in some reasonable sense) an arbitrary first order logical theory.

  20. First-order optical analysis of a quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Sinclair, A. R.; Burcher, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A first-order geometrical optics analysis of a facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as magnifier is presented. This concept, called quasi-microscope, bridges the gap between surface resolutions of the order of 1 to 10 mm which can be obtained directly with planetary lander cameras and resolutions of the order of 0.2 to 10 microns which can be obtained only with relatively complex microscopes. A facsimile camera was considered in the analysis; however, the analytical results can also be applied to television and film cameras. It was found that quasi-microscope resolutions in the range from 10 to 100 microns are obtainable with current state-of-the-art lander facsimile cameras. For the Viking lander camera having an angular resolution of 0.04 deg, which was considered as a specific example, the best achievable resolution would be about 20 microns. The preferred approach to increase the resolution of the quasi-microscope would be, if possible, through an increase in angular resolution of the camera. A twofold to threefold improvement in resolution could also be achieved with a special camera focus position, but this approach tends to require larger and heavier auxiliary optics.

  1. First order Two-Scale Particle-in-Cell numerical method for the Vlasov equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frénod Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to build an accurate numerical method for the simulation of the long time evolution of the Vlasov solution fε with an electric field Eε = E0 + εE1 for small ε. To this purpose, we use the Two-Scale Convergence to determine a first order approximation F + εF1 of fε. Then, by means of particle approximations we build an algorithm which is intended for providing a numerical approximation of F + εF1. On cherche à construire une méthode numérique pour l’évolution en temps long de la solution fε de l’équation de Vlasov avec un champ électrique Eε = E0 + εE1 pour ε petit. À cet effet, on utilise la théorie de la convergence à deux échelles pour obtenir une approximation d’ordre un F + εF1 de fε, puis une méthode particulaire pour construire l’algorithme d’approximation numérique de F + εF1.

  2. Fourth-order relativistic corrections to electrical first-order properties using direct perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopkowicz, Stella; Gauss, Jürgen

    2011-05-28

    In this work, we present relativistic corrections to first-order electrical properties obtained using fourth-order direct perturbation theory (DPT4) at the Hartree-Fock level. The considered properties, i.e., dipole moments and electrical-field gradients, have been calculated using numerical differentiation techniques based on a recently reported DPT4 code for energies [S. Stopkowicz and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064114 (2011)]. For the hydrogen halides HX, X=F, Cl, Br, I, and At, we study the convergence of the scalar-relativistic contributions by comparing the computed DPT corrections to results from spin-free Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations. Furthermore, since in the DPT series spin-orbit contributions first appear at fourth order, we investigate their magnitude and judge the performance of the DPT4 treatment by means of Dirac-Hartree-Fock benchmark calculations. Finally, motivated by experimental investigations of the molecules CH(2)FBr, CHF(2)Br, and CH(2)FI, we present theoretical results for their halogen quadrupole-coupling tensors and give recommendations concerning the importance of higher-order scalar-relativistic and spin-orbit corrections. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Generic first-order phase transitions between isotropic and orientational phases with polyhedral symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Greitemann, Jonas; Pollet, Lode

    2018-01-01

    Polyhedral nematics are examples of exotic orientational phases that possess a complex internal symmetry, representing highly nontrivial ways of rotational symmetry breaking, and are subject to current experimental pursuits in colloidal and molecular systems. The classification of these phases has been known for a long time; however, their transitions to the disordered isotropic liquid phase remain largely unexplored, except for a few symmetries. In this work, we utilize a recently introduced non-Abelian gauge theory to explore the nature of the underlying nematic-isotropic transition for all three-dimensional polyhedral nematics. The gauge theory can readily be applied to nematic phases with an arbitrary point-group symmetry, including those where traditional Landau methods and the associated lattice models may become too involved to implement owing to a prohibitive order-parameter tensor of high rank or (the absence of) mirror symmetries. By means of exhaustive Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the nematic-isotropic transition is generically first-order for all polyhedral symmetries. Moreover, we show that this universal result is fully consistent with our expectation from a renormalization group approach, as well as with other lattice models for symmetries already studied in the literature. We argue that extreme fine tuning is required to promote those transitions to second-order ones. We also comment on the nature of phase transitions breaking the O(3 ) symmetry in general cases.

  4. Strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basler, P.; Krause, M.; Mühlleitner, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wittbrodt, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wlotzka, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-02-23

    The discovery of the Higgs boson by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS has marked a milestone for particle physics. Yet, there are still many open questions that cannot be answered within the Standard Model (SM). For example, the generation of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe through baryogenesis can only be explained qualitatively in the SM. A simple extension of the SM compatible with the current theoretical and experimental constraints is given by the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) where a second Higgs doublet is added to the Higgs sector. We investigate the possibility of a strong first order electroweak phase transition in the CP-conserving 2HDM type I and type II where either of the CP-even Higgs bosons is identified with the SM-like Higgs boson. The renormalisation that we apply on the loop-corrected Higgs potential allows us to efficiently scan the 2HDM parameter space and simultaneously take into account all relevant theoretical and up-to-date experimental constraints. The 2HDM parameter regions found to be compatible with the applied constraints and a strong electroweak phase transition are analysed systematically. Our results show that there is a strong interplay between the requirement of a strong phase transition and collider phenomenology with testable implications for searches at the LHC.

  5. Distinguishing magnetic particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles with first-order reversal curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Monika; Hirt, Ann M., E-mail: ann.hirt@erdw.ethz.ch [Department of Earth Sciences, Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Widdrat, Marc; Faivre, Damien [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Science Park Golm, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany); Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprém (Hungary); Uebe, Rene; Schüler, Dirk [Department Biologie I, LMU Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2014-09-28

    Magnetic nanoparticles encompass a wide range of scientific study and technological applications. The success of using the nanoparticles in various applications demands control over size, dispersibility, and magnetics. Hence, the nanoparticles are often characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and magnetic hysteresis loops. TEM analysis requires a thin layer of dispersed particles on the grid, which may often lead to particle aggregation thus making size analysis difficult. Magnetic hysteresis loops on the other hand provide information on the bulk property of the material without discriminating size, composition, and interaction effects. First order reversal curves (FORCs), described as an assembly of partial hysteresis loops originating from the major loop are efficient in identifying the domain size, composition, and interaction in a magnetic system. This study presents FORC diagrams on a variety of well-characterized biogenic and synthetic magnetite nanoparticles. It also introduces deconvoluted reversible and irreversible components from FORC as an important method for obtaining a semi-quantitative measure of the effective magnetic particle size. This is particularly important in a system with aggregation and interaction among the particles that often leads to either the differences between physical size and effective magnetic size. We also emphasize the extraction of secondary components by masking dominant coercivity fraction on FORC diagram to explore more detailed characterization of nanoparticle systems.

  6. First-order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for simultaneous measurement of delapril and manidipine in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeschini, Vítor; Barden, Amanda Thomas; Sfair, Leticia Lenz; da Silva Sangoi, Maximiliano; Volpato, Nadia Maria

    2013-01-01

    A first-order derivative spectrophotometric (1D-UV) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of delapril (DEL) and manidipine (MAN) in tablets. The 1D-UV spectra were obtained using change lambda = 4.0 nm and wavelength set at 228 nm for DEL and 246 nm for MAN. The method was validated in accordance with the ICH requirements, involving the specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and limits of detection and quantitation. The method showed high specificity in the presence of two drugs and formulation excipients and was linear over the concentration range of 18-54 microg mL(-1) (r2 = 0.9994) for DEL and 6-18 microg mL(-1) (r2 = 0.9981) for MAN with adequate results for the precision (< or = 1.47%) and accuracy (98.98% for DEL and 100.50% for MAN). Moreover, the method proved to be robust by a Plackett-Burman experimental design evaluation. The proposed 'D-UV method was successfully applied for simultaneous analysis of DEL and MAN in tablets and can be used as alternative green method to separation techniques. The results were compared with the validated liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, showing non-significant difference.

  7. Determination of first-order derivative matrix of wavefront aberration with respect to system variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2012-02-01

    The first-order derivative matrix of a function with respect to a variable vector is referred to as the Jacobian matrix in mathematics. Current commercial software packages for the analysis and design of optical systems use a finite difference (FD) approximation methodology to estimate the Jacobian matrix of the wavefront aberration with respect to all of the independent system variables in a single raytracing pass such that the change of the wavefront aberration can be determined simply by computing the product of the developed Jacobian matrix and the corresponding changes in the system variables. The proposed method provides an ideal basis for automatic optical system design applications in which the merit function is defined in terms of wavefront aberration. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples. It is shown that the proposed method requires fewer iterations than the traditional FD approach and yields a more reliable and precise optimization performance. However, the proposed method incurs an additional CPU overhead in computing the Jacobian matrix of the merit function. As a result, the CPU time required to complete the optimization process is longer than that required by the FD method.

  8. Black string first order flow in N = 2, d = 5 abelian gauged supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Dietmar; Petri, Nicolò; Rabbiosi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We derive both BPS and non-BPS first-order flow equations for magnetically charged black strings in five-dimensional N = 2 abelian gauged supergravity, using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. This is first done for the coupling to vector multiplets only and U(1) Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) gauging, and then generalized to the case where also hyper-multiplets are present, and abelian symmetries of the quaternionic hyperscalar target space are gauged. We then use these results to derive the attractor equations for near-horizon geometries of extremal black strings, and solve them explicitely for the case where the constants appearing in the Chern-Simons term of the supergravity action satisfy an adjoint identity. This allows to compute in generality the central charge of the two-dimensional conformal field theory that describes the black strings in the infrared, in terms of the magnetic charges, the CY intersection numbers and the FI constants. Finally, we extend the r-map to gauged supergravity and use it to relate our flow equations to those in four dimensions.

  9. A time series model: First-order integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, D. M.; Novkaniza, F.; Widyaningsih, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Nonnegative integer-valued time series arises in many applications. A time series model: first-order Integer-valued AutoRegressive (INAR(1)) is constructed by binomial thinning operator to model nonnegative integer-valued time series. INAR (1) depends on one period from the process before. The parameter of the model can be estimated by Conditional Least Squares (CLS). Specification of INAR(1) is following the specification of (AR(1)). Forecasting in INAR(1) uses median or Bayesian forecasting methodology. Median forecasting methodology obtains integer s, which is cumulative density function (CDF) until s, is more than or equal to 0.5. Bayesian forecasting methodology forecasts h-step-ahead of generating the parameter of the model and parameter of innovation term using Adaptive Rejection Metropolis Sampling within Gibbs sampling (ARMS), then finding the least integer s, where CDF until s is more than or equal to u . u is a value taken from the Uniform(0,1) distribution. INAR(1) is applied on pneumonia case in Penjaringan, Jakarta Utara, January 2008 until April 2016 monthly.

  10. Spatial Estimation of Accelerated Stimuli Is Based on a Linear Extrapolation of First-Order Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Simon J; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    We examined spatial estimation of accelerating objects (-8, -4, 0, +4, or +8 deg/s(2)) during occlusion (600, 1,000 ms) in a spatial prediction motion task. Multiple logistic regression indicated spatial estimation was influenced by these factors such that participants estimated objects with positive acceleration to reappear behind less often than those with negative acceleration, and particularly after the longer occlusion. Individual-participant logistic regressions indicated spatial estimation was better predicted by a first-order extrapolation of the occluded object motion based on pre-occlusion velocity rather than a second-order extrapolation that took account of object acceleration. We suggest a general principle of extrapolation is involved in prediction motion tasks whereby there is a contraction of the variable of interest (i.e., displacement in spatial prediction motion and time in temporal prediction motion). Such an approach to extrapolation could be advantageous as it would offer participants better opportunity to correct for an initial estimation error.

  11. Estados de pseudo-Cushing

    OpenAIRE

    Romanholi, Daniella J.P.C.; SALGADO, Luiz Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Síndromes de pseudo-Cushing são um grupo heterogêneo de doenças, incluindo alcoolismo, anorexia nervosa, obesidade visceral e depressão, que compartilham muitas das características clínicas e bioquímicas da síndrome de Cushing. Os mecanismos responsáveis para a gênese da síndrome de pseudo-Cushing são fracamente compreendidos. Tem sido sugerido que o hipercortisolismo da síndrome de pseudo-Cushing pode ser resultante do aumento da secreção do hormônio liberador de corticotrofina (CRH) hipotal...

  12. Renormalization group theory for temperature-driven first-order phase transitions in scalar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ning; Zhong, Fan

    2017-12-01

    We study the scaling and universal behavior of temperature-driven first-order phase transitions in scalar models. These transitions are found to exhibit rich phenomena, though they are controlled by a single complex-conjugate pair of imaginary fixed points of ϕ 3 theory. Scaling theories and renormalization group theories are developed to account for the phenomena, and three universality classes with their own hysteresis exponents are found: a field-like thermal class, a partly thermal class, and a purely thermal class, designated, respectively, as Thermal Classes I, II, and III. The first two classes arise from the opposite limits of the scaling forms proposed and may cross over to each other depending on the temperature sweep rate. They are both described by a massless model and a purely massive model, both of which are equivalent and are derived from ϕ 3 theory via symmetry. Thermal Class III characterizes the cooling transitions in the absence of applied external fields and is described by purely thermal models, which include cases in which the order parameters possess different symmetries and thus exhibit different universality classes. For the purely thermal models whose free energies contain odd-symmetry terms, Thermal Class III emerges only at the mean-field level and is identical to Thermal Class II. Fluctuations change the model into the other two models. Using the extant three- and two-loop results for the static and dynamic exponents for the Yang-Lee edge singularity, respectively, which falls into the same universality class as ϕ 3 theory, we estimate the thermal hysteresis exponents of the various classes to the same precision. Comparisons with numerical results and experiments are briefly discussed.

  13. Statistical mechanics of random geometric graphs: Geometry-induced first-order phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilli, Massimo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-04-01

    Random geometric graphs (RGGs) can be formalized as hidden-variables models where the hidden variables are the coordinates of the nodes. Here we develop a general approach to extract the typical configurations of a generic hidden-variables model and apply the resulting equations to RGGs. For any RGG, defined through a rigid or a soft geometric rule, the method reduces to a nontrivial satisfaction problem: Given N nodes, a domain D, and a desired average connectivity 〈k〉, find, if any, the distribution of nodes having support in D and average connectivity 〈k〉. We find out that, in the thermodynamic limit, nodes are either uniformly distributed or highly condensed in a small region, the two regimes being separated by a first-order phase transition characterized by a O(N) jump of 〈k〉. Other intermediate values of 〈k〉 correspond to very rare graph realizations. The phase transition is observed as a function of a parameter a∈[0,1] that tunes the underlying geometry. In particular, a=1 indicates a rigid geometry where only close nodes are connected, while a=0 indicates a rigid antigeometry where only distant nodes are connected. Consistently, when a=1/2 there is no geometry and no phase transition. After discussing the numerical analysis, we provide a combinatorial argument to fully explain the mechanism inducing this phase transition and recognize it as an easy-hard-easy transition. Our result shows that, in general, ad hoc optimized networks can hardly be designed, unless to rely to specific heterogeneous constructions, not necessarily scale free.

  14. Shape of the acoustic gravitational wave power spectrum from a first order phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J.; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J.

    2017-11-01

    We present results from large-scale numerical simulations of a first order thermal phase transition in the early Universe, in order to explore the shape of the acoustic gravitational wave and the velocity power spectra. We compare the results with the predictions of the recently proposed sound shell model. For the gravitational wave power spectrum, we find that the predicted k-3 behavior, where k is the wave number, emerges clearly for detonations. The power spectra from deflagrations show similar features, but exhibit a steeper high-k decay and an extra feature not accounted for in the model. There are two independent length scales: the mean bubble separation and the thickness of the sound shell around the expanding bubble of the low temperature phase. It is the sound shell thickness which sets the position of the peak of the power spectrum. The low wave number behavior of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with a causal k3, except for the thinnest sound shell, where it is steeper. We present parameters for a simple broken power law fit to the gravitational wave power spectrum for wall speeds well away from the speed of sound where this form can be usefully applied. We examine the prospects for the detection, showing that a LISA-like mission has the sensitivity to detect a gravitational wave signal from sound waves with an RMS fluid velocity of about 0.05 c , produced from bubbles with a mean separation of about 10-2 of the Hubble radius. The shape of the gravitational wave power spectrum depends on the bubble wall speed, and it may be possible to estimate the wall speed, and constrain other phase transition parameters, with an accurate measurement of a stochastic gravitational wave background.

  15. Can eustatic charts go beyond first-order? Insights from the Permo-Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Benjamin; Monteux, Julien; Pochat, Stéphane; Husson, Laurent; Choblet, Gaël

    2016-04-01

    To the first order, eustatic charts are in accord with our understanding of the geodynamic processes that control sea level. By extrapolation, second-order features are also thought to obey to the same rules, and are thus often taken for granted. But this assumption may be jeopardized by a close examination of a characteristic example. The Permo-Triassic period is characteristic for both its purported eustatic signal and its geodynamic and climatic setting are well defined and contrasted. Both the fragmentation of the Pangean supercontinent and the late Paleozoic melting of ice sheets argue for a rise of the eustatic sea level (ESL) whereas eustatic charts show the opposite. Here we review the possible mechanisms that could explain the apparent sea level low, and find that some of them do lower the ESL while others instead only modify the referential, either uplifting continents or tilting the margins where the control points are located. In the first category, we find that (i) dynamic deflections of the Earth surface above subduction zones and their location with respect to continents primarily control absolute sea level while the Pangean supercontinent forms and breaks up, (ii) endorheism that ubiquitously developed at the time of Pangean aggregation also contributed to lowering the ESL by storing water out of the oceanic reservoir. In the second category, we show that (i) the thermal uplift associated to supercontinental insulation and (ii) the dynamic uplift associated with the emplacement of a superplume both give rates of change in the range of long-term changes of ESL. We also show that (iii) the dynamic tilting of continental margins not only produces apparent sea level changes, but also modifies the absolute sea level, which in turn may end up in the paradoxical situation wherein fingerprints of ESL drop are found in the geological record whereas ESL is actually rising. We conclude that the establishment of second to third order absolute sea level changes

  16. Trophic structure of fish fauna along the longitudinal gradient of a first-order rural stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Nimet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study evaluated the trophic structure of the fish assemblage along the longitudinal gradient of a first-order rural stream. Methods Fish were sampled by electrofishing technique in December 2007, September 2008 and March 2009, at three stretch of the Itiz stream (headwater, middle and mouth. We sampled 1,255 individuals relating to 18 species. The categorization of trophic guilds was based on stomach content data of 1,096 individuals, analyzed according to the volumetric method, except for four species, which were classified according to the literature. To test the hypothesis of differences in the richness, abundance and biomass of trophic guilds along the headwater-mouth gradient, it was performed non-parametric statistical analysis of the dietary data. Was also calculated, the amplitude of trophic niche (Levins's index for each guild. To summarize the composition and abundance of the trophic guilds along the longitudinal gradient, we applied a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS. Results We registered seven guilds: herbivorous, detritivorous, aquatic insectivorous, terrestrial insectivorous, invertivorous, omnivorous and piscivorous, the latter was exclusive to headwater and middle stretches. The omnivorous guild was not recorded in the headwater. Through PERMANOVA analysis it was found that the species richness of more specialized guilds (detritivorous and insectivorous terrestrial and of generalist invertivorous increased, while less specialized guilds like aquatic insectivorous and herbivorous, decrease significantly in headwater-mouth direction. Except by the non-expected increase of insectivorous terrestrial and decrease of herbivorous downstream, the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS identified longitudinal variations in abundance and biomass of the guilds that agree with general patterns of fish guilds distribution along environmental gradients. Conclusion These results suggest that the influence of

  17. Solute transport in aquifers: The comeback of the advection dispersion equation and the First Order Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, A.; Zarlenga, A.; Jankovic, I.; Dagan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gradient steady flow of mean velocity U takes place in heterogeneous aquifers of random logconductivity Y = lnK , characterized by the normal univariate PDF f(Y) and autocorrelation ρY, of variance σY2 and horizontal integral scale I. Solute transport is quantified by the Breakthrough Curve (BTC) M at planes at distance x from the injection plane. The study builds on the extensive 3D numerical simulations of flow and transport of Jankovic et al. (2017) for different conductivity structures. The present study further explores the predictive capabilities of the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE), with macrodispersivity αL given by the First Order Approximation (FOA), by checking in a quantitative manner its applicability. After a discussion on the suitable boundary conditions for ADE, we find that the ADE-FOA solution is a sufficiently accurate predictor for applications, the many other sources of uncertainty prevailing in practice notwithstanding. We checked by least squares and by comparison of travel time of quantiles of M that indeed the analytical Inverse Gaussian M with αL =σY2 I , is able to fit well the bulk of the simulated BTCs. It tends to underestimate the late arrival time of the thin and persistent tail. The tail is better reproduced by the semi-analytical MIMSCA model, which also allows for a physical explanation of the success of the Inverse Gaussian solution. Examination of the pertinent longitudinal mass distribution shows that it is different from the commonly used Gaussian one in the analysis of field experiments, and it captures the main features of the plume measurements of the MADE experiment. The results strengthen the confidence in the applicability of the ADE and the FOA to predicting longitudinal spreading in solute transport through heterogeneous aquifers of stationary random structure.

  18. Full correspondence between asymmetric filling of slits and first-order phase transition lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Szybisz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption on single planar walls and filling of slits with identical planar walls are investigated in the frame of the density functional theory. In this sort of slits the external potential is symmetric with respect to its central plane. Calculations were carried out by applying both the canonical and grand canonical ensembles (CE and GCE, respectively. The behavior is analyzed by varying the strength of the adsorbate-substrate attraction, the temperature T, and the coverage Γℓ. Results obtained for physisorption of Xe on alkaline surfaces are reported in the present work. Prewetting (PW lines and wetting temperatures, Tw, are determined from the analysis of adsorption on single walls. The filling of slits is analyzed for temperatures T > Tw. It is found that whenever for a given Xe-substrate combination the adsorption on a single wall exhibits a first-order wetting transition then asymmetric profiles that break the left-right symmetry of the external potential appear in the filling of an equivalent slit. These spontaneously symmetry breaking (SSB solutions occur in a restricted range of Γℓ with a T-dependent width. In the case of closed slits analyzed in the CE scheme, the obtained asymmetric profiles exhibit lower Helmholtz free energies than the symmetric species and, therefore, could be stabilized in this geometry. For open slits, the GCE scheme yields all the symmetric and SSB states in the corresponding convex regimes of the free energy. It is shown that both the CE and the GCE frames yield three coexistent states, two symmetric and one asymmetric twofold degenerate. Both a PW line and the related SSB effect terminate at the same temperature. For rather strongly attractive surfaces reentrant SSB states are found at a fixed value of T.

  19. Unmixing Multi-Component Magnetic Mixtures in Geologic Materials Using First Order Reversal Curve Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, I.; Harrison, R. J.; Li, Y.; Muraszko, J.; Channell, J. E. T.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Hodell, D. A.; Necula, C.; Panaiotu, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. PCA provides an objective and robust statistical framework for unmixing, because it represents data variability as a linear combination of a limited number of principal components that are derived purely on the basis of natural variations contained within the dataset. For PCA we have resampled FORC distributions on grids that capture diagnostic signatures of magnetic domain states. Individual FORC diagrams were then recast as linear combinations of end-member (EM) FORC diagrams, located at user-defined positions in PCA space. The EM selection is guided by constraints derived from physical modeling, and is imposed by data scatter. To test our model, we have investigated temporal variations of two EMs in bulk North Atlantic sediment cores collected from the Rockall Trough and the Iberian Continental Margin. Sediments from these sites contain a mixture of magnetosomes and granulometrically distinct detrital magnetite. We have also quantified the spatial variation of three EM components in surficial sediments along the flow path of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). These samples were separated into granulometric fractions, which also assisted in constraining EM definition. The unmixing model reveals systematic variations in EM relative abundance as a function of distance along NADW flow. Finally, we have applied PCA to the combined dataset of Rockall Trough and NADW sediments, which can be recast as a four-EM mixture, providing enhanced discrimination between components. Our method forms the foundation of a general solution to the problem of unmixing multi-component magnetic mixtures, a fundamental task of rock magnetic studies.

  20. The Upper Rhine Graben revisited: Miocene transtension and transpression account for the observed first-order structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rotstein, Y; Schaming, M

    2011-01-01

    [1] Although the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) has been studied extensively for years, the origin of some of its first-order structures is still under debate, particularly the relatively young uplift of the Vosges Mountains (VM...

  1. Finite element method for neutron transport. 7. Completely boundary-free maximum principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackroyd, R.T. (UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Process Technology and Safety Directorate)

    1983-01-01

    A completely boundary-free maximum principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation is derived from the completely boundary-free maximum principle for the mixed-parity Boltzmann equation. When continuity is imposed on the trial function for directions crossing interfaces the completely boundary-free principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation reduces to a maximum principle previously established directly from first principles and indirectly by the Euler-Lagrange method. Present finite element methods for the first-order Boltzmann equation are based on a weighted-residual method which permits the use of discontinuous trial functions. The new principle for the first-order equation can be used as a basis for finite-element methods with the same freedom from boundary conditions as those based on the weighted-residual method. The extremum principle as the parent of the variationally-derived weighted-residual equations ensures their good behaviour.

  2. Pseudo-Weak-R0 Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A positive answer to the open problem of Iorgulescu on extending weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras to the noncommutative forms is given. We show that pseudo-weak-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-IMTL algebras and that pseudo-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-NM algebras. Some properties, the noncommutative forms of the properties in weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras, are investigated. The simplified axiom systems of pseudo-weak-R0 algebras and pseudo-R0 algebras are obtained.

  3. Exending pseudo-arcs in odd characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Penttila, Tim; Van de Voorde, Geertrui

    2015-01-01

    A {\\em pseudo-arc} in $\\mathrm{PG}(3n-1,q)$ is a set of $(n-1)$-spaces such that any three of them span the whole space. A pseudo-arc of size $q^n+1$ is a {\\em pseudo-oval}. If a pseudo-oval $\\mathcal{O}$ is obtained by applying field reduction to a conic in $\\mathrm{PG}(2,q^n)$, then $\\mathcal{O}$ is called a {\\em pseudo-conic}. We first explain the connection of (pseudo-)arcs with Laguerre planes, orthogonal arrays and generalised quadrangles. In particular, we prove that the Ahrens-Szekere...

  4. W-phase estimation of first-order rupture distribution for megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Roberto; Cummins, Phil; Dettmer, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Estimating the rupture pattern for large earthquakes during the first hour after the origin time can be crucial for rapid impact assessment and tsunami warning. However, the estimation of coseismic slip distribution models generally involves complex methodologies that are difficult to implement rapidly. Further, while model parameter uncertainty can be crucial for meaningful estimation, they are often ignored. In this work we develop a finite fault inversion for megathrust earthquakes which rapidly generates good first order estimates and uncertainties of spatial slip distributions. The algorithm uses W-phase waveforms and a linear automated regularization approach to invert for rupture models of some recent megathrust earthquakes. The W phase is a long period (100-1000 s) wave which arrives together with the P wave. Because it is fast, has small amplitude and a long-period character, the W phase is regularly used to estimate point source moment tensors by the NEIC and PTWC, among others, within an hour of earthquake occurrence. We use W-phase waveforms processed in a manner similar to that used for such point-source solutions. The inversion makes use of 3 component W-phase records retrieved from the Global Seismic Network. The inverse problem is formulated by a multiple time window method, resulting in a linear over-parametrized problem. The over-parametrization is addressed by Tikhonov regularization and regularization parameters are chosen according to the discrepancy principle by grid search. Noise on the data is addressed by estimating the data covariance matrix from data residuals. The matrix is obtained by starting with an a priori covariance matrix and then iteratively updating the matrix based on the residual errors of consecutive inversions. Then, a covariance matrix for the parameters is computed using a Bayesian approach. The application of this approach to recent megathrust earthquakes produces models which capture the most significant features of

  5. First-order estimate of the planktic foraminifer biomass in the modern ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schiebel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Planktic foraminifera are heterotrophic mesozooplankton of global marine abundance. The position of planktic foraminifers in the marine food web is different compared to other protozoans and ranges above the base of heterotrophic consumers. Being secondary producers with an omnivorous diet, which ranges from algae to small metazoans, planktic foraminifers are not limited to a single food source, and are assumed to occur at a balanced abundance displaying the overall marine biological productivity at a regional scale. With a new non-destructive protocol developed from the bicinchoninic acid (BCA method and nano-photospectrometry, we have analysed the protein-biomass, along with test size and weight, of 754 individual planktic foraminifers from 21 different species and morphotypes. From additional CHN analysis, it can be assumed that protein-biomass equals carbon-biomass. Accordingly, the average individual planktic foraminifer protein- and carbon-biomass amounts to 0.845 μg. Samples include symbiont bearing and symbiont-barren species from the sea surface down to 2500 m water depth. Conversion factors between individual biomass and assemblage-biomass are calculated for test sizes between 72 and 845 μm (minimum test diameter. Assemblage-biomass data presented here include 1128 sites and water depth intervals. The regional coverage of data includes the North Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Caribbean as well as literature data from the eastern and western North Pacific, and covers a wide range of oligotrophic to eutrophic waters over six orders of magnitude of planktic-foraminifer assemblage-biomass (PFAB. A first order estimate of the average global planktic foraminifer biomass production (>125 μm ranges from 8.2–32.7 Tg C yr−1 (i.e. 0.008–0.033 Gt C yr−1, and might be more than three times as high including neanic and juvenile individuals adding up to 25–100 Tg C yr−1. However, this is a first

  6. A sharp analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the Durbin-Watson statistic for the first-order autoregressive process

    OpenAIRE

    Bercu, Bernard; Proia, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this paper is to provide a sharp analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the Durbin-Watson statistic. We focus our attention on the first-order autoregressive process where the driven noise is also given by a first-order autoregressive process. We establish the almost sure convergence and the asymptotic normality for both the least squares estimator of the unknown parameter of the autoregressive process as well as for the serial correlation estimator asso...

  7. Punishing second-order free riders before first-order free riders: The effect of pool punishment priority on cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Hiroki; Kamijo, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazumi

    2017-10-30

    Second-order free riders, who do not owe punishment cost to first-order free riders in public goods games, lead to low cooperation. Previous studies suggest that for stable cooperation, it is critical to have a pool punishment system with second-order punishment, which gathers resources from group members and punishes second-order free riders as well as first-order free riders. In this study, we focus on the priority of punishment. We hypothesize that the pool punishment system that prioritizes second-order punishment is more likely to achieve cooperation than the system that prioritizes first-order punishment, because the former is more likely to obtain sufficient punishment resources. In the experiments, we compare four pool punishment systems: 1To2 (first-order punishment to second-order punishment), 2To1 (second-order punishment to first-order punishment), 1ONLY (first-order punishment only), and 2ONLY (second-order punishment only). We find that the 2To1 and 2ONLY systems can receive more support than the 1To2 and 1ONLY systems and only the 2To1 system can achieve high cooperation. However, the effect of priority of second-order punishment is observed only when the punishment ratio (PR) is low (Experiment 1), not high (Experiment 2), in which the punishment resource is relatively abundant.

  8. Dilution and Mixing in transient velocity fields: a first-order analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; de Barros, Felipe, P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    An appealing remediation technique is in situ oxidation, which effectiveness is hampered by difficulties in obtaining good mixing of the injected oxidant with the contaminant, particularly when the contaminant plume is contained and therefore its deformation is physically constrained. Under such conditions (i.e. containment), mixing may be augmented by inducing temporal fluctuations of the velocity field. The temporal variability of the flow field may increase the deformation of the plume such that diffusive mass flux becomes more effective. A transient periodic velocity field can be obtained by an engineered sequence of injections and extractions from wells, which may serve also as a hydraulic barrier to confine the plume. Assessing the effectiveness of periodic flows to maximize solute mixing is a difficult task given the need to use a 3D setup and the large number of possible flow configurations that should be analyzed in order to identify the optimal one. This is the typical situation in which analytical solutions, though approximated, may assist modelers in screening possible alternative flow configurations such that solute dilution is maximized. To quantify dilution (i.e. a precondition that enables reactive mixing) we utilize the concept of the dilution index [1]. In this presentation, the periodic flow takes place in an aquifer with spatially variable hydraulic conductivity field which is modeled as a Stationary Spatial Random Function. We developed a novel first-order analytical solution of the dilution index under the hypothesis that the flow can be approximated as a sequence of steady state configurations with the mean velocity changing with time in intensity and direction. This is equivalent to assume that the characteristic time of the transient behavior is small compared to the period characterizing the change in time of the mean velocity. A few closed paths have been analyzed quantifying their effectiveness in enhancing dilution and thereby mixing

  9. Kinetics of the reaction of iodine atoms with HO sub 2 radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, M.E.; Cox, R.A. (Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire (England)); Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Poulet, G. (CNRS, Orleans (France))

    1990-04-05

    The rate coefficient (k{sub 7}) for the reaction of iodine atoms with HO{sub 2} radicals, I + HO{sub 2} {yields} HI + O{sub 2}, has been measured directly with use of the discharge-flow/EPR technique, and the molecular-modulation/UV-absorption spectroscopy technique. Discharge-flow measurements were made under pseudo-first-order conditions with iodine atoms in large excess over HO{sub 2}. Molecular-modulation measurements were made with iodine atoms in excess over HO{sub 2}, but the I + HO{sub 2} reaction was occurring in competition with the self-reaction of HO{sub 2}. The potential significance of this reaction as a sink for iodine in the troposphere and other aspects of tropospheric iodine chemistry are considered with a simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  10. The Effect of First-Order Bending Resonance of Wheelset at High Speed on Wheel-Rail Contact Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuoqiao Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order bending deformation of wheelset is considered in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system to investigate its effect on wheel/rail contact behavior. In considering the effect of the first-order bending resonance on the rolling contact of wheel/rail, a new wheel/rail contact model is derived in detail in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system, in which the many intermediate coordinate systems and complex coordinate system transformations are used. The bending mode shape and its corresponding frequency of the wheelset are obtained through the modal analysis by using commercial software ANSYS. The modal superposition method is used to solve the differential equations of wheelset motion considering its flexible deformation due to the first-order bending resonance. In order to verify the present model and clarify the influence of the first-order bending deformation of wheelset on wheel/track contact behavior, a harmonic track irregularity with a fixed wavelength and a white-noise roughness are, respectively used as the excitations in the two models of vehicle-rail coupling dynamic system, one considers the effect of wheelset bending deformation, and the other does not. The numerical results indicate that the wheelset first-order bending deformation has an influence on wheel/rail rolling contact behavior and is easily excited under wheel/rail roughness excitation.

  11. Quasi-phases and pseudo-transitions in one-dimensional models with nearest neighbor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2018-01-01

    There are some particular one-dimensional models, such as the Ising-Heisenberg spin models with a variety of chain structures, which exhibit unexpected behaviors quite similar to the first and second order phase transition, which could be confused naively with an authentic phase transition. Through the analysis of the first derivative of free energy, such as entropy, magnetization, and internal energy, a "sudden" jump that closely resembles a first-order phase transition at finite temperature occurs. However, by analyzing the second derivative of free energy, such as specific heat and magnetic susceptibility at finite temperature, it behaves quite similarly to a second-order phase transition exhibiting an astonishingly sharp and fine peak. The correlation length also confirms the evidence of this pseudo-transition temperature, where a sharp peak occurs at the pseudo-critical temperature. We also present the necessary conditions for the emergence of these quasi-phases and pseudo-transitions.

  12. First order accuracy conservative smooth particle method for elastic-plastic flows with contacts and free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, Roman O.; Gerasimov, Alexander V.

    2016-11-01

    A fully conservative first order accuracy smooth particle method is proposed for elastic-plastic flows. The paper also provides an algorithm for calculating free boundary conditions. A weak variational formulation is used to achieve energy and momentum conservation and to decrease an order of spatial derivatives for the boundary condition calculation, and the Taylor series expansion is used for restoring particle inconsistence and for getting at least the first order of accuracy of spatial derivatives. The approach proposed allows us to avoid the "ghost" particle usage.

  13. Performance characteristics of high performance liquid chromatography, first order derivative UV spectrophotometry and bioassay for fluconazole determination in capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilene Chaves Ruela Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay, first order derivative UV spectrophotometry and chromatographic methods for assaying fluconazole capsules were compared. They have shown great advantages over the earlier published methods. Using the first order derivative, the UV spectrophotometry method does not suffer interference of excipients. Validation parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation were determined. All methods were linear and reliable within acceptable limits for antibiotic pharmaceutical preparations being accurate, precise and reproducible. The application of each method as a routine analysis should be investigated considering cost, simplicity, equipment, solvents, speed, and application to large or small workloads.

  14. A detailed comparison study of first order and higher order shear deformation theories in the analysis of laminated composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreehari, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    The primary aim of the present work is to calculate and compare the response of composite plate using first order and higher order shear deformation theories. The present study initially attempts to develop a finite element formulation for handling the analysis of laminated composite plates. The current study elaborately discusses the formulation that makes an easy programming even for a beginner in this field. Presently, mathematical formulation and Matlab coding using First Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) and Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory (HSDT) had done. Results obtained were compared with the available literature. Parametric study also conducted to clearly understand the variation in results obtained from both FSDT and HSDT.

  15. In situ and laboratory determined first-order degradation rate constants of specific organic compounds in an aerobic aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    , tetrachloroethene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenol, 4,6-o-dichlorocresol, and o- and p-nitrophenol in an aerobic aquifer, All aromatic hydrocarbons were degraded in ISM and LBM experiments. The phenolic hydrocarbons were ail degraded in ISM experiments, but some failed to degrade in LBM experiments...... experiments. First-order degradation rate constants for aromatic and phenolic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.01 and 0.9 day(-1). Local variations in first-order degradation rates and variations between rate constants determined by ISM and LBM were generally with in a factor of 5, but no systematic differences...

  16. Suitability of the first-order mass transfer concept for describing cyclic diffusive mass transfer in stagnant zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of first-order mass transfer between mobile and immobile regions, which mathematically simplifies the concept of Fickian diffusion in stagnant areas, has often been used to describe physical nonequilibrium transport of solutes into natural porous media. This study compares the two

  17. From single- to double-first-order magnetic phase transition in magnetocaloric Mn1?xCrxCoGe compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, N.T.; Biharie, V.; Zhang, L.; Caron, L.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Brück, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Substitution of some Cr for Mn atoms in MnCoGe was employed to control the magnetic and structural transitions in this alloy to coincide, leading to a single first-order magnetostructural transition from the ferromagnetic to the paramagnetic state with a giant magnetocaloric effect observed near

  18. Existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions for first-order neutral functional differential equations with two deviating arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Xiao

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the coincidence degree theory to establish the existence and uniqueness of T-periodic solutions for the first-order neutral functional differential equation, with two deviating arguments, $$ (x(t+Bx(t-delta'= g_{1}(t,x(t-au_{1}(t +g_{2}(t,x(t-au_{2}(t +p(t. $$

  19. Heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of ovalbumin at neutral pH described by irreversible first-order kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Mireille; Barneveld, Peter A; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Visschers, Ronald W

    2003-12-01

    The heat-induced denaturation kinetics of two different sources of ovalbumin at pH 7 was studied by chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. The kinetics was found to be independent of protein concentration and salt concentration, but was strongly dependent on temperature. For highly pure ovalbumin, the decrease in nondenatured native protein showed first-order dependence. The activation energy obtained with different techniques varied between 430 and 490 kJ*mole(-1). First-order behavior was studied in detail using differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric traces were irreversible and highly scan rate-dependent. The shape of the thermograms as well as the scan rate dependence can be explained by assuming that the thermal denaturation takes place according to a simplified kinetic process where N is the native state, D is denatured (or another final state) and k a first-order kinetic constant that changes with temperature, according to the Arrhenius equation. A kinetic model for the temperature-induced denaturation and aggregation of ovalbumin is presented. Commercially obtained ovalbumin was found to contain an intermediate-stable fraction (IS) of about 20% that was unable to form aggregates. The denaturation of this fraction did not satisfy first-order kinetics.

  20. Extending the Bandwidth of a Superdirective First-Order Probe for Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2015-01-01

    A superdirective array of electrically small dipole radiators can effectively be used as a compact and lightweight first-order probe (a directive antenna radiating predominantly spherical modes with the azimuthal index |µ| = 1) in spherical near-field antenna measurements at low frequencies...

  1. Reactions of enolisable ketones with dichloroisocyanuric acid in absence and presence of added chloride ions – a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in absence and presence of chloride ions respectively. Both in presence and absence of chloride ions, first order and fractional order in substrate and perchloric acid were observed respectively. An increase in the rate of reaction was observed with an increase in chloride ion concentration as well as acetic acid composition. The results were interpreted in terms of probable mechanisms involving (i rate-determining enol formation from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+ in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii rate-determining interaction of SH+ with the most effective molecular chlorine species produced by the hydrolysis of DCICA (rather than a rate-determining interaction of enol with chlorine in the presence of added chloride ions, prior to the rapid steps of product formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.12

  2. Reaction of a hydrated electron with gentamycin and collagen—A pulse radiolysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrucha, K.; Góra, L.; Doillon, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    The reactions of a hydrated electron (e aq-) with aminoglycoside anbiotic gentamycin and collagen in aqueous medium at different pH have been investigated employing a pulse radiolysis technique. The pseudo-first order equation of reaction kinetics was used to give an accurate description of the decay of e aq- in gentamycin solutions. The rate constant of the e aq- decay in collagen solution was high and reached 3.2 × 10 10 M -1 s -1. The rate constants for the reaction of the e aq- with gentamycin were found to be influenced by pH, decreasing with the deprotonation of the -NH 3 groups, while for pH > pK a which for gentamycin is equal to 7.8, the rate constant was unchanged. These observations suggest that when the amino groups are protonated, reductive deamination occurs, but for unprotonated non-reactive amino groups, a radical anion is formed on the glycoside moiety.

  3. Modeling and performance analysis of a closed-loop supply chain using first-order hybrid Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Outmal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Green or closed-loop supply chain had been the focus of many manufacturers during the last decade. The application of closed-loop supply chain in today’s manufacturing is not only due to growing environmental concerns and the recognition of its benefits in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and meeting a more strict environmental regulations but it also offers economic competitive advantages if appropriately managed. First-order hybrid Petri nets represent a powerful graphical and mathematical formalism to map and analyze the dynamics of complex systems such as closed-loop supply chain networks. This article aims at illustrating the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets to model a closed-loop supply chain network and evaluate its operational, financial, and environmental performance measures under different management policies. Actual data from auto manufacturer in the United States are used to validate network’s performance under both tactical and strategic decision-making, namely, (1 tactical decision—production policies: increase of recovered versus new components and (2 strategic decision—closed-loop supply chain network structure: manufacturer internal recovery process or recovery process done by a third-party collection and recovery center. The work presented in this article is an extension of the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets as a modeling and performance analysis tool from supply chain to closed-loop supply chain. The modularity property of first-order hybrid Petri nets has been used in the modeling process, and the simulation and analysis of the modeled network are done in MATLAB® environment. The results of the experiments depict that first-order hybrid Petri nets are a powerful modeling and analysis formalism for closed-loop supply chain networks and can be further used as an efficient decision-making tool at both tactical and strategic levels. Unlike other researches on modeling supply chain

  4. Pseudo random signal processing theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications

  5. Synthesis of carbon supported ordered tetragonal pseudo-ternary Pt 2 M'M'' (M = Fe, Co, Ni) nanoparticles and their activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Minh T.; Wakabayashi, Ryo H.; Yang, Minghui; Abruña, Héctor D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2015-04-01

    Alloying Pt with 3d transition metals has attracted much attention due to their reduced Pt content and reports of enhanced electrocatalytic activity for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. However, synthesizing ordered nanocrystalline intermetallics in the sub-10 nm range can be challenging. Here, we report on the co-reduction synthesis of ordered ternary Pt-base transition metal intermetallics with particle sizes in the regime of 3–5 nm. Since differences in the activity of PtM (M = Fe, Co, Ni) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been reported, we explored their combinations: Pt2FeCo, Pt2FeNi, and Pt2CoNi. These ternary intermetallic nanoparticles crystallized in P4/mmm space group upon annealing in a protective KCl matrix. The electrocatalysts were prepared by dispersing these intermetallics onto a carbon support using ethylene glycol and various sonication techniques. A combination of analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, electron microscopy and electrochemical methods have been used in this study. The oxygen reduction reaction activity and stability of the catalysts were tested in 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.1 M H2SO4 using cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. The correlations between the composition, structure, morphology and activity of the intermetallics have been established and are discussed.

  6. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in an infant after retroperitoneal pyeloplasty successfully treated with rectal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Jazaeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction is frequently observed in adults but is rarely seen in children. The illness has never been reported in infants, who might differ in their reaction to the acute bowel distension and their response to the available management options. This report describes the presentation of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in an infant after retroperitoneal pyeloplasty and its successful treatment with rectal irrigation.

  7. PID controller tuning for the first-order-plus-dead-time process model via Hermite-Biehler theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindo; Iqbal, Kamran

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses PID stabilization of a first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) process model using the stability framework of the Hermite-Biehler theorem. The FOPDT model approximates many processes in the chemical and petroleum industries. Using a PID controller and first-order Padé approximation for the transport delay, the Hermite-Biehler theorem allows one to analytically study the stability of the closed-loop system. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and develop an algorithm for selection of stabilizing feedback gains. The results are given in terms of stability bounds that are functions of plant parameters. Sensitivity and disturbance rejection characteristics of the proposed PID controller are studied. The results are compared with established tuning methods such as Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, and internal model control.

  8. Weakly First-Order Phase Transitions: The {ital {epsilon}} Expansion vs Numerical Simulations in the Cubic Anisotropy Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P.; Sharpe, S.R.; Yaffe, L.G.; Zhang, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195--1560 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Some phase transitions of cosmological interest may be weakly first order and cannot be analyzed by a simple perturbative expansion around mean field theory. We propose a simple two-scalar model{emdash}the cubic anisotropy model{emdash}as a foil for theoretical techniques to study such transitions, and we review its similarities and dissimilarities to the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. We present numerical Monte Carlo results for various discontinuities across very weakly first-order transitions in this model and, as an example, compare them to {epsilon}-expansion results. For this purpose, we have computed through next-to-next-to-leading order in {epsilon}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. On the induction of the first-order phase magnetic transitions by acoustic vibrations in MnSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The main result of the paper contains the conclusion that the magnetic phase transition in MnSi always remains first order at any temperature and magnetic field. In these aims, a model of coupling of an order parameter with other degrees of freedom is used. The coupling of magnetic order parameters with longwave acoustic phonons, in the presence of the nonsingular parts of the bulk and shear moduli, a first-order transition occurs, participle near the transition the heat capacity and the compressibility remain finite, if in the system without allowance of the acoustic phonons the heat capacity becomes infinite. The role of the Frenkel heterophase fluctuations is discussed. The impurity effect shows that, for some phases, the heat capacity of the system remains continuous and finite at the transition point. It is supposed that the transition is progressively smoothed by these fluctuations at the application of the magnetic field.

  10. Quantitative determination of levofloxacin hemihydrate in bulk and tablets by UV-spectrophotometry and first order derivative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhedkar, A A; Surana, S J

    2009-07-01

    Two simple, rapid, accurate and economical 'UV Spectrophotometry' and 'First Order Derivative' methods have been developed for determination of levofloxacin hemihydrate in bulk and tablets. In (10% v/v) acetonitrile, the lambdamax of the drug was found to be 288 nm. The same spectrum was derivatised into first order derivative, using UV probe software of instrument (Shimadzu-2450), at Deltalambda=4. The amplitude of the trough was recorded at 297 nm. In both the proposed methods, levofloxacin hemihydrate follows linearity in the concentration range 2-12 microg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. Assay results were in good agreement with label claim. The methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The relative standard deviation were found to be less than 2% with excellent precision and accuracy.

  11. A Preisach approach to modeling partial phase transitions in the first order magnetocaloric material MnFe(P,As)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, L. von, E-mail: lmoo@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bahl, C.R.H.; Nielsen, K.K.; Engelbrecht, K. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Küpferling, M.; Basso, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology that could provide energy efficient and environmentally friendly cooling. Magnetocaloric materials in which a structural phase transition is found concurrently with the magnetic phase transition are often termed first order magnetocaloric materials. Such materials are potential candidates for application in magnetic refrigeration devices. However, the first order materials often have adverse properties such as hysteresis, making actual performance troublesome to quantify, a subject not thoroughly studied within this field. Here we investigate the behavior of MnFe(P,As) under partial phase transitions, which is similar to what materials experience in actual magnetic refrigeration devices. Partial phase transition curves, in the absence of a magnetic field, are measured using calorimetry and the experimental results are compared to simulations of a Preisach-type model. We show that this approach is applicable and discuss what experimental data is required to obtain a satisfactory material model.

  12. Influence of aperiodic modulations on first-order transitions: Numerical study of the two-dimensional Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, D.; Branco, N. S.

    2011-06-01

    We study the Potts model on a rectangular lattice with aperiodic modulations in its interactions along one direction. Numerical results are obtained using the Wolff algorithm and for many lattice sizes, allowing for a finite-size scaling analyses to be carried out. Three different self-dual aperiodic sequences are employed, which leads to more precise results, since the exact critical temperature is known. We analyze two models, with 6 and 15 number of states: both present first-order transitions on their uniform versions. We show that the Harris-Luck criterion, originally introduced in the study of continuous transitions, is obeyed also for first-order ones. Also, we show that the new universality class that emerges for relevant aperiodic modulations depends on the number of states of the Potts model, as obtained elsewhere for random disorder, and on the aperiodic sequence. We determine the occurrence of log-periodic behavior, as expected for models with aperiodic modulated interactions.

  13. C-band fundamental/first-order mode converter based on multimode interference coupler on InP substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeng, Zhang; Dan, Lu; Zhaosong, Li; Biwei, Pan; Lingjuan, Zhao

    2016-12-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a fundamental/first-order mode converter based on multimode interference coupler on InP substrate were reported. Detailed optimization of the device parameters were investigated using 3D beam propagation method. In the experiments, the fabricated mode converter realized mode conversion from the fundamental mode to the first-order mode in the wavelength range of 1530-1565 nm with excess loss less than 3 dB. Moreover, LP01 and LP11 fiber modes were successfully excited from a few-mode fiber by using the device. This InP-based mode converter can be a possible candidate for integrated transceivers for future mode-division multiplexing system. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB340102) and in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274045, 61335009).

  14. Gravitational waves from first order phase transitions as a probe of an early matter domination era and its inverse problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela, E-mail: Gabriela.Barenboim@uv.es; Park, Wan-Il, E-mail: Wanil.Park@uv.es

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the gravitational wave background from a first order phase transition in a matter-dominated universe, and show that it has a unique feature from which important information about the properties of the phase transition and thermal history of the universe can be easily extracted. Also, we discuss the inverse problem of such a gravitational wave background in view of the degeneracy among macroscopic parameters governing the signal.

  15. Modeling and performance analysis of a closed-loop supply chain using first-order hybrid Petri nets

    OpenAIRE

    Imane Outmal; Ali Kamrani; Abouel Nasr, Emad S.; Mohammed Alkahtani

    2016-01-01

    Green or closed-loop supply chain had been the focus of many manufacturers during the last decade. The application of closed-loop supply chain in today’s manufacturing is not only due to growing environmental concerns and the recognition of its benefits in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and meeting a more strict environmental regulations but it also offers economic competitive advantages if appropriately managed. First-order hybrid Petri nets represent a powerful graph...

  16. A technique for predicting mode I energy release rates using a first-order shear deformable plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B. D.; Schapery, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Utilizing a first order shear deformable plate theory, a technique is described for predicting the distribution of the energy release rate along a curved or straight mode I planar crack in the plane of a plate (such as a delamination crack). Accuracy of the technique is assessed by comparing the distributions of energy release rate with those predicted by two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses of double cantilever beam specimens with straight crack fronts.

  17. Initiation of smooth-pursuit eye movements to first-order and second-order motion stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, A; Ilg, U J

    2000-08-01

    Since normal human subjects can perform smooth-pursuit eye movements only in the presence of a moving target, the occurrence of these eye movements represents an ideal behavioural probe to monitor the successful processing of visual motion. It has been shown previously that subjects can execute smooth-pursuit eye movements to targets defined by luminance and colour, the first-order stimulus attributes, as well as to targets defined by derived, second-order stimulus attributes such as contrast, flicker or motion. In contrast to these earlier experiments focusing on steady-state pursuit, the present study addressed the course of pre-saccadic pursuit initiation (less than 100 ms), as this early time period is thought to represent open-loop pursuit, i.e. the eye movements are exclusively driven by visual inputs proceeding the onset of the eye movement itself. Eye movements of five human subjects tracking first- and second-order motion stimuli had been measured. The analysis of the obtained eye traces revealed that smooth-pursuit eye movements could be initiated to first-order as well as second-order motion stimuli, even before the execution of the first initial saccade. In contrast to steady-state pursuit, the initiation of pursuit was not exclusively determined by the movement of the target, but rather due to an interaction between dominant first-order and less-weighted second-order motion components. Based on our results, two conclusions may be drawn: first and specific for initiation of smooth-pursuit eye movements, we present evidence supporting the notion that initiation of pursuit reflects integration of all available visual motion information. Second and more general, our results further support the hypothesis that the visual system consists of more than one mechanism for the extraction of first-order and second-order motion.

  18. Diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method of order four with minimum phase-lag for solving first order linear ODEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fudziah; Salih, Mohammed M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we derived a new diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method of order four with minimum phase-lag for solving first order linear ordinary differential equation. The stability polynomial of the method is obtained and the stability region is presented. A set of problems are tested upon and numerical results proved that the method is more accurate compared to other well known methods in the scientific literature.

  19. Superdirective Magnetic Dipole Array as a First-Order Probe for Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The theory as well as numerical and experimental results are presented for a superdirective array composed of closely spaced electrically small resonant magnetic dipole elements. The array operates on a metal ground plane and can exhibit a maximum directivity of 11.5 dBi, 15.2 dBi, and 17.8 d...... it an excellent first-order probe for spherical near-field antenna measurements at low frequencies....

  20. Pseudo-complex general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents an pseudo-complex extension of General Relativity which addresses these issues and presents proposals for experimental examinations in strong fields near a large mass. General Relativity is a beautiful and well tested theory of gravitation. Nevertheless, it implies conceptual problems like the creation of singularities (Black Holes) as a result of the collapse of large masses, or the appearance of event horizons which exclude parts of the space-time from the observation of external observers. The mathematical and geometrical foundations of this extension are displayed in detail, and applications including orbits and accretion disks around large central masses, neutron stars or cosmological models are introduced. Calculations both for classical and extended applications are often executed in the form of problems with extensive solutions, which makes this volume also a valuable resource for any student of General Relativity.

  1. Acroangiodermatitis (Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acroangiodermatitis or Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a rare angioproliferative entity, related to chronic venous insufficiency or certain other vascular anomalies. It is often associated with chronic venous insufficiency, arteriovenous malformation of the legs, chronic renal failure treated with dialysis, paralyzed legs and amputation stumps. We hereby describe a case of 45 year old female presenting with pitting pedal edema, multiple ulcers over bilateral lower limbs with irregular margins with erythema and hyperpigmentation of the surrounding skin. Color Doppler study of bilateral lower limbs was normal. Histopathological examination from one of the lesions showed hyperplastic epidermis, proliferation of capillaries in dermis, hemosiderin deposits and lymphocytic infiltrate. These features thus confirmed the diagnosis of Acroangiodermatitis.

  2. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    ABSTRACT. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es ...

  3. Population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es Salaam. Samples ...

  4. Subadditive functions and their (pseudo-)inverses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses......The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses...

  5. Coexistence of several sillenite-like phases in pseudo-binary and pseudo-ternary systems based on Bi2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapčević, Aleksandra; Poleti, Dejan; Karanović, Ljiljana; Rogan, Jelena; Dražič, Goran

    2013-11-01

    A series of polycrystalline samples containing sillenite-like (doped γ-Bi2O3) phases were prepared by high-temperature reactions from α-Bi2O3 powder and different oxides in six pseudo-binary Bi2O3-MxOy (M = Mn, Ti, V) and six pseudo-ternary Bi2O3-M1xOy-M2xOy (M1 = Pb, Zn, Ti and M2 = Zn, Ti, Si) systems. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX, HRTEM, SAED and DTA techniques. It is shown that for pseudo-binary systems, the phase composition of specimens depends on dopant content, while, for pseudo-ternary systems, depends on dopants radii, as well. In pseudo-binary systems, single-phase sillenites are obtained if the dopant content is in accordance with formula Bi12M4+O20, for M = Mn and Ti, and Bi(M0.85+)O, for M = V. However, two coexisting sillenite-like phases, doped compound and nominally undoped solid solution, are found if a half of that dopant quantity is applied. In pseudo-ternary systems, the phase-pure double-doped sillenite specimens are identified if ionic radii of dopants differ less than 40%. Otherwise, two coexisting sillenites were obtained. The possibility to prepare the undoped γ-Bi2O3 phase was also discussed.

  6. First-order vs. second-order structural validity of the Health Literacy Scale in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Lee, Young Whee

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine the structural validity of the Health Literacy Scale (HLS) in Korean patients with diabetes based on the previously reported first-order three-factor and two-factor models and a newly proposed second-order model, to identify which model best represents the structure of the Korean version of the HLS (HLS-K). The HLS was translated from Japanese into Korean using a translation and back-translation technique. A secondary data analysis was used to validate the structure of the HLS. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey involving 459 adults with diabetes recruited from outpatient clinics at two university hospitals in South Korea. The structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, the known-groups validity by education level and internal consistency validity were assessed. The second-order three-factor model of the HLS-K exhibited a good fit to the data, as indicated by χ2 /df = 3.891, SRMR = 0.042, GFI = 0.924, RMSEA = 0.079 (90% CI = 0.069-0.090), and CFI = 0.962. The second-order three-factor model empirically demonstrated that both communicative and critical factors explained the variance in the overall health literacy better than did the functional factor. The HLS-K mean score was significantly lower for patients with only elementary school education than for those with higher education levels, implying the presence of known-groups validity. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.90. This study found that the second-order three-factor model of the HLS-K is better than that the original first-order three-factor and first-order two-factor models. Further validation studies are needed to generalise the underlying structure of the instrument in diabetes populations across various cultures. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Quaternionic factorization of the Schroedinger operator and its applications to some first-order systems of mathematical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Viktor G [Faculdade de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Depto de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI ESIME Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN S/N, Edif. 1 CP 07738, DF (Mexico)

    2003-11-07

    We show that an ample class of physically meaningful partial differential systems of first order such as the Dirac equation with different one-component potentials, static Maxwell's system and the system describing the force-free magnetic fields are equivalent to a single quaternionic equation which in its turn reduces in general to a Schroedinger equation with quaternionic potential, and in some situations this last can be diagonalized. The rich variety of methods developed for different problems corresponding to the Schroedinger equation can be applied to the systems considered in the present work.

  8. Gravitational waves from the first order electroweak phase transition in the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsui Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among various scenarios of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, electroweak baryogenesis is directly connected with physics of the Higgs sector. We discuss spectra of gravitational waves which are originated by the strongly first order phase transition at the electroweak symmetry breaking, which is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. In the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model, the significant gravitational waves are caused by the multi-step phase transition. We show that the model can be tested by measuring the characteristic spectra of the gravitational waves at future interferometers such as LISA and DECIGO.

  9. Gravitational waves from the first order electroweak phase transition in the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    Among various scenarios of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, electroweak baryogenesis is directly connected with physics of the Higgs sector. We discuss spectra of gravitational waves which are originated by the strongly first order phase transition at the electroweak symmetry breaking, which is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. In the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model, the significant gravitational waves are caused by the multi-step phase transition. We show that the model can be tested by measuring the characteristic spectra of the gravitational waves at future interferometers such as LISA and DECIGO.

  10. One- and two-center ETF-integrals of first order in relativistic calculation of NMR parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevinsky, R. M.; Temga, T.; Mouattamid, M.; Safouhi, H.

    2010-06-01

    The present work focuses on the analytical and numerical developments of first-order integrals involved in the relativistic calculation of the shielding tensor using exponential-type functions as a basis set of atomic orbitals. For the analytical development, we use the Fourier integral transformation and practical properties of spherical harmonics and the Rayleigh expansion of the plane wavefunctions. The Fourier transforms of the operators were derived in previous work and they are used for analytical development. In both the one- and two-center integrals, Cauchy's residue theorem is used in the final developments of the analytical expressions, which are shown to be accurate to machine precision.

  11. A Low-Voltage Electronically Tunable MOSFET-C Voltage-Mode First-Order All-Pass Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Metin, B.; N. Herencsar; O. Cicekoglu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple electronically tunable voltage-mode first-order all-pass filter realization with MOSFET-C technique. In comparison to the classical MOSFET-C filter circuits that employ active elements including large number of transistors the proposed circuit is only composed of a single two n-channel MOSFET-based inverting voltage buffer, three passive components, and one NMOS-based voltage-controlled resistor, which is with advantage used to electronically control the pole freq...

  12. Doubling the degree of precision without doubling the grid when solving a differential equation with a pseudo-spectral collocation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the conventional pseudo-spectral collocation method to solve an ordinary first order differential equation, the derivative is obtained from Lagrange interpolation and has degree of precision N for a grid of (N+1) points. In the present, novel method Hermite interpolation is used as point of

  13. First-Order SPICE Modeling of Extreme-Temperature 4H-SiC JFET Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A separate submission to this conference reports that 4H-SiC Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) digital and analog Integrated Circuits (ICs) with two levels of metal interconnect have reproducibly demonstrated electrical operation at 500 C in excess of 1000 hours. While this progress expands the complexity and durability envelope of high temperature ICs, one important area for further technology maturation is the development of reasonably accurate and accessible computer-aided modeling and simulation tools for circuit design of these ICs. Towards this end, we report on development and verification of 25 C to 500 C SPICE simulation models of first order accuracy for this extreme-temperature durable 4H-SiC JFET IC technology. For maximum availability, the JFET IC modeling is implemented using the baseline-version SPICE NMOS LEVEL 1 model that is common to other variations of SPICE software and importantly includes the body-bias effect. The first-order accuracy of these device models is verified by direct comparison with measured experimental device characteristics.

  14. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hashino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  15. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-01

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate {O}(1/k^2). In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  16. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-21

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate [Formula: see text]. In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  17. Optimization of first order decay gas generation model parameters for landfills located in cold semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoang Lan; Ng, Kelvin Tsun Wai; Richter, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Canada has one of the highest waste generation rates in the world. Because of high land availability, land disposal rates in the province of Saskatchewan are high compared to the rest of the country. In this study, landfill gas data was collected at semi-arid landfills in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and curve fitting was carried out to find optimal k and Lo or DOC values using LandGEM, Afvalzorg Simple, and IPCC first order decay models. Model parameters at each landfill were estimated and compared using default k and Lo or DOC values. Methane generation rates were substantially overestimated using default values (with percentage errors from 55 to 135%). The mean percentage errors for the optimized k and Lo or DOC values ranged from 11.60% to 19.93% at the Regina landfill, and 1.65% to 10.83% at the Saskatoon landfill. Finally, the effect of different iterative methods on the curve fitting process was examined. The residual sum of squares for each model and iterative approaches were similar, with the exception of iterative method 1 for the IPCC model. The default values in these models fail to represent landfills located in cold semi-arid climates. The use of site specific data, provided enough information is available regarding waste mass and composition, can greatly help to improve the accuracy of these first order decay models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashino, Katsuya, E-mail: hashino@jodo.sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kakizaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: kakizaki@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya, E-mail: kanemu@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon, E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Matsui, Toshinori, E-mail: matsui@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-10

    We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  19. Quantification of the first-order high-pass filter's influence on the automatic measurements of the electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Jonas; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Schmid, Hans-Jakob; Generali, Gianluca; Abächerli, Roger

    2017-02-01

    The first-order high-pass filter (AC coupling) has previously been shown to affect the ECG for higher cut-off frequencies. We seek to find a systematic deviation in computer measurements of the electrocardiogram when the AC coupling with a 0.05 Hz first-order high-pass filter is used. The standard 12-lead electrocardiogram from 1248 patients and the automated measurements of their DC and AC coupled version were used. We expect a large unipolar QRS-complex to produce a deviation in the opposite direction in the ST-segment. We found a strong correlation between the QRS integral and the offset throughout the ST-segment. The coefficient for J amplitude deviation was found to be -0.277 µV/(µV⋅s). Potential dangerous alterations to the diagnostically important ST-segment were found. Medical professionals and software developers for electrocardiogram interpretation programs should be aware of such high-pass filter effects since they could be misinterpreted as pathophysiology or some pathophysiology could be masked by these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Possible Existence of Two Amorphous Phases of D-Mannitol Related by a First-Order Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Men; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John; Yu, Lian

    We report that the common polyalcohol D-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above Tg (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of D-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase (Phase X). The enthalpy of Phase X is roughly halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases. The amorphous nature of Phase X is suggested by its absence of birefringence, transparency, broad X-ray diffraction, and broad Raman and NIR spectra. Phase X has greater molecular spacing, higher molecular order, fewer intra- and more inter-molecular hydrogen bonds than the normal liquid. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to SCL near 330 K. Upon temperature cycling, it shows a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. The presence of D-sorbitol enables a first-order liquid-liquid transition (LLT) from SCL to Phase X. This is the first report of polyamorphism at 1 atm for a pharmaceutical relevant substance. As amorphous solids are explored for many applications, polyamorphism could offer a tool to engineer the properties of materials. (Ref: M. Zhu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 244504)

  1. First-order kinetics of landfill leachate treatment in a pilot-scale anaerobic sequence batch biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contrera, Ronan Cleber; da Cruz Silva, Katia Cristina; Morita, Dione Mari; Domingues Rodrigues, José Alberto; Zaiat, Marcelo; Schalch, Valdir

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the kinetics evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatment in a pilot-scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was carried out at room temperature (23.8 ± 2.1 °C) in the landfill area in São Carlos-SP, Brazil. Biomass from the bottom of a local landfill leachate stabilization pond was used as inoculum. After acclimated and utilizing leachate directly from the landfill, the AnSBBR presented efficiency over 70%, in terms of COD removal, with influent COD ranging from 4825 mg L(-1) to 12,330 mg L(-1). To evaluate the kinetics of landfill leachate treatment, temporal profiles of CODFilt. concentration were performed and a first-order kinetics model was adjusted for substrate consumption, obtaining an average k1 = 4.40 × 10(-5) L mgTVS(-1) d(-1), corrected to 25 °C. Considering the temperature variations, a temperature-activity coefficient θ = 1.07 was obtained. Statistical "Randomness" and "F" tests were used to successfully validate the model considered. Thus, the results demonstrate that the first-order kinetic model is adequate to model the anaerobic treatment of the landfill leachate in the AnSBBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pseudo-Haptic Feedback in Teleoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Carsten; Matich, Sebastian; Scherping, Nick; Kupnik, Mario; Werthschutzky, Roland; Hatzfeld, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop possible realizations of pseudo-haptic feedback in teleoperation systems based on existing works for pseudo-haptic feedback in virtual reality and the intended applications. We derive four potential factors affecting the performance of haptic feedback (calculation operator, maximum displacement, offset force, and scaling factor), which are analyzed in three compliance identification experiments. First, we analyze the principle usability of pseudo-haptic feedback by comparing information transfer measures for teleoperation and direct interaction. Pseudo-haptic interaction yields well above-chance performance, while direct interaction performs almost perfectly. In order to optimize pseudo-haptic feedback, in the second study we perform a full-factorial experimental design with 36 subjects performing 6,480 trials with 36 different treatments. Information transfer ranges from 0.68 bit to 1.72 bit in a task with a theoretical maximum of 2.6 bit, with a predominant effect of the calculation operator and a minor effect of the maximum displacement. In a third study, short- and long-term learning effects are analyzed. Learning effects regarding the performance of pseudo-haptic feedback cannot be observed for single-day experiments. Tests over 10 days show a maximum increase in information transfer of 0.8 bit. The results show the feasibility of pseudo-haptic feedback for teleoperation and can be used as design basis for task-specific systems.

  3. Pseudo-periodic partitions of biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lugang; Jin, Renchao; Kok, Poh-Lin; Wan, Honghui

    2004-02-12

    Algorithm development for finding typical patterns in sequences, especially multiple pseudo-repeats (pseudo-periodic regions), is at the core of many problems arising in biological sequence and structure analysis. In fact, one of the most significant features of biological sequences is their high quasi-repetitiveness. Variation in the quasi-repetitiveness of genomic and proteomic texts demonstrates the presence and density of different biologically important information. It is very important to develop sensitive automatic computational methods for the identification of pseudo-periodic regions of sequences through which we can infer, describe and understand biological properties, and seek precise molecular details of biological structures, dynamics, interactions and evolution. We develop a novel, powerful computational tool for partitioning a sequence to pseudo-periodic regions. The pseudo-periodic partition is defined as a partition, which intuitively has the minimal bias to some perfect-periodic partition of the sequence based on the evolutionary distance. We devise a quadratic time and space algorithm for detecting a pseudo-periodic partition for a given sequence, which actually corresponds to the shortest path in the main diagonal of the directed (acyclic) weighted graph constructed by the Smith-Waterman self-alignment of the sequence. We use several typical examples to demonstrate the utilization of our algorithm and software system in detecting functional or structural domains and regions of proteins. A big advantage of our software program is that there is a parameter, the granularity factor, associated with it and we can freely choose a biological sequence family as a training set to determine the best parameter. In general, we choose all repeats (including many pseudo-repeats) in the SWISS-PROT amino acid sequence database as a typical training set. We show that the granularity factor is 0.52 and the average agreement accuracy of pseudo-periodic partitions

  4. Pseudo-spectral method using rotated staggered grid for elastic wave propagation in 3D arbitrary anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Peng

    2017-05-10

    Staggering grid is a very effective way to reduce the Nyquist errors and to suppress the non-causal ringing artefacts in the pseudo-spectral solution of first-order elastic wave equations. However, the straightforward use of a staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method is problematic for simulating wave propagation when the anisotropy level is greater than orthorhombic or when the anisotropic symmetries are not aligned with the computational grids. Inspired by the idea of rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method, we propose a modified pseudo-spectral method for wave propagation in arbitrary anisotropic media. Compared with an existing remedy of staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method based on stiffness matrix decomposition and a possible alternative using the Lebedev grids, the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method possesses the best balance between the mitigation of artefacts and efficiency. A 2D example on a transversely isotropic model with tilted symmetry axis verifies its effectiveness to suppress the ringing artefacts. Two 3D examples of increasing anisotropy levels demonstrate that the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method can successfully simulate complex wavefields in such anisotropic formations.

  5. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of Newtonian continuum mechanics coupled with electro-dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new unified first order hyperbolic model of Newtonian continuum mechanics coupled with electro-dynamics. The model is able to describe the behavior of moving elasto-plastic dielectric solids as well as viscous and inviscid fluids in the presence of electro-magnetic fields. It is actually a very peculiar feature of the proposed PDE system that viscous fluids are treated just as a special case of elasto-plastic solids. This is achieved by introducing a strain relaxation mechanism in the evolution equations of the distortion matrix A, which in the case of purely elastic solids maps the current configuration to the reference configuration. The model also contains a hyperbolic formulation of heat conduction as well as a dissipative source term in the evolution equations for the electric field given by Ohm's law. Via formal asymptotic analysis we show that in the stiff limit, the governing first order hyperbolic PDE system with relaxation source terms tends asymptotically to the well-known viscous and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. Furthermore, a rigorous derivation of the model from variational principles is presented, together with the transformation of the Euler-Lagrange differential equations associated with the underlying variational problem from Lagrangian coordinates to Eulerian coordinates in a fixed laboratory frame. The present paper hence extends the unified first order hyperbolic model of Newtonian continuum mechanics recently proposed in [110,42] to the more general case where the continuum is coupled with electro-magnetic fields. The governing PDE system is symmetric hyperbolic and satisfies the first and second principle of thermodynamics, hence it belongs to the so-called class of symmetric hyperbolic thermodynamically compatible systems (SHTC), which have been studied for the first time by Godunov in 1961 [61] and later in a series of papers by Godunov and Romenski [67,69,119]. An important feature of the

  6. Gummel Symmetry Test on charge based drain current expression using modified first-order hyperbolic velocity-field expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kirmender; Bhattacharyya, A. B.

    2017-03-01

    Gummel Symmetry Test (GST) has been a benchmark industry standard for MOSFET models and is considered as one of important tests by the modeling community. BSIM4 MOSFET model fails to pass GST as the drain current equation is not symmetrical because drain and source potentials are not referenced to bulk. BSIM6 MOSFET model overcomes this limitation by taking all terminal biases with reference to bulk and using proper velocity saturation (v -E) model. The drain current equation in BSIM6 is charge based and continuous in all regions of operation. It, however, adopts a complicated method to compute source and drain charges. In this work we propose to use conventional charge based method formulated by Enz for obtaining simpler analytical drain current expression that passes GST. For this purpose we adopt two steps: (i) In the first step we use a modified first-order hyperbolic v -E model with adjustable coefficients which is integrable, simple and accurate, and (ii) In the second we use a multiplying factor in the modified first-order hyperbolic v -E expression to obtain correct monotonic asymptotic behavior around the origin of lateral electric field. This factor is of empirical form, which is a function of drain voltage (vd) and source voltage (vs) . After considering both the above steps we obtain drain current expression whose accuracy is similar to that obtained from second-order hyperbolic v -E model. In modified first-order hyperbolic v -E expression if vd and vs is replaced by smoothing functions for the effective drain voltage (vdeff) and effective source voltage (vseff), it will as well take care of discontinuity between linear to saturation regions of operation. The condition of symmetry is shown to be satisfied by drain current and its higher order derivatives, as both of them are odd functions and their even order derivatives smoothly pass through the origin. In strong inversion region and technology node of 22 nm the GST is shown to pass till sixth

  7. First-order theory of mind skills shortly after traumatic brain injury in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2009-01-01

    Post-acute effects of early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on first-order theory of mind (ToM) skills were examined in 86 children with orthopedic injury (OI), 42 children with moderate TBI, and 17 children with severe TBI aged 3 to 5 years at the time of injury. Three-year-olds with TBI performed more poorly than 3-year-olds with OI on an appearance-reality task. The severe TBI group was impaired on false-contents tasks compared to the moderate TBI and OI groups. Age and IQ were strong predictors of ToM performance; however, the relationship between ToM and IQ was not as strong for children with TBI.

  8. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...... of maximum crest height and maximum inline force are used to define the extreme events. FORM is applied to first and second-order irregular waves in both 2D and 3D. The application is validated against the NewWave model and also the NewForce model, which is introduced as the force equivalent of New......Wave theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height...

  9. Unconventional thermal effects across first-order magnetic transition in the Ta-doped HfFe2 intermetallic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Pallab; Rawat, R.; Chaddah, P.; Babu, P. D.; Siruguri, V.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional thermal effects across the first-order antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM) transition in an intermetallic alloy are reported. They show instances of warming when heat is extracted from the sample, and cooling when heat is provided to the sample across the AFM-FM transition in Ta-doped HfFe2, thus providing indisputable evidence of metastable supercooled AFM and superheated FM states, respectively. Such thermal effects are observed in a magnetic solid prepared from commercially available materials. The transition proceeds in multiple steps which is interpreted in the framework of quenched disorder broadening of the AFM-FM transition and classical nucleation theory. Measurements in the presence of a magnetic field conform to the above framework.

  10. Direction effects of the pulling force on the first order phase transition in a one block model for earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelap, F. B.; Fomethe, A.; Dongmo, M. W.; Kagho, L. Y.; Tanekou, G. B.; Makenne, Y. L.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a 1D spring-block model for earthquake dynamics under a modified frictional force, and examine the direction effects of a driving plate’s action on these dynamics. This force deals with a frictional parameter {{\\lambda}_{0}} that takes into account the heterogeneity of the surface separating the two sides of the faults. We note that the amplitude of the motion of this block decays as the direction of the pulling force grows. Our investigations also show that the system undergoes a first order discontinuous transition from a stick-slip behavior to a creep motion as the friction parameter is varied. We establish that this phase transition is independent of the greatness of the driving plate’s velocity, but depends strongly on the direction of the pulling force. It also appears from our work that the critical values of the frictional velocity and the magnitude of the earthquake depend on {{\\lambda}_{0}}.

  11. Moving-Horizon Modulating Functions-Based Algorithm for Online Source Estimation in a First Order Hyperbolic PDE

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-08-22

    In this paper, an on-line estimation algorithm of the source term in a first order hyperbolic PDE is proposed. This equation describes heat transport dynamics in concentrated solar collectors where the source term represents the received energy. This energy depends on the solar irradiance intensity and the collector characteristics affected by the environmental changes. Control strategies are usually used to enhance the efficiency of heat production; however, these strategies often depend on the source term which is highly affected by the external working conditions. Hence, efficient source estimation methods are required. The proposed algorithm is based on modulating functions method where a moving horizon strategy is introduced. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed estimator in open and closed loops.

  12. Transport of Conservative and “Smart” Tracers in a First-Order Creek: Role of Transient Storage Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yakirevich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using “smart” tracers such as Resazurin (Raz allows assessment of sediment-water interactions and associated biological activity in streams. We compared two approaches to simulate the effects of transient storage (TS on the transport of conservative and reactive tracers. The first approach considered TS as composed of metabolically active and metabolically inactive compartments, while the second model approach accounted for the surface transient storage (STS and hyporheic transient storage (HTS. Experimental data were collected at a perennial first-order creek in Maryland, MD, USA, by injecting the conservative tracer bromide (Br and the reactive (Raz tracer and sampling water at two weir stations. The STS–HTS approach led to a more accurate simulation of Br transport and tails of the Raz and its product Rezorufin (Rru breakthrough curves. Sediments support large microbial communities, and the STS–HTS model in creeks provides additional parameters to characterize the habitats of microbial water-quality indicator organisms.

  13. On a collection of enchytraeids (Oligochaeta from first order streams in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmelz, R. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 21 ethanol-preserved specimens of enchytraeids collected in first order streams in São Paulo State, Brazil, was whole-mounted on slides and investigated under light microscope. Eight species taxa were distinguished, belonging to Achaeta, Guaranidrilus, and Marionina. Five species could be named, one of them tentatively: Achaeta neotropica Černosvitov, 1937, Achaeta singularis Schmelz, 2008, Guaranidrilus oiepe Righi, 1974, Marionina argentea (Michaelsen, 1889 s.l., Marionina cf. seminuda Xie & Rota, 2001. Three further unnamed species taxa of Guaranidrilus were distinguished; two of them may be new species. The presence of sexually mature specimens of A. singularis allowed an emendation of the original description which was based on juvenile specimens. The rod-shaped crystals in the coelom of A. singularis are similar to raphides in plants and sponges, and

  14. Modelling of Violent Water Wave Propagation and Impact by Incompressible SPH with First-Order Consistent Kernel Interpolation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH method has proven to have great potential in dealing with the wave–structure interactions since it can deal with the large amplitude and breaking waves and easily captures the free surface. The paper will adopt an incompressible SPH (ISPH approach to simulate the wave propagation and impact, in which the fluid pressure is solved using a pressure Poisson equation and thus more stable and accurate pressure fields can be obtained. The focus of the study is on comparing three different pressure gradient calculation models in SPH and proposing the most efficient first-order consistent kernel interpolation (C1_KI numerical scheme for modelling violent wave impact. The improvement of the model is validated by the benchmark dam break flows and laboratory wave propagation and impact experiments.

  15. First-order system least-squares for second-order elliptic problems with discontinuous coefficients: Further results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloechle, B.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Starke, G.

    1996-12-31

    Many physical phenomena are modeled as scalar second-order elliptic boundary value problems with discontinuous coefficients. The first-order system least-squares (FOSLS) methodology is an alternative to standard mixed finite element methods for such problems. The occurrence of singularities at interface corners and cross-points requires that care be taken when implementing the least-squares finite element method in the FOSLS context. We introduce two methods of handling the challenges resulting from singularities. The first method is based on a weighted least-squares functional and results in non-conforming finite elements. The second method is based on the use of singular basis functions and results in conforming finite elements. We also share numerical results comparing the two approaches.

  16. Enhanced cooperative interactions at the nanoscale in spin-crossover materials with a first-order phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Gautier; Nicolazzi, William; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Perrier, Marine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Long, Jérôme; Guari, Yannick; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2013-06-07

    We analyzed the size effect on a first-order spin transition governed by elastic interactions. This study was performed in the framework of a nonextensive thermodynamic core-shell model. When decreasing the particle size, differences in surface energies between the two phases lead to the shrinking of the thermal hysteresis width, the lowering of the transition temperature, and the increase of residual fractions at low temperature, in good agreement with recent experimental observations on spin transition nanomaterials. On the other hand, a modification of the particle-matrix interface may allow for the existence of the hysteresis loop even at very low sizes. In addition, an unexpected reopening of the hysteresis, when the size decreases, is also possible due to the hardening of the nanoparticles at very small sizes, which we deduced from the size dependence of the Debye temperature of a series of coordination nanoparticles.

  17. Enhanced Cooperative Interactions at the Nanoscale in Spin-Crossover Materials with a First-Order Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Gautier; Nicolazzi, William; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Perrier, Marine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Long, Jérôme; Guari, Yannick; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed the size effect on a first-order spin transition governed by elastic interactions. This study was performed in the framework of a nonextensive thermodynamic core-shell model. When decreasing the particle size, differences in surface energies between the two phases lead to the shrinking of the thermal hysteresis width, the lowering of the transition temperature, and the increase of residual fractions at low temperature, in good agreement with recent experimental observations on spin transition nanomaterials. On the other hand, a modification of the particle-matrix interface may allow for the existence of the hysteresis loop even at very low sizes. In addition, an unexpected reopening of the hysteresis, when the size decreases, is also possible due to the hardening of the nanoparticles at very small sizes, which we deduced from the size dependence of the Debye temperature of a series of coordination nanoparticles.

  18. A Phenomenological Equation of State of Strongly Interacting Matter with First-Order Phase Transitions and Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typel, Stefan; Blaschke, David

    2018-02-01

    An extension of the relativistic density functional approach to the equation of state for strongly interacting matter is suggested which generalizes a recently developed modified excluded-volume mechanism to the case of temperature and density dependent available-volume fractions. A parametrisation of this dependence is presented for which at low temperatures and suprasaturation densities a first-order phase transition is obtained. It changes for increasing temperatures to a crossover transition via a critical endpoint. This provides a benchmark case for studies of the role of such a point in hydrodynamic simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The approach is thermodynamically consistent and extendable to finite isospin asymmetries that are relevant for simulations of neutron stars, their mergers and core-collapse supernova explosions.

  19. Efficient Estimation of Extreme Non-linear Roll Motions using the First-order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2007-01-01

    In on-board decision support systems efficient procedures are needed for real-time estimation of the maximum ship responses to be expected within the next few hours, given on-line information on the sea state and user defined ranges of possible headings and speeds. For linear responses standard...... the first-order reliability method (FORM), well-known from structural reliability problems. To illustrate the proposed procedure, the roll motion is modelled by a simplified non-linear procedure taking into account non-linear hydrodynamic damping, time-varying restoring and wave excitation moments...... and the heave acceleration. Resonance excitation, parametric roll and forced roll are all included in the model, albeit with some simplifications. The result is the mean out-crossing rate of the roll angle together with the corresponding most probable wave scenarios (critical wave episodes), leading to user...

  20. Positive solutions for a system of second-order boundary-value problems involving first-order derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for the system of second-order boundary value problems involving first order derivatives $$displaylines{ -u''=f(t, u, u', v, v',cr -v''=g(t, u, u', v, v',cr u(0=u'(1=0,quad v(0=v'(1=0. }$$ Here $f,gin C([0,1]imes mathbb{R}_+^{4}, mathbb{R}_+(mathbb{R}_+:=[0,infty$. We use fixed point index theory to establish our main results based on a priori estimates achieved by utilizing Jensen's integral inequality for concave functions and $mathbb{R}_+^2$-monotone matrices.

  1. Spectrophotometric Multicomponent Analysis of Ternary and Quaternary Drug Mixtures in Human Urine Samples by Analyzing First-order Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Naseri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed for the spectral resolution by further determination of three- and  four-component  mixtures  of  drugs in urine samples through  the complementary application of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares with correlation  constraint. In the current study, a simple method was proposed to construct a calibration set for the mixture of drugs in the presence of all possible interferents in the human urine samples collected, in duplicate, from volunteers. First, urine samples were collected without any dosage of drugs. Then, urine samples containing a specific brand of drugs were collected. The collected urine samples without any dosage of drugs were spiked with a different concentration of analytes to construct a calibration set; therefore, the proposed method might be successfully used in the presence of matrix effects and unknown calibrated interferences in human urine using first-order data. In this method, a smaller number of calibration samples were used as compared to first-order multivariate calibration methods. Despite intense spectral overlapping and the presence of interferents in the test samples, the results indicated good analytical performance towards the analytes. By calibrating all present components in the unknown samples and imposing the known values in calibration samples during iterations as a correlation constraint, accurate concentrations of the analytes in the unknown set could be predicted. The maximum and minimum band boundaries of feasible solutions corresponding to the species profiles were estimated. The proposed method was used to determine ternary and quaternary mixtures of drugs in urine samples.

  2. Efficient IMRT inverse planning with a new L1-solver: template for first-order conic solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Suh, Tae-Suk; Lee, Rena; Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang

    2012-07-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning using total-variation (TV) regularization has been proposed to reduce the complexity of fluence maps and facilitate dose delivery. Conventionally, the optimization problem with L-1 norm is solved with quadratic programming (QP), which is time consuming and memory expensive due to the second-order Newton update. This study proposes to use a new algorithm, template for first-order conic solver (TFOCS), for fast and memory-efficient optimization in IMRT inverse planning. The TFOCS utilizes dual-variable updates and first-order approaches for TV minimization without the need to compute and store the enlarged Hessian matrix required for Newton update in the QP technique. To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, two clinical cases were used for IMRT inverse planning: a head and neck case and a prostate case. For comparison, the conventional QP-based method for the TV form was adopted to solve the fluence map optimization problem in the above two cases. The convergence criteria and algorithm parameters were selected to achieve similar dose conformity for a fair comparison between the two methods. Compared with conventional QP-based approach, the proposed TFOCS-based method shows a remarkable improvement in computational efficiency for fluence map optimization, while maintaining the conformal dose distribution. Compared with QP-based algorithms, the computational speed using TFOCS for fluence optimization is increased by a factor of 4 to 6, and at the same time the memory requirement is reduced by a factor of 3 to 4. Therefore, TFOCS provides an effective, fast and memory-efficient method for IMRT inverse planning. The unique features of the approach should be particularly important in inverse planning involving a large number of beams, such as in VMAT and dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT).

  3. Possible existence of two amorphous phases of D-mannitol related by a first-order transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Men; Yu, Lian, E-mail: lian.yu@wisc.edu [Department of Chemistry and School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We report that the common polyalcohol D-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of D-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase with stronger hydrogen bonds. The enthalpy of this so-called Phase X is approximately halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases, a position low for glass aging and high for crystal polymorphs. Similar to the SCL, Phase X is transparent with broad X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering; upon temperature cycling, it exhibits a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to the SCL near T{sub g} + 50 K, enabling a determination of their equilibrium temperature. The presence of D-sorbitol as a plasticizer enables observation of a first-order transition from the SCL to Phase X entirely in the liquid state (liquid-liquid transition). The transition from D-mannitol’s SCL to Phase X has intriguing similarities with the formation of the glacial phase of triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and the conversion from high-density to low-density amorphous ice, both studied intensely in the context of polyamorphism. All three processes occur near T{sub g} with substantial enthalpy decrease toward the crystalline phases; the processes in water and D-mannitol both strengthen the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to TPP, D-mannitol’s Phase X forms more rapidly and can transform back to the SCL. These features make D-mannitol a valuable new model for understanding polyamorphism.

  4. Photo-kinetics of photoinduced transformation reaction of methylene green with titanium trichloride in different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Syed Muhammad Saqib; Saeed, Rehana

    2017-08-01

    The photo-kinetics of photoinduced transformation reaction of methylene green and titanium trichloride was investigated in water and different aqueous-alcoholic solvents. The reaction is pseudo-first order, dependent only on the concentration of titanium trichloride at fixed concentration of methylene green. The effect of water and aqueous-alcoholic solvents was studied in the acidic range from 4 to 7. It was observed that the quantum yield (φ) of reaction increased with increase in polarity of the solvent. The quantum yield (φ) was high in acidic condition and decreased with further increase in acidity. The quantum yield (φ) increased sharply with increase in concentration of titanium trichloride while it almost remained unaffected by change in concentration of methylene green. The addition of ions increased the quantum yield (φ) of reaction. The increase in temperature decreased the rate and quantum yield (φ) of reaction. An electron transfer mechanism for the reaction has been proposed in accordance with the kinetics of reaction. The absence of any reaction intermediate was confirmed by spectroscopic investigations. Activation energy ( E a) was calculated by Arrhenius relation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H), free energy change (Δ G) and entropy change (Δ S) were also evaluated.

  5. Families of quasi-pseudo-metrics generated by probabilistic quasi-pseudo-metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz T. Grabiec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a study of families of quasi-pseudo-metrics (the concept of a quasi-pseudo-metric was introduced by Wilson (1931 , Albert (1941 and Kelly (1963 generated by probabilistic quasi-pseudo-metric-spaces which are generalization of probabilistic metric space (PM-space shortly [2, 3, 4, 6]. The idea of PM-spaces was introduced by Menger (1942, 1951, Schweizer and Sklar (1983 and Serstnev (1965. Families of pseudo-metrics generated by PM-spaces and those generalizing PM-spaces have been described by Stevens (1968 and Nishiure (1970.

  6. New evolution equations for the joint response-excitation probability density function of stochastic solutions to first-order nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2012-08-01

    By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.

  7. A deterministic solution of the first order linear Boltzmann transport equation in the presence of external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Aubin, J., E-mail: joel.st.aubin@albertahealthservices.ca; Keyvanloo, A.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue Northwest, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Vassiliev, O. [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Center, 1331 29 Street Northwest, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate radiotherapy dose calculation algorithms are essential to any successful radiotherapy program, considering the high level of dose conformity and modulation in many of today’s treatment plans. As technology continues to progress, such as is the case with novel MRI-guided radiotherapy systems, the necessity for dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict delivered dose in increasingly challenging scenarios is vital. To this end, a novel deterministic solution has been developed to the first order linear Boltzmann transport equation which accurately calculates x-ray based radiotherapy doses in the presence of magnetic fields. Methods: The deterministic formalism discussed here with the inclusion of magnetic fields is outlined mathematically using a discrete ordinates angular discretization in an attempt to leverage existing deterministic codes. It is compared against the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, utilizing the emf-macros addition which calculates the effects of electromagnetic fields. This comparison is performed in an inhomogeneous phantom that was designed to present a challenging calculation for deterministic calculations in 0, 0.6, and 3 T magnetic fields oriented parallel and perpendicular to the radiation beam. The accuracy of the formalism discussed here against Monte Carlo was evaluated with a gamma comparison using a standard 2%/2 mm and a more stringent 1%/1 mm criterion for a standard reference 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field as well as a smaller 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} field. Results: Greater than 99.8% (94.8%) of all points analyzed passed a 2%/2 mm (1%/1 mm) gamma criterion for all magnetic field strengths and orientations investigated. All dosimetric changes resulting from the inclusion of magnetic fields were accurately calculated using the deterministic formalism. However, despite the algorithm’s high degree of accuracy, it is noticed that this formalism was not unconditionally stable using a discrete ordinate angular discretization

  8. Reaction of NO(2) with selected conjugated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, François; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Mu, Yujing; Wang, Xinming; Daële, Véronique; Chen, Jianmin; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2013-12-27

    The gas phase reactions of selected alkenes (isoprene, myrcene, ocimene, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene) with NO2 under dark condition have been investigated at T ∼ 298 K and P ∼ 760 Torr of purified air. The kinetic studies were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions using a large excess of NO2 concentration to those of the alkenes. The rate coefficients (in 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained are 1.1 ± 0.2 for isoprene, 2.5 ± 0.3 for myrcene, 8.5 ± 1.2 for ocimene, and 15 ± 1 for 1,3-cyclohexadiene. Several products were identified by using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and acetone was found to be the major product from the reactions of NO2 with myrcene and ocimene, with a formation yield of 22 ± 3% and 26 ± 7%, respectively. The oxidation products from the reactions of NO2 with isoprene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene were found to be mainly nitro compounds identified by FT-IR spectroscopy. Reaction mechanisms were proposed to account for the products observed.

  9. Dual-shaped offset reflector antenna designs from solutions of the geometrical optics first-order partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Israel, V.; Imbriale, W.; Shogen, K.; Mittra, R.

    1990-01-01

    In obtaining solutions to the first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) for synthesizing offset dual-shaped reflectors, it is found that previously observed computational problems can be avoided if the integration of the PDEs is started from an inner projected perimeter and integrated outward rather than starting from an outer projected perimeter and integrating inward. This procedure, however, introduces a new parameter, the main reflector inner perimeter radius p(o), when given a subreflector inner angle 0(o). Furthermore, a desired outer projected perimeter (e.g., a circle) is no longer guaranteed. Stability of the integration is maintained if some of the initial parameters are determined first from an approximate solution to the PDEs. A one-, two-, or three-parameter optimization algorithm can then be used to obtain a best set of parameters yielding a close fit to the desired projected outer rim. Good low cross-polarization mapping functions are also obtained. These methods are illustrated by synthesis of a high-gain offset-shaped Cassegrainian antenna and a low-noise offset-shaped Gregorian antenna.

  10. A first-order second-moment calculation for seismic hazard assessment with the consideration of uncertain magnitude conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake size can be described with different magnitudes for different purposes. For example, local magnitude ML is usually adopted to compile an earthquake catalog, and moment magnitude Mw is often prescribed by a ground motion model. Understandably, when inconsistent units are encountered in an earthquake analysis, magnitude conversion needs to be performed beforehand. However, the conversion is not expected at full certainty owing to the model error of empirical relationships. This paper introduces a novel first-order second-moment (FOSM calculation to estimate the annual rate of earthquake motion (or seismic hazard on a probabilistic basis, including the consideration of the uncertain magnitude conversion and three other sources of earthquake uncertainties. In addition to the methodology, this novel FOSM application to engineering seismology is demonstrated in this paper with a case study. With a local ground motion model, magnitude conversion relationship and earthquake catalog, the analysis shows that the best-estimate annual rate of peak ground acceleration (PGA greater than 0.18 g (induced by earthquakes is 0.002 per year at a site in Taipei, given the uncertainties of magnitude conversion, earthquake size, earthquake location, and motion attenuation.

  11. Possible weakly first-order superconducting transition induced by magnetic excitations in the YBCO system: A fluctuation conductivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hneda, Marlon Luiz; da Silva Berchon, Luciano; Pureur, Paulo; das Neves Vieira, Valdemar; Jaeckel, Sandra Teixeira; Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Menegotto Costa, Rosângela

    2017-04-01

    Fluctuation conductivity is experimentally studied in the genuine critical region near the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7 - δ, YBa2Cu2.985Fe0.015O7 - δ and Y0.95Ca0.05Ba2Cu3O7 - δ single crystal samples. Two fluctuation regimes where the electrical conductivity diverges as a power-law of the reduced temperature were systematically observed. In the first regime, farther from the critical temperature Tc, the transition behaves as predicted by the thermodynamics of the three dimensional-XY (3D-XY) universality class characteristic of a second-order phase transition. In the asymptotic regime closer to Tc a power-law regime characterized by a much smaller exponent is observed. The smallest value ever reported for the fluctuation conductivity exponent in the high-Tc superconductors is obtained for the Fe- and Ca-doped systems. We suggest that the regime beyond 3D-XY is a crossover towards a weakly first-order transition induced by internal magnetic excitations.

  12. Bounded noise induced first-order phase transitions in a baseline non-spatial model of gene transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Caravagna, Giulio; de Franciscis, Sebastiano

    2018-02-01

    In this work we consider, from a statistical mechanics point of view, the effects of bounded stochastic perturbations of the protein decay rate for a bistable biomolecular network module. Namely, we consider the perturbations of the protein decay/binding rate constant (DBRC) in a circuit modeling the positive feedback of a transcription factor (TF) on its own synthesis. The DBRC models both the spontaneous degradation of the TF and its linking to other unknown biomolecular factors or drugs. We show that bounded perturbations of the DBRC preserve the positivity of the parameter value (and also its limited variation), and induce effects of interest. First, the noise amplitude induces a first-order phase transition. This is of interest since the system in study has neither spatial components nor it is composed by multiple interacting networks. In particular, we observe that the system passes from two to a unique stochastic attractor, and vice-versa. This behavior is different from noise-induced transitions (also termed phenomenological bifurcations), where a unique stochastic attractor changes its shape depending on the values of a parameter. Moreover, we observe irreversible jumps as a consequence of the above-mentioned phase transition. We show that the illustrated mechanism holds for general models with the same deterministic hysteresis bifurcation structure. Finally, we illustrate the possible implications of our findings to the intracellular pharmacodynamics of drugs delivered in continuous infusion.

  13. First-Order 0-π Quantum Phase Transition in the Kondo Regime of a Superconducting Carbon-Nanotube Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Maurand

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study a carbon-nanotube quantum dot embedded in a superconducting-quantum-interference-device loop in order to investigate the competition of strong electron correlations with a proximity effect. Depending on whether local pairing or local magnetism prevails, a superconducting quantum dot will exhibit a positive or a negative supercurrent, referred to as a 0 or π Josephson junction, respectively. In the regime of a strong Coulomb blockade, the 0-to-π transition is typically controlled by a change in the discrete charge state of the dot, from even to odd. In contrast, at a larger tunneling amplitude, the Kondo effect develops for an odd-charge (magnetic dot in the normal state, and quenches magnetism. In this situation, we find that a first-order 0-to-π quantum phase transition can be triggered at a fixed valence when superconductivity is brought in, due to the competition of the superconducting gap and the Kondo temperature. The superconducting-quantum-interference-device geometry together with the tunability of our device allows the exploration of the associated phase diagram predicted by recent theories. We also report on the observation of anharmonic behavior of the current-phase relation in the transition regime, which we associate with the two accessible superconducting states. Our results finally demonstrate that the spin-singlet nature of the Kondo state helps to enhance the stability of the 0 phase far from the mixed-valence regime in odd-charge superconducting quantum dots.

  14. Simultaneous determination of N-butylscopolamine and oxazepam in pharmaceutical formulations by first-order digital derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, Maria Inés; Muñoz, Marcelo A; Orellana, Sandra L

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of N-butylscopolamine bromide and oxazepam in pharmaceutical formulations using first-order digital derivative spectrophotometry. Acetonitrile was selected as the solvent in which both compounds showed well-defined bands. Both analytes showed good stability in this solvent when solutions of the analytes were exposed to light and temperatures between 20 degrees and 80 degrees C. The simultaneous determination of both drugs was performed by the zero-crossing method at 226.0 and 257.0 nm for N-butylscopolamine and oxazepam, respectively. The linear range of determination was found to be 2.5 x 10(-7) to 8.0 x 10(-5) mol/L for N-butylscopolamine and 7.1 x 10(-8) to 8.0 x 10(-5) mol/L for oxazepam. A very good level of repeatability (relative standard deviation) of 0.2% was observed for N-butylscopolamine and oxazepam. The ingredients commonly found in pharmaceutical formulations do not interfere. The proposed method was applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations (capsules).

  15. Apparent First-Order Liquid-Liquid Transition with Pre-transition Density Anomaly, in Water-Rich Ideal Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C Austen

    2016-02-12

    The striking increases in response functions observed during supercooling of pure water have been the source of much interest and controversy. Imminent divergences of compressibility etc. unfortunately cannot be confirmed due to pre-emption by ice crystallization. Crystallization can be repressed by addition of second components, but these usually destroy the anomalies of interest. Here we study systems in which protic ionic liquid second components dissolve ideally in water, and ice formation is avoided without destroying the anomalies. We observe a major heat capacity spike during cooling, which is reversed during heating, and is apparently of first order. It occurs just before the glassy state is reached and is preceded by water-like density anomalies. We propose that it is the much-discussed liquid-liquid transition previously hidden by crystallization. Fast cooling should allow the important fluctuations/structures to be preserved in the glassy state for leisurely investigation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Using publicly available GPS solutions for fast estimations of first-order source details from coseismic deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piersanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We here explore the potential use of publicly available GPS solutions to obtain first-order constraints on a source model immediately following an earthquake, within the limits of GPS solution timeliness and near-field coverage. We use GPS solutions from the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center to carry out simple inversions of the coseismic displacement field induced by the 2010 Maule earthquake (Chile, by inferring the seismic moment and the rake angle of a fixed-geometry seismic source. The rake angle obtained from the inversion (m = 117.8˚ is consistent with seismological estimates. The seismic moment, which corresponds to a moment magnitude MW = 8.9, is about 1.6 times greater than seismological estimates. This suggests that as in other recent megathrust events, a consistent fraction of the energy was released aseismically. In this respect, the additional information obtained from GPS can help to provide a better estimate of the weight of the aseismic contribution to the energy release.

  17. Simulation of branched serial first-order decay of atrazine and metabolites in adapted and nonadapted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard M.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Jason L. Krutz,; Dale L. Shaner,

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a branched serial first-order decay (BSFOD) model is presented and used to derive transformation rates describing the decay of a common herbicide, atrazine, and its metabolites observed in unsaturated soils adapted to previous atrazine applications and in soils with no history of atrazine applications. Calibration of BSFOD models for soils throughout the country can reduce the uncertainty, relative to that of traditional models, in predicting the fate and transport of pesticides and their metabolites and thus support improved agricultural management schemes for reducing threats to the environment. Results from application of the BSFOD model to better understand the degradation of atrazine supports two previously reported conclusions: atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and its primary metabolites are less persistent in adapted soils than in nonadapted soils; and hydroxyatrazine was the dominant primary metabolite in most of the soils tested. In addition, a method to simulate BSFOD in a one-dimensional solute-transport unsaturated zone model is also presented.

  18. First-Order Acoustic Wave Equation Reverse Time Migration Based on the Dual-Sensor Seismic Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiachun; Liu, Xuewei; Wu, Ru-Shan

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the mathematical requirements for conventional reverse time migration (RTM) and summarize their rationale. The known information provided by current acquisition system is inadequate for the second-order acoustic wave equations. Therefore, we introduce a dual-sensor seismic acquisition system into the coupled first-order acoustic wave equations. We propose a new dual-sensor reverse time migration called dual-sensor RTM, which includes two input variables, the pressure and vertical particle velocity data. We focus on the performance of dual-sensor RTM in estimating reflection coefficients compared with conventional RTM. Synthetic examples are used for the study of estimating coefficients of reflectors with both dual-sensor RTM and conventional RTM. The results indicate that dual-sensor RTM with two inputs calculates amplitude information more accurately and images structural positions of complex substructures, such as the Marmousi model, more clearly than that of conventional RTM. This shows that the dual-sensor RTM has better accuracy in backpropagation and carries more information in the directivity because of particle velocity injection. Through a simple point-shape model, we demonstrate that dual-sensor RTM decreases the effect of multi-pathing of propagating waves, which is helpful for focusing the energy. In addition, compared to conventional RTM, dual-sensor RTM does not cause extra memory costs. Dual-sensor RTM is, therefore, promising for the computation of multi-component seismic data.

  19. First-order logic theory for manipulating clinical practice guidelines applied to comorbid patients: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Martin; Wilk, Szymon; Tan, Xing; Michalowski, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) implement evidence-based medicine designed to help generate a therapy for a patient suffering from a single disease. When applied to a comorbid patient, the concurrent combination of treatment steps from multiple CPGs is susceptible to adverse interactions in the resulting combined therapy (i.e., a therapy established according to all considered CPGs). This inability to concurrently apply CPGs has been shown to be one of the key shortcomings of CPG uptake in a clinical setting1. Several research efforts are underway to address this issue such as the K4CARE2 and GuideLine INteraction Detection Assistant (GLINDA)3 projects and our previous research on applying constraint logic programming to developing a consistent combined therapy for a comorbid patient4. However, there is no generalized framework for mitigation that effectively captures general characteristics of the problem while handling nuances such as time and ordering requirements imposed by specific CPGs. In this paper we propose a first-order logic-based (FOL) approach for developing a generalized framework of mitigation. This approach uses a meta-algorithm and entailment properties to mitigate (i.e., identify and address) adverse interactions introduced by concurrently applied CPGs. We use an illustrative case study of a patient suffering from type 2 diabetes being treated for an onset of severe rheumatoid arthritis to show the expressiveness and robustness of our proposed FOL-based approach, and we discuss its appropriateness as the basis for the generalized theory.

  20. On the Possibility of Ill-Conditioned Covariance Matrices in the First-Order Two-Step Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, James L.; Axelrod, Penina; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    1997-01-01

    The first-order two-step nonlinear estimator, when applied to a problem of orbital navigation, is found to occasionally produce first step covariance matrices with very low eigenvalues at certain trajectory points. This anomaly is the result of the linear approximation to the first step covariance propagation. The study of this anomaly begins with expressing the propagation of the first and second step covariance matrices in terms of a single matrix. This matrix is shown to have a rank equal to the difference between the number of first step states and the number of second step states. Furthermore, under some simplifying assumptions, it is found that the basis of the column space of this matrix remains fixed once the filter has removed the large initial state error. A test matrix containing the basis of this column space and the partial derivative matrix relating first and second step states is derived. This square test matrix, which has dimensions equal to the number of first step states, numerically drops rank at the same locations that the first step covariance does. It is formulated in terms of a set of constant vectors (the basis) and a matrix which can be computed from a reference trajectory (the partial derivative matrix). A simple example problem involving dynamics which are described by two states and a range measurement illustrate the cause of this anomaly and the application of the aforementioned numerical test in more detail.

  1. Analysis of first order reversal curves in the thermal hysteresis of spin-crossover nanoparticles within the mechanoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru; Chakraborty, Pradip; Hauser, Andreas; Enachescu, Cristian

    2015-05-01

    The recently obtained spin-crossover nanoparticles are possible candidates for applications in the recording media industry as materials for data storage, or as pressure and temperature sensors. For these applications, the intermolecular interactions and interactions between spin-crossover nanoparticles are extremely important, as they may be essential factors in triggering the transition between the two stable phases: the high-spin and low-spin ones. In order to find correlations between the distributions in size and interactions and the transition temperatures distribution, we apply the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method, using simulations based on a mechanoelastic model applied to 2D triangular lattices composed of molecules linked by springs and embedded in a surfactant. We consider two Gaussian distributions: one is the size of the nanoparticles and another is the elastic interactions between edge spin-crossover molecules and the surfactant molecules. In order to disentangle the kinetic and non-kinetic parts of the FORC distributions, we compare the results obtained for different temperature sweeping rates. We also show that the presence of few larger particles in a distribution centered around much smaller particles dramatically increases the hysteresis width.

  2. Asymmetric propagation of the first order antisymmetric lamb wave in a tapered plate based on time domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Song, Guang-Huang; Han, Xu

    2017-07-01

    The asymmetric propagation of the first order antisymmetric (A1) Lamb wave in a tapered plate respectively carved with sharp bottom corner and round bottom corner is theoretically investigated. Through numerical simulation of A1 Lamb wave in time domain, we find that when the thickness of the waveguide abruptly decreases to below the cut-off thickness, about half of the A1 mode is converted into the fundamental symmetrical S0 and antisymmetrical A0 modes to pass through the defected region. Furthermore, the transmitted modes A0 and S0 are completely apart from each other and can be quantitatively evaluated. Conversely, when the thickness change is very smooth, most of the energy of A1 Lamb wave is reflected back. It is the unique mode conversion behavior that leads to great transmission difference value of A1 Lamb wave along the opposite directions. Finally, the influence of geometrical parameters on the transmission coefficient is also studied. The higher efficiency and proper working frequency range can be realized by adjusting the slope angle θ, height h 1 and h 2. The simple asymmetric systems will be potentially significant in applications of ultrasound diagnosis and therapy.

  3. A Low-Voltage Electronically Tunable MOSFET-C Voltage-Mode First-Order All-Pass Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Metin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple electronically tunable voltage-mode first-order all-pass filter realization with MOSFET-C technique. In comparison to the classical MOSFET-C filter circuits that employ active elements including large number of transistors the proposed circuit is only composed of a single two n-channel MOSFET-based inverting voltage buffer, three passive components, and one NMOS-based voltage-controlled resistor, which is with advantage used to electronically control the pole frequency of the filter in range 103 kHz to 18.3 MHz. The proposed filter is also very suitable for low-voltage operation, since between its supply rails it uses only two MOSFETs. In the paper the effect of load is investigated. In addition, in order to suppress the effect of non-zero output resistance of the inverting voltage buffer, two compensation techniques are also introduced. The theoretical results are verified by SPICE simulations using PTM 90 nm level-7 CMOS process BSIM3v3 parameters, where +/- 0.45 V supply voltages are used. Moreover, the behavior of the proposed filter was also experimentally measured using readily available array transistors CD4007UB by Texas Instruments.

  4. First-Order Model Management With Variable-Fidelity Physics Applied to Multi-Element Airfoil Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, N. M.; Nielsen, E. J.; Lewis, R. M.; Anderson, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    First-order approximation and model management is a methodology for a systematic use of variable-fidelity models or approximations in optimization. The intent of model management is to attain convergence to high-fidelity solutions with minimal expense in high-fidelity computations. The savings in terms of computationally intensive evaluations depends on the ability of the available lower-fidelity model or a suite of models to predict the improvement trends for the high-fidelity problem, Variable-fidelity models can be represented by data-fitting approximations, variable-resolution models. variable-convergence models. or variable physical fidelity models. The present work considers the use of variable-fidelity physics models. We demonstrate the performance of model management on an aerodynamic optimization of a multi-element airfoil designed to operate in the transonic regime. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations represent the high-fidelity model, while the Euler equations represent the low-fidelity model. An unstructured mesh-based analysis code FUN2D evaluates functions and sensitivity derivatives for both models. Model management for the present demonstration problem yields fivefold savings in terms of high-fidelity evaluations compared to optimization done with high-fidelity computations alone.

  5. Modelling Escherichia coli concentration in a wastewater reservoir using an operational parameter MRT%FE and first order kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Consoli, Simona; Juanicó, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The operational parameter MRT%FE, representing the mean residence time of different ages fractions of effluent within a completely mixed reactor, was evaluated and integrated with first order kinetics. The parameter was used to model Escherichia coli concentrations in a municipal wastewater reservoir managed under different operating conditions (continuous and discontinuous). The study was conducted during 2004-2005 in a reservoir receiving effluents from the activated sludge treatment plant of Caltagirone (Eastern Sicily - Italy). The analytical approach is applied to the hydraulic state variables of the system (daily stored volumes, inlet and outlet flows), and the physical-chemical (pH, temperature, EC, TSS, BOD(5), COD) and bacteriological wastewater parameters (E. coli, FC, FS). In order to evaluate the reliability of the proposed approach, predicted E. coli concentrations within the reservoir were compared with measured ones by the correlation coefficient, F-test and Sperman's index. The study included the evaluation of die-off coefficient K(T) (d(-1)), light extinction coefficient K (m(-1)) and their relationships with climatic factors. Results of the study confirm that E. coli removal is related to the fractions of fresh effluent remaining each day within the reservoir with MRT%FE of about 5-8d, significantly lower than the nominal detention time (about 27d). The E. coli die-off coefficient (K(T)) was higher during system discontinuous operations and correlated with incident solar radiation and water temperature.

  6. Automated circumferential construction of first-order aqueous humor outflow pathways using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Belghith, Akram; Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose was to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of circumferential aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in a living human eye with an automated detection algorithm for Schlemm's canal (SC) and first-order collector channels (CC) applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Anterior segment SD-OCT scans from a subject were acquired circumferentially around the limbus. A Bayesian Ridge method was used to approximate the location of the SC on infrared confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopic images with a cross multiplication tool developed to initiate SC/CC detection automated through a fuzzy hidden Markov Chain approach. Automatic segmentation of SC and initial CC's was manually confirmed by two masked graders. Outflow pathways detected by the segmentation algorithm were reconstructed into a 3-D representation of AHO. Overall, only <1% of images (5114 total B-scans) were ungradable. Automatic segmentation algorithm performed well with SC detection 98.3% of the time and <0.1% false positive detection compared to expert grader consensus. CC was detected 84.2% of the time with 1.4% false positive detection. 3-D representation of AHO pathways demonstrated variably thicker and thinner SC with some clear CC roots. Circumferential (360 deg), automated, and validated AHO detection of angle structures in the living human eye with reconstruction was possible.

  7. [A pseudo-outbreak of pharyngeal gonorrhoea related to a false-positive PCR-result

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Berretty, P.J.; Erceg, A.; Krekels, G.A.; Brule, A.J. van den; Boel, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are sensitive and specific tests that are often used for diagnosing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A pseudo-outbreak of pharyngeal gonorrhoea in a group of prostitutes turned out to have been caused by

  8. Aerodynamics of the pseudo-glottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotby, M N; Hegazi, M A; Kamal, I; Gamal El Dien, N; Nassar, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the hitherto unclear aerodynamic parameters of the pseudo-glottis following total laryngectomy. These parameters include airflow rate, sub-pseudo-glottic pressure (SubPsG), efficiency and resistance, as well as sound pressure level (SPL). Eighteen male patients who have undergone total laryngectomy, with an age range from 54 to 72 years, were investigated in this study. All tested patients were fluent esophageal 'voice' speakers utilizing tracheo-esophageal prosthesis. The airflow rate, SubPsG and SPL were measured. The results showed that the mean value of the airflow rate was 53 ml/s, the SubPsG pressure was 13 cm H(2)O, while the SPL was 66 dB. The normative data obtained from the true glottis in healthy age-matched subjects are 89 ml/s, 7.9 cm H(2)O and 70 dB, respectively. Other aerodynamic indices were calculated and compared to the data obtained from the true glottis. Such a comparison of the pseudo-glottic aerodynamic data to the data of the true glottis gives an insight into the mechanism of action of the pseudo-glottis. The data obtained suggests possible clinical applications in pseudo-voice training. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. SEARCHING FOR LOW WEIGHT PSEUDO-CODEWORDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-23

    Belief Propagation (BP) and Linear Programming (LP) decodings of LDPC codes are discussed. The authors summarize results of instanton/pseudo-codeword approach developed for analysis of the error-floor domain of the codes. Instantons are special, code and decoding specific, configurations of the channel noise contributing most to the Frame-Error-Rate (FER). Instantons are decoded into pseudo-codewords. Instanton/pseudo-codeword with the lowest weight describes the largest Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) asymptotic of FER, while the whole spectra of the low weight instantons is descriptive of the FER vs. SNR profile in the extended error-floor domain. First, they describe a general optimization method that allows to find the instantons for any coding/decoding. Second, they introduce LP-specific pseudo-codeword search algorithm that allows efficient calculations of the pseudo-codeword spectra. Finally, they discuss results of combined BP/LP error-floor exploration experiments for two mode codes.

  10. Simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and prednisolone acetate in ophthalmic formulation using first-order UV derivative spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia A. Sversut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and prednisolone acetate in ophthalmic formulation was developed and validated using UV spectrophotometry. Gatifloxacin and prednisolone acetate were quantified using the first-order derivative of the UV spectra. The proposed method was validated according to the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. The measurements were made in acetonitrile/water (70:30 v/v at 348 nm for gatifloxacin and at 263 nm for prednisolone acetate. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 3–21 μg mL−1 for gatifloxacin and 6–42 μg mL−1 for prednisolone acetate with Sandell’s sensitivities of 0.349 μg cm−2 and 0.402 μg cm−2, respectively. The mean recovery and the limit of quantification for gatifloxacin were 99.76 ± 0.41% and 1.11 μg mL−1 and for prednisolone acetate were 99.52 ± 0.87% and 0.55 μg mL−1, respectively. The method was precise, with a relative standard deviation of less than 2.50% for both drugs. For robustness, the factors analyzed did not significantly affect the quantification of gatifloxacin and prednisolone acetate. The results of the validated method did not differ significantly from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, which was previously developed and validated for the same drugs. In this form, the method was suitable for routine analysis of gatifloxacin and prednisolone acetate in their combined dosage form in ophthalmic formulations.

  11. Determination of nebivolol hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets by first-order derivative spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dimal A; Bhatt, Kashyap K; Mehta, Rajendra S; Baldania, Sunil L

    2008-01-01

    Two simple and accurate methods for analysis of nebivolol hydrochloride (NEB) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in their combined dosage forms were developed using first-order derivative spectrophotometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC). NEB and HCTZ in their combined dosage forms (tablets) were quantified using first-derivative responses at 294.6 and 334.6 nm in the spectra of their solutions in methanol. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 8-40 microg/mL for NEB and 10-60 microg/mL for HCTZ. LC analysis was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm particle size) in the isocratic mode with 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate-acetonitrile-methanol (30 + 20 + 50, v/v/v; pH 4) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was made at 220 nm. Both of the drugs and the internal standard (ezetimibe) were well resolved with retention times of 5.1 min for NEB, 2.9 min for HCTZ, and 8.2 min for ezetimibe. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 1-14 microg/mL for NEB and 0.3-28 microg/mL for HCTZ. Both methods were validated and found to be accurate, precise, and specific, and results were compared statistically. Developed methods were successfully applied for the estimation of NEB and HCTZ in their combined dosage forms.

  12. Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW in Beijing, China, for two years. We simulated the area-based constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors—such as the area-based constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO. The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N and nitrate (NO3−-N concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p < 0.01, n = 38. The NO3−-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01, but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.01. The area-based constants of NO3−-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27 ± 26 (mean ± SD and 14 ± 10 m∙year−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.004 and 0.960, respectively. The area-based constants for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p > 0.01. The NO3−-N area-based constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01. The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.01, suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig’s law of the minimum.

  13. Sediment Yield From First Order Streams in Managed Redwood Forests: Effects of Recent Harvests and Legacy Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, H.; O'Connor, M.; McDavitt, W.

    2003-12-01

    First order streams in the Van Duzen River and lower Eel River watersheds owned by Pacific Lumber Company (Palco) in Humboldt County, California, were surveyed and small sedimentation basins were installed to develop quantitative estimates of sediment yield. A random study design was developed to investigate the potential effects of different geologic substrates and forest management on sediment yield. The drainage area for these streams was about 5 to 10 ha where fluvial characteristics were expressed. The erosion processes within the scope of this investigation included surface erosion from hillslopes and harvest units, rill and gully erosion that may occur in relation to skid trails (recently used or abandoned), and stream channel erosion, including bank erosion and small-scale mass wasting. Temporary sedimentation basins were installed in 30 randomly chosen channels to quantify relative amounts of sediment yield from watersheds with different management conditions (treatment sites) and second-growth stands not recently entered (control sites). Most treatment sites were clearcut harvests. Two classes of treated sites were sampled: sites harvested under stricter regulations of a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) and sites harvested prior to implementation of the HCP. Channel surveys were also conducted to characterize conditions and identify existing evidence of channel erosion and surface erosion in areas adjacent to the channel. Results from winter 2001/02 suggested that there may be differences in sediment yield among geologic substrates, with the Wildcat having relatively low sediment yield values. Treatment effects were significantly different (ANOVA, p effect on sediment yield may be influenced by the fact that the HCP treatment sites have experienced only one or two post-harvest winters, while the pre-HCP treatment sites experienced relatively severe winters over a longer post-harvest period. In addition, the fact that the control sites tended to have higher

  14. First order reversal curve analysis on NdFeB nanocomposite ribbons subjected to Joule heating treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampillo, L.G. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Saccone, F.D., E-mail: fsaccone@fi.uba.ar [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin-Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sirkin, H.R.M. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd-lean amorphous precursors subjected to Joule heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange-spring magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FORC diagrams of irreversible switching fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This last techniques helped us to verify the optimized treatments conditions. - Abstract: Amorphous precursors with composition Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 72-x}Co{sub 3+x}Cr{sub 2}Al{sub 1}B{sub 17.5} (x = 0, 2, 7, 12) were thermally treated by the Joule heating technique with a linearly varying electrical current. The crystallization kinetics was followed by monitoring the resistance of the ribbons during the heating up to the final applied current. Crystallized nanostructured phases coexist with an amorphous matrix, as it was observed by means of Moessbauer Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The irreversible magnetic response of the Joule heated ribbons was analyzed by the First Order Reversal Curves (FORC) diagram technique. For the optimal treatments, associated with the higher maximum energy products for each sample composition, it was found that the main interaction is of a strongly dipolar characteristic. Over annealed samples show a FORC diagram that gives into account of softening, due to grain growth, for those phases precipitated at the first crystallization stage. When it is measured at 20 K, the hardest magnetic sample (Fe = 72 at.%, Co = 3 at.%, I{sub final} = 0.5 A), exhibits a diagram with characteristics corresponding to dipolar interactions of soft phases. This fact is consistent with an enhancement of the exchange length due to the increase in the soft phase stiffness as it is expected at low temperatures.

  15. Food-resource partitioning among fish species from a first-order stream in northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jislaine Cristina da Silva

    Full Text Available This study addressed the feeding ecology of fish fauna from a first-order stream located in a rural area. The purposes were to evaluate the influence of interspecific, seasonal and spatial factors on the diet, examine the dietary overlap, and determine the predominant food sources. Sampling was conducted in December 2007, September 2008, and March 2009, in three 50-m stretches of Itiz stream (upstream, intermediate, and downstream, through electrofishing. A total of 1,102 stomach contents were analyzed from 14 species, by the volumetric method. In general, allochthonous resources were predominant in the diets. Astyanax aff. fasciatus, Astyanax aff. paranae, Astyanax bockmanni, and Bryconamericus aff. iheringi consumed a higher proportion of plant remains, and Bryconamericus stramineus consumed predominantly Hymenoptera. The diets of Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Characidium aff. zebra, Imparfinis schubarti, and Trichomycterus sp. consisted of aquatic insects, especially immature forms of Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Diptera. Hypostomus ancistroides, Hisonotus sp., Poecilia reticulata, and Rineloricaria aff. pentamaculata exploited mainly detritus, while Rhamdia quelen used a variety of items, predominantly terrestrial insects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA showed a clear distinction among the species, with different morphology and feeding tactics. The Multi-Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP supported this differentiation, and also indicated significant spatial and temporal variations in the dietary composition; the Indicator Value Method (IndVal indicated the main items that contributed to these differences. The diet overlap among species was low (< 0.4 to around 78% of pairs, and the mean value did not vary significantly among the sites or between hydrological periods within each site. According to the null model of Pianka’s index, the values for dietary overlap were significantly higher than expected at random, showing

  16. Pseudo exchange bias due to rotational anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, A., E-mail: andrea.ehrmann@fh-bielefeld.de [Faculty of Engineering and Mathematics, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, 33619 Bielefeld (Germany); Komraus, S.; Blachowicz, T.; Domino, K. [Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Nees, M.K.; Jakobs, P.J.; Leiste, H. [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mathes, M.; Schaarschmidt, M. [ACCESS e. V., 57072 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Ferromagnetic nanostructure arrays with particle dimensions between 160 nm and 400 nm were created by electron-beam lithography. The permalloy structures consist of rectangular-shaped walls around a square open space. While measuring their magnetic properties using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), in some angular regions an exchange bias (EB) seemed to appear. This paper gives an overview of possible reasons for this “pseudo exchange bias” and shows experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulations that this effect can be attributed to unintentionally measuring minor loops. - Highlights: • Pseudo exchange bias can be found in square Py nanorings of different dimensions. • Pseudo exchange bias stems from unintentionally measuring minor loops. • New approach in explaining “real” exchange bias effect in coupled FM/AFM systems. • Theoretical base to explain other measurements of a rotational anisotropy.

  17. A case of Pseudo-Bartter syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Choi, Bo Whan; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome is a rare medical disease of the kidney characterized by normal blood pressure, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism with drug history of diuretics. We report US, CT and MRI findings of a patients with clinically proved Pseudo-Bartter syndrome. The patient was a 37 year old woman with a history of long term ingestion of the diuretics(furosemide) for 20 years. Renal US revealed hyperechoic renal medulla at both kidneys. The resistive index(RI), calculated from the duplex doppler waveform is 0.61. Unenhanced CT revealed faint high attenuation along the medulla. T1-weighted MRI revealed indistinct corticomedullary differentiation.

  18. EVALUATION OF A FIRST-ORDER MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF THE BIOACCUMULATION OF PCBS AND DDT FROM SEDIMENT INTO THE MARINE DEPOSIT-FEEDING CLAM MACOMA NASUTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A first-order model for predicting contaminant bioaccumulation from sediments into benthic invertebrates was validated using a marine deposit-feeding clam, Macoma nasuta, exposed to polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-spiked and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-contaminated sediments. ...

  19. On the inaccuracy of using Mindlin's first-order plate theory for calculating the motional capacitance of a thickness-shear resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongping; Hu, Yuantai; Yang, Jiashi

    2009-01-01

    We show that when using Mindlin's first-order theory of piezoelectric plates to analyze a thickness-shear mode resonator, while the frequency can be predicted accurately, the charge, the current, and hence the motional capacitance have significant inaccuracy.

  20. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for Partial Differential-Functional Equations of the First Order with Deviating Argument of the Derivative of Unknown Function

    OpenAIRE

    Augustynowicz, A.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the existence and uniqueness problem for partial differential-functional equations of the first order with the initial condition for which the right-hand side depends on the derivative of unknown function with deviating argument.

  1. Kinetics and Mechanistic Studies on the Reaction between Cytochrome c and Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is characterized by the presence of an abundance of polyphenolic compounds, also known as catechins, including epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, epicatechin gallate (EGC and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG. In addition to being a popular beverage, tea consumption has been suggested as a mean of chemoprevention. However, its mode of action is unclear. It was discovered that tea catechins can react with cytochrome c. When oxidized cytochrome c was mixed with catechins commonly found in green tea under non-steady-state conditions, a reduction of cytochrome c was observed. The reaction rate of the catechins was dependent on the pH and the nature of the catechin. The pseudo-first order rate constant obtained increased in the order of EC < ECG < EGC < EGCG, which is consistent with previously reported superoxide reduction activities and Cu2+ reduction activities of tea catechins.

  2. The phase transition of the first order in the critical region of the gas-liquid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Yukhnovskii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a summarising investigation of the events of the phase transition of the first order that occur in the critical region below the liquid-gas critical point. The grand partition function has been completely integrated in the phase-space of the collective variables. The basic density measure is the quartic one. It has the form of the exponent function with the first, second, third and fourth degree of the collective variables. The problem has been reduced to the Ising model in an external field, the role of which is played by the generalised chemical potential μ*. The line μ*(η =0, where η is the density, is the line of the phase transition. We consider the isothermal compression of the gas till the point where the phase transition on the line μ*(η =0 is reached. When the path of the pressing reaches the line μ* =0 in the gas medium, a droplet of liquid springs up. The work for its formation is obtained, the surface-tension energy is calculated. On the line μ* =0 we have a two-phase system: the gas and the liquid (the droplet one. The equality of the gas and of the liquid chemical potentials is proved. The process of pressing is going on. But the pressure inside the system has stopped, two fixed densities have arisen: one for the gas-phase ηG=ηc(1-d/2 and the other for the liquid-phase ηL=ηc(1+d/2 (symmetrically to the rectlinear diameter, where ηc=0.13044 is the critical density. Starting from that moment the external pressure works as a latent work of pressure. Its value is obtained. As a result, the gas-phase disappears and the whole system turns into liquid. The jump of the density is equal to ηc d, where d=(D/2G1/2 ~ τν/2. D and G are coefficients of the Hamiltonian in the last cell connected with the renormalisation-group symmetry. The equation of state is written.

  3. The relationship of dynamical heterogeneity to the Adam-Gibbs and random first-order transition theories of glass formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Francis W; Douglas, Jack F; Sastry, Srikanth

    2013-03-28

    We carefully examine common measures of dynamical heterogeneity for a model polymer melt and test how these scales compare with those hypothesized by the Adam and Gibbs (AG) and random first-order transition (RFOT) theories of relaxation in glass-forming liquids. To this end, we first analyze clusters of highly mobile particles, the string-like collective motion of these mobile particles, and clusters of relative low mobility. We show that the time scale of the high-mobility clusters and strings is associated with a diffusive time scale, while the low-mobility particles' time scale relates to a structural relaxation time. The difference of the characteristic times for the high- and low-mobility particles naturally explains the well-known decoupling of diffusion and structural relaxation time scales. Despite the inherent difference of dynamics between high- and low-mobility particles, we find a high degree of similarity in the geometrical structure of these particle clusters. In particular, we show that the fractal dimensions of these clusters are consistent with those of swollen branched polymers or branched polymers with screened excluded-volume interactions, corresponding to lattice animals and percolation clusters, respectively. In contrast, the fractal dimension of the strings crosses over from that of self-avoiding walks for small strings, to simple random walks for longer, more strongly interacting, strings, corresponding to flexible polymers with screened excluded-volume interactions. We examine the appropriateness of identifying the size scales of either mobile particle clusters or strings with the size of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR) in the AG and RFOT theories. We find that the string size appears to be the most consistent measure of CRR for both the AG and RFOT models. Identifying strings or clusters with the "mosaic" length of the RFOT model relaxes the conventional assumption that the "entropic droplets" are compact. We also confirm the

  4. Using Directional Diffusion Coefficients for Nonlinear Diffusion Acceleration of the First Order SN Equations in Near-Void Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Hammer, Hans; Lou, Jijie; Wang, Yaqi; Ortensi, Javier; Gleicher, Frederick; Baker, Benjamin; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The common definition of the diffusion coeffcient as the inverse of three times the transport cross section is not compat- ible with voids. Morel introduced a non-local tensor diffusion coeffcient that remains finite in voids[1]. It can be obtained by solving an auxiliary transport problem without scattering or fission. Larsen and Trahan successfully applied this diffusion coeffcient for enhancing the accuracy of diffusion solutions of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) problems that feature large, optically thin channels in the z-direction [2]. It is demonstrated that a significant reduction of error can be achieved in particular in the optically thin region. Along the same line of thought, non-local diffusion tensors are applied modeling the TREAT reactor confirming the findings of Larsen and Trahan [3]. Previous work of the authors have introduced a flexible Nonlinear-Diffusion Acceleration (NDA) method for the first order S N equations discretized with the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM), [4], [5], [6]. This NDA method uses a scalar diffusion coeffcient in the low-order system that is obtained as the flux weighted average of the inverse transport cross section. Hence, it su?ers from very large and potentially unbounded diffusion coeffcients in the low order problem. However, it was noted that the choice of the diffusion coeffcient does not influence consistency of the method at convergence and hence the di?usion coeffcient is essentially a free parameter. The choice of the di?usion coeffcient does, however, affect the convergence behavior of the nonlinear di?usion iterations. Within this work we use Morel’s non-local di?usion coef- ficient in the aforementioned NDA formulation in lieu of the flux weighted inverse of three times the transport cross section. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that significant en- hancement of the spectral properties of NDA can be achieved in near void regions. For testing the spectral properties of the NDA

  5. The Goldbeter-Koshland switch in the first-order region and its response to dynamic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xing

    Full Text Available In their classical work (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1981, 78:6840-6844, Goldbeter and Koshland mathematically analyzed a reversible covalent modification system which is highly sensitive to the concentration of effectors. Its signal-response curve appears sigmoidal, constituting a biochemical switch. However, the switch behavior only emerges in the 'zero-order region', i.e. when the signal molecule concentration is much lower than that of the substrate it modifies. In this work we showed that the switching behavior can also occur under comparable concentrations of signals and substrates, provided that the signal molecules catalyze the modification reaction in cooperation. We also studied the effect of dynamic disorders on the proposed biochemical switch, in which the enzymatic reaction rates, instead of constant, appear as stochastic functions of time. We showed that the system is robust to dynamic disorder at bulk concentration. But if the dynamic disorder is quasi-static, large fluctuations of the switch response behavior may be observed at low concentrations. Such fluctuation is relevant to many biological functions. It can be reduced by either increasing the conformation interconversion rate of the protein, or correlating the enzymatic reaction rates in the network.

  6. [Influencing factors and reaction mechanism of chloroacetic acid reduction by cast iron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shun; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Xie, Yue-Feng

    2014-03-01

    The chloroacetic acids are ubiquitous present as a class of trace chlorinated organic pollutants in surface and drinking water. Most of chloroacetic acids are known or suspected carcinogens and, when at high concentrations, are of great concern to human health. In order to economically remove chloroacetic acids, the degradation of chloroacetic acids by cast iron was investigated. Moreover, the effect of iron style, pretreatment process, shocking mode and dissolved oxygen on chloroacetic acids reduced by cast iron was discussed. Compared to iron source and acid pretreatment, mass transfer was more important to chloroacetic acid removal. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) were the main products of anoxic and oxic degradation of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) by cast iron during the researched reaction time, respectively. With longtitudinal shock, the reaction kinetics of chloroaectic acid removal by cast iron conformed well to the pseudo first order reaction. The anoxic reaction constants of TCAA, DCAA and MCAA were 0.46 h(-1), 0.03 h(-1) and 0, and their oxic constants were 1.24 h(-1), 0.79 h(-1) and 0.28 h(-1), respectively. The removal mechanisms of chloroacetic acids were different under various oxygen concentrations, including sequential hydrogenolysis for anoxic reaction and sequential hydrogenolysis and direct transformation possible for oxic reaction, respectively.

  7. Graphene Facilitated Removal of Labetalol in Laccase-ABTS System: Reaction Efficiency, Pathways and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shipeng; Xiao, Huifang; Huang, Qingguo; Zhang, Jian; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    The widespread occurrence of the beta-blocker labetalol causes environmental health concern. Enzymatic reactions are highly efficient and specific offering biochemical transformation of trace contaminants with short reaction time and little to none energy consumption. Our experiments indicate that labetalol can be effectively transformed by laccase-catalyzed reaction using 2, 2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as a mediator, while no significant removal of labetalol can be achieved in the absence of ABTS. A total of three products were identified. It is interesting that the presence of graphene greatly increased the reaction rate while not changed the products. In the presence of 100 μg/L graphene, the pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant was increased ~50 times. We found that the enhancement of graphene is probably attributed to the formation and releasing of ABTS2+ which has a much greater reactivity towards labetalol when graphene is present. This study provides fundamental information for laccase-ABTS mediated labetalol reactions and the effect of graphene, which could eventually lead to development of novel methods to control beta-blocker contamination.

  8. Study of the first-order transition in the spin-1 Blume–Capel model by using effective-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costabile, Emanuel [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Amazonas, Marcio A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, 1975, Sete de Setembro, 69020-120, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Viana, J. Roberto [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Sousa, J. Ricardo de, E-mail: jsousa@ufam.edu.br.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-10-01

    The spin-1 Blume–Capel model on a square lattice is studied by using an effective-field theory (EFT) with correlation. We propose an expression for the free energy within the EFT. The phase diagram is constructed in the temperature (T) and single-ion anisotropy amplitude (D) plane. The first-order transition line is obtained by Maxwell construction (comparison between free energies). Our results predict first-order transitions at low temperatures and large anisotropy strengths, which correspond in the phase diagram to the existence of a tricritical point (TCP). We compare our results with mean-field approximation (MFA), that show a qualitative correct behavior for the phase diagram. -- Highlights: ► In this Letter we have studied the spin-1 Blume–Capel model by using effective-field theory (EFT). ► The first-order line is obtained for the first time. ► The model presents second and first-order phase transitions. ► We propose a functional to treat the first-order line. ► We discuss other alternative by using EFT to study first-order line.

  9. Exact Expression of the Energy Gap at First-Order Quantum Phase Transitions of the Fully Connected p-Body Transverse-Field Ising Model with Transverse Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuwa, Masaki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2017-11-01

    We study the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state of a mean-field-type non-stoquastic Hamiltonian by a semi-classical analysis. The fully connected mean-field model with p-body ferromagnetic interactions under a transverse field has a first-order quantum phase transition for p ≥ 3. This first-order transition is known to be reduced to second order for p ≥ 5 by an introduction of antiferromagnetic transverse interactions, which makes the Hamiltonian non-stoquastic. This reduction of the order of transition means an exponential speedup of quantum annealing by adiabatic processes because the first-order transition is shown to have an exponentially small energy gap whereas the second order case does not. We apply a semi-classical method to analytically derive the explicit expression of the rate of the exponential decay of the energy gap at first-order transitions. The result reveals how the property of first-order transition changes as a function of the system parameters. We also derive the exact closed-form expression for the critical point where the first-order transition line disappears within the ferromagnetic phase. These results help us understand how the antiferromagnetic transverse interactions affect the performance of quantum annealing by controlling the effects of non-stoquasticity in the Hamiltonian.

  10. Some Properties of Weighted Pseudo almost Periodic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ming Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several interesting and new properties of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions are established. Firstly, we obtain an equivalent definition for weighted pseudo almost periodic functions, which shows a close relationship between asymptotically almost periodic functions and weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; secondly, we prove that the space of asymptotically almost periodic functions is always a proper subspace of the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; thirdly, we show that under some cases, the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions equals the classical space of pseudo almost periodic functions.

  11. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2003-01-01

    undertake showing that the angle weighted pseudo--normal has an important property, namely that it allows us to discriminate between points that are inside and points that are outside the mesh. This result is used for proposing a simple and efficient algorithm for computing the signed distance field from...

  12. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    coastal waters of the Western Indian Ocean has been reported before (Bryceson ... Ocean. There is however no study, which has analyzed the seasonal distribution of. Pseudo-nitzschia species along the. Tanzanian coastal waters as well as factors regulating such ... cleaned plastic vials and immediately kept cool on ice for ...

  13. Pseudo-Canonical Formulae are Classical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caminati Marco B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An original result about Hilbert Positive Propositional Calculus introduced in [11] is proven. That is, it is shown that the pseudo-canonical formulae of that calculus (and hence also the canonical ones, see [17] are a subset of the classical tautologies.

  14. Pseudo-observations in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Perme, Maja Pohar

    2010-01-01

    -state models, e.g. the competing risks cumulative incidence function. Graphical and numerical methods for assessing goodness-of-fit for hazard regression models and for the Fine-Gray model in competing risks studies based on pseudo-observations are also reviewed. Sensitivity to covariate-dependent censoring...... is studied. The methods are illustrated using a data set from bone marrow transplantation....

  15. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF REACTION OF ACIDIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For both Nile blue and Meldola\\'s blue reactions the rates have first-order dependence on each substrate, chlorite and acid. Both reactions showed negative salt effect indicating the reaction is between the oppositely charged species, likely the substrate cation and chlorite anion. The acidic chlorite reaction with MB+ was ...

  16. Primary palpebral and orbital ossification in pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauber, S.; Heegaard, S.; Prause, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit......ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit...

  17. Influence of relative humidity on heterogeneous reactions of O3 and O3/SO2 with soot particles: Potential for environmental and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Pang, Shufeng; Ma, Jiabi; Zhang, Yunhong

    2017-09-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of soot particles with O3 and the mixture of O3 and SO2 were studied as a function of relative humidities (RHs). The reactions were followed in real time using microscopic Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectrometer to obtain kinetic data. The results show that the ketone (Cdbnd O) group is the main product of the O3/soot reaction, and the sulfate is identified on the surface of soot particles in the presence of O3/SO2. Both reactions are sensitive to RHs and surrounding water significantly promotes the proceeding of the heterogeneous reactions. For the O3/soot reaction, the pseudo-first-order rate constant increases from 3.2 × 10-4 s-1 to 7.1 × 10-4 s-1 with increasing RH in the range of 1%-82%. When O3 and SO2 exist simultaneously during the reaction, the reaction rate and uptake coefficient are all enhanced by about an order of magnitude as the RH increases from 1% to 83%. The high productions of the ketone and sulfate on soot surface are of highly hydrophilic, which play a key role in environmental effect under humid environment. The possible reaction mechanism speculates that products of aromatic carbonyls and dihydrofuran species on soot particles will be more harmful to human health.

  18. A comprehensive comparison between thermodynamic perturbation theory and first-order mean spherical approximation: Based on discrete potentials with hard core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Zhou, Run

    2017-08-01

    Using the TL (Tang and Lu, 1993) method, Ornstein-Zernike integral equation is solved perturbatively under the mean spherical approximation (MSA) for fluid with potential consisting of a hard sphere plus square-well plus square-shoulder (HS + SW + SS) to obtain first-order analytic expressions of radial distribution function (RDF), second-order direct correlation function, and semi-analytic expressions for common thermodynamic properties. A comprehensive comparison between the first-order MSA and high temperature series expansion (HTSE) to third-, fifth- and seventh-order is performed over a wide parameter range for both a HS + SW and the HS + SW + SS model fluids by using corresponding ;exact; Monte Carlo results as a reference; although the HTSE is carried out up to seventh-order, and not to the first order as the first-order MSA the comparison is considered fair from a calculation complexity perspective. It is found that the performance of the first-order MSA is dramatically model-dependent: as target potentials go from the HS + SW to the HS + SW + SS, (i) there is a dramatic dropping of performance of the first-order MSA expressions in calculating the thermodynamic properties, especially both the excess internal energy and constant volume excess heat capacity of the HS + SW + SS model cannot be predicted even qualitatively correctly. (ii) One tendency is noticed that the first-order MSA gets more reliable with increasing temperatures in dealing with the pressure, excess Helmholtz free energy, excess enthalpy and excess chemical potential. (iii) Concerning the RDF, the first-order MSA is not as disappointing as it displays in the cases of thermodynamics. (iv) In the case of the HS + SW model, the first-order MSA solution is shown to be quantitatively correct in calculating the pressure and excess chemical potential even if the reduced temperatures are as low as 0.8. On the other hand, the seventh-order HTSE is less model-dependent; in most cases of the HS + SW

  19. A Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics: can we step beyond Richard's equation while preserving capillarity as first order control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Water storage in the unsaturated zone is controlled by capillary forces which increase nonlinearly with decreasing pore size, because water acts as a wetting fluid in soil. The standard approach to represent capillary and gravity controlled soil water dynamics is the Darcy-Richards equation in combination with suitable soil water characteristics. This continuum model essentially assumes capillarity controlled diffusive fluxes to dominate soil water dynamics under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Today we know that the assumptions of local equilibrium conditions e.g. and a mainly diffusive flow are often not appropriate, particularly during rainfall events in structured soils. Rapid or preferential flow imply a strong local disequilibrium and imperfect mixing between a fast fraction of soil water, traveling in interconnected coarse pores or non-capillary macropores, and the slower diffusive flow in finer fractions of the pore space. Although various concepts have been proposed to overcome the inability of the Darcy - Richards concept to cope with not-well mixed preferential flow, we still lack an approach that is commonly accepted. Notwithstanding the listed short comings, one should not mistake the limitations of the Richards equation with non-importance of capillary forces in soil. Without capillarity infiltrating rainfall would drain into groundwater bodies, leaving an empty soil as the local equilibrium state - there would be no soil water dynamics at all, probably even no terrestrial vegetation without capillary forces. Better alternatives for the Darcy-Richards approach are thus highly desirable, as long they preserve the grain of "truth" about capillarity as first order control. Here we propose such an alternative approach to simulate soil moisture dynamics in a stochastic and yet physical way. Soil water is represented by particles of constant mass, which travel according to the Itô form of the Fokker Planck equation. The model concept builds on

  20. Ultrasound promoted reaction of Rhodamine B with sodium hypochlorite using sonochemical and dental ultrasonic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, T Joyce; Price, Gareth J

    2012-03-01

    The sonochemical acceleration of bleaching of Rhodamine B by sodium hypochlorite has been studied using ultrasound intensities in the range 0-7 W cm(-2). Using a 20 kHz ultrasonic horn, it was shown that ultrasound could significantly shorten the treatment time and/or the concentration of hypochlorite required for the reaction. A number of intermediate species formed during the reaction have been identified. It was demonstrated that the same sonochemical reactions occur during the use of dental ultrasound instruments of the type used in endodontics where hypochlorite solutions act as disinfectants. Results showed pseudo-first order degradation kinetics for the degradation of Rhodamine B for both types of source. Both the distribution of cavitation and the resulting bleaching reactions were dependent on the design of the tips. The bleaching reaction can therefore be used to characterise the behaviour of dental instruments and aid in the optimisation of their performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  2. Pseudo-differential operators and generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Toft, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    This book gathers peer-reviewed contributions representing modern trends in the theory of generalized functions and pseudo-differential operators. It is dedicated to Professor Michael Oberguggenberger (Innsbruck University, Austria) in honour of his 60th birthday. The topics covered were suggested by the ISAAC Group in Generalized Functions (GF) and the ISAAC Group in Pseudo-Differential Operators (IGPDO), which met at the 9th ISAAC congress in Krakow, Poland in August 2013. Topics include Columbeau algebras, ultra-distributions, partial differential equations, micro-local analysis, harmonic analysis, global analysis, geometry, quantization, mathematical physics, and time-frequency analysis. Featuring both essays and research articles, the book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers working in analysis, PDE and mathematical physics, while also offering a valuable complement to the volumes on this topic previously published in the OT series.

  3. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO) with OH and NO3 and glyoxal (HCO)2 with NO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, R. K.; Zhu, L.; Feierabend, K. J.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2011-11-01

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of CH3COCHO (methylglyoxal) with the OH and NO3 radicals and (CHO)2 (glyoxal) with the NO3 radical are reported. Rate coefficients for the OH + CH3COCHO (k1) reaction were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH as a function of temperature (211-373 K) and pressure (100-220 Torr, He and N2 bath gases) using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to measure its temporal profile. k1 was found to be independent of the bath gas pressure with k1(295 K) = (1.29 ± 0.13) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and a temperature dependence that is well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1(T) = (1.74 ± 0.20) × 10-12 exp[(590 ± 40)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 where the uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the NO3 + (CHO)2 (k3) and NO3 + CH3COCHO (k4) reactions were measured using a relative rate technique to be k3(296 K) = (4.0 ± 1.0) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k4(296 K) = (5.1 ± 2.1) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. k3(T) was also measured using an absolute rate coefficient method under pseudo-first-order conditions at 296 and 353 K to be (4.2 ± 0.8) × 10-16 and (7.9 ± 3.6) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, in agreement with the relative rate result obtained at room temperature. The atmospheric implications of the OH and NO3 reaction rate coefficients measured in this work are discussed.

  4. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO with OH and NO3 and glyoxal (HCO2 with NO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Burkholder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of CH3COCHO (methylglyoxal with the OH and NO3 radicals and (CHO2 (glyoxal with the NO3 radical are reported. Rate coefficients for the OH + CH3COCHO (k1 reaction were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH as a function of temperature (211–373 K and pressure (100–220 Torr, He and N2 bath gases using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to measure its temporal profile. k1 was found to be independent of the bath gas pressure with k1(295 K = (1.29 ± 0.13 × 10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and a temperature dependence that is well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1(T = (1.74 ± 0.20 × 10−12 exp[(590 ± 40/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 where the uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the NO3 + (CHO2 (k3 and NO3 + CH3COCHO (k4 reactions were measured using a relative rate technique to be k3(296 K = (4.0 ± 1.0 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k4(296 K = (5.1 ± 2.1 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. k3(T was also measured using an absolute rate coefficient method under pseudo-first-order conditions at 296 and 353 K to be (4.2 ± 0.8 × 10−16 and (7.9 ± 3.6 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively, in agreement with the relative rate result obtained at room temperature. The atmospheric implications of the OH and NO3 reaction rate coefficients measured in this work are discussed.

  5. Wormhole solutions in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs system: Solution of first-order equations for G=SU(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degen, F.

    1987-07-01

    For an SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs model they study the extreme wormhole solutions. They use an iterative method based on expansion in the radial distance N from the boundary of the hole. Here they present the nontrivial solutions of the first-order equations. They give useful information about existing extremal wormholes. Especially they note that although the zero-order solution which they use is abelian, this is not the case for all solutions of first-order equations. The method employed in solving these equations is to expand all first-order fields in the appropriate generalized harmonics. They find a nonabelian solution if the value of the Higgs scalar at the horizon is equal to the Planck mass and if the magnetic charge b and the electric charge e of the hole satisfy b = 1/e.

  6. Inflation and pseudo-Goldstone Higgs boson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Sannino, Francesco; Tenkanen, Tommi

    2017-01-01

    We consider inflation within a model framework where the Higgs boson arises as a pseudo-Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of a global symmetry at a scale significantly larger than the electroweak one. We show that in such a model the scalar self-couplings can be parametrically suppressed...... field. Our model therefore suggests that inflation and low energy particle phenomenology may be more entwined than assumed so far....

  7. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. C. L.; Jain, S. R.

    2013-02-01

    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available.

  8. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Shashi C. L.; Jain, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available.

  9. Third Law of Thermodynamics and The Shape of the Phase Diagram for Systems With a First-Order Quantum Phase Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, T R; Belitz, D

    2015-07-10

    The third law of thermodynamics constrains the phase diagram of systems with a first-order quantum phase transition. For a zero conjugate field, the coexistence curve has an infinite slope at T=0. If a tricritical point exists at T>0, then the associated tricritical wings are perpendicular to the T=0 plane, but not to the zero-field plane. These results are based on the third law and basic thermodynamics only, and are completely general. As an explicit example we consider the ferromagnetic quantum phase transition in clean metals, where a first-order quantum phase transition is commonly observed.

  10. A study of the partitioning of the first-order reduced density matrix according to the theory of atoms in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Bochicchio, Roberto C.

    2005-10-01

    This work describes a simple spatial decomposition of the first-order reduced density matrix corresponding to an N-electron system into first-order density matrices, each of them associated to an atomic domain defined in the theory of atoms in molecules. A study of the representability of the density matrices arisen from this decomposition is reported and analyzed. An appropriate treatment of the eigenvectors of the matrices defined over atomic domains or over unions of these domains allows one to describe satisfactorily molecular properties and chemical bondings within a determined molecule and among its fragments. Numerical determinations, performed in selected molecules, confirm the reliability of our proposal.

  11. Wavefield Extrapolation in Pseudo-depth Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2011-12-11

    Wave-equation based seismic migration and inversion tools are widely used by the energy industry to explore hydrocarbon and mineral resources. By design, most of these techniques simulate wave propagation in a space domain with the vertical axis being depth measured from the surface. Vertical depth is popular because it is a straightforward mapping of the subsurface space. It is, however, not computationally cost-effective because the wavelength changes with local elastic wave velocity, which in general increases with depth in the Earth. As a result, the sampling per wavelength also increases with depth. To avoid spatial aliasing in deep fast media, the seismic wave is oversampled in shallow slow media and therefore increase the total computation cost. This issue is effectively tackled by using the vertical time axis instead of vertical depth. This is because in a vertical time representation, the "wavelength" is essentially time period for vertical rays. This thesis extends the vertical time axis to the pseudo-depth axis, which features distance unit while preserving the properties of the vertical time representation. To explore the potentials of doing wave-equation based imaging in the pseudo-depth domain, a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is derived to describe acoustic wave in this new domain. This new PDE is inherently anisotropic because the use of a constant vertical velocity to convert between depth and vertical time. Such anisotropy results in lower reflection coefficients compared with conventional space domain modeling results. This feature is helpful to suppress the low wavenumber artifacts in reverse-time migration images, which are caused by the widely used cross-correlation imaging condition. This thesis illustrates modeling acoustic waves in both conventional space domain and pseudo-depth domain. The numerical tool used to model acoustic waves is built based on the lowrank approximation of Fourier integral operators. To investigate the potential

  12. The role of simple and complex working memory strategies in the development of first-order false belief reasoning : A computational model of transfer of skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Burcu; Wierda, S.; Taatgen, Niels; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    In their fourth year, most children start to understand that someone else might have a false belief, which is different from the reality that the children know. The most studied experimental task to test this development is called the first-order false belief task. What kind of prior cognitive

  13. Nonenzymatic browning reaction of essential amino acids: effect of pH on caramelization and Maillard reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajandouz, E H; Puigserver, A

    1999-05-01

    The interaction between glucose and essential amino acids at 100 degrees C at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 12.0 was investigated by monitoring the disappearance of glucose and amino acids as well as the appearance of brown color. Lysine was the most strongly destroyed amino acid, followed by threonine which induced very little additional browning as compared with that undergone by glucose. Around neutrality, the nonenzymatic browning followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics after a lag time, while the glucose and amino acid losses did not follow first-order kinetics at any of the pH values tested. Glucose was more strongly destroyed than all of the essential amino acids, the losses of which are really small at pH values lower than 9.0. However, glucose was less susceptible to thermal degradation in the presence of amino acids, especially at pH 8.0 with threonine and at pH 10.0 with lysine. The contribution of the caramelization reaction to the overall nonenzymatic browning above neutrality should lead to an overestimation of the Maillard reaction in foods.

  14. Prognostic Value of Adaptive Textural Features–The Effect of Standardizing Nuclear First-Order Gray Level Statistics and Mixing Information from Nuclei Having Different Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nuclear texture analysis is a useful method to obtain quantitative information for use in prognosis of cancer. The first-order gray level statistics of a digitized light microscopic nuclear image may be influenced by variations in the image input conditions. Therefore, we have previously standardized the nuclear gray level mean value and standard deviation. However, there is a clear relation between nuclear DNA content, area, first-order statistics, and texture. For nuclei with approximately the same DNA content, the mean gray level increases with an increasing nuclear area. The aims of the present methodical work were to study: (1 whether the prognostic value of adaptive textural features varies with nuclear area, and (2 the effect of standardizing nuclear first-order statistics. Methods: Nuclei from 134 cases of ovarian cancer were grouped into intervals according to nuclear area. Adaptive features were extracted from two different image sets, i.e., standardized and non-standardized nuclear images. Results: The prognostic value of adaptive textural features varied strongly with nuclear area. A standardization of the first-order statistics significantly reduced this prognostic information. Several single features discriminated the two classes of cancer with a correct classification rate of 70%. Conclusion: Nuclei having an area between 2000–4999 pixels contained most of the class distance information between the good and poor prognosis classes of cancer. By considering the relation between nuclear area and texture, we avoided a loss of information caused by standardizing the first-order statistics and mixing data from cells having different nuclear area.

  15. Reactor model development: The removal performance of ferrous-catalysed photo-oxidation process by examining the reaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.H. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Centre for Environmental Technology and Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chu, W., E-mail: cewchu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Centre for Environmental Technology and Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-15

    The removal performance of the ferrous catalysed photo-oxidation process was investigated through the examination of major process parameters including pH levels and dosages of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). A common used herbicide, alachlor, was used as a target compound in the degradation process. In the study, alachlor was found to be effectively degraded by hydroxyl radicals (HO{center_dot}) which were generated by UV/Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the oxidation process. It was interesting to find that the pattern of reaction kinetics of alachlor varied depending on the initial concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. An optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage was determined. This was practically useful because the overdose of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} would cause the process retardation. The conventional pseudo-first-order kinetics and two-stage first-order kinetics were observed at lower and higher Fe{sup 2+} concentrations, respectively. Models were proposed and used to stimulate the kinetic process. Thus, design charts were established for determining the reaction time (i.e., reactor sizing) required for predetermined removal performance of alachlor under different concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+}.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of the reaction between CF3 and NO2 at 298 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, P.; Jodkowski, J.T.; Ratajczak, E.

    1998-01-01

    ) was studied under pseudo-first-order conditions and the value of k(2a) = (1.53 +/- 0.10) X 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was found to be independent of bath gas pressure in the range 4-22 mbar. Based on the characteristic absorption spectra of the products, the branching ratio of reaction (2a) was found......The title reaction has been studied by pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy. The kinetics of CF3 were analysed taking into account the two competing reactions CF3 + CF3 M --> C2F6 + M (1) and CF3 + NO2 --> CF2O + FNO (2a). Based on studies of the yield...... and kinetics of CF3 we determined values of the absorption cross section, sigma(CF3) = (1.96 +/- 0.20) X 10(-17) cm(2) molecule(-1) at 1263.567 cm(-1) and the bimolecular rate constant, k(1) = (1.04 +/- 0.12) X 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a bath gas pressure of 20 mbar at 298 K. Reaction (2a...

  17. Reactions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with chlorine and chlorine dioxide in coal tar lined pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.; Maier, M.; Sacher, F.; Maier, D. [University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler Bunte Institut

    1997-12-31

    In the presence of disinfectants, PAH are remobilised from the coal tar lining of water distribution mains. Reactions of the PAH with chlorine and chlorine dioxide can lead to chlorinated PAH that might show higher mutagenic effects that the parent PAH. Detection limits in the lower nanogram-per-litre level for the determination of PAH and chlorinated PAH were achieved by using solid phase micro extraction and a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric device. Thus, the reactions of four PAH (anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene) with chlorine and chlorine dioxide under conditions and at concentrations of common practice in the drinking water distribution system could be investigated. In batch experiments with demineralised and drinking water at pH 7, the concentrations of fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene remained constant, whereas anthracene reacted quantitatively with both disinfectants. The reaction of anthracene followed by pseudo-first order kinetics. In these reactions no chlorinated products could be detected, only monohydroxyanthracene and anthraquinone were identified. The toxic effect of a set of chlorinated and oxidised PAH was also examined.

  18. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.L. [RIBFG, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Jain, S.R. [NPD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Bladder rupture causing pseudo acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Andrea Avena Smeili

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder rupture is a rare condition associated with significant morbidityand mortality. It is classified into traumatic, nontraumatic or idiopathic andspontaneous. The nonspecific initial clinical presentation is followed bydiscomfort in the lower abdomen, oliguria, hematuria and ascitis. Laboratoryabnormalities simulate the picture of acute renal failure and occurs by amechanism called auto reverse dialysis, with absorption of excreta throughthe peritoneal membrane. The authors describe a case of bladder rupturein morphologically and functionally normal urinary bladder associated withalcohol intake in young healthy man, manifested by abdominal discomfort,pseudo renal failure and massive ascitis. The diagnosis was made by anabdominal multidetector computed tomography confirmed by the finding of7 cm laceration at laparotomy.

  20. Pseudo ventricular tachycardia: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riaz, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Dramatic artifacts of pseudo flutter have been reported in the past secondary to various factors including tremor (Handwerker and Raptopoulos in N Engl J Med 356:503, 2007) and dialysis machines (Kostis et al. in J Electrocardiol 40(4):316-318, 2007). METHODS: We present this unusual case where the artifact, produced by tremor, was so pronounced to be misdiagnosed and treated as ventricular tachycardia. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of correlating ECG findings with history and clinical examination and of using 12 lead ECGs for rhythm interpretation especially to confirm consistence of arrhythmias in all leads.

  1. Pseudo-communication vs Quasi-communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Константиновна Черничкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of such specific forms of human interaction as quasi- and pseudo-communication. The authors specify the terms which sometimes are used interchangeably. The aim of the conducted research is to find out and demonstrate existing differences and similarities of these communicative phenomena on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis of the research material in the Russian and English languages. The authors describe communicative features of these phenomena and consider the reasons for such forms of communication and their increased use at present. The research material is represented fiction extracts, film scripts, jokes, print media, a collection of oral speech records both in Russian and English. The authors make use of the following research methods: definitional analysis (to define the terminology of the research, the method of linguistic observation and introspection (to select the communicative situations, the descriptive-analytical method and the method of comparative analysis (to identify similarities and differences of the target phenomena, and the conversational analysis method (to view productivity and effectiveness of a dialogue, etc. The classification of possible forms of their existence in different discourses is suggested. The authors assume that both pseudo- and quasi-communication are characterized as fictitious forms of human interaction with some noticeable violation of the basic communicative model. Pseudo-communication suffers from the discrepancy of the meaning of a coded and decoded message. The authors put forward the main parameters of scientific classification of it as follows: adequate understanding, intentionality, and the stage of communicative action where the failure takes place. At the same time they stress the necessity to distinguish the cases of pseudo talks from phatic and indirect communication. Quasi-communcation is marked by the lack of a real partner and hence

  2. Kinetic study on aminolysis of 4-pyridyl benzoate and o-4-pyridyl thionobenzoate in acetonitrile: Factors influencing reactivity and reaction mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Ik Hwan; Kim, Min Young [Dept. of Chemistry, and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae In [Dept. of Chemistry, and Plant Resources Research Institute, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A kinetic study on nucleophilic substitution reactions of 4-pyridyl benzoate (2a) and O-4-pyridyl thionobenzoate (2b) with a series of cyclic secondary amines in acetonitrile at 25.0°C is reported. Plots of pseudo-first-order rate constant (k{sub obsd}) vs. [amine] are linear and pass through the origin for the reactions of 2a but curve upward for those of 2b. The upward curvature observed for the reactions of 2b is typical for reactions that proceed through a stepwise mechanism with a zwitterionic intermediate T{sup ±}, which decomposes to the products via uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes competitively. The reaction of 2a has been suggested to proceed through a stepwise mechanism with T±, in which expulsion of the leaving group occurs in the rate-determining step on the basis of a linear Broensted-type plot with β{sub nuc} = 0.77. The catalyzed reaction of 2b from T{sup ±} has been proposed to proceed through a concerted mechanism with a six-membered cyclic transition state rather than via a stepwise pathway with an anionic intermediate T{sup −}. Factors influencing reactivity and reaction mechanism are discussed in detail.

  3. Pion Interferometry from a Relativistic Fluid with a First Order Phase Transition in CERN-SPS 158 GeV/A Pb+Pb Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, K; Nakamura, H; Nonaka, C

    2000-01-01

    We investigate pion source sizes through the Yano-Koonin-Podgoretski\\u{\\i} (YKP) parametrization for the Hanbury-Brown Twiss (HBT) effect in the CERN-SPS 158 GeV/A central collisions. We calculate two-particle correlation functions numerically based on a (3+1)-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics with a first order phase transition and analyze the pair momentum dependence of the HBT radii extracted from the YKP parametrization in detail. We find that even in the case of a first order phase transition, expansion and the surface dominant freeze-out make the source in the hydrodynamical model opaque significantly. Consequently, the interpretation of the temporal radius parameter as the time duration becomes unavailable for the hydrodynamical model.

  4. Analytical and numerical analysis of third-order geometric and first-order chromatic aberrations in a bi-potential electrostatic lens

    CERN Document Server

    Xi Men Jiye

    2000-01-01

    Glaser and Robl (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 2 (1951) 444) first proposed a theoretical model for a bi-potential electrostatic lens, whose axial potential distribution satisfies the law of electrostatics and whose paraxial trajectory equation is soluble. In this paper, the Gaussian optical property in the bi-potential electrostatic lens has been thoroughly studied. Meanwhile, based on electron optical canonical aberration theory, analytical formulas of third-order geometrical and first-order chromatic aberration coefficients have first been derived and their computational results obtained for this bi-potential electrostatic lens. It is to be emphasized that this theoretical study can be used to estimate third-order geometric and first-order chromatic aberrations and to provide a theoretical criterion for numerical computation in a rotationally symmetric electrostatic immersion lens.

  5. The propagation properties of the first-order and the second-order Airy vortex beams through strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Guan, Jian; Deng, Fu; Deng, Dongmei; Huang, Jiawei

    2016-12-01

    By using the transfer matrix method, the propagation of the first-order and the second-order Airy vortex (AiV) beams through strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium is exhibited. Based on the Huygens diffraction integral formula, we derive the analytical expressions of the first-order and the second-order AiV beams propagate through the paraxial ABCD system and present corresponding characteristic parameters such as propagation path, intensity, phase distributions, beam centers, the Poynting vector and angular momentum (AM) density flow. The propagation trajectory is periodical and looks like a sine wave. The AiV beam focuses two times in one period. The phase, energy flow and AM density flow distribution show a reversal when the beam propagates near the focusing point. Additionally, as the order increased, the vortex of the second-order AiV beam is stronger.

  6. Discharge flow kinetic study of NO/sub 3/ reactions with free radicals: the reaction of NO/sub 3/ with Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Poulet, G.

    1987-10-22

    The discharge flow technique was used to perform a direct measurement of the rate constant for the reaction NO/sub 3/ + Cl ..-->.. ClO + NO/sub 2/ (1) under pseudo-first-order conditions with NO/sub 3/ in excess. NO/sub 3/ was produced via the reaction F + HNO/sub 3/ ..-->.. HF + NO/sub 3/ (2) for which the rate constant was also determined: k/sub 2/ = (2.7 +/- 0.5) x 10/sup -11/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ at 298 K. Absolute titration of NO/sub 3/ was done using NO and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene as the titrants. The titration experiments with NO were simulated, and the analysis of potential errors resulting from the secondary chemistry indicated that NO is a precise titrant of NO/sub 3/ in discharge flow studies. In the kinetic investigation of reaction 1, the obtained value of k/sub 1/ at 298 K was k/sub 1/ = (2.6 +/- 0.5) x 10/sup -11/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/.

  7. On functional bases of the first-order differential invariants for non-conjugate subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Fedorchuk

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is established which functional bases of the first-order differential invariants of the splitting and non-splitting subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$ are invariant under the subgroups of the extended Galilei group $widetilde G(1,3 subset P(1,4$. The obtained sets of functional bases are classified according to dimensions.

  8. Novel Exponentially Fitted Two-Derivative Runge-Kutta Methods with Equation-Dependent Coefficients for First-Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of exponentially fitted two-derivative Runge-Kutta (EFTDRK methods for the numerical solution of first-order differential equations is investigated. The revised EFTDRK methods proposed, with equation-dependent coefficients, take into consideration the errors produced in the internal stages to the update. The local truncation errors and stability of the new methods are analyzed. The numerical results are reported to show the accuracy of the new methods.

  9. Superdirective narrowband first-order probe versus wideband higher-order probe for spherical near-field antenna measurements at P-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the wideband 400-1200 MHz higher-order probe and the narrowband 431 MHz first-order probe, in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for spherical near-field antenna measurements at P-band, is presented. The comparison is based on the experimental data and focused...... on pattern shape and other electrical characteristics, work efforts related to physical handling, probe calibrations, and post processing....

  10. Scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis: Frequency, pathogenesis and course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, K.; Teifke, A.; Benning, R.; Dahm, M.; Thelen, R.; Schild, H.

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-three scaphoid pseudo-arthroses were found amongst 1.104 scaphoid examinations. Sixtyseven were present at the first examination and 16 pseudo-arthroses developed amongst 252 scaphoid fractures. Men were affected predominantly, particularly in the 20 to 40-year old group. Fractures in the proximal third of the scaphoid and vertical oblique fractures had a particular tendency to pseudo-arthrosis formation. The operative treatment of choice is a Matti-Russe bone graft. Only one patient in seven with definite scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed firm fusion. (orig.).

  11. Numerical analysis of first-order acousto-optic Bragg diffraction of profiled optical beams using open-loop transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Almehmadi, Fares S.

    2014-03-01

    In standard acousto-optic Bragg analysis, the incident light and sound beams are assumed to be uniform plane waves (with constant profiles) leading to the results based on standard weak interaction theory. As a follow-up to earlier work dealing with nonuniform incident optical beams, we revisit the problem of Bragg diffraction under nonuniform profiles, and include Gaussian, third-order Hermite-Gaussian, and zeroth-order Bessel profiles in our investigation, along with a few others. The first-order diffracted beam is examined (using a transfer function formalism based on angular spectra) under several parametric limits [such as the Klein-Cook parameter Q, the effective profile width, and the optical phase-shift parameter (α) in the sound cell]. Wherever feasible, the numerical results are compared with analytic theory. The scattered first-order profile output versus the optical phase-shift appears to maintain behavior similar to the known first-order characteristics (sin2 in intensity) encountered for the uniform incident beam case. It is observed, however, that such conformity exists seemingly only at relatively small values of Q (typically about 20 to 50). At higher Qs, on the other hand (where one would otherwise expect behavior closer to standard Bragg theory based on large Qs), it is found that the first-order intensity deviates substantially from the expected sin2- (or related) pattern. This deviation actually becomes more severe at even higher Qs. Additionally, the output profiles at higher Qs are also found to be distorted relative to the incident profiles. These results, though anomalous, are nevertheless generally compatible with earlier studies. Based on the transfer function theory, it is also known that for very large optical phase shifts (i.e., when α goes to infinity), the scattered first-order output for a Gaussian profile undergoes an axial (spatial) shift past the output plane of the sound cell. This predicted result is corroborated in our

  12. Analysis of RDX-TAGzT pseudo-propellant combustion with detailed chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhakarna, Neeraj; Thynell, Stefan T.; Chowdhury, Arindrajit; Lin, Ping

    2011-12-01

    A detailed model of steady-state combustion of a pseudo-propellant containing cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT) is presented. The physicochemical processes occurring within the foam layer, comprised of a liquid and gas bubbles, and a gas-phase region above the burning surface are considered. The chemical kinetics is represented by a global thermal decomposition mechanism within the liquid by considering 18 species and eight chemical reactions. The reactions governing decomposition of TAGzT were deduced from separate confined rapid thermolysis experiments using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Within the gas bubbles and gas-phase region, a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism was used by considering up to 93 species and 504 reactions. The pseudo-propellant burn rate was found to be highly sensitive to the global decomposition reactions of TAGzT. The predicted results of burn rate agree well with experimental burn-rate data. The increase in burn rate by inclusion of TAGzT is due in part from exothermic decomposition of the azotetrazolate within the foam layer, and from fast gas-phase reactions between triaminoguanidine decomposition products, such as hydrazine, and oxidiser products from the nitramine decomposition.

  13. Kinetic Study on Aminolysis of O-2-Pyridyl Thionobenzoate in Acetonitrile: Effect of Changing Electrophilic Center from C=O to C=S on Reactivity and Reaction Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Young; Um, Ik-Hwan [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Pseudo-first-order rate constants (k{sub obsd}) for nucleophilic substitution reaction of O-2-pyridyl thionobenzoate (7) with a series of secondary amines in MeCN at 25.0 ± 0.1 .deg. C have been measured spectrophotometrically. The plots of k{sub obsd} vs. [amine] curve upward, indicating that the reaction proceeds through a stepwise mechanism with a zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate (T{sup ±}), which decomposes to the products through uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes. It has been proposed that the uncatalyzed reaction proceeds through a six-membered cyclic transition state (TS), in which expulsion of the leaving group occurs in the rate-determining step. The catalyzed reaction from T{sup ±} proceeds through a concerted mechanism with a six-membered cyclic TS rather than via a stepwise pathway with an anionic intermediate T{sup -}. This is in contrast to the report that the corresponding reaction of 2-pyridyl benzoate (6, a C=O analogue of 7) proceeds through a forced concerted mechanism. Comparison of the second-order rate constants for the uncatalyzed reaction of 7 with those reported previously for the corresponding reaction of 6 has revealed that 7 is much more reactive than 6. Factors that affect the reactivity and reaction mechanism are discussed in detail.

  14. Pseudo-Observables in Higgs decays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In view of future high-statistics data, it is useful to define a framework for precise determinations of the properties of the Higgs particle valid in generic extensions of the Standard Model. For Higgs decays, this goal can be achieved with a limited set of "Pseudo-Observables" (PO). The PO provides a systematic generalization of the "kappa-framework" so far adopted by the LHC experiments and provide a useful bridge between data and theory predictions. I discuss how the PO are defined, with particular attention to the h->4f decays, and how they can be used to test various dynamical and symmetry hypotheses about the Higgs sector. The relation between PO and EFT couplings is also discussed.

  15. Flights in a pseudo-chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, J H; Vivaldi, F

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problem of transport in a one-parameter family of piecewise rotations of the torus, for rotation number approaching 1∕4. This is a zero-entropy system which in this limit exhibits a divided phase space, with island chains immersed in a "pseudo-chaotic" region. We identify a novel mechanism for long-range transport, namely the adiabatic destruction of accelerator-mode islands. This process originates from the approximate translational invariance of the phase space and leads to long flights of linear motion, for a significant measure of initial conditions. We show that the asymptotic probability distribution of the flight lengths is determined by the geometric properties of a partition of the accelerator-mode island associated with the flight. We establish the existence of flights travelling distances of order O(1) in phase space. We provide evidence for the existence of a scattering process that connects flights travelling in opposite directions.

  16. Pseudo-spin band in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 172}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkova, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784, Sofia (Bulgaria); Lieder, R.M.; Gast, W.; Podsvirova, E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Mihailescu, L. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Bazzacco, D.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Alvarez, C. Rossi; Ur, C.; Martinez, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Angelis, G. de; Axiotis, M.; Napoli, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-35020, Legnaro (Italy); Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, PL-00-681, Warszawa (Poland); Frauendorf, S. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2003-09-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 172}Lu have been populated in a {sup 170}Er({sup 7}Li,5n) reaction and the emitted {gamma}-radiation was detected with the GASP array. Two sequences of a new identical band have been observed with the transition energies in the favoured and unfavoured sequences being identical within {approx}3 keV at low spins and {approx}1 keV at high spins over the whole observed spin range. An interpretation as a pseudo-spin singlet band of {pi}1/2{sup -} [541] x {nu}1/2{sup -} [420] configuration is proposed. It represents the best example of a pseudo-spin singlet band in normal deformed nuclei known until now. (orig.)

  17. Pseudo-bimolecular [2+2] cycloaddition studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Schalk, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The first study of pseudo-bimolecular cycloaddition reaction dynamics in the gas phase is presented. We used femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to study the [2+2] photocycloaddition in the model system pseudo-gem-divinyl[2.2]paracyclophane. From X-ray crystal diffraction...... measurements we found that the ground-state molecule can exist in two conformers; a reactive one in which the vinyl groups are immediately situated for [2+2] cycloaddition and a nonreactive conformer in which they point in opposite directions. From the measured S(1) lifetimes we assigned a clear relation...... between the conformation and the excited-state reactivity; the reactive conformer has a lifetime of 13 ps, populating the ground state through a conical intersection leading to [2+2] cycloaddition, whereas the nonreactive conformer has a lifetime of 400 ps. Ab initio calculations were performed to locate...

  18. Synthesis of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: kojibiose-type pseudo-disaccharides and a related pseudotrisaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, S; Ashiura, M; Uchida, C

    1998-02-01

    Two kojibiose-type pseudo-disaccharides and a trisaccharide, containing a 5-amino-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetrol derivative or valienamine, linked by way of nitrogen bridges to the sugar residues, have been designed and synthesized as processing alpha-glucosidase I inhibitors. Synthesis of the pseudo-disaccharides was carried out starting from the coupling products of the sugar isothiocyanates and an aminocyclitol, respectively, by cyclization with mercury(II) oxide to the cyclic isoureas and subsequent deprotection. Pseudokojibiose was prepared in a poor yield by reaction of a protected valienamine and a sugar epoxide, followed by deprotection. Although the pseudooligosaccharides are all strong inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase (baker's yeast), they did not have any inhibitory potency against either sucrase isomaltase (rat intestine) or processing alpha-glucosidase (rat liver microsomes).

  19. Factors influencing the mechanism of surfactant catalyzed reaction of vitamin C-ferric chloride hexahydrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Kauser, Robina; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-09-01

    The kinetics of vitamin C by ferric chloride hexahydrate has been investigated in the aqueous ethanol solution of basic surfactant viz. octadecylamine (ODA) under pseudo-first order conditions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant was determined by surface tension measurement. The effect of pH (2.5-4.5) and temperature (15-35°C) in the presence and absence of surfactant were investigated. Activation parameters, Δ E a, Δ H #, Δ S #, Δ G ≠, for the reaction were calculated by using Arrhenius and Eyring plot. Surface excess concentration (Γmax), minimum area per surfactant molecule ( A min), average area occupied by each molecule of surfactant ( a), surface pressure at the CMC (Πmax), Gibb's energy of micellization (Δ G M°), Gibb's energy of adsorption (Δ G ad°), were calculated. It was found that the reaction in the presence of surfactant showed faster oxidation rate than the aqueous ethanol solution. Reaction mechanism has been deduced in the presence and absence of surfactant.

  20. Reaction pathway and rate-determining step of the Schmidt rearrangement/fragmentation: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Ryo; Tokugawa, Takehiro; Yamamoto, Yutaro; Yamataka, Hiroshi

    2012-04-20

    The Schmidt rearrangement of substituted 3-phenyl-2-butanone with trimethylsilyl azide in 90% (v/v) aqueous TFA gave two types of product, fragmentation and rearrangement, the ratio of which depends on the substituent: more fragmentation for a more electron-donating substituent. Rate measurements by azotometry indicated the presence of an induction period, and the pseudo-first-order rate constants showed saturation kinetics with respect to the azide concentration. It was indicated that the reaction proceeds through pre-equilibrium in the formation of iminodiazonium (ID) ion and that the N(2) liberation from the ID ion is rate-determining. Under high azide concentration conditions, where the effective reactant is the ID ion, the reaction gave a linear Hammett plot with a ρ value of -0.50. The observed substituent effects on the rate and the product selectivity imply that path bifurcation on the way from the rate-determining TS to the product states occurs, as suggested by previous molecular dynamics simulations, in a similar manner to the analogous Beckmann rearrangement/fragmentation reactions. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Reaction of a hydrated electron with gentamycin and collagen -a pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrucha, K. [Technical Univ., Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry; Gora, L. [Worcester Poltechnic Inst., MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Doillon, C.J. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Surgery]|[Saint-Francois d`Assise Hospital, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    The reactions of a hydrated electron (e{sub aq}{sup -}) with aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamycin and collagen in aqueous medium at different pH have been investigated employing a pulse radiolysis technique. The pseudo-first order equation of reaction kinetics was used to give an accurate description of the decay of e{sub aq}{sup -} in gentamycin solutions. The rate constant of the e{sub aq}{sup -}decay in collagen solutions was high and reached 3.2 x 10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The rate constants for the reaction of the e{sub aq}{sup -}with gentamycin were found to be influenced by pH, decreasing with the deprotonation of the -NH{sub 3} groups, while for pH > pK{sub a} which for gentamycin is equal to 7.8, the rate constant was unchanged. These observations suggest that when the amino groups are protonated, reductive deamination occurs, but for unprotonated non-reactive amino groups, a radical anion is formed on the glycoside moiety. (Author).

  2. Numerical study of DNA denaturation with self-avoidance: pseudo-critical temperatures and finite size behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Barbara; Yeramian, Edouard

    2016-04-01

    We perform an extensive numerical study of the disordered Poland-Scheraga (PS) model for DNA denaturation in which self-avoidance is completely taken into account. To complement to our previous work, we focus here on the finite size scaling in terms of pseudo-critical temperatures. Notably, we find that the mean value and the fluctuations of the pseudo-T c scale with the same exponent, the correlation length exponent {ν\\text{r}} (for which we provide the refined evaluation {ν\\text{r}}=2.9+/- 0.4 ). This result (coherent with the typical picture that describes random ferromagnets when disorder is relevant) is at variance with the numerical results reported in the literature for the PS model with self-avoidance, leading to an alternative scenario with a pseudo-first-order transition. We moreover introduce a crossover chain length N *, which we evaluate, appropriate for characterizing the approach to the asymptotic regime in this model. Essentially, below N *, the behaviour of the model in our study could also agree with such an alternative scenario. Based on an approximate prediction of the dependence of N * on the parameters of the model, we show that following the choice of such parameters it would not be possible to reach the asymptotic regime in practice. In such a context it becomes then possible to reconcile the apparently contradictory numerical studies.

  3. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  4. Solutions of selected pseudo loop equations in water distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrated the use of Microsoft Excel Solver (a computer package) in solving selected pseudo loop equations in pipe network analysis problems. Two pipe networks with pumps and overhead tanks were used to demonstrate the use of Microsoft Excel Solver in solving pseudo loops (open loops; networks with ...

  5. Five-Year-Olds' Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback "Wrong," they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children's failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy.

  6. Five-Year-Olds’ Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback “Wrong,” they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children’s failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy. PMID:28293206

  7. Fisher information matrix for nonlinear mixed effects multiple response models: evaluation of the appropriateness of the first order linearization using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, Caroline; Retout, Sylvie; Mentré, France

    2009-06-30

    We focus on the Fisher information matrix used for design evaluation and optimization in nonlinear mixed effects multiple response models. We evaluate the appropriateness of its expression computed by linearization as proposed for a single response model. Using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) example, we first compare the computation of the Fisher information matrix with approximation to one derived from the observed matrix on a large simulation using the stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm (SAEM). The expression of the Fisher information matrix for multiple responses is also evaluated by comparison with the empirical information obtained through a replicated simulation study using the first-order linearization estimation methods implemented in the NONMEM software (first-order (FO), first-order conditional estimate (FOCE)) and the SAEM algorithm in the MONOLIX software. The predicted errors given by the approximated information matrix are close to those given by the information matrix obtained without linearization using SAEM and to the empirical ones obtained with FOCE and SAEM. The simulation study also illustrates the accuracy of both FOCE and SAEM estimation algorithms when jointly modelling multiple responses and the major limitations of the FO method. This study highlights the appropriateness of the approximated Fisher information matrix for multiple responses, which is implemented in PFIM 3.0, an extension of the R function PFIM dedicated to design evaluation and optimization. It also emphasizes the use of this computing tool for designing population multiple response studies, as for instance in PKPD studies or in PK studies including the modelling of the PK of a drug and its active metabolite. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. On the reduction of the multidimensional stationary Schroedinger equation to a first-order equation and its relation to the pseudoanalytic function theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Vladislav V [Departmento de Telecomunicaciones, SEPI, Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CP 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-01-28

    Given a particular solution of a one-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation this equation of second order can be reduced to a first-order linear ordinary differential equation. This is done with the aid of an auxiliary Riccati differential equation. In the present work we show that the same fact is true in a multidimensional situation also. For simplicity we consider the case of two or three independent variables. One particular solution of the stationary Schroedinger equation allows us to reduce this second-order equation to a linear first-order quaternionic differential equation. As in the one-dimensional case this is done with the aid of an auxiliary quaternionic Riccati equation. The resulting first-order quaternionic equation is equivalent to the static Maxwell system and is closely related to the Dirac equation. In the case of two independent variables it is the well-known Vekua equation from theory of pseudoanalytic (or generalized analytic) functions. Nevertheless, we show that even in this case it is very useful to consider not only complex valued functions, solutions of the Vekua equation, but complete quaternionic functions. In this way the first-order quaternionic equation represents two separate Vekua equations, one of which gives us solutions of the Schroedinger equation and the other one can be considered as an auxiliary equation of a simpler structure. Moreover for the auxiliary equation we always have the corresponding Bers generating pair (F, G), the base of the Bers theory of pseudoanalytic functions, and what is very important, the Bers derivatives of solutions of the auxiliary equation give us solutions of the main Vekua equation and as a consequence of the Schroedinger equation. Based on this fact we obtain an analogue of the Cauchy integral theorem for solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation. Other results from theory of pseudoanalytic functions can be written for solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Moreover, for an ample

  9. Source term boundary adaptive estimation in a first-order 1D hyperbolic PDE: Application to a one loop solar collector through

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2016-08-04

    In this paper, boundary adaptive estimation of solar radiation in a solar collector plant is investigated. The solar collector is described by a 1D first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation where the solar radiation models the source term and only boundary measurements are available. Using boundary injection, the estimator is developed in the Lyapunov approach and consists of a combination of a state observer and a parameter adaptation law which guarantee the asymptotic convergence of the state and parameter estimation errors. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed identifier.

  10. Optimal stability for a first order coefficient in a non-self-adjoint wave equation from Dirichlet-to-Neumann map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Mourad; Ben Aïcha, Ibtissem

    2017-10-01

    This paper is focused on the study of an inverse problem for a non-self-adjoint hyperbolic equation. More precisely, we attempt to stably recover a first order coefficient appearing in a wave equation from the knowledge of Neumann boundary data. We show in dimension n greater than two, a stability estimate of Hölder type for the inverse problem under consideration. The proof involves the reduction to an auxiliary inverse problem for an electro-magnetic wave equation and the use of an appropriate Carleman estimate.

  11. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics: Viscous heat-conducting fluids and elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell-Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic-parabolic Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory is established for the first time via a formal asymptotic analysis in the stiff relaxation limit. From a numerical point of view, the governing partial differential equations are very challenging, since they form a large nonlinear hyperbolic PDE system that includes stiff source terms and non-conservative products. We apply the successful family of one-step ADER-WENO finite volume (FV) and ADER discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element schemes to the HPR model in the stiff

  12. Faster rates with less catalyst in template-directed reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Baird, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently shown that the polycytidylic acid-directed polymerization of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) is amenable to kinetic study and that rate determinations as a function of 2-MeImpG concentration can reveal much mechanistic detail (Kanavarioti et al. 1993). Here we report kinetic data which show that, once the reaction has been initiated by the formation of dimers, the elongation of dimers to form longer oligomers is accelerated by decreasing polycytidylate (poly(C)) concentration from 0.05 to 0.002 M. This result is consistent with the previously proposed mechanism. The increase in the observed pseudo-first order rate constant for formation of the trimer, k3', and the corresponding constant for formation of oligomers longer than the trimer, ki' (ki' is independent of oligomer length for i > or = 4), with decreasing template concentration for a given monomer concentration is attributed to an increase in template occupancy as template concentration is reduced.

  13. Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Quatember, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.

  14. PseudoBase++: an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufer, Michela; Licon, Abel; Araiza, Roberto; Mireles, David; van Batenburg, F H D; Gultyaev, Alexander P; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoknots have been recognized to be an important type of RNA secondary structures responsible for many biological functions. PseudoBase, a widely used database of pseudoknot secondary structures developed at Leiden University, contains over 250 records of pseudoknots obtained in the past 25 years through crystallography, NMR, mutational experiments and sequence comparisons. To promptly address the growing analysis requests of the researchers on RNA structures and bring together information from multiple sources across the Internet to a single platform, we designed and implemented PseudoBase++, an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots. PseudoBase++ (http://pseudobaseplusplus.utep.edu) maps the PseudoBase dataset into a searchable relational database including additional functionalities such as pseudoknot type. PseudoBase++ links each pseudoknot in PseudoBase to the GenBank record of the corresponding nucleotide sequence and allows scientists to automatically visualize RNA secondary structures with PseudoViewer. It also includes the capabilities of fine-grained reference searching and collecting new pseudoknot information.

  15. Explicit formulas for reaction probability in reaction-diffusion experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Feres, Renato; Wallace, Matthew; Stern, Ari; Yablonsky, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A computational procedure is developed for determining the conversion probability for reaction-diffusion systems in which a first-order catalytic reaction is performed over active particles. We apply this general method to systems on metric graphs, which may be viewed as 1-dimensional approximations of 3-dimensional systems, and obtain explicit formulas for conversion. We then study numerically a class of 3-dimensional systems and test how accurately they are described by model formulas obtai...

  16. La tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Barni, Rachid; Lahkim, Mohamed; Achour, Abdessamad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L’objectif de ce travail est de rapporter cinq cas de tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale afin d’en souligner les aspects diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. Cinq observations sont colligées dans le service de chirurgie générale de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech au cours de l’année 2007. Les aspects cliniques sont disparates. Ainsi, les auteurs ont noté un syndrome péritonéal dans un cas, une masse épigastrique dans un cas, une lésion suspect du sigmoïde dans un cas, une masse de la fosse iliaque droite dans un cas et une altération de l’état général avec fièvre dans le dernier cas. Un seul patient avaient bénéficié d’une biopsie scano-guidée et les quatre patients restants avaient été opérés. Une masse du méso côlon était notée dans le premier cas. Dans le second cas, l’aspect de la masse épigastrique et son siège avaient orienté vers une tumeur du grand omentum. Une localisation tuberculeuse péritonéale et sigmoïdienne avait été trouvée dans le troisième cas. Le diagnostic d’une tumeur du côlon droit était hautement suspect chez le patient séropositif qui avait présenté une péritonite post-opératoire et décédé à J + 3 dans un tableau de choc septique. Le siège et l’aspect nécrotique des lésions trouvées à la tomodensitométrie chez la seule patiente de l’étude avaient fait discuter en premier un lymphome. Même en l’absence d’antécédents de tuberculose pulmonaire, le diagnostic tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale doit être évoqué surtout dans un pays d’endémie comme le notre et le recours à une laparotomie est justifié chaque fois que persiste un doute diagnostique ou en cas de complication. PMID:23330023

  17. Direct visualization of phase separation between superconducting and nematic domains in Co-doped CaFe2As2 close to a first-order phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fente, Antón; Correa-Orellana, Alexandre; Böhmer, Anna E.; Kreyssig, Andreas; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Mompean, Federico J.; García-Hernández, Mar; Munuera, Carmen; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    We show that biaxial strain induces alternating tetragonal superconducting and orthorhombic nematic domains in Co-substituted CaFe2As2 . We use atomic force, magnetic force, and scanning tunneling microscopy to identify the domains and characterize their properties, finding in particular that tetragonal superconducting domains are very elongated, more than several tens of micrometers long and about 30 nm wide; have the same Tc as unstrained samples; and hold vortices in a magnetic field. Thus, biaxial strain produces a phase-separated state, where each phase is equivalent to what is found on either side of the first-order phase transition between antiferromagnetic orthorhombic and superconducting tetragonal phases found in unstrained samples when changing Co concentration. Having such alternating superconducting domains separated by normal conducting domains with sizes of the order of the coherence length opens opportunities to build Josephson junction networks or vortex pinning arrays and suggests that first-order quantum phase transitions lead to nanometric-size phase separation under the influence of strain.

  18. Development and Validation of First-Order Derivative Spectrophotometry for Simultaneous Determination of Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride and Phenylephrine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminee Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LCT and phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE by employing first-order derivative spectrophotometric method. The first-order derivative absorption at 240 nm (zero crossing point of PHE was used for quantification of LCT and 283.2 nm (zero crossing point of LCT for quantification of PHE. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 4–24 μg/mL and 8–48 μg/mL for LCT and PHE with correlation coefficients (r2 0.9964 and 0.9972, respectively. The mean % recoveries were found to be in the range of 99.14%–100.43% for LCT and 98.73%–100.83% for PHE. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guideline and successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of LCT and PHE in combined tablet dosage form.

  19. A First-Order Study of Reduced Energy Consumption via Increased Thermal Capacitance with Thermal Storage Management in a Micro-Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B. Wilson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a first-order approximation of a micro-building to investigate the major factors determining how increased thermal capacitance (ITC with thermal storage management (TSM can reduce energy consumption in locations with relatively mild weather conditions such as the southeastern part of the United States of America. In this study, ITC is achieved through water circulation between a large storage tank and pipes embedded within the building envelope. Although ITC results in a larger dominant time constant for the thermal response of a building, an adaptive allocation and control of the added capacitance through TSM significantly improves the benefits of the extra capacitance. This paper compares two first-order models for a micro-building: a reference case model with a single lumped thermal capacitance associated with the building, and another model, with the building’s capacitance plus the capacitance of the water system. Results showed that the ITC/TSM system reduced the cost of conditioning the building by reducing the operating time of both the cooling and the heating systems. May through September, the air conditioning operating time was reduced by an average of 70%, and October through April, the operation of the heating system was reduced by an average of 25%.

  20. Monod kinetics rather than a first-order degradation model explains atrazine fate in soil mini-columns: Implications for pesticide fate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheyns, K., E-mail: Karlien.Cheyns@ees.kuleuven.b [Division soil and water management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Mertens, J.; Diels, J.; Smolders, E.; Springael, D. [Division soil and water management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Pesticide transport models commonly assume first-order pesticide degradation kinetics for describing reactive transport in soil. This assumption was assessed in mini-column studies with associated batch degradation tests. Soil mini-columns were irrigated with atrazine in two intermittent steps of about 30 days separated by 161 days application of artificial rain water. Atrazine concentration in the effluent peaked to that of the influent concentration after initial break-through but sharply decreased while influx was sustained, suggesting a degradation lag phase. The same pattern was displayed in the second step but peak height and percentage of atrazine recovered in the effluent were lower. A Monod model with biomass decay was successfully calibrated to this data. The model was successfully evaluated against batch degradation data and mini-column experiments at lower flow rate. The study suggested that first-order degradation models may underestimate risk of pesticide leaching if the pesticide degradation potential needs amplification during degradation. - Population dynamics of pesticide degrading population should be taken into account when predictions of pesticide fate are made to avoid underestimation of pesticide break-through towards groundwater.