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Sample records for pseudacysta perseae heteroptera

  1. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  2. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  3. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  4. Physicochemical Properties of Avocado Pear (Persea americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil from edible avocado pear (Persea americana) was extracted using the Soxhlet extraction method and characterized for specific gravity, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and biofuel potential using standard methods. The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined.

  5. Insect antifeedant ryanodane diterpenes from Persea indica

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Terrero, David; Perales, Áurea; Escoubas, Pierre; Fraga, Braulio M.

    1996-01-01

    The new ryanodane diterpenes cinnzeylanone, ryanodol 14-monoacetate, and epi-cinnzeylanol have been isolated from Persea indica(Lauraceae). The structure of cinnzeylanone has been determined by X-ray analysis. These compounds proveds to be antifeedants against Spodoptera litura. Cinnzeylanol and ryanodol were the most active antifeedants of this plant, with a range of activity close to that of ryanodine. THis is the first report on the antifeedant effects of this class of diterpenes. Their st...

  6. Biologi Perbungaan Tanaman Avokad (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    SUKAMTO, L. AGUS

    1985-01-01

    L. AGUS SUKAMTO 1985.The flowering biology of avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Berita Biologi 3 (1) 8 - H.- A study on the flowering biology of avocado available at Bogor Botanic Garden was made.The observation was conducted in respects to the opening and closing of the flowers, the versality of the pollen grains which are then related to the fruit production.The climatic condition as well as pollination agents which may affect on the vertilization in avocado are also discussed.

  7. Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed lipids of Persea americana and Chrysophyllum albidum were studied. Lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol, analysed with silicic column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The total lipid content of Persea americana was 10.8% while that of Chrysophyllum albidum was 7.7%. Fractionation of ...

  8. Cytogenetika štěnic (Cimicidae) jako modelových ploštic (Insecta: Heteroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, David

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetics of bed bugs (Cimicidae) as a model true bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera) The thesis provides current opinions about a phylogeny of bed bugs, family Cimicidae, and their classification within the order Heteroptera. There are briefly summarized cytological data about the order Heteroptera, known karyotypes of the cimicid subfamilies and introduction to cytogenetics of species Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758. Heteroptera species differ from other organisms by holokinetic chromosomes, a ...

  9. European birds and aposematic Heteroptera: review of comparative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Svádová, K.; Fousová, P.; Fučiková, E.; Ježová, D.; Niederlová, A.; Kopečková, M.; Štys, P.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of defensive mechanisms in 11 European aposematic species of Heteroptera against various passerine predators was analysed. Bird species differed in their reactions to aposematic preys: small insectivorous birds generally avoided aposematic bugs, but granivorous birds as well as large

  10. Assimilate partitioning in avocado, Persea americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finazzo, S.; Davenport, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Assimilate partitioning is being studied in avocado, Persea americana cv. Millborrow in relation to fruit set. Single leaves on girdled branches of 10 year old trees were radiolabeled for 1 hr with 13..mu..Ci of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The source leaves were sampled during the experiment to measure translocation rates. At harvest the sink tissues were dissected and the incorporated radioactivity was measured. The translocation of /sup 14/C-labelled compounds to other leaves was minimal. Incorporation of label into fruitlets varied with the tissue and the stage of development. Sink (fruitlets) nearest to the labelled leaf and sharing the same phyllotaxy incorporated the most /sup 14/C. Source leaves for single non-abscising fruitlets retained 3X more /sup 14/C-labelled compounds than did source leaves for 2 or more fruitlets at 31 hrs. post-labelling. Export of label decreased appreciably when fruitlets abscised. If fruitlets abscised within 4 days of labeling then the translocation pattern was similar to the pattern for single fruitlets. If the fruitlet abscised later, the translocation pattern was intermediate between the single and double fruitlet pattern.

  11. Assimilate partitioning in avocado, Persea americana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finazzo, S.; Davenport, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Assimilate partitioning is being studied in avocado, Persea americana cv. Millborrow in relation to fruit set. Single leaves on girdled branches of 10 year old trees were radiolabeled for 1 hr with 13μCi of 14 CO 2 . The source leaves were sampled during the experiment to measure translocation rates. At harvest the sink tissues were dissected and the incorporated radioactivity was measured. The translocation of 14 C-labelled compounds to other leaves was minimal. Incorporation of label into fruitlets varied with the tissue and the stage of development. Sink (fruitlets) nearest to the labelled leaf and sharing the same phyllotaxy incorporated the most 14 C. Source leaves for single non-abscising fruitlets retained 3X more 14 C-labelled compounds than did source leaves for 2 or more fruitlets at 31 hrs. post-labelling. Export of label decreased appreciably when fruitlets abscised. If fruitlets abscised within 4 days of labeling then the translocation pattern was similar to the pattern for single fruitlets. If the fruitlet abscised later, the translocation pattern was intermediate between the single and double fruitlet pattern

  12. Genetic characterisation of avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a nutritious and economic tree crop with cultivations scattered all over Ghana. Although, there have been some genetic diversity research on this crop in some parts of the world, rather limited research has been done on avocado in Ghana. A study was therefore conducted to assess its ...

  13. Changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana (avocado pear leaves, fruits, and seeds) is one of the medicinal herbs that has been widely utilized in treating/managing disease conditions. In this study, we investigated the changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of avocado seeds associated with ripening using standard methods.

  14. Analgesic effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana, Mill (Lauraceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Nigeria for pain relief. Based on its ethnomedicinal use in pain management, the seed of the plant was extracted with distilled water and screened for analgesic activity. The analgesic screening was done in mice using four models: acetic ...

  15. The Complex of Scolytinae Inhabiting Persea borbonia and Persea americana in Florida: Possible Interactions with Other Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diverse number of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been found inhabiting Persea borbonia and P. americana in Florida during 2009 and 2010. They include the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, vector of Raffaelea lauricola, X. volvulus, X. ferrugineus, Xylosandrus crassiu...

  16. Revisional notes on the genus Melucha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae

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    Harry Brailovsky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melucha grandicula sp. n. and M. perampla sp. n., (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Nematopodini are described from Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. Melucha quadrivittis Stål, 1862, stat. restit., is resurrected from synonymy under M. phyllocnemis (Burmeister, 1835. Melucha ruficornis Breddin, 1903, syn. n., is synonymized under M. lineatella (Fabricius, 1803. An identification key for the known species of Melucha Amyot & Serville, 1843 is given. New distributional records for some previously known species are added.

  17. The adipokinetic hormones of Heteroptera: a comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Socha, Radomír; Štys, P.; Gäde, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2010), s. 117-127 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) FA20070213000002; National Research Foundation(ZA) IFR2008071500048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic peptide * Heteroptera * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2010

  18. Persea schiedeana (Lauraceae), nuevo hospedero de Heilipus lauri Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda-Vildózola, Alvaro; Del Ángel-Coronel, Oscar A; Cruz-Castillo, Juan G; Váldez-Carrasco, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez la presencia del Molytinae Heilipus lauri Boheman atacando frutos de Persea schiedeana, comúnmente conocidos como "chinene" in Hustusco y Zongolica, Veracruz, México. The presence of the Molytinae Heilipus lauri Boheman is reported for the first time attacking fruits of Persea schiedeana, commonly called "chinene" in Huatusco and Zongolica, state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  19. Neocosmospora perseae sp. nov., causing trunk cankers on avocado in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarnaccia, Vladimiro; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Aiello, Dalia; Polizzi, Giancarlo; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    Trunk and branch cankers are among the most important diseases compromising avocado production worldwide. A novel species, Neocosmospora perseae sp. nov. is described isolated from trunk lesions on Persea americana in the main avocado producing area of Sicily, Italy. The new species is characterised

  20. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  1. The genus Alphocoris in the Indomalaya (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    RÉdei, DÁvid; Tsai, Jing-Fu; Jindra, ZdenĚk

    2018-02-21

    The Indomalayan species of the genus Alphocoris Germar, 1839 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae: Odontotarsinae: Odontotarsini) are revised. Three species, A. caudatus Rédei, Tsai Jindra, sp. nov. (India: Maharashtra), A. naso Rédei Tsai, sp. nov. (India: Goa), and A. asper Rédei, Tsai Jindra, sp. nov. (India: Goa and Maharashtra), are recognized. The type material of A. lixoides Germar, 1839 (type locality: Senegal) is documented; previous records of this species from India and Pakistan are considered as based on misidentifications, the species is restricted to the Afrotropical Region.

  2. [Aquatic heteroptera from Mariana County, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marco A A; de Melo, Alan L; Vianna, Gustavo J C

    2006-01-01

    In surveys carried out in lotic and lentic environments in Mariana County, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, 35 genera and 64 species of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera were recorded, distributed in 13 families. Thirty four species were collected in lentic environments, while in lotic environments 48 species were collected, some of them common to both environments. Nepomorpha presented the greatest number of species (45), markedly for the family Naucoridae, represented by 12 species. Among the 19 Gerromorpha species collected, eight were Veliidae and six were Gerridae.

  3. [Persea schiedeana (Lauraceae), a new host of Heilipus lauri Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Vildózola, Alvaro; Del Angel-Coronel, Oscar A; Cruz-Castillo, Juan G; Váldez-Carrasco, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The presence of the Molytinae Heilipus lauri Boheman is reported for the first time attacking fruits of Persea schiedeana, commonly called 'chinene' in Huatusco and Zongolica, state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  4. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): Sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 7 (2007), s. 1359-1367 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:Natioanl Research Foundation(ZA) 2053396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insects * Heteroptera * Water bugs Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  5. Persea schiedeana : A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Bost

    2013-01-01

    Persea schiedeana , a close relative of avocado ( Persea americana ), is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene , coyo , and yas . Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI) in Oaxaca, ...

  6. A new species of the plant bug genus Rubrocuneocoris Schuh (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae) from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new non-native species Rubrocuneocoris calvertae, n. sp. (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae), found on the flowers of the invasive parasol leaf tree, Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll. Arg., is described from Oahu and Hawaii counties in the Hawaiian Islands. Because the nearest relatives of this new sp...

  7. Een invasie van de Nieuw-Zeelandse tarwewants Nysius huttoni in Nederland (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Reemer, M.; Aukema, B.

    2007-01-01

    Invasion of the New-Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni in the Netherlands (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) In 2006 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, by order of the National Plant Protection Organisation, conducted a survey of the distribution and population characteristics of the true bug

  8. Heteroptera attracted to butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of Heteroptera collected at butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion during collecting trips to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are presented. Traps consisted of a cylinder of net fabric (about 35 cm diam, 75 cm length) attached on the top and bottom to square pieces ...

  9. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  10. The E. collaris-group of Edessa Fabricius, 1803 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, J.A.M.; Doesburg, van P.H.; Greve, C.

    2001-01-01

    The E. collaris group of Edessa Fabricius, 1803 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) is proposed and the species are described, including one new to science. This group includes two South American (Edessa collaris Dallas, 1851 and E. epulo Kirkaldy, 1909) and two Central American species (E.

  11. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  12. Demographic parameters of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on two diets developed for Lygus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two artificial diets developed for rearing Lygus spp., a fresh yolk chicken egg based-diet (FYD) and a dry yolk chicken egg based-diet (DYD), were evaluated as an alternative food source for rearing the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Survival to adult was...

  13. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  14. Ovary structure in a presocial insect, Elasmucha grisea (Heteroptera, Acanthosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorzałek, Antoni; Trochimczuk, Artur

    2009-11-01

    First generation egg clusters of Elasmucha grisea are more closely guarded than second generation clusters. The ovaries of this species are structured to enhance this behavior. The population of E. grisea from S-W Poland breeds in the spring (May-June) and late summer (July-August). The second generation clutches contain fewer eggs and are destroyed 3-4 days after oviposition by predators and parasitoids. The ovary structure in the studied species differs from that found in other Heteroptera. The average number of ovarioles per ovary is 24 while in the other investigated species the number of ovarioles per ovary is 6-7. Lateral oviducts are elongated and the ovarioles are arranged in a pennate pattern. Each ovariole contains only one growing ovarian follicle. Differentiation of the ovarioles and ovarian follicles is synchronised thus enabling simultaneous oviposition. A comparative analysis of the ovary structure during the life cycle, particularly the presence of atresive ovarian follicles in the ovarioles of egg- and nymph guarding females, as well as the shape and structure of the apical part of the tropharium all support the hypothesis of cooperation between females in E. grisea. A similar ovary structure has been observed in the Coccoidea (Hemiptera, Homoptera) which indicates presocial behavior.

  15. Phylogenetic approach to the study of Triatomines (Triatominae, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tartarotti

    Full Text Available Triatomines are insects belonging to the Hemiptera order, Heteroptera suborder, Reduviidae family and Triatominae subfamily. All members of this subfamily are hematophagous. Triatomines evolved from Reduviidae predators and they are probably polyphyletic in origin. The combination of anatomical, physiological and ethological factors observed in this group, as well as the plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters that differentiate the five tribes and fourteen triatomine genera reinforce the polyphiletic hypotesis. However if we consider the five groups of triatomines, the Rhodniini, Cavernicolini, Bolboderini, Linshcosteini and Alberproseniini tribes constitute monophyletic groups, while the Triatomini tribe is considered polyphyletic. The New World is the center of triatomine diversity and seems to be the point of group origin. Of approximately 137 triatomine species, 105 are only found in the Americas. It is now considered that triatomines represent a polyphyletic group defined according to their convergent apomorphic hematophagous characters, which have appeared several times in Reduviidae. This study revises the phylogeny of these vectors of Chagas' disease, covering such topics as the origin of hematophagy in triatomines and ancestral proposal for the group.

  16. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Deepti; Shegog, Rachel M; Ziegler, Gregory R; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health effects. Avocado oil is used for dermatological applications and its unsaponifiable portion is reported to have beneficial effects against osteoarthritis. Although the seed represents a considerable percentage of the total fruit, scientific research on the phytochemistry and biological effects of avocado seeds is in the nascent stages,. Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. There is ethno-pharmacological information on the use of seeds for the treatment of health-related conditions, especially in South American countries where avocados are endemic and currently grown on a large scale. Current research has shown that avocado seeds may improve hypercholesterolemia, and be useful in the treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions and diabetes. Seeds have also been found to possess insecticidal, fungicidal, and anti-microbial activities. The avocado seeds and rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects. Historically, extracts of avocado seeds were also used as ink for writing and research in our laboratory has explored the potential colorant properties of a polyphenol oxidase-produced colored avocado seed extract. Here, we review the currently-available data on the bioactivity and other functional properties of avocado seeds. We discuss the strength of the available data, the putative active compounds, and potential directions for future studies.

  17. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle; therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  18. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  19. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on redbay (Persea borbonia) in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Menard; S. R. Clarke; Stephen Fraedrich; T. C. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C.Harr., Aghayeva, & Fraedrich, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is responsible for extensive mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other Lauraceae native to the United States (Fraedrich et al. 2008). The beetle and fungus were introduced into the United...

  20. Towards the development of a laurel wilt screening program in redbay (Persea borbonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Hughes; Jason Smith

    2012-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a highly destructive disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) and other Lauraceous natives in the southeastern United States. The disease and associated vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), has spread through the United States coastal plain. The presence of surviving and...

  1. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  2. Race, Interracial Admixture and Genetic Differentiation of Avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a major tropical fruit crop native to Mesoamerica and domesticated around 8000 to 7000 BC. It is a member of the Laureace family and currently classified into three subspecies or races: Guatemalan (G), Mexican (M) and West Indian (WI) according to their ecological...

  3. The classification of fatty acids of lipids from seeds of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Gas liquid chromatographic analyses of Persea grattisima and ... as oil seeds and the fatty-acids of seed lipids could be potential sources of industrial oil. Keywords: Classification, fatty acids, GLC and Lipids. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Persea schiedeana: A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Bost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea schiedeana, a close relative of avocado (Persea americana, is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene, coyo, and yas. Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI in Oaxaca, Mexico shows that Persea schiedeana has potential as a supplement to avocado production in subsistence systems and as a potential oil crop in more market oriented agroforestry systems. This survey of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area reports on the ethnoecology and management of chinene, as well as on the morphological diversity of the fruit in the area. High morphological diversity for fruit characters was noted and it is suggested that artificial selection has occurred and been modestly successful for desired fruit characters. Superior fruiting trees, identified during village level “chinene fairs” were targeted for vegetative propagation as part of a participatory domestication project. Such superior genotypes hold potential for addressing food security and creating marketable products in tropical areas around the globe.

  5. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, M. C.; Ferreira, A. M. R. M.; Zanuncio, T. V.; Zanuncio, J. C.; Bernardino, A. S.; Espindula, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae (T1), compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera:...

  6. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae. Phyllocnistis hyperpersea, new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L. Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea, new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia, new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  7. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R; Wagner, David L

    2011-05-11

    Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  8. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  9. Comparison and Field Validation of Binomial Sampling Plans for Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Hass Avocado in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesus R; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, & Abatiello is a foliar pest of 'Hass' avocados [Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)]. The recommended action threshold is 50-100 motile mites per leaf, but this count range and other ecological factors associated with O. perseae infestations limit the application of enumerative sampling plans in the field. Consequently, a comprehensive modeling approach was implemented to compare the practical application of various binomial sampling models for decision-making of O. perseae in California. An initial set of sequential binomial sampling models were developed using three mean-proportion modeling techniques (i.e., Taylor's power law, maximum likelihood, and an empirical model) in combination with two-leaf infestation tally thresholds of either one or two mites. Model performance was evaluated using a robust mite count database consisting of >20,000 Hass avocado leaves infested with varying densities of O. perseae and collected from multiple locations. Operating characteristic and average sample number results for sequential binomial models were used as the basis to develop and validate a standardized fixed-size binomial sampling model with guidelines on sample tree and leaf selection within blocks of avocado trees. This final validated model requires a leaf sampling cost of 30 leaves and takes into account the spatial dynamics of O. perseae to make reliable mite density classifications for a 50-mite action threshold. Recommendations for implementing this fixed-size binomial sampling plan to assess densities of O. perseae in commercial California avocado orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, Mar?a Librada; Hormaza, Jos? Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of...

  11. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing...

  12. Host-specificity of monoxenous trypanosomatids: statistical analysis of the distribution and transmission patterns of the parasites from Neotropical Heteroptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozminsky, E.; Kraeva, N.; Ishemgulova, A.; Dobáková, Eva; Lukeš, Julius; Kment, P.; Yurchenko, V.; Votýpka, J.; Maslov, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 5 (2015), s. 551-568 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosomatids * Heteroptera * host-parasite specificity * biodiversity * Spliced Leader RNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2015

  13. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shamsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  14. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  15. Key biotic components of the indigenous Tortricidae and Heteroptera complexes occuring on macadamia in South Africa / by P.S. Schoeman

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeman, Pieter Schalk

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa macadamia nuts are attacked by a variety of mostly indigenous pests which can be divided into two basic complexes, namely a nut borer complex (consisting of 3 tortricid moths.) and a stink bug (Heteroptera) complex consisting of approximately 35 insect species. The Heteroptera complex causes approximately 60% damage in unsprayed orchards and the estimated annual heteropteran induced crop loss could be as high as R24 million. Gravid female tortricid moths could discriminate bet...

  16. Distinción de especies del género Persea mediante RAPD e ISSR de ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Alemán, Juan Carlos; Valadez-Moctezuma, Ernestina; Simuta-Velázco, Lisandro; Barrientos-Priego, Alejandro Facundo; Gallegos-Vázquez, Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Con la finalidad de establecer bases para diferenciar parte de la diversidad genética de Persea y en especial del subgénero Persea resguardado en la colección nacional de germoplasma de aguacate de México, se estudiaron ocho especies (P. americana, P. steyermarkii, P. schiedeana, P. lingue, P. nubigena, P. floccosa, P. cinerascens y P. indica) con marcadores moleculares mediante las técnicas de RAPD e ISSR, donde los productos de PCR fueron separados en geles de acrilamida. Las huellas de ADN...

  17. Organização estrutural da casca de Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae Structural organization of Persea major Kopp bark (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Teresinha Maranho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de contribuir ao conhecimento da estrutura da casca de Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae, espécie nativa da América do Sul. No Brasil, é conhecida, popularmente, como "pau de andrade" e utilizada na cultura tradicional na cicatrização dos ferimentos. A análise da casca foi feita usando microscopia de óptica. A casca se distingue, principalmente, pelo tipo e distribuição dos tecidos esclerenquimáticos e a presença de células oleíferas e mucilaginosas. As características encontradas na estrutura da casca desta espécie mostram grande importância para a identificação e servem como parâmetros no controle de qualidade. Estas células oleíferas e mucilaginosas com uma distribuição restrita nas dicotiledôneas constituem uma característica taxonômica e diagnóstica particularmente valiosa.The study was undertaken to increase our knowledge of bark structure of Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae, a native specie from South America. In Brazil, it is known as "pau de andrade" and is used by traditional cultures to heal injuries. This analysis was done by light microscopy. The bark is distinguished mainly by the type and distribution of sclerenchymatic tissues, and the presence of oil and mucilage cells. The characteristics found in the bark anatomy of this species are of great importance for identification purposes and as parameters in quality control. These oil and mucilage cells have a restricted distribution in the dicotyledons and constitute a particularly valuable taxonomic and diagnostic feature.

  18. Consideraciones sobre el cultivo del aguacate Persea Americana Mill. en Atlixco, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Reyna Trujillo

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of avocado Persea americana Mill in our country has been intensified the last years, particularly in some states such as Michoacán, Puebla, Veracruz and others. Specifically in Puebla, there are some counties "municipios", Atlixco among others, where its exploitation represents an important economical fact. Because of this, it is being pretended to increase the surface occupied with that fruit tree. However, its growth and cultivation, has been exposed to a great number of problems, such as the ecologic ones (inadecuate soils, for example and fitopathologic ones mainly, reasons enough to consider the increase of its growth as inadecuate.

  19. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella, 1995. This study is aimed at assessing "in vivd'the effect of extracts of "oregano", "ruda" and "palta" to 20% on the morphology and growth of preimplantational mouse embryos.

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE DEL ACEITE DE LA SEMILLA DE PALTA Persea americana MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    Rengifo, Pedro G.; Carhuapoma, Mario; Artica, Luis; Castro, Américo J.; López, Sofía

    2017-01-01

    La semilla de palta es una parte del fruto descartada en la obtención industrial del aceite de pulpa y podría ser una fuente de ácidos grasos esenciales y otros fitoconstituyentes. El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo caracterizar al aceite de la semilla de Persea americana Mill. Var. Hass Fuerte y su actividad antioxidante. Al aceite obtenido por el método de Soxhlet, se le hizo la caracterización fisicoquímica siguiendo las normas AOCS (Sociedad Americana de la Química de...

  1. Hongos Fitopatógenos asociados a semillas de palto (Persea Americana mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Ttacca, Betsabe; Mattos Calderon, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Una serie de enfermedades severas de origen fungoso son diseminadas por semillas de palto, y pueden causar una disminución de la producción en aproximadamente el 14 % y una reducción de calidad en un 10 %. El presente trabajo consistió en aislar e identificar hongos fitopatógenos presentes en las semillas de palto (Persea americana Mill.) raza mexicana utilizadas para patrón. A partir del embrión y cotiledón de 200 semillas de palto, se aislo los hongos fotopatogenos en medio de cultivo Papa ...

  2. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  3. Mating behavior of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae under exposure to neem: Comportamiento de apareamiento del depredador Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae expuesto al neem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharrine Omari Domingues de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of natural enemies is one of the basic foundations for integrated pest management. Botanical insecticides have shown low impact on beneficial arthropods in relation to survival. Insecticides studies usually focus on the direct physiological effects of insecticides, whereas relatively little attention is placed on the behavioral response to exposure. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the botanical insecticide neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.; Meliaceae on the mating behavior of the predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Unmated 5 to 7 d-old adults, separate by sex, were exposed to azadirachtin per contact on the treated surface. The treatments were composed for: untreated male and female; untreated male and treated female; treated male and untreated female; and treated male and female. Azadirachtin affected the duration of first mating (Wilcoxon test, χ2 = 13.38, df = 3, p = 0.004, which resulted in a higher effective average time of mating (EATM50 for treatment whose only female was treated with azadirachtin. This finding points to a sublethal effect of azadirachtin on mating behavior of P. nigrispinus that may compromise its reproduction.La preservación de los enemigos naturales es la base fundamental para el manejo integrado de las plagas. Los insecticidas botánicos han demostrado un bajo impacto sobre los artrópodos benéficos en relación a la supervivencia. Se desarrolló un estudio para evaluar el efecto del insecticida botánico neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.; Meliaceae sobre el comportamiento de apareamiento del chinche depredador Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Se expusieron adultos vírgenes de 5-7 días de edad, separados por sexo, a residuos secos de este extracto. Machos y hembras vírgenes entre 5 y 7 d de edad fueron expuestos a la azadiractina, por contacto directo con superficies tratadas. Los tratamientos fueron: machos y hembras no tratados

  4. Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2009-06-02

    The debate on the origin and evolution of flowers has recently entered the field of developmental genetics, with focus on the design of the ancestral floral regulatory program. Flowers can differ dramatically among angiosperm lineages, but in general, male and female reproductive organs surrounded by a sterile perianth of sepals and petals constitute the basic floral structure. However, the basal angiosperm lineages exhibit spectacular diversity in the number, arrangement, and structure of floral organs, whereas the evolutionarily derived monocot and eudicot lineages share a far more uniform floral ground plan. Here we show that broadly overlapping transcriptional programs characterize the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado), whereas floral gene expression domains are considerably more organ specific in the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings therefore support the "fading borders" model for organ identity determination in basal angiosperm flowers and extend it from the action of regulatory genes to downstream transcriptional programs. Furthermore, the declining expression of components of the staminal transcriptome in central and peripheral regions of Persea flowers concurs with elements of a previous hypothesis for developmental regulation in a gymnosperm "floral progenitor." Accordingly, in contrast to the canalized organ-specific regulatory apparatus of Arabidopsis, floral development may have been originally regulated by overlapping transcriptional cascades with fading gradients of influence from focal to bordering organs.

  5. Isolasi Senyawa Aktif Ekstrak Etanol Biji Alpukat (Persea americana dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Artemia Salina Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nur Fitriani Abubakar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seed (Persea americana is recognized as one of medicinal plants. It contains several secondary metabolites, which have toxic activity. However, efforts to identify active compounds from avocado seeds (Persea americana are still relatively rare. Therefore, isolation and toxicity assay have been conducted foward the active compound of avocado seed. Maceration one kilogram of seed dried powder by ethanol obtained 49,7464 gram extract. Separation of etanol extract by column chromatography generated 0,0698 grams of pure white needle crytal, which is positively triterpenoid based on Lieberman-Buchard test. In addition, infrared spectrum showed the existence of OH, C=C, C-C, C=O, -C-H, -CH3,-CH2 and C-O stretch, which support the presumed compound. The result of toxicity test on Artemia salina Leach showed that the extract, fraction and pure isolates of the etanol extract are toxic with LC50 values 13,274 g/mL; 9,528 g/mL and 8,128 g/mL, respectively.

  6. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella L....... The results showed that A. nemorum is a voracious predator of B. brassicae, P. xylostella and F. occidentalis and can therefore be considered as a potential candidate for biological control in cabbage....

  7. DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG NEZARA VIRIDULA (L. (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V MEGLIČ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a global pest of considerable ecological, agricultural and economical interest. The ancestral home of this species is supposed to be Africa and/or Mediterranean and presumably it was spread worldwide during the last two centuries with human trade and agriculture. Bugs found today on different continents do not differ morphologically, however there are substantial differences in their mating behaviour. We used horizontal starch gel electrophoresis to determine the suitability of biochemical markers for assessment of genetic variation between geographically isolated populations of N. viridula. The initial survey of populations from Slovenia, France, French West Indies and Brazil resulted in the resolution of polymorphic banding patterns within the following enzyme systems: GPI, IDH, MDH, ME, MPI and PGM. Results indicate there are consistent differences among tested populations.

  8. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NYMPHAL DEVELOPMENT OF Podisus distinctus (DALLAS (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germi Porto Santos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of five temperatures (17ºC; 21ºC; 25ºC; 29ºC and 33oC on survival and nymph development of Podisus distinctus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in laboratory. Period of egg incubation decreased with temperature elevation being lower at 29oC and lethal at 33oC. This indicates that superior thermal limit for this species can be found between these temperatures. Optimal temperature for egg viability was 23.7oC. Nymphs of Podisus distinctus completed its development between 17 and 29oC with optimal temperature at 26.3oC with higher nymph viability at intermediate temperatures (19ºC and 25oC. Optimal temperature for rearing this predator lay between 25ºC and 27oC.

  9. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Rodrigues, Higor D D; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella).

  10. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei.

  11. Essential oils of Persea povedae W.C. Burguer (Lauraceae) of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Lorena; Ciccio, Jose F.; Chaverri, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The tree Persea povedae W. C. Burguer, grows in wild form in Costa Rica. The analyses to determine the composition of the essential oils that are extracted from the branches and leaves of the tree were effected by means of gas chromatography technique in capillary column, using Flame Ionization Detector (FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Hundred and ten (110) compounds were identified. The major constituents of the branches are: α-pinene (7,7%), linalool (7,6%), espathulenol (5,1%), α-copaene (4,8), dodecanal (4,4%), Ε-9-dodecenal (4,1%), β -pinene (3,2%), γ-muurolene (3,1%) and α-cadinene (3,0%). The main constituents of the leaves are: Ε-nerolidol (14,6%), pentadecanoic acid (ca. 14%), longipinanol (5,1%), linalool (4,5%), γ-muurolene (3,8%) y espathulenol (3,8%). (author) [es

  12. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Persea group (Lauraceae) and its biogeographic implications on the evolution of tropical and subtropical Amphi-Pacific disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lang; Li, Jie; Rohwer, Jens G; van der Werff, Henk; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Li, Hsi-Wen

    2011-09-01

    The Persea group (Lauraceae) has a tropical and subtropical amphi-pacific disjunct distribution with most of its members, and it includes two Macaronesian species. The relationships within the group are still controversial, and its intercontinental disjunction has not been investigated with extensive sampling and precise time dating. • ITS and LEAFY intron II sequences of 78 Persea group species and nine other Lauraceae species were analyzed with maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Divergence time estimation employed Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method under a relaxed clock. • Several traditional genera or subgenera within the Persea group form well-supported monophyletic groups except Alseodaphne and Dehaasia. The divergence time of the Persea group is estimated as ∼55.3 (95% higher posterior densities [HPD] 41.4-69.9) million years ago (mya). Two major divergences within the Persea group are estimated as ∼51.9 (95% HPD 38.9-63.9) mya and ∼48.5 (95% HPD 35.9-59.9) mya. • Persea can be retained as a genus by the inclusion of Apollonias barbujana and exclusion a few species that do not fit into the established subgenera. A major revision is recommended for the delimitation between Alseodaphne, Dehaasia, and Nothaphoebe. We suggest that the Persea group originated from the Perseeae-Laureae radiation in early Eocene Laurasia. Its amphi-pacific disjunction results from the disruption of boreotropical flora by climatic cooling during the mid- to late Eocene. The American-Macaronesian disjunction may be explained by the long-distance dispersal.

  13. Studies on the Paint Forming Properties of Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Seed Oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Otaigbe, J.O.E; Oriji, O.G; Ekerenam, G.E

    2016-01-01

    Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oils were investigated for their suitability as base materials for oil paint production. Soxhlet extraction of the oils from the powdered seeds using n-hexane gave 3.63% and 10.40% yields for Avocado and African Pear respectively. Proximate analysis and chemical characterization of the seed oils were carried out using standard procedures according to the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and the American Society for Testing ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus.

  15. Effect of female weight on reproductive potential of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    Isaias Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the fecundity of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females of two weight classes aiming to define, which one presented higher productivity in the laboratory. Males and females of B. tabidus were reared from nymphs fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae in laboratory. Females of B. tabidus weighting 95 to 150 mg and those with 160 to 220 mg constituted two treatments. Oviposition period and numbers of egg masses, eggs and nymphs per female of B. tabidus were higher in the treatment with heavier females, while the periods of preoviposition, between egg mass laying, egg incubation and number of eggs per egg mass, besides the percentage of nymphs hatched and adult longevity were similar between treatments. Heavier females of B. tabidus presented better productivity and for this reason they should be used in programs of mass rearing this predator.Este trabalho apresenta a fecundidade de fêmeas do predador Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae de duas classes de peso, objetivando avaliar qual delas apresenta melhor produtividade em criações mantidas em laboratório. Machos e fêmeas foram alimentadas, desde o estádio ninfal, com pupas do besouro Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de B. tabidus pesando entre 95 e 150 mg e entre 160 e 220 mg constituíram as duas classes de peso. O período de oviposição e os números de posturas, de ovos e ninfas por fêmea de B. tabidus foram maiores naquelas fêmeas pertencentes à classe mais pesada, enquanto os períodos de pré-oviposição, entre posturas, incubação dos ovos e número de ovos por postura, bem como a percentagem de eclosão de ninfas e a longevidade dos adultos foram semelhantes entre ambas as classes de peso. Fêmeas mais pesadas de B. tabidus apresentaram maior número de ovos por fêmea e por esta razão devem ser utilizadas em programas de cria

  16. Quality of fresh-cut avocado (Persea americana Mill. stored under different temperatures Qualidade de abacates (Persea americana Mill. minimally processados armazenados sob diferentes temperaturas

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    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of different storage temperatures on the quality maintenance of fresh-cut 'Fortuna' avocado (Persea americana Mill.. The fruit was selected, washed and sanitized with sodium hypochlorite solution (190 ppm total residual chlorinee for 15 minutes. After that, the tip was cut and the fruit was also cut in halves, peeled and the pit removed, manually. Then the halves were immersed in 0.5% calcium chlorite + 0.5% cysteine solution for 2 minutes, to avoid darkening and packed in rigid plastic covered with 20 micrometer thick plastic wrap (PVC film with a permeability to O2, CO2 and water vapor of 15,000, 80,000 and 390 cm³/m²/day, respectively. The product was stored under 3 different temperatures 0, 5, 10ºC and evaluated at 5 different storege periods of 0, 2, 3, 5 and 6 days, in a randomized design in a 3x5 factorial. The storage of fresh-cut avocado at 5ºC is the best alternative because it determines better maintenance of quality of the avocado. These presented lower darkening of pulp, better scores for appearance and acceptability, lower softening and polyphenoloxidase activity, in comparison to those stored at 0 and 10ºC. The fresh-cut avocados stored at 5ºC presented a shelf life of 5 days, based, mainly on, appearance, score 7.3, sited between the concepts "like moderately" and "like very much" on a hedonic scale of 9 points and 86% of acceptability, at the end of 5 days of storage.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade de abacates 'Fortuna' (Persea americana Mill. minimally processados. Os frutos foram lavados e sanificados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (190 ppm de cloro residual total por 15 minutos. Posteriormente, efetuou-se a retirada da extremidade onde se insere o pedúnculo, o corte em metades, retirada do caroço e casca, manualmente. Em seguida, as metades foram imersas em solução com cloreto de cálcio 0

  17. Relationships between locomotor activity, oxidative damage and life span in males and females of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buřičová, Marcela; Hodková, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2013), s. 443-449 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1612 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Heteroptera * Pyrrhocoridae * Pyrrhocoris apterus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/110/3/443

  18. Do long- and short-winged adult females of the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) differ in lifespan and reproductive capacity?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 1 (2013), s. 115-121 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Heteroptera * Pyrrhocoridae * Pyrrhocoris apterus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/110/1/115

  19. Leptoglossus lonchoides Allen (Heteroptera, Coreidae), causente de la caida de los frutos de Bactris gasipaes (Palmae) en la Amazonia central

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Clement, C.R.; Viana Filho, P.

    1991-01-01

    #Leptoglossus lonchoïdes$ Allen (Heteroptera Coreidae) provoque la chute des fruits de #Bactris gasipaes$ HBK (Palmae) en Amazonie centrale. Les plantations de "pejibaye", #B.gasipaes$, un palmier neotropical domestiqué, souffrent d'importantes chutes de jeunes fruits en Amazonie centrale (Manaus, Amazonas, Brésil), dues en partie, peut-être principalement, à la punaise #L. lonchoïdes$. Dans cet article, on évalue l'importance économique des dégâts et on décrit l'insecte. (Résumé d'auteur)...

  20. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  1. Monophyly, review, six new species and DNA barcode of micropterous Afromontane Afropictinus (Heteroptera: Aradidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Ernst; Grebennikov, Vasily

    2016-12-15

    The micropterous East African flat bug genus Afropictinus Heiss, 1986 (Heteroptera: Aradidae: Mezirinae) is revised. In addition to the type and only known species A. congoensis (Hoberlandt, 1956) from Rwanda, four new species from Tanzania (A. castor sp. nov., A. hylas sp. nov., A. idas sp. nov., A. nauplius sp. nov.), one new species from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (A. kahuzianus sp. nov.), and one new species from Ethiopia (A. nabu sp. nov.) are described and illustrated. An identification key is presented to all seven nominal species of Afropictinus. DNA barcodes of 28 individuals of Afropictinus species were newly generated and together with 12 sequences of other Aradidae were made publicly available at dx.doi.org/10.5883/DS-AFROPICT. These mtDNA sequences were analyzed phylogenetically using Maximum Likelihood approach with 500 bootstraps. Obtained topology reveals a monophyletic Afropictinus with high statistical support (84%), although its sister group remains elusive. Both specimens of non-Tanzanian Afropictinus species included in the study (A. kahuzianus and A. nabu) were nested among Tanzanian congeners. The internal clades within Afropictinus, except for those at species and population level, had lesser statistical support. Despite of intense sampling, no Afropictinus species was found in mountain forests of geologically young (Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro Volcanic Belt, which suggest reduced dispersal capacities.

  2. New evidences supporting trophobiosis between populations of Edessa rufomarginata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae and Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ants

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    Daniel Paiva Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its important effect on the maintenance of tritrophic interactions among plants, insect herbivores, and ants, there is still a paucity of natural history and basic biology information involving trophobiosis among Heteroptera stink bugs. Here, based on previous observations of a new trophobiotic interaction between Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 and Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius, 1775 ants, we describe the chemical profile of the honeydew obtained by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. There were mainly three different sugars (trehalose, glucose, and sorbose within our samples. The extrafloral nectaries of Caryocar brasiliense Camb., the host plant of E. rufomarginata, attracts a wide assemblage of Cerrado ants with varying aggressiveness toward herbivores. Therefore, this facultative trophobiotic interaction may allow the survival of the stink bug while feeding on the risky, highly ant-visited plant. Given the rarity of trophobiotic interactions between Pentatomidae species and ants and considering a zoological perspective within this family, here we discuss the ecological and evolutionary routes that may allow the rise of these interactions.

  3. Susceptibility of pest Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera: Tachinidae) to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-06-01

    Susceptibility of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and its endoparasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) to acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam was compared in residual and oral toxicity tests. In the residual toxicity test, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, and oxamyl were highly toxic to N. viridula. Thiamethoxam was moderately toxic to these insects. Each of the four insecticides was highly toxic to T. pennipes after prolonged tarsal contact with dried residues of these chemicals. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on food covered with insecticide residues, none of the insecticides were toxic to adults of this stink bug, but acetamiprid, dicrotophos, and thiamethoxam were moderately toxic to the nymphs. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on a gel-food containing insecticides, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam were highly toxic to this stink bug. In an oral toxicity test using contaminated sugar water, all of the insecticides were highly toxic to T. pennipes. Because insecticides were as toxic, or more toxic, to T. pennipes than to N. viridula, it is extremely important to conserve this parasitoid by applying these insecticides for control of southern green stink bugs only when the pest reaches economic threshold.

  4. Chromosomes and their meiotic behaviour in two species of Dieuches Dohrn, 1860 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochromini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbhajan Kaur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lygaeidae (Heteroptera are a large and diverse family in which the male diploid chromosomal complement ranges from 10 to 30. Diploid numbers of 14 and 16 are taken as two modal numbers of the family. The Rhyparochrominae, one of the largest subfamilies of the Lygaeidae, are known to be heterogeneous both cytologically and morphologically. Available data on the tribe Rhyparochromini reveal that all species are characterized by the presence of a pair of microchromosomes (m-chromosomes and have an XY/XX (♂/♀ sex chromosome determining system. Dieuches coloratus (Distant, 1909 and D. insignis (Distant, 1918 belonging to Rhyparochromini, have 2n=14=10A+2m+XY and 2n=12=8A+2m+XY respectively. Both the species are similar inone pair of distinctly large autosomes in their chromosome complements. The metaphase plate arrangement of autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes in D. coloratus is similar to the common condition observed in the tribe Rhyparochromini. In D. insignis, however, the arrangement is different. Here, metaphase I is usual in showing peripheral position of autosomes and central position of sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes. At metaphase II, however, autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes are peripherally placed, an arrangement, which is not reported earlier in the tribe Rhyparochromini.

  5. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, M C; Ferreira, A M R M; Zanuncio, T V; Zanuncio, J C; Bernardino, A S; Espindula, M C

    2004-05-01

    Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, especially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae (T1), compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (T2) and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae (T3) at a temperature of 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C, relative humidity of 70 +/- 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 +/- 1.02) similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 +/- 1.49). Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 +/- 2.02; 15.00 +/- 7.40; 8.42 +/- 1.84; 296.69 +/- 154.75; and 228.55 +/- 141.04, respectively) while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 +/- 16.15 and 35.00 +/- 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 +/- 13.60 and 23.46 +/- 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  6. Glyphosate-based herbicides toxicity on life history parameters of zoophytophagous Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Zanuncio, José; C Lacerda, Mabio; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; P Brügger, Bruno; Pereira, Alexandre I A; F Wilcken, Carlos; E Serrão, José; S Sediyama, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The increase of agricultural areas with glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, and use of this herbicide in Brazil, makes necessary to assess its impacts on non-target organisms. The objective was to evaluate the development, reproduction and life table parameters of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on GR-soybean plants treated with glyphosate formulations (Zapp-Qi, Roundup-Transorb-R and Roundup-Original) at the recommended field dose (720g acid equivalent ha -1 ). Glyphosate formulations had no affect on nymph and adult weight of this predator. Fourth instar stage was shortest with Zapp Qi. Egg-adult period was similar between treatments (26 days) with a survival over 90%. Zapp-Qi and Roundup-Transorb-R (potassium-salt: K-salt) reduced the egg, posture and nymph number per female, and the longevity and oviposition periods of this predator. Podisus nigrispinus net reproductive rate was highest in GR-soybean plants treated with Roundup-Original (isopropylamine-salt: IPA-salt). However, the duration of one generation, intrinsic and finite increase rates, and time to duplicate the population, were similar between treatments. Glyphosate toxicity on P. nigrispinus depends of the glyphosate salt type. IPA-salt was least harmless to this predator. Formulations based on K-salt altered its reproductive parameters, however, the development and population dynamic were not affect. Therefore, these glyphosate formulations are compatible with the predator P. nigrispinus with GR-soybean crop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Burkholderia of Plant-Beneficial Group are Symbiotically Associated with Bordered Plant Bugs (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoroidea: Largidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Kazutaka; Matsuura, Yu; Itoh, Hideomi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Sone, Teruo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Mergaert, Peter; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-01-01

    A number of phytophagous stinkbugs (order Heteroptera: infraorder Pentatomomorpha) harbor symbiotic bacteria in a specific midgut region composed of numerous crypts. Among the five superfamilies of the infraorder Pentatomomorpha, most members of the Coreoidea and Lygaeoidea are associated with a specific group of the genus Burkholderia, called the "stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)" group, which is not vertically transmitted, but acquired from the environment every host generation. A recent study reported that, in addition to these two stinkbug groups, the family Largidae of the superfamily Pyrrhocoroidea also possesses a Burkholderia symbiont. Despite this recent finding, the phylogenetic position and biological nature of Burkholderia associated with Largidae remains unclear. Based on the combined results of fluorescence in situ hybridization, cloning analysis, Illumina deep sequencing, and egg inspections by diagnostic PCR, we herein demonstrate that the largid species are consistently associated with the "plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE)" group of Burkholderia, which are phylogenetically distinct from the SBE group, and that they maintain symbiosis through the environmental acquisition of the bacteria. Since the superfamilies Coreoidea, Lygaeoidea, and Pyrrhocoroidea are monophyletic in the infraorder Pentatomomorpha, it is plausible that the symbiotic association with Burkholderia evolved at the common ancestor of the three superfamilies. However, the results of this study strongly suggest that a dynamic transition from the PBE to SBE group, or vice versa, occurred in the course of stinkbug evolution.

  8. Biodiversity of Coreoidea and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) from Atlantic forest protected areas. Insights into their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellapé, Gimena; Colpo, Karine D; Melo, María C; Montemayor, Sara I; Dellapé, Pablo M

    2018-01-01

    Although the majority of threatened species are likely to be tropical insects, knowledge of the diversity, ecological role and impact of insect biodiversity loss on ecosystem processes is very limited. Specimens belonging to four families of Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Alydidae and Rhopalidae, were collected from a protected area in the Paraná Forest, the largest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest, in Argentina. The assemblages were characterized and the biodiversity estimated, and they were compared with the assemblages found in five other protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In our study area, Pentatomidae had the greatest richness and diversity; Coreidae was the second most diverse family, with highest sampling deficit, highest percentage of singletons, and lowest inventory completeness; and Rhopalidae was the best sampled family with asymptotic rarefaction curves. We explored the application of the Species Conservation Importance index, following four criteria, to evaluate the relative importance of the pentatomid species studied and its usefulness for assigning conservation values to areas. We found similar Site Conservation Values among the six areas and noted that the use of criteria was limited by the lack of information, being crucial to increase the knowledge of most of the species.

  9. Antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea Americana, an invitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amith; Kumarachandra, Reshma; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Rao, Satish; Suchetha Kumari; Joshi, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produce deleterious effects in the living organisms. Rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Several plants have been screened for their radio protective ability and the hunt for identifying many more safe, nontoxic and effective ones is in progress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity in hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Psidium guajava (guava) and Persea americana (avocado). The antioxidant assay such as 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, chelation of iron by plant extract, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and total antioxidant activity of extract was analyzed using spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of leaf extracts were also performed. The results indicated that the IC50 value of hydro alcoholic leaf extract of P.guajava and P. americana were 14 μg/ml and 15 μg/ml in ABTS free radical scavenging assay, 4 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml in DPPH free radical scavenging assay, 7.2 μg/ml and 8.4 μg/ml in chelation of iron by plant extract, 2 μg/ml and, 4.3 μg/ml in hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and effective concentration(EC50) was 57.80 μg/ml and 87.56 μg/ml in FRAP assay respectively. The results for total antioxidant activity indicated that 242.3 μg/ml of P.guajava and 432.7 μg/ml of P.americana extract was equivalent to 100 μg/ml of standard qurecetin respectively. Qualitative analysis of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponions, terpenoids, and glycosides. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids qurecetin and rutin in leaf extracts on comparison with standard compounds. Our study showed that hydro alcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea americana act as strong antioxidant and free

  10. Uncovering the molecular organization of unusual highly scattered 5S rDNA: The case of Chariesterus armatus (Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2018-03-10

    One cluster of 5S rDNA per haploid genome is the most common pattern among Heteroptera. However, in Chariesterus armatus, highly scattered signals were noticed. We isolated and characterized the entire 5S rDNA unit of C. armatus aiming to a deeper knowledge of molecular organization of the 5S rDNA among Heteroptera and to understand possible causes and consequences of 5S rDNA chromosomal spreading. For a comparative analysis, we performed the same approach in Holymenia histrio with 5S rDNA restricted to one bivalent. Multiple 5S rDNA variants were observed in both species, though they were more variable in C. armatus, with some of variants corresponding to pseudogenes. These pseudogenes suggest birth-and-death mechanism, though homogenization was also observed (concerted evolution), indicating evolution through mixed model. Association between transposable elements and 5S rDNA was not observed, suggesting spreading of 5S rDNA through other mechanisms, like ectopic recombination. Scattered organization is a rare example for 5S rDNA, and such organization in C. armatus genome could have led to the high diversification of sequences favoring their pseudogenization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Successful hatching from eggs carried by females and naturally removed from incubant males in Belostoma spp. water bugs (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lía Estévez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Within Belostomatinae water bug species (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae it has been hitherto believed that the completion of embryonic development is successful only if eggs are incubated on male hemelytra. Nevertheless, we found egg successful hatching from a back- brooding Belostoma elegans (Mayr and B. micantulum (Stål females, as well as from fertilized eggs kicked off from four back-brooder B. elegans males. One "encumbered" B. elongatum Montandon female was also recorded, but eggs did not hatch after she removed them. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 515-517. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se considera que el desarrollo embrionario y la emergencia de las ninfas de las especies de Belostomatinae (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae se cumplen con éxito si los huevos son incubados sobre el espacio dorsal de machos adultos. No obstante, hemos registrado eclosiones exitosas a partir de dos hembras grávidas portando huevos sobre su dorso; una de ellas de la especie Belostoma elegans (Mayr, la otra de B. micantulum (Stål. Se registra la eclosión de huevos, previamente removidos del área de postura por los propios machos incubantes de B. elegans (N=4 y la presencia de una hembra de B. elongatum Montandon, portando huevos sobre sus hemiélitros, los cuales no eclosionaron después de haber sido removidos por la propia hembra.

  12. Utilization of modified starch from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed in cream soup production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelia, M.; Christianti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed was often seen as waste and underutilized resources, especially in the food industry. The aim of this research was to modify the structure of avocado seed starch using the cross-linking method, to improve the viscosity stability in the cream soup. In the preliminary research, starch was isolated from the seed and modified by STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) with 2%, 4%, and 6% concentration and were reacted for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Starches were analyzed for moisture and ash content, paste clarity, gel strength, swelling power, solubility, yield, and degree of whiteness. Based on the analysis results, the best reaction time and STPP concentration was 6% at 1 hour reaction time. Native starch and the best-modified starch were applied in the cream soup and compared with commercial cream soup. Cream soups were analyzed for viscosity stability using viscometer in 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours after storage in room temperature. The result showed that cream soup using modified starch has better viscosity stability than native starch and commercial cream soup after 5 hours storage, which was 181.7 ± 4.85 cP. Sensory analysis showed that cream soup using modified starch was more acceptable than the others. Avocado seed modified starch has phosphate group that strengthen the starch chain to prevent viscosity breakdown.

  13. Antidiabetic potential of methanol extracts from leaves of Piper umbellatum L. and Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sedar Singor Njateng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine inhibitory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper umbellatum and Persea americana (P. americana (traditionally used in Cameroon against diabetes on α -glucosidase, β -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities, enzymes involved in starch digestion or diabetic complications. Methods: The methanol extracts from Piper umbellatum and P. americana were prepared by maceration. To assess relative efficacy of these extracts, the determination of concentrations that were needed to inhibit 50% of enzyme activity was done, whereas, gas chromatography-mass spectrum was used to identify components from extracts that may be responsible for the activities. Results: The tested extracts strongly inhibited α -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities with IC50 ranging from (1.07 ± 0.03 to (31.77 ± 1.17 μg/mL. Among the tested extracts, P. americana was the most active against sensitive enzymes (IC50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 to 15.63 ± 1.23. But, none of the extracts showed interesting inhibitory effect against β -glucosidase as their percentage inhibitions were less than 16%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis, 10 and 8 compounds were identified in Piper umbellatum and P. americana extracts respectively, using NIST library 2014. Conclusions: Results of this study provide the scientific credential for a prospective usage of these plants to treat diabetes.

  14. Effects of Persea americana Mill. seed extracts on the postembryonic development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscoide

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    Silvia del C. Molina Bertrán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The synthetic insecticides used to control Diptera are harmful to the environment and humans. Extracts and compounds from plants are a more sustainable source for the development of bio-insecticides. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract of Persea americana Mill seeds as an alternative control of the species Musca domestica. Methods: The extracts were obtained by two methods, the Shaker (S and the Soxhlet extraction (SE method, using 94% ethanol as the solvent. Also, the qualitative chemical composition was determined by phytochemical screening. The effect of the two extracts on the post-embryonic development of the fly as well as the adulticidal effect was evaluated. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of metabolites such as alkaloids, coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, sugars and amino acids. The influence on the post-embryonic development of M. domestica was demonstrated, especially on the viability of larvae and neolarvae to adults; however, the effect on the weight and duration of each period was low. The adulticidal effects of the extracts were determined by the lethal concentration 50(LC50 of 2.910 mg/100 mL and 3.944 mg/100 mL for the S and SE extracts, respectively. Conclusions: Both extracts showed their insecticidal effects against Musca domestica, but the extract elaborated by S method showed greater influence diminishing viability and better adulticidal effect.

  15. GENETIC VARIABILITY WITHIN MEXICAN RACE AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill. GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS DETERMINED BY ISSRs

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    H. Cuiris-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se efectuó para determinar la existencia de diversidad genética dentro de una colección de germoplasma de aguacate (Persea americana Mill. perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP, Campo Experimental Uruapan (CEFAP-Uruapan. Se investigó la relación parental entre 77 accesiones (231 plantas de la raza Mexicana con el uso de siete ISSRs (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat microsatellites, en inglés. En total se detectaron 154 loci. El porcentaje de polimorfismo varió de 82.3 a 95.4, con un número de bandas entre 17 y 25 dentro de las accesiones. El análisis de similitud genética reveló la formación de dos grupos principales, uno con once subgrupos y el otro con tres subgrupos. La similitud genética fue más alta entre las accesiones 237 (Atlixco, Puebla y XTC01 (Uruapan, Michoacán, mientras que las accesiones 532 (Atlixco, Puebla y 369 (Chilchota, Michoacán fueron las más disímiles. No se encontraron duplicados en los genotipos analizados. En general, el presente estudio demostró la utilidad del análisis mediante ISSRs para la determinación de diversidad genética en aguacate.

  16. ETIQUETAS DE SECUENCIAS EXPRESADAS DIFERENCIALES DE FRUTOS DE AGUACATE RAZA MEXICANA (Persea americana Mill. var. drymifolia

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    Enrique Ignacio Sánchez-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este estudio se desarrollaron e identificaron etiquetas de secuencias expresadas diferencialmente (ESTs de frutos inmaduros de Persea americana Mill. var. drymifolia del estado de Nuevo León, México. Diez genotipos con frutos de forma y tamaño diferentes fueron seleccionados para generar ESTs por la técnica de despliegue diferencial.Se obtuvieron en total 393 fragmentos diferenciales amplificados, 82 fragmentos diferenciales fueron secuenciados y editados para identificación y comparación en las bases de datos para nucleótidos y proteínas del NCBI. Cuarenta secuencias mostraron similitud significativa con secuencias de ARNm y/o secuencias de proteínas hipotéticas o predichas pertenecientes a P. americana y/o a otros géneros. Algunas secuencias estuvieron relacionadas a enzimas como flavanona-3-hidroxilasa (F3H, lecitina-colesterol aciltransferasa, glutatión-S-transferasamicrosomal y proteína pleiotrópica de resistencia a drogas. Con la información de la composición nucleotídica de las ESTs se podrán diseñar iniciadores para cuantificar niveles de expresión por RT-PCR en tiempo real de los genes, en diferentes etapas fenológicas del fruto y hacer comparaciones entre los genotipos que permitan determinar usos alternos de sus frutos.

  17. Microsatellite markers in avocado (Persea americana Mill.): genealogical relationships among cultivated avocado genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, V E T M; Clegg, M T

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-five microsatellite markers uniquely differentiated 35 avocado cultivars and two wild relatives. Average heterozygosity was high (60.7%), ranging from 32% in P. steyermarkii to 84% in Fuerte and Bacon. In a subset of 15 cultivars, heterozygosity averaged 63.5% for microsatellites, compared to 41.8% for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). A neighbor-joining tree, according to average shared allele distances, consisted of three clusters likely corresponding to the botanical races of avocado and intermediate clusters uniting genotypes of presumably racially hybrid origin. Several results were at odds with existing botanical assignments that are sometimes rendered difficult by incomplete pedigree information, the complexity of the hybrid status (multiple backcrossing), or both. For example, cv. Harvest clustered with the Guatemalan race cultivars, yet it is derived from the Guatemalan x Mexican hybrid cv. Gwen. Persea schiedeana grouped with cv. Bacon. The rootstock G875 emerged as the most divergent genotype in our data set. Considerable diversity was found particularly among accessions from Guatemala, including G810 (West Indian race), G6 (Mexican race), G755A (hybrid Guatemalan x P. schiedeana), and G875 (probably not P. americana). Low bootstrap support, even upon exclusion of (known) hybrid genotypes from the data matrix, suggests the existence of ancient hybridization or that the botanical races originated more recently than previously thought.

  18. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

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    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  19. Purification and characterization of peroxidase from avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Hass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Reyes, José O; Robles-Olvera, Victor; Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Castro Matinez, Claudia; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe

    2014-07-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Hass) fruit ranks tenth in terms of the most important products for Mexico. Avocado products are quite unstable due to the presence of oxidative enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The present study is to characterize the activity of purified avocado peroxidase from avocado in order to ascertain the biochemical and kinetic properties and their inhibition conditions. Purification was performed by Sephacryl S 200 HR gel filtration chromatography and its estimated molecular weight was 40 kDa. The zymogram showed an isoelectric point of 4.7. Six substrates were tested in order to ascertain the affinity of the enzyme for these substrates. The purified peroxidase was found to have low Km (0.296 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (2688 mM(-1) s(-1)) using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), optimum activity being reached at 51°C, pH 3.8. The addition of dithiothreitol, β-mercaptoethanol, ascorbic acid, sodium azide, L-cysteine and Tween-20 had high inhibitory effects, while metals ions such as Cu(+), Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) had weak inhibitory activity on purified avocado peroxidase. The purified avocado peroxidase exhibits high inhibition (Ki = 0.37 µM) with 1.97 µM n-propyl gallate using ABTS as substrate at 51°C, pH 3.8 for 10 min. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of Avocado Hass (Persea americana Mill) in the Interaction System Fruit-Chitosan-Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoca-Orozco, Luis-Ángel; Cuellar-Torres, Esther Angélica; González-Morales, Sandra; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; López-García, Ulises; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Chacón-López, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Avocado ( Persea americana ) is one of the most important crops in Mexico as it is the main producer, consumer, and exporter of avocado fruit in the world. However, successful avocado commercialization is often reduced by large postharvest losses due to Colletotrichum sp., the causal agent of anthracnose. Chitosan is known to have a direct antifungal effect and acts also as an elicitor capable of stimulating a defense response in plants. However, there is little information regarding the genes that are either activated or repressed in fruits treated with chitosan. The aim of this study was to identify by RNA-seq the genes differentially regulated by the action of low molecular weight chitosan in the avocado-chitosan- Colletotrichum interaction system. The samples for RNA-seq were obtained from fruits treated with chitosan, fruits inoculated with Colletotrichum and fruits both treated with chitosan and inoculated with the fungus. Non-treated and non-inoculated fruits were also analyzed. Expression profiles showed that in short times, the fruit-chitosan system presented a greater number of differentially expressed genes, compared to the fruit-pathogen system. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed a large number of metabolic processes regulated by chitosan, including those preventing the spread of Colletotrichum . It was also found that there is a high correlation between the expression of genes in silico and qPCR of several genes involved in different metabolic pathways.

  1. Persea americana (avocado): bringing ancient flowers to fruit in the genomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Ashworth, Vanessa E T M; Clegg, Michael T; Litz, Richard E; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2008-04-01

    The avocado (Persea americana) is a major crop commodity worldwide. Moreover, avocado, a paleopolyploid, is an evolutionary "outpost" among flowering plants, representing a basal lineage (the magnoliid clade) near the origin of the flowering plants themselves. Following centuries of selective breeding, avocado germplasm has been characterized at the level of microsatellite and RFLP markers. Nonetheless, little is known beyond these general diversity estimates, and much work remains to be done to develop avocado as a major subtropical-zone crop. Among the goals of avocado improvement are to develop varieties with fruit that will "store" better on the tree, show uniform ripening and have better post-harvest storage. Avocado transcriptome sequencing, genome mapping and partial genomic sequencing will represent a major step toward the goal of sequencing the entire avocado genome, which is expected to aid in improving avocado varieties and production, as well as understanding the evolution of flowers from non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms). Additionally, continued evolutionary and other comparative studies of flower and fruit development in different avocado strains can be accomplished at the gene expression level, including in comparison with avocado relatives, and these should provide important insights into the genetic regulation of fruit development in basal angiosperms.

  2. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-05

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia.

  3. Bitter-tasting and kokumi-enhancing molecules in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Andreas Georg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-12-22

    Sequential application of solvent extraction and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses (TDA) and comparative TDA, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of 10 C(17)-C(21) oxylipins with 1,2,4-trihydroxy-, 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-, and 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motifs, respectively, besides 1-O-stearoyl-glycerol and 1-O-linoleoyl-glycerol as bitter-tasting compounds in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.). On the basis of quantitative data, dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, and taste re-engineering experiments, these phytochemicals, among which 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-octadeca-12-ene was found with the highest taste impact, were confirmed to be the key contributors to the bitter off-taste developed upon thermal processing of avocado. For the first time, those C(17)-C(21) oxylipins exhibiting a 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy- and a 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motif, respectively, were discovered to induce a mouthfulness (kokumi)-enhancing activity in sub-bitter threshold concentrations.

  4. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

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    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  5. Reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovičová, Martina; Černíková, Alena

    2015-06-01

    The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach-attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    M. C. Lacerda

    Full Text Available Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae larvae (T1, compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae (T2 and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae larvae (T3 at a temperature of 25 ± 0.5ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 ± 1.02 similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 ± 1.49. Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 ± 2.02; 15.00 ± 7.40; 8.42 ± 1.84; 296.69 ± 154.75; and 228.55 ± 141.04, respectively while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 ± 16.15 and 35.00 ± 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 ± 13.60 and 23.46 ± 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  7. Species composition, monitoring, and feeding injury of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S A; Liburd, O E; Eger, J E; Rhodes, E M

    2013-04-01

    Blackberry (Rubus spp.) production in Florida has increased > 100% within the past two decades. and several insect pests, including stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), have been observed feeding on this crop. The objectives for this study were to determine the stink bug species present in blackberry; to develop monitoring tools for stink bugs in blackberry; and to describe feeding injury to blackberries by Euschistus quadrator Rolston, a relatively new stink bug pest to Florida, that has spread throughout the state. In a field survey, E. quadrator was the most abundant stink bug species, followed by Euschistus servus Say, Euschistus obscurus (Palisot de Beauvois), Thyanta custator (F.), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot de Beauvois), and Podisus maculiventris Say. Yellow pyramid traps caught more stink bugs than tube traps with or without the addition of Euschistus spp. pheromone lures. There were no statistical differences between traps baited with a Trécé Pherocon Centrum lure, a Suterra Scenturion lure, and an unbaited trap. These results were supported by Y-tube olfactometer assays with E. quadrator where there were no differences between pheromone baited lures and a control. Injury to berries caused by E. quadrator adults and third instars was similar, and both adults and third instars fed more on green berries compared with turning berries. In addition, adults fed more on green berries compared with ripe fruit. The most common injury to green berries was discoloration. In contrast, misshapen drupelets were commonly seen on turning and ripe berries. The potential for managing stink bugs in blackberries to prevent them from reaching damaging levels is discussed.

  8. Aceite de frutos de Persea schiedeana en sobremaduración y cosechados de árboles en estado silvestre

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Hernández, N; Cruz-Castillo, JG; Hernández-Montes, A; Rubio-Hernández, D

    2011-01-01

    En frutos sobremaduros de Persea schiedeana Nees colectados en árboles creciendo en estado silvestre se estudiaron las características químicas y sensoriales del aceite. La extracción de aceite con isopropanol y hexano tuvo un rendimiento de 12% aceite/pulpa (v/p). El aceite de P. schiedeana fue comparado con aceites comerciales de oliva y aguacate. El aceite de P. schiedeana tuvo menor número de insaturaciones y más ácidos grasos de cadena larga que los aceite de oliva y de aguacate. Los índ...

  9. Competitividad de la oferta exportable de la palta Hass (Persea americana) en el mercado de Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Balvín Calderón, Eduardo Simeón

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Agronegocios La presente investigación denominada “Competitividad de la oferta exportable de la palta Hass (Persea americana) en el Mercado de Estados Unidos”, se realizó en el departamento de Lima e Ica, durante el periodo del 2004 al 2014. El propósito de la investigación fue realizar el análisis la oferta exportable, además se analizó las características del mercado de Estados Unidos de América y el nivel de compet...

  10. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae.

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    Jerome Niogret

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae. The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees.

  11. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana.

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    María Librada Alcaraz

    Full Text Available A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  12. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D; Schnell, Raymond J; Boza, Edward J; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's) determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees.

  13. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  14. Potencial reprodutivo horário do predador de lagartas desfolhadoras do eucalipto: Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Hourly reproductive potential of the predator of Lepidoptera eucalypt desfoliators: Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Martins Pires

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insetos da subordem Heteroptera apresentam ampla diversidade faunística, incluindo predadores de pragas agrícolas e florestais. Espécies do gênero Podisus destacam-se entre os percevejos predadores no controle biológico de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto, soja, algodão e tomate. O objetivo foi estudar o comportamento reprodutivo e a atividade de predação de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae em laboratório. Casais desse predador foram acondicionados em potes plásticos de 500 mL com pupas de T. molitor e água em tubos tipo anestésico odontológico, inseridos na tampa desses potes. Foram observados: a postura o acasalamento e a alimentação de machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus às 0 h, 6 h, 12 h e 18 h. O porcentual de fêmeas de P. nigrispinus predando foi de 26,26; 24,39; 15,91; e 34,21% e o de machos, de 7,41; 6,20; 4,88; e 5,77%, às 0 h, 6 h, 12 h e 18 h, respectivamente. O maior número de fêmeas ovipositando foi observado às 00 h. A maior porcentagem de fêmeas predando foi às 18 h (32,21% e a de atividade de postura, à 0 h (50,56% dos ovos depositados, enquanto foram registrados apenas 1,66% dos ovos às 12 h. O número de acasalamentos de P. nigrispinus foi maior às 12 h (34,58%, seguido das 00 h (29,65%, 18 h (22,36% e 6 h (16,60%.Insects of the sub-order Heteroptera present a wide diversity including predators of agricultural and forest pests. Species of the genus Podisus are important agents of biological control of defoliating caterpillars of eucalyptus, soybem, cotton and tomato. The objective was to study the reproductive behavior and predation rate of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae in the laboratory. Pairs of this predator were placed in 500 ml plastic pots with T. molitor pupae and water in tubes of anesthetic odontologic type inserted in the

  15. Epidemiology, pathology and identification of Colletotrichum including a novel species associated with avocado (Persea americana) anthracnose in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gunjan; Maymon, Marcel; Freeman, Stanley

    2017-11-20

    Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is a major constraint for the shelf-life and marketability of avocado fruits. To date, only C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. aenigma have been reported as pathogens affecting avocado in Israel. This study was conducted to identify and characterize Colletotrichum species associated with avocado anthracnose and to determine their survival on different host-structures in Israel. The pathogen survived and over-wintered mainly on fresh and dry leaves, as well as fresh twigs in the orchard. A collection of 538 Colletotrichum isolates used in this study was initially characterized based on morphology and banding patterns generated according to arbitrarily primed PCR to assess the genetic diversity of the fungal populations. Thereafter, based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses involving combinations of ITS, act, ApMat, cal, chs1, gapdh, gs, his3, tub2 gene/markers; eight previously described species (C. aenigma, C. alienum, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto, C. karstii, C. nupharicola, C. siamense, C. theobromicola) and a novel species (C. perseae) were identified, as avocado anthracnose pathogens in Israel; and reconfirmed after pathogenicity assays. Colletotrichum perseae sp. nov. and teleomorph of C. aenigma are described along with comprehensive morphological descriptions and illustrations, for the first time in this study.

  16. The first decapeptide adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in Heteroptera: A novel AKH from a South African saucer bug, Laccocoris spurcus (Naucoridae, Laccocorinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Gäde, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2011), s. 454-460 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA2007021300002; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) IFR2008071500048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insects * Heteroptera * Laccocoris spurcus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2011

  17. Vehicle-mounted net sampling of airborne micro-Heteroptera in western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrÜger, Andreas

    2018-02-11

    A vehicle-mounted "car-net" is a rarely used technique of insect sampling. In Liberia, it was used over several consecutive months, and the first results of taxonomic analyses of Heteroptera from the by-catch are presented, namely on the mirid subfamily Isometopinae ("jumping tree bugs"). So far, no isometopine species have been known from Liberia.        New records of Isometopinae in Liberia are provided including: Isometopus slateri (Akingbohungbe), Myiomma cobbeni Akingbohungbe, M. rubra Smith, and M. rubrovenata Smith. Additional new species are described, including: Isometopus bongensis sp. nov., Paloniella garmsi sp. nov., P. erinacea sp. nov., Ptisca liberiense sp. nov., Myiomma albostiolata sp. nov., M .brunnea sp. nov., M. fuscipes sp. nov., M. goellneri sp. nov. and M. variabilis sp. nov. A new genus with one included species is similarly described as follows: Bongiella nodistylis gen. nov. et sp. nov.

  18. New Record of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Coreidae Attacking Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L. in Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2011-03-01

    Resumo. Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Coreidae um percevejo fitófago amplamente encontrado no continente Americano. Essa espécie encontra-se associada a diversas culturas agrícolas, onde se estabelecem devido a oferta de alimento e de condições favoráveis ao seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo foi registrar a ocorrência de L. zonatus atacando frutos de carambola em Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil e relatar nova planta hospedeira para esse percevejo. Adultos e imaturos foram encontrados durante os meses de setembro a novembro de 2009, atacando frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil. O ataque desse percevejo prejudica a qualidade dos frutos, permitindo que outros insetos como dípteros da família Phoridae tenham acesso a secreções do fruto pelo orifício feito pelo estilete desse percevejo, causando assim, danos na qualidade da carambola.

  19. The Beetle (Coleoptera and True bug (Heteroptera species pool of the alpine “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di Tirano, Italy and its conservation

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    Matteo Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he C oleoptera and Heteroptera species pool was investigated in the “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di T irano, Sondrio, Italy. T he wetland consists of a bog and its surroundings, referred to as wetland components, that are both subjected to a diversified intermediate management regime (DIMR. T he application of the DIMR for plant species conservation resulted in the establishment of 11 wetland zones with a characteristic vegetation. In a three year sampling program, 997 C oleoptera and Heteroptera representing 141 species from 14 families were collected. Among these species, 64 species share both wetland components, 11 are restricted to the bog and 63 were found in the surroundings only. Among the species pool there were 23 tyrphophile taxa and only one tyrphobiont. With the exception of one zone, all zones are inhabited by zone-specific species. By taking into account both the general species pool and the pool of species of particular interest to conservationists, only one zone can be considered as redundant since it is inhabited by species that occur also in other zones. Hence, all the zones, with one exception, are effective for species pool conservation. The existing DIMR implemented for plant species conservation is also effective for conserving the species pool of C oleoptera and Heteroptera.

  20. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  1. Development, survival and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with salt and amino acids solutions supplementary diet

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    Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of a supplementary diet with amino acids and sodium chloride solutions in addition to prey on the development, survival and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Both solutions showed deleterious effects on nymph survival, adult weight, female longevity, number of egg masses, eggs per female, eggs per egg mass and nymphs per female besides egg viability of P. nigrispinus when compared with diet with water and prey. When compared with plant supplements in the diet the use of amino acids and salt solutions for mass rearing of P. nigrispinus was inferior.O presente estudo mostra o efeito da suplementação alimentar com soluções de aminoácidos e salina (NaCl no desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Ambas soluções causaram efeito deletério na sobrevivência ninfal, peso dos adultos, longevidade das fêmeas e nos números de posturas, de ovos/fêmea, de ovos/postura e de ninfas, bem como na viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus quando comparado com estes insetos que além de presa receberam água. Estes resultados são discutidos em comparação com o efeito positivo que a suplementação alimentar com plantas tem sido relatada para esses predadores e sugerem que o uso de plantas é melhor que a substituição por solução de aminoácidos em sistemas de criação em laboratório desses predadores.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Volatile Defensive Secretions of Three Species of Pyrrhocoridae (Insecta: Heteroptera by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Method.

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    Jan Krajicek

    Full Text Available The true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera have evolved a system of well-developed scent glands that produce diverse and frequently strongly odorous compounds that act mainly as chemical protection against predators. A new method of non-lethal sampling with subsequent separation using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was proposed for analysis of these volatile defensive secretions. Separation was performed on Rtx-200 column containing fluorinated polysiloxane stationary phase. Various mechanical irritation methods (ultrasonics, shaking, pressing bugs with plunger of syringe were tested for secretion sampling with a special focus on non-lethal irritation. The preconcentration step was performed by sorption on solid phase microextraction (SPME fibers with different polarity. For optimization of sampling procedure, Pyrrhocoris apterus was selected. The entire multi-parameter optimization procedure of secretion sampling was performed using response surface methodology. The irritation of bugs by pressing them with a plunger of syringe was shown to be the most suitable. The developed method was applied to analysis of secretions produced by adult males and females of Pyrrhocoris apterus, Pyrrhocoris tibialis and Scantius aegyptius (all Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae. The chemical composition of secretion, particularly that of alcohols, aldehydes and esters, is species-specific in all three pyrrhocorid species studied. The sexual dimorphism in occurrence of particular compounds is largely limited to alcohols and suggests their epigamic intraspecific function. The phenetic overall similarities in composition of secretion do not reflect either relationship of species or similarities in antipredatory color pattern. The similarities of secretions may be linked with antipredatory strategies. The proposed method requires only a few individuals which remain alive after the procedure. Thus secretions of a number of species including even the rare

  3. Initial evaluation of fruit of accessions of Persea schiedeana Nees for nutritional value, quality and oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Yerena, A; Guerra-Ramírez, D; Jácome-Rincón, J; Espinosa-Solares, T; Reyes-Trejo, B; Famiani, F; Cruz-Castillo, J G

    2018-04-15

    Persea schiedeana Nees is an underutilized and very little known species whose fruit is consumed in Mesoamerica where it grows wild. This study was carried out to evaluate: 1) the variability of fruit characteristics of different accessions; 2) the effects of centrifugation and microwave treatment on extracting oil from the fruit and on its qualitative characteristics; 3) the nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit and seeds of different accessions. The results showed a large variability in fruit size and oil/dry matter contents among the different accessions. There was a significant relationship between the dry matter and oil contents in the pulp. The combined use of centrifugation and microwave treatments gave high oil extraction yields (67-68%). The oils had good fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity. The results gave an initial picture about the total phenol contents and antioxidant capacities in the seeds and in the different parts of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajkumar; Kulkarni, Paresh; Ganesh, Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with reduced risks for many types of cancers. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a widely consumed fruit containing many cancer preventing nutrients, vitamins and phytochemicals. Studies have shown that phytochemicals extracted from the avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. Our recent studies indicate that phytochemicals extracted with 50% Methanol from avocado fruits help in proliferation of human lymphocyte cells and decrease chromosomal aberrations induced by cyclophosphamide. Among three concentrations (100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg per Kg Body Weight), the most effective conc. of extract was 200 mg/Kg Body Wt. It decreased significant level of numerical and structural aberrations (breaks, premature centromeric division etc. up to 88%, p avocado fruit can be utilized for making active chemoprotective ingredient for lowering the side effect of chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide in cancer therapy.

  5. In vitro evaluation of genotoxicity of avocado (Persea americana) fruit and leaf extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Paresh; Paul, Rajkumar; Ganesh, N

    2010-07-01

    Persea americana is much sought after both for the nutritional value of its fruit and the medicinal values of its various plant parts. A chromosomal aberration assay was undertaken to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of crude extracts from avocado fruits and leaves. Chromosomal aberrations were observed in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes exposed to separately increasing concentrations of 50% methanolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves. The groups exposed to leaf and fruit extracts, respectively, showed a concentration-dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations as compared to that in a control group. The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of leaf extract were found respectively to be 58 ± 7.05, 72 ± 6.41, and 78 ± 5.98, which were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 each) than that in the control group (6 ± 3.39). The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of fruit extract were found to be 18 ± 5.49, 40 ± 10.00, and 52 ± 10.20, respectively, which were significantly higher (p = 0.033, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively) than that for control (6 ± 3.39). Acrocentric associations and premature centromeric separation were the two most common abnormalities observed in both the exposed groups. The group exposed to leaf extracts also showed a significant number of a variety of other structural aberrations, including breaks, fragments, dicentrics, terminal deletion, minutes, and Robertsonian translocations. The group exposed to leaf extract showed higher frequency of all types of aberrations at equal concentrations as compared to the group exposed to fruit extract.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) AND AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA) FRUITS IN ILLU ABABOR ZONE, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lalisa Wakjira Duresa1*, Daniel Manaye2

    2017-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are rich in bioactive molecules that protect human cells against the detrimental effect of free radicals. The phytochemical analysis revealed the Presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, phenolics and flavonoids in both fruits. The free radical scavenging activity using total antioxidant capacity of the phosphomolybdenum method and hydrogen peroxide method were carried out on the water extracts of mango and avocado...

  7. Evaluación del proceso de extracción de aceite de aguacate hass (Persea americana Mill) utilizando tratamiento enzimático

    OpenAIRE

    Buelvas Salgado, Gustavo Andrés; Patiño Gómez, J. H.; Cano Salazar, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Avocado oil is rich in vitamins A, B, C and E, and is mainly composed by monounsaturated fat acids, which effectively reduce cholesterol levels in blood, thus helping to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Objective. Evaluating the performance of Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill) oil extraction in E3-M (mature) from the East of Antioquia, by the use of commercial enzymatic complexes. Materials and methods. To develop this research work, a physical-chem...

  8. Generation of composite Persea americana (Mill.) (avocado) plants: A proof-of-concept-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S Ashok; Ndlovu, Buyani; Engelbrecht, Juanita; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2017-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)), an important commercial fruit, is severely affected by Phytophthora Root Rot in areas where the pathogen is prevalent. However, advances in molecular research are hindered by the lack of a high-throughput transient transformation system in this non-model plant. In this study, a proof-of-concept is demonstrated by the successful application of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated plant transformation to produce composite avocado plants. Two ex vitro strategies were assessed on two avocado genotypes (Itzamna and A0.74): In the first approach, 8-week-old etiolated seedlings were scarred with a sterile hacksaw blade at the base of the shoot, and in the second, inch-long incisions were made at the base of the shoot (20-week-old non-etiolated plants) with a sterile blade to remove the cortical tissue. The scarred/wounded shoot surfaces were treated with A. rhizogenes strains (K599 or ARqua1) transformed with or without binary plant transformation vectors pRedRootII (DsRed1 marker), pBYR2e1-GFP (GFP- green fluorescence protein marker) or pBINUbiGUSint (GUS- beta-glucuronidase marker) with and without rooting hormone (Dip 'N' Grow) application. The treated shoot regions were air-layered with sterile moist cocopeat to induce root formation. Results showed that hormone application significantly increased root induction, while Agrobacterium-only treatments resulted in very few roots. Combination treatments of hormone+Agrobacterium (-/+ plasmids) showed no significant difference. Only the ARqua1(+plasmid):A0.74 combination resulted in root transformants, with hormone+ARqua1(+pBINUbiGUSint) being the most effective treatment with ~17 and 25% composite plants resulting from strategy-1 and strategy-2, respectively. GUS- and GFP-expressing roots accounted for less than 4 and ~11%, respectively, of the total roots/treatment/avocado genotype. The average number of transgenic roots on the composite plants was less than one per plant in all treatments

  9. Attraction of Male Nymphs to Adult Male Volatiles in the Bronze Bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellape (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M V; Groba, H F; Martínez, G; Sellanes, C; Rossini, C; González, A

    2017-12-23

    The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellape (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), is an exotic emerging pest in Eucalyptus commercial forests in South America, Africa and southern Europe. Information on the chemical communication system and reproductive ecology of this insect is scant, and it may be relevant for designing management strategies for eucalypt plantations. Adults and nymphs usually aggregate in the field, possibly by means of chemical signals. Males emit large amounts of 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate, which attracts conspecific adult males but not females. The ecological role of this putative male aggregation pheromone remains unknown. Here, we report olfactometer bioassays showing that late-instar male nymphs are also attracted to synthetic 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate and to adult male volatile extracts, which contain this compound as the major component. As previously shown for adult females, nymphs that moulted into females were not attracted to either volatile stimulus. The intra-gender attraction of nymphs and adults may be related to the exploitation of food resources, or as a reproductive strategy for newly emerged males. Further studies on the reproductive behaviour and mating system of T. peregrinus will contribute to understanding the ecological significance of male-male, adult-nymph attraction, as well as the practical applications that may result from these findings.

  10. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Waheed

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocado (Persea americana belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR. Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved

  11. No direct effects of resistant soybean cultiva IAC-24 on Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Efectos no directos de resistencia del cultivar de soya IAC-24 sobre Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of survival, development and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae may be affected by feeding on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.; Fabaceae cultivars. The direct effect was evaluated of the insect-resistant soybean 'IAC-24' (insect-susceptible soybean 'UFVS-2006' + pupae of Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae versus 'IAC-24' plants + pupae of T. molitor in the nymph and adult stages of the predator P. nigrispinus. The duration of the nymph stage was similar between treatments, but 'IAC-24' reduced the duration of the IV instar of this predator. The survival of P. nigrispinus was similar between treatments in the instars I, II, IV and V and in the nymph stage, but the survival of the III instar was longer with 'IAC-24' plants. The body mass of nymphs in the first day of the III, IV, and V instars after ecdysis and newly emerged adults; reproductive characteristics (periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, post-oviposition and egg incubation; egg laying interval, number of egg masses per female, nymphs per female, nymphs per egg mass and percentage of nymphs hatching and life span of males and females of P. nigrispinus were similar between treatments. The resistant soybean 'IAC-24' showed no direct deleterious effects on P. nigrispinus, which implies its innocuity and compatibility with this predator.Los par ámetros de supervivencia, desarrollo y reproducción de Podìsus nìgrìspìnus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae pueden verse afectados por la alimentación en cultivos de soya (Glycìne max L. Merr.; Fabaceae. Se evaluó el efecto directo de la soya 'IAC-24' resistente a insectos (soya 'UFVS-2006' susceptible a insectos + pupas de Tenebrìo molìtor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae vs. plantas 'IAC-24' + pupas de T. molìtor sobre los estados de ninfa y adulto del depredador P. nìgrìspìnus. La duración del estado ninfal fue similar entre tratamientos, no obstante

  12. MORPHOANATOMICAL LEAF ANALYSIS IN HORTICULTURAL GROUPS OF AVOCADO (Persea americana PLACED AT INIA-CENIAP’S COLLECTION, VENEZUELA

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    H. Ferrer Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The avocado (Persea americana Mill. is the most important species of Lauraceae in America due to its exploitation as food for pre-Columbian and modern cultures. It is a very important seasonal crop in Venezuela based on a perennial fruit tree management. From a selection of 76 accessions (45 cultivars of avocados cultivated at the Germplasm Bank of INIA-CENIAP, a morphoanatomical analysis was performed to identify attributes of taxonomic resolution (diagnostic characters which allow to characterize sets and / or culta. Morphological study was carried out from each accession herborized sample. Information was obtained by freehand transverse leaf sections (epidermis, mesophyll and midvein as well as paradermic preparations, and observed data was recorded in DELTA System. New morphoanatomical characters and discriminating attributes between cultivars were identified and described, especially to discriminate the Mexican group, and a close relationship within West Indian and Guatemalan cultivars was observed due to the variability identified from the latter group. Indument- related attributes were highly informative to discriminate among cultivars, along with the outline, apical angle and projections at the base of the leaf blades, stem cross section and presence of anise odor, progress and joining of the secondary nerve branches, tertiary venation pattern, abaxial contour and thickness of the sclerenchymatous sheath and compaction of the phloem in the vascular bundle, adaxial contour of the median nerve, and thickness, outline and uniformity of the anticlinal walls of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells.

  13. THE USE OF POLYSACCHARIDES EXTRACTED FROM SEED OF Persea americana var. Hass ON THE SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLIC HYDROGELS

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    Vicente Arturo Lara-Valencia

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of polysaccharides extracted from seed of Persea americana var. Hass in the synthesis of acrylic hydrogels. The effects of the chemical composition (acrylamide/acrylic acid, the concentration of crosslinking agent (glycerol diacrylate and the type of initiation (redox, photoinitiation of the hydrogels were evaluated with and without polysaccharides. Xerogels were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, while for the swollen hydrogels the swelling kinetic and mechanical properties were evaluated. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the second order equation proposed by Schott, where it is reported that by increasing the concentration of the crosslinking agent, the degree of swelling is reduced because of the greater structural level. The increase of the amount of acrylamide and the amount of polysaccharides causes also a decrease in the swelling degree. The type of initiation also affected the hydrogels swelling kinetic, the photoinitiated hydrogels were the ones that captured less water. Moreover, the increasing of the glass transition temperature and the compression modulus with the crosslinking agent concentration and molar ratio AAm/AAc are observed for hydrogels with and without polysaccharides. The results demonstrate a successful incorporation of polysaccharides into the polymeric network.

  14. Profiling LC-DAD-ESI-TOF MS method for the determination of phenolic metabolites from avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2011-03-23

    A powerful HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF MS method was established for the efficient identification of the chemical constituents in the methanolic extracts of avocado (Persea americana). Separation and detection conditions were optimized by using a standard mix containing 39 compounds belonging to phenolic acids and different categories of flavonoids, analytes that could be potentially present in the avocado extracts. Optimum LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 analytical column (4.6×150 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) by gradient elution with water+acetic acid (0.5%) and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. The detection was carried out by ultraviolet-visible absorption and ESI-TOF MS. The developed method was applied to the study of 3 different varieties of avocado, and 17 compounds were unequivocally identified with standards. Moreover, around 25 analytes were tentatively identified by taking into account the accuracy and isotopic information provided by TOF MS.

  15. Hepatoprotective properties of aqueous leaf extract of Persea Americana, Mill (Lauraceae) 'avocado' against CCL4-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Adisa, Rahmat A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2014-01-01

    Natural products from plants have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidants and hepatoprotective activities. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Persea americana (AEPA) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats was investigated. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 and olive oil [3 ml/kg, subcutaneously (sc)] after pre-treatment for 7 days with AEPA. Hepatoprotective effects of AEPA was evaluated by estimating the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total bilirubin (TBL). The effects of AEPA on biomarkers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes namely, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured in liver post mitochondrial fraction. AEPA and Reducdyn® showed significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity by decreasing the activities of ALT, AST, ALP and reducing the levels of TBL. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were also decreased dose-dependently in the AEPA-treated rats. Pre-treatment with AEPA also decreased the serum levels of glutathione significantly. These data revealed that AEPA possesses significant hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced toxicity attributable to its constituent phytochemicals. The mechanism of hepatoprotection seems to be through modulation of antioxidant enzyme system.

  16. Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Dariana Graciela; Flores-García, Mirthala; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rizzo, Sheryl; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; De la Peña-Diaz, Aurora; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in physiological hemostasis. However, in coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis, enhanced platelet aggregation, with subsequent thrombus formation, is a precipitating factor in acute ischemic events. Avocado pulp (Persea americana) is a good source of bioactive compounds, and its inclusion in the diet as a source of fatty acid has been related to reduced platelet aggregability. Nevertheless, constituents of avocado pulp with antiplatelet activity remain unknown. The present study aims to characterize the chemical nature of avocado constituents with inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used as a fractionation and purification tool, guided by an in vitro adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid or collagen-platelet aggregation assay. Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in the presence of various agonists were contrasted. This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC₅₀=3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. In vivo evaluations with Persenone A (4) demonstrated potential protective effects against arterial thrombosis (25 mg kg⁻¹ of body weight), as coagulation times increased (2-fold with respect to the vehicle) and thrombus formation was attenuated (71% versus vehicle). From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases.

  17. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed.

  18. Effect of heat treatment oanas irradiation, and combined treatment on the shelf of fresh avocados (Persea americana L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto, Z.I.; Maha, Munsiah

    1987-01-01

    Effects of heat treatment, gamma irradiation, and combined treatments on the shelf-life of fresh avocados (Persea americana L.). Experiments to determine the effective irradiation conditions to prolong the shelf-life of fresh avocados were conducted at the centre for the Application of Isotopes washed and dried, then divided into 4 groups, namely for control (A), dipped in hot water at 40 0 C for 20 minutes (heat treatment, B), irradiated at a dose of 25 Gy (C), and combination of hot water dipping (40 0 C for 20 minutes) and irradiation at a 25 Gy (D). The samples were stored at room temperature. Evaluation on physical and chemical properties of the samples was done daily up to 10 days' storage. Parameters observed were texture, moisture and fat contents, percentage of weight loss, percentage of mature fruit, and subjective organoleptic evaluation. It was found that treated samples with and without combination treatment were still in good condition until 10 days of storage. It could be concluded that dipping in hot water, either alone or in combination with irradiation at a dose of 25 Gy could extend the shelf-life of fresh avocado up to 10 days at room temperature compared to only 5 days of the control. (author). 2 figs, 8 refs

  19. Identification of avocado (Persea americana) pulp proteins by nano-LC-MS/MS via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) proteins have been scarcely studied despite their importance, especially in food related allergies. The proteome of avocado pulp was explored in depth by extracting proteins with capture by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries at pH 7.4 and under conditions mimicking reverse-phase capture at pH 2.2. The total number of unique gene products identified amounts to 1012 proteins, of which 174 are in common with the control, untreated sample, 190 are present only in the control and 648 represent the new species detected via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries of all combined eluates and likely represent low-abundance proteins. Among the 1012 proteins, it was possible to identify the already known avocado allergen Pers a 1 and different proteins susceptible to be allergens such as a profilin, a polygalacturonase, a thaumatin-like protein, a glucanase, and an isoflavone reductase like protein. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Evidence of environmental and vertical transmission of Burkholderia symbionts in the oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Aita, Manabu; Nagayama, Atsushi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Navarro, Ronald; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2014-10-01

    The vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms is omnipresent in insects, while the evolutionary process remains totally unclear. The oriental chinch bug, Cavelerius saccharivorus (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is a serious sugarcane pest, in which symbiotic bacteria densely populate the lumen of the numerous tubule-like midgut crypts that the chinch bug develops. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the crypts were dominated by a specific group of bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia of the Betaproteobacteria. The Burkholderia sequences were distributed into three distinct clades: the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), the plant-associated beneficial and environmental (PBE) group, and the stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental group (SBE). Diagnostic PCR revealed that only one of the three groups of Burkholderia was present in ∼89% of the chinch bug field populations tested, while infections with multiple Burkholderia groups within one insect were observed in only ∼10%. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the Burkholderia bacteria specifically colonized the crypts and were dominated by one of three Burkholderia groups. The lack of phylogenetic congruence between the symbiont and the host population strongly suggested host-symbiont promiscuity, which is probably caused by environmental acquisition of the symbionts by some hosts. Meanwhile, inspections of eggs and hatchlings by diagnostic PCR and egg surface sterilization demonstrated that almost 30% of the hatchlings vertically acquire symbiotic Burkholderia via symbiont-contaminated egg surfaces. The mixed strategy of symbiont transmission found in the oriental chinch bug might be an intermediate stage in evolution from environmental acquisition to strict vertical transmission in insects. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Alguns aspectos da anatomía-ecológica de Persea americana Mili (abacateiro e interpretações fisio-ecológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Eurípedes Medri

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work are presented anatomical differences in leaves situaded in different strata on the same tree ofPersea Americana. Analysis of linear regression and tests of coeficience of correlation demonstrate that in respect tb the relationships of the anatomical parameters studied, there is much interdependence. The histological point of view compares such parameters as number and size of stomata, volume of mesophyll, area of functional xylem, phloem, supportive tissue and epidermic tissue, and on the other han different microclimatic positions, domonstrates that Persea Americana is an extremely plastic species with much adaptability; as plastic as Hevea brasiliensis Muelli. Arg and much more plastic than Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Benpl.No presente trabalho são apresentadas as diferenças anatômicas em folhas situadas em diferentes estratos de uma mesma árvore de Persea americana MUI, mostrando através de análise de regressão linear, coeficiente de correlação conclusivos a, respeito das relações diretas e significativas no tocante aos parâmetros anatômicos estudados, evidenciando interdependências dos mesmos. Do ponto de vista histológico, onde se tomou como parâmetro o número e tamanho de estômatos e volume do mesófilo, área xilemática útil, floema, tecido mecânico e epidérmico, e de outro lado, condições microclimáticas diferentes, P. americana evidencia ser uma espécie bastante plástica, havendo uma relação direta se correlacionada ao seu amplo comportamento adaptativo, sendo tão plástica quanto Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Medri, 1977 e muito mais que Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Benpl. (Medri, 1978.

  2. Evaluación del proceso de extracción de aceite de aguacate hass (Persea americana Mill) utilizando tratamiento enzimático

    OpenAIRE

    Buelvas Salgado, G. A; Patiño Gómez, J. H; Cano-Salazar, J. A

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. El aceite de aguacate es rico en vitaminas A, B, C y E, y está compuesto mayoritariamente por ácidos grasos monoinsaturados los cuales reducen de manera efectiva el nivel de colesterol en la sangre, ayudando en la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Objetivo. Evaluar el rendimiento de extracción de aceite de aguacate Hass (Persea americana Mill) en estado E3-M (maduro) procedente del Oriente Antioqueño, empleando complejos enzimáticos comerciales. Materiales y métodos. ...

  3. Diversidad de los Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares asociados a plantas de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.), en un agroecosistema del Estado de Michoacán.

    OpenAIRE

    GÓMEZ DORANTES, NÚRIA

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para identificar las especies de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA) asociados al suelo y al interior de las raíces de plantas de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.) en una huerta denominada las Parrillas en la región aguacatera del Estado de Michoacán, México. Cinco árboles de aguacate establecidos en un diseño completamente al azar fueron muestreados, mostrando altos porcentajes de colonización micorrízica al interior de las raíces (>94%) sin prese...

  4. COMPORTAMIENTO ESPACIAL DE TRIPS (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA), EN PLANTACIONES COMERCIALES DE AGUACATE (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.) EN ZITÁCUARO, MICHOACÁN, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    José Francisco RAMÍREZ DÁVILA

    2013-01-01

    México es el principal productor y exportador de aguacate en el mundo. Los trips son considerados como una de las principales plagas del aguacate en México, debido a su asociación con la enfermedad denominada roña del fruto, causada por el hongo Elsinoe perseae. Esta enfermedad representa una fuerte limitante a la producción del cultivo; el hongo penetra la fruta por las heridas causadas por el complejo de varias especies de trips. El análisis del comportamiento espacial de esta plaga proporc...

  5. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.. Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP; descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP. Observou-se que a atratividade das substâncias testadas desapareceu minutos após a sua aplicação, utilizando ou não a glicerina, em ambas as variedades. A pulverização dos extratos de falsa melissa, folhas de eucalipto e folhas de laranja apresentaram um aumento no número de abelhas Apis mellifera, na variedade Quintal. Os dados mostraram que a freqüência das abelhas A. mellifera foi maior na variedade Quintal comparada à variedade Fortuna. Isto pode ter ocorrido devido à maior concentração de açúcares do néctar de suas flores. Observou-se que as abelhas A. mellifera preferiram visitar as flores do abacateiro da variedade Quintal, tanto para néctar quanto para coleta de pólen, comparada à variedade Fortuna. Com relação aos frutos, nenhuma das características apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. Entretanto, observou-se que na variedade Quintal os frutos decorrentes dos tratamentos DP e DNP foram mais pesados, mais compridos e com maior espessura da polpa, comparados ao único fruto obtido do tratamento coberto. Os produtos testados em tubos não foram eficientes para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera, em ambas as variedades.The present experiment was carried out to evaluate some methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae to two avocado varieties (Persea americana Mill.. Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, Citrus sp leaf, Eucalyptus sp leaf, the eugenol and linalol

  6. Cinética de inativação da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Kinetic of inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Caroline Luíz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill. dos cultivares Quintal, Fortuna e Choquete, em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro. A polpa de abacate (150,00g foi homogeneizada em liquidificador, com 300 mL de solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM em pH 7,4 para polifenoloxidase (PPO e pH 6,0 para peroxidase (POD. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada foi extraída usando solução de NaCl 1,0M, em tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM pH 6,0. Para o estudo da estabilidade térmica, os extratos foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80ºC e por períodos que variaram de 1 à 10 minutos e a atividade enzimática foi determinada por espectrofotometria (lambda= 395nm para PPO e lambda= 460nm para POD. Pode-se observar que o declínio rápido da atividade das enzimas era maior nos primeiros quatro minutos e após esse período, com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo, a atividade continuou diminuindo, porém de forma mais lenta. A energia de ativação na faixa de temperatura estudada para as porções termolábil e termorresistente, apresentou valores dentro da faixa 12-100 kcal/mol.Enzymatic extracts were prepared from the avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., using the cultivars Quintal, Fortuna and Choquete, in two different maturation stages (green and mature avocados. The avocado pulp (150,00g was homogenized in blender with 300 mL of sodium phosphate buffer 100mM at pH 7.4 for polyphenoloxidase (PPO and pH 6.0 for peroxidase (POD. The peroxidase ionically bound was extracted using NaCl solution 1.0M in sodium phosphate buffer 100mM pH 6.0. For the study of the thermal stability the extracts were submitted at temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80ºC for periods that had a variation from 1 to 10 minutes and the enzymatic activity was determined using a spectrophotometer (lambda= 395nm for PPO and lambda= 460nm for POD. It was possible to observe a fast decline of the enzyme activity in

  7. Tabelas de fertilidade e de esperança de vida de Tynacantha marginata Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Asopinae alimentado com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake Life and fecundity tables of the predator Tynacantha marginata Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae reared with Tenebrio molitor L. larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Andrade Moreira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of feeding on Eucalyptus leaves on the life and fecundity tables of Tynacantha marginata Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Higher mortality of this predator occurred during second week of life, when the nymphs were starting second instar. The fecundity table showed that the nymphal period of T. marginata lasted four weeks, with viability of 57,9% and total longevity of 21 weeks. Egg oviposition period took 10 weeks. The population parameters (R0, rm and λ showed a 50.69 times populational increase after one generation.

  8. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n=10 with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n=10. After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h, the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%. The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (P<0.001 of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580±0.209 log10, 100 (0.998±0.508 log10, and 200 mg/mL (1.093±0.462 log10 was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%.

  9. BIOLOGÍA DE OLIGONYCHUS YOTHERSI (MCGREGOR (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE SOBRE AGUACATE PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. CV. LORENA (LAURACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Julian C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biología del ácaro rojo Oligonychus yothersi en condiciones controladas(26 ± 3°C 56 ± 3% HR, sobre hojas maduras de aguacate, Persea americana Mill. cv.Lorena. Las observaciones se realizaron durante una generación del ácaro. La duraciónde todos los estados, a excepción del adulto, fueron los siguientes: huevo 119.06 horas±13.77 (4.96 días; larva 54.09 horas ± 18.48 (2.25 días, protocrisálida 18.22 ± 9.53(0.76 días, protoninfa 50.62 horas ± 13.29 (2.11 días, deutocrisalida 21.66 horas ±7.78 (0.90 días, deutoninfa 62.54 horas ± 12.85 (2.61 días y teliocrisalida 30.79 horas± 13.28 (1.28 días. La duración total de huevo a emergencia de adulto fue estimadaen 344.21 horas (14.34 días. La relación de sexos encontrada fue de 4.8 hembras: 1macho. Los parámetros poblacionales, i.e., longevidad, fecundidad, tasa intrínsecade crecimiento (r m , tiempo de duplicación y tiempo generacional, sugieren un altopotencial reproductivo y de desarrollo del ácaro sobre aguacate cv. Lorena.

  10. Transcriptome responses of an ungrafted Phytophthora root rot tolerant avocado (Persea americana) rootstock to flooding and Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeksting, B J; Olivier, N A; van den Berg, N

    2016-09-22

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a commercially important fruit crop worldwide. A major limitation to production is the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes root rot leading to branch-dieback and tree death. The decline of orchards infected with P. cinnamomi occurs much faster when exposed to flooding, even if flooding is only transient. Flooding is a multifactorial stress compromised of several individual stresses, making breeding and selection for tolerant varieties challenging. With more plantations occurring in marginal areas, with imperfect irrigation and drainage, understanding the response of avocado to these stresses will be important for the industry. Maintenance of energy production was found to be central in the response to flooding, as seen by up-regulation of transcripts related to glycolysis and induction of transcripts related to ethanolic fermentation. Energy-intensive processes were generally down-regulated, as evidenced by repression of transcripts related to processes such as secondary cell-wall biosynthesis as well as defence-related transcripts. Aquaporins were found to be down-regulated in avocado roots exposed to flooding, indicating reduced water-uptake under these conditions. The transcriptomic response of avocado to flooding and P. cinnamomi was investigated utilizing microarray analysis. Differences in the transcriptome caused by the presence of the pathogen were minor compared to transcriptomic perturbations caused by flooding. The transcriptomic response of avocado to flooding reveals a response to flooding that is conserved in several species. This data could provide key information that could be used to improve selection of stress tolerant rootstocks in the avocado industry.

  11. Aqueous extracts of avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds exhibit anti-cholinesterases and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Odubanjo, Veronica O; Bello, Fatai; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Nwanna, Emem E; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2016-03-01

    Avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine for the treatment/management of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, information on the mechanism of actions is limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of P. americana leaf and seed aqueous extracts on some enzymes linked with AD (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] and butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] activities) and their antioxidant potentials in vitro. The inhibitory effects of extracts on AChE and BChE activities and antioxidant potentials (inhibition of Fe2+- and sodium nitroprusside-induced thiobarbiturate reactive species [TBARS] production in rat brain homogenates, radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide] scavenging and iron [Fe] chelation abilities) were investigated. Phenolic content and phytochemical screening were carried out. Alkaloid profile was also determined using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The extracts inhibited AChE and BChE activities and prooxidant-induced TBARS production in a dose-dependent manner, with the seed extract having the highest inhibitory effect and the leaf extract exhibiting higher phenolic content and radical scavenging abilities, but lower Fe chelation ability compared with that of the seed. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids in both extracts, whereas the total alkaloid profile was higher in the seed extract than in the leaf extract, as revealed by GC-FID. The anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activities of avocado leaf and seed could be linked to their phytoconstituents and might be the possible mechanisms underlying their use as a cheap and natural treatment/management of AD. However, these extracts should be further investigated in vivo.

  12. Integrating gene flow, crop biology, and farm management in on-farm conservation of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Kenneth; Desalle, Rob; Peters, Charles M; Benfey, Philip N

    2003-11-01

    Maintaining crop diversity on farms where cultivars can evolve is a conservation goal, but few tools are available to assess the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity on farms. One important issue for on-farm conservation is gene flow from crops with a narrow genetic base into related populations that are genetically diverse. In a case study of avocado (Persea americana var. americana) in one of its centers of diversity (San Jerónimo, Costa Rica), we used 10 DNA microsatellite markers in a parentage analysis to estimate gene flow from commercialized varieties into a traditional crop population. Five commercialized genotypes comprised nearly 40% of orchard trees, but they contributed only about 14.5% of the gametes to the youngest cohort of trees. Although commercialized varieties and the diverse population were often planted on the same farm, planting patterns appeared to keep the two types of trees separated on small scales, possibly explaining the limited gene flow. In a simulation that combined gene flow estimates, crop biology, and graft tree management, loss of allelic diversity was less than 10% over 150 yr, and selection was effective in retaining desirable alleles in the diverse subpopulation. Simulations also showed that, in addition to gene flow, managing the genetic makeup and life history traits of the invasive commercialized varieties could have a significant impact on genetic diversity in the target population. The results support the feasibility of on-farm crop conservation, but simulations also showed that higher levels of gene flow could lead to severe losses of genetic diversity even if farmers continue to plant diverse varieties.

  13. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 70% METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AVOCADO LEAF (Persea americana Mill IN DECREASING BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS IN MALE RATS (Rattus norvegicus WISTAR STRAIN INDUCED ALLOXAN

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    Retno Sintowati

    2017-01-01

    Metode penelitian menggunakan eksperimental laboratorik dengan rancangan penelitian pretest – posttest with control group design. Hewan uji yang digunakan 25 ekor tikus jantan galur Wistar, umur 2-3 bulan, dan berat badan 150-200 gram yang dibagi dalam 5 kelompok. Kelompok I: kontrol negatif (aquades, kelompok II: kontrol positif (glibenklamid, kelompok III, IV, V : ekstrak metanol 70% daun alpukat dengan dosis berturut-turut adalah sebagbai berikut: 100 mg/ 200 grBB, 150 mg/ 200 grBB, 200 mg/ 200 grBB. Gula darah diukur dengan alat spektrofotometer. Berdasarkan hasil uji ANOVA, data penurunan kadar gula darah hari ke-7 pemberian ekstrak nilai probabilitas signifikan p = 0, 000 dengan demikian p < 0, 05 maka terdapat perbedaan penurunan kadar gula darah yang bermakna. Berdasarkan uji LSD dari semua kelompok didapatkan nilai p < 0,05 yang berarti terdapat perbedaan penurunan kadar gula darah yang signifikan antara2 kelompok. Kesimpulan: Ekstrak metanol 70% daun alpukat (Persea americana Mill dosis 200 mg/200; 100 mg/200 and 150 mg/ 200 gram/berat badan dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah pada mencit jantan galur wistar Kata Kunci : Ekstrak metanol 70%, Alpukat (Persea americana Mill, gula darah, diabetes mellitus.

  14. RELACIONES GENÉTICAS DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana Mill. EN SIETE MUNICIPIOS DEL CENTRO DE VERACRUZ, CARACTERIZADAS CON MICROSATÉLITES

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    María Elena Galindo-Tovar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available México es el primer productor y consumidor de aguacate a nivel mundial. Las condiciones ecotopográficas de la zona Centro del estado de Veracruz y la distribución natural del género Persea, convierten el área en un gran acervo genético del aguacate. Debido a que esta especie presenta un alto grado de hibridación, la evaluación de las relaciones genéticas permite distinguir diferentes taxa e identificar material promisorio para programas de mejoramiento. El objetivo fue analizar las relaciones genéticas de Persea americana en la zona Centro del estado de Veracruz, mediante microsatélites. Se analizaron muestras foliares de 44 árboles ubicados en siete localidades; se realizó extracción de ADN y su amplificación utilizando iniciadores para microsatélites. Los datos se analizaron con el programa PopGene 3.2. Todas las localidades resultaron polimórficas, y aunque mostraron baja diferenciación genética, en el dendrograma se observaron dos grupos definidos por características de altitud, clima y suelo.

  15. El Copturomímus Perseae Hustache Nueva Especie Entomológica, Grave Plaga del Aguacate en Colombia.

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    Mario Moreno Ernesto

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia, por la diversidad de climas y condiciones variadas de suelos, está capacitada para producir ventajosamente las especies frutales que en general son consideradas como de carácter comercial. Entre las cuales, el aguacate, dentro de la zona tropical y subtropical, ocupa lugar prominente, junto con el popular grupo de los Citrus. Aunque la explotación de estas especies frutales se encuentra en forma incipiente, y para mejor decirlo en estado semisilvestre, la correcta vegetación y fructificación abundante lograda dentro de vastas zonas, son un elocuente índice, que unido a la demanda creciente de fruta en los mercados, insatisfecha con la escasa producción nacional, aseguran el éxito de las empresas que consagren sus esfuerzos a la lucrativa industria de la producción de frutas. 2. Ante las perspectivas tan halagadoras que presenta el cultivo del aguacate en el país, y en el convencimiento de que el control de las plagas y enfermedades constituye uno de los factores de mayor importancia, es evidente la necesidad de propender por el establecimiento de las medidas sanitarias, que a la vez que sean económicas, tengan la suficiente efectividad para eliminar el peligro que puedan constituir. 3. El aguacate, dentro de la clasificación botánica pertenece a la familia Lauracea, género Persea y comprende 2 especies principales, Persea americana Mill. (P. gratissimaGaertn y PerseadrymifoliaCham. &Schelecnt. (P.americanavar. DrymifoliaMez. Comercialmente se ha dividido en 3 razas claramente diferenciadas, la Antillana, Guatemalteca y Mexicana, dentro de las cuales se hallan agrupadas variedades en crecido número; aunque existen ciertas variedades que participan de características comunes a dos de las razas mencionadas y se consideran como híbridos o cruces genéticos. Comúnmente tiene diferentes denominaciones que varían de país a país y aun en regiones del mismo país, entre las cuales las más conocidas son, aguacate

  16. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

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    Vargas, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  17. Eficiência de Metarhizium anisopliae no controle do Percevejo-do-Colmo Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae em lavoura de arroz irrigado Efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae on rice stem bug Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae control in flooded rice field

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    José Francisco da Silva Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-do-colmo, Tibraca limbativentris Stal, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, é altamente prejudicial à cultura do arroz no Brasil, principalmente em sistemas de cultivo irrigados por inundação. O efeito de duas formas de aplicação, conídios em suspensão e veiculados em grãos de arroz autoclavado, da cepa (CP 172 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok., no controle do percevejo, foi avaliado em três experimentos conduzidos em 1991, 1993 e 1994, em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado. Em 1991, tanto a pulverização de conídios como a distribuição manual grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico em dosagem equivalente a 7,2 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, sobre o solo e entre os colmos de arroz, onde os percevejos estavam alojados, reduziram significativamente a população natural do inseto com eficiência de controle de 52,6% e 61,8%, respectivamente. Ainda em 1991, estudo sobre o estabelecimento e persistência da cepa no solo do arrozal, com base na contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, indicou que o fungo manteve-se viável na entressafra, até 216 dias após a aplicação, época da implantação de novos arrozais. O número de UFC foi maior nas parcelas tratadas com os grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico. O crescimento linear do número de UFC, no solo nas parcelas testemunhas, evidenciou disseminação do fungo para partes anteriormente não tratadas do arrozal. Resultados significativos de controle com a aplicação da suspensão de conídios e dos grãos de arroz com o fungo, na dose de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, também foram obtidos em 1993, com 51,8% e 48,2% de eficiência, respectivamente. Em 1994, a aplicaç��o da suspensão de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1 resultou em 39,5% de controle do inseto. O índice de confirmação de infeção, contudo, foi baixo, nos dois anos, atingindo, no máximo, 20%, em 1993. O baixo número de insetos com micose, em comparação ao índice de mortalidade

  18. Stability of a colloidal system based on avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass and others: Effect of process and composition

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    Eliana María Estrada Mesa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass, is a perishable fruit, which compositionally presents nutritional benefits, which has led to its productive chain to look for new alternatives of agroindustrialization to improve its competitiveness in the market, being guacamole a potential option. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of composition and homogenization process on the colloidal system stability based on avocado and other ingredients for a potential use in the aspersion drying process. We used the surface response methodology and a central composite experimental design for experimental optimization of the process, considering three independent variables as follows: avocado dry solids (DSavocado, homogenization time and tert-butylhydroquinone concentration (TBHQ, and six dependent variables: zeta potential (-ζ, color (L *: brightness, a *: green-red chromaticity, b *: yellow-blue chromaticity, viscosity (μ, spectral absorption stability index, peroxide index (PI and particle size (D10, D50 and D90. The best emulsion and process formulation was achieved with 47.1% of DSavocado, 5 min of homogenization and 100 mg.kg-1 of TBHQ, obtaining an emulsion with -ζ = -27.67 ± 0.29, L * = 51.3 ± 1.0, a * = -5.8 ± 0.8 and b * = 30.0 ± 1.9, μ = 1034.56 ± 95.91 cP , R = 0.78 ± 0.03, IP = 0.73 ± 0.30 meq H2O2.Kg-1 emulsion, D10 = 8.1 ± 0.7 μm, D50 = 56.2 ± 11.5 μm and D90 = 346.6 ± 94.6 μm. The emulsion based on avocado and other ingredients, presents a physico-chemical, physical stability adequate stability, which guarantees a potential use for aspersion-drying process, since it meets with the criteria design for viscosity and total solids, of the pilot unit PSALAB, Vibrasec S.A.

  19. Caracterización de algunos rasgos vegetativos y reproductivos en variedades de aguacate, Persea americana Mill.

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    Escandón Gil Gonzalo

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En Palmira (Colombia entre 1984 y 1988 se caracterizó la colección de aguacate, Persia americana Mili. Se halló la ecuación de regresión AF = 89.25 + 0.60 (La -144, R2= 98.58 %, que permite estimar el área foliar (AF con el producto largo por ancho de las hojas (A. Las variedades Mayapan, Oriente 1, Oriente 3, Simonds y los materiales 2, 3, 4, 5 y 6 presentaron épocas de floración definidas, Trinidad y Material 2 presentaron floraciones bajas pero continuas. El porcentaje de flores que llegó a frutos osciló entre 0.03 % para Oriente 3 y 0.57 % para Trinidad. La mayor pérdida de estructuras reproductivas ocurrió en los primeros días de floración. El modelo logístico no describió correctamente el desarrollo de los frutos, por esto se utilizó el modelo de línea recta por fases. Los materiales 2 y 5 presentaron 105mayores pesos de frutos (621 y 626 g; el de menor peso fue Booth 8. La pérdida de peso del fruto durante la maduración fluctuó entre 3.5 Y 12.8 % para el material 2 y Oriente 3 respectivamente. Los materiales de mayor aceptación por la presentación del fruto y sabor fueron los materiales 1, 2 y 5.A collection of avocado, Persea americana Mill, was characterized in Palmira (Colombia between1984 and 1988. It was found that regretion equation AF = 89.25 + 0.60 (LA-144, R2 = 98.58 %, allows to estimate the foliar area with the product length x width of the leaves. The Mayapan, Oriente 1, Oriente 3, Simmonds and Materia.1 2,3,4,5,6, varieties showed defined blooming time, Trinidad and Material 2 showed low and continue blooming times. The percentajes of flowers that matured in fruit fluctuated between 0.03 % of Oriente 3 and 0.57 % for Trinidad. The greater loss proportion of reproductive structures occurred during the first days of flowering. The logistic model did not describe the right developments of fruits, that is why a straight line model by stages was used. Material 2 and 5 showed the greatest fruit weights during

  20. Morphology of olfactory sensilla and its role in host plant recognition by Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

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    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The external morphology of the sensilla, including pores and permeable points on the cuticle of the antennae of adults of Neomegalotomus parvus (West. (Heteroptera: Alydidae was investigated with regard to their olfactory function. Behavioural evidence of olfaction, the importance of the different antennal segments in locating the host under still-air, and the responses of the insects to plants' scents and to pheromones in wind assays were also studied. With the scanning electronic microscope mechanoreceptor sensilla were found on the four segments of the antennae of N. parvus. The density of the sensilla was greater on the 4th segment. On the apical segment, sensilla with olfactory morphological traits were observed. Bugs with intact antennae located food more frequently and faster than those with blocked or amputated antennae. N. parvus preferred intact seeds to sealed seeds, but there was no preference when the last segment of the antenna was blocked. In wind tunnel, bugs were attracted to mature and green pods, and to hexanic extract of mature pods of pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; there was no response to panicles of rice, Oryza sativa L. or to the male pheromone.A morfologia externa dos sensilos de adultos de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westw. (Het.: Alydidae, incluindo poros e pontos permeáveis na cutícula, foi estudada em microscópio eletrônico de varredura, em relação à função olfativa. A evidência comportamental do olfato e a importância dos diferentes segmentos antenais na localização do hospedeiro, em condições de ausência de movimentação do ar, foram também estudados. Sensilos mecanoreceptores foram observados nos quatro segmentos da antena de N. parvus, sendo no entanto, a densidade maior no quarto segmento. Nos segmentos apicais, foram observados sensilos com características morfológicas olfativas. Percevejos com antenas intactas localizaram o alimento com mais freqü��ncia e rapidez do que aqueles com

  1. Using Worldview Satellite Imagery to Map Yield in Avocado (Persea americana: A Case Study in Bundaberg, Australia

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    Andrew Robson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate pre-harvest estimation of avocado (Persea americana cv. Haas yield offers a range of benefits to industry and growers. Currently there is no commercial yield monitor available for avocado tree crops and the manual count method used for yield forecasting can be highly inaccurate. Remote sensing using satellite imagery offers a potential means to achieve accurate pre-harvest yield forecasting. This study evaluated the accuracies of high resolution WorldView (WV 2 and 3 satellite imagery and targeted field sampling for the pre-harvest prediction of total fruit weight (kg·tree−1 and average fruit size (g and for mapping the spatial distribution of these yield parameters across the orchard block. WV 2 satellite imagery was acquired over two avocado orchards during 2014, and WV3 imagery was acquired in 2016 and 2017 over these same two orchards plus an additional three orchards. Sample trees representing high, medium and low vigour zones were selected from normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI derived from the WV images and sampled for total fruit weight (kg·tree−1 and average fruit size (g per tree. For each sample tree, spectral reflectance data was extracted from the eight band multispectral WV imagery and 18 vegetation indices (VIs derived. Principal component analysis (PCA and non-linear regression analysis was applied to each of the derived VIs to determine the index with the strongest relationship to the measured total fruit weight and average fruit size. For all trees measured over the three year period (2014, 2016, and 2017 a consistent positive relationship was identified between the VI using near infrared band one and the red edge band (RENDVI1 to both total fruit weight (kg·tree−1 (R2 = 0.45, 0.28, and 0.29 respectively and average fruit size (g (R2 = 0.56, 0.37, and 0.29 respectively across all orchard blocks. Separate analysis of each orchard block produced higher R2 values as well as identifying different

  2. Potencial reprodutivo de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae influenciado pelo peso do corpo da fêmea - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081 Reproductive potential of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae affected by female body weight - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081

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    Jose Eduardo Serrão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial reprodutivo de fêmeas de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae de duas classes de peso foi avaliado. Machos e fêmeas desse predador foram obtidos de ninfas alimentadas com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Foram analisadas fêmeas com peso inferior a 45 mg (fêmeas leves e superior a 60 mg (fêmeas pesadas. A longevidade e os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição e pós-oviposição foram semelhantes entre fêmeas das duas classes de peso, enquanto aquelas mais pesadas apresentaram maior número de posturas, ovos, ovos/postura e ninfas. Períodos entre posturas e de incubação dos ovos foram menores para fêmeas com peso superior a 60mg. Esses resultados são discutidos em relação ao uso de fêmeas mais pesadas de S. cincticeps para aumentar a produção em criação massal desse predadorThe reproductive potential of Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females of two weight classes was evaluated with males and females of this predator obtained from nymphs fed on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. Females of S. cincticeps weighing less than 45 mg (light females and more than 60 mg (heavy females constituted the treatments. Pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods besides adult longevity were similar between treatments while number of egg masses, eggs, eggs/egg mass and number of nymphs hatched were higher for heavier females. Periods between egg mass laying and egg incubation were shorter for insects of the last treatment. These results are discussed in relation to the use of heavier females of S. cincticeps to improve mass rearing of this predator in laboratory

  3. Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

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    Putri Narrima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill, which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM. PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.

  4. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  5. Caracterización química foliar de los árboles de aguacate criollo (Persea americana var. drymifolia en los bancos de germoplasma de Michoacán, México Foliar chemical caracterization of the creole avocado trees (Persea americana var. drymifolia in the germplasm banks from Michoacán, Mexico

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    Cintia A. Rincón-Hernández

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Persea americana var. drymifolia (aguacate criollo mexicano se emplea como portainjerto en huertos de aguacate Hass y es fuente de genes de resistencia a plagas y patógenos para éste y otros cultivares. El aguacate criollo mexicano se está sustituyendo por cultivares comerciales o perdiendo por la destrucción de ecosistemas. Por eso, se estudiaron 250 árboles (52 accesiones de 14 estados de México; 247 de criollo mexicano y 3 híbridos de éste con P.shiedeana, P. americana var. americana y P. americana var. guatemalensis, plantados en los bancos de germoplasma en Michoacán. Se analizó la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases-masas. Hubo alta variabilidad química entre los árboles del banco de germoplasma con los 64 compuestos detectados. El análisis de cúmulos mostró 2 grandes grupos químicos con 100% disimilitud y 22 grupos a 10% de disimilitud. Los híbridos se agruparon de manera diferente a los árboles con características típicas de criollo y difieren en su altitud de origen. Corroboramos que los volátiles foliares sirven como marcadores para diferenciar los criollos típicos de sus híbridos y que mucha variación atribuida a la variedad criolla proviene de hibridaciones en zonas de contacto de esta variedad con otras variedades o especies de Persea.Persea americana var. drymifolia (mexican creole avocado is used as rootstock in Hass avocado orchards and it is a source of genes for resistance to pests and pathogens for this and other cultivars. The Mexican varieties are being replaced by commercial cultivars or lost by the destruction of ecosystems. Therefore, we studied 250 avocado trees of 52 accessions from 14 Mexican states; 247 mexican creole avocado and 3 hybrids of that tree with P. shiedeana, P. americana var. americana or P. americana var. guatemalensis, planted at germplasm banks, Michoacán. Foliar chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. High chemical variability among the trees was found

  6. Composição de Heteroptera aquáticos e semi-aquáticos na área de abrangência da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, RS, Brasil: fase de pré-enchimento Composition of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera at the Hydroelectric Power Station of Dona Francisca region, RS, Brazil: before dam construction

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    Damaris B. Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi analisada a composição dos Heteroptera do curso médio da bacia do rio Jacuí, RS, Brasil, previamente à construção da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, bem como alguns fatores abióticos que poderiam afetar a distribuição e a abundância destes organismos. Nos ambientes lênticos, amostragens quantitativas foram realizadas utilizando-se peneiras, em seis localidades (janeiro 2000. Nos ambientes lóticos, as coletas foram feitas através de amostrador de Surber (de maio a outubro de 2000, privilegiando-se a captura de espécies tipicamente bentônicas. Em cada estação, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, precipitação mensal, temperatura do ar e da água e profundidade foram medidos. Nos rios e riachos, a velocidade da corrente também foi registrada. Quinze espécies foram registradas nos ambientes lênticos, sendo Belostoma sp. e Notonecta sp. as dominantes (70%. A abundância, a riqueza e os índices de diversidade foram mais altos nos locais com maiores dimensões. Nos ambientes lóticos, foram assinaladas duas espécies de Naucoridae, Ambrysus teutonius La Rivers, 1951 e Cryphocricus vianai De Carlo, 1951, sendo a primeira dominante (65%. A abundância foi maior nos pontos com maior sombreamento, presença de árvores e/ou com detritos vegetais, ou com a macrófita Podostemum sp. (Podostemaceae no fundo, e mais baixa em locais com curso semi-regulado. Possivelmente, fatores como temperatura e precipitação acumulada estejam relacionados com a abundância mensal dos Naucoridae. Os resultados deste estudo servirão de subsídio para futuros estudos de impacto ambiental após o enchimento do reservatório da U.H.E. Dona Francisca.The Heteroptera composition in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin, RS, Brazil, and some abiotic factors that might affect their distribution and abundance were studied previously to the Dona Francisca dam construction. The insects were quantitatively sampled in six sites, in lentic environments, with

  7. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

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    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  8. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt-Fed Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O; Stephen, Saka O; Ayodeji, Odukoya S

    2017-10-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt-fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower ( P < .05) in high salt-fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt-fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. In conclusion, high salt-diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract.

  9. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Andrade, María-Jesús; Kylli, Petri; Estévez, Mario

    2011-05-25

    The first aim of the present work (study 1) was to analyze ethyl acetate, 70% acetone, and 70% methanol extracts of the peel, pulp, and seed from two avocado (Persea americana Mill.) varieties, namely, 'Hass' and 'Fuerte', for their phenolic composition and their in vitro antioxidant activity using the CUPRAC, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Their antimicrobial potential was also studied. Peels and seeds had higher amounts of phenolics and a more intense in vitro antioxidant potential than the pulp. Peels and seeds were rich in catechins, procyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the pulp was particularly rich in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of avocado phenolics was affected by the extracting solvent and avocado variety. The avocado materials also displayed moderate antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Taking a step forward (study 2), extracts (70% acetone) from avocado peels and seeds were tested as inhibitors of oxidative reactions in meat patties. Avocado extracts protected meat lipids and proteins against oxidation with the effect on lipids being dependent on the avocado variety.

  10. Removal of Procion Red dye from colored effluents using H2SO4-/HNO3-treated avocado shells (Persea americana) as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin, Jordana; da Silva Marques, Bianca; da Silveira Salla, Julia; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Allasia, Daniel; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The treatment of colored effluents containing Procion Red dye (PR) was investigated using H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 modified avocado shells (Persea americana) as adsorbents. The adsorbent materials (AS-H 2 SO 4 and AS-HNO 3 ) were properly characterized. The adsorption study was carried out considering the effects of adsorbent dosage and pH. Kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic aspects were also evaluated. Finally, the adsorbents were tested to treat simulated dye house effluents. For both materials, the adsorption was favored using 0.300 g L -1 of adsorbent at pH 6.5, where, more than 90% of PR was removed from the solution. General order model was able to explain the adsorption kinetics for both adsorbents. The Sips model was adequate to represent the isotherm data, being the maximum adsorption capacities of 167.0 and 212.6 mg g -1 for AS-H 2 SO 4 and AS-HNO 3 , respectively. The adsorption processes were thermodynamically spontaneous, favorable (- 17.0 Avocado shells, after a simple acid treatment, can be a low-cost option to treat colored effluents.

  11. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens.

  12. Determination of changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana) by two CE-MS approaches (targeted and non-targeted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Ignacio Hormaza, José; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A CZE method with two different MS detection conditions (MRM and Full Scan) was developed to determine qualitative and quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana). LODs in MRM approach were found between 20.1 and 203.0 ppb for abscisic acid and perseitol, respectively, whilst in Full Scan, varied within the range 0.22–1.90 ppm for the same metabolites. The RSDs for reproducibility test did not exceed 11.45%. The two MS approaches were used to quantify 10 metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, a carbohydrate, an organic acid, a vitamin and a phytohormone) in 18 samples of avocado at different ripening states, and the achieved results were compared. Perseitol, quinic, chlorogenic, trans-cinnamic, pantothenic and abscisic acids, as well as epicatechin and catechin decreased during the ripening process, whereas ferulic and p-coumaric acids showed the opposite trend. Moreover, some other unknown compounds whose concentration changed largely during ripening were also studied by MS/MS and QTOF MS to get a tentative identification.

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF PERSEA AMERICANA(AVOCADO PEAR ON PROTHROMBIN TIME AND ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P and lt;0.05. The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P and gt;0.05. The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Defensin PaDef from Avocado Fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia Expressed in Endothelial Cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquelina Julia Guzmán-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp encoding a protein (78 aa homologous with plant defensins (>80%. We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3 in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%. Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27–38% but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52–65%. This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%. Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens.

  17. PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is cytotoxic to K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells through extrinsic apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alvarez, Luis José; Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2018-06-01

    Plant defensins, a group of antimicrobial peptides, show selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. However, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) on K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells and analyzed the pathway involved in the induction of cell death. The defensin PaDef was not cytotoxic against human PBMCs; however, it was cytotoxic for K562 cell line (IC 50  = 97.3 μg/ml) activating apoptosis at 12 h. PaDef did not affect the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), neither the transmembranal potential or the release of intracellular calcium. Also, PaDef induced gene expression of caspase 8 (∼2 fold), TNF-α (∼4 fold) and TNFR1 (∼10 fold). In addition, the activation of caspase 8 was detected at 24 h, whereas caspase 9 activity was not modified, suggesting that the extrinsic apoptosis pathway could be activated. In conclusion, PaDef induces apoptosis on K562 cells, which is related to the activation of caspase 8 and involves the participation of TNF-α, which is a novel property for a plant defensin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) PaDef induces apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells; however, mainly the effects of AMPs from animals have been evaluated. In this work, we assessed the cytotoxicity of PaDef defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) on the MCF-7 cancer cell line (a breast cancer cell line) and evaluated its mechanism of action. PaDef inhibited the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50=141.62μg/ml. The viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was unaffected by this AMP. Additionally, PaDef induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in a time-dependent manner, but did not affect the membrane potential or calcium flow. In addition, PaDef IC50 induced the expression of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, and the caspase 7 and 9 genes. Likewise, this defensin induced the loss of mitochondrial Δψm and increased the phosphorylation of MAPK p38, which may lead to MCF-7 apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway. This is the first report of an avocado defensin inducing intrinsic apoptosis in cancer cells, which suggests that it could be a potential therapeutic molecule in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribuição de Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Hemíptera, Heteroptera, Veliidae em Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Amazonas, Brasil Distribution of Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Veliidae in Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Domingos Leonardo Vieira Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este é o primeiro registro de Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Heteroptera: Veliidae em fitotelmata de Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae. O estudo foi conduzido na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, localizada na rodovia AM 010 km 26, Manaus, Amazonas. Foram realizadas doze amostragens, entre abril de 2003 e abril de 2005, seis no período chuvoso e seis no período de seca. Para cada amostragem, 12 bromélias foram analisadas, seis terrestres e seis epífitas, totalizando 144 amostras. Com exceção das amostras de março e outubro de 2004, 94 espécimes de P. recens foram encontrados. O número de indivíduos coletados foi semelhante nos estratos amostrados, sendo 46 terrestres e 48 epífitas. No período chuvoso foi encontrado um maior número de P. recens (teste-t entre períodos; t =2,57; p=0,011, assim como a abundância de indivíduos esteve positivamente correlacionada com o volume de água por bromélia (r s= 0,18; p=0,033. Este fato pode ser explicado pelo maior aporte de água no período chuvoso acarretando o aumento do volume médio de água nas bromélias.This is the first record of Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Heteroptera: Veliidae in phytotelmata of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae. The study was conduced at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, located on road AM 010 Km 26, Manaus, Amazonas. Twelve samplings were taken between April 2003 and April 2005, namely, six in the wet season and six in the dry season. Twelve bromeliads were analysed for each sampling, six terrestrials and six epiphytics, totaling 144 samples. With the exception of the 2004 March and October samples, 94 specimens of P. recens were found. The number of individuals was similar in the stratums sampled, accounting for 46 terrestrials and 48 epiphytics. P. recens were found in great abundance in the wet season (t-test between season; t=2,57; p=0,011, and the abundance of individuals was positively correlated with water volume

  20. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  1. Imidacloprid affects the functional response of predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, J B; Ramalho, F S; Omoto, C; Godoy, W A C; Silveira, R F

    2014-03-01

    Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the most common asopine species in the neotropical region and its occurrence was reported in several countries of South and Central America, as an important biological control agent for many crops. This study was carried out to identify the imidacloprid impacts on the functional response of predator P. nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strain resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, on Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard(®)). Spodoptera frugiperda larvae were used in the following conditions: resistant (1) and susceptible (2) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on Bollgard(®) cotton leaves (DP 404 BG); and resistant (3) and susceptible (4) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on non-genetically modified cotton leaves (cultivar DP4049). The predatory behavior of P. nigrispinus was affected by imidacloprid and the type II asymptotic curve was the one that best described the functional response data. Handling time (T h ) of predator females did not differ among treatments in the presence of imidacloprid. The attack rate did decrease, however, due to an increase in the density of larvae offered. Regardless of the treatment (S. frugiperda strain or cotton cultivar), the predation of P. nigrispinus females on S. frugiperda larvae was significantly lower when exposed to imidacloprid, especially at a density of 16 larvae/predator. The predation behavior of P. nigrispinus on S. frugiperda larvae is affected by the insecticide imidacloprid showing that its applications should be used in cotton crop with caution.

  2. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGGn repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with telomeric (TTAGGn and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 (2n=30+2m+XY and D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=30+2m+XY from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785 (2n=30+XY from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787 (2n=14+2m+XY from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=22+X from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in O. lavaterae and P. apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGGn was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, D. rutilus, M. recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae, E. oleracea, and G. lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from C. lectularius, Nabis sp. and O. lavaterae with (TTAGGn and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result.

  3. Impacto de estrategias de mercado para la exportación de palta orgánica (Persea americana), de la Región Junín a Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez Rojas, Wilfredo Edison

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Agronegocios La exportación de palta peruana está en crecimiento, con una ventaja comparativa y una ventaja competitiva en cuanto a calidad y costos de producción, en toda la sierra peruana las áreas de producción están en crecimiento debido a ello los productores requieren de estrategias de mercado para el comercio internacional. Objetivos. Analizar las estrategias de mercado para la exportación de la palta (Persea a...

  4. Bioprospección de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares como alternativa para el fortalecimiento del cultivo de aguacate (Persea americana Miller en Colombia

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    Sandra Patricia Montenegro Gómez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El Aguacate (Persea americana Miller es uno de los frutos de mayor consumo mundial. México es el principal productor y  actualmente afronta problemas como el ataque de patógenos a la raíz y recientemente se han registrado impactos en la salud humana por uso de agroquímicos. Una alternativa para afrontar problemáticas en el desarrollo de las plantas ha sido iniciar el correcto manejo de las primeras etapas de producción y con ello mitigar problemas posteriores, en este manejo los microorganismos juegan un papel fundamental. Uno de los métodos es la inoculación con microorganismos del suelo como los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA; diversos estudios han demostrado que su colonización radicular en las plantas contribuye con la absorción de agua y nutrientes; lo cual indica que su potencialización puede contribuir en el manejo sustentable de los cultivos y como opción para fortalecer la producción. Colombia ocupa el quinto lugar en productividad a nivel mundial y lo que más resta competitividad local es el costo de los agroinsumos; en este sentido se podrían fortalecer investigaciones encaminadas a la bioprospección de HMA específicos para diversas variedades de aguacate en las regiones colombianas, ya que son poco los avances en esta temática. Avanzar tecnológicamente en el manejo de cultivos y generar estrategias sostenibles hace parte de las perspectivas y retos de la cadena del aguacate en Colombia. Adicionalmente es prioritario entrar en la dinámica de la demanda mundial con preferencia de alimentos más sanos y cuya producción sea amigable con el medio ambiente.

  5. Novel inhibitory activity of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump by a kaempferol rhamnoside isolated from Persea lingue Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Jes Gitz; Christensen, S Brøgger; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Rasmussen, Hasse B; Gúzman, Alfonso; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Petersen, Bent; Mølgaard, Per

    2012-05-01

    To isolate a plant-derived compound with efflux inhibitory activity towards the NorA transporter of Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay-guided isolation was used, with inhibition of ethidium bromide efflux via NorA as a guide. Characterization of activity was carried out using MIC determination and potentiation studies of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic in combination with the isolated compound. Everted membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli cells enriched with NorA were prepared to study efflux inhibitory activity in an isolated manner. The ethanolic extract of Persea lingue was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation and led to the isolation of the known compound kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2,4-bis-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (compound 1). Evaluation of the dose-response relationship of compound 1 showed that ethidium bromide efflux was inhibited, with an IC(50) value of 2 μM. The positive control, reserpine, was found to have an IC(50) value of 9 μM. Compound 1 also inhibited NorA in enriched everted membrane vesicles of E. coli. Potentiation studies revealed that compound 1 at 1.56 mg/L synergistically increased the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin 8-fold against a NorA overexpresser, and the synergistic activity was exerted at a fourth of the concentration necessary for reserpine. Compound 1 was not found to exert a synergistic effect on ciprofloxacin against a norA deletion mutant. The 2,3-coumaroyl isomer of compound 1 has been shown previously not to cause acute toxicity in mice at 20 mg/kg/day. Our results show that compound 1 acts through inhibition of the NorA efflux pump. Combination of compound 1 with subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin renders a wild-type more susceptible and a NorA overexpresser S. aureus susceptible.

  6. Flavonoid glycosides from Persea caerulea. Unraveling their interactions with SDS-micelles through matrix-assisted DOSY, PGSE, mass spectrometry, and NOESY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Juan M; Raya-Barón, Álvaro; Nieto, Pedro M; Cuca, Luis E; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Fernández, Ignacio

    2016-04-13

    Two flavonoid glycosides derived from rhamnopyranoside (1) and arabinofuranoside (2) have been isolated from leaves of Persea caerulea for the first time. The structures of 1 and 2 have been established by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and IR spectroscopy, together with LC-ESI-TOF and LC-ESI-IT MS spectrometry. From the MS and MS/MS data, the molecular weights of the intact molecules as well as those of quercetin and kaempferol together with their sugar moieties were deduced. The NMR data provided information on the identity of the compounds, as well as the α and β configurations and the position of the glycosides on quercetin and kaempferol. We have also explored the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) normal micelles in binary aqueous solution, at a range of concentrations, to the diffusion resolution of these two glycosides, by the application of matrix-assisted diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) and pulse field gradient spin echo (PGSE) methodologies, showing that SDS micelles offer a significant resolution which can, in part, be rationalized in terms of differing degrees of hydrophobicity, amphiphilicity, and steric effects. In addition, intra-residue and inter-residue proton-proton distances using nuclear Overhauser effect build-up curves were used to elucidate the conformational preferences of these two flavonoid glycosides when interacting with the micelles. By the combination of both diffusion and nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy techniques, the average location site of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides has been postulated, with the former exhibiting a clear insertion into the interior of the SDS-micelle, whereas the latter is placed closer to the surface. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract on the level of expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Monika; Arumugam, Geetha

    2014-06-01

    Persea americana, commonly known as avocado, is traditionally consumed fruit which possesses body fat lowering capacity. Adiponectin plays an important role in regulating obesity. In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of P. americana (HAEPA) on the level of blood lipids, glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ expressions was investigated in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: groups 1 and 2 were fed normal rat chow (5% fat) and groups 3 and 4 were fed HFD (23% fat) for a period of 14 weeks. In addition, groups 2 and 4 rats were administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of HAEPA from third week. After 14 weeks, rats were sacrificed, and serum/plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and adiponectin were determined. The mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were also evaluated. The body mass index (BMI), total fat pad mass and adiposity index were significantly decreased in HAEPA co-administered rats than in HFD-fed rats. The levels of LDL and lipid peroxides were significantly higher in HFD group than in HFD+HAEPA group. Levels of reduced glutathione, adiponectin, mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were found to be increased in HFD+HAEPA group than in HFD group. The hypolipidemic effect of HAEPA is also evidenced by the histological observations in liver, heart and adipose tissue. The results indicate that HAEPA exhibits hypolipidemic activity probably by increasing the mRNA expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ, which reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  8. Short- and long-term modulation of the lutein epoxide and violaxanthin cycles in two species of the Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, R; Jiménez, M S; Morales, D; Jiménez, E T; Hormaetxe, K; Becerril, J M; Osmond, B; García-Plazaola, J I

    2008-05-01

    Short- and long-term responses of the violaxanthin (V) and lutein epoxide (Lx) cycles were studied in two species of Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana L.). The Lx content exceeded the V content in shade leaves of both species. Both Lx and V were de-epoxidised on illumination, but only V was fully restored by epoxidation in low light. Violaxanthin was preferentially de-epoxidised in low light in L. nobilis. This suggests that Lx accumulates with leaf ageing, partly because its conversion to lutein is limited in shade. After exposure to strong light, shade leaves of avocado readjusted the total pools of alpha- and beta-xanthophyll cycles by de novo synthesis of antheraxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. This occurred in parallel with a sustained depression of F(v)/F(m). In Persea indica, a closely related but low Lx species, F(v)/F(m) recovered faster after a similar light treatment, suggesting the involvement of the Lx cycle in sustained energy dissipation. Furthermore, the seasonal correlation between non-reversible Lx and V photoconversions and pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) in sun leaves of sweet bay supported the conclusion that the Lx cycle is involved in a slowly reversible downregulation of photosynthesis analogous to the V cycle.

  9. Efecto de la alternación de fuentes sanguíneas sobre la fecundidad y la fertilidad de Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis José Aldana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evidencia que si el éxito reproductivo de Rhodnius prolixus Stal está relacionado a la fuente alimentaria, entonces las necesidades biológicas del insecto son satisfechas en modos diferentes según el tipo de alternancia entre dichas fuentes de alimentación; tales diferencias son reveladas mediante los cambios en fertilidad y fecundidad del insecto. Se realizaron nueve alternancias, en cada una se suministraron dos alimentaciones, en unas se alternó la fuente de alimentación y en los controles se suministraron dos alimentaciones con la misma fuente. Las fuentes alimentarias fueron paloma, gallina y humano, esta última mediante un aparato de alimentación artificial; estas fuentes se escogieron en el supuesto que son fuentes alimentarias encontradas en los ecotopos silvestre, peri-domicilio y domicilio respectivamente. En todos los tipos de alternancia se encontró una relación lineal entre la fecundidad y el tiempo de oviposición, que la relación entre cantidad de sangre ingerida y la fecundidad varían, que la tasa de fecundidad aumenta en la segunda alimentación respecto a la primera y que la fertilidad fue superior al 95 %. Effects of alternating blood sources on fecundity and fertility of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: ReduviidaeIn this work it is argued that if the reproductive parameters of Rhodnius prolixus Stal are related to the blood source upon which it feeds, then the insects biological needs must be satisfied in different ways by the alternation between blood sources, reveled through changes in the fecundity and fertility of individuals of this insect species. Nine experiments were conducted, each one consisting of two feedings, in which the blood source were either alternated or remained the same. The meal sources used were pigeon, hen and human blood, selected according to the resources found in the sylvatic, peri-domestic and domestic ecotopes respectively. It was found that the quantity of

  10. Nonhost status of commercial Persea americana 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our

  11. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  12. RECONOCIMIENTO E IDENTIFICACION DE TRIPS FITOFAGOS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE Y DEPREDADORES (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASOCIADOS A CULTIVOS COMERCIALES DE AGUACATE Persea spp. EN LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DE CALDAS Y RISARALDA (COLOMBIA RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOPHAGOUS THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE AND PREDATORS (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL CULTIVATIONS OF AVOCADO Persea spp. IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF CALDAS AND RISARALDA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echeverri Florez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se consideraron tres cultivos comerciales de aguacate (Persea sp. en los municipios de Palestina (Caldas y Pereira y Marsella (Risaralda evaluando árboles en producción entre cinco y ocho años de edad, incluyendo para los tres lugares las variedades: Santana, Choquette, Booth 8, Trinidad y Trapp; además en el huerto de Pereira se incluyó la variedad Fucsia, en las que se constataron los daños y distorsiones atribuidas a la acción de los trips. Para los materiales considerados se efectuaron diez muestreos por localidad con una frecuencia quincenal, escogiendo en cada muestreo un árbol por variedad. En cada árbol seleccionado se tomaron 36 muestras así: tres por estrato (alto, medio y bajo cuatro por punto cardinal (oriente occidente, norte y sur y tres estructuras de la planta (hojas tiernas, flores y frutos en desarrollo, para un total de 360 muestras por cada variedad de aguacate, por cada una de las tres localidades consideradas. A cada muestra se le extrajeron los trips, separando los morfos de acuerdo con la colección de referencia previamente establecida; se cuantificaron y se efectuó el proceso de identificación. En total se determinaron cuatro morfos asociados al cultivo de aguacate, dos de hábito fitófago: Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard y Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, según Mound, (1993 nuevo reporte como especie fitófaga asociada al aguacate y los géneros Leptothrips y Karnyothrips de hábito depredador. Se encontró para las tres localidades un amplio predominio de F. gardeniae con relación a los otros tres morfos, hospedándose principalmente en las estructuras florales, y en menor proporción en brotes tiernos y frutos en desarrollo. No se encontró preferencia de los trips por un punto específico con relación a la distribución vertical y horizontal en el dosel del árbol Se constataron los daños atribuidos a los trips en aguacate, encontrando en las plantaciones: En fruto: Pericarpio deforme, partenocarpia

  13. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, M; Kamadyaapa, D R; Tufts, M A; Chuturgoon, A A; Ojewole, J A O; Musabayane, C T

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of P. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (PAE) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of PAE were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. Rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive controls, respectively. Acute renal effects of PAE were investigated in anesthetized rats challenged with 0.077 M NaCl after a 3.5-h equilibration for 4 h comprising 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. PAE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Hepatic glycogen concentration was measured after 6 weeks of daily treatment with PAE. PAE induced dose-dependent hypoglycaemic responses in STZ-induced diabetic rats while subchronic PAE treatment additionally increased hepatic glycogen concentrations. Acute PAE infusion decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. These results indicate not only the basis of the ethnomedicinal use of P. americana leaf extract in diabetes management, but also of need for further studies to identify and evaluate the safety of PAE's bioactive compounds. (c) 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibición de la expresión del sistema agr de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina mediante el uso de polifenoles totales de hojas de aguacate mexicano ( Persea americana var. drymifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. García-Moreno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : La resistencia a los antibióticos por parte de las bacterias está provocando gran impacto negativo en la salud humana y en la producción animal. Actualmente, Staphylococcus aureus es considerada dentro de los seis principales grupos bacterianos con mayores reportes de aparición de resistencia a nivel mundial . Por otro lado , durante décadas las plantas de uso medicinal han sido fuente importante de compuestos bactericida s ; sin embargo, también se ha empezado a documentar otras moléculas con otros mecanismos antimicrobianos , como es la inhibici ón de la percepción de quórum ( anti - p ercepción de q u ó rum ( APQ . En la medicina tradicional mexicana las hojas de aguacate mexicano ( Persea americana var drymifolia han sido empleadas para tratar diversos padecimientos que involucran infecciones bacterianas, por lo que es factible contenga compuesto s que pose a n efectos antioxidantes , bactericidas y APQ, que ayuden a combat ir las infecciones de cepas resistentes. De t al manera , que e l objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de los polifenoles totales de las hojas de Persea americana var. drymifolia y su actividad APQ sobre cepas de S. aureus resistente s a meticilina (MRSA . Método s : Se obtuvieron l os polifenoles presente s en las hojas de 18 cultivares de aguacate mexicano mediante extracción asistida por ultrasonido y fueron purificados en una columna de amberlita . E stos polifenoles fueron analizados funcionalmente y evaluados contra cepas de S. aureu s MRSA para determinar su efecto APQ sobre el sistema denominado Agr . Resultados : Los polifenoles extraídos de las hojas de aguacate de raza mexicana exhiben una fuerte actividad bactericida . D e los 18 cultivares probados, la variedad María Elena fue la que presentó el mayor efecto , exhibiendo una CMI de 116 μg∙ mL - 1 y un CMB de 133 μg∙ mL - 1 contra la cepa de MRSA μ3 . Sin embargo, también logran inhibir los niveles

  16. Caracterización molecular, análisis morfológico y colonización micorrízica en la rizósfera del aguacate (Persea americana Mill en Caldas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Arvey Rivera Páez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron familias de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HMA asociados a dos variedades de aguacate Persea americana Mill (hass y lorena, en 12 muestras de suelo rizosférico y raíces en Caldas, Colombia. Las esporas se obtuvieron por tamizado húmedo y centrifugación en gradiente de sacarosa, y montadas en los reactivos Polivinilactoglicerol y Melzer para determinar su morfología, y las raíces tratadas con hidróxido de potasio, ácido acético, azul de tripano y lactoglicerol, para establecer su colonización. El ADN fue extraído por DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QiagenTM y amplificado por PCR utilizando iniciadores sobre los genes 18S y 28S del ADNr nuclear, visualizado y purificado en geles de agarosa, y secuenciado por Macrogen Advancing Through Genomics–Corea del Sur. Los resultados muestran presencia de 12 morfotipos pertenecientes a las familias Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae, Diversisporaceae y Glomeraceae, y una colonización micorrízica superior al 90% en ambas variedades de aguacate. Se logró aislar ADN de nueve morfotipos y amplificar siete. El alineamiento de las secuencias de ADN se realizó en el programa ClustalW incluido en el programa Mega 6, junto con secuencias depositadas en el GenBank, utilizando el parámetro de distancia Kimura 2 (K2P, permitieron construir un árbol de similitud por el método Neighbor-Joining (NJ agrupando las muestras determinadas por morfología en las familias correspondientes. Estos resultados permitieron estandarizar protocolos para familias de este grupo, donde su taxonomía es dificultosa y controversial, registrando familias citadas en la literatura como de elevada importancia para la protección e incorporación de nutrientes en la planta.

  17. COMPOSIÇÃO DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DO ÓLEO DO MESOCARPO E DA SEMENTE DE CULTIVARES DE ABACATE (PERSEA AMERICANA, MILL. DA REGIÃO DE RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Lucia MASSAFERA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e determinar os ácidos graxos dos óleos do mesocarpo e da semente de abacates da região de Ribeirão Preto – SP. Para realização do trabalho foram utilizados frutos de abacateiros (Persea americana, Mill. cultivares Fortuna, Ouro Verde e Princesa. O óleo foi obtido através de extração com solvente a quente (Soxhlet e após a esterificação, as amostras foram injetadas em cromatógrafo a gás. No óleo do mesocarpo o ácido graxo que apresentou maior concentração foi o ácido oléico, com teores entre 31,77 e 50,30%, seguido pelo ácido palmítico, com teores entre 20,73 e 32,54%. Os teores de ácidos graxos do óleo do mesocarpo mostraram-se diferentes da semente e variaram entre os cultivares. No óleo do mesocarpo o ácido graxo que apresentou maior concentração foi o ácido oléico, com teores entre 31,77 e 50,30%, seguido pelo ácido palmítico, com teores entre 20,73 e 32,54%. No óleo da semente, o ácido graxo que apresentou maior concentração foi o ácido oléico com teores entre 11,69 e 35,83%, seguido pelo ácido linoléico cujos teores variaram entre 23,28 e 29,98%. No presente estudo pudemos concluir que há uma variabilidade nas concentrações de ácidos graxos entre os diferentes cultivares e também entre a semente e o mesocarpo de cada cultivar.

  18. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  19. Gönen Çayı (Balıkesir, Çanakkale-Türkiye'nda yaşayan sucul Coleoptera ve sucul ve yarısucul Heteroptera faunası üzerine bir çalışma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Tarık Topkara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gönen Çayı’nın sucul Coleoptera ve sucul-yarısucul Heteroptera faunasını belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmada, Gönen çayı ve kollarına 2010-2012 yılları arasında 8 arazi çalışması düzenlenmiştir. Bu arazi çalışmalarında 15 istasyonda örnekleme çalışması yürütülmüştür. Sucul böcek örnekleri 500 µm göz açıklığındaki el kepçesi ile toplanmıştır. Laboratuvarda yapılan incelemeler sonucunda Coleoptera ordosuna ait Gyrinidae familyasından 3 takson, Noteridae familyasından 1 tür, Dytiscidae familyasından 11 tür 1 alttür, Hydrophilidae familyasından 13 tür 1 alttür, Spercheidae familyasından 1 tür, Hydraenidae familyasından 4 tür tespit edilmiştir. Heteroptera ordosuna ait Gerridae familyasından 1 tür, Corixidae familyasından 3 tür 3 alttür, Notonectidae familyasından 2 tür tespit edilmiştir. Bu taksonlardan Gyrinus caspius, Gyrinus distinctus, Gyrinus substriatus, Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus guttatus, Hydaticus leander, Hydroporus pubescens, Laccophilus hyalinus, Laccophilus poecilus, Platambus lunulatus, Ranthus suturalis, Scarodytes halensis halensis, Boreonectes griseostriatus, Anacaena rufipes, Berosus byzantinus, Helochares lividus, Notonecta viridis, Notonecta maculata, Sigara striata, Sigara nigrolineata nigrolineata, Sigara lateralis Gönen Çayı’nın Balıkesir ili sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlardan; Laccophilus minutus, Spercheus emarginatus, Sigara limitata limitata Gönen Çayı’nın Çanakkale ili sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlardan; Enochrus bicolor, Micronecta scholtzi, Micronecta anatolica anatolica, Gerris thorasicus Çanakkale ve Balıkesir il sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlarından ilk kez tespit edilmiştir

  20. (Persea americana) and African pear (Dacryodes edulis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined. The oil content of avocado pear .... isomerisation processes which usually lead to loss of unsaturation. The low ... The role of fats and oils in cosmetics. JAOCS 49(71):.

  1. Pollination in avocado flowers (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Malerbo-Souza, Darclet Teresinha; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; UEM; Silva, Simone Rodrigues da; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Sousa, Francisco Fábio; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda

    2008-01-01

    The experiment aimed to study the frequency, nectar and/or pollen and hoarding time of bees in avocado flowers and verify the effect of their visits on fruit production. Six inflorescences (three covered and three uncovered) with two replications were marked to evaluate the effect of cross pollination on fruition percentage. The honey bees showed two peaks of hoarding (by 11 to 12 a.m. and 5 p.m.) following the flowers opening of different avocado groups (groups A and B), as much for nectar a...

  2. Discrimination of the Palomena prasina L. (Heteroptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination of different nymphal stages and sex (male and female) of insects is important in the morphological, physiological and toxicological studies under laboratory and field conditions. The morphometric study of different parts of an insect's body is needed to obtain an index to distinguish between different nymphal ...

  3. Notes on Caribbean Phymatidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormilev, N.A.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1991-01-01

    New descriptive and distributional data are presented for Ambush bugs from the Dominican Republic: Phymatocoris iviei gen. nov., spec. nov. and Lophoscutus hispaniolensis spec. nov. New records are given for Phymata interjecta Dudich, 1922, Lophoscutus confusus Kormilev, 1989, and L. ypsilon

  4. The Gelastocoris nebulosus complex (Heteroptera – Gelastocoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1972-01-01

    Se trata de las espécies del grupo nebulosus del género Gelastocoris. Según el autór este grupo contiene una espécie con dos subespécies. Gelastocoris nebulosus nebulosus (Guérin) con sinónimas G. flavus (Guérin), G. apureensis Melin, G. monrosi De Cario, G. paraguayensis De Carlo y G. vianai De

  5. Determinação enzimática de dopamina em formulações farmacêuticas utilizando sistema de análise por injeção em fluxo com extrato bruto de abacate (Persea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupetti Karina Omuro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system using a crude extract of avocado (Persea americana as a source of polyphenol oxidase to dopamine determination was developed. The substrates and enzyme concentrations from 2.4x10-7 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 and 28 to 332 units mL-1 were evaluated, respectively. In addition, the FIA parameters such as sample loop (50 to 500 mL, flow rate (1.4 to 4.3 mL min-1 and reactor length (100 to 500 cm were also evaluated in a 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0. Dopamine solution concentrations were determined using 277 units mL-1 enzyme solution, 400 mL enzyme loop, 375 mL sample loop, 2.2 mL min-1 flow rate and a reactor of 350 cm. The analytical curve showed a linearity from 5.3x10-5 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 dopamine with a detection limit of 1.3x10-5 mol L-1. The analytical frequency was 46 h-1 and the RSD lower than 0.5% for 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 dopamine solution (n=10. A paired t-test showed that all results obtained for dopamine in commercial formulations using the proposed flow injection procedure and a spectrophotometric procedure agree at the 95% confidence level.

  6. Hasat Zamanı ve Hasat Sonrası Olgunluğa Bağlı Olarak Bazı Avokado (Persea americana Mill Çeşitlerinin Bileşimindeki Değişimler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feramuz Özdemir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada Bacon, Fuerte, Hass ve Zutano çeşidi avokado (Persea americana Mill meyvelerinin bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özelliklerinin hasat zamanı ve hasat sonrası olgunlaşma periyoduna göre değişimi belirlenmiştir. Ortalama meyve eti oranı %81.3 olan örneklerde toplam kuru madde %21.88-26.25, yağ %12.22-17.28, protein %1.63-2.42, kül %0.94-1.27 ve titre edilebilir asit miktarı %0.08-0.11 (sitrik asit değerleri arasında değişmiştir. Avokado yağında en fazla oleik asit {%49.66-66.51 bulunurken, bu yağ asilini, palmitik asit (%15.35-22.26 ve linoleik asit (%9.88-15.60 izlemiştir. Meyvede mineral maddelerden potasyum 4396-5882 mg/kg, magnezyum 179.8-259.1 mg/kg, kalsiyum 73.49-99.70 mg/kg, sodyum 16.64-27.48 mg/kg, demir 1.88-6.07 mg/kg, bakır 2.24-3.42 mg/kg, çinko 3.09-4.95 mg/kg ve mangan 0.73-1.21 mg/kg değerleri arasında değişim göstermiştir. Avokado hasatının geciktirilmesi ile meyve ağırlığı, toplam kuru madde, yağ ve protein miktarının arttığı saptanmıştır. Aynı zamanda örneklerin yağ asidi kompozisyonunun hasat zamanına göre değiştiği, geç hasatla birlikte oleik asit oranı artarken, diğer yağ asitlerinin oranı ya azalmış ya da değişmemiştir. Hasat sonrası olgunlaşma döneminde ise yağ asitleri bakımından doymamışlık oranının arttığı saptanmıştır.

  7. In vitro propagation of avocado (Persea drymifolia Ness.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Guerra, J.L.; Ramirez-Malagon, R.; Martinez-Jaime, O.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the past 20 years, reports on micropropagation and rooting in vitro of avocado shoots, with diverse origins and treatments, have been published. However, none of them reached the level required for large scale propagation of the species. It is considered that, in the first place, the micropropagation of avocado requires an efficient system of rooting. Therefore, a system to induce the rooting in vitro of avocado shoots, based on indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) pulses and some treatments based on thidiazuron (TDZ) was tested, using 40 explants per treatment. The treatments with TDZ did not succeed in rooting shoots. Some treatments with pulses of IBA induced the following rooting results: without growth regulators, 16%; 4,000 mg L -1 of IBA for 5 seconds, 8.3% rooted; 100 mg L -1 for 72 hours, 20%; 50 mg L -1 for 72 hours, 15.4%; 150 mg L -1 for 24 hours, 5% rooted. It is considered possible to improve these results by adjusting the range of IBA concentrations as well as in the time range of pulse applications. Finally, it is easier to establish in vitro explants derived from mature seeds or embryos germinated in vitro. (author)

  8. Characterization of avocado pear ( Persea americana ) and African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis) were extracted with chloroform. The oil were characterized for melting point, refractive index, relative viscosity, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and percentage unsaponifable matter. The percent oil ...

  9. Regeneration from irradiated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) embryogenic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witjaksono, Y.; Nugraheni, U. K.; Hoesen, D. H. [Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Bogor Botanic Garden, Bogor (Indonesia); Litz, R. E. [Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Somatic embryogenesis was induced from zygotic embryos excised from immature avocado fruit from selected genotypes grown in the highlands of Cisarua, West Bogor, Indonesia. The proembryonic masses developed first on semi-solid medium and were then transferred to liquid cultures for proliferation. The embryogenic masses were then irradiated at 9, 18 and 35 Gy using a {sup 60}Co irradiation source. 3 sub-cultures in liquid medium ensured adequate proliferation prior to transfer to fresh development medium. After 1-3 months, somatic embryos with more than 0.5 cm in diameter were transferred to a germination medium, while the smaller somatic embryos (<0.5 cm in diameter) were sub-cultured one more time for additional growth. After 1-2 months on germination medium, plantlets were transferred individually to new medium. (author)

  10. Ovary starch reserves and pistil development in avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, M Librada; Hormaza, J Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2010-12-01

    In avocado, only a very small fraction of the flowers are able to set fruit. Previous work in other woody perennial plant species has shown the importance of carbohydrates accumulated in the flower in the reproductive process. Thus, in order to explore the implications of the nutritive status of the flower in the reproductive process in avocado, the starch content in the pistil has been examined in individual pollinated and non-pollinated flowers at anthesis and during the days following anthesis. Starch content in different pistilar tissues in each flower was quantified with the help of an image analysis system attached to a microscope. Flowers at anthesis were rich in highly compartmentalized starch. Although no external morphological differences could be observed among flowers, the starch content varied widely at flower opening. Starch content in the ovary is largely independent of flower size because these differences were not correlated with ovary size. Differences in the progress of starch accumulation within the ovule integuments between pollinated and non-pollinated flowers occurred concomitantly with the triggering of the progamic phase. The results suggest that starch reserves in the ovary could play a significant role in the reproductive process in avocado. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  11. Pemanfaatan Biji Alpukat (Persea Americana Mill.) Untuk Pembuatan Edible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Yudiandani, Ana '; Efendi, Raswen '; Ibrahim, Ahmad '

    2016-01-01

    Avocado seed was found to have high starchs of content and yet it has not been optimally utilized. Therefore this research was aimed to utilized the starchs of avocado seed as material of edible film and to get the best formulations of addition of starchs avocado seed. This research was conducted experimentaly by used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatmens and three replications which followed by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) at level 5%. The treatmens in this researc...

  12. Supply of avocado starch (Persea americana mill) as bioplastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, M. H. S.; Hasibuan, R.; Lubis, M.; Alanjani, F.; Winoto, F. A.; Siregar, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time precipitation of avocado slurry seed to yield of starch. Starch analysis included starch content, moisture content, amylose content, amylopectin content, ash content, protein content, fat content, Fourier transform infra red analysis and rapid visco analyzer. Supply of starch from avocado seeds was used by extraction method. Every one hundred grams of avocado slurry was precipitated by gravity with variations for 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours. The Starch yield was washed, and dried using oven at 70°C for 30 minutes. Starch yield was the highest as 24.20 gram at 24 hours. The result of starch characterization was 73.62%, water content 16.6%, amylose 0.07%, amylopectin 73.55%, ash content 0.23%, protein content 2.16%, fat content 1.09%. Rapid visco analyzer obtained at 91.33°C of gelatinization temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyzes obtained 20 μm oval-shaped starch granules. Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis of starch obtained the peak spectrum of O-H group of alcohols, C-H alkanes and C-O ether.

  13. A model biorefinery for avocado (Persea americana mill.) processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Javier A; Rosenberg, Moshe; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-11-01

    This research investigated and evaluated a biorefinery for processing avocado Hass variety into microencapsulated phenolic compounds extract, ethanol, oil and xylitol. Avocado was first characterized for its potential valuable compounds; then, the techno-economic and environmental aspects of the biorefinery were developed and finally the total production costs and potential environmental impact of the proposed biorefinery were investigated. Four scenarios of the biorefinery were evaluated with different extent of mass and energy integration as well as the incorporation of a cogeneration system. Results indicated that the main fatty acid in the pulp of the investigated avocado variety was oleic acid (50.96%) and that this fruit contained significant amount of holocellulose (52.88% and 54.36% in the peel and seed, respectively). Techno-economic and environmental assessment suggested an attractive opportunity for a biorefinery for complete utilization of the avocado fruit as well the importance of the level of integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of controlled pollination in avocado (persea americana Mill., Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Avocado has a singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy breeding system that promotes outcrossing. In this work different steps have been optimized to improve controlled pollinations in avocado in order to perform basic studies of reproductive biology and directed crosses in breeding programs. The results show that, in order to achieve successful fruit set, male flowers should be collected when all the anthers have dehisced and the pollen transferred by direct contact of the anthers with the...

  15. Wantsen van de Nederlandse waddeneilanden III (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Hermes, D.

    2009-01-01

    De fauna van de Nederlandse waddeneilanden telde volgens het laatste overzicht 336 soorten. Een opsomming wordt gegeven van 158 nieuwe eilandrecords, waaronder 26 soorten, die voor het eerst voor de waddeneilanden worden vermeld. De miride Capsus pilifer wordt van de lijst afgevoerd. In totaal zijn

  16. Wantsen van de Nederlandse Waddeneilanden IV (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Hermes, D.; Chen, P-p.; Nieser, N.

    2012-01-01

    Het laatste overzicht van de wantsen van de Nederlandse waddeneilanden dateert van 2004 met aanvullingen in 2009. Een opsomming wordt gegeven van 144 nieuwe eilandrecords, waaronder 12 soorten die voor het eerst op de waddeneilanden zijn waargenomen. Pachycoleus pusillimus (Dipsocoridae) is nieuw

  17. Two New Species of Trypanosomatid Parasites Isolated from Heteroptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslov, D. A.; Yurchenko, V. Y.; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2010), s. 177-188 ISSN 1066-5234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Blastocrithidia * kinetoplastid * Largidae * Leptomonas * Miridae * phylogeny * taxonomy * Trypanosomatidae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2010

  18. Distributional patterns of the American Peiratinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, del C M.

    1996-01-01

    Based on distributional data of 40 species of Peiratinae, historical relationships of five Amazonian areas (Paranaense, Atlantic, Pacific, Amazonian, and Cerrado) and two Chacoan areas (Chaco and Caatinga), were investigated through a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). The resulting area

  19. The Tribe Anisoscelini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis

    2015-10-23

    Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan.

  20. Cuatro especies nuevas de Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae Four new species of Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Mayorga-Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 4 especies nuevas de Lattinestus de Guatemala (2 y de México (2; se incluyen ilustraciones de algunas estructuras importantes para su identificación y una clave para separar las 7 especies conocidas. La mayoría de los ejemplares fueron recolectados en hojarasca de bosques mesófilos por arriba de los 2 500 metros.Four new species from Guatemala (2 and Mexico (2 are described; illustrations of important structures for identification, and a key to separate the 7 known species are included. Most of the specimens were collected in forest litter above 2 500 m.

  1. Ciclo de vida de Anasa litigiosa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae Life cycle of Anasa litigiosa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chacón-López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio del ciclo de vida de Anasa litigiosa Stål. Se recolectaron ejemplares adultos de esta especie que se encontraban sobre plantas de chayote y fueron cultivados en el laboratorio utilizando hojas, tallos y frutos de la misma planta. Se describen e ilustran en detalle todos los estadios de vida, incluyendo notas sobre su biología. Anasa litigiosa se ha recolectado sobre bromeliáceas y cucurbitáceas y es una plaga importante de estas últimas.The aim of this work was the study of the life cycle of Anasa litigiosa Stål. Adults were collected on chayote and they were reared in laboratory using leaves, stems and fruits of chayote. Descriptions and illustrations of all instars of, and notes on its biology are included. This species has been collected in bromeliads and on cucurbits, it is an important pest of cucurbits in Mexico.

  2. Efeito do abacate (Persea americana Mill variedade hass na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos Effect of the hass avocado (American Persea Mill on hipercolesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fitonutrientes podem ser encontrados em muitas frutas, sendo o abacate o mais rico em beta-sitosterol (fitoesterol e glutationa. O fitoesterol é uma substância de origem vegetal cuja estrutura é muito similar a do colesterol e seu mecanismo de ação envolve a inibição intestinal de absorção do colesterol e diminuição da síntese de colesterol hepático. O efeito é exercido sobre os valores de colesterol plasmático total e LDL, sem afetar os níveis de HDL e triglicérides sanguíneos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência do consumo de farinha de abacate variedade Hass nos níveis séricos de colesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglicérides, colesterol hepático e excretado. Estes parâmetros foram investigados em ratos Wistar hipercolesterolêmicos durante 30 e 60 dias de experimento. Ao final de 30 dias, a dieta com 15% de abacate mostrou ser mais efetiva para reduzir os níveis de colesterol total e LDL e aumentar o HDL em comparação ao controle. Foi observado que para o teor de colesterol excretado a melhor dieta foi a de 25% de abacate, pois quanto maior a concentração de abacate, maior a excreção de colesterol. A dieta com 15% e 25% de abacate, foram as que mais influenciaram nos níveis de colesterol hepático.Phytonutrients can be found in fruits, and the avocado contains four times more beta-sitosterol (phytosterol and it is one of the best glutathione sources. The phytosterol is a vegetable substance whose structure is very similar to the cholesterol one and its action mechanism involves the intestinal inhibition of cholesterol absorption and the synthesis of hepatic cholesterol. The effect has an influence on the values of total plasmatic cholesterol and LDL without affecting the levels of HDL and triglycerides. The present work had the objective to analyze the influence of the consumption of the Hass avocado on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and hepatic and excreted cholesterol. These parameters were investigated in hipercholesterolemic Wistar rats during 30 and 60 days of experiment. At the end of 30 days, the 15% avocado diet reduced the levels of total cholesterol and LDL in comparison to the control. It was observed that for the excreted cholesterol, the best diet was the 25% of avocado since the cholesterol excretion increased with the increase of the avocado concentration. The 15% avocado diet also influenced the levels of hepatic cholesterol.

  3. Cinco especies nuevas de Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini para México Five new species of Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 5 especies nuevas de Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae recolectadas en México (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora y Tamaulipas y en los Estados Unidos de América (Arizona. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey se registra por primera vez para la República Mexicana. Se ilustran caracteres diagnósticos del pronoto, del borde posterior del segmento abdominal VII, de la cápsula genital del macho (pigóforo y parámeros. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies basada principalmente en los genitales masculinos.Five new species of Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco,Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora and Tamaulipas and from the United States of America (Arizona are described. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey is a new record for Mexico. Diagnostic taxonomic characters of pronotum, posterior border of abdominal segment VII, male genital capsule (pygophore and parameres are illustrated. An identification key based mainly on the male genitalia is included.

  4. Natural lectin activity in the haemolymph of Panstrogylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduvidae Atividade lectínica na hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Gomes

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The haemolymph of Panstrongylus megistus showed a natural lectin activity for a wide range of vertebrate erythocytes. Agglutination was observed against all vertebrate erythrocytes tested (human ABO, duck, rabbit, mouse, sheep, chicken and cow. Cow erythrocytes showed the lowest titre. Concerning human erythrocytes, the lectin activity was similar in the types A+,B+ and AB+ while the highest activity was observed in the type O+. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations was carried out with human erythrocytes type O+. Agglutination was inhibited by several carbohydrates (rhamnose. D-galatose, raffinose, D-lactose and D-fucose. Rhamnose wasreported as the strongest inhibitor (0.78mM. The results suggest the presence of more than one lection in the haemolymph of P. megistus.A hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus mostrou uma atividade lectínica natural para eritrócitos de vários vertebrados e não mostrou especificidade para os diversos tipos de eritrócitos testados (humano ABO, pato, coelho,c amundongo,carneiro, galinha e boi. Com relação aos eritrócitos humanos a atividade lectínica foi similar nos tipos A+, B+ e AB+ enquanto a atividade mais alta foi observada no tipo O+. O título de aglutinação entre eritrócitos animais não mostrou diferença apreciável, excluindo eritrócitos de boi, que apresentaram o título mmais baixo. A determinação da concentração mínima de inibição foi realizada com eritrócitos humanos O+. A aglutinação foi inibida por vários carboidratos (ramnose, D-dalactose, rafinose, D-lactose e D-fucose. A ramnose foi o inibidor mais potente (0,78 mM. Os resultados sugerem a presença de mais de uma lectina na hemolinfa de P. megistus.

  5. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus (Carthamus tinctorius L.. On weeds, O. insidiosus was found on farmer's friend (Bidens pilosa L., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Joseph's coat (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring was found on weed plants farmer's friend, amaranth and Joseph's coat. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter and Orius sp. were collected mainly on weed plants (farmer's friend, amaranth and Joseph's coat and corn. Many of these plants are natural hosts for these predators, providing refuge, prey and pollen.

  6. Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... weight of either aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf daily for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall body weight gain of the hyperlipidaemic rats compared to normal control. However, the administration of the aqueous and methanolic extracts provoked 14 and.

  7. Remnant B-cell-stimulative and anti-oxidant effects of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the treatment with avocado fruit extract, the elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea and serum creatinine seen in the hyperglycaemic rats, reverted back to near normal. Similarly, significantly decreased plasma insulin and haemoglobin levels went back to near normal after the treatment ...

  8. Tolerância a baixas temperaturas de cultivares de abacate (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Nilberto Bernardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento realizado no Núcleo de Agronomia do Sudoeste/IAC, em Capão Bonito (SP, observou-se o comportamento de 13 cultivares de abacate com seis anos de idade: Geada, Pollock e Simmonds (raça antilhana; Antoniolli, Breda, Campinas, Ermor, Jumbo, Margarida, Ouro verde, Reis e Solano (híbridos de antilhana x guatemalense e Fuerte (híbrido de mexicana x guatemalense em relação às baixas temperaturas. As temperaturas do ar registradas no posto meteorológico do local foram: -2,8degreesC; -0,4degreesC; -0,2degreesC e -1,8degreesC, respectivamente, nos dias 17; 18; 20 e 21 de julho de 2000. A cultivar Fuerte mostrou-se mais tolerante às baixas temperaturas, não apresentando injúrias nas plantas nem queda de frutos; as cultivares híbridas de antilhana x guatemalense apresentaram diferenças de tolerância ao frio; enquanto as antilhanas foram severamente injuriadas.

  9. PENGARUH PANJANG ENTRES TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN PENYAMBUNGAN TANAMAN ALPUKAT (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirgahani Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beragamnya hasil produksi dan kualitas buah alpukat dapat diperbaiki dengan metode penyambungan. Penyambungan merupakan kegiatan untuk mengga-bungkan dua atau lebih sifat unggul dalam satu tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh berbagai panjang entres terhadap keberhasilan penyam-bungan tanaman alpukat. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan lima perlakuan panjang entres, yaitu 3 cm, 6 cm, 9 cm, 12 cm, dan 15 cm.Setiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak lima kali dan setiap perlakuan terdiri atas lima tanaman;sehingga jumlah totalnya sebanyak 125 tanaman. Pengamatan dilakukan pada peubah persentase sambung hidup, jumlah tunas, panjang tunas, jumlah daun, dan diameter batang atas. Berbagai panjang entres tidak memberikan pengaruh yang nyata pada peubah persentase sambung hidup, panjang tunas terpanjang, jumlah daun, dan diameter batang atas tetapi berpengaruh nyata pada peubah jumlah tunas. Perlakuan panjang entres 15 cm memberikan hasil tertinggi untuk jumlah tunas, panjang tunas, jumlah daun dan diameter batang atas, sedangkan untuk persentase hidup perlakuan 6 cm, 12 cm memberikan hasil tertinggi yaitu 100%. Perlakuan panjang entres 3 cm adalah perlakuan yang memberikan pengaruh yang rendah pada persentase sambung hidup (yaitu 92%, peubah jumlah tunas, panjang tunas, serta diameter batang atas pada berbagai umur tanaman alpukat.

  10. Combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction to improve salinity tolerance in avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, J. L.; Santiago, L.; Alvarez, A.; Valdés, Y.; Vernhe, M.; Guerra, M.; Altanez, S.; Prieto, E. F. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Miramar, Playa, C. Habana (Cuba); Rodríguez, N. N.; Arbelo, O. Coto; Velázquez, B.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sourd, D. G.; Fuentes, V. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones de Fruticultura Tropical (IICF), Miramar, Playa, C. Habana (Cuba); Leal, M. R. [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, C. Habana (Cuba)

    2009-05-15

    Mutation induction and biotechnological techniques are some of the current approaches used in plant breeding. In the present work radiation-induced mutation followed by in vitro culture of zygotic embryos and high osmotic pressure selection methods to improve salt tolerance in avocado are investigated. The in vitro germination, rooting, bud multiplication and plantlet acclimatization of Cuban avocado varieties were recorded. The germination rates of whole embryos in vitro were found to be higher when using mature rather than immature embryos. Almost 80% of the whole embryos derived plantlets produced were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized and documented. However, in vitro multiplication results indicated the need to improve bud multiplication methods in avocado. The survival rates of gamma rays irradiated and salt pressured avocado embryos were also investigated. Both mutagenic (LD{sub 50} = 27-28 Gy) and selective (LD{sub 20} = 157 mM of NaCl) doses were established. A procedure combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction was used to obtain. Putative mutant lines derived from salt tolerant rootstocks were developed. Putative M{sub 1}V{sub 3} progenies were planted in the field for segregation analysis. An avocado gene bank was established under the same study. Therefore this methodology appears as an alternative to traditional breeding methods, particularly for improving agronomic characteristics such as salt tolerance in avocado. (author)

  11. The potential of avocado paste (Persea americana) as fat substitute in non-dairy ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina; Surjawan, I.; Abdillah, E.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer preferences towards plant-based food have shifted significantly due to sustainable and healthy reasons. Dairy products consist of high Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) and overconsumption of SFA could lead to cardiovascular diseases. Avocado contains high levels of fat dominated by Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) and phytosterol that have the potential as a plant-based fat source to substitute dairy-fat in ice cream. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties of ice cream substituted with different concentrations of avocado paste ranging from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively against dairy fat to produce non-dairy fat ice cream. The psychochemical properties and total fat were determined. Sensorial quality and hedonic attributes of ice cream were investigated using 60 semi-trained panelists. There were significant differences (p0.05). The addition of 50% avocado paste was the most preferred among the panelists. Avocado could provide a potential substitution for dairy-fat in ice cream.

  12. Effect of the hass avocado (American Persea Mill) on hipercolesterolemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    SALGADO, Jocelem Mastrodi; BIN, Camila; MANSI, Débora Niero; SOUZA, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Os fitonutrientes podem ser encontrados em muitas frutas, sendo o abacate o mais rico em beta-sitosterol (fitoesterol) e glutationa. O fitoesterol é uma substância de origem vegetal cuja estrutura é muito similar a do colesterol e seu mecanismo de ação envolve a inibição intestinal de absorção do colesterol e diminuição da síntese de colesterol hepático. O efeito é exercido sobre os valores de colesterol plasmático total e LDL, sem afetar os níveis de HDL e triglicérides sanguíneos. O present...

  13. Effects of Avocado (Persea americana) on Metabolic Syndrome: A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabeshpour, Jamshid; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of risk factors including high blood glucose, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity that lead to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which are among leading causes of death in the world. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVDs by approximately five and three folds, respectively. Therefore, it is of vital importance to manage such conditions with herbal options which have less undesirable adverse effects and may be more efficacious in comparison with synthetic options. Avocado is a well-known source of carotenoids, minerals, phenolics, vitamins, and fatty acids. The lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, and cardioprotective effects of avocado have been demonstrated in several studies. In this review, we aimed to find out avocado's pharmacological effects on different components of MetS. Moreover, this review report is performed on the MetS effects of peel, seed, flesh, and leaves of avocado. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and

  15. The Spot Problem in Avocado (Persea americana Mill. Plantations of Northern Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Reina Noreña

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spot (common name is currently the main phytosanitary problem in avocado plantations of northern Tolima. In Colombia, information about its causal agent and the external factors that foster its development is scarse, which lead us to carry on a preliminary research. In three avocado farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot in Lorena cultivar fruits was evaluated by using five types of barriers and a control, from the inflorescence phase to the developed fruit. The symptoms of the “avocado spot” in Lorena’ cultivar were characterized. Samples from different plant organs were sent to four diagnostic laboratories. Besides, in ten farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot was measured on Lorena, Hass and Choquette cultivars by carrying out bi-weekly samplings. Simultaneously, in eleven farms in Fresno, the culture labors, pesticides, production costs and incomes were recorded. The treatment that was significantly different from the control was the fungicide application. The phytopathological diagnosis identified two pathogens, Glomerella sp. (Anamorphic: Colletotrichum sp. and Cercospora sp. related to the spot symptoms. The Lorena cultivar was the most affected by “the spot”, it caused an increase of 3.65 % of the production costs to growers and the crop incomes decreased 21.65 % due to fruits with “spot” symptoms. An environmental impact was perceived as a result of the grower lack of awareness about the problem.

  16. Effect of semisolid formulation of persea americana mill (avocado) oil on wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Franco, Eryvelton de Souza; Rodrigues Barreto, Rafaella; Cordeiro, Daniele Pires; de Melo, Rebeca Gonçalves; de Aquino, Camila Maria Ferreira; E Silva, Antonio Alfredo Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Góes, Alexandre José da Silva; Maia, Maria Bernadete de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a semisolid formulation of avocado oil, SSFAO 50%, or avocado oil in natura, on incisional and excisional cutaneous wound models in Wistar rats. An additional objective was to quantify the fatty acids present in avocado oil. On the 14th day, a significant increase was observed in percentage wound contraction and reepithelialization in the groups treated with 50% SSFAO or avocado oil compared to the petroleum jelly control. Anti-inflammatory activity, increase in density of collagen, and tensile strength were observed inSSFAO 50% or avocado oil groups, when compared to control groups. The analysis of the components of avocado oil by gas chromatography detected the majority presence of oleic fatty acid (47.20%), followed by palmitic (23.66%), linoleic (13.46%) docosadienoic (8.88%), palmitoleic (3.58%), linolenic (1.60%), eicosenoic (1.29%), and myristic acids (0.33%). Our results show that avocado oil is a rich source of oleic acid and contains essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decreased numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound-healing process and may thus be considered a new option for treating skin wounds.

  17. Inventarisasi Alpukat (Persea americana Mill) pada Berbagai Ketinggian di Kabupaten Bener Meriah Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Nopriza

    2011-01-01

    There are several benefits of avocados in the Bener Meriah Regency that are not owned avocados in other regions. Therefore, a research was conducted the distribution avocados at different elevations in the area in July-August 2010 by using descriptive method. Parameters measured were the large number of plant avocado, avocado species, pests and diseases, and productivity of avocado plants found on altitude. The results showed that the large number of avocado is not based on altitude above sea...

  18. Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rojo, Rocío P; García, Noemí; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; García-Rivas, Gerardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-12-30

    Avocado fruit is a rich source of health-related lipophilic phytochemicals such as monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenes, acetogenins and sterols. However, limited information is available on the contribution of specific phytochemicals to the overall antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the fruit. Centrifugal partition chromatography was used as fractionation tool, guided by an in vitro chemical assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Subsequent experiments focused on isolation and characterization of the chemical nature of the main contributors to lipophilic AOC of avocado pulp. ORAC values obtained for acetogenins were contrasted with results from an isolated kidney mitochondria membrane lipid peroxidation bioassay. The present study established that lipophilic AOC of the pulp was significantly higher than its hydrophilic AOC. Our results confirmed the presence of acetogenins in the fractions with highest lipophilic AOC, and for the first time linked them as contributors to lipophilic-ORAC values. Further HPLC-PDA/MS-TOF analysis led to structural elucidation of two novel acetogenins, not previously reported as present in avocado pulp, along with five already known related-compounds. Antioxidant properties observed for avocado pulp acetogenins by the ORAC assay suggested that, in the presence of an emulsifying agent, acetogenins could serve as novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix. Results from isolated mitochondria lipid peroxidation bioassay, indicated that L-ORAC values which may have relevance for food matrix applications, should not be interpreted to have a direct relevance in health-related claims, compounds need to be evaluated considering the complexity of biological systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth and abscission of avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill. cv. Fuerte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo B.Muñoz Perez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a commerical orchard of 18-year-old trees, 1250 fruits were chosen for observation. The majority of them abscised during the first weeks after anthesis. Afterwards, the abscission gradually descreased, however, in the meantime three additional waves of more intensive shedding occurred which were best visible when the Relative Abscission Rate (RAR was calculated. The peaks in the RAR curve were preceded by a decrease in the Relative Growth Rate (RGR of persistent fruits, which suggests that nutritional or other stresses occurred in the whole branch. In the period from May 15th to July 15th, predominantly the smaller fruits were abscised, later on, however, fruits of the same size as the persistent ones were shed. The formula for calculating RAR and RAR is shortly discussed.

  20. Pemanfaatan Tepung Buah Alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) dalam Pembuatan Bolu Terhadap Daya Terima dan Kandungan Gizinya

    OpenAIRE

    Regar, Nurhalis Br

    2015-01-01

    Food diversification efforts can be done by using local food. Avocado is one of the local food that have many nutrients and its availability is quite promising because the production of avocado tend to increase every year. Avocado processed into flour as substitute the wheat flour in the manufacture of cake. Avocado flour cake is one of the food product that modified by addingflouravocado and contain nutrient that needed the body. The purpose of this researchis to know the a...

  1. Recognition and Quantification of Area Damaged by Oligonychus Perseae in Avocado Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gloria; Romero, Eduardo; Boyero, Juan R.; Malpica, Norberto

    The measure of leaf damage is a basic tool in plant epidemiology research. Measuring the area of a great number of leaves is subjective and time consuming. We investigate the use of machine learning approaches for the objective segmentation and quantification of leaf area damaged by mites in avocado leaves. After extraction of the leaf veins, pixels are labeled with a look-up table generated using a Support Vector Machine with a polynomial kernel of degree 3, on the chrominance components of YCrCb color space. Spatial information is included in the segmentation process by rating the degree of membership to a certain class and the homogeneity of the classified region. Results are presented on real images with different degrees of damage.

  2. Analyses of avocado (Persea americana) nectar properties and their perception by honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afik, O; Dag, A; Kerem, Z; Shafir, S

    2006-09-01

    Honey bees are important avocado pollinators. However, due to the low attractiveness of flowers, pollination is often inadequate. Previous work has revealed that avocado honey is relatively unattractive to honey bees when compared with honey from competing flowers. We characterized avocado honey and nectar with respect to their odor, color, and composition of sugars, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Furthermore, we tested how honey bees perceive these parameters, using the proboscis extension response bioassay and preference experiments with free-flying bees. Naïve bees were indifferent to odors of avocado and citrus flowers and honey. Experienced bees, which were collected in the field during the blooming season, responded preferentially to odor of citrus flowers. The unique sugar composition of avocado nectar, which contains almost exclusively sucrose and a low concentration of the rare carbohydrate perseitol, and the dark brown color of avocado honey, had no negative effects on its attractiveness to the bees. Phenolic compounds extracted from avocado honey were attractive to bees and adding them to a solution of sucrose increased its attractiveness. Compared with citrus nectar and nonavocado honey, avocado nectar and honey were rich in a wide range of minerals, including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iron, and copper. Potassium and phosphorus, the two major minerals, both had a repellent effect on the bees. Possible explanations for the presence of repellent components in avocado nectar are discussed.

  3. Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, J.L.; Ramirez, I. M; Santiago, L.; Valdes, Y.; Guerra, M; Prieto, E.; Rodriguez, N.; Velazquez, B.

    2001-01-01

    Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

  4. Whitefly (Paraleyrodes sp. preference for avocado cultivars (Persea americana Mill. in Fresno, Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vanessa Sierra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly is a major pest that affects avocado and there is not enough information about the biolog y and management of this insect in Colombia. In this paper the incidence of the whitefly Paraleyrodes sp. pos. bondarion four avocado cultivars was studied (Choquette, Hass, Lorena, Santana. The crop management carried out by farmers was characterized and its effect on the white fly presence on three cultivars was evaluated (Choquette, Hass, Lorena. Presence of secondary metabolites on leaves from Hass and Lorena was measured and the effect of their leaf extracts on the mortality and repellency index of whitefly adults was established. There were interactions between crop management and cultivar for the presence of the insect; moderately chemical management had the lowest infestation in all cultivars. The increase in soil fertilization and chemical insecticides increased insect population, and removal of the hemiparasite decreased it. Lorena cultivar had the highest fly preference, insect population increase when there was interaction between cultivar and mature leaves, neutral repellency index, and high percentage of total and non-reducing carbohydrates. The Hass cultivar showed higher amount of coumarins, terpenes and steroids, and high rate of repellency. Lorena attracting the insect is due to the presence of carbohydrates; and Hass repellency is due to the terpene and / or steroids. Research works should be done on whitefly in avocado crops toward cultivars Lorena

  5. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.

  6. Enzymatic browning in avocado (Persea americana) revisited: History, advances, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Lea; Aguirre, Carolina

    2017-12-12

    Considering nearly 80 years of research regarding one of the enzymes responsible for catalyzing the formation of pigments in higher animals, plants, fungi and bacteria, this review will focus on collecting and categorizing the existing information about polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in fruits, with particular emphasis on the information in relation to avocado, which is one of the hardiest species in terms of inactivation, has documented dual activity (EC 1.14.18.1/EC 1.10.3.1), and represents one of the oldest challenges for food science research and fruit processors. It is expected that this review will contribute to the further development of the field by highlighting the questions that have arisen during the characterization of PPO, the progress that has been made and the questions that remain today, in addition to new methodologies that are being applied to study this system. Holistic methodologies offer unexplored potential for advancing our understanding of the complex phenomena that govern PPO activity in fruits, because these methodologies will enable the characterization of this family of enzymes in all of its complexity. Subsequently, it will be possible to develop better techniques for controlling enzymatic browning in this valuable fruit.

  7. Hypolipidemic effect of avocado (Persea americana Mill) seed in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahua-Ramos, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Hernández-Ortega, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    Avocado seed contains elevated levels of phenolic compounds and exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of Avocado Seed Flour (ASF) on the lipid levels in mice on a hyperlipidemic diet. The concentration of phenols was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method, and dietary fiber was measured using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method. The LD50 of ASF was determined using Lorke's method and hypolipidemic activity was evaluated in a hypercholesterolemic model in mice. Protocatechuic acid was the main phenolic compound found in ASF, followed by kaempferide and vanillic acid. The total phenolic content in the methanolic extract of ASF was 292.00 ± 9.81 mg gallic acid equivalents/g seed dry weight and the antioxidant activity resulted in 173.3 μmol Trolox equivalents/g DW. In addition, a high content of dietary fiber was found (34.8%). The oral LD50 for ASF was 1767 mg/kg body weight, and treatment with ASF significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and prediction of the atherogenic index. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber in ASF may be responsible for the hypocholesterolemic activity of ASF in a hyperlipidemic model of mice.

  8. NUTRITIONAL AND HORMONAL FACTORS AFFECTING FRUIT SET IN AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    D'ASARO, ANTONIO

    2017-01-01

    Under favourable conditions, the avocado sets more fruits than the tree is able to bring to maturity, so that the plant adjusts, during the early stages of development, its ability to nourish them by modifying their number, that is, causing the fruit drop of those who can not maintain their growth rate. Accordingly, carbohydrate availability could be a key factor in the physiological abscission of these fruits. Since this species presents dichogamy, the abscission of fruits has also been attr...

  9. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  10. Physicochemical parameters of avocado Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass (Lauraceae grown in Antioquia (Colombia for export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodriguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hass avocado is transported maintaining an unbroken cold chain and in the destination market, it is ripened under controlled conditions. Fruit quality depends on preharvest, factors, harvest time and postharvest treatments. Colombia has poor information on quality parameters despite the current growing and fruit export boom. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine some important fruit quality parameters. For that, Hass avocado fruits were harvested considering three maturity indexes form exporting orchards in Antioquia, where fruits were stored and ripened. Temperature, relative humidity and shipment times to the European market were simulated. Dry matter content was used as harvest index. Soluble solids, pH, and titratable acidity were analyzed as quality parameters. Fruit origin, harvest index and storage time had a significant effect on quality parameters of avocado (p≤0.05. There was an increase in Brix degrees (5.07 to 7.26 and pH (6.58 to 7.14 throughout the storage time until the fourth week, where these decreased. In contrast, acidity dropped (19.47 to 9.24% with storage time. These quality parameters can be considered quality indicators; however, more studies are required.

  11. Physicochemical parameters of avocado Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass (Lauraceae) grown in Antioquia (Colombia) for export

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Rodriguez; Camilo Astudillo

    2018-01-01

    Hass avocado is transported maintaining an unbroken cold chain and in the destination market, it is ripened under controlled conditions. Fruit quality depends on preharvest, factors, harvest time and postharvest treatments. Colombia has poor information on quality parameters despite the current growing and fruit export boom. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine some important fruit quality parameters. For that, Hass avocado fruits were harvested considering three maturity indexes...

  12. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera in cerrado streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia França da Silva Giehl

    Full Text Available Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity, although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77. The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively. The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories.

  13. Catàleg dels Miridae (Heteroptera) del Massís del Garraf

    OpenAIRE

    Goula Goula, Marta

    1989-01-01

    Per a la redacció d'aquest catàleg, s'aporten dades d'observació pròpia al llarg dels anys 1980-1984, així com les troballes publicades per CUNI (1889a,1889b,1889c,1891) i per RIBES (1978a,1978b,1980,1984). Totes aquestes observacions s'han fet en localitats del Massis del Garraf, que será objecte d'una curta descripció.

  14. Effect of diet on male reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P Lemos

    Full Text Available The morphology and histology of the reproductive tract of males of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas fed on different diets were studied. P. nigrispinus was fed on diets of: larvae of Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Tenebrio molitor L., Musca domestica L., and an artificial diet. The male reproductive tract, independent of diet, showed testes with intense red coloration in a compact, circular, or slightly oval structure. The vasa deferentia were similar in color to the testes and formed long filaments, which joined with the yellow-cream colored ejaculatory duct. The morphological characteristics of the male reproductive tract were similar under all diets, except for the artificial one. The histological studies demonstrated that independent of the diet the testes of P. nigrispinus were composed of four to six follicles. The testes with six follicles generally had four developed and two atrophied follicles. The morphological and histological differences of the testes of P. nigrispinus when fed with different prey are presented and discussed.

  15. Lecto- and Paralectotype Designations and Redescription of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaynara S. Martins; Felipe F. F. Moreira; Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2016-01-01

    The lecto- and a paralectotype of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 are designated to enhance nomenclatural stability. A redescription based on the type material from Rio de Janeiro deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil, is presented. Specimens are illustrated and measured in detail for the first time.

  16. Leg coordination during turning on an extremely narrow substrate in a bug, Mesocerus marginatus (Heteroptera, Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid I; Cruse, Holk

    2005-10-01

    The turning movement of a bug, Mesocerus marginatus, is observed when it walks upside-down below a horizontal beam and, at the end of the beam, performs a sharp turn by 180 degrees . The turn at the end of the beam is accomplished in three to five steps, without strong temporal coordination among legs. During the stance, leg endpoints (tarsi) run through rounded trajectories, rotating to the same side in all legs. During certain phases of the turn, a leg is strongly depressed and the tarsus crosses the midline. Swing movements rotate to the same side as do leg endpoints in stance, in strong contrast to the typical swing movements found in turns or straight walk on a flat surface. Terminal location is found after the search through a trajectory that first moves away from the body and then loops back to find substrate. When a leg during stance has crossed the midline, in the following swing movement the leg may move even stronger on the contralateral side, i.e. is stronger depressed, in contrast to swing movements in normal walking, where the leg is elevated. These results suggest that the animals apply a different control strategy compared to walking and turning on a flat surface.

  17. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The possible neurophysiological basis for this asymmetrical cross-attraction is discussed.

  18. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  19. Observations on some species of the genus Lyramorpha Westw. (Hemiptera Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouteden, H.

    1908-01-01

    1. Lyramorpha pallida Westwood and L. rosea Westwood. In his »Catalogue of Hemiptera in the Collection of the Rev. W. F. Hope”, part I, London 1837, Westwood founded the genus Lyramorpha, with two species, L. rosea and L. pallida, both from New Holland.

  20. What do we know about the phylogeny of the semi-aquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The present study summarizes knowledge about phylogenetic relationships of the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. A phylogeny for all families and subfamilies, and for all genera but those assigned to the two most diverse families, Veliidae and Gerridae, is compiled from the many studies by the...

  1. Review of Ptilomera (Ptilomera) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) from India, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehamalar, E Eyarin; Chandra, Kailash; Basu, Srimoyee; Selvakumar, C

    2018-01-15

    The subgenus Ptilomera (Ptilomera) Amyot Serville, 1843 of India is reviewed and Ptilomera (P.) nagalanda Jehamalar Chandra, sp. nov. is described from Peren District, Nagaland, India. The new species can clearly be distinguished from its congeners in India by the presence of silvery white setae on the sub-lateral region of the meso- and metanota and the presence of a fringe of fine short setae of different lengths on the flexor region of the mid femur reaching beyond the middle in the male. Detailed illustrations of the apterous male of the new species and male and female of other species of Ptilomera, except P. occidentalis Zettel, are given. Distribution maps and a key to all known species of Ptilomera (Ptilomera) in India are given.

  2. Cream and albinotic – two new mutations affecting body colour in Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 17-24 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : firebug * body- colour mutants * albinotic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2011 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1582

  3. Corixidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera en el lago urbano del parque Tezozomoc, Azcapotzalco, México, D. F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Contreras-Rivero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios ecológicos sobre la familia Corixidae (Hemiptera en México son escasos y fragmentados, por lo que se analiza su variación espacial y temporal en un lago urbano con algunas variables ambientales. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente, de julio de 2000 a junio de 2001, ubicando tres estaciones litorales de muestreo; en cada una se determinó: profundidad, transparencia, temperatura, oxígeno, pH, conductividad, dureza y alcalinidad. Los coríxidos se capturaron con red de cuchara de forma rectangular. Se efectuó un análisis de correlación simple entre la abundancia total de los coríxidos y las variables físicas y químicas registradas. Se registraron tres especies: Graptocorixa abdominalis (Say, 1832, con 53% de abundancia; Corisella edulis (Champion, 1901 con 43% y Krizousacorixa femorata (Guérin, 1857 con 1%. De un total de 2423 organismos capturados, la mayor abundancia se registró en marzo, junto con los valores más altos de profundidad y oxígeno. La menor abundancia se presentó en junio, con los valores más bajos de alcalinidad. La correlación de variables y abundancia total fue positiva y significativa con profundidad, oxígeno y conductividad. La Estación I presentó la mayor abundancia de coríxidos y la estación III la menor abundancia. Las variaciones registradas en la abundancia se deben al aporte de agua y a la ubicación de las estaciones de muestreo.

  4. Uptake of dietary selenium by laboratory and field feeding Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podisus maculiventris (Say) is a generalist pentatomid predator commercially available for augmentative biological control of pest insects in a variety of crop and orchard systems. P. maculiventris is exposed to a wide variety of micronutrients based upon the soil type, plant, and insect prey items...

  5. Stephanitis takeyai and S. rhododendri (Heteroptera: Tingidae in Slovakia: first record and economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the occurrence of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, 1955, and rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, 1905, in Slovakia. Syntopic colonies of both species were found on rhododendron shrubs (Rhododendron sp. in south-western Slovakia in 2015. The feeding of the lace bugs resulted in damage to infested rhododendrons. Leaves turned yellow and brown, prematurely dropped what led to continuous drying up of twigs and the whole plants. Details on morphology of adult stages of the two species, description of damage symptoms and economic importance of these pests are presented and discussed.

  6. Life history of the invasive bug Oxycarenus lavaterae (Heteroptera: Oxycarenidae) in Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Oldřich; Chehlarov, E.; Kalushkov, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2014), s. 203-208 ISSN 0324-0770 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : size * weight * sexual dimorphism Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2014 http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2014/66-2-203-208.pdf

  7. A Deep Insight Into the Sialotranscriptome of the Chagas Disease Vector, Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Schwarz, Alexandra; Francischetti, I.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2015), s. 351-358 ISSN 0022-2585 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12002; GA ČR GPP302/11/P798 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chagas disease * vector biology * salivary gland * transcriptome * medical entomology Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2015

  8. A new genus and two new species of Tingidae (Heteroptera) from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara I

    2008-04-01

    A new genus, Ceratotingis, distributed in Central America, is described to accommodate two new species, C. rafaeli from Panama and C. costarriquense from Costa Rica and to include Macrotingis zeteki from Panama. This paper includes descriptions of the new genus and its species, a redescription of C. zeteki, an identification key, and habitus photographs.

  9. Phylogenetic isolation of host trees affects assembly of local Heteroptera communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vialatte, A.; Bailey, R.; Vasseur, C.; Matocq, A.; Gossner, M.; Everhart, D.; Vitrac, X.; Belhadj, A.; Ernoult, A.; Prinzing, A.

    2010-01-01

    A host may be physically isolated in space and then may correspond to a geographical island, but it may also be separated from its local neighbours by hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary history, and may form in this case an evolutionarily distinct island. We test how this affects the

  10. Joseocoris, new genus and two new species of Ceratocapsini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae from Argentina and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. HENRY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo género de Ceratocapsini (Miridae, Orthotylinae, Joseocoris para ubicar a dos especies nuevas: J. carpinteroi de Corrientes, Argenti - na, y J. costai de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones de las estructuras genitales masculinas, fotografías del macho y de la hembra de ambas especies y fotografías de microscopio electrónico, que ayudan a distinguir al nuevo género y a las dos nuevas especies de otros miembros de la tribu Ceratocapsini.

  11. The effect of adipokinetic hormone on midgut characteristics in Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Tomčala, Aleš; Socha, Radomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2012), s. 194-204 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215; GA ČR GAP502/10/1734 Grant - others: project MOBITAG(CZ) GA 229518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * AKH * digestion Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2012

  12. A Mitochondrial Genome of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and a Comparative Analysis of Related Mitochondrial Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Yang, Jie; Li, Yinwan; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun; Hillis, David M

    2016-10-19

    The Rhyparochromidae, the largest family of Lygaeoidea, encompasses more than 1,850 described species, but no mitochondrial genome has been sequenced to date. Here we describe the first mitochondrial genome for Rhyparochromidae: a complete mitochondrial genome of Panaorus albomaculatus (Scott, 1874). This mitochondrial genome is comprised of 16,345 bp, and contains the expected 37 genes and control region. The majority of the control region is made up of a large tandem-repeat region, which has a novel pattern not previously observed in other insects. The tandem-repeats region of P. albomaculatus consists of 53 tandem duplications (including one partial repeat), which is the largest number of tandem repeats among all the known insect mitochondrial genomes. Slipped-strand mispairing during replication is likely to have generated this novel pattern of tandem repeats. Comparative analysis of tRNA gene families in sequenced Pentatomomorpha and Lygaeoidea species shows that the pattern of nucleotide conservation is markedly higher on the J-strand. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial genomes suggests that Rhyparochromidae is not the sister group to all the remaining Lygaeoidea, and supports the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  13. Checklist and new records of Notonectidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha from Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna Freires Barbosa

    2017-04-01

    Resumo. A savanna brasileira, chamada de Cerrado, possui a maior riqueza de flora dentre as savannas mundiais, e o Estado de Goiás encontra-se dentro dos limites deste bioma. Apresentamos aqui uma lista de espécies para Goiás baseada em literatura e espécimes coletados, com 18 espécies de Notonectidae, incluindo registros novos de distribuição de Martarega membranacea White, 1879, e o primeiro registro no Estado de Buenoa konta Nieser & Pelli, 1994; Buenoa pseudomutabilis Barbosa, Ribeiro & Nessimian, 2010; Buenoa tarsalis Truxal, 1953; Martarega bentoi Truxal, 1949 e Martarega brasiliensis Truxal, 1949. Esta lista destaca uma lacuna no conhecimento de Notonectidae e a grande necessidade de desenvolvimento de artigos com foco na diversidade de Notonectidae em Goiás.

  14. Mirid (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) specialists of sticky plants: adaptations, interactions, and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Alfred G; Krimmel, Billy A

    2015-01-07

    Sticky plants-those having glandular trichomes (hairs) that produce adhesive, viscous exudates-can impede the movement of, and entrap, generalist insects. Disparate arthropod groups have adapted to these widespread and taxonomically diverse plants, yet their interactions with glandular hosts rarely are incorporated into broad ecological theory. Ecologists and entomologists might be unaware of even well-documented examples of insects that are sticky-plant specialists. The hemipteran family Miridae (more specifically, the omnivorous Dicyphini: Dicyphina) is the best-known group of arthropods that specializes on sticky plants. In the first synthesis of relationships with glandular plants for any insect family, we review mirid interactions with sticky hosts, including their adaptations (behavioral, morphological, and physiological) and mutualisms with carnivorous plants, and the ecological and agricultural implications of mirid-sticky plant systems. We propose that mirid research applies generally to tritrophic interactions on trichome-defended plants, enhances an understanding of insect-plant interactions, and provides information useful in managing crop pests.

  15. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE SUNN PEST, EURYGASTER INTEGRICEPS PUT. (HETEROPTERA, SCUTELLERIDAE IN THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan KIVAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of azadirachtin on different stages of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Het., Scutelleridae in the laboratory, a commercial neem insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was applied at dose of 0.5 % by dipping insects. No effect was observed for 1. instar nymphs at 1 day after application, although adults had slightly effect (20 %. Adults and nymphs were infl uenced 7 days after the treatment and mortality rates for adults and nymphs were recorded 44.0 and 51.9 %, respectively. The hatching of treated eggs was reduced than control. These results indicate that NeemAzal T/S may be used in integrated sunn pest management, but should be evaluated for fi eld efficacy.

  16. Morphology and neurophysiology of tarsal vibration receptors in the water strider Aquarius paludum (Heteroptera: Gerridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Goodwyn, Pablo; Katsumata-Wada, Ayako; Okada, Koutaroh

    2009-09-01

    Substrate vibratory information receptors are extensively studied in insects and spiders, however for water surface dwelling species little data is available. We studied the vibration receptive organs in tarsi of the water strider Aquarius paludum, using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopes, and recorded the neural activity of the organs in response to vibrational stimuli, which were afterwards analysed with a custom made spike sorting program. We found that the tarsal chordotonal organ has one set of three scoloparia: one in the tarsomere I and two in the tarsomere II, all of which consisted of a few scolopidia. The chordotonal organ clearly responded to vibratory stimulation. Furthermore, we found that a pair of large subapical emergent dorsal setae, which had been deemed mechanosensory by previous authors, are not so. In turn, four ventral subapical trichobothria that are in direct contact with the water surface during locomotion, proved to be mechanosensory. The anatomical and ultrastructural observations support these electro-physiological results.

  17. A taxonomic revision of the new world species of Sirthenea (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, L.

    1985-01-01

    The American species of Sirthenea are revised and keys to the 12 species and seven subspecies are given. Four new species and two new subspecies are described viz., S. ater (Brazil: Minas Geraes), S. dubia (Panama; Paraguay: Caaguazu. Argentina: Misiones; Entre Rios), S. ferdinandi (Argentina:

  18. Comparison of susceptibility of pest Euschistus servus and predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn; Mullinix, Benjamin G

    2004-06-01

    Susceptibility of the brown stink bug, Euschistus serous (Say), and the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), to acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam, was compared in residual and oral toxicity tests. Generally, susceptibility of P. maculiventris to insecticides was significantly greater than or not significantly different from that of E. servus. Cyfluthrin and oxamyl were more toxic to the predator than to E. servus in residual and feeding tests, respectively. Dicrotophos is the only compound that exhibited both good residual and oral activity against E. servus, but even this toxicant was more toxic to the predator than to the pest in oral toxicity tests. Feeding on indoxacarb-treated food caused high mortality for both nymphs and adults of P. maculiventris. In contrast, E. servus was unaffected by feeding on food treated with this compound. Insecticide selectivity to P. maculiventris was detected only with acetamiprid for adults in residual toxicity tests and for nymphs in oral toxicity tests. Because insecticide selectivity to P. maculiventris was limited, it is extremely important to conserve P. maculiventris in cotton fields by applying these insecticides for control of brown stink bugs only when the pest reaches economic threshold.

  19. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  20. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  1. Phylogeny and character evolution in the bee-assassins (Insecta: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, D; Berniker, L; Weirauch, C

    2013-01-01

    Apiomerus, the charismatic bee-assassins (>108 spp.), belong to the New World resin bugs in the harpactorine tribe Apiomerini (12 extant genera) that is characterized by a novel predation strategy, resin trap predation. Apiomerini also exhibit striking genitalic diversity that has shaped subgeneric classifications within the genus Apiomerus and females of some species of Apiomerus are known to engage in unique maternal care behaviors. The lack of a phylogenetic framework currently hinders evolutionary interpretations of genitalic morphology and maternal care. We here present a molecular phylogeny based on 4, 477 bp of six ribosomal and protein coding genes and 95 terminal taxa using parsimony and maximum likelihood approaches as a way of addressing these shortcomings. Apiomerini are monophyletic, with Heniartes being the sistergroup to all remaining taxa that form the monophyletic Manicocoris (Calliclopius, Manicocoris, Micrauchenus, and Ponerobia) and Apiomerus (Agriocoris, Apiomerus, and Sphodrolestes) clades. Previously proposed subgeneric groups are polyphyletic, but several proposed species groups are recovered as monophyletic. Ancestral state reconstruction of the metatibial comb indicates that this structure evolved in the ancestor of all Apiomerini where it was present in males and in females; it became strongly sexually dimorphic (better developed in females than in males) in the Apiomerus clade (Apiomerus + Agriocoris + Sphodrolestes). Genitalic features reveal a pattern of homoplasy, but frequently are nonetheless useful to diagnose supraspecific groups within Apiomerus. The complex genitalia found within Apiomerus are derived for that clade. We conclude that, using the metatibial comb as a proxy, maternal care is relatively common in the tribe Apiomerini and propose that it likely evolved at the base of the Apiomerus clade if not at the base of Apiomerini. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal alterations in host range and fidelity in the polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae.

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    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China. Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of trypanosomatids parasitising true bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera) in sub-Saharan Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Klepetková, H.; Jirků, Milan; Kment, P.; Lukeš, Julius

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2012), s. 489-500 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosomatids * Phylogeny * Diversity * Insects Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2012

  4. The Heteroptera of the Netherlands Antilles – V Tingidae (Lace Bugs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, Carl J.; Cobben, R.H.

    1960-01-01

    The present paper is based upon the lace bugs, Family Tingidae, collected by the junior author in the West Indies, on the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, St. Martin, Saba, and St. Eustatius. This collection of several tingids comprises 17 species, including the five new forms described below.

  5. Effects of 5-Gy irradiation on fertility and mating behaviour of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, A.; Cokl, A.; Sersa, G.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The polyphagous and cosmopolitan species Nezara viridula is one of the most important insect pests. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy that involves sterilising males by exposing them to ionising radiation. Sterile males, released into wild population, mate with females, but eggs are not fertilised and the population gradually declines. Exposing insects to radiation during their growth stage might require lower sterilising dose. The aim of our study was to test whether 5-Gy irradiation of 5 th instar nymphs significantly affects: (1) moulting and further development of the irradiated nymphs, (2) the male's and female's reproductive system and (3) the mating competitiveness of treated males, with special focus on vibrational communication. Methods: The 5 th instar nymphs were irradiated with 5 Gy using X-ray generator and monitored daily. Results: The observed effects of irradiation were: prolonged moulting, increased mortality during development and during the first day of adult life, decreased males to females ratio, decreased fecundity, egg production, proportion of fertile eggs and progeny survival. The reaction of a male to stimulation with the model female calling song was tested. The irradiated and non-irradiated males responded to stimulation with emission of the courtship song (MCrS). Temporal parameters of MCrS emitted by non-irradiated males differed when compared with those of irradiated ones. Conclusions: The 5-Gy irradiation of 5 th instar nymphs did not affect mating behaviour. However since the irradiation during growth stage decreased the fertility and fecundity of emerged adults, this technique, in combination with certain other suppression techniques, could be a successful control strategy for management of Nezara viridula. On the other hand observed effects on moulting and further development of the irradiated nymphs could decrease the efficiency and application of this strategy. (author)

  6. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P.; Panizzi, Antonio R.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 ± 1 deg C), RH (60 ± 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  7. Pentatomiana beckerae gen. nov. and sp. nov., a new Neotropical Pentatomini (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae

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    Jocélia Grazia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus, Pentatomiana, and a new species, P. beckerae, are described, based on specimens from Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina States, Brazil. Brachyptery is present in the males of the new species. Pentatomiana gen. nov. is compared with Lojus McDonald, 1982, which also presents brachyptery in one of the species, but in females. Illustrations of male and female external genitalia are provided.Um novo gênero, Pentatomiana, e uma nova espécie, P. beckerae, são descritos, com base em espécimes do Rio de Janeiro e de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Machos da nova espécie apresentam braquipteria. Pentatomiana gen. nov. é comparado com Lojus McDonald, 1982, o qual também apresenta braquipteria em uma das espécies, mas em fêmeas. São fornecidas ilustrações da genitália externa masculina e feminina.

  8. Seasonal Occurrence and Interspecific Interactions of Egg Parasitoids of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Keisuke; Adati, Tarô; Olson, Dawn M; Takasu, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (F.) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep, in Tokyo, Japan, during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. The eggs of M. cribraria per 1 m2 of kudzu at four locations in Tokyo were collected weekly and parasitism rates were assessed. Eggs of M. cribraria were laid on the kudzu plant from May to September. Megacopta cribraria eggs were parasitized by two parasitoid species, Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd) and Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii. Paratelenomus saccharalis first appeared in May, and its parasitism rates peaked in July and September. Ooencyrtus nezarae first appeared in June and its parasitism rates peaked in July. Except for one location which could not be statistically analyzed because of the small sample size, occurrence of parasitism by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae in M. cribraria egg masses was independent at one location and positively associated at two locations, suggesting that the use of host egg masses by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae is not mutually exclusive. Parasitism rates by P. saccharalis and O. nezarae were significantly lower for egg masses parasitized by both species than for those parasitized by a single species. The proportion of males among O. nezarae progeny was significantly higher for egg masses parasitized by O. nezarae together with P. saccharalis than for those parasitized by O. nezarae alone. These results suggest that parasitism of host egg masses by the two species is influenced by their interspecific interactions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Autoradiographic studies on glucose metabolism in the salivary gland of Lygaeus SP. (Heteroptera, Lygalidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies using 3H-glucose in the salivary glands of Lygaeus sp.were carried out. It has been observed that the radioactivity appears in the cell cytoplasm and lumen within a short period of incubation and attains its peak after 30 min of incubation. Afterwards, the radioactivity is exhausted from the cell and lumen suggesting a very high rate of glucose metabolism in this species. (author) [pt

  10. Phylogenetically Diverse Burkholderia Associated with Midgut Crypts of Spurge Bugs, Dicranocephalus spp. (Heteroptera: Stenocephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Matsuura, Yu; Dettner, Konrad; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2016-06-25

    Diverse phytophagous heteropteran insects, commonly known as stinkbugs, are associated with specific gut symbiotic bacteria, which have been found in midgut cryptic spaces. Recent studies have revealed that members of the stinkbug families Coreidae and Alydidae of the superfamily Coreoidea are consistently associated with a specific group of the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia, called the "stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)" group, and horizontally acquire specific symbionts from the environment every generation. However, the symbiotic system of another coreoid family, Stenocephalidae remains undetermined. We herein investigated four species of the stenocephalid genus Dicranocephalus. Examinations via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical arrangement and ultrastructures of midgut crypts and gut symbionts. Cloning and molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial genes showed that the midgut crypts of all species are colonized by Burkholderia strains, which were further assigned to different subgroups of the genus Burkholderia. In addition to the SBE-group Burkholderia, a number of stenocephalid symbionts belonged to a novel clade containing B. sordidicola and B. udeis, suggesting a specific symbiont clade for the Stenocephalidae. The symbiotic systems of stenocephalid bugs may provide a unique opportunity to study the ongoing evolution of symbiont associations in the stinkbug-Burkholderia interaction.

  11. The Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Sub-Saharan Africa : a database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robertson, I.A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this database is to list all the taxonomic publications on this Superfamily in Sub-Saharan Africa until the year 2000. It is also intended to give an indication of the kind of information contained in each paper. No attempt has been made to change or criticise what

  12. Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Herbaceous and Shrub Strata of Atlantic Forest Remnants in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, João V L; Mendonça, Milton D S; Lima, Iracilda M M; Grazia, Jocelia

    2017-06-01

    Most pentatomids are phytophagous, many of which are economically important crop pests. The family may also be a potentially important group to monitor the health of neotropical forests. However, there is a lack of biological inventories of Pentatomidae, especially in forest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. This is the first systematic survey of pentatomids reported in three Atlantic forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. In total, 997 individuals belonging to 38 species were recorded, some of which are considered economically important pests. Singletons and doubletons represented 45.9% of all species collected. The most abundant genera were Mormidea Amyot & Serville, 1843; Stictochilus Bergroth, 1918; Xynocoris Garbelotto & Campos 2014; and Edessa F., 1803. Species richness differed among fragments, with a richness gradient correlated with decreased urbanization and increased fragment size. The species abundance distribution fitted the logseries function but not the lognormal, in accordance with what is found for other assemblages in southern Brazil. Species composition also changed, in association with changes in temperature (revealed by the canonical correspondence analysis [CCA]), among fragments. Murici is one of the last remaining dense forests with high plant diversity in the region, having higher pentatomid species richness and a distinctive fauna. This first diversity study for Pentatomidae in fragments of tropical Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil reveals richness comparable with those from subtropical southern Brazil, with some species in common as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. New species and new records of Notonecta (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae from Brazil

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    Julianna F. Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Notonecta itatiaia sp. nov. is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro. Like other Notonecta species that occurs in Brazil, N. itatiaia has no remarkable diagnostic features than the shape of genital capsule. Along with the first description of a Notonecta from Brazil in eighty years, N. disturbata is newly recorded from the states of Pará, Piauí and São Paulo, and N. pulchra from Pará. A key to species of Notonecta (males occurring in Brazil is given.

  14. Comparative analysis of overwintering physiology in nine species of semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, T.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 261-270 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : cold tolerance * overwintering * risk-spreading Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  15. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Magro, Sandra R. [Faculdade Integrada de Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2006-09-15

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 {+-} 1 deg C), RH (60 {+-} 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  16. O óleo de abacate (Persea americana Mill como matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia The avocado oil (Persea americana Mill as a raw material for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hábitos de vida saudáveis e uma dieta balanceada aliados ao alto consumo de frutas e vegetais estão associados à redução do risco de doenças e à manutenção da saúde. O óleo de abacate possui em sua composição substâncias bioativas capazes de prevenir e controlar as dislipidemias. Como existem poucas pesquisas científicas avaliando o potencial deste óleo para o consumo humano, o presente trabalho estudou os processos de extração e refino do óleo de abacate. Para tanto, procedeu-se à separação da polpa das outras partes da fruta. A polpa fresca foi seca em estufa, e posteriormente moída para a obtenção de um farelo. O óleo obtido do farelo foi extraído e caracterizado. Os resultados mostraram que os processos de extração e refino do óleo a partir da variedade Margarida são tecnicamente viáveis, o que o torna excelente matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia. Além disso, possui um perfil de ácidos graxos e esteróis muito semelhante ao perfil do azeite de oliva, podendo desta forma, substituir o óleo de soja e ser utilizado juntamente com o azeite de oliva nos óleos mistos, oferecendo ao consumidor brasileiro um produto de qualidade superior e com menor custo.Healthy life habits and an adequate diet, together with a high intake of fruits and vegetables, are associated with reducing the risk of diseases and maintaining health. The avocado oil has bioactive substances that can prevent and control the hyperlipidemia. Since there is little scientific research evaluating the oil potential for human consumption, the present work studied the extraction and refining process of the avocado oil. Firstly, the pulp was extracted from the fruit. The fresh pulp was dried in a stove and then grounded for obtaining the bran. The oil obtained from de bran was extracted and characterized. The results showed that the extraction and refining process of the Margarida avocado variety is technically feasible, and it is an excellent raw material for the food industry. Besides, the fatty acid composition and the sterols presents in the avocado oil are similar to the olive oil. Thus, the avocado oil can substitute the soybean oil, or it can be mixed with the olive oil offering the Brazilian consumers a product of high quality and low cost.

  17. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado seed extracts Composição química, toxicidade, atividade larvicida e antifúngica de extratos de semente de Persea americana (abacate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jaime Giffoni Leite

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-¹, from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes do abacate, a fim de determinar sua toxicidade em Artemia salina, avaliar a atividade larvicida frente ao Aedes aegypti, bem como verificar o potencial antifúngico in vitro contra cepas de Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans e Malassezia pachydermatis, através da técnica de microdiluição. Os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes de abacate apresentaram no teste de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina, valores de LC50 2,37 e 24,13mg L-1, respectivamente; contra as larvas do Aedes aegypti os resultados obtidos foram LC50 16,7mg L-1 para o extrato hexânico e 8,87mg L-1 para o extrato metanólico das sementes do abacate. Os extratos testados também foram ativos contra todas as cepas de leveduras, testadas in vitro, apresentando diferentes resultados, onde o MIC do extrato hexânico variou de 0,625 a 1,25mg mL-1, de 0,312 a 0,625mg mL-1 e de 0,031 a 0,625mg mL-1 para as cepas de Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans e Malassezia pachydermatis, respectivamente. O intervalo de MIC para o extrato metanólico foi de 0,125 a 0,625mg mL-1, 0,08 a 0,156mg mL-1 e de 0,312 a 0,625mg mL-1, para as exemplares de Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans e Malassezia pachydermatis, respectivamente.

  18. RELATIONSHIP OF Monalonion velezangeli CARVALHO & COSTA (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE WITH THE PHENOLOGY OF AVOCADO (Persea americana MILL., CV. HASS RELACIÓN DE Monalonion velezangeli CARVALHO & COSTA (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE CON LA FENOLOGÍA DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana MILL., CV. HASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Torres Jaimes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Monalonion velezangeli is considered one of the most harmful pests of avocado cv. Hass, as far as it attacks vegetative buds, flowers and fruits during all the productive stages of the crop. This situation is aggravated by the lack of knowledge on insect preferences and their relationship with crop phenology. As a contribution to the management of this insect, we studied the relationship between plant phenology and the presence of M. velezangeli, as well as its preferences across tree strata and structures. Data were obtained from six orchards located in the Colombian departments of Antioquia, Caldas and Quindío. After randomly selecting 20 trees at each orchard, 12 branches were marked on each tree, covering the combinations of the four cardinal points with three plant strata (low, medium and high. During a period of 12 months, each branch was monitored by recording its phenological stage (vegetative, flowering and fruiting, the number of individuals of M. velezangeli and the presence of fresh damages on it. An analysis of variance determined that the presence of the insect and its damage were more abundant on the flowering and fruiting branches than on the vegetative ones, as well as in the medium and upper strata of the trees. The damage caused by M. velezangeli was observed to be significantly higher in the reproductive structures (flowers and fruits as compared to the vegetative structures.Resumen. Monalonion velezangeli es considerada una de las principales plagas del aguacate cv. Hass en Colombia, debido a que ataca brotes vegetativos, flores y frutos, durante todas las etapas productivas del cultivo. Esta situación se ve agravada por el desconocimiento de las preferencias del insecto, así como de su relación con la fenología de la planta. Como un aporte al manejo de este insecto, se estudió la relación entre la fenología de la planta y la presencia de Monalonion, así como sus preferencias por estructura y estrato. Las observaciones se hicieron en seis huertos ubicados en los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas y Quindío (Colombia. Se eligieron 20 árboles por finca; en cada uno, se marcaron 12 ramas que correspondían a las combinaciones de los cuatro puntos cardinales en tres estratos (bajo, medio y alto. En la rama seleccionada se registró, durante 12 meses, su estado fenológico (vegetativo, floración o fructificación, el número de individuos de M. velezangeli y los daños frescos presentes. Mediante análisis de varianza, se determinó que la presencia del insecto, así como su daño fueron mayores sobre las ramas en floración y fructificación y en los estratos alto y medio de los árboles. El daño causado por M. velezangeli fue significativamente mayor en las estructuras reproductivas (flores y frutos en relación con las estructuras vegetativas.

  19. Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por primera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses.The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is recorded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

  20. Desenvolvimento de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae com Zophobas confusa Gebien (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae comparado à duas outras presas alternativas Development of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae compared with two another alternative preys

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    Teresinha V Zanuncio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphs of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 were fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae under 25±0.5ºC, 60±10% of RH and photophase of 12h. Nymphal viability of P. nigrispinus were 64.0%, 80.0% and 92.0% with Z. confusa, M. domestica and T. molitor, respectively. No differences were found for pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number of eggs, egg viability, and longevity for females of this predator fed with any of these preys.

  1. Revisão e análise cladística de Serdia Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini Review and cladistic analysis of Serdia Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini

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    Nora Denise Fortes de Fortes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Treze espécies são hoje incluídas no gênero: S. apicicornis, Stål, 1860; S. beckerae Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. calligera Stål, 1860; S. concolor Ruckes, 1958; S. costalis Ruckes, 1958; S. delphis Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. inspersipes Stål, 1860; S. lobata Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. rotundicornis Becker, 1967 e S. ruckesi Thomas & Rolston, 1985. Cinco novas espécies são descritas: S. indistincta sp. nov (Irai, Rio Grande do Sul, S. bicolor sp. nov (Ponta Grossa, Paraná, S. maculata sp. nov (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, S. máxima sp. nov (Imbituba, Santa Catarina e S. robusta sp. nov (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro do Brasil. A análise cladística foi realizada usando 40 caracteres e 21 táxons. O gênero Tibilis Stål, 1860; Neotibilis Grazia & Barcellos, 1994 e Similliserdia Fortes & Grazia, 1998 foram usados como grupo-externo. A monofilia de Serdia foi sustentada por 3 sinapomorfias: ápice do escutelo com margens enegrecidas, machos com a parede da taça genital espessada com processos em aba, fêmeas com o espessamento da íntima vaginal situado na metade posterior das gonapófises 9 e projetando-se ventralmente. O subgênero Brasiliicola Kirkaldy, 1909 é considerado sinônimo junior de Serdia. São fornecidas ilustrações, mapas de distribuição geográfica e chave para as espécies.Thirteen species are presently included in the genus: S. apicicornis Stål, 1860; S. beckerae Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. bihamulata, Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. calligera Stål, 1860; S. concolor Ruckes, 1958; S. costalis Ruckes, 1958; S. delphis Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. inspersipes Stål, 1860; S. limbatipennis Stål, 1860; S. lobata Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. quadridens Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. rotundicornis Becker, 1967, and S. ruckesi Thomas & Rolston, 1985. Five new species are described: S.indistincta sp. nov. (Iraí; Rio Grande do Sul, S. bicolor sp. nov. (Ponta Grossa; Paraná S. maculata sp. nov. (Itatiaia; Rio de Janeiro S. maxima sp. nov. (Imbituba; Santa Catarina and S. robusta sp. nov. (Itatiaia; Rio de Janeiro from Brazil. A cladistic analysis was performed using 40 characters and 21 taxa. The genera Tibilis Stål, 1860; Neotibilis Grazia & Barcellos, 1994 and Similliserdia Fortes & Grazia, 1998 were used as outgroups. The monophyly of Serdia is supported by three synapomorphies: scutellum apex with darkned margins; males with the inner wall of genital cup thicker and with brim-shaped processes; females with the thickennings of the vaginal intima arising at posterior half of gonapophyses 9, and projected ventrad. The subgenus Brasiliicola Kirkaldy, 1909 is considered junior synonym of Serdia. Illustrations, a map of geographical distribution and a key for the species are also provided.

  2. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae: Corixini, with ecological notes Descripción de los estadios larvales de Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Heteroptera: Corixidae, con notas acerca de su ecología

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    María Cecilia Melo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski is the smallest species of the subgenus ranging from 4.2-4.7 mm, and it is characterized by the absence of a strigil, the small and narrow genital capsule with a short hypandrium in males, and the shape of the abdominal tergite VII in females. This species is endemic to the Patagonian subregion (Andean region in Argentina. A monthly sampling study was performed during a year in northern Mendoza, and additional material was collected in southern Mendoza, more precisely from Bañado Carilauquen in the Llancanelo Lake Reserve (Malargüe Department. Since little is known about the ecological requirements of S. (T. jensenhaarupi, herein we describe its habitat, the environmental conditions and its association with other macroinvertebrates. Also, we provide a morphological description of larval stages, and provide new records of this species.Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski es la especie más pequeña del subgénero (4.2-4.7 mm, y se caracteriza por la ausencia de estrigilo, la cápsula genital masculina pequeña y angosta con el hipandro corto, y la forma característica del tergito abdominal VII en las hembras. Esta especie es endémica de la subregión Patagónica (región Andina en Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza, material adicional fue recolectado en el sur de la provincia, más precisamente en el Bañado Carilauquen en la Reserva Laguna Llancanelo (Departamento de Malargüe. Poco se conoce acerca de los requerimientos ecológicos de S. (T. jensenhaarupi, por lo que en este trabajo describimos su hábitat, las condiciones ambientales y su asociación con otros macroinvertebrados. Además, describimos los estadios larvales y damos nuevos registros de esta especie.

  3. Use of avocado peel (Persea americana in tea formulation: a functional product containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity

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    Eliza Mariane Rotta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peels of avocados, like other fruit peels, are commonly discarded, not knowing their potential use. In order to reuse avocado peel, the chemical and mineral compositions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant activities have been investigated by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods in in natura and dehydrated avocado peel. Dehydrated avocado-peel tea was manufactured and the antioxidant activity was evaluated, as well as their flavonoid and phenolic compound contents, and compared with other teas marketed. Avocado peel, especially dried avocado peel, contains major phenolic compounds (10,848.27 ± 162.34 mg GAE kg-1 and flavonoids (1,360.34 ± 188.65 mg EQ kg-1. The avocado-peel tea showed antioxidant activity by DPPH (1,954.24 ± 87.92 e 2518.27 ± 192.59 mg TE L-1 and phenolic and flavonoids contents highest than apple tea. The avocado-peel tea showed good antioxidant activity and had good acceptability by sensory analysis as a promising product.

  4. Somatic embryogenesis and embryo culture coupled with gamma irradiation for generating avocado (Persea americana Miller) mutants in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenido, R. A. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños (Philippines); Crop Science Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños (Philippines); Galvez, H. F.; Dimaculangan, J. G.; Welgas, J. N.; Frankie, R. B.; Damasco, O. P. [Crop Science Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños (Philippines)

    2009-05-15

    Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos and embryo cultures from mature fruits were achieved in select avocado accession ‘Semil’ and other seedling trees in the Philippines. Embryogenic cultures were induced from immature zygotic embryos of eight (8) avocado genotypes using either SE1 medium (MS + 30 g/l sucrose + 5 mg/l 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg/l BAP) or SE2 medium (MS + 30 g/l sucrose + 0.1 mg/l picloram). Embryogenic cultures of 2 genotypes namely ‘Semil’ and ‘Mainit’ developed into somatic embryos after repeated subcultures in SE2, SE3 (MS + 30 g/l sucrose + 0.1 mg/l TDZ + 0.5 mg/l GA{sub 3}) and SE4 (MS + 30 g/l sucrose + 2 mg/l BAP + 1 mg/l IBA) media. Plant/shoot regeneration from ‘Semil’ somatic embryos was recorded in 3 trials at 16.3, 23.0 and 20.7%, and was affected by culture age, light treatment and media used. R4 regeneration medium (B5 macro salts + MS minor salts and vitamins + 60 g/l sucrose + 400 g/l glu + 2 mg/l BAP + 4.5 g/l Phytagel was found to be the best. Gamma irradiation (10 to 30 Gy) of embryogenic cultures of ‘Semil’ resulted in reduced proliferation and formation of cotyledonary stage somatic embryos. However, shoot regeneration from somatic embryos from gamma-irradiated cultures was comparable or even higher (17.8 to 26.9%) as compared to the control (18.3%). Over 200 somatic embryo-derived putative variant/mutant lines from tissue culture and gamma irradiation experiments are being maintained as shoot cultures. Due to slow growth and other related problems, micrografting and in vitro rooting were used to rescue and ensure the greenhouse establishment of putative mutant shoots, and fast-track mutant confirmation by genetic analysis. Preliminary genetic analyses by SSR revealed that (a) the 3 asexually propagated ‘Semil’ mother trees are genetically similar, and (b) mutations marked by the generation of a new allele (band) at the SSR locus was evident among the somatic embryo-derived regenerants from non-irradiated embryogenic cultures. Mass screening for mutations will be done on all successfully potted out regenerants. A second protocol involving embryo culture and gamma irradiation was also done. Mature embryos of 9 genotypes were cultured using liquid MS basal medium with 30 g/l sucrose and 2 mg/l BAP, with 100% germination. Germinating zygotic embryos of ‘San Felix’ were also gamma irradiated and the LD{sub 50} between 20 to 30 Gy was established. M{sub 1}V{sub 4} shoots were generated from gamma-irradiated seedlings after subsequent micropropagation cycles. This is the first successful application of tissue culture and gamma irradiation technologies towards the improvement of a woody perennial fruit crop in the Philippines. (author)

  5. Changes in the n-alkane composition of avocado pulp oil ( Persea americana, Mill. during fruit ripening

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    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-alkane composition of Avocado pulp oil (cv. Hass was investigated during fruit ripening. Three samples of fruit were harvested on March 3, 2003, March 18, 2003 and April 2, 2003. Glass gravity column chromatography was employed to separate n-alkanes from other minor components contained in the unsaponifiable fraction. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the eluate. Fourteen compounds were detected ranging from n -C21 to n -C34; mainly n -C24, followed by n -C25 and then by n -C23. Quantities of n -C21, n -C22, n -C23, n -C27 and n -C28 progressively increased during ripening, whereas n -C24, n -C25, n -C26, n -C29, n -C30 and n -C34 decreased from the first harvest date to the third harvest date. While odd-numbered carbon n-alkanes increased (52.38 %, 52.85 % and 53.06 % for the three samples respectively, even-numbered carbon n-alkanes decreased as the fruit ripened (47.62 %, 47.15 % and 46.94 %. The total n-alkane content decreased during ripening, from 25.20 mg/Kg (first harvest date to 16.77 mg/Kg (third harvest date. In order to minimize.Se ha analizado la composición en hidrocarburos lineales saturados del aceite de la pulpa de aguacate (variedad Hass. Tres muestras fueron recolectadas: el 3 de marzo 2003, el 18 de marzo 2003 y el 2 de abril 2003. La separación de los hidrocarburos lineales saturados se realizó mediante fraccionamiento del insaponificable por cromatografía gravimétrica de adsorción en columna y la determinación de los mismos hidrocarburos por cromatografía gaseosa. 14 compuestos fueron detectados del n- C21 al n- C34. El n- C24 fue el mayoritario, seguido del n- C25 y el n- C23. El porcentaje de n- C21, n- C22, n- C23, n- C27 y n- C28, aumentó durante la maduración, mientras que el porcentaje de n- C24, n- C25, n- C26, n- C29, n- C30 y C34 disminuyó desde el 3 de marzo 2003 hasta el 2 de abril 2003. Los hidrocarburos lineales saturados con número impar de átomos de carbono aumentaron (52.38 %, 52.85 % y 53.06 % por las tres muestras respectivamente con la maduración. Por el contrario, hidrocarburos lineales saturados con número par de carbono disminuyeron (47.62 %, 47.15 % y 46.94 %. El contenido total en hidrocarburos lineales saturados disminuyó durante la maduración desde 25.20 mg/kg (3 de marzo 2003 hasta 16.77 mg/kg (2 de abril 2003. Para reducir el contenido total en hidrocarburos lineales saturados en el aceite de aguacate (variedad Hass es necesario retardar la cosecha del fruto.

  6. El viroide de la mancha del sol (ASBVd es persistente en cultivos nucelares de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.

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    Isidro E Suárez

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la posibilidad de obtener tejidos sanos a partir de plantas infectadas con ASBVd como una estrategia para recuperar clones de alto valor agronómico, cultivos embriogénicos de aguacate fueron inducidos a partir del nucelo de tres cultivares de aguacate infectados con el viroide de la mancha del sol (ASBVd en un medio de cultivo con las sales mayores B5, suplementado con las sales menores de Murashige y Skoog (MS y 0.41 uM de picloram, y (en mg/L-1 tiamina HCl (0.4, mio-inositol (100, sucrosa (30,000 y TC agar (8,000. Los cultivos embriogénicos inducidos fueron mantenidos en medio semisólido MS suplementado con 0.41 uM de picloram y (en mg/L-1 tiamina HCl (0.4, mio-inositol (100, sucrosa (45,000 y TC agar (8,000 y en medio líquido MS modificado con 15 mM NH4NO3 y 30 mM KNO3, sales menores de MS, picloram 0.41 uM y (en mg/L-1 tiamina HCl (0.4, mio-inositol (100 y sucrosa (45,000. La indexación usando RT-PCR un año después de inducidos los tejidos detectó bandas amplificadas en los electroferogramas y la clonación comprobó la presencia de 4 clones con mas de un 97% de similitud con la variante J02020 de ASBVd; con la secuencia se corroboró la existencia de las variantes CF3, CF8, CF13. Estos resultados demuestran que aunque ASBVd no es eliminado mediante el uso de embriogénesis somática, la aplicación de esta tecnología permite inducir, proliferar y mantener por largo tiempo tejidos infectados para el estudio de este patógeno.

  7. ÁCAROS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana Mill EN LA COSTA CENTRAL DE PERÚ

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    Jorge Luis Muñoz Marticorena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la costa central de Perú (Lima e Ica, se cultiva el aguacate con fines de exportación, especialmente la variedad Hass. Con el objetivo de conocer la diversidad de ácaros depredadores en huertos comerciales de aguacate, se realizaron recolectas en 6 lugares de la costa central, duran - te el 2010 al 2012. Se registraron 12 especies de la familia Phytoseiidae, de los cuales algunos tendrían potencial como depredadores eficien - tes de Oligonychus sp . (Guanilo et ál. 2012; estos son: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma, Ambly - seius chungas (Demmark y Muma, Amblyseiella setosa (Muma, Euseius emanus (El–Banhawy, Euseius concordis (Chant, Euseius stipulatus (Athias–Henriot, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias Henriot, Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, Neo - seiulus californicus (McGregor, Typhlodromina subtropica (Chant, Typhlodromus ( Antoseius evectus (Schusters y Aristadromips n.sp. Se con - firmó que la vegetación espontánea cumple un rol importante en la conservación de las especies halladas en este cultivo y que además la intro - ducción de un ácaro depredador exótico, como Euseius stipulatus, contribuyó significativamente con el control de la plaga durante la temporada de invierno.

  8. DNA polymorphisms in cuban varieties of avocado (persea americana mill.) as detected by inverse sequence tagged repeat (ISTR) analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, M; Fuentes, J L [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Rodriguez, N N; Cueto, J [Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung (MPIZ), Koln (Germany); Becker, D; Rohde, W [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT). C. Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    A survey of the genetic diversity among commercial Cuban avocado varieties was initiated using ISTR analysis. ISTR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms among the genotypes. The obtained dissimilarities values ranged from 0.24 between var. Suardia and Hass to 1.00 between Lula and Los Moros or CHI-3 with an average dissimilarity of 0.78. A cluster analysis was performed based on dissimilarity using UPGMA as the clustering method. The efficiency of UPGMA in estimating genetic relationships between varieties was corroborated by the cophenetic correlation coefficients, which indicated that the distortion degree in the relationship of the estimated dissimilarities was minimal. Ecological groups were not adequately represented in the dendrogram. Thus, West Indians, Guatemalan and Mexican genotypes were positioned across the dendrogram. The utility of ISTR for genotype identification and assessment of genetic diversity in commercial avocado varieties is discussed.

  9. DNA polymorphisms in cuban varieties of avocado (persea americana mill.) as detected by inverse sequence tagged repeat (ISTR) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M; Fuentes, J. L.; Rodriguez, N.N.; Cueto, J.; Becker, D.; Rohde, W.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the genetic diversity among commercial Cuban avocado varieties was initiated using ISTR analysis. ISTR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms among the genotypes. The obtained dissimilarities values ranged from 0.24 between var. Suardia and Hass to 1.00 between Lula and Los Moros or CHI-3 with an average dissimilarity of 0.78. A cluster analysis was performed based on dissimilarity using UPGMA as the clustering method. The efficiency of UPGMA in estimating genetic relationships between varieties was corroborated by the cophenetic correlation coefficients, which indicated that the distortion degree in the relationship of the estimated dissimilarities was minimal. Ecological groups were not adequately represented in the dendrogram. Thus, West Indians, Guatemalan and Mexican genotypes were positioned across the dendrogram. The utility of ISTR for genotype identification and assessment of genetic diversity in commercial avocado varieties is discussed

  10. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS Y BIOQUÍMICAS DE FRUTOS DE CHINENE (Persea schiedeana Nees.

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    J. G. Cruz-Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El chinene es un árbol frutal nativo de Mesoamérica y forma parte de la familia Lauraceae. Su consumo, como buena fuente nutricional es reconocido en regiones tropicales de México y Centroamérica. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre su contenido nutrimental. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo análisis de ácidos grasos en pulpa de chinene por dos años consecutivos utilizando cromatografía de gases. Se obtuvieron concentraciones de ácido oleico, y palmitico parecidas a las encontradas en aguacate. Las concentraciones de ácido oleico fueron comparables con las del aguacate 'Hass'. En otro estudio, se midieron morfológicamente frutos de chinene provenientes de varias comunidades de la región central de Veracruz, México. Resultó una gran variación en tamaño, peso, y contenido de pulpa. Asimismo, el patrón de crecimiento de los frutos fue caracterizado por una curva simple sigmoide con un acumulado de 1635.11 unidades calor arriba de 6 oC, desde el amarre de fruto hasta la cosecha.

  11. Callus formation of american Persea Mill. cultivar Catalina starting from segments of leaves of in vitro plants

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    Marisol Freire Seijo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of establishing protocols for the regeneration of fruit-trees through out the organogenesis and the somatic embryogenesis is based on the possibility to use them in the propagation of the species or in programs of genetic improvement. Specifically the Catalina cultivar is very coveted in Cuba, however it has not been introduced in vitro. The present work had the objective of forming callus starting from leaves of in vitro plants from avocado tree of the Catalina cultivar. The phase of multiplication of the in vitro plants was carried out in temporary immersion systems in order to favour the expansion of the leaves. Erlenmeyers 1.0l were used In the TIS and immersions every four and eight hours with a minute of duration were carried out. The effect of the Picloram, the 6 BAP and the 2,4-D on leaves of in vitro plants for the formation of callus was studied. The plants with more quality were obtained when immersions every 8 hours were carried out. It was also possible to form callus using sections of leaves of in vitro plants as explants in a culture medium with 0.1 Picloram mgl-1. Key words: in vitro plant leaves, temporary immersion system

  12. Identification of avocado (Persea americana) root proteins induced by infection with the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi using a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Muñiz, Carlos H; Escobar-Tovar, Lina; Valdes-Rodríguez, Silvia; Fernández-Pavia, Silvia; Arias-Saucedo, Luis J; de la Cruz Espindola Barquera, Maria; Gómez Lim, Miguel Á

    2012-01-01

    Avocado root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is the most important disease that limits avocado production. A proteomic approach was employed to identify proteins that are upregulated by infection with P. cinnamomi. Different proteins were shown to be differentially expressed after challenge with the pathogen by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. A densitometric evaluation of protein expression indicated differential regulation during the time-course analyzed. Some proteins induced in response to the infection were identified by standard peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and sequencing by MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 400 protein spots detected on 2-D gels, 21 seemed to change in abundance by 3 hours after infection. Sixteen proteins were upregulated, 5 of these were only detected in infected roots and 11 showed an increased abundance. Among the differentially expressed proteins identified are homologs to isoflavone reductase, glutathione S-transferase, several abscisic acid stress-ripening proteins, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cysteine synthase and quinone reductase. A 17.3-kDa small heat-shock protein and a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein were identified as downregulated. Our group is the first to report on gene induction in response to oomycete infection in roots from avocado, using proteomic techniques. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  13. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (pavocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (pavocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model fitted to the data obtained in this study and to the growth data available in the literature for other tropical low acid fruits indicated high variability in μ and λ of Salmonella. The results obtained in this study show that whole low acid tropical fruits can harbor Salmonella, and that this foodborne pathogen can not only survive but also grow both on the peel and pulp of low acid tropical fruits, such as avocado and custard apple. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifikasi Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak Etil Asetat Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill. dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Larva Udang Artemia salina Leach.

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    Nurdia Asdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of metabolite compound in acetone Extract from Fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach. Aim of this research is to identify the secondary metabolite compound in aceton extract from fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and to determine the potential of secondary metabolites from an avocado extract as anticancer. The compound was obtained from Identification process in several stages, namely extraction, fractination, purification and identification. The identification process was color test, TLC, spectroscopy IR. The toxicity test by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT to Artemia salina Leach. The compound obtained from this research was yellow-white crystalline needle-shaped, the purity test with TLC analysis showed a stain in three eluen system on the stain test on three eluent systems with Rf proportions as follows; 0,15 from chloroform:ethyl acetat (6:4, 0,33 from methanol:chloroform (1:9, 0,75 for acetone:ethyl acetat, and positively to the reagent Wagner and gave brown precipitate for indicate as alcaloid group. This result is supported by spectroscopy from compound.While toxicity tests showed condensed acetone extracts  and pure compounds are toxic with LC50 value of each is 20.61 mg/mL and 39,81 mg/mL.

  15. Isolation and structure elucidation of avocado seed (Persea americana) lipid derivatives that inhibit Clostridium sporogenes endospore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana Graciela; Pacheco, Adriana; García-Cruz, María Isabel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Benavides-Lozano, Jorge Alejandro; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-07-31

    Avocado fruit extracts are known to exhibit antimicrobial properties. However, the effects on bacterial endospores and the identity of antimicrobial compounds have not been fully elucidated. In this study, avocado seed extracts were tested against Clostridium sporogenes vegetative cells and active endospores. Bioassay-guided purification of a crude extract based on inhibitory properties linked antimicrobial action to six lipid derivatives from the family of acetogenin compounds. Two new structures and four compounds known to exist in nature were identified as responsible for the activity. Structurally, most potent molecules shared features of an acetyl moiety and a trans-enone group. All extracts produced inhibition zones on vegetative cells and active endospores. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of isolated molecules ranged from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/mL, and bactericidal effects were observed for an enriched fraction at 19.5 μg/mL. Identified molecules showed potential as natural alternatives to additives and antibiotics used by the food and pharmaceutical industries to inhibit Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria.

  16. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of 60 Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval R, L.

    2004-01-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co 60 , in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co 60 in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico in samples of you hoist of all the treatments including the witness. without detecting significant modifications in disposition and tamario of the cells of the tunic and the body of the bud veqetativo

  17. Inhibition of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) formation in emulsified porcine patties by phenolic-rich avocado (Persea americana Mill.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Petrón, María Jesus; Estévez, Mario

    2012-03-07

    The effect of phenolic-rich extracts from avocado peel on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chill storage was studied. Eight COPs (7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 20α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestanetriol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, and 5,6α-epoxycholesterol) were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The addition of avocado extracts (∼600 GAE/kg patty) to patties significantly inhibited the formation of COPs during cooking. Cooked control (C) patties contained a larger variety and greater amounts of COPs than the avocado-treated (T) counterparts. COPs sharply increased in cooked patties during the subsequent chilled storage. This increase was significantly higher in C patties than in the T patties. Interestingly, the amount of COPs in cooked and chilled T patties was similar to those found in cooked C patties. The mechanisms implicated in cholesterol oxidation in a processed meat product, the protective effect of avocado phenolics, and the potential implication of lipid and protein oxidation are thoroughly described in the present paper.

  18. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana) on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro-Equihua, Mario; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; López-Ascencio, Raúl; Vásquez, Clemente

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group): the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively). Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85). Addition of 5-30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5-20% avocado oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. KANDUNGAN GIZI, RENDEMEN TEPUNG, DAN KADAR FENOL TOTAL ALPUKAT (Persea americana, Mill VARIETAS I JO PANJANG DAN I JO BUNDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Marsigit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to determine pulp proportion, dried pulp rendement, nutrient dan  total phenolic content avocado variety of Ijo Panjang dan Ijo Bundar. Variety of Ijo Panjang and Ijo Bundar were selected because both of varieties were categorized as excelent varities and recomendedto develop in Indonesia. Water, carbohydrate, protein, fat dan ash content were determined by using proxymate analysis (AOAC, vitamin A dan E using spectrophotometry method, vitamin C using titration method, dan minerals using AAS method. Total phenolic content were determined by using Follin-Cialcetau method. The result of the studies found that pulp portion Ijo Bundar Variety higher than Ijo Panjang. Water content dan zinc of Ijo Panjang variety higher than Ijo Bundar. Dried pulp rendement of Ijo Bundar higher than Ijo Panjang. Protein, fat,  ash, minerals (Fe, Na, K dan P avocado variety of Ijo Bundar higher than Ijo Panjang. Magnesium dan mangan content of both varieties have not significant different. Total phenolic content of pulp dan dried pulp were higher in Ijo Bundar than Ijo Bundar. Keywords: Pulp proportion, dried pulp rendement, nutrients dan total phenolics content   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proporsi daging buah, rendemen tepung, kandungan gizi dan fenol total alpukat varietas Ijo Panjang dan Ijo Bundar. Pemilihan kedua varietas tersebut karena merupakan varietas unggul dan direkomendasikan untuk dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kandungan, air, karbohidat, protein, lemak dan abu dilakukan dengan analisis proksimat (AOAC, kandungan vitamin A dan E dengan metode spektrofotometri dan vitamin C dengan metode titrasi, analisis mineral dengan metode AAS. Total fenol dianalisis dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa proporsi daging buah, kadar air, seng varietas Ijo Panjang lebih tinggi dibandingkan Ijo Bundar. Rendemen tepung alpukat lebih tinggi pada varietas Ijo Bundar. Kandungan protein, lemak, abu, vitamin (A,E dan C, mineral (Fe, Na, K, P lebih tinggi pada varietas Ijo Bundar. Kandungan magnesium dan mangan tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan kedua varietas.  Fenol total daging buah dan tepung alpukat lebih tinggi pada varietas Ijo Bundar dibandingkan Ijo Panjang. Kata kunci: Prorporsi daging buah, rendemen tepung, kandungan gizi, fenol total

  1. SITUACION ACTUAL DEL CULTIVO DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana Mill.) EN EL ESTADO DE MÉXICO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rubí-Arriaga

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la situación actual de la producción y comercialización del cultivo del aguacate en el sur del Estado de México en 2011. El tamaño de muestra se determinó considerando el universo total de inscritos en la base de datos de la SEDAGRO conformada por 2,814 productores. Con base en la metodología de poblaciones finitas, el tamaño de muestra fue 338, a los cuales se les aplicó un cuestionario. La información cuantitativa de la encuesta se capturó e...

  2. Endocrine regulation of the reproductive arrest in the long-winged females of a flightless bug. Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hodková, Magdalena; Socha, Radomír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3, (2006), s. 523-529 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2222; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/0016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Pyrrhocoris apterus * macroptery * brachyptery Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2006

  3. Maternal care in Gargaphia decoris (Heteroptera, Tingidae, with comments on this behavior within the genus and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Guidoti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal care in Gargaphia decoris is described for the first time. A video is presented as supplementary material. The knowledge on such trait within Tingidae is summarized. The behavior within the family is discussed, and the potential as a source of phylogenetic characters for further analyses is stressed.

  4. Suitability of food plants for Oxycarenus lavaterae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), a mediterranean bug invasive in Central and South-East Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalushkov, P.; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2010), s. 271-276 ISSN 1310-1331 Grant - others:Bulgarian National Science Fund, Ministry of Education and Science(BG) B-1508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Oxycarenus lavaterae * host plant specificity * fecundity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.219, year: 2010

  5. Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females are lighter feeding on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae subjected to ventral nerve cord transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...

  6. Nutritional Value of Pupae Versus Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as Food for Rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Shelby, Kent S; Coudron, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    Life-table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate that Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are potentially more suitable factitious prey to mass-produce the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more suitable prey than the larvae. P. maculiventris developed faster (23.2 vs. 25.5 d), weighed more (females 80.9 vs. 66.6 mg and males 64.7 vs. 53.7 mg), and had a higher survival rate (0.88 vs. 0.7), fecundity, and reproductive output (87.1 vs. 22.8 eggs/female) when reared on pupae compared with larvae of T. molitor. The total protein content and soluble protein content were significantly higher in pupae (60.2 and 23%, respectively) than larvae (53.1 and 14.4%, respectively). Lipid content was significantly lower in pupae (32.1%) than larvae (35.9%), and larvae had more polyunsaturated fatty acids (83.6 vs. 56.6 mg/g) and less oleic (0.1 mg/g) and steric (6.1 mg/g) acids than pupae (37.3 and 12.3 mg/g, respectively). The total sugar content was not significantly different between pupae and larvae. However, larvae had significantly more fructose than pupae, but pupae had more galactose, glucosamine, glucose, mannose, and trehalose than larvae. Differences in nutritional composition and its impact on predator demographic parameters are potential factors that make the pupal stage a better food source.

  7. Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra, Eduardo B.; Zanuncio, Teresinha V.; Zanuncio, José C.; Santos, Germi P.

    1995-01-01

    Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860) were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV) in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil) at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viabil...

  8. Morphology of female reproductive tract of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkymário de Paulo Lemos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of meroistic telotrophic type, with each individual ovariole divided in a terminal filament, a tropharium (trophic chamber, a vitellarium, and a pedicel. The prey type affected the development and morphometry of these structures. Females of P. nigrispinus fed with 3rd or 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (A. argillacea presented developed ovaries with ovarioles showing a great number of oocytes in advanced stages of development. Females fed with artificial diet presented atrophic ovaries and ovarioles practically without oocytes. Females fed with T. molitor or M. domestica showed ovaries in intermediary stage of development. The central ovariole was longer in females fed with 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm and shorter in those fed with artificial diet. Most developed oocytes were observed in ovaries of females fed with 5th or 3rd instar larvae of cotton leafworm, and the majority of atrophic oocytes were found in females fed with artificial diet.Este estudo apresenta a morfologia do sistema reprodutor feminino de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas alimentado com larvas de Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Musca domestica L. e de Tenebrio molitor L. ou dieta artificial. As gônadas internas desse predador apresentaram coloração amarelada e, independente da dieta, cada ovário apresentou sete ovaríolos unidos pelos filamentos terminais em uma estrutura em forma de cacho. A análise histológica revelou que o ovário de P. nigrispinus é do tipo meroístico telotrófico com cada ovaríolo dividido morfologicamente em filamento terminal, trofário (câmara nutridora, vitelário e pedicelo. A dieta recebida por esse predador alterou o desenvolvimento e a morfometria de seus ovários. Fêmeas de P. nigrispinus alimentadas com larvas de terceiro ou quinto estádio de A. argillacea apresentaram ovários desenvolvidos com grande número de ovócitos em estágio avançado de desenvolvimento nos ovaríolos. Fêmeas com dieta artificial apresentaram ovários atrofiados e ovaríolos, praticamente, sem ovócitos em seu interior enquanto aquelas alimentadas com larvas de T. molitor ou M. domestica tiveram ovários em estágios intermediários de desenvolvimento. O comprimento do ovaríolo central foi maior em fêmeas alimentadas com larvas de quinto estádio de A. argillacea e menor naquelas com dieta artificial. Ovócitos em estágios mais avançados de desenvolvimento foram observados para fêmeas alimentadas com larvas de terceiro ou quinto estádios de A. argillacea, enquanto ovócitos atrofiados foram observados para aquelas com dieta artificial.

  9. Morphology of female reproductive tract of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on different diets

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Walkymário de Paulo; Ramalho,Francisco de Souza; Serrão,José Eduardo; Zanuncio,José Cola

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner) larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of mero...

  10. Case 3724 - Metochus abbreviatus Scott, 1874 (Insecta, Heteroptera): proposed precedence over Rhyparochromus erosus Walker, 1872 (currently Metochus erosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3 of the Code, is to conserve the widely used specific name Metochus abbreviatus Scott, 1874, for a species of rhyparochromid bugs from East Asia. The name is threatened by the senior subjective synonym Metochus erosus (Walker, 1872), which has bee...

  11. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  12. Review of the genus Lanchnophorus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae) with description of three new species and other nomenclatural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Carapezza, Attilio; Jindra, Zdeněk; Kondorosy, Előd

    2017-01-25

    The generic name Lanchnophorus Reuter, 1887, deemed for a long time to be unavailable as incorrect original spelling of Lachnophorus (in fact Lachnophorus Distant, 1903 is an unjustified emendation of the former), is restored as a valid name of the genus. Lachnesthus Bergroth, 1915, syn. nov. (new name for the preoccupied Lachnophorus Distant, 1903) is considered junior synonym of Lanchnophorus. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Lanchnophorus flavus (Scudder, 1971) comb. nov. = Lachnesthus chinai Scudder, nomen nudum; Lanchnophorus guttulatus Reuter, 1887, comb. restit. = Lachnophorus albidomaculatus Distant, 1913, syn. nov. = Lachnesthus rodriguezensis China, 1925, syn. nov.; Lanchnophorus leucospilus (Walker, 1872) comb. nov.; Lanchnophorus merula (Distant, 1903) comb. nov.; and Lanchnophorus singalensis (Dohrn, 1860) comb. nov. Three new species are described: Lanchnophorus gaoqingae Kment & Jindra sp. nov. from China (Yunnan), Lanchnophorus seminitens Kment & Carapezza sp. nov. from Socotra Island (Yemen), and Lanchnophorus webbi Kondorosy sp. nov. from India: Tamil Nadu. Bibliographies and known distribution of all the included species are reviewed. The following new country and state records are provided: L. flavus from Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Niger, Zambia and Zimbabwe; L. leucospilus from China (Yunnan) and Laos, L. merula from India (Kerala/Tamil Nadu) and Thailand; L. singalensis from Angola, Benin, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, China (Hainan), Iran (Sistan and Ba-luchestan), Oman, Pakistan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan), Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.

  13. Response of the reduviid bug, Rhynocoris marginatus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) to six different species of cotton pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahayaraj, Kitherian; Muthu Kumar, Subramanian; Enkegaard, Annie

    2016-01-01

    In Indian agro-ecosystems Rhynocoris marginatus (F.) is one of the most abundant predatory arthropods and feeds on a wide range of insect pests. We investigated the responses of R. marginatus to six species of cotton pests: Spodoptera litura (F.), Sylepta derogata (F.), Pericallia ricini (F.), My...

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete 16,345-bp mitochondrial genome of the agriculturally-destructive pod sucking pest, the giant coreid bug, Anoplocnemis curvipes (Hemiptera: Coreidae), was assembled from paired end next generation sequencing reads. The A. curvipes mitochondrial genome consists of 13 protein coding genes...

  15. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  16. Revalidation of Ditomotarsus hyadesi Signoret, 1885 stat. rest. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae with notes on its Natural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máriom A. Carvajal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ditomotarsus hyadesi Signoret, 1885 is revalidated. An historical analysis of the references belonging to this species is provided. Ditomotarsus gayi virens Jensen-Haarup, 1931 is proposed as new junior synonym of Ditomotarsus hyadesi. New data is provided on the biology of D. hyadesi. First observations on oviposition process are delivered and discussed. New data on sexual behavior is recorded and discussed. Ontogenic coloration changes for this species are for first time recorded, becoming the first in the Ditomotarsinae. The distribution and life history of the species are summarized.

  17. Species Specificity of Aldehyde and Fatty Acid Profiles of Four Family Group Representatives within the Insect Infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomčala, Aleš; Jirošová, Anna; Žáček, Petr; Kaušková, Markéta; Hovorka, Oldřich; Koutek, Bohumír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2017), č. článku e1600420. ISSN 1612-1872 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : defensive compounds * fat body * Pentatomomorpha * triacylglycerol * unsaturated aldehydes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016

  18. Species Specificity of Aldehyde and Fatty Acid Profiles of Four Family Group Representatives within the Insect Infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomčala, Aleš; Jirošová, A.; Žáček, P.; Kaušková, M.; Hovorka, O.; Koutek, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2017), č. článku e1600420. ISSN 1612-1872 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : defensive compounds * fat body * Pentatomomorpha * triacylglycerol * unsaturated aldehydes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016

  19. Cydninae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Cydnidae) in Brazil: updated checklist, new records, and description of Tominotus ondulatus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, José Mauricio; Grazia, Jocelia; Schwertner, Cristiano Feldens

    2017-10-09

    Cydninae is the largest subfamily among burrower bugs all around the world and for Brazil the genera Cyrtomenus, Dallasiellus, Ectinopus, Melanaethus, Onalips, Pangaeus, Prolobodes and Tominotus were reported with a total of 39 species, so far. Basing on the material of nine entomological collections, we updated the list to 47 species including new records and a new species, Tominotus ondulatus sp. nov. described from Restinga, Rio Grande do Sul. Distribution maps and photos of dorsal habits for several species are also provided.

  20. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and ultrastructural localization of adipokinetic hormones in the CNS of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Insecta)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Stašková, Tereza; Jedličková, V.; Weyda, F.; Závodská, Radka; Pflegerová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 210, Jan 1 (2015), s. 1-11 ISSN 0016-6480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : AKH * pre-pro-hormone * insect brain Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016648014004158

  1. Reevaluation of the type species and redescription of five species of Edessa (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valeria Juliete DA; Rider, David A; Fernandes, Jose Antonio Marin

    2017-11-13

    In accordance with the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the type species for the genus Edessa Fabricius, 1803 is now recognized to be Cimex antilope Fabricius, 1798 rather than the previously recognized Cimex cervus Fabricius, 1787. Edessa antilope is redescribed, as well as the following four species that have in the past been related or compared to E. antilope: E. arabs (Linnaeus, 1758) from French Guiana, Costa Rica and Panama (new record), E. helix Erichson, 1848 from Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Suriname (new record), Guyana, Brazil (new record), Bolivia (new record) and Argentina (new record), E. ibex Breddin, 1903 from Costa Rica, Panama (new record), Ecuador, Brazil (new record), Peru and Bolivia (new record), and E. taurina Stål, 1862 from Mexico, Guatemala, Belize (new record), Honduras (new record). The distribution of Edessa antilope is expanded to Venezuela. The female of E. antilope and the male of E. taurina are described for the first time. Edessa antilope is removed from the synonymy of E. arabs and reinstated as valid species; additionally, E. costalis Stål, 1872 is removed from the synonym of E. helix and is placed as a junior synonym of E. antilope. Edessa saiga Breddin, 1903 is considered a junior synonym of E. ibex. Lectotypes are designated for all species. A key is provided for the identification of the species.

  2. Pre- and post-hatch trophic egg production in the subsocial burrower bug, Canthophorus niveimarginatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Lisa; Baba, Narumi; Inadomi, Koichi; Yanagi, Takao; Hironaka, Mantaro; Nomakuchi, Shintaro

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, three terrestrial bugs, Adomerus triguttulus and Sehirus cinctus (Cydnidae) and the closely related Parastrachia japonensis (Parastrachiidae), have been the focus of several fascinating studies because of the remarkable, extensive parental care they were found to display. This care includes egg and nymph guarding, production of trophic eggs, unfertilized, low cost eggs that are used as food by newly hatched nymphs, and progressive provisioning of the host seed. In this study, we have investigated yet a third related Asian cydnid, Canthophorus niveimarginatus, with regard to the possible occurrence of some or all of these complex traits in order to assess how widespread these maternal investment patterns are in this group of insects and to better understand the implications of their manifestations from an evolutionary context. Manipulative experiments were carried out in the lab to determine whether females provision nests. Observational and egg removal studies were carried out to determine whether trophic eggs are produced, and, if they are, their possible impact on nymphal success. The findings revealed that C. niveimarginatus does, in fact, progressively provision young, and this species also displays all of the other behaviors associated with extended parental care in subsocial insects. Moreover, unlike the other two related species, which place trophic eggs on the surface of the original egg mass, C. niveimarginatus produces both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs. Nymphs deprived of access to post-hatch trophic eggs had significantly lower body weight and survival rate than those that fed on them. To our knowledge, this is the first time the production of both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs has been demonstrated in insects outside the Hymenoptera. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the provisioning behavior and patterns of trophic egg production in C. niveimarginatus. When and how trophic eggs are produced and delivered to young should have important correlations with the ecological and life history constraints under which a species has evolved. Thus, we also discuss the possible ecological and life history factors that favor the evolution of post-hatch trophic eggs.

  3. New species of Narnia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Mexico and key to the known species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry; Barrera, Ernesto

    2013-11-13

    One new species of Narnia is described from Mexico, N. anaticula sp. nov. A key to the species is provided together with dorsal view photograph of each known species of Narnia. The genus is divided in two groups according the color of the dorsal abdominal segments.

  4. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments could affect population dynamics of variable populations.

  5. Supercooling points and heat coma temperatures in four species of oceanic sea skaters of the genus Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae: Halobatinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harada, T.; Takenaka, S.; Iyota, K.; Shiraki, T.; Moku, M.; Katagiri, C.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2013), s. 219-222 ISSN 1226-8615 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : temperature dynamics * distribution * heat tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861513000150#

  6. Burrower bugs (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) in peanut: seasonal species abundance, tillage effects, grade reduction effects, insecticide efficacy, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Jay W; Thomas, James S

    2003-08-01

    Pitfall traps placed in South Carolina peanut, Arachis hypogaea (L.), fields collected three species of burrower bugs (Cydnidae): Cyrtomenus ciliatus (Palisot de Beauvois), Sehirus cinctus cinctus (Palisot de Beauvois), and Pangaeus bilineatus (Say). Cyrtomenus ciliatus was rarely collected. Sehirus cinctus produced a nymphal cohort in peanut during May and June, probably because of abundant henbit seeds, Lamium amplexicaule L., in strip-till production systems. No S. cinctus were present during peanut pod formation. Pangaeus bilineatus was the most abundant species collected and the only species associated with peanut kernel feeding injury. Overwintering P. bilineatus adults were present in a conservation tillage peanut field before planting and two to three subsequent generations were observed. Few nymphs were collected until the R6 (full seed) growth stage. Tillage and choice of cover crop affected P. bilineatus populations. Peanuts strip-tilled into corn or wheat residue had greater P. bilineatus populations and kernel-feeding than conventional tillage or strip-tillage into rye residue. Fall tillage before planting a wheat cover crop also reduced burrower bug feeding on peanut. At-pegging (early July) granular chlorpyrifos treatments were most consistent in suppressing kernel feeding. Kernels fed on by P. bilineatus were on average 10% lighter than unfed on kernels. Pangaeus bilineatus feeding reduced peanut grade by reducing individual kernel weight, and increasing the percentage damaged kernels. Each 10% increase in kernels fed on by P. bilineatus was associated with a 1.7% decrease in total sound mature kernels, and kernel feeding levels above 30% increase the risk of damaged kernel grade penalties.

  7. Relative male and female contributions to the supercooling point of their offspring in Microvelia reticulata (Heteroptera: Vellidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Tomáš; Boukal S., David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2016), s. 222-227 ISSN 1343-8786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0096 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : animal model * cold hardiness * GLMM Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.262, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ens.12196/abstract

  8. Factors terminating ovarian arrest in long-winged females of a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2007), s. 15-22 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Pyrrhocoridae * macropterus females * ovarian arrest Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2007

  9. Additional records and descriptions of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus from Thailand (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Pilophorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Artchawakom, Taksin

    2014-05-09

    Eleven species of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus Hahn from Thailand are documented, with photographic images of live individuals. Four new species with conventional, moderate antlike shape, Pilophorus meteorus, P. saovapruki, P. subparallelus and P. suwimonae, are described. Two known Thai species, P. alstoni Schuh and P. typicus (Distant), are further reported and diagnosed. Biological information including host association is provided for P. alstoni, P. meteorus, P. saovapruki and P. typicus. A checklist of all currently known species of Pilophorus in Thailand and a key to known Thai species are included. Pilophorus typicus is reported from Singapore for the first time.

  10. Compositional and mutational rate heterogeneity in mitochondrial genomes and its effect on the phylogenetic inferences of Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanhuan; Li, Teng; Dang, Kai; Bu, Wenjun

    2018-04-18

    Mitochondrial genome (mt-genome) data can potentially return artefactual relationships in the higher-level phylogenetic inference of insects due to the biases of accelerated substitution rates and compositional heterogeneity. Previous studies based on mt-genome data alone showed a paraphyly of Cimicomorpha (Insecta, Hemiptera) due to the positions of the families Tingidae and Reduviidae rather than the monophyly that was supported based on morphological characters, morphological and molecular combined data and large scale molecular datasets. Various strategies have been proposed to ameliorate the effects of potential mt-genome biases, including dense taxon sampling, removal of third codon positions or purine-pyrimidine coding and the use of site-heterogeneous models. In this study, we sequenced the mt-genomes of five additional Tingidae species and discussed the compositional and mutational rate heterogeneity in mt-genomes and its effect on the phylogenetic inferences of Cimicomorpha by implementing the bias-reduction strategies mentioned above. Heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and mutational biases were found in mt protein-coding genes, and the third codon exhibited high levels of saturation. Dense taxon sampling of Tingidae and Reduviidae and the other common strategies mentioned above were insufficient to recover the monophyly of the well-established group Cimicomorpha. When the sites with weak phylogenetic signals in the dataset were removed, the remaining dataset of mt-genomes can support the monophyly of Cimicomorpha; this support demonstrates that mt-genomes possess strong phylogenetic signals for the inference of higher-level phylogeny of this group. Comparison of the ratio of the removal of amino acids for each PCG showed that ATP8 has the highest ratio while CO1 has the lowest. This pattern is largely congruent with the evolutionary rate of 13 PCGs that ATP8 represents the highest evolutionary rate, whereas CO1 appears to be the lowest. Notably, the value of Ka/Ks ratios of all PCGs is less than 1, indicating that these genes are likely evolving under purifying selection. Our results demonstrate that mt-genomes have sites with strong phylogenetic signals for the inference of higher-level phylogeny of Cimicomorpha. Consequently, bioinformatic approaches to removing sites with weak phylogenetic signals in mt-genome without relying on an a priori tree topology would greatly improve this field.

  11. Comparative Meiotic Studies in Triatoma sordida (Stål and T. guasayana Wygodzinsky & Abalos (Reduviidae, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rebagliati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana are competent Trypanosoma cruzi vectors, with overlapping distribution areas in Argentina. Both species are morphologically similar, and their immature stages are hard to discriminate. Cytogenetic studies in the genus Triatoma reveal scarce karyotypic variations, being 2n= 20 + XY the most frequent diploid number in males. In the present work the meiotic behaviour of different Argentinian populations of T. sordida and T. guasayana has been analyzed; the meiotic karyotype of both species has also been compared. The species differ in total chromosome area and in the relative area of the sex chromosomes. These meiotic karyotypic differences constitute an additional tool for the taxonomic characterization of T. sordida and T. guasayana. The analysis of an interpopulation hybrid of T. sordida (Brazil x Argentina reveals a regular meiotic behaviour, despite the presence of heteromorphic bivalents. Our observations support the hypothesis that karyotype variations through the gain or loss of heterochromatin can not be considered as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation in Triatoma.

  12. Comparing vegetation types and anthropic disturbance levels in the Atlantic forest: how do Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) assemblages respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F M; Mendonça, M S; Campos, L A

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest (AF) is considered the most fragmented and endangered Brazilian biome. The diversity of phytophagous insects increases after disturbances in forests, and it was hypothesized the Pentatomidae can furnish ecologically reliable information in terms of diversity in response to the changes occurring in AF. Our aim was to quantify the response of assemblages of Pentatomoidea to gradient of human disturbance in two vegetation types of the AF-dense ombrophilous forest (DOF) and mixed ombrophilous forest (MOF). Twelve transects were grouped into environmental classes, namely open, intermediate, and closed. Overall, 1,017 pentatomoids were sampled, representing 64 species. The open environment was more abundant than closed environment, though it is expected that Pentatomoidea respond with increasing abundance when under light or moderate disturbance. The MOF was more abundant than DOF, and the composition differed between both of them. Given the differences in composition between MOF and DOF, abiotic variables are important factors acting as environmental filters for Pentatomoidea, not just directly on the insects, but probably also on the nutritional support of their host plants.

  13. faloabi@uniben.edu Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Keyword: Persea americana, antiproliferative activity, apoptotic effect, flow ... of the stem bark of Persea americana in MCF-7 cell line by flow cytometer. .... of an electric milling machine. ... Flow Cytometric Measurement Of Cell Proliferation:.

  14. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the Mississippi and Alabama Coastal Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    sourwood Bignonia capreolata crossvine Panicum virgatum switchgrass Callicarpa americana American beautyberry Persea borbonia redbay Calystegia sepium...sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), loblolly-bay (Gordonia lasianthus), redbay ( Persea borbonia), and swamp bay ( Persea palustris) make up a significant...com- munity model. The Society of American Foresters (Eyre 1980) recognizes a “Sweetbay- Swamp Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora)-Redbay” forest

  15. SITUACION ACTUAL DEL CULTIVO DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana Mill. EN EL ESTADO DE MÉXICO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Rubí Arriaga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la situación actual de la producción y comercialización del cultivo del aguacate en el sur del Estado de México en 2011. El tamaño de muestra se determinó considerando el universo total de inscritos en la base de datos de la SEDAGRO conformada por 2,814 productores, con base en la metodología de poblaciones finitas, el tamaño de muestra fue 539, a los cuales se les aplicó un cuestionario. La información cuantitativa de la encuesta se capturó en una base de datos y se procesó mediante Microsoft Office Excel 2007©, para obtener medidas de tendencia central. En el Estado de México 85% de la población de estudio, son pequeños productores y tan solo 15% cuentan con extensiones superiores a 10 ha. La producción se basa en una explotación univarietal con predominio del 90% de la variedad Hass. El incremento en plantaciones de aguacate se ha realizado en 77% con planta proveniente del estado de Michoacán. La producción se destina para el consumo nacional, se comercializa principalmente en las centrales de abasto de Toluca, Estado de México, Distrito Federal y en mercados regionales. Aguacate Hass; producción; comercialización; consumo;

  16. Variabilidad intraespecífica de cepas de Phytophthora palmivora Butler (Butler) aisladas de plantaciones de aguacatero (Persea americana Mill.) en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Maylen; Peña-Marey, Mabel; Alvarez, Alba; Díaz, Adriana; Zamora, Victoria; Coto, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Se utilizaron en el estudio ocho cepas de Phytophthora palmivora Butler (Butler) obtenidas de jardines de aguacateros de la región occidental de Cuba, y se describieron los patrones de crecimientos de las colonias en medio agar papa dextrosa (PDA), agar zanahoria (AZ), agar jugo vegetal V8 (AV8) y agar malta (AM), así como los tipos de esporangios presentes. Se evaluó la variabilidad intraespecífica de los aislamientos en base a las dimensiones de los esporangios y de sus papilas. Las cepas m...

  17. Potencial del cultivo de aguacate (persea americana mill en Ecuador como alternativa de comercialización en el mercado local e internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sotomayor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El Ecuador, por su ubicación geográfica posee las condiciones climáticas adecuadas para el cultivo del aguacate, siendo las principales zonas productoras: Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Azuay y Loja. La variedad demandada a nivel internacional es la ‘Hass’; sin embargo en el mercado local es la aceptación es por la variedad ‘Fuerte’. Entre los principales países importadores y potenciales mercados de este frutal tenemos Estados Unidos, Francia, Holanda, Japón, entre otros. No obstante, las exportaciones de aguacate ecuatoriano han sido principalmente a Colombia (99 %, alcanzando un valor de 2.2 millones de dólares americanos; y en menor escala a las Antillas Holandesas, España y Holanda. El precio en el mercado local varía entre 1.06 y 1.90USD/kg, observándose inestabilidad; sin embargo, en el mercado europeo alcanza un valor de 3.60 USD/kg constituyéndose una alternativa atractiva para su comercialización. En el mercado local no existe una demanda insatisfecha debido a que la producción nacional se la comercializa casi en su totalidad en el país; mientras que existe una demanda insatisfecha a nivel internacional que constituye una oportunidad de mercado. Abstract Ecuador has adequate weather conditions for growing avocado due to its geographic location. The main producing areas are Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Azuay and Loja. ‘Hass’is the variety demanded in the international market; however the variety ‘Fuerte’ is the most consumed in the local market.Among the major importing countries and potential markets for this fruit are United States of America, France, Holland, Japan, among other.However, the Ecuadorian avocado exportation has been mainly to Colombia (99 %, reaching an amount of 2.2 million of American dollars; and a low scale to the Netherlands Antilles, Spain and Holland.The price in the local market varies between 1.06 and 1.90USD/kg, resulting in instability; on the other hand, in the European market it reaches a value of 3.60 USD/kg, constituting an attractive alternative for its commercialization. In the local market there is no an unsatisfied demands because local production is almost entirely marketed in the country; while there is an unsatisfied demand at the international level that constitutes a market opportunity.

  18. EFECTO DE NaCl Y CaCl2 EN EL DESARROLLO DE EJES EMBRIONARIOS DE Persea americana Mill CRIOLLO y 'HASS' CULTIVADOS in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leobarda Guadalupe Ramírez-Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar materiales de aguacate tolerantes a salinidad, útiles como portainjertos. Se sembraron in vitro ejes embrionarios de aguacate criollo y 'Hass' en medio Murashige y Skoog al 100 % de su composición nutrimental en condiciones salinas inducidas con NaCl y CaCl2. Se emplearon cinco niveles de cada sal (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 %, así como la combinación de éstas en proporción 1,1. Se estudió germinación, emergencia, enraizamiento y supervivencia de brotes de aguacate. El criollo superó al 'Hass' con el 21 % de germinación, 36 % de emergencia, con aproximadamente el 50 % en cada una de las variables de crecimiento y el 10 % de supervivencia de plántulas. El desarrollo de los ejes embrionarios fue más limitado en los tratamientos con NaCl en comparación a los establecidos en CaCl2 y NaCl,CaCl2. Con la técnica in vitro se determinó a los 65 días de cultivo que el material criollo fue más tolerante al estrés salino con respecto al 'Hass'.

  19. Contenido de aceite en frutos de selecciones de aguacate (Persea americana criollo de clima tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Medina Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló sobre 65 selecciones de aguacate criollo de las zonas tropical y subtropical de Nayarit, con el objetivo de calificar el contenido de aceite y relacionarlo con el porcentaje de materia seca y del color de la pulpa del fruto, y de ubicar e identificar selecciones de interés comercial. Se usó análisis estadístico multivariado de componentes principales para el procesamiento de datos. Dos componentes principales explicaron el 63,93 % de la varianza total. En el componente principal 1 resultaron relevantes porcentaje de aceite y materia seca de la pulpa; y en el componente principal 2 las variables de color de la pulpa en madurez de consumo. Cuatro grupos de selecciones fueron identificadas por los promedios de los vectores característicos de los componentes 1 y 2. Se encontró alta correspondencia entre el contenido de aceite y materia seca en la pulpa (R2 = 0,9387 de los aguacates. El color de la pulpa del fruto no resultó un parámetro que se relacione con el contenido de aceite de la pulpa de aguacate. El contenido de materia seca puede constituir un parámetro fácil y útil para determinar con aproximación el contenido de aceite. En general, los aguacates de clima subtropical mostraron mayor contenido de aceite que los de origen tropical.

  20. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (pblood glucose levels were significantly reduced (palligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Zonificación agroecológica del aguacate (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass) en la cuenca del Río Duero

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Campos, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    El cultivo de aguacate es de gran importancia en México y particularmente en el estado de Michoacán, el cual ocupa el primer lugar a nivel mundial en calidad y producción, este periodo de gran auge por el que está pasando el cultivo, además de traer beneficios, también ha ocasionado un acelerado cambio de uso de suelo forestal a producción de aguacate, al grado de provocar un deterioro en los ecosistemas forestales. En la cuenca del río Duero al formar parte de la zona de la Fr...

  2. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK BUAH PISANG (Musa acuminate L DAN BUAH ALPUKAT (Persea americana Mill TERHADAP BERAT HATI MENCIT (Mus musculus BETINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Utami Ningsih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive ability ability has a linear correlation with libido and testosterone. Both are associated with various things main food consumption such as protein, vitamins and minerals. Aphrodisiac  is an ingredient or drug that arouses sexual arousal or libido. Pumpkin is an example of food from plants with the highest content of zinc. This study was to determine whether there is a difference between the content of zinc on the peel, flesh and pumpkin seeds against sexual activity of mice. The experimental animals used were 24 male, group I mice as control group, Group II was grouped with pumpkin peel extract, Group III was grouped with extract of pumpkin flesh, Group IV was grouped with extract of pumpkin seeds. The dose used is 2gr / kg BB and volume of 0.2 ml is given for 35 days. Sexual Activity is observed every day  by the position of male mice riding females. Based on Anova One Way test results showed there are differences in sexual activity  mice males in each group (ρ 0.000. The difference of the result of the number of mounts indicated that the giving of yellow pumpkin extract had an effect on the increase of mating behavior of male mice. The group treated with the extract of pumpkin flesh showed the highest number of mice mounts (mean = 24,1667.Further research is needed to get a clearer picture of the composition of the pumpkin nutrients that indirectly affect fertility in men.

  3. Biochemical analysis of reactive oxygen species production and antioxidative responses in unripe avocado (Persea americana Mill var Hass) fruits in response to wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mercado, E; Martinez-Diaz, Y; Roman-Tehandon, N; Garcia-Pineda, E

    2009-03-01

    We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of detoxifying enzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate (ASC) acid cycle in avocado fruit (Pesea Americana Mill cv Hass) in response to wounding. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased at 15 min and 2 and 15 h post-wounding. Peroxidase (POD) activity had increased to high levels 24 h after wounding; in contrast, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels hat decreased significantly at 24 h post-treatment. Basic POD was the major POD form induced, and the levels of at least three apoplastic POD isozymes -increased following wounding. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized one MnSOD and two CuZnSOD isozymes. CuZnSOD activities decreased notably 12 h after treatment. The activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase increased dramatically following the wounding treatment, possibly as a means to compensate for the redox changes due to ROS production.

  4. Identification and characterization of a new Bacillus atrophaeus strain B5 as biocontrol agent of postharvest anthracnose disease in soursop (Annona muricata) and avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Valdivia, Lizeth; Tovar-Pérez, Erik; Chacón-López, Alejandra; López-García, Ulises; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; Stoll, Alexandra; Aguilera, Selene

    2018-05-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous fruit, including soursop and avocado. The use of fungicides to maintain the high quality of fruit creates a potential health risk. One alternative to this problem is the biological control, which has been applied successfully during postharvest. The Bacillus species are one of the most studied biological agents against postharvest pathogens because accomplish their biocontrol performance by producing a variety of metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the activity of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant, obtained from Bacillus strain B5 culture, against micelial growth and spore germination of two virulent strains of C. gloeosporioides isolated from soursop and avocado. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. A preventive treatment using cell free supernatant, reduced severity and incidence of anthracnose disease on harvested soursop and avocado fruit. B. atrophaeus strain B5 harbors genes involved in the production of antibiotics such as surfactin, bacillomycin and iturin, which could be contributing to the efficiency of the preventive treatment during postharvest. The antagonistic role of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant against anthracnose disease, provide a new approach by which to attack this problem and can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides, environmental pollution, leading to the safer fruit preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. [High-density lipoproteins (HDL) size and composition are modified in the rat by a diet supplemented with "Hass" avocado (Persea americana Miller)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Méndez, Oscar; García Hernández, Lizbeth

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary avocado on HDL structure and their associated enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fifteen Wistar male rats received avocado as part of their daily meal (5 g by 17.5 g chow diet), keeping the caloric intake similar to the control group (n=15) that received their usual chow diet. After 5 weeks, HDL were isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation and their size and chemical composition were analyzed. PON1 was determined in serum spectrophotometrically using phenylacetate as substrate. Rats that received avocado had about 27% lower triglycerides plasma levels whereas their HDL-cholesterol was 17% higher as compared to control group. The mean HDL Stokes diameter was significantly lower in avocado group (11.71 +/- 0.8 vs. 12.27 +/- 0.26 nm, in control group, p avocado group. HDL structural modifications induced by avocado were not related to modifications of LCAT and PLTP activities, but occurred in parallel with higher serum levels of PON1 activity when compared to the controls (57.4 +/- 8.9 vs. 43.0 +/- 5.6 micromol/min/mL serum, p avocado in the diet decreased plasma triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol plasma levels and modified HDL structure. The latter effect may enhance the antiatherogenic properties of HDL since PON1 activity also increased as a consequence of avocado.

  6. Occurance of aldehyde-fuchsin and performic acid-victoria blue positive granules in the ovarian pedicle of Dysdercus koenigii F. (Pyrrhocridae: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R C; Srivastava, B P

    1976-10-15

    A cycle of activity of aldehyde-fuchsin and performic acid-Victoria blue positive granules was observed in the ovarian pedicle of Dysdercus koenigii during the first ovipositional cycle. The quantitative variation of these granules in the pedicle can also be correlated directly with the increase or decrease of the neurosecretory material in the A-type cells of the pars intercerebralis medialis region of the protocerebrum of the brian.

  7. The sea-skater Halobates (Heteroptera Gerridae) - probable cause for extinction in the Mediterranean and potential for re-colonisation following climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Lanna; Damgaard, Jakob; Garrouste, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Sea-skaters in the genus Halobates Eschscholtz 1822 include some of the most specialised water striders and are found in tropical and subtropical seas around the world. Even though species of Halobates occur in both the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea, no extant sea-skater has been reported from t...

  8. Observations on the life history of giant water bugs Lethocerus Mayr, 1853 (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Belostomatidae in the Gangetic plains of India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nesemann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of giant water bugs Lethocerus were found in the Gangetic plains of northern India and Nepal. Lethocerus indicus is widespread, whereas a single record of Lethocerus patruelis confirms the eastern distribution range in Bihar. Four instars of aquatic nymphs occur exclusively in temporary shallow stagnant water bodies which harbor rich amphibian populations but lack permanent fish fauna. From mid-August to the first week of November adults fly. Later they live submerged in aquatic habitats of large rivers and permanent stagnant water bodies which harbor diverse fish fauna. Repeated findings of adults with ventrally attached egg-shaped pupae of aquatic mites (Hydracarina suggest that these are host-specific ones of Lethocerus. Thus, the occurrence of protelean parasites on giant water bugs in the Gangetic plains is a previously unknown unique finding since apparently mites have been noticed only from other Nepomorpha families.

  9. Wing morph-specific differences in the metabolism and endocrine control of reserve mobilization in adult males of a flightless bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) (Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír; Kodrík, Dalibor; Šula, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 175, - (2005), s. 557-565 ISSN 0174-1578 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : male * protein * carbohydrate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.539, year: 2005

  10. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  11. Review of the New World Tigava lace bug complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae), with the description of two new genera and two new species and a key to genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lace bug (Tingidae) genera belonging to the New World Tigava complex are reviewed. The two new genera and new species Mexicotingis brailovskyi, from Mexico, and Paraceratotingis convergens, from Venezuela, are described. Diagnoses, descriptions, and digital color photographs of the new taxa, d...

  12. Characterizing a novel predator–prey relationship between native Diplonychus esakii (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae and invasive Gambusia affinis (Teleostei: Poeciliidae in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ouyang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A considerable body of the literature considers the potential impact of exotic predators on native prey organisms, while comparatively, few studies have asked whether and how native predators include novel prey types into their diet spectrum. Here, we asked whether the native aquatic heteropteran Diplonychus esakii preys on the highly invasive western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, which has been introduced to southern China and threatens native fish species through competition and predation on their fry. We conducted 48-h prey choice experiments under semi-natural conditions. In a ‘no-choice’ experiment (one predator and one potential prey; n = 200, we found the heteropterans to prey more on large-bodied fish, a pattern that was also described for other belostomatids, while prey sex had no effect on capture rates. Moreover, large-bodied heteropterans caught more fish than small-bodied individuals. However, overall capture rates in our study were low (11.5–30% compared to studies on other belostomatids, which explains why subsequent binary prey choice experiments using one predator and two prey—either large and small females or male and female (with smaller sample sizes of n = 20 and 30, respectively—did not confirm the results of our first experiment. Our study exemplifies how a pattern of body size-dependent predation can arise in a novel (not coevolved predator–prey interaction. We tentatively argue that the observed pattern could be driven by intrinsic features of the predator, namely, altered prey preferences with increasing age coupled with a general preference for large-bodied prey, or changing nutritional needs at different developmental stages.

  13. Acrolophyses, a new seed bug genus and two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Myodochini) from forest-canopy fogging in Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new myodochine (Rhyparochromidae) genus Acrolophyses is described to accommodate the two new species A. aboricolous from Ecuador and Peru, designated as the type species, and A. hadros from Ecuador. The new species are diagnosed and described, and adult photographs, scanning electron photomicro...

  14. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  15. First record of the genus Ctenipocoris (Heteroptera: Naucoridae) in Central America, with a preliminary key to the American species and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Federico

    2013-10-31

    A new naucorid species, Ctenipocoris oscari Herrera NEW SPECIES, is herein described for Costa Rica. It is the first species to be described in Central America and the sixth American species. Comparative notes are provided to differentiate this species from the others. Type material is deposited at the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica (MZUCR), San José, Costa Rica. A preliminary key to the American species of the genus is provided.

  16. Description of Nasocoris lautereri sp. nov. from the Balkan peninsula, with a review of the genus Nasocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, P.; Bryja, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1633, - (2007), s. 39-61 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Insecta * Balkan peninsula * host plant Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2007 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/z01633p038f.pdf

  17. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  18. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  19. Role of adipokinetic hormone in stimulation of salivary gland activities: the fire bug Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (Heteroptera) as a model species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinokurov, Konstantin; Bednářová, Andrea; Tomčala, Aleš; Stašková, Tereza; Krishnan, N.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, JAN 20 (2014), s. 58-67 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:NSF(US) 269110-151250 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : AKH * salivary glands * digestive enzymes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191013002321#

  20. A new species of the stilt bug genus Gampsocoris from Senegal and a new generic combination for Gampsocoris gomeranus Wagner (Heteroptera: Berytidae: Gampsocorinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationships the African gampsocorine (Gampsocorinae) genera Gampsoacantha Josifov and Štusak, Gampsocoris Fuss, and Micrometacanthus are discussed. Gampsocoris gomeranus Wagner, having a median anterior spine, three basal processes on the pronotum, and a short, round antennal segment IV, is t...

  1. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae, and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  2. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  3. Selective recovery of the cultivation-prone components from mixed trypanosomatid infections: a case of several novel species isolated from Neotropical Heteroptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yurchenko, V. Y.; Lukeš, Julius; Jirků, Milan; Maslov, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 43 (2009), s. 893-909 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06129; GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : gGAPDH * maximum-likelihood * spliced leader RNA * small-subunit rRNA * trypanosomatids Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2009

  4. Cimidíase (dermatose por percevejo: uma causa de prurigo a ser lembrada Bedbugs (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: an etiology of pruritus to be remembered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos uma doente de 19 anos que nos procurou com quadro de intenso prurido há 2 semanas e demonstrando lesões eritêmato-pápulo-urticadas mais intensamente distribuídas nos membros superiores e inferiores. A anamnese detalhada excluiu causas internas e medicamentos como uma possível causa do prurigo. Após orientações quanto a dedetização do domicílio a doente retornou no consultório após 3 semanas sem lesões cutâneas e trazendo em um pote de vidro vários percevejos coletados após a dedetização.This report describes a 19-year old female patient, who sought medical attention for severe itching of two weeks' duration. Erythematous papules and wheals were found, principally on her upper and lower limbs. Careful anamnesis excluded other etiologies of the pruritus, including those related to internal diseases and medication. Following counseling regarding the need to contract a domestic pest control company, the patient returned to the clinic three weeks later with no skin lesions and bearing a glass jar containing several bedbugs collected following pest control treatment.

  5. Estimation of median lethal concentration of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana for control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) bioassayed on solid Lugys Spp. Diet²

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for biological control of a variety of pests. The objectives of this study were isolate and identify the fungus from Kudzu bugs and determine its infectivity comparing with two highly pathogenic isolates including the Mississipp...

  6. Novel Detection of Insecticide Resistance Related P450 Genes and Transcriptome Analysis of the Hemimetabolous Pest Erthesina fullo (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Haoyang; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Erthesina fullo (Thunberg, 1783) is an economically important heteropteran species in China. Since only three nucleotide sequences of this species (COI, 16S rRNA, and 18S rRNA) appear in the GenBank database so far, no analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying E. fullo's resistance to insecticide and environmental stress has been accomplished. We reported a de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome for adult E. fullo using the Illumina sequence system. A total of 53,359,458 clean reads of 4.8 billion nucleotides (nt) were assembled into 27,488 unigenes with an average length of 750 bp, of which 17,743 (64.55%) were annotated. In the present study, we identified 88 putative cytochrome P450 sequences and analyzed the evolution of cytochrome P450 superfamilies, genes of the CYP3 clan related to metabolizing xenobiotics and plant natural compounds, in E. fullo, increasing the candidate genes for the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance in P450. The sequenced transcriptome greatly expands the available genomic information and could allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of insecticide resistance at the systems biology level.

  7. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. USE OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS AS A BIOTECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGY TO ENHANCE AVOCADO (Persea americana-PLANT PHOSPHATE UPTAKE AND GROWTH USO DE MICROORGANISMOS DEL SUELO COMO ESTRATEGIA BIOTECNOLÓGICA PARA MEJORAR LA ABSORCIÓN DE FÓSFORO Y EL CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTAS DE AGUACATE (Persea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In recent years the area cultivated with avocado has increased significantly in Colombia and this trend is expected to continue in the coming years. However, most of the soils in the highlands of the Colombian Andean, that have been used to grow avocado, are strongly acidic and nutrient deficient, particularly phosphorus (P. To alleviate these problems, high rates of lime and P fertilizers are frequently applied, in many cases the applied dose are excessive. This increases production costs, produces plant nutrient imbalance in the plant, and increases the risk of polluting surface waters. A biotechnological alternative is the combined use of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM and arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF. This work describes a series of experiments carried out to isolate, characterize, and evaluate the effectiveness of AMF and PSM in increasing plant growth and P uptake of avocado plants. The results indicate that the mycorrhizal association is an effective alternative that can easily be established in the crops; however, the excessive use of P fertilizer in these soils may limit the benefits of these fungi on avocado plants. Currently, effective PSM of avocado rhizosphere have not been detected. In some cases, these microorganisms are absent in the avocado rhizosphere and in other cases their low capacity to solubilize P discourage their use in the crop.Resumen. En los últimos años el área cultivada con aguacate en Colombia ha crecido notoriamente y se espera que esta tendencia continúe en los próximos años. Sin embargo, muchos de los suelos de la zona andina utilizados para su siembra exhiben fuerte acidez y niveles deficientes de varios nutrientes, particularmente fósforo (P. Para corregir este problema se hacen aplicaciones de cales y fertilizantes fosfóricos solubles, en mucho casos las dosis aplicadas son altas. Esto eleva innecesariamente los costos de producción, crea desbalance nutricional en la planta y genera riesgos de contaminación ambiental. Una alternativa biotecnológica es el uso de microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfato (PSM y hongos formadores de micorriza-arbuscular (AMF. En este trabajo se describe el aislamiento, caracterización y evaluación de la efectividad de AMF y PSM para mejorar la absorción de P por las plantas de aguacate. La asociación micorrizal ha probado ser una alternativa factible de implementar; sin embargo, el excesivo uso de fertilizantes fosfóricos puede limitar los beneficios de estos hongos en las plantas de aguacate. Hasta ahora no se han detectado PSM efectivos en la rizosfera de aguacate. En algunos casos, estos microorganismos están ausentes en la rizosfera del aguacate, y en otras circunstancias la baja capacidad para solubilizar P desestimula su uso en el cultivo.

  9. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co; Descripcion de caracteres morfologicos en arboles de aguacate (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, sometidos a radiacion gama de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval R, L

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co{sup 60}, in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co{sup 60} in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico in samples of you hoist of all the treatments including the witness. without detecting significant modifications in disposition and tamario of the cells of the tunic and the body of the bud veqetativo.

  10. USE OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS AS A BIOTECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGY TO ENHANCE AVOCADO (Persea americana)-PLANT PHOSPHATE UPTAKE AND GROWTH USO DE MICROORGANISMOS DEL SUELO COMO ESTRATEGIA BIOTECNOLÓGICA PARA MEJORAR LA ABSORCIÓN DE FÓSFORO Y EL CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTAS DE AGUACATE (Persea americana)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega; Sandra Luz Serna Gómez; Beatriz Elena Montoya Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. In recent years the area cultivated with avocado has increased significantly in Colombia and this trend is expected to continue in the coming years. However, most of the soils in the highlands of the Colombian Andean, that have been used to grow avocado, are strongly acidic and nutrient deficient, particularly phosphorus (P). To alleviate these problems, high rates of lime and P fertilizers are frequently applied, in many cases the applied dose are excessive. This increases producti...

  11. Description of morphologic characters in avocado trees (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, submitted to gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co; Descripcion de caracteres morfologicos en arboles de aguacate (Persea americana. Mill) var. Hass, sometidos a radiacion gama de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval R, L

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the characterization of 77 trees of avocado ''Hass'' subjected to gamma radiation of Co{sup 60}, in doses of 0, 5, 10,15, 20 and 25 Gy based on previous studies of radiosensitivity with ends of improvement located in the experimental center ''La Labor'' belonging to the foundation Salvador Sanchez Colin. CICTAMEX. S C. in Temascaltepec, Mexico. It was carried out the morphological characterization of this variety according to the nomenclature settled down by the International Office of Genetic Resources (IBPGRI), registering 27 variables for the description of the tree, 33 for description of the fruit and 14 for the characterization of the seed. Regarding the architectural characterization 10 variables were evaluated. Using gamma radiation of Co{sup 60} in the doses of 15 and 20 Gy it was detected a reduction of 22% in the portage of the tree, likewise had reduction the diameter of the trunk and of the foliage. It was found that the reduction in the behavior of the tree induces to a bigger variation of the form of the same one, in the distribution of the branches in the form of the fruit and in the form of the seed you Also detects a remarkable increment in the productivity of some hoist irradiated regarding the architecture of the tree one observes that the angle of inclination of the branches increase when being increased the radiation dose and that the longitude of the annual section of growth decreased significantly in the doses of 20 and 25 Gy. One observes a significant Increment in the I number of buds prolepticos in those hoist irradiated in the I finish mbdulo of rhythmic growth. Io that indicates a change substantial in the I inhabit of growth With the purpose of determining if the changes in morphology and architecture of the tree corresponded with the modification at level meristematico, they were carried out observations to the court microscope of having knitted apical vegetative meristematico in samples of you hoist of all the treatments including the witness. without detecting significant modifications in disposition and tamario of the cells of the tunic and the body of the bud veqetativo.

  12. Revisión del género Neoquintius stat. nov., con descripción de cuatro especies nuevas y un análisis del complejo Quintius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Nematopodini A revision of the genus Neoquintius nov. status, with the description of four new species and analysis of the Quintius complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Nematopodini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El subgénero Neoquintius Brailovsky y Barrera (Coreidae: Nematopodini es elevado a categoría genérica describiéndose 4 especies nuevas recolectadas en Bolivia, Panamá y Perú. Se ilustran caracteres diagnósticos del pronoto y de la cápsula genital del macho (pigóforo. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de los géneros afines a Quintius Stål y otra para las especies conocidas de Neoquintius.The subgenus Neoquintius Brailovsky and Barrera (Coreidae: Nematopodini is elevated to generic level, and 4 new species from Bolivia, Panama, and Peru are described. Diagnostic taxonomic characters of pronotum and male genital capsule (pygophore are illustrated. An identification key to the genera closely related to Quintius Stål, as well as a key to the known species of Neoquintius are included.

  13. Efeitos da temperatura e da defesa da presa no consumo pelo predador Supputius cincticeps (Stäl (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae Effects of temperature and of the prey defense on the consumption by the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stäl (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roberto de Azevedo

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou determinar se a temperatura e a defesa da presa afetam o consumo e a utilização de larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. por ninfas de Supputius cincticeps (Stäl. Quantificaram-se em cada um dos ínstares do predador Supputius cincticeps os consumos bruto e diário das larvas de T. molitor com e sem defesa, ganho de peso total e ganho de peso diário pelo predador. Foram determinados os efeitos da defesa da presa e da temperatura ambiente no consumo de alimento pelas ninfas de 2º, 3º, 4º e 5º ínstares de S. cincticeps. A pesquisa foi conduzida na Unidade de Controle Biológico da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão, em Campina Grande, PB, a 20, 25, e 30ºC, 60±10% UR e fotofase de 14 horas. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo bruto de larvas de T. molitor pelo S. cincticeps depende do ínstar do predador e da temperatura, do ínstar do predador e da defesa da presa, e da temperatura e defesa da presa; o consumo diário de S. cincticeps depende do ínstar do predador e da temperatura, e do ínstar do predador e da defesa da presa, e o ganho de peso de S. cincticeps depende do seu ínstar, da temperatura e da defesa apresentada pelas larvas de T. molitor. O tamanho das larvas de T. molitor funciona como defesa ao ataque de S. cincticeps.The objective of the research was to determine if the temperature and pray defense affect the consumption and utilization of Tenebrio molitor L. larvae by nymphs of Supputius cincticeps (Stäl. The gross and daily consumptions of T. molitor larvae with and without defense by the predator Supputius cincticeps, and the gross and daily weight gains of the predator were quantified. Effects of the prey defense and temperature on the food consumption by the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar nimphs of S. cincticeps were determined. The research was carried out in the Biological Control Unit of the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão, at Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, at 20, 25, and 30°C, 60±10% RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. The results showed that the gross consumption of T. molitor larvae by S. cincticeps depends on the predator instar and on temperature, on the predator instar and on the prey defense, and on temperature and on the prey defense; the daily consumption of S. cincticeps depends on its instar and on temperature, and on its instar and on the prey defense; and S. cincticeps weight gain depends on its instar, on temperature and on the prey defense. The size of T. molitor larvae works as a defense to attack of S. cincticeps.

  14. Desenvolvimento de Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860 were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viability of this predator was found when the preys were Z. confusa and T. molitor, 74.46% and 80.91 %, than in M. domestica, 57.02%, but incubation period showed no differences between preys. Shorter nymphal development and higher nymphal viability were found with Z. confusa and T. molitor than with M. domestica. Higher weight increase was found for nymphs which originated males and females in the second generation specialy with the first two preys.

  15. Susceptibilidad a endosulfan y monitoreo de resistencia en poblaciones de Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, en cultivos de soja de Argentina Susceptibility to endosulphan and resistance monitoring in «green stinkbug» populations, Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, in soya crops in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la susceptibilidad a endosulfan en diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii (Westwood, que afectan los cultivos de soja en las provincias argentinas de Santiago del Estero, Chaco y Santa Fe. Se estableció su estatus de susceptibilidad actual para todas las poblaciones estudiadas, y se monitoreó la resistencia a endosulfan en una población de P. guildinii , de Santiago del Estero desde 2002 a 2005, para detectar los cambios en la respuesta al insecticida, con la finalidad de alertar acerca de posibles fallas de control. Los insectos fueron colectados en plantaciones de soja en las localidades de Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera y Coronel Du Graty. Los bioensayos se desarrollaron en laboratorio por el método del tópico, en el marco de los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El estatus de susceptibilidad actual a endosulfan, en las poblaciones de P. guildinii estudiadas fue de: DL95 = 0,680μg/μL [0,489-1,338] a 2,277μg/μL [1,526-5,418]. De los resultados de los bioensayos se desprende que las poblaciones estudiadas, muy distantes geográficamente unas de otras, muestran algunas diferencias en su tolerancia a endosulfan (capacidad de detoxificación, exhibiendo, además, un incremento gradual de la misma desde la zona sur de Sta. Fe (Oliveros hacia el norte (Bandera - Chaco, que probablemente se relaciona con los factores ambientales propios de cada región, y se pueden deber también a procesos toxicodínámicos o toxicocinéticos. La población de P. guildinii de Coronel Du Graty (Santiago del Estero monitoreada desde 2002 a 2005, no mostró un incremento de tolerancia al endosulfan a lo largo del tiempo, que sugiera la presencia de fenómenos de resistencia. Factores poblacionales y ambientales son corresponsables de las variaciones temporales y espaciales de la susceptibilidad de una población a un biocida, esto hace que los límites entre la plasticidad fenotípica y las diferencias en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos con base genética, resulten difusos. Dentro del área de cultivo de la soja en la Argentina , que abarca regiones con importantes diferencias climáticas y florísticas, la plasticidad fenotípica que muestran diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii , no debe ser omitida, distinguiendo los cambios de susceptibilidad a insecticidas relacionados con la plasticidad, de aquellos de origen genético. Comprender los mecanismos responsables de cambios en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos, permitirá discernir entre los efectos de la plasticidad fenotípica y de los cambios genéticos, esto llevará a seleccionar las medidas adecuadas para el control de poblaciones de insectos plaga. La información acerca del estatus actual de susceptibilidad a endosulfan, obtenida a través del presente estudio, resultará de utilidad para el monitoreo de resistencia así como para el diagnóstico de fallas en el control de esta plaga.The susceptibility status to endosulphan of different populations of P. guildinii (Westwood that affect soybean crops in the Argentinean provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco and Santa Fe was determined. Also, to detect possible changes in P. guildinii response to the insecticide, resistance was monitored in a population of P. guildinii from Santiago del Estero from 2002 to 2005. Insects were collected from soybean fields in five localities, Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera and Coronel Du Graty. Topical bioassays were conducted in the laboratory, in the framework of standard World Health Organization test methods. The status of the susceptibility of the P. guildinii populations was: DL95 = 0,680μg/μL [0,489- 1,338] to 2,277μg/μL [1,526-5,418]. The results obtained suggest that the populations studied, which are geographically distant, show differences in their tolerance to endosulphan (detoxifying capabilities that could be related to environmental factors and linked to any toxicocinetic or toxicodynamic processes. P. guildini populations studied show a trend towards increased tolerance to endosulphan from southern Santa Fe (Oliveros to northern populations from Bandera (Chaco that is probably related to environmental factors characteristic of each region. The population of P. guildinii monitored from 2002 to 2005 did not show an increase in tolerance to endosulphan with time. Population and environmental factors are both responsible for the temporal and spatial variations of susceptibility of a population to a biocide, making it hard to distinguish between phenotypic plasticity and susceptibility changes with a genetic basis. The soybean growing area in Argentina occupies a region with a huge range of climatic conditions and flora. In such a varied environment, phenotypic plasticity expressed by different P. guildinii should not be omitted, and should be differentiated from changes in susceptibility caused by genetic differences. Understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for changes in susceptibility to pesticides, will allow us to distinguish between the effects of phenotypic plasticity and genetic changes and in turn this will aid in the selection of the appropriate measures for insect pest control. The susceptibility data on endosulphan obtained in this study will be useful for insecticide resistance monitoring and control failure diagnosis.

  16. Ciclo de vida y aspectos poblacionales de Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae chinche del fruto del camu camu (Myrtaceae en zona de restinga, Ucayali, Perú Life cycle and population aspects of camu camu fruit stink bug Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in restinga zone, Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu es uno de los frutales nativos con gran potencial económico para la agroindustria y agro exportación. Edessa es una de las plagas del camu camu que provoca sequedad en los brotes, y en los frutos una mancha decolorada con círculos concéntricos bien marcados y un punto central al alimentarse. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el ciclo biológico bajo condiciones de laboratorio y la fluctuación poblacional de Edessa aff. aulacosterna "Chinche del fruto del camu camu" durante enero a noviembre del 2004 en el cultivo de camu camu, en parcelas en desarrollo y producción ubicadas en áreas de restinga inundables en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. Se colectaron huevos, ninfas y adultos procedentes del distrito de Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú para iniciar la crianza artificial. El tiempo de duración del huevo al I estadio ninfal fue 5,1 días. Se encontró un 94,6% de eclosión de los huevos, variando entre 12 hasta 14 huevos por postura. El tiempo transcurrido desde el huevo hasta II estadío fue de 37,3 días y del III al V estadío ninfal fue de 81,9 días. El porcentaje de mortalidad del primer estadio ninfal a adulto fue de 98,1%. Los adultos colectados se localizaron preferentemente sobre las ramas y el tallo de la planta, mientras que las ninfas se encontraron en los brotes tiernos. Con relación a su fluctuación poblacional, solo se registró posturas a lo largo del año en parcelas en producción. No se encontraron diferencias entre ninfas I a V, y adultos de Edessa aff. aulacosterna, entre plantaciones en producción y desarrollo de camu camu. Solo se encontró diferencias entre la época seca y lluviosa en las ninfas de III a V estadio en las plantas de camu camu en desarrollo. Edessa aff. aulacosterna presentó mayormente una distribución contagiosa. El adecuado conocimiento de la bioecología nos permite mejorar la estrategia de control de esta plaga.Camu camu is one of the native fruits with a great economic potential for agroindustry and agro exportation. Edessa is one camu camu pest that produces in dry buds and fruits with a mark decolorated with concentric circles well marked and a central point when they feed. The aim of the current research was to determinate the biological cycle under laboratory conditions and population fluctuations of Edessa aff. aulacosterna. "Camu camu fruit stink bug" during January to November, 2004 in camu-camu culture, in development and production parcels located in flooded areas of restinga in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. Eggs, nymphs and adults were colected to begin artificial rearing proceeding of distrit of Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. Development time of eggs to 1th nymphal instar was 5.1 days. 94.6% of egg hatchability, varied between 12 until 14 egg-laying was found. The time passed since eggs until III nymphal instar was 37.3 días and of III to V nymphal instar was de 81.9 days. Percentage of mortality of 2nd nymphal instar to adult was 98,1%. Adults collected were localized mainly on branches and stem of the plants, while nymphs were found in delicated buds. In relation to seasonal populations only were registered eggs laying throught the year in parcels in production. Differences between nymphs I to V and adults of Edessa aff. aulacosterna, in production and development plantations were not found. Only differences in dry and wet period in III to V nymphs instar in development camu camu plants were found. Edessa aff. aulacosterna mainly presented a contagious distribution. Suitable knowledge of bioecology of Edessa aff. aulacosterna permit improves strategy of pest control.

  17. Genomics Data for Cowpea Pests in Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset contains the complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods. To get to the...

  18. Intraguild predation by the generalist predator Orius majusculus on the parasitoid Encarsia formosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabi, Fariba; Enkegaard, Annie; Shishehbor, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation of Orius majusculus (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) on Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), both natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied under laboratory conditions. The experiments quantified prey consumption b...

  19. Evaluation of Orius species for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommasini, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteroptera, Orius leavigatu, Orius majusculu, Orius niger, Orius insidiosus, Biology, Diapause, Biological control.The overall aim of this research was to develop a biological control programme for F. occidentalis through the selection of

  20. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on Sassafras ( Sassafras albidum ) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; C. Barton; Stephen Fraedrich; W. Johnson; J. Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, is a lethal disease that affects members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) including avocado (Persea americana Mill), redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng., Nees), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum [Nutt.]). The fungus is a symbiont of an exotic ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03662-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cultivar Nabal_1 serine-threonin... 48 0.88 1 ( EU335716 ) Persea americana cultivar Mexicola_2 serine-threo...... 48 0.88 1 ( EU335715 ) Persea americana cultivar Mexicola_1 serine-threo... 48 0.88 1 ( EU335714 ) Perse

  2. Nuevas contribuciones al estudio de Corixoidea: caracterización citogenética de tres especies de Sigara de Argentina y los posibles mecanismos de evolución del cariotipo en Nepomorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela

    2007-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies in Heteroptera contribute to the analysis of evolutionary trends within the group. Heteroptera are characterized by the possession of holokinetic chromosomes, different sex chromosome mechanisms and a pair of m chromosomes in some species. In the present work, the male karyotype and meiosis in Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin), S. chrostowskii Jaczewski, and S. rubyae (Hungerford) are described. The three species share a diploid chromosome number of 2n= 24 with a pair of m ...

  3. Efecto de diferentes métodos de extracción sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite de aguacate (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ariza Ortega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posible formación de ácidos grasos trans (AGT en el aceite de aguacate, extraído con disolvente (hexano, con y sin calor, y por centrifugación. Para analizar el aceite se emplearon índices químicos, y para la identificación y cuantificación de los ácidos grasos se utilizó Espectroscopía de Infrarrojo con Transformada de Fourier (EITF, en la región media de 400 a 4000 cm-1 y cromatografía de gases. En los resultados del análisis por EITF se demostró que los tres aceites presentaron un pico definido en la región de 968 cm-1 que corresponde a los dobles enlaces trans. Los AGT se cuantificaron < 0,5 g/100 g de aceite, valores menores que el propuesto por The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration para considerar un aceite libre de AGT. De acuerdo con los índices químicos, el método que causó la mínima modificación en la calidad del aceite fue el de extracción por centrifugación.

  4. Efecto de diferentes métodos de extracción sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite de aguacate (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martínez Zavala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posible formación de ácidos grasos trans (AGT en el aceite de aguacate, extraído con disolvente (hexano, con y sin calor, y por centrifugación. Para analizar el aceite se emplearon índices químicos, y para la identificación y cuantificación de los ácidos grasos se utilizó Espectroscopía de Infrarrojo con Transformada de Fourier (EITF, en la región media de 400 a 4000 cm E-1 y cromatografía de gases. En los resultados del análisis por EITF se demostró que los tres aceites presentaron un pico definido en la región de 968 cm E-1 que corresponde a los dobles enlaces trans. Los AGT se cuantificaron < 0,5 g/100 g de aceite, valores menores que el propuesto por The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration para considerar un aceite libre de AGT. De acuerdo con los índices químicos, el método que causó la mínima modificación en la calidad del aceite fue el de extracción por centrifugación.

  5. LA VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LA Persea americana M.: UN ESTUDIO SOBRE LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DESDE EL LABORATORIO EN GRADO 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miguel Monsalve Agudelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, expone el trabajo realizado en desarrollo de proyecto de grado de maestría, con estudiantes de la I.E. San Fernando de Amagá, Antioquia, en el periodo comprendido entre Julio de 2013 y junio de 2014, en la línea de profundización de la enseñanza de la biología molecular. Para la ejecución del trabajo se tomaron como base dos grupos, uno control y uno experimental, en los cuales se aplicó un ciclo de aprendizaje a través de videos sobre variabilidad genética explicada en la expedición de Darwin, situaciones problema, clases magistrales y trabajos de campo como la diferenciación de especies vegetales a partir de características morfológicas. En el grupo experimental se introdujo el trabajo de laboratorio como base de la enseñanza de la variabilidad genética desde la biología molecular. Desde el punto de vista pedagógico, se considera que la intervención permitió un avance en el proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes en el acercamiento a los contenidos conceptuales, procedimentales y actitudinales referentes a la variabilidad genética. Así mismo desde el aspecto biológico, se determinó la variabilidad genética del aguacate en el municipio de Amagá, al resultar diferente dos de las muestras en la prueba del gel electroforesis PCR-RFLPs para 6 muestras de plantas de Aguacate con marcador de 50pb.

  6. VERIFICACIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE MATERIA SECA COMO INDICADOR DE COSECHA PARA AGUACATE (persea americana CULTIVAR HASS EN ZONA INTERMEDIA DE PRODUCCIÓN DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Milagro Cerdas Araya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue estu - diar si el contenido de materia seca (CMS de aguacate podría ser utilizado como un índice de cosecha adecuado en sustitución del contenido de aceite (CA en aguacate Hass, cultivado en una zona de altitud intermedia (1750 msnm, en Los Santos, Costa Rica. Se marcaron 100 árboles y un total de 2000 flores polinizadas; se evaluaron 35 frutos cada semana, de la semana 31 a la 44. Se encontró que ambos, CA y CMS, mostraron un aumento rápido y significativo después de la semana 39 (p≥0,05, con un coeficiente de correlación entre ellos de 0,92. Otros cambios observados simultáneamente, y relacionados con la maduración de la fruta, fueron el desarrollo del color morado en la cáscara (74% de la superficie, la reducción de la adherencia de la cubierta de la semilla a la pulpa de la fruta, y de ésta a la cáscara y a la semilla, así como la disminución de la firmeza del fruto, de 118 N durante la semana 31 hasta 57 N en la semana 40 y después de ésta. Se recomienda usar el 23% de CMS en el fruto de aguacate Hass como un índice de cosecha para el aguacate cultivado a 1750 msnm en la zona de Los Santos, como una alternativa al conteni - do de aceite de la fruta (CA.

  7. Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol Daun Alpukat Terhadap Zat Nefrotoksik Ginjal Tikus (ACTIVITIES STUDY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF AVOCADO LEAVES (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL TO NEPHROTOXIC COMPOUND OF RAT’S KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietje Wientarsih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on WHO’s data, about 80% peoples in the word use plant’s extract as herbal medicine. Avocadoleaves has used as herbal medicine which is works as diuretikum, reduce stone in renal, and cure sprue.The purpose of this research is to study activities of ethanol extract of avocado leaves to ethylene glycolinduction on rat’s kidney by histopatologically. This experiment was continuing Adha’s research (2009with research design as follows: twenty male rats were divided into 4 groups, negative control group (KN,positive control group (KP, treated group I by ethanol extract of avocado leaves 100 mg/kg BW (E100, andtreated group 2 by 300 mg/kg BW (E300. Sampling kidney were fixed in BNF 10% for histopathologicalslide and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin. The kidney histopathological changes were edema of glomerulus,and protein deposit in the lumen, hyalin droplet and necrotic tubules. The results showed that ethanolextract of avocado leaves can’t significantly to reduce glomerulus edema with percentage cases 31.9% and33.5% for E100 and E300 and tend not to reduce the occurrence of protein deposits in the lumen of thetubule. Ethanol extract of avocado leaves tend to reduce the incidence of tubular necrosis and it wassignificantly different from the KP group (p <0.05. It is caused by flavonoid in etanol extract of avocadoleaves works as diuretikum and antioxidant.

  8. Integrating transient heterogeneity of non-photochemical quenching in shade-grown heterobaric leaves of avocado (Persea americana L.): responses to CO2 concentration, stomatal occlusion, dehydration and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kotaro; King, Diana; Robinson, Sharon A; Osmond, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Long-lived shade leaves of avocado had extremely low rates of photosynthesis. Gas exchange measurements of photosynthesis were of limited use, so we resorted to Chl fluorescence imaging (CFI) and spot measurements to evaluate photosynthetic electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Imaging revealed a remarkable transient heterogeneity of NPQ during photosynthetic induction in these hypostomatous, heterobaric leaves, but was adequately integrated by spot measurements, despite long-lasting artifacts from repeated saturating flashes during assays. Major veins (mid-vein, first- and second-order veins) defined areas of more static large-scale heterogeneous NPQ, with more dynamic small-scale heterogeneity most strongly expressed in mesophyll cells between third- and fourth-order veins. Both responded to external CO2 concentration ([CO2]), occlusion of stomata with Vaseline™, leaf dehydration and relative humidity (RH). We interpreted these responses in terms of independent behavior of stomata in adjacent areoles that was largely expressed through CO2-limited photosynthesis. Heterogeneity was most pronounced and prolonged in the absence of net CO2 fixation in 100 p.p.m. [CO2] when respiratory and photorespiratory CO2 cycling constrained the inferred ETR to ~75% of values in 400 or 700 p.p.m. [CO2]. Likewise, sustained higher NPQ under Vaseline™, after dehydration or at low RH, also restricted ETR to ~75% of control values. Low NPQ in chloroplast-containing cells adjacent to major veins but remote from stomata suggested internal sources of high [CO2] in these tissues.

  9. Aislamiento, identificación y evaluación de hongos entomopatógenos como posibles agentes de control de trips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) asociados a cultivos de aguacate (Persea americana Miller)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Quiróz, Tatiana Inés

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: Los problemas fitosanitarios del sistema productivo del aguacate, como el ataque de insectos plaga, particularmente los trips, afectan la competitividad de este cultivo considerado como una de las apuestas exportadoras del país. Esto hace indispensable la búsqueda de soluciones que respondan al reto de la competitividad y exigencias del mercado. Los trips son insectos difíciles de controlar debido su carácter polífago, su alta tasa reproductiva y hábito críptico. La principal medida ...

  10. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: VII. Estudo anatômico do ducto intestinal do Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyrce Lacombe

    1957-05-01

    Full Text Available Devido à imprtãncia que certos Triatomíneos hematófagos representam na vida humana, continuarmos a série de estudos já iniciados em nosso laboratório sôbre seus organismos. É feito, no presente trabalho, a anatomia e microanatomai do aparelho digestivo de Triatoma infestans. Das três distintas regiões do duto intestinal estomodeo, mesêntero e proctodeo, a primeira e a terceira são de origem ectodérmica. A região do estomodeo é constituída pela faringe e esôfago; a do proctodeo pelo piloro, íleo e reto. A segunda, de origem endodérmica, consta promesêntero, postmesêntero e da zona de transição. A anatomia e a microanatomia do faringe já foi estudada minuciosamente por BARTH (1952. O esôfago possui numerosas dobras no seu interior revestida de fina cutícula. A musculatura longitudinal e circular acham-se representadas por feixes que, provàvelmente, trabalham, preistàlticamente, transportando o alimento. Não encontramos um proventrículo, de maneira que o esôfago está ligado diretamente à primeira parte endodérmica, isto é, ao promesêntero. No início do promesêntero existe a válvula cardíaca, que, juntamente com as dobras do fim do esôfago, impedem que haja um refluxo do alimento. Durante a alimentação, a parede do preomesêntero, que apresenta numerosas dobras, sofre uma dilatação, a fim de reter u'a maior quantidade de sangue. Entre promesêntero e postmesêntero há um pequeno esfíncter formado pelo aumento da musculatura e das dobras do epitélio. O postmesêntero alcança cinco vêzes mais que o tamanho total do corpo do inseto, e dispõe no abdome em curvas completas, que, muitas vêzes, se superpõem. O seu epitélio possue célula altas e estreitas, e forma muitas dobras para dentro do seu lume. Na parte apical as células possuem um rabdório. O postmesêntero termina após a válvula cardíaca situada atrás do desembocamento das quatro ampolas dos tubos de Malpighi. Entre postmesêntero e proctodeo está situada a zona de transição, que é constituída pelas ampolas dos tubos de Malpighi, válcula pilórica e zona clara de células cubóides. Os quatro tubos de Malpighi são longos, finos e simples formando emaranhados. As ampolas são dilatações das bases dos tubos de Malpighi. Apresentam sempre células características. A formação da válvula pilórica pode ser acompanhada na série de cortes de 27-44. O piloro é revestido, internamente, por fina cutícula, e sua hipoderme é sinsicial. No íleo temos dobras mais elevadas e maior quantidade de musculatura. O reto acha-se deslocado para a região dorsal do corpo devido ao aumento exagerado do aparelho copulador. As células de sua hipoderme são bem limitadas.

  11. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: V parte: anatomia do testículo e espermiocitogênese do Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, faz-se o estudo das estruturas anatômica e histológica do testículo de Triatoma infestans. Da espermiogênese, descrevem-se apenas as fases que medeiam entre a formação dos espermiogônios e a dos espermídeos (espermiocitogênese. A espermiohistogênese bem como as anatomias do vas deferens e das glândulas anexas serão tratados na segunda parte dêste trabalho, já em preparo. O testículo de Triatoma infestans possui 7 folículos dos quais cada um se abre num vas efferens próprio, curto, desembocando êstes num único vas deferens geral. Na zona de transição entre vas efferens e vas deferens, encontra-se sempre um conjunto de massas tissulares que se estão necrosando em virtude da decomposição das paredes dos cistos. Em conseqüência, os feixes de espérmios são libertados e passam através do vas efferens para o vas deferens. As substâncias líquidas que então se formam, resultado da necrose, são reabsorvidas pelo epitélio do vas efferens, entrando novamente em circulação na hemolinfa; o epitélio possui um rabdório muito longo. A parte superior do conteúdo de cada folículo dispõe-se ao redor de grande célula apical cuja função principal deve ser a de uma atividade reguladora que está relacionada com a diferenciação das células do conjunto germinativo em espermiogônios primários e em núcleos das paredes dos cistos. Nos espermiogônios, serão verificadas 8 divisões de multiplicação, o que vai dar a formação de 256 espermiócitos, número êsse que depois das duas divisões de maturação, que se seguem, originará 1 024 espermídeos. Em seguida, são descritos os fenômenos que ocorrem durante a prófase e as duas divisões de maturação. Temos que admitir a existência de uma parasíndese. Pela formação das tétrades, pode-se concluir que a primeira divisão é reducional e a segunda equacional, existindo, pois, uma pré-redução. Triatoma infestans possui 22 cromosomas no espermiogônio, dos quais 2 são heterocromosomas, sendo X, o maior e Y, o menor, pois, por observações comparadas de oogônios, verificou-se que o grande está ausente, enquanto o pequeno existe em número duplo. Os autosomas da guarnição equatorial, reduzidos pela primeira e segunda divisões de maturação, podem ser distribuídos, quanto ao seu tamanho, em três grupos: 3 grandes (A,B e C, 2 médios (D e E e 5 pequenos (F, G, H, I e K. A, B e C, bem como os heterocromosomas, são heteropicnóticos, formando, tanto nos espermiogônios como nos espermiócitos, depois da sinapsis, um corpo de 8 valores, respectivamente de 5 valores, corpos êsses que permanecem fortemente condensados, mesmo quando os outros cromosomas se individualizam ou quando formam os cromosomas difusos. O estádio dos cromosomas é analisado e considerado como uma fase ativa durante o tempo do crescimento intensivo dos espermiócitos.

  12. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: Parte XXII. A estrutura da córnea de Triatoma Infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a composição da córnea do ôlho de Triatoma infestans, chegando-se aos seguintes resultados: 1 - A faceta de um omatídeo consta de uma lente quitinosa central, incluída dentro de um prima hexagonal cuticular que, em virtude da sua construção, contribui decisivamente para o isolamento ótico da lente. 2 - A lente é formada (1 pela epicutícula superficial, muito fina, (2 pela exocutícula quase homogênea e (3 pela endocutícula lamelada. A exocutícula apresenta-se em forma de uma lente coletora, sem qualquer pigmento. A endocutícula, também sem pigmentos, compõe-se de numerosas (50 a 80 lamelas cuticulares, em forma de cones encaixados, um no outro, de modo que as extremidades dos cones se encontram no eixo ótico da lente. A lente corresponde à um cristal monaxial. 3 - A córnea é a continuação da cutícula da cabeça; as camadas desta, compostas de tiras quitinosas, coladas por proteínas entre si, desintegram0se em numerosas lamelas. 4 - As propriedades óticas das lentes correspondem às de um cilindro de lentes no sentido de EXNER (1891. 5 - Os omatídeos centrais do ôlho são homocêntrico, os periféricos heterocêntricos com eixo ótico curvado.

  13. Crustacean red pigment-concentrating hormone Panbo-RPCH affects lipid mobilization and walking activity in a flightless bug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera) similarly to its own AKH-peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zemek, Rostislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2007), s. 685-691 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * Panbo-RPCH * Peram-CAH-II Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2007

  14. First report of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and laurel wilt in Louisiana, USA: The disease continues westward on sassafras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; C. Wood Johnson; Roger D. Menard; Thomas C. Harrington; Rabiu Olatinwo; G. Susan Best

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), has spread rapidly through the coastal plains forests of the southeastern United States (USA) with devastating effects on redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng.; Laurales: Lauraceae) populations (Fraedrich et...

  15. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scholytinae), and Cubeb oil as an alternative attractant

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Brian Sullivan; David Wakarchuk

    2013-01-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana) seeds and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves coadministered with anti-tuberculosis drugs on liver enzymes of albino rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxidant effects of Persea americana fruit extract studied in rats introduced into streptzotocin-induced hyperglycaemic state. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. Sam and Mensah (25)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    vol. 19, no. 2. THE CLASSIFICATION OF FATTY ACIDS OF LIPIDS FROM SEEDS OF Persea ... classify and to ascertain the suitability of these lipids for edible and industrial purposes. Lipids .... The study of the glyceride structure of shea butter.

  19. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    106 CFU/mL) prepared in MHB was then added. The turbidity .... seeds of this plant contain reducing sugars, phenols, alkaloids and .... Regional Soil Conservation ... Some Bio- chemical studies on the leaves and fruits of Persea ameri- cana.

  20. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research - Vol 16, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... changes in blood pressure, body mass index and blood glucose in male Wistar albino rats ... Changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of Persea ... Nurses use of Glasgow coma scale in neurological assessment of patients in ...

  1. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  2. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  3. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    i.e., swamp bay) ( Persea borbonia) in the overstory or midstory ERDC/EL TR-11-11 20 (Monk 1966, Nelson 1986, Wharton et al. 1977, USACE 1988). In...biflora swamp tupelo Persea borbonia redbay Pinus glabra spruce pine Pinus taeda loblolly pine Quercus laurifolia laurel oak Quercus michauxii swamp... American elm Group 22 Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam 0.66 Celtis laevigata sugarberry Cornus foemina stiff dogwood Diospyros virginiana

  4. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha

    OpenAIRE

    María José BRESSA; Alba Graciela PAPESCHI

    2007-01-01

    Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin), S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford). Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m ...

  5. Infection dynamics and immune response in a newly described Drosophila-trypanosomatid association/n

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamilton, P.T.; Votýpka, Jan; Dostálová, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Bird, N.H.; Lukeš, Julius; Lemaitre, B.; Perlman, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2015), e01356-15 ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evolution * Heteroptera * parasite Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.975, year: 2015

  6. First report on trichomonads from true bugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkalová, P.; Votýpka, Jan; Lukeš, Julius; Čepička, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2014), s. 189-194 ISSN 0015-5683 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parabasalia * intestinal endosymbionts * Simplicimonas * Monocercomonas * phylogeny * SSU rDNA * Heteroptera * Insecta * host-parasite association Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  7. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  8. Efficiency of subaquatic light traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Tomáš; Čihák, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2017), s. 171-184 ISSN 0165-0424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29857S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Heteroptera * Diptera * light trap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2016

  9. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the

  10. Coexistence of bisexual and unisexual populations of Nysius groenlandicus in the Zackenberg Valley, Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2011-01-01

    The seed-feeding true bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) has temperature and humidity preferences similar to many desert-inhabiting insects. Nevertheless, it is widely distributed in Greenland and occurs even in high arctic areas. This seeming paradox implies that the...

  11. Are environmental factors responsible for geographic variation in the sex ratio of the Greenlandic seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2010-01-01

    Until recently nothing indicated an unequal sex ratio in the widespread Greenland seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). However, recently populations more or less devoid of males were discovered in high arctic Northeast Greenland. This initiated an inspection of th...

  12. Use of soil microorganisms as a biotechnological strategy to enhance avocado (persea americana)-plant phosphate uptake and growth / uso de microorganismos del suelo como estrategia biotecnológica para mejorar la absorción de fósforo y el crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter; Serna Gómez, Sandra Luz; Montoya Restrepo, Beatriz Elena

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the area cultivated with avocado has increased significantly in Colombia and this trend is expected to continue in the coming years. However, most of the soils in the highlands of the Colombian Andean, that have been used to grow avocado, are strongly acidic and nutrient deficient, particularly phosphorus (P). To alleviate these problems, high rates of lime and P fertilizers are frequently applied, in many cases the applied dose are excessive. This increases production cost...

  13. Actividad biológica (farmacológica y/o etnomédica; y compuestos fitoquímicos aislados de algunas especies de los géneros: Persea, laurus, lindera, aniba, phoebe, nectandra, cassytha, cinnamon, licaria, ravensara, pleurothyrium, dehaasia, apollonias, y ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Enrique Macías Villamizar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Resumen La familia Lauraceae esta compuesta por 52 géneros y por más 3000 especies; entre árboles o arbustos con ciertas características morfológicas como son: poseer hojas alternas, inflorescencia cimosas, estambres libres y fruto tipo baya o drupa. El uso de las Lauraceae en medicina folclórica se remite, entre otros, a tratamientos, carminativo, emenagogo y contra la artritis. Dentro de su actividad biológica y/o farmacológica se encuentran: actividad citotóxica, actividad contra el cáncer de mama, antiinflamatoria, antifúngico, antinociceptiva y antitumoral. Las referencias bibliográficas muestran la importancia de la familia Lauraceae en el área de la salud por las múltiples aplicaciones no sólo en contextos de la etnomedicina; sino también en el farmacológico; soportado en los diferentes bioensayos; es decir, su conocimiento se convierte en una alternativa con soporte científico para el desarrollo de nuevos productos farmacéuticos. (DUAZARY 2010, 130 - 151AbstractThe family Lauraceae is composed of 52 genera and over 3000 species are trees or shrubs with some morphological characteristics such as: having leaves alternate, cimosas inflorescence, free stamens, and berry or drupe fruit type. The use of the Lauraceae in folk medicine refers, among others, carminative, emanogogo and treating arthritis. Within its biological activity and / or pharmacological include cytotoxic activity, activity against breast cancer, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antinociceptive and antitumoral. The references show the importance of the family Lauraceae in the health field for many applications not only in the context of ethnomedicine, but also supported the drug in different bioassays, that is an alternative scientific support for the development of new pharmaceutical products.Keywords: Lauraceae; Phytochemistry; biological activity and / or pharmacology; ethnomedicine.

  14. How do Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) females penetrate densely webbed spider mite nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, M; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; González-Fernández, J J

    2008-02-01

    The persea mite Oligonychus perseae is a pest of avocado trees that builds extremely dense webbed nests that protect them against natural enemies, including phytoseiid mites. Nests have one or two marginal entrances that are small and flattened. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus co-occurs with O. perseae in the avocado orchards of the south-east of Spain. Penetration inside nests through the entrances by this predator is thought to be hindered by its size and its globular-shaped body. However, in the field it has repeatedly been found inside nests that were clearly ripped. Perhaps penetration of the nests has been facilitated by nest wall ripping caused by some other species or by unfavourable abiotic factors. However, to assess whether N. californicus is also able to enter the nest of O. perseae by itself, we carried out laboratory experiments and made a short film. They show how this predator manages to overcome the webbed wall, and that it can penetrate and forage inside nests of O. perseae.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Double-Stranded RNA Virus from Avocado

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Francisco; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Valverde, Rodrigo A.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    A number of avocado (Persea americana) cultivars are known to contain high-molecular-weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules for which a viral nature has been suggested, although sequence data are not available. Here we report the cloning and complete sequencing of a 13.5-kbp dsRNA virus isolated from avocado and show that it corresponds to the genome of a new species of the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae), tentatively named Persea americana endornavirus (PaEV).

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Double-Stranded RNA Virus from Avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Francisco; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Valverde, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of avocado (Persea americana) cultivars are known to contain high-molecular-weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules for which a viral nature has been suggested, although sequence data are not available. Here we report the cloning and complete sequencing of a 13.5-kbp dsRNA virus isolated from avocado and show that it corresponds to the genome of a new species of the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae), tentatively named Persea americana endornavirus (PaEV). PMID:22205720

  17. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha Nuevas contribuciones al estudio de Corixoidea: caracterización citogenética de tres especies de Sigara de Argentina y los posibles mecanismos de evolución del cariotipo en Nepomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Bressa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies in Heteroptera contribute to the analysis of evolutionary trends within the group. Heteroptera are characterized by the possession of holokinetic chromosomes, different sex chromosome mechanisms and a pair of m chromosomes in some species. In the present work, the male karyotype and meiosis in Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski, and S. rubyae (Hungerford are described. The three species share a diploid chromosome number of 2n= 24 with a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system. With this study the chromosome number of 30 species of Corixoidea are known and the modal karyotype is 2n= 20+2m+XY in males. The available cytogenetic information in Heteroptera led us to suggest that the presence of a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system could be considered as plesiomorphic for Nepomorpha. The absence of m chromosomes in species of Ochteroidea and Nepoidea, and the sex chromosome systems X0 and Xn0 (male in species of Corixoidea, Naucoroidea, and Nepoidea should be considered as derived characters, which arose later in evolution.Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford. Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m y un sistema de cromosomas sexuales XY/XX. Con estos resultados son 30 las especies de Corixoidea estudiadas citogenéticamente y el cariotipo modal de la superfamilia es 2n= 20+2m+XY en machos. La información citogenética disponible hasta el presente en Heteroptera nos permite sugerir que la presencia de cromosomas m y cromosomas sexuales XY/XX, ser

  18. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of Hemiptera reveals adaptive innovations driving the diversification of true bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Leavengood, John M.; Chapman, Eric G.; Burkhardt, Daniel; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Jinpeng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2017-01-01

    Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents approximately 7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through approximately 300 Myr of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized branch length and sequence heterogeneity, Bayesian analyses using a site-heterogeneous mixture model resolved the higher-level hemipteran phylogeny as (Sternorrhyncha, (Auchenorrhyncha, (Coleorrhyncha, Heteroptera))). Ancestral character state reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggest that the success of true bugs (Heteroptera) is probably due to angiosperm coevolution, but key adaptive innovations (e.g. prognathous mouthpart, predatory behaviour, and haemelytron) facilitated multiple independent shifts among diverse feeding habits and multiple independent colonizations of aquatic habitats. PMID:28878063

  19. Genetic variation in native populations of the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola , in Taiwan and Japan and the introduced population in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline E. Wuest; Thomas C. Harrington; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Hye-Young Yun; Sheng-Shan Lu

    2017-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola, a mycangial symbiont of an ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. The fungus and vector are native to Asia but were apparently introduced to the Savannah, GA, area 15 or more years ago. Laurel wilt has caused widespread mortality on redbay (Persea borbonia) and other members of the Lauraceae in the...

  20. Promotion of Testa Rupture during Garden Cress Germination Involves Seed Compartment-Specific Expression and Activity of Pectin Methylesterases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scheler, C.; Weitbrecht, K.; Pearce, S.; Hampstead, A.; Buettner-Mainik, A.; Lee, K.J.D.; Voegele, A.; Mueller, K.; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2015), s. 200-215 ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : AVOCADO PERSEA-AMERICANA * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * LEPIDIUM-SATIVUM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.280, year: 2015

  1. Root Rot Disease of Five Fruit Tree Seedlings in the Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of root rot disease in the nursery of Chrysophyllum albidun Dacryodes edulis, persea Americana, Irvingia gabonensis and Annona muricala was assessed. Ten fungal pathogen were isolated using serial dilution and pathogenicity tests were carried out on the 5 fruit trees with the 10 isolated fungi. The 5 fruit ...

  2. 2214-IJBCS-Article-Soko Yves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    International Journal of. Research and Reviewed in Applied. Sciences, 11(2): 346-349. Coto MT, Garcia GM, Gonzalez CS, Pazos L. 2000. Toxicidad aguda en ratones del extracto acuoso de hojas fresco de. Persea Americana. Informe TRAMIL,. Laboratorio de ensayos biologicos, escuela de Medicina, Universidad de.

  3. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on sassafras (Sassafras albidum) in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Bates; Stephen Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington; R.S. Cameron; R.D. Menard; Susan Best

    2013-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is responsible for extensive mortality of native redbays (Persea borbonia and P. Palustris) in the coastal plains of the southeastern United States. The wilt also affect the more...

  4. Progression and Impact of Laurel Wilt Disease within Redbay and Sassafras Populations in Southeast Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Cameron; James Hanula; Stephen Fraedrich; Chip Bates

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt disease (LWD), caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola and transmitted by Xyleborus glabratus (Redbay Ambrosia Beetle [RAB]), has killed millions of Persea borbonia (Redbay) trees throughout the southeastern Coastal Plain. Laurel wilt also has been...

  5. Erdem et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(2):110 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The groups received both low and high doses of Persea americana ... at 21-22°C and 45-50% humidity under artificial lighting with a 12-hour light/dark cycle. .... multicomponent diet, gastrointestinal upset, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, muscle ...

  6. First report of laurel wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola on pondspice in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; A.E. Mayfield III; M.C. Minno; K. Shin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a fungal vascular disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other plants in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (1). The disease is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, which is vectored by the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  7. Laurel Wilt: a new and devastating disease of redbay caused by a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay Ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Thomas C. Harrington; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2007-01-01

    The mysterious death of redbay Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) trees on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and surrounding areas was first reported in local newspapers in 2003. Thousands of redbays were dying in the low country of South Carolina, and by the end of 2004 officials on Hilton Head were estimating that they had lost 75-80% of the island...

  8. First report of Laurel Wilt caused by Rafffaelea lauricola on sassafras in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; S.W. Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich and is lethal to redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.), sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), and other species in the Lauraceae (1). The fungus is carried by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichh.), which is native to Asia.

  9. Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , is detected for the first time outside the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Ploetz; Y. Y. Thant; M. A. Hughes; T. J. Dreaden; J. L. Konkol; A. T. Kyaw; J. A. Smith; C. L. Harmon

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, a survey for diseases and pests of an emerging fruit crop, avocado (Persea americana) (FAO 2000), was conducted in Southern Shan State of Myanmar (aka Burma). In the Tuanggyi District (1,400 m elevation, 20.5°N 97°E), monocultures of up to 20 ha were observed, whereas...

  10. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; R. Chapin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other plants within the Lauraceae family. The laurel wilt pathogen, (Raffaelea lauricola), is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), which...

  11. Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: scolytinae), the vector of Laurel Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Brian Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a native of Southeast Asia recently established in coastal forests of Georgia, SC and Florida It vectors a wilt fungus, Raffaeka sp., lethal to redbay trees, Persea borbonia L. Spreng, and certain other Lauraceae. No practical monitoring system exists for this beetle so we...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Titriku, JK. Vol 10, No 2 (2008): - Articles Growth and Development of Scion in Response to Depth of Cut in the Cleft Method of Avocado (Persea americana MILL) Propagation: Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  13. Anti-motility and reductions in the concentrations of gut electrolytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill) are used in traditional medicine to treat, allay or prevent some spasm-related disorders, for instance, diarrhoea. The chloroform and methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the seeds of P. americana were investigated for their qualitative and quantitative ...

  14. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage of avocado pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear, Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study. They comprise of seven ...

  15. Imam, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of homogenates of avocado pear (Persea americana) seeds and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves coadministered with anti-tuberculosis drugs on liver enzymes of albino rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  16. effect of the liming materials and rates on plant growth and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Ify Greg Onwuka

    (Elaeis guineensis), raphia palm (Raphia spp), cocoyam (Colocasia esculentus), avocado tree (Persea. Americana), shrubs (mainly Sponelias munibin) and sparsely distributed grasses. The upland farm close to this stream was grown to cassava (Manihot esculenta), pepper (Capsicum spp), and yam (Dioscorea spp). The.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 1309 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2016), Antinephrolithiatic activity of Persea americana (avocado) and Viburnum opulus (guelder rose) against ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rats, Abstract PDF. Galip Erdem, Vural Kesik, Tevfik Honca, Ayhan Özcan, Sami Uğuz, Emin Özgür Akgϋl, Ömer Aykutlug, Bilal Fırat ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amadi, BA. Vol 1, No 4 (2007) - Articles Extraction and characterization of vegetable oil from avocado pear (Persea Americana) Abstract. ISSN: 1597-913X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  19. Nutrient elements distribution in cultivated and uncultivated soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Okai stream was surrounded by a three-year old fallow land dominated by oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), raphia palm (Raphia spp), cocoyam (Colocasia esculentus), avocado tree (Persea Americana), shrubs (mainly Sponelias munibin) and sparsely distributed grasses. The upland farm close to this stream was grown to ...

  20. A Review of the Bio-Activity Relationship of Mistletoes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following six host trees and their mistletoes were investigated: Azadirachta indica (neem), Psidium guajava (guava), Pentaclethra macrophylla (oil-bean), Kola acuminata (cola nut), Persea americana (avocado), and Baphia nitida (cam wood). The work showed that of the six host trees and their mistletoes studied, four ...

  1. Phytochemical, Toxicological, Biochemical and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avocado tree belongs to the family lauraceae and is classified as Persea americana. The analysis of the fruits extract revealed the presence of considerable amounts of vitamins A, B2, C, K, folic acid, lutein, zeaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and beta-carotene. When administered to wistar rats for acute toxicity studies, the ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwaogu, LA. Vol 6, No 1 (2008) - Articles Studies on the Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Persea americana Seed Abstract. ISSN: 1596-7409. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  3. Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic activities of the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana (Lauraceae) have been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illness and some of these uses have been proven scientifically. The aim of this present study is to screen for the phytochemical content, determine the proximate parameter and determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of ...

  4. 2018-04-18T06:19:37Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of growth of 0.05 m per month of seedlings of Persea americana and Dacryodes edulis was comparatively high presumably because of the food stored in the seed. The rate of growth of 0.001 m per month of Dialium guineense seedlings was very poor presumably because of the relatively small quantity of food ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gimba, C. Vol 2, No 1 (2009) - Articles Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of Persea americana (avocado pear) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam, SM. Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of persea Americana miller and chrysophyllum albidum g. Don. Abstract. ISSN: 1118-1931. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi, Anaka Ogochukwu. Vol 10, No 3 (2013) - Articles Analgesic effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana Mill (Lauraceae) Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8499. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  8. Evaluation of the Nutritional Potentials of Selected Multipurpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potentials of selected multipurpose fodder trees for use in livestock diets. Fresh leaves from five fodder tree species notably Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucocephala, Tectona grandis, Persea americana and Dactyledila barteri obtained from the forestry unit of Imo ...

  9. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  10. Mycotrophie Et Connaissances Paysannes Des Essences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis, Elaesis guineensis, Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulata, Mangifera indica et Persea americana sont plus fréquentes dans les deux sites. La classification des paysans des essences fertilitaires est basée sur certains attributs fonctionnels tels que le système racinaire et la surface foliaire. La comparaison entre ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojiako, OA. Vol 6, No 1 (2008) - Articles Studies on the Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Persea americana Seed Abstract. ISSN: 1596-7409. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agomuo, EN. Vol 1, No 4 (2007) - Articles Extraction and characterization of vegetable oil from avocado pear (Persea Americana) Abstract. ISSN: 1597-913X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  13. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  14. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    composition bias between sequences. Plant name. Musa acuminate. Diospyros kaki. 0.463. Malus domestica. 0.333. Momordica charantia. 0.383. Medicago truncatula. 0.263. Glycine max. 0.223. Populas canadensis. 0.450. Pyrus communis. 0.223. Cucumis melo. 0.497. Lycopersicon esculentum. 0.327. Persea americana.

  15. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of some Cameroonian medicinal plants including Entada abyssinica, Entada africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Allexis cauliflora, Anthocleista leibrechtsiana, Carapa procera, Carica papaya and Persea americana against Gram-negative bacteria ...

  16. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine ...

  17. 2-Alquil-4-Hidroxi-Tetrahidrofuranos de la Pulpa del Aguacate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rivas-Gil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From a hexane extract of avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., an 1:3 mixture of 2-(heptadec-16-enyl- and 2-(heptadec-16-ynyl-4-hydroxy -tetrahydrofurans was characterized by NMR techniques. These compounds have not been previously reported from natural sources.

  18. Descripción de la hembra de Copaxa ignescens (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, con anotaciones sobre sus primeros estadios inmaduros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarillo S. Angela R.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The female of Copaxa ignescens Lemaire, 1978 (Saturniidae is described and notes on the first three larval instars are presented. The caterpillars were reared on Avocado (Persea americana Miller.Se describe la hembra de Copaxa ignescens Lemaire, 1978 (Saturniidae y se hacen anotaciones sobre los tres primeros estadios larvales. Las orugas se criaron con Aguacate (Persaa americana Miller.

  19. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  20. JMBR VOLUME 16 Number 1 June 2017.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... Central America, and it belongs to the. Lauraceae family and genus parseal. It is rich in protein, vitamins, and ... Unripe fruits of Persea americana was purchased from New Benin market and was authenticated in the .... International Journal of. Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical. Technology 3(1):15-22. 5.

  1. Problem in the generic delimitation between Alseodaphne, Dehaasia and Nothaphoebe (Lauraceae) in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julia, S.; Soepadmo, E.; Yahud, W.

    2009-01-01

    Alseodaphne, Dehaasia and Nothaphoebe are, morphologically, three closely related genera belonging to the Persea subgroup of the Lauraceae. A total of 214 binomials of the three genera have been published by various authors (International Plant Names Index, March 2007), of which 44 have been

  2. No rest for the laurels: symbiotic invaders cause unprecedented damage to southern USA forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Hughes; J. J. Riggins; F. H. Koch; A. I. Cognato; C. Anderson; J. P. Formby; T. J. Dreaden; R. C. Ploetz; J. A. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an extraordinarily destructive exotic tree disease in the southeastern United States that involves new-encounter hosts in the Lauraceae, an introduced vector (Xyleborus glabratus) and pathogen symbiont (Raffaelea lauricola). USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data were used to estimate that over 300 million trees of redbay (Persea borbonia...

  3. Quantitative analysis of contents and volatile emissions from a-copaene and quercivorol lures, and longevity for attraction of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles in the cryptic species complex Euwallacea nr. fornicatus vector a fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium dieback, a disease that impacts avocado (Persea americana) and numerous native trees in the USA (California, Florida), Israel, and other countries. Currently, these pests are d...

  4. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Kendra; Wayne S. Montgomery; Jerome Niogret; Grechen E. Pruett; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Mark A. Deyrup; Gary R. Bauchan; Randy C. Ploetz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has...

  5. Susceptibility to Laurel Wilt and disease incidence in two rare plant species, Pondberry and Pondspice Plant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Fraedrich; T Harrington; C Bates; J Johnson; L. Reid; Glenda Susan Best; T Leininger; Tracy Hawkins

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, has been responsible for extensive losses of redbay (Persea borbonia) in South Carolina and Georgia since 2003. Symptoms of the disease have been noted in other species of the Lauraceae such as the federally endangered pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) and the threatened pondspice (Litsea aestivalis). Pondberry and pondspice...

  6. Mevastatin-induced inhibition of cell growth in avocado suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell suspension cultures were established using soft, friable callus derived from nucellar tissue of 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed from fruit harvested 190 days after full bloom. Cell cultures were maintained in liquid medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), isopentenyl adenine (iP) and ...

  7. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    shield) Ceratophyilum demersum (Coontail) Myriophyllum spp. (Watermilfoil) Nelumbo lutea ( American lotus) Nuphar luteum (Spatterdock) Nymphaea odorata...Overcup oak) Quercus palustris (Pin oak) Quercus phelios (Willow oak) Ulmus americana ( American elm) UlmuS rubra (Slippery elm) c. Atlantic White...var. biflora (Swamp black gum) Persea borbonia (Red bay) Pinus serotina (Pond pine) Smilax laurifolia (Bamboo vine) Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum moss

  8. Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  9. Recovery plan for laurel wilt of avocado, caused by Raffaelea lauricola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana), an important commercial fruit crop. The disease threatens commercial production in the US and other countries, and currently impacts the avocado industry in Florida. As laurel wilt spreads, the N...

  10. Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement for Navigation Improvements at Bayou La Batre, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-12

    and plant corn. When coastal Alabama was opened to British and American settlers; fishing, livestock and, later, resort hotels became the important...bay (Magnolia virginiana), swamp bay ( Persea palustris), water oak (Quercus nigra), and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua). Bald cypress (Taxodium

  11. Final Environmental Assessment: Military Family Housing Privatization at Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Magnolia virginiana), viburnum (Viburnum dentatum), redbay ( Persea borbonia), elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), privet (Ligustrum sinense), soft...includes persons who identify themselves as black (African- American ), Asian or Pacific Islander, Native American or Alaskan Native, or Hispanic. The 2000...2005-2007 American Community Survey. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts. Accessed April 14, 2009. U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. State

  12. Recovery Plan for Laurel Wilt of Avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for Long-Term Vegetation Control for Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    domingensis Florida Black Bear Ursus americanus floridanus Phragmites Phragmites australis American Alligator Alligator mississippiensis White Cedar...Cont’d) Tulip Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera Indigo Snake Drymarchon corais Sweet Bay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana American Beaver Castor canadensis Red...Bay Persea borbonia Parula Warbler Parula americana Wetland and Riparian Ecological Association (Saltwater) Black Needle Rush Juncus roemerianus

  14. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    S) mulletbush (B. halimifolia) (S) American barberry (Berchemia scandens) (L) Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) (L) winged sumac...include coastal red cedar {Juniperus silicicola), red bay ( Persea borbonia), live oak (Quercus virginiana) and cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto; Stalter...scattered pines. The canopy is composed of live oak, slash pine, myrtle oak (Quercus myrtifolia), American olive (Osmanthus americanus), Chapman’s oak

  15. A Preliminary Experimental Study of Vortex Tubes for Gas-Phase Fission Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-02-20

    CORPORATION for the U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION * RESTRICME DATA SECRET lo 710is a" me to so wavoied persea is pteW""Oo _____ -- -- --- LGAL OTICE... American , Canoga Park 40. AFPR, North American , Downey 41-42. Air Force Special Weapons Center 43. Air Research and Development Comand (RDTAPS) 44. Air

  16. Distribution, pest status, and fungal associates of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida avocado groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of a complex of cryptic species, that correspond morphologically to the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were recently found attacking avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in Israel and California. In 2016, an outbreak of another member of this comple...

  17. Postharvest and sensory evaluation of selected ‘Hass’x‘Bacon’ and ‘Bacon’x ‘Hass’ avocado hybrids grown in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit that continues to increase in consumer demand. A population of ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ hybrids was planted at USDA-ARS, Fort Pierce as part of a study to find selections with good horticultural and postharvest quality traits for Florida. Extensive phenot...

  18. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado (Persea americana Miller) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola, the causal agent of laurel wilt. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documentin...

  19. Postharvest and sensory evaluation of selected ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ avocado hybrids grown in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit that continues to increase in consumer demand. A population of ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ hybrids was planted at USDA-ARS, Fort Pierce as part of a study to find selections with good horticultural and postharvest quality traits for Florida. Extensive pheno...

  20. ‘Hass’ avocado quality as influenced by temperature and ethylene prior to and during final ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocados (Persea americana Mill.) are often held for short periods after harvest at relatively high temperatures both in the field and in storage during preconditioning and prior to ripening with unknown effects on subsequent quality. To address this question, avocados were harvested at five differ...