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Sample records for pseudacteon phorid flies

  1. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Cues Are Used for Host Acceptance by Pseudacteon spp. Phorid Flies that Attack Azteca sericeasur Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Mathis, KA; Tsutsui, ND

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Parasitoids often use complex cues to identify suitable hosts in their environment. Phorid fly parasitoids that develop on one or a few host species often use multiple cues, ranging from general to highly specific, to home in on an appropriate host. Here, we describe the hierarchy of cues that Pseudacteon phorid flies use to identify Azteca ant hosts. We show, through behavioral observations in the field, that phorid flies are attracted to two...

  2. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Cues Are Used for Host Acceptance by Pseudacteon spp. Phorid Flies that Attack Azteca sericeasur Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2016-04-01

    Parasitoids often use complex cues to identify suitable hosts in their environment. Phorid fly parasitoids that develop on one or a few host species often use multiple cues, ranging from general to highly specific, to home in on an appropriate host. Here, we describe the hierarchy of cues that Pseudacteon phorid flies use to identify Azteca ant hosts. We show, through behavioral observations in the field, that phorid flies are attracted to two cryptic Azteca species, but only attack Azteca sericeasur (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae). To test whether the phorid flies use cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) to distinguish between the two Azteca taxa, we first documented and compared cuticular hydrocarbons of the two Azteca taxa using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Then, using cuticular hydrocarbon-transfer experiments with live ants, we characterized the cuticular hydrocarbons of A. sericeasur as a short-range, host location cue used by P. lasciniosus (Diptera: Phoridae) to locate the ants.

  3. Environmental and habitat drivers of relative abundance for a suite of azteca-attacking Pseudacteon phorid flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Katlynd M; Philpott, Stacy M

    2012-10-01

    Phoridae (Diptera) have widespread impacts on insect communities by limiting host ant behavior. However, phorid-ant interactions may vary with habitat or environmental conditions. Three Pseudacteon species parasitize Azteca instabilis Fr. Smith, a common ant in coffee agroecosystems, and limit A. instabilis foraging, indirectly benefiting other insects. However, little is known about how phorid abundance, behavior, and effects change with environmental conditions. In shaded coffee systems, coffee (Coffea arabica L.) grows under a range of shade conditions and management changes affect species interactions. For example, Pseudacteon spp. more strongly limit A. instabilis foraging in low-shade coffee habitats. We sampled relative abundance of three phorid species around A. instabilis nests in three coffee habitats varying in shade management during dry and wet seasons. We measured canopy cover, tree richness, tree density, leaf litter depth, and number of nearby trees with A. instabilis to determine whether these habitat factors correlate with phorid abundance. P. laciniosus Brown was the most abundant phorid in both seasons. Phorid relative abundance did not differ by habitat, but did differ by season. P. laciniosus accounted for a higher proportion of phorids in the wet season (91.4%) than in the dry season (78.9%), and P. planidorsalis Brown accounted for a larger percent in the dry season (21.1%) than in the wet season (7.3%). Phorid composition did not differ with habitat type, and none of the measured environmental variables correlated with changes in phorid composition. Thus, phorids in coffee agroecosystems respond to large seasonal differences, but not differences between coffee habitats.

  4. Fire ant venom alkaloids act as key attractants for the parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Sharma, Kavita R.; Fadamiro, Henry Y.

    2009-12-01

    The phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, is an introduced parasitoid of imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp., in the USA. Although the assumption that phorid flies use fire ant alarm pheromones for host location is probably true, we demonstrated in a previous study the possible involvement of other ant semiochemicals in the response of P. tricuspis to fire ants. This study was conducted to determine the glandular sources and identity of the semiochemicals mediating this interaction. First, we tested the electroantennogram response of P. tricuspis to extracts of key body parts and glands of workers of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta Buren. The results confirm that the poison (venom) gland/sac is the key source of compounds which elicited strong antennal activity in P. tricuspis. Follow-up studies were conducted by using a combination of bioassay-guided fractionation and behavioral bioassays to test the hypothesis that attraction of this parasitoid to fire ants is mediated by venom alkaloids. The results confirm the response of P. tricuspis to physiologically relevant amounts of the two venom alkaloid fractions ( cis and trans alkaloid fractions) of S. invicta. Further analysis by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection revealed nine venom alkaloid components including two novel 2,6-dialkylpiperideines that elicited significant antennal activity in P. tricuspis. This is the first demonstration of the role of venom alkaloids of ants as attractants for their natural enemies. We propose a semiochemical-mediated host location mechanism for P. tricuspis involving both alarm pheromones and venom alkaloids. The ecological significance of these findings, including the attraction of male P. tricuspis to fire ant venom alkaloids, possibly for mate location, is discussed.

  5. Trait-Mediated Indirect Effects of Phorid Flies on Ants

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    Hsun-Yi Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a synthesis of the ecological impact of phorid fly parasitoids on ants. We find the most important impact of phorids on ants to be trait-mediated effects. Phorids diminish the foraging activity of ants, frequently reducing the number and average size of foragers and reducing the amount of food retrieved by a colony. However, ants' coping mechanisms include changing foraging site and time. Phorids can also affect competition, especially through changes in the ability of the host to win in exploitative competition. Factors such as microclimate, resource size, and habitat complexity interact with phorids to change their effect on competition. By being highly specific and attacking ants high in the competitive hierarchy, phorids can alter the linear nature of the competitive transitivity, and by reducing the number of foragers, they can change the discovery-dominance tradeoff that is observed in some ant communities. Trait-mediated effects of phorids also cascade to other trophic levels. As an example, we discuss the trait-mediated cascade of phorids on the Azteca instabilis system in coffee. In this system, by reducing the foraging activity of A. instabilis, phorids reduce the direct and indirect biological control impact of the ant in the coffee agroecosystem.

  6. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.

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    Andrew Core

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD.

  7. Control of the mushroom phorid fly, Megaselia halterata (Wood), with plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Fedai; Polat, Ersin; Demir, Halil; Cetin, Huseyin; Erdemir, Tugba

    2009-02-01

    The most serious insect pest problems affecting the cultivation of mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach] in Turkey are mushroom flies (sciarids, cecids and phorids). Mushroom phorid fly, Megaselia halterata (Wood), is the most common insect pest species during April-October. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for eight botanical materials (two commercial neem-based products and six hot-water plant extracts) to control M. halterata populations in three successive growing periods. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by assessing adult emergence and sporophore damage rates compared with that of a standard insecticide, chlorpyrifos-ethyl (positive control). All plant extracts caused significant reductions in the mean number of emerging adults and sporophore damage rates compared with the water-treated control (negative control). Reduction in adult emergence in both neem treatments, Neemazal and Greeneem oil, was greater than that in the positive control. While Neemazal and Origanum onites L. extract had significantly lower sporophore damage rates than the positive control, there were no significant differences between the chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Greeneem oil and Pimpinella anisum L. extract treatments. The results suggest that both neem products and hot-water extracts of O. onites and P. anisum may be potential alternatives to conventional pesticides for the control of mushroom phorid fly.

  8. Characterization of development, behavior and neuromuscular physiology in the phorid fly, Megaselia scalaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Douglas A; Cooper, Robin L

    2003-10-01

    The Phoridae is known as 'scuttle flies' because they walk in rapid bursts of movement with short pauses between. In this study, larval locomotive behavior and development was characterized in the phorid, Megaselia scalaris. Comparison was made with the well-characterized fruit fly model, Drosophila melanogaster. Developmentally, the rate of maturation was consistently slower for Megaselia than Drosophila. This disparity was exaggerated at lower temperatures, particularly during larval development. In addition to slower growth, movements in Megaselia were also slower, as evidenced by reduced rates of larval body wall contractions and mouth hook movements. Megaselia larvae also displayed a unique behavior of swallowing air when exposed to a small pool of liquid. This permitted floating upon immersion and, therefore, might prevent drowning in the natural environment. The anatomical and physiological properties of a neuromuscular junction in the phorid larvae were also examined. The innervation of the motor nerve terminals on the ventral abdominal muscle (m6) is innervated by Type Ib and Is axons, similar to Drosophila. As in Drosophila, the Is terminals produce larger excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) than the Ib. The amplitudes of the EPSPs in M. scalaris were reduced compared to those of D. melanogaster, but unlike D. melanogaster the EPSPs showed marked facilitation when stimulated with a 20 Hz train. We conclude that there may be differences in synaptic structure of the nerve terminals that could account for the different electrophysiological behaviors.

  9. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae Morphological traits associated with pupae viability in Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae parasitoids

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    Patricia J. Folgarait

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la relación entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormigas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p ABSTRACT. Pseudacteon Coquillett phorid flies oviposit on Solenopsis Westwood ants and pupate within the ant's head. We have evaluated the relationship between pupae's viability, presence of respiratory horns and the operculum color in four species of Pseudacteon reared on Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel ants. The presence of respiratory horns was significantly associated with pupae's viability for all species considered (p 0,09, except (p < 0,01 when Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier had developed on S. invicta nanitic and reserve workers. Pupae with light-colored opercula were more frequent in P. cultellatus, whereas brown opercula were more frequent for the other species that attack bigger ants. Mimetism can be invoked to explain the similarity in opercula color with that of the head of the parasitized ant as a way to avoid recognition by members of the colony. We conclude that the presence of respiratory horns is necessary for pupae survival of most of the pupae and we suggest to use the presence of respiratory horns as an indicator of the efficiency of rearing protocols for this group of parasitoids. We also recommend using forager ants because other casts do not seem to be appropriate hosts.

  10. A second species, and first Central American record, of the phorid fly genus Lenkoa Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian V; Porras, Wendy

    2016-09-16

    A second species, and first Central American record, of the phorid fly genus Lenkoa Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae).        Many species of phorid flies have wingless or brachypterous females. Mostly, they belong to a group classified within the subfamily Metopininae corresponding to the Metopina group of genera of Brown (1992a) or the tribe Metopinini of Disney (2003, not 1987). The males of this group are much more typical in appearance, with well-developed wings, larger eyes, and fully developed abdominal tergites. These males carry females during a mating flight, often dispersing them to new breeding sites (Miller 1984). Generally, the sexual dimorphism is so great that the sexes cannot be confidently associated unless they are collected in copula. This has led to a profusion of species being described as males and females in separate genera. Some of these brachypterous females, both within the Metopinini and elsewhere in other Phoridae, have been correctly associated with their males when they are found together (e.g., Brown 1986, 1992b, 1994), but many remain unassociated.

  11. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

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    María Jesús Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae + 0.5x106IJ m-2S. carpocapsae. Another experiment was carried out using the same treatments to evaluate the possible nematode effect on mushroom yield. The number of adults emerging from the substrate was evaluated for each fly species. No decrease in the population of M. halterata was detected with nematode application, whereas the number of L. auripila was reduced in both treatments, particularly in the individual treatment with S. feltiae. The application of entomopathogenic nematodes has no adverse effect on mushroom production.

  12. Expression of the sex determining cascade genes Sex-lethal and doublesex in the phorid fly Megaselia scalaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, V; Kuhn, S; Traut, W

    1997-04-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) and doublesex (dsx) are known to represent parts of the sex-determining cascade in Drosophila melanogaster. We generated cDNA probes of the homologous genes from Megaselia scalaris, a fly species with an epistatic maleness factor as the primary sex determining signal. In Northern blot hybridization of poly(A)+ RNA, the M. scalaris dsx probe detected two bands, one of which had a sex-specific size difference, while the Sxl probe bound to RNAs of equal size in females and males. RT-PCR showed Sxl to be transcribed in gonads of adult females and males but not in somatic tissues. Thus, while dsx appears to have a similar function in M. scalaris and D. melanogaster, Sxl does not. The results suggest that the sex-determining pathway of M. scalaris joins that of D. melanogaster between the Sxl and dsx steps.

  13. A review of scuttle fly genera of Israel (Diptera: Phoridae), with new records and an identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostovski, Mike B

    2016-07-08

    A brief review of Israeli scuttle flies is given. The following genera are new records for the country: Arabiphora, Billotia, Chonocephalus, Menozziola, Phalacrotophora, Pseudacteon, Psyllomyia, and Puliciphora. Eighteen species-Arabiphora tenuifemorata, Chonocephalus depressus, Conicera floricola, Conicera similis, Gymnophora integralis, Gymnophora perpropinqua, Megaselia scalaris, Megaselia stigmatica, Menozziola schmitzi, Metopina formicomendicula, Phalacrotophora beuki, Phalacrotophora fasciata, Phora limpida, Phora tincta, Psyllomyia braunsi, Puliciphora rufipes, Spiniphora bergenstammi, and Tubicera lichtwardi-are added to the list of 56 phorid species previously known from Israel. Two species, Conicera similis and Megaselia scalaris, are recorded in association with the summer truffle Tuber aestivum commercially grown in northern Israel. The status of the Afrotropical Phora congolensis Beyer, 1965 is designated as nomen dubium. A lapsius calami, which led to an erroneous generic attribution of Metopina braueri in the paper on Israeli Metopina (Mostovski, 2016), is noted here. An identification key to the Israeli genera of scuttle flies, as well as notes on recognition and/or biology of individual species, are provided.

  14. Pseudacteon Parasitoids of Azteca instabilis Ants in Southern Mexico (Diptera: Phoridae; Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Brian V. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Pseudacteon are described, all from Chiapas, Mexico, and all of which are parasitoids of the ant Azteca instabilis. Sternite 6 of Pseudacteon dorymyrmecis Borgmeier is illustrated for the first time, and P. confusus Disney is synonymized with this species. The natural history of the Azteca-Pseudacteon interaction is described.

  15. Pseudacteon Parasitoids of Azteca instabilis Ants in Southern Mexico (Diptera: Phoridae; Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brian V.; Philpott, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Pseudacteon are described, all from Chiapas, Mexico, and all of which are parasitoids of the ant Azteca instabilis. Sternite 6 of Pseudacteon dorymyrmecis Borgmeier is illustrated for the first time, and P. confusus Disney is synonymized with this species. The natural history of the Azteca-Pseudacteon interaction is described.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of three species of Pseudacteon (Diptera, Phoridae parasitoids of the fire ants using standard and molecular techniques

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    Mónica G. Chirino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudacteon flies, parasitoids of worker ants, are being intensively studied as potentially effective agents in the biological control of the invasive pest fire ant genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. This is the first attempt to describe the karyotype of P. curvatus Borgmeier, P. nocens Borgmeier and P. tricuspis Borgmeier. The three species possess 2n = 6; chromosomes I and II were metacentric in the three species, but chromosome pair III was subtelocentric in P. curvatus and P. tricuspis, and telocentric in P. nocens. All three species possess a C positive band in chromosome II, lack C positive heterochromatin on chromosome I, and are mostly differentiated with respect to chromosome III. P. curvatus and P. tricuspis possess a C positive band, but at different locations, whereas this band is absent in P. nocens. Heterochromatic bands are neither AT nor GC rich as revealed by fluorescent banding. In situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe revealed a signal on chromosome II in a similar location to the C positive band in the three species. The apparent lack of morphologically distinct sex chromosomes is consistent with proposals of environmental sex determination in the genus. Small differences detected in chromosome length and morphology suggests that chromosomes have been highly conserved during the evolutionary radiation of Pseudacteon. Possible mechanisms of karyotype evolution in the three species are suggested.

  17. Behavioral Strategies of Phorid Parasitoids and Responses of Their Hosts, the Leaf-Cutting Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Luciana; Folgarait, Patricia Julia

    2012-01-01

    Host-searching and oviposition behaviors of parasitoids, and defensive responses of the hosts, are fundamental in shaping the ecology of host-parasitoid interactions. In order to uncover key behavioral features for the little known interactions between phorid parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae) and their leaf-cutting ant hosts (Formicidae: Attini), host-related behavioral strategies (i.e., host searching and oviposition) for 13 phorid species, and host defensive responses (i.e., hitchhikers and particular body postures) for 11 ant species, were studied. Data was collected at 14 localities, one of them characterized by its high species richness for this host-parasitoid system. Phorid species showed both great variation and specificity in attacking behaviors. Some chose their hosts using either an ambush or an actively searching strategy, while some species attacked ants on different body parts, and specialized on ants performing different tasks, such as when ants were foraging, removing wastes to refuse piles, or repairing the nest. Combining all the behaviors recorded, most phorid species differed in performance in at least one, making it possible to recognize species in the field through their behavior. Phorid species that attacked hosts with greater activity levels showed overall higher attack rates, although there was no significant correlation between attack rates by most phorid species and ant activity outside the nest while parasitoids were attacking. The presence of phorids was a significant determinant for the presence of defensive behaviors by the ants. Although ant species varied in the incidence levels of these defensive behaviors, most ant species reacted against different phorids by utilizing similar behaviors, in contrast to what parasitoids do. General features of the observed phorid-ant interactions were parasitoid specialization and corresponding high interspecific variation in their behaviors, while their hosts showed generalized responses to attacks

  18. Ultrastructure of antennal sensillae of the samsum ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... However, the basiconic sensillae that have been described in Drosophila melanogaster (Shanbhag et al., 1999), phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis (Chen and. Fadamiro, 2008) and Phoracantha semipunctata (Lopes et al., 2002) have not been observed in P. sennaarensis. Heavy density of non-porous ...

  19. Temperature-Dependent Development Modeling of the Phorid Fly Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, S; Zamani, A A; Abbasi, S; Vafaei Shooshtari, R; Shirvani Farsani, N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae) on A15 variety of button mushroom in the stages of casing and spawn-running was investigated at eight constant temperatures (10, 12.5, 15, 18, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27°C) and developmental rates were modeled as a function of temperature. At 25 and 27°C, an average of 22.2 ± 0.14 and 20.0 ± 0.10 days was needed for M. halterata to complete its development from oviposition to adult eclosion in the stages of casing and spawn-running, respectively. The developmental times of males or females at various constant temperatures were significantly different. Among the linear models, the Ikemoto and Takai linear model in the absence of 12.5 and 25°C showed the best statistical goodness-of-fit and based on this model, the lower developmental threshold and the thermal constant were estimated as 10.4°C and 526.3 degree-days, respectively. Twelve nonlinear temperature-dependent models were examined to find the best model to describe the relationship between temperature and development rate of M. halterata. The Logan 10 nonlinear model provided the best estimation for T opt and T max and is strongly recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of M. halterata.

  20. Temperature-Dependent Development Modeling of the Phorid Fly Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barzegar, S; Zamani, A A; Abbasi, S; Vafaei Shooshtari, R; Shirvani Farsani, N

    2016-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae) on A15 variety of button mushroom in the stages of casing and spawn-running was investigated at eight constant temperatures...

  1. Molecular identification of carrion-breeding scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) using COI barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Petra; Amendt, Jens; Disney, R Henry L; Zehner, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Entomological evidence is often used in forensic cases for post-mortem interval (PMI) calculation. The most dominant species present on a corpse are typically blowflies. However, several cases have been reported where access to a corpse has been restricted for blowflies (e.g., on a buried or wrapped cadavers) but species of the family Phoridae were abundant. It has also been reported that some phorid species that exploit human corpses may also feature in cases of myiasis acquired ante-mortem. In all these cases, they may provide decisive evidence. As for blowflies, the precise identification of a phorid species collected from a corpse is necessary when estimating the PMI. Since morphological determination is often hampered due to similar characteristics especially in the larval and pupal stage, we used DNA-based methods to identify six phorid species (Megaselia scalaris, Megaselia giraudii, Megaselia abdita, Megaselia rufipes, Conicera tibialis, and Puliciphora borinquenensis) on the molecular level. We focused on a 658-bp-long region of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI), the most common molecular marker in forensic entomology. The amplified fragment is also used in DNA barcode approaches and was found to be suitable for identification of a wide range of insect taxa. The present study demonstrates that this region is also sufficient to distinguish between several species of scuttle flies.

  2. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae

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    Patricia J. FOLGARAIT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la rela- ción entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormi- gas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p < 0,01. Los opérculos claros predomi- naron en P. cultellatus; mientras que en las demás especies, que atacan a hormi- gas más grandes, predominaron los opérculos castaños. Debido a que los opérculos presentaron un color similar al de la hormiga parasitada, esto repre- sentaría un mimetismo por parte del parasitoide para evitar ser detectado por el huésped. Dado que los cuernos respiratorios son necesarios para la superviven- cia de la mayoría de las pupas, sugerimos que sean usados como indicadores de eficiencia en los protocolos de cría. Recomendamos usar solo forrajeras dado que las otras castas no parecen ser huéspedes apropiados.

  3. Efeito dos óleos vegetais de andiroba (Carapa sp. e Copaíba (Copaifera sp. sobre forídeo, pragas de colméias, (Diptera: Phoridae na Amazônia Central Effect of andiroba (Carapa sp. and copaiba's (Copaifera sp. vegetable oils on phorides, hives's prague (Diptera: Phoridae in Central Amazonia

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    Delci da Costa Brito Freire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento de substâncias repelentes para forídeos é um passo importante para a meliponicultura brasileira, pois esses insetos podem causar sérios danos às colméias de abelhas nativas. Os óleos de copaíba e andiroba, naturalmente encontrados na região amazônica, são muito utilizados pelos povos tradicionais da região como repelentes de insetos. Foi observado o efeito de dois óleos vegetais (andiroba e copaíba sobre a postura de ovos por fêmeas de forídeos em condições de laboratório. A postura das fêmeas foi realizada preferencialmente no substrato pólen e diferiu estatisticamente dos substratos contendo óleo de andiroba ou copaíba, nos quais houve considerável diminuição (até nenhuma postura, e do substrato contendo mel. Esses óleos são uma boa alternativa no controle preventivo e curativo dessa praga em colônias de Meliponineos, devido ao seu efeito repelente, ao baixo custo e disponibilidade na Região Amazônica.The knowlegment of repellants substances to phoride flies is an important step to the Brazilian stinglessbee beekeeping due to the serious damage to the native bee hives they can do. The copaiba and andiroba oils, found commonly in the Amazon region, are very employed by the traditional people as insects' repellants. We observed the effect of these oils over the phoride's laying in laboratory conditions. The female phoride's eggs occurred preferentially in the pollen substrate and statistically differed from those containing andiroba and copaiba oils, which was strongly reduced (until none eggs were laid, and from the substrate containing honey. These oils showed to be quite good alternative for this plague's preventive and curative control in stingless bee hives due to its repellant effect, low cost, and availability to get it in the region.

  4. Flying Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  5. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    In light of the burgeoning growth of long-haul LCCs in Southeast Asia, the study constructs a model aimed at comprehending which factors lead passengers to choose full-service rather than no-frills carriers on long-range flights. In particular, the research aims at determining to what extent...... service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn...

  6. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  7. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance...

  8. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2017-01-01

    -landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  9. The sex-determining gene doublesex in the fly Megaselia scalaris: conserved structure and sex-specific splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, S; Sievert, V; Traut, W

    2000-12-01

    The well-known sex-determining cascade of Drosophila melanogaster serves as a paradigm for the pathway to sexual development in insects. But the primary sex-determining signal and the subsequent step, Sex-lethal (Sxl), have been shown not to be functionally conserved in non-Drosophila flies. We isolated doublesex (dsx), which is a downstream step in the cascade, from the phorid fly Megaselia scalaris, which is a distant relative of D. melanogaster. Conserved properties, e.g., sex-specific splicing, structure of the female-specific 3' splice site, a splicing enhancer region with binding motifs for the TRA2/RBP1/TRA complex that activates female-specific splicing in Drosophila, and conserved domains for DNA-binding and oligomerization in the putative DSX protein, indicate functional conservation of dsx in M. scalaris. Hence, the dsx step of the sex-determining pathway appears to be conserved among flies and probably in an even wider group of insects, as the analysis of a published cDNA from the silkmoth indicates.

  10. Expression profiling of heat shock genes in a scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera, Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Tadeusz; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Durska, Ewa; Łoś, Marta; Kamiński, Marcin; Kowalewska, Katarzyna

    2015-10-18

    The Phoridae are a family of small, hump-backed flies, dominating in post-fire areas. Some of these flies are probably able to survive a fire as an egg, larva, or pupa, and may be adapted to the fire-altered environment at the genomic level. In this study, we describe the influence of short-term temperature treatment on the expression of seven heat shock protein genes in the third-instar larvae and imagoes of a scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris-one of the cosmopolitan and polyphagous phorids. In terms of the response to temperature treatment, these genes tested against tubulin as a reference split into three classes. The first class consists of hsp22 (larvae), hsp23 (larvae), and hsp26 (both larvae and imagoes), and is upregulated at the lowest temperature (33°C). The second class consists of hsp22 (imagoes), hsp23 (imagoes), hsp40 (larvae and imagoes), and hsp70 (larvae and imagoes), and is upregulated or induced at 37°C. Expression of genes of the third class (hsp27 and hsp83-larvae and imagoes) increased after treatment at 41°C temperature. Expression of the first two classes of genes occurred at a temperature lower than the LT50 of larvae and imagoes. The fact that there is a gap between the temperature upregulating hsp genes and the temperature leading to the loss of viability suggests that not only the level of hsp gene expression but also the temperature at which gene expression increased is important in an adaptation of M. scalaris to harsh environment. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. TROMB, a new retrotransposon of the gypsy-Ty3 group from the fly Megaselia scalaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck, G; Traut, W

    2000-09-05

    We describe TROMB, a new LTR retrotransposon, from the phorid fly Megaselia scalaris. Three full-length copies (4226, 4160 and 4129bp) and a truncated one (319bp) have been isolated. The target site consensus is TATAT, with a 4bp target site duplication TATA. The LTRs are short (142bp) and contain a TATA-box and a polyadenylation signal. The isolated copies are degenerate to different degrees and presumably inactive. The polyprotein coding sequence contains scattered stop codons and deletions/insertions at non-homologous positions. The consensus sequence among the three full-length copies, however, has an uninterrupted open reading frame and, presumably, represents the original sequence of the active element. Southern hybridization experiments showed TROMB to be present at a low copy number in two wild-type strains of M. scalaris and absent in a related species, M. abdita. The order of domains in the polyprotein coding region, the target site specificity for AT-rich sequences, and the protein sequence similarity to blastopia, mdg3 and micropia place TROMB in the gypsy-Ty3 group of LTR retrotransposons.

  12. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material......Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  13. How flies are flirting on the fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorn, Courtney; Hrabar, Michael; Van Ryn, Emma C; Brodie, Bekka S; Blake, Adam J; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-02-14

    Flies have some of the most elaborate visual systems in the Insecta, often featuring large, sexually dimorphic eyes with specialized "bright zones" that may have a functional role during mate-seeking behavior. The fast visual system of flies is considered to be an adaptation in support of their advanced flight abilities. Here, we show that the immense processing speed of the flies' photoreceptors plays a crucial role in mate recognition. Video-recording wing movements of abdomen-mounted common green bottle flies, Lucilia sericata, under direct light at 15,000 frames per second revealed that wing movements produce a single, reflected light flash per wing beat. Such light flashes were not evident when we video-recorded wing movements under diffuse light. Males of L. sericata are strongly attracted to wing flash frequencies of 178 Hz, which are characteristic of free-flying young females (prospective mates), significantly more than to 212, 235, or 266 Hz, characteristic of young males, old females, and old males, respectively. In the absence of phenotypic traits of female flies, and when given a choice between light emitting diodes that emitted either constant light or light pulsed at a frequency of 110, 178, 250, or 290 Hz, males show a strong preference for the 178-Hz pulsed light, which most closely approximates the wing beat frequency of prospective mates. We describe a previously unrecognized visual mate recognition system in L. sericata. The system depends upon the sex- and age-specific frequencies of light flashes reflecting off moving wings, and the ability of male flies to distinguish between the frequency of light flashes produced by rival males and prospective mates. Our findings imply that insect photoreceptors with fast processing speed may not only support agile flight with advanced maneuverability but may also play a supreme role in mate recognition. The low mating propensity of L. sericata males on cloudy days, when light flashes from the wings of

  14. Sound radiation around a flying fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J.; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics-and their possible biological functions-unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  15. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Newton's laws of motion. Leonardo da Vinci in the early 1500's had already realised that "a bird flies according to mathematical principles". Thus, if an aircraft is flying at constant altitude and constant speed, i.e., 'cruising', the upward force, or 'lift' L acting on it must balance its weight, W. In the line of motion of the airplane ...

  16. Flying Insects and Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Floreano, Dario; Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.; Ellington, Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Flying insects are intelligent micromachines capable of exquisite maneuvers in unpredictable environments. Understanding these systems advances our knowledge of flight control, sensor suites, and unsteady aerodynamics, which is of crucial interest to engineers developing intelligent flying robots or micro air vehicles (MAVs). The insight we gain from synthesizing bioinspired systems can in turn benefit the fields of neurophysiology, ethology and zoology by providing real-life tests of t...

  17. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  18. O fly, where art thou?

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Dhruv; Tower, John; Tavaré, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a real-time image acquisition system for tracking the movement of Drosophila in three-dimensional space is presented. The system uses three calibrated and synchronized cameras to detect multiple flies and integrates the detected fly silhouettes to construct the three-dimensional visual hull models of each fly. We used an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state of each fly, given past positions from the reconstructed fly visual hulls. The results show that our...

  19. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866 (Diptera: Phoridae on Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abesh Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M. scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n=3. One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111=15.79873, p=0.000000917, width (F(2,111=14.60528, p=0.00000234, and biomass (F(2,111=37.01727, p=0.000000000000482 of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M. scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects.

  20. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abesh; Naskar, Atanu; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2016-01-01

    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n = 3). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111) = 15.79873, p = 0.000000917), width (F(2,111) = 14.60528, p = 0.00000234), and biomass (F(2,111) = 37.01727, p = 0.000000000000482) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects.

  1. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 11. Turbulence and Flying Machines. Rama Govindarajan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 11 November 1999 pp 54-62. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/11/0054-0062 ...

  3. Fly ash for defluoridation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzimou-Tsitouridou, R.

    1985-05-01

    The authors report a study of the use of a lignite fly ash to retain fluoride ions and remove them from their solutions, with a view to the use of this process for the defluoridation of water. Results are presented and the chemistry of the process is examined.

  4. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  5. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. O fly, where art thou?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Dhruv; Tower, John; Tavaré, Simon

    2008-10-06

    In this paper, the design of a real-time image acquisition system for tracking the movement of Drosophila in three-dimensional space is presented. The system uses three calibrated and synchronized cameras to detect multiple flies and integrates the detected fly silhouettes to construct the three-dimensional visual hull models of each fly. We used an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state of each fly, given past positions from the reconstructed fly visual hulls. The results show that our approach constructs the three-dimensional visual hull of each fly from the detected image silhouettes and robustly tracks them at real-time rates. The system is suitable for a more detailed analysis of fly behaviour.

  7. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  8. Methodology of VFR night flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Stanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Night is defined, for aviation purposes, as the period of darkness from the end of evening civil twilight to the beginning of morning civil twilight. Night flying is risky and more dangerous, comparing with flying during daylight, so it is essential to seek training with a flight instructor specifically for night flying. This article looks briefly at some underlying principles and practices, including: illusions, planning considerations, and handling emergencies.

  9. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  10. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  11. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  12. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range.

  13. Learning from the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea; Schwartz, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly ("Drosophila melanogaster") is an ideal subject for studying inheritance patterns, Mendel's laws, meiosis, Punnett squares, and other aspects of genetics. Much of what we know about genetics dates to evolutionary biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with mutated fruit flies in the early 1900s. Many genetic laboratories…

  14. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology. Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. In the past decade or so, genetic theories of the evolution of ageing and studies on populations of fruit flies (Dro- sophila spp.) in the laboratory have provided a new per- spective on the phenomenon of ageing ...

  15. Refractive Index of Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index reported previously for the rhabdomeres of flies (1.349) has been corrected for waveguide effects. The presented correction method has yielded n1 = 1.365 ± 0.006. It is argued that an acceptable estimate for the refractive index of the inhomogeneous surroundings of fly

  16. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837377

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to

  17. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  18. Fly motion vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Alexander; Haag, Juergen; Reiff, Dierk F

    2010-01-01

    Fly motion vision and resultant compensatory optomotor responses are a classic example for neural computation. Here we review our current understanding of processing of optic flow as generated by an animal's self-motion. Optic flow processing is accomplished in a series of steps: First, the time-varying photoreceptor signals are fed into a two-dimensional array of Reichardt-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). EMDs compute, in parallel, local motion vectors at each sampling point in space. Second, the output signals of many EMDs are spatially integrated on the dendrites of large-field tangential cells in the lobula plate. In the third step, tangential cells form extensive interactions with each other, giving rise to their large and complex receptive fields. Thus, tangential cells can act as matched filters tuned to optic flow during particular flight maneuvers. They finally distribute their information onto postsynaptic descending neurons, which either instruct the motor centers of the thoracic ganglion for flight and locomotion control or act themselves as motor neurons that control neck muscles for head movements.

  19. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  20. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  1. Structural basis of FliG-FliM interaction in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kwok-Ho; Lam, Wendy Wai Ling; Wong, Jase Yan-Kit; Chan, Ling-Chim; Kotaka, Masayo; Ling, Thomas Kin-Wah; Jin, Dong-Yan; Ottemann, Karen M; Au, Shannon Wing-Ngor

    2013-05-01

    FliG and FliM are switch proteins that regulate the rotation and switching of the flagellar motor. Several assembly models for FliG and FliM have recently been proposed; however, it remains unclear whether the assembly of the switch proteins is conserved among different bacterial species. We applied a combination of pull-down, thermodynamic and structural analyses to characterize the FliM-FliG association from the mesophilic bacterium Helicobacter pylori. FliM binds to FliG with micromolar binding affinity, and their interaction is mediated through the middle domain of FliG (FliGM ), which contains the EHPQR motif. Crystal structures of the middle domain of H. pylori FliM (FliM(M)) and FliG(M) -FliM(M) complex revealed that FliG binding triggered a conformational change of the FliM α3-α1' loop, especially Asp130 and Arg144. We furthermore showed that various highly conserved residues in this region are required for FliM-FliG complex formation. Although the FliM-FliG complex structure displayed a conserved binding mode when compared with Thermotoga maritima, variable residues were identified that may contribute to differential binding affinities across bacterial species. Comparison of the thermodynamic parameters of FliG-FliM interactions between H. pylori and Escherichia coli suggests that molecular basis and binding properties of FliM to FliG is likely different between these two species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Characterisation of Turkish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, O. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1998-07-01

    The mineralogical, morphological, physical and chemical properties of 7 fly ashes from coal fields in Turkey are compared. The mineral matter in the fly ashes, determined by X-ray diffraction, is dominated by anhydride, lime, quartz and hematite + ferrite spinel. The three low-calcium ashes have the typical, relatively simple, crystalline phase Q, M, H and FS. The high-calcium fly ashes have the most complex assemblage of crystalline phases. The much higher calcium concentrations in these samples result in the formation of lime (CaO), melilite ((Ca, Na){sub 2}(Mg,Al,Fe)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 7}) and merwinite. The presence of anhydride in all samples indicates that the high activity of calcium not only promotes the formation of sulfates from calcite but also the dehydration of gypsum during and after combustion, which occurs at temperatures above 400-500{degree}C. It is important to understand the interaction of high-calcium fly ashes with water occurring in Portland cement (C{sub 3}A,C{sub 2}S), Ah, which hydrates to give gypsum and lime, with the latter hydrating to give the Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions that promote pozzolonic reactions. Some of the particles comprised irregularly formed, vesicular particles with some well-formed individual spheres in Catalagzi and Tuncbilek fly ashes. About 55-80 wt% was less than 45 {mu}m in size for Yatagan, Soma, Yenikoy and Afsin-Elbistan fly ashes. The fly ashes were mainly composed of CaO, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. They have a potential use in wastewater treatment since they can be easily obtained in large quantities at low price or even free. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the high-calcium Turkish fly ashes investigated make them a good binding agent and a possible substitute for slags, pozzolana and gypsum in the amelioration of clinker. 53 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  4. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be ...

  5. Physics between a Fly's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A novel method of localizing the direction of a source of sound has evolved in the auditory system of certain small parasitic flies. A mechanical model of this design has been shown to describe the system well. Here, a simplified version of this mechanical model is presented which demonstrates the key feature: direction estimates of high accuracy…

  6. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  7. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flying. This sometimes uncomfortable sensation is related to pressure changes in the air space behind the eardrum (the middle ear). Normally, the Eustachian tube, a passageway that leads from the middle ear to the back of ... the nose, equalizes the air pressure in the middle ear to the outside air ...

  8. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur P.O. Bangalore 560 064, India ...

  9. Utilization of Coal Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    sample. Harrison et al. (1985) found that most of the aliphatic hydrocarbons were paraffins and terpenoids . Roy et al. (1984) found the majority of their...P. Rombout, "Effects of Acute Inhalation of Respirable Coal Fly Ash on Metabolic Defense Capability of the Rat Lung," Inhalation Toxicology, v.2: 361

  10. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  11. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  12. Evaluation of fly ash quality control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Many entities currently use fly ash in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and structures. Although the body of knowledge is : great concerning the use of fly ash, several projects per year are subject to poor performance where fly ash is named ...

  13. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  14. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  15. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  16. Strength Properties of Processed Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Anandan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the mechanical treatment of fly ash for improving the delayed reactivity of fly ash with the hydration product of cement. Grinding of fly ash was carried out in a ball mill for different time durations and processing time was optimized for maximum fineness. Concrete mixes were prepared using various proportions of processed and unprocessed fly ash replacement in cement (25% and 50%. The influence of steel fiber addition on the mechanical properties of the concrete was studied for different curing periods. The test results on pozzolanic activity and lime reactivity indicate that the processed fly ash exhibited a higher strength gain than the unprocessed fly ash, with a maximum increase in compressive strength of up to 12%. Improved pozzolanic properties were noticed due to the increase in fineness of the fly ash particles.

  17. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  18. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  19. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    fighter bombers and the Mercure transport plane, to the differenk supers -nic Mirages fighters and to, the vario.us Falcon bussiness jet family members...i:tilisarit les tnc:chriiques maintonant 8D repr~sorite 11orcre global de roulis (avant classiques do Pautomatiuue multiva!riabie, distribution aux...Kc/s ing. In general, flying qualities in the region of crossover. But for ratings tend to be given on a global unattended operations a rate comm

  20. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  1. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present.

  2. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  3. Analysis of the FliM/FliG motor protein interaction by two-hybrid mutation suppression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Steven E; Meas, Rithy; Marykwas, Donna L

    2008-03-01

    The Escherichia coli motor proteins FliM and FliG physically interact, presumably to control one or more of the functions of the bacterial flagellum clockwise/counterclockwise (CW/CCW) switch. We have previously demonstrated this interaction using the yeast two-hybrid system and have identified mutations in fliG that disrupt the interaction. Starting with the most interaction-defective of these fliG mutants, we mutagenized fliM to identify suppressor mutations that restore the FliM/FliG two-hybrid interaction. Certain fliM suppressor mutations exhibit allele specificity. These mutations help define a FliG-interaction surface on FliM. Moreover, the pattern of suppression suggests that two distinct sites on FliG interact with FliM, perhaps with two FliM molecules in a dimer per molecule of FliG.

  4. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  5. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  6. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierez, Arturo; White, Gregory; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted-cone design to passively confine flies in 8 modified collection bottles corresponding to 8 intervals. Efficacy trials in a hot-arid desert environment indicate no significant difference (P  =  0.896) between the modified sequential trap and a Rid-Max® fly trap.

  7. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  8. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  9. The scaling of carbon dioxide release and respiratory water loss in flying fruit flies (Drosophila spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Dickinson, Michael H.; Staunton, Jocelyn

    2000-01-01

    By simultaneously measuring carbon dioxide release, water loss and flight force in several species of fruit flies in the genus Drosophila, we have investigated respiration and respiratory transpiration during elevated locomotor activity. We presented tethered flying flies with moving visual stimuli in a virtual flight arena, which induced them to vary both flight force and energetic output. In response to the visual motion, the flies altered their energetic output as measured by changes in ca...

  10. Spatial distribution of tsetse flies in some areas within western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate identification of tsetse fly endemic-foci using spatially explicit maps could be important in the strategic control of tsetse flies. This survey presents spatially explicit maps of tsetse flies in some tsetse fly-endemic areas in the Western, Eastern and Northern Regions of Ghana. Field samplings for tsetse flies using ...

  11. Fly-by-Wireless Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George

    2010-01-01

    The presentation reviews what is meant by the term 'fly-by-wireless', common problems and motivation, provides recent examples, and examines NASA's future and basis for collaboration. The vision is to minimize cables and connectors and increase functionality across the aerospace industry by providing reliable, lower cost, modular, and higher performance alternatives to wired data connectivity to benefit the entire vehicle/program life-cycle. Focus areas are system engineering and integration methods to reduce cables and connectors, vehicle provisions for modularity and accessibility, and a 'tool box' of alternatives to wired connectivity.

  12. Assembly states of FliM and FliG within the flagellar switch complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P; Lynch, Michael J; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S; Halkides, Christopher J; Freed, Jack H; Crane, Brian R

    2015-02-27

    At the base of the bacterial flagella, a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, we have investigated interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima with X-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled components fit a self-consistent model that agree well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. These data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  14. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  15. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  16. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  17. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  18. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  19. Different flying histories in flying phobics: association with psychopathology and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousi, Aikaterini; Haringsma, Rimke; Van Gerwen, Lucas J; Spinhoven, Philip

    2008-10-01

    Passengers experiencing fear of flying can threaten the safety of a flight, its passengers, and crew. In the present study we investigated the effect of different flying histories on the nature and treatment of fear of flying and attempted to determine the following: 1) the prevalence of different flying histories in a sample of self-referred flying phobics; 2) the demographic and psychopathologic characteristics of flying phobics differing with respect to flying history; and 3) the predictive value of different flying histories for treatment outcome. Of 2001 self-referred adults who applied for a flying treatment program, 85.6% reported that they had flown before and that their flights had been uneventful; 8.7% had no previous experience with flying; 5.7% had flown before and had experienced an eventful (5.4%) or even a traumatic flight (0.3%). Participants who had never flown before reported higher levels of fear of flying (FAS, FAM, VAFAS), agoraphobia (FSS-III), and general anxiety (SCL-90). Moreover, these subjects showed significantly more anxiety reduction following a 1- or 2-d group treatment than the other participants (statistically corrected for any pretreatment differences). For participants who had never flown before, anxiety probably primarily reflects more generalized avoidance tendencies and a proneness to over-predict the magnitude and intensity of their fear.

  20. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Wang; He Sun; Zhihui Sun; Enqing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, ...

  1. Adsorption of phenolic compounds on fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgerman, A.; Zardkoohi, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, 3-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The fly ash adsorbed 67, 20, and 22 mg/g for phenol, chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively, for the highest water phase concentrations used. The affinity of phenolic compounds for fly ash is above the expected amount corresponding to a monolayer coverage considering that the surface area of fly ash is only 1.87 m{sup 2}/g. The isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable, indicating that adsorption becomes progressively easier as more solutes are taken up. Phenol displayed a much higher affinity for fly ash than 3-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  2. NPK Fertilizer with Slow Release Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhira Izzatur Silmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is the solid of the remaining coal combustion carried along with the exhaust gas and captured by the air controller. Fluids in fly ash are Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2, and SO3 which are similar to zeolites. So that fly ash can be used as a substitute for zeolite for various carrier of fertilizer. The result of slow release test is known that N element has higher release level. The NPK fertilizer activity test of Fly Ash Slow Release was done on chilli plant with parameter of variation of fertilizer composition and plant height. Based on research result, fly ash-TSP 2: 1 fertilizer has the best result.

  3. Geotechnical characterization of some Indian fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Yudhbir [Indian Institute for Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of experimental studies with regard to some common engineering properties (e.g., grain size, specific gravity, compaction characteristics, and unconfined compression strength) of both low and high calcium fly ashes, to evaluate their suitability as embankment materials and reclamation fills. In addition, morphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of fly ashes are studied using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray analyzer, x-ray diffractometer, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. In high calcium fly ash, mineralogical and chemical differences are observed for particles, {gt}75 {mu} m and the particles of {lt} 45 {mu} m size. The mode and duration of curing significantly affect the strength and stress-strain behavior of fly ashes. The geotechnical properties of fly ash are governed by factors like lime content (CaO), iron content (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and loss on ignition. The distinct difference between self-hardening and pozzolanic reactivity has been emphasized.

  4. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Friederich

    Full Text Available More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli.

  5. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    CERN Document Server

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  6. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  7. Trapping tsetse flies on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laveissière, C; Camara, M; Rayaisse, J B; Salou, E; Kagbadouno, M; Solano, P

    2011-05-01

    Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea) one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/"water-trap"/day, which was significantly higher (p biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  8. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  9. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  10. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT; Akash, Akash [Salt lake City, UT; Zhao, Qiang [Natick, MA

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  11. Stochastic Fractal Based Multiobjective Fruit Fly Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Cili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA is a global optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of a fruit fly swarm. In this study, a novel stochastic fractal model based fruit fly optimization algorithm is proposed for multiobjective optimization. A food source generating method based on a stochastic fractal with an adaptive parameter updating strategy is introduced to improve the convergence performance of the fruit fly optimization algorithm. To deal with multiobjective optimization problems, the Pareto domination concept is integrated into the selection process of fruit fly optimization and a novel multiobjective fruit fly optimization algorithm is then developed. Similarly to most of other multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs, an external elitist archive is utilized to preserve the nondominated solutions found so far during the evolution, and a normalized nearest neighbor distance based density estimation strategy is adopted to keep the diversity of the external elitist archive. Eighteen benchmarks are used to test the performance of the stochastic fractal based multiobjective fruit fly optimization algorithm (SFMOFOA. Numerical results show that the SFMOFOA is able to well converge to the Pareto fronts of the test benchmarks with good distributions. Compared with four state-of-the-art methods, namely, the non-dominated sorting generic algorithm (NSGA-II, the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, and multiobjective self-adaptive differential evolution (MOSADE, the proposed SFMOFOA has better or competitive multiobjective optimization performance.

  12. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g....../kg for zinc, 2,4 g/kg for lead, 1,7 g/kg for iron, and 7,9 g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91 mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash....

  13. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  14. Application of TEM to characterize fly ash- and slag cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersen, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    A Portland fly ash cement containing 20% of a fine fly ash and a blast furnace slag cement of approximately 290 days old were examined with analytical transmission electron microscopy, in order to examine the (local) microstructure in these cements in detail. In the Portland fly ash cement the fly

  15. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms - obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV. Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse’s physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse’s microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  16. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwen; Weiss, Brian L; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms-obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV). Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse's physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse's microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  17. Swirl chamber for vitrification of fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarzycki Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the concept of a swirl chamber used for vitrification of fly ashes. It assumes the use of coal dust in the process of fly ash melting. The coal dust supplied to the swirl chamber and gasified in the atmosphere of O2, CO2 and H2O allows for obtaining combustible gases composed of CO and H2, which are burnt with the pneumatically supplied fly ash. The above process allows for obtaining a product in the form of a molten slag which does not contain coal grains. The study presents numerical calculations for the process of combustion and gasification of coal dust and opportunities for ensuring adequate parameters in the fly ash melting zone. The combustible gases obtained during the process of gasification can be supplied to the chamber of a pulverized-bed boiler.

  18. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  19. Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, M.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Corredor, D.; Podgorny, S.

    2016-12-01

    In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) has been developed. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present a summary of the instrument development, calibration, and aircraft integration.

  20. Ocular injuries from flying bottle caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, C

    1993-12-01

    Three cases of serious eye injury are described from flying metal caps of carbonated drink bottles. The injuries occurred while attempting to open the bottle in an unconventional and dangerous way. Though injuries from flying bottle caps have been described before, they have occurred when the bottle exploded. This is the first report of eye injuries caused by bottle caps while opening and are similar to the injuries caused by champagne corks.

  1. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  2. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  3. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  4. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  5. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  6. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  7. FlyBase: improvements to the bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Leyland, Paul C; Seal, Ruth L; Goodman, Joshua L; Thurmond, Jim; Strelets, Victor B; Wilson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    An accurate, comprehensive, non-redundant and up-to-date bibliography is a crucial component of any Model Organism Database (MOD). Principally, the bibliography provides a set of references that are specific to the field served by the MOD. Moreover, it serves as a backbone to which all curated biological data can be attributed. Here, we describe the organization and main features of the bibliography in FlyBase (flybase.org), the MOD for Drosophila melanogaster. We present an overview of the current content of the bibliography, the pipeline for identifying and adding new references, the presentation of data within Reference Reports and effective methods for searching and retrieving bibliographic data. We highlight recent improvements in these areas and describe the advantages of using the FlyBase bibliography over alternative literature resources. Although this article is focused on bibliographic data, many of the features and tools described are applicable to browsing and querying other datasets in FlyBase.

  8. Fly ash utilization to ecology purpose products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasae, T.; Kinugawa, M. (En-Tech Research Institute Inc. (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Fly ash contains many elements necessary for plant growth. En-Tech Research Institute has a 100 ton/month fly ash granulation plant which produces 0.5-10mm diameter granules which are used in the cultivation of approximately 15,000 Onsidumu and Denpharae orchids in a 3,000 m[sup 2] greenhouse and as a soil improver for a 1,600m[sup 2] test lawn. The granules are also used as agricultural chemical adsorbents for drainage of the test lawn. Orchids cultivated using the fly ash granules are shipped to market as cut flowers regularly. There they fetch the same price or a higher price than orchids cultivated in the usual way. Good results have also been achieved with the soil improvement test and the adsorption test. Tests to obtain design data are being carried out on two golf courses in the Kumamoto Prefecture. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 7 photos.

  9. The Flagellar Switch Genes fliM and fliN of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Are Contained in a Large Flagellar Gene Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    García, Norma; Campos, Andrés; Osorio, Aurora; Poggio, Sebastian; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camarena, Laura; Dreyfus, Georges

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the genes that encode the FliM and FliN proteins of Rhodobacter sphaeroides were characterized. These genes are part of a large flagellar gene cluster in which six additional open reading frames encoding products homologous to FliL, FliO, FliP, FliQ, FliR, and FlhB proteins from other bacteria were identified. The inactivation of the fliM gene gave a nonflagellate phenotype (Fla−), suggesting that FliM is required for flagellar assembly. Complementation analysis of this fliM mut...

  10. The scaling of carbon dioxide release and respiratory water loss in flying fruit flies (Drosophila spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, F O; Dickinson, M H; Staunton, J

    2000-05-01

    By simultaneously measuring carbon dioxide release, water loss and flight force in several species of fruit flies in the genus Drosophila, we have investigated respiration and respiratory transpiration during elevated locomotor activity. We presented tethered flying flies with moving visual stimuli in a virtual flight arena, which induced them to vary both flight force and energetic output. In response to the visual motion, the flies altered their energetic output as measured by changes in carbon dioxide release and concomitant changes in respiratory water loss. We examined the effect of absolute body size on respiration and transpiration by studying four different-sized species of fruit flies. In resting flies, body-mass-specific CO(2) release and water loss tend to decrease more rapidly with size than predicted according to simple allometric relationships. During flight, the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with increasing body size with an allometric exponent of -0.22, which is slightly lower than the scaling exponents found in other flying insects. In contrast, the mass-specific rate of water loss appears to be proportionately greater in small animals than can be explained by a simple allometric model for spiracular transpiration. Because fractional water content does not change significantly with increasing body size, the smallest species face not only larger mass-specific energetic expenditures during flight but also a higher risk of desiccation than their larger relatives. Fruit flies lower their desiccation risk by replenishing up to 75 % of the lost bulk water by metabolic water production, which significantly lowers the risk of desiccation for animals flying under xeric environmental conditions.

  11. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-01-01

    ..., after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies...

  12. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  13. Reading, Living, Loving "Lord of the Flies."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderman, Wendy L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a unit plan for teaching "Lord of the Flies" that allows students to respond freely to the reading and to "get out of their seats" and experience the first chapter of the book. Includes guidelines for the response-based approach, for discussion groups, and for character portfolios. (NH)

  14. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  15. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  16. Self-renewal in the fly kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Markus; Barde, Yves

    2007-09-01

    Tissue stem cells are typically rare and located in niches that prescribe low rates of cell division and survival. In the latest issue of Cell Stem Cell, Singh et al. (2007) demonstrate that, in the adult fly, epithelial cells exist that are neither in niches nor in small numbers, divide at high rates, and are multipotent.

  17. Autonomous formation flying in low earth orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Amico, S.

    2010-01-01

    Formation flying is commonly identified as the collective usage of two or more cooperative spacecraft to exercise the function of a single monolithic virtual instrument. The distribution of tasks and payloads among fleets of coordinated smaller satellites offers the possibility to overcome the

  18. The Aerodynamics of a Flying Sports Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Crowther, William J.

    2001-11-01

    The flying sports disc is a spin-stabilised axi-symmetric wing of quite remarkable design. A typical disc has an approximate elliptical cross-section and hollowed out under-side cavity, such as the Frisbee(TM) disc. An experimental study of flying disc aerodynamics, including both spinning and non-spinning tests, has been carried out in the wind tunnel. Load measurements, pressure data and flow visualisation techniques have enabled an explanation of the flow physics and provided data for free-flight simulations. A computer simulation that predicts free-flight trajectories from a given set of initial conditions was used to investigate the dynamics of a flying disc. This includes a six-degree of freedom mathematical model of disc flight mechanics, with aerodynamic coefficients derived from experimental data. A flying sports disc generates lift through forward velocity just like a conventional wing. The lift contributed by spin is insignificant and does not provide nearly enough down force to support hover. Without spin, the disc tumbles ground-ward under the influence of an unstable aerodynamic pitching moment. From a backhand throw however, spin is naturally given to the disc. The unchanged pitching moment now results in roll, due to gyroscopic precession, stabilising the disc in free-flight.

  19. Flying blind in anesthesia: A safety concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Mansoor; Khan, Mueenullah; Saeed, Abdulhamid Al; Alzahrani, Tariq

    2014-07-01

    We describe two cases of sudden loss of display of all the monitors of Zeus anesthesia work station during operation, which is a major safety concern. Flying blind in anesthesia could be devastating. These cases attempt to highlight the need for greater vigilance by anesthesiologists and have implications for improvement in technology.

  20. Flying blind in anesthesia: A safety concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Aqil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of sudden loss of display of all the monitors of Zeus anesthesia work station during operation, which is a major safety concern. Flying blind in anesthesia could be devastating. These cases attempt to highlight the need for greater vigilance by anesthesiologists and have implications for improvement in technology.

  1. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  2. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  3. Properties and application of zeolitized fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbruggen, G.

    1999-01-01

    The combustion of coal produces large quantities of fly ash. This waste product is at present used for the production of building materials. This use may be reduced for a number of reasons, such as: stricter environmental regulations, changes in combustion techniques and competition with other

  4. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    This paper reports the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and raw coal fly ash (RFA) in the removal of eosin dye from aqueous ... calculation is hereby reported to know the amount of adsorbent required for efficient removal of eosin dye. EXPERIMENTAL. Dye properties and preparation. Analytical grade eosin dye ...

  5. Refractive index of the fly rhabdomere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoenders, B.J.; Huiser, A.M.J.; Toorn, P. van

    1982-01-01

    The refractive index and the diameter of the fly rhabdomere were determined by comparing the experimental results derived from interference microscopy with the results of a theoretical study on the scattering of plane waves by a homogeneous, isotropic cylindrical dielectric rod. It was found that

  6. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  7. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by testing penetration resistance of fly ash flowable fills and unconfined compressive strength of 3 soils mixed with fly ash and compacted to their optimum unit weight. It has been found that the strength of both ...

  8. WILD ANIMALS AS RESERVOIRS OF MYIASIS-PRODUCING FLIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wild reservoirs of the Tumbu fly Cordylobia anthropophaga are mainly rodents; those of. Lund's fly Cordylobia rodhaini are small antelopes and the giant rat. Both species are commonly found and are important pests of humans, dogs and several other domestic animals. There are seven species of equine bot flies ...

  9. Preliminary checklist of flies associated with pig carrions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The successional pattern of the flies was predictable. Their activities on the carrions include consumption of the carrion tissues and using same to propagate their progeny. All the flies except the Trirhithum sp. played defined roles on the carrions and were established as flies of forensic importance, while the Trirhithum sp.

  10. Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eucalyptol were evaluated against the house fly, Musca domestica L., and blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.. The bioassay of adults, using topical application, indicated that M. domestica males were more susceptible than females, with the LD50 being 118 and 177 mg/fly, respectively. A higher LD50 of C. megacephala was obtained; 197 mg/fly for males and 221 mg/fly for females. Living flies of both species yielded a shorter life span after being treated with eucalyptol. The bioassay of larvae, using the dipping method on the third instar, showed that M. domestica was more susceptible than C. megacephala, with their LC50 being 101 and 642 mg/ml, respectively. The emergence of adults, which had been treated with eucalyptol in larvae, decreased only in M. domestica. Having the volatile property, fumigation or impregnated paper test of eucalyptol or the efficacy of repellence or attractiveness merits further investigations to enhance bio-insecticidal efficacy.

  11. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  12. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  13. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  15. Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Kakaras, E. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Karangelos, D.; Anagnostakis, M.; Hinis, E. [Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The main characteristics of fly ash from Greek coal-fired boilers are presented in this paper in relation to its exploitation potential. Both fuel and fly ash samples were collected and analyzed according to the ASTM Standards. Apart from the typical analyses (proximate, ultimate, ash analysis and calorific value), an ICP-AES spectrometer was used for the analysis of heavy metals in the ash. Experimental measurements in order to determine the radioactivity content of raw fuel and the fly ash were carried out as well. A representative fly ash sample from Ptolemais power plant was evaluated and tested as filler in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Ashes from the Greek brown coal are classified in type C, most of the fly ash being produced in Ptolemais of Northern Greece, while the rest in Megalopolis. Ptolemais fly ash is rich in calcium compounds, while Megalopolis fly ash contains more pyrite. Increased heavy metal concentrations are observed in the fly ash samples of Greek coal. Greek fly ash appears to have not only pozzolanic but also hydraulic behaviour. Furthermore, Greek fly ash, depending on its origin, may have relatively high natural radioactivity content, reaching in the case of Megalopolis fly ash 1 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The laboratory results showed that fly ashes can be a competitive substitute to conventional limestone filler material in SCC. Fly ash is mostly used in Greece in cement industry replacing cement clinker and aiming to the production of special types of Portland cements. However, a more aggressive utilisation strategy should be developed, since low quantities of the total produced fly ash are currently further utilised. (author)

  16. Thank You for Flying the Vomit Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Robert; Dilisi, Gregory A.; Dilisi, Lori A.; Santo, Gretchen

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes our flight aboard NASA's C9 ``Weightless Wonder,'' an aircraft that creates multiple periods of microgravity by conducting a series of parabolic maneuvers over the Gulf of Mexico. Because passengers often develop motion sickness during these parabolic maneuvers, the C9 is more affectionately known as the ``Vomit Comet.'' To celebrate the 2005 World Year of Physics, AAPT, APS, and NASA co-sponsored a contest in which teams of high school students and their mentors could fly an experiment aboard the Vomit Comet. If selected, students would develop their experiment and travel to Houston to serve as ``ground crew'' while the mentors would actually fly aboard the C9 to perform the experiment.

  17. Time flies when we read taboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Jason

    2010-08-01

    Does time fly or stand still when one is reading highly arousing words? A temporal bisection task was used to test the effects of sexual taboo words on time perception. Forty participants judged the duration of sexual taboo, high-arousal negative, high-arousal positive, low-arousal negative, low-arousal positive, and category-related neutral words. The results support the hypothesis that sexual taboo stimuli receive more attention and reduce the perceived time that has passed ("time flies")-the duration of high sexual taboo words was underestimated for taboo-word stimuli relative to all other word types. The findings are discussed in the context of internal clock theories of time perception.

  18. Oestrid flies: eradication and extinction versus biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Otranto, Domenico; Stevens, Jamie R

    2009-11-01

    Larvae of oestrid flies are obligate parasites of mammals. This article focuses on two potential drivers that could be forcing these flies into extinction: (i) the highly effective and widespread use of anti-parasitic drugs for domestic livestock; and (ii) the co-extinction of oestrids associated with non-domestic hosts that are endangered. Other oestrid species could be the victims of benign neglect in that they are so poorly studied that their disappearance might go unnoticed. In addition, we explore current knowledge in each of these categories of vulnerability for oestrids, and address the potential impacts of their disappearance. Finally, we examine the potential consequences of eradicating a group of livestock parasites, and ask what possibilities for improvement of the health of humans and animals might also be lost.

  19. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  20. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  1. Flapping flight aerodynamics for flying animals

    OpenAIRE

    Norizham, Abdul Razak; Dimitriadis, Grigorios

    2011-01-01

    Most research into the aerodynamics of flying animals is based on aircraft aerodynamics. Aircraft have rigid wings, therefore such research is mostly suited to the study of the gliding flight of animals. However, many species spend more time flapping than gliding. Some species don’t glide at all. This seminar presents recent work on flapping flight carried out at the University of Liège.

  2. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    times of extreme need.10 Even today, the heritage of the American police-force volunteer continues with renewed vigor. Aligned under the DOJ...guidance, the mission statement should consider the current capabilities and limitations of the LE air division thereby allowing the pilots to make smart ...allow the pilots to make smart and safe tactical decisions while flying.127 In step with PSAAC, MCAS’s operations manual provides its pilots with the

  3. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  4. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, James G. (Collegeville, PA); Mathur, Akshay (Tampa, FL); Simpson, James C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  5. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  6. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  7. Development of fly ash quality control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, K. [Chubu Electric Power Company Inc., Nagoya (Japan). Thermal Power Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Since fly ash is designated as one of the by-products in the Japanese law related to the promotion of effective use of reclaimed materials (the recycling law) that prescribes the promotion of effective use of reclaimed materials, it is necessary to promote its effective use positively. However, there can be problems in using fly ash as it is difficult to assure a product with uniform properties, because the properties of fly ash can vary depending on the type of coal and the burning conditions of the boilers. For this reason, studies were made from 1994 to 1995 through experiments on the ash handling system of the No. 3 coal-fired boiler at the Hekinan Thermal Power Plant. The study was made in response to the needs of the users who wanted to effectively use the ash, and included the development of a quality control system for the selection and storage of ash which measured and analyzed the properties of the ash in real time. This paper outlines this quality control system and describes the results of the studies to date. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  9. FlyCap: Markerless Motion Capture Using Multiple Autonomous Flying Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Liu, Yebin; Cheng, Wei; Guo, Kaiwen; Zhou, Guyue; Dai, Qionghai; Fang, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Aiming at automatic, convenient and non-instrusive motion capture, this paper presents a new generation markerless motion capture technique, the FlyCap system, to capture surface motions of moving characters using multiple autonomous flying cameras (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) each integrated with an RGBD video camera). During data capture, three cooperative flying cameras automatically track and follow the moving target who performs large-scale motions in a wide space. We propose a novel non-rigid surface registration method to track and fuse the depth of the three flying cameras for surface motion tracking of the moving target, and simultaneously calculate the pose of each flying camera. We leverage the using of visual-odometry information provided by the UAV platform, and formulate the surface tracking problem in a non-linear objective function that can be linearized and effectively minimized through a Gaussian-Newton method. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results demonstrate the plausible surface and motion reconstruction results.

  10. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-01-01

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies. PMID:22237540

  11. Treatment of fly ash from power plants using thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Mayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from power plants is very toxic because it contains heavy metals. In this study fly ash was treated with a thermal plasma. Before their treatment, the fly ash was analyzed by many technics such as X-ray fluorescence, CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With these technics, the composition, the chemical and physical proprieties of fly ash are determined. The results obtained by these analysis show that fly ash is mainly composed of carbon, and it contains also sulfur and metals such as V, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, and Rh. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that fly ash particles are porous and have very irregular shapes with particle sizes of 20–50 μm. The treatment of fly ash was carried out in a plasma reactor and in two steps. In the first step, fly ash was treated in a pyrolysis/combustion plasma system to reduce the fraction of carbon. In the second step, the product obtained by the combustion of fly ash was vitrified in a plasma furnace. The leaching results show that the fly ash was detoxified by plasma vitrification and the produced slag is amorphous and glassy.

  12. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  13. Fly ash as a liming material for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gene; Dunn, David

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fly ash from a coal combustion electric power facility on soil acidity in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. Fresh fly ash was applied to a Bosket fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Mollic Hapludalf) soil with an initial soil pH(salt) of 4.8. The fly ash was equivalent to 42 g kg(-1) calcium carbonate with 97% passing through a 60 mesh (U.S. standard) sieve. Fly ash was applied one day before cotton planting in 1999 at 0, 3.4, 6.7, and 10.1 Mg ha(-1). No fly ash was applied in 2000. Within 60 d of fly ash application in 1999, all rates of fly ash significantly increased soil pH above 6.0. Manganese levels in cotton petioles were reduced significantly by 6.7 and 10.1 Mg ha(-1) of fly ash. Soil boron (B) and sodium (Na) concentrations were significantly increased with fly ash. In 1999, B in cotton leaves ranged from 72 to 84 mg kg(-1) in plots with fly ash applications. However, no visual symptoms of B toxicity in plants were observed. In 1999, cotton lint yield decreased on average 12 kg ha(-1) for each Mg of fly ash applied. In 2000, cotton yields were significantly greater for the residual 3.4 and 6.7 Mg fly ash ha(-1) plots than the untreated check. Due to the adverse yield effects measured in the first year following application, fly ash would not be a suitable soil amendment for cotton on this soil at this time.

  14. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, VAN Lun; Pham, Xuan DA; Adler, Peter H

    2017-05-05

    The biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), which are biting insects of medical and veterinary importance, is strikingly high in Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In 2013, we began to explore the fauna of black flies in Vietnam, which has so far been poorly studied. In this monograph, the wealth of the biodiversity of black flies in Vietnam is also confirmed on the basis of the results of our recent investigations, though limited to five provinces in the country.      Morphotaxonomic studies of black flies obtained from Sapa, Lao Cai Province, northern Vietnam, in 2014 and Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam, in 2015, and reexaminations of black flies collected from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam, in 2013, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam, in 2014, and Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam, in 2014, were conducted. A total of 22 species are described as new, including one in the newly recorded subgenus Montisimulium Rubtsov, and three species are recognized as new records from Vietnam. This investigation brings the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam to 70, all of which are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille, and are placed in four subgenera (25 in Gomphostilbia Enderlein, one in Montisimulium, seven in Nevermannia Enderlein, and 37 in Simulium Latreille s. str.). The numbers of species-groups recognized include seven in Gomphostilbia, three in Nevermannia and nine in Simulium, indicating a high diversity of putative phylogenetic lineages. New species include S. (G.) sanchayense sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim), S. (S.) lowi sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies), S. (S.) fuscicoxae sp. nov. [= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti (in part)], S. (S.) suoivangense sp. nov. [= morphoform 'b' of the S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies (complex

  15. The influence of sex and fly species on the development of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Peacock

    Full Text Available Unlike other dipteran disease vectors, tsetse flies of both sexes feed on blood and transmit pathogenic African trypanosomes. During transmission, Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex cycle of proliferation and development inside the tsetse vector, culminating in production of infective forms in the saliva. The insect manifests robust immune defences throughout the alimentary tract, which eliminate many trypanosome infections. Previous work has shown that fly sex influences susceptibility to trypanosome infection as males show higher rates of salivary gland (SG infection with T. brucei than females. To investigate sex-linked differences in the progression of infection, we compared midgut (MG, proventriculus, foregut and SG infections in male and female Glossina morsitans morsitans. Initially, infections developed in the same way in both sexes: no difference was observed in numbers of MG or proventriculus infections, or in the number and type of developmental forms produced. Female flies tended to produce foregut migratory forms later than males, but this had no detectable impact on the number of SG infections. The sex difference was not apparent until the final stage of SG invasion and colonisation, showing that the SG environment differs between male and female flies. Comparison of G. m. morsitans with G. pallidipes showed a similar, though less pronounced, sex difference in susceptibility, but additionally revealed very different levels of trypanosome resistance in the MG and SG. While G. pallidipes was more refractory to MG infection, a very high proportion of MG infections led to SG infection in both sexes. It appears that the two fly species use different strategies to block trypanosome infection: G. pallidipes heavily defends against initial establishment in the MG, while G. m. morsitans has additional measures to prevent trypanosomes colonising the SG, particularly in female flies. We conclude that the tsetse-trypanosome interface works

  16. Effects of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation in house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E N I; Machtinger, E T; Gezan, S A; Kaufman, P E; Geden, C J

    2017-03-01

    The house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, several strains of which are commercially available. Three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and one strain of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were tested in commercial formulations for pathogenicity against house flies and stable flies. There was a significant increase in mortality of house flies with three of the formulations, BotaniGard® ES, Mycotrol® O, and Met52® EC, during days 4-9 in comparison with balEnce™ and the control. In stable flies, mortality rates were highest with Met52® EC, followed by Mycotrol® O, BotaniGard® ES and, finally, balEnce™. There was a significant fungal effect on sporulation in both house flies and stable flies. Product formulation, species differences and fungal strains may be responsible for some of the differences observed. Future testing in field situations is necessary. These commercial biopesticides may represent important tools in integrated fly management programmes. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  18. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  19. Chemical and biological control of phlebotominae sand flies

    OpenAIRE

    Pružinová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) are important vectors of leishmaniasis. Control measures are complicated by the fact that sand fly breeding sites and resting places are generally hard to find. Measures used to control adult sand flies include the use of chemical insecticides for insecticide-treated bednets or curtains, residual spraying of dwellings, eventually the space-spraying. Domestic dogs as reservoir host of visceral leishmaniosis can be protected by dog-collars impre...

  20. Domain Analysis of the FliM Protein of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Michael A.A.; Tang, Hua Lucy; Blair, David F.

    1998-01-01

    The FliM protein of Escherichia coli is required for the assembly and function of flagella. Genetic analyses and binding studies have shown that FliM interacts with several other flagellar proteins, including FliN, FliG, phosphorylated CheY, other copies of FliM, and possibly MotA and FliF. Here, we examine the effects of a set of linker insertions and partial deletions in FliM on its binding to FliN, FliG, CheY, and phospho-CheY and on its functions in flagellar assembly and rotation. The re...

  1. Adaptive Supervisory Engine for Autonomous Formation Flying GNC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying represents a critical enabling technology for future space missions, including NASA's Space and Earth Science...

  2. Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in Northwest and Central Nigeria.

  3. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...... the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...

  4. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete Kim H. Pedersen Abstract Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization is as po......Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete Kim H. Pedersen Abstract Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization...... is as pozzolanic additive in the production of concrete. However, the residual carbon in fly ash can adsorb the air entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete in order to increase its workability and resistance toward freezing and thawing conditions. The problem has increased...... Nordjyllandsværket, unit 3; 3) post treatment of fly ash to lower its AEA adsorptivity. The foam index test is the method usually employed to determine the degree of fly ash interference with AEAs in concrete. The test involves the use of commercial AEAs and visual observation of foam stability. These facts reduce...

  5. Sistema prototipo Fly-by-Wire

    OpenAIRE

    García Abián, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Este proyecto está destinado a ofrecer una herramienta a la carrera de aeronáutica para realizar experimentos de navegación y seguimiento de aviones, de la forma más real posible. Con este prototipo lo que se pretende es introducir practicas reales a esta carrera. En este documento se presenta un prototipo para guiado de aviones Radio control (RC). Se ha diseñado la implementación de un sistema FLY by WIRE (FbW) reducido, para incorporarlo en un modelo de RC, capaz de recoge...

  6. The constraints of body size on aerodynamics and energetics in flying fruit flies: an integrative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Reynolds number and thus body size may potentially limit aerodynamic force production in flying insects due to relative changes of viscous forces on the beating wings. By comparing four different species of fruit flies similar in shape but with different body mass, we have investigated how small insects cope with changes in fluid mechanical constraints on power requirements for flight and the efficiency with which chemical energy is turned into aerodynamic flight forces. The animals were flown in a flight arena in which stroke kinematics, aerodynamic force production, and carbon dioxide release were measured within the entire working range of the flight motor. The data suggest that during hovering performance mean lift coefficient for flight is higher in smaller animals than in their larger relatives. This result runs counter to predictions based on conventional aerodynamic theory and suggests subtle differences in stroke kinematics between the animals. Estimates in profile power requirements based on high drag coefficient suggest that among all tested species of fruit flies elastic energy storage might not be required to minimize energetic expenditures during flight. Moreover, muscle efficiency significantly increases with increasing body size whereas aerodynamic efficiency tends to decrease with increasing size or Reynolds number. As a consequence of these two opposite trends, total flight efficiency tends to increase only slightly within the 6-fold range of body sizes. Surprisingly, total flight efficiency in fruit flies is broadly independent of different profile power estimates and typically yields mean values between 2-4%.

  7. The Hungry Fly: Hydrodynamics of feeding in the common house fly

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2010-01-01

    A large number of insect species feed primarily on a fluid diet. To do so, they must overcome the numerous challenges that arise in the design of high-efficiency, miniature pumps. Although the morphology of insect feeding structures has been described for decades, their dynamics remain largely unknown even in the most well studied species (e.g. fruit fly). Here, in the fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate in-vivo imaging and microsurgery to elucidate the design principles of feeding structures of the common house fly. Using high-resolution X-ray absorption microscopy, we record in-vivo flow of sucrose solutions through the body over many hours during fly feeding. Borrowing from microsurgery techniques common in neurophysiology, we are able to perturb the pump to a stall position and thus evaluate function under load conditions. Furthermore, fluid viscosity-dependent feedback is observed for optimal pump performance. As the gut of the fly starts to fill up, feedback from the stretch receptors in the cuticle di...

  8. Biology of flying mammals. Allometry of flying animals; Tobu honyuruino seibutsugaku. Hiko dobutsu no allometry yori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogami, Y. [Ochanomizu University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1999-12-05

    This paper outlines the biology of flying mammals. About 3/4 of warm-blooded animals have the ability of flying. The upper limit of the size of flying animals have been explained with various models. According to a simple model assuming geometrical similarity and dynamic similarity, the minimum power required for horizontal flight is proportional to 7/6th power of the body weight, while the maximum power demonstrative in flying motion is proportional to the product of the weight percentage of the flight muscle by the workload of the muscle per unit weight by the 2/3rd power of the body weight. From this, 1.2kg is the upper limit of the body weight of bats. The power of the muscle per unit weight is substantially small compared with birds. In the case of homoiothermal animals having a closed blood vessel system, the small size increases load on the heart. This supposedly sets the lower limit of the size. The weight percentage of the heart of bats is approximately twice as much as that of other mammals, which presumably enabled miniaturization of bats. The muscle of reptiles generates an instantaneous force but lacks durability. It is inferred that the pterosaurs of the Cretaceous period had possibility of flight but that they had to spend much immobile time in recovering from fatigue. (NEDO)

  9. Tsetse fly saliva: Could it be useful in fly infection when feeding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemotaxis of tsetse saliva may perhaps stimulate movement of Trypanosoma brucei parasites from tissues to the bloodstream and via the vascular to the tsetse feeding site, and could explain the relatively high infection rate of tsetse flies feeding on chronically infected animals. This review paper looks into the possible role ...

  10. Vegetation Management and Host Density Influence Bee-Parasite Interactions in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hamutahl; Quistberg, Robyn D; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-12-08

    Apocephalus borealis phorid flies, a parasitoid of bumble bees and yellow jacket wasps in North America, was recently reported as a novel parasitoid of the honey bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Little is known about the ecology of this interaction, including phorid fecundity on bee hosts, whether phorid-bee parasitism is density dependent, and which local habitat and landscape features may correlate with changes in parasitism rates for either bumble or honey bees. We examined the impact of local and landscape drivers and host abundance on phorid parasitism of A. mellifera and the bumble bee Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We worked in 19 urban gardens along the North-Central Coast of California, where phorid parasitism of honey bees was first reported in 2012. We collected and incubated bees for phorid emergence, and surveyed local vegetation, ground cover, and floral characteristics as well as land cover types surrounding gardens. We found that phorid parasitism was higher on bumble bees than on honey bees, and phorids produced nearly twice as many pupae on individual bumble bee hosts than on honey bee hosts. Parasitism of both bumble and honey bees increased with abundance of honey bees in a site. Differences in landscape surroundings did not correlate with parasitism, but local factors related to bee resource provisioning (e.g., tree and shrub abundance) positively correlated with increased parasitism. This research thus helps to document and describe conditions that may have facilitated phorid fly host shift to honey bees and further elucidate how resource provisioning in urban gardens influences bee-parasite interactions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Radomska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC. This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins.

  12. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Ordoñez, Soledad R.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC). This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins. PMID:28659885

  13. A review on the effect of fly ash characteristics and their variations on the synthesis of fly ash based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattimena, Oswyn K.; Antoni, Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2017-09-01

    There are more than four decades since the last 1970s where geopolymers concrete was first introduced and developed to use as a replacement to conventional concrete material which uses cement as a binder. And since the last two decades, geopolymers which utilized fly ash as aluminosilicate source material, i.e. fly ash based geopolymers, have been investigated. Many researchers present how to produce the best fly ash based geopolymer with a various source of constituent material as well as mixing formula to achieve exceptional concrete performance. Although there is a similar trend towards factors affecting the result of fly ash based geopolymer synthesis, there is still remain a wide range in mixture proportion. The considerable variation in fly ash characteristics as source material in the synthesis can very likely be one of the causes of this problem. This paper attempts to identify the effect of source material variation of geopolymer concrete, particularly which use fly ash as source material and focuses on the variation of its characteristics and the effects to properties of concrete. From the reviews it concluded that different sources (and even the same source, but different batch) of fly ash materials will give some different characteristics of the fly ash, where it would affect the synthesis process of the fly ash based geopolymer concretes.

  14. Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Parseghian, Zareh; Hogue, Jeffrey R.

    1988-01-01

    This project was devoted to the development of a software package, called the Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation, for working with the OFQ Archives which are specially selected sets of space shuttle entry flight data relevant to flight control and flying qualities. The basic approach to creation of the workstation software was to federate and extend commercial software products to create a low cost package that operates on personal computers. Provision was made to link the workstation to large computers, but the OFQ Archive files were also converted to personal computer diskettes and can be stored on workstation hard disk drives. The primary element of the workstation developed in the project is the Interactive Data Handler (IDH) which allows the user to select data subsets from the archives and pass them to specialized analysis programs. The IDH was developed as an application in a relational database management system product. The specialized analysis programs linked to the workstation include a spreadsheet program, FREDA for spectral analysis, MFP for frequency domain system identification, and NIPIP for pilot-vehicle system parameter identification. The workstation also includes capability for ensemble analysis over groups of missions.

  15. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  16. Uncontrolled Stability in Freely Flying Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, James, Jr.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    One of the key flight modes of a flying insect is longitudinal flight, traveling along a localized two-dimensional plane from one location to another. Past work on this topic has shown that flying insects, unless stabilized by some external stimulus, are typically unstable to a well studied pitching instability. In our work, we examine this instability in a computational study to understand whether it is possible for either evolution or an aero-vehicle designer to stabilize longitudinal flight through changes to insect morphology, kinematics, or aerodynamic quantities. A quasi-steady wingbeat averaged flapping flight model is used to describe the insect. From this model, a number of non-dimensional parameters are identified. The effect of these parameters was then quantified using linear stability analysis, applied to various translational states of the insect. Based on our understanding of these parameters, we demonstrate how to find an intrinsically stable flapping flight sequence for a dragonfly-like flapping flier in an instantaneous flapping flight model.

  17. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  18. Thermal stability of nano structured fly ash synthesized by high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size, shape and texture of the fresh as well as nano structured fly ash were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The fresh ... The shape of the 30h milled particles is irregular and the surface morphology is rough. Isothermal ... Keywords: Nano materials, Particulates and Powders, XRD- analysis; Fly ash.

  19. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  20. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  1. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  2. Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis at grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    national park, with the ultimate intention of forwarding baseline information on the extent of the problem and possible control strategies. . Entomological (Tsetse flies) survey ..... for the paradoxical match of anemia with aparasitaemia. Thus, anemia is not the only and unequivocal indication of trypanosomosis. Tsetse flies in ...

  3. Dynamic response of fly ash reinforced functionally graded rubber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic analysis of jute-epoxy sandwiches with fly ash reinforced functionally gradient (FG) flexible, compliant rubber core is presented. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified by weight method. An attempt is made to study the influence of fly ash weight ...

  4. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  5. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01


    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived

  6. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  7. Biodiversity and Bionomics for Fruit Flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White is the key pest in the low and medium altitude areas. On the other hand, the Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch is the key frugivorous pest in the high altitude areas. Other native species like C. capitata (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) were less ...

  8. Diversity of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruit fly detection trapping showed that Bactrocera invadens Drew Tsuruta & White followed by Dacus bivittatus (Bigot), was the most predominant species recorded in Citrus orchards. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) was also recorded along with six species of Ceratitis. From all fruits sampled, the emerged fruit fly ...

  9. Kaliophilite from fly ash: synthesis, characterization and stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaliophilite was synthesized by fusion method using fly ash as starting material. In this method, at first, alkaline fusion of fly ash with KOH occurs, followed by hydrothermal treatment in KOH medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that the synthesized kaliophilite (S-KAL) was a plate-like crystal.

  10. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  11. Phosphorus removal from wastewater by fly ash ceramsite in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fly ash ceramsite-assisted phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater was investigated in this paper. First, the basic physical and chemical properties of two types of fly ash ceramsites were outlined. The adsorption capacity of P in wastewater was then examined by static interval experiments, in which the influence of ...

  12. Flies as pollinators of melittophilous Salvia species (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Ferhat; Atalay, Zeynep; Dikmen, Fatih; Doğan, Musa; Classen-Bockhoff, Regıne

    2014-12-01

    • Floral adaptation to a functional pollinator group does not necessarily mean close specialization to a few pollinator species. For the more than 950 species of Salvia, only bee and bird pollinations are known. Restriction to these pollinators is mainly due to the specific flower construction (lever mechanism). Nevertheless, it has been repeatedly suggested that Salvia flowers might also be pollinated by flies. Are flies able to handle the lever mechanism? Are they functionally equivalent pollinators? In this study, we compared and quantified pollen transfer by bees and flies to test whether flies are true pollinators in Salvia.• We identified pollinators using field observations and photos. Video documentation of the visitation rate and the site of pollen placement on the pollinator body, morphometric measurements, quantification of pollen placement, pollen load, handling time, and stigma contact ratio were analyzed.• Field investigations revealed that 19 insect species pollinated S. virgata and four pollinated S. verticillata, including 16 bee species from seven genera of the Apidae and three fly species from three genera of the Nemestrinidae and Tabanidae.• Flies have been found to be pollinators in primarily bee-pollinated Salvia species. This result demonstrates the potential of a given "melittoid" flower construction to broaden the range of pollinators to guarantee successful pollination and seed production. Though bees, particularly Bombus terrestris, were more efficient than flies, the study shows that flies significantly contribute to pollen transfer in Salvia. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2010-10-01

    The flying fish (family Exocoetidae) is an exceptional marine flying vertebrate, utilizing the advantages of moving in two different media, i.e. swimming in water and flying in air. Despite some physical limitations by moving in both water and air, the flying fish has evolved to have good aerodynamic designs (such as the hypertrophied fins and cylindrical body with a ventrally flattened surface) for proficient gliding flight. Hence, the morphological and behavioral adaptations of flying fish to aerial locomotion have attracted great interest from various fields including biology and aerodynamics. Several aspects of the flight of flying fish have been determined or conjectured from previous field observations and measurements of morphometric parameters. However, the detailed measurement of wing performance associated with its morphometry for identifying the characteristics of flight in flying fish has not been performed yet. Therefore, in the present study, we directly measure the aerodynamic forces and moment on darkedged-wing flying fish (Cypselurus hiraii) models and correlated them with morphological characteristics of wing (fin). The model configurations considered are: (1) both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread out, (2) only the pectoral fins spread with the pelvic fins folded, and (3) both fins folded. The role of the pelvic fins was found to increase the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio, which is confirmed by the jet-like flow structure existing between the pectoral and pelvic fins. With both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread, the longitudinal static stability is also more enhanced than that with the pelvic fins folded. For cases 1 and 2, the lift-to-drag ratio was maximum at attack angles of around 0 deg, where the attack angle is the angle between the longitudinal body axis and the flying direction. The lift coefficient is largest at attack angles around 30∼35 deg, at which the flying fish is observed to emerge from the sea surface. From glide polar

  14. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  15. Flies selected for longevity retain a young gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

      We investigated correlated responses in the transcriptomes of longevity-selected lines of Drosophila melanogaster to identify pathways that affect life span in metazoan systems. We evaluated the gene expression profile in young, middle-aged, and old male flies, finding that 530 genes were...... differentially expressed between selected and control flies when measured at the same chronological age. The longevity-selected flies consistently showed expression profiles more similar to control flies one age class younger than control flies of the same age. This finding is in accordance with a younger gene...... expression profile in longevity-selected lines. Among the genes down-regulated in longevity-selected lines, we found a clear over-representation of genes involved in immune functions, supporting the hypothesis of a life-shortening effect of an overactive immune system, known as inflammaging. We judged...

  16. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm3 of 5 mol · dm−3 NaOH + 0.4...

  18. Thaumasite formation in concrete and mortars containing fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Mulenga; J. Stark; P. Nobst [Bauhaus-University, Weimar (Germany). F.A. Finger-Institute of Material Sciences

    2003-12-01

    Due to recent reports on deterioration of concrete structures, the thaumasite form of sulfate attack has become a subject of study and close investigation. This paper investigates the formation of thaumasite in concrete and mortars containing fly ash. The results show that thaumasite formation can occur within 84 days of exposure to sulfate solutions. High volumes of fly ash can limit or promote thaumasite formation depending on the type of cement used. Thaumasite and ettringite were found among the deterioration products. However, the thaumasite formation in the specimen prepared from sulfate resisting Portland cement was not accompanied by deterioration, except by 50% fly ash addition. The mixtures of Portland limestone cement with 40% fly ash exhibited a very limited thaumasite formation while the mixtures with 50% had no thaumasite at all. It is concluded that thaumasite can also be formed in mixtures incorporating fly ash.

  19. Dynamics of Dark-Fly Genome Under Environmental Selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Minako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Agata, Kiyokazu; Fuse, Naoyuki

    2015-12-04

    Environmental adaptation is one of the most fundamental features of organisms. Modern genome science has identified some genes associated with adaptive traits of organisms, and has provided insights into environmental adaptation and evolution. However, how genes contribute to adaptive traits and how traits are selected under an environment in the course of evolution remain mostly unclear. To approach these issues, we utilize "Dark-fly", a Drosophila melanogaster line maintained in constant dark conditions for more than 60 years. Our previous analysis identified 220,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Dark-fly genome, but did not clarify which SNPs of Dark-fly are truly adaptive for living in the dark. We found here that Dark-fly dominated over the wild-type fly in a mixed population under dark conditions, and based on this domination we designed an experiment for genome reselection to identify adaptive genes of Dark-fly. For this experiment, large mixed populations of Dark-fly and the wild-type fly were maintained in light conditions or in dark conditions, and the frequencies of Dark-fly SNPs were compared between these populations across the whole genome. We thereby detected condition-dependent selections toward approximately 6% of the genome. In addition, we observed the time-course trajectory of SNP frequency in the mixed populations through generations 0, 22, and 49, which resulted in notable categorization of the selected SNPs into three types with different combinations of positive and negative selections. Our data provided a list of about 100 strong candidate genes associated with the adaptive traits of Dark-fly. Copyright © 2016 Izutsu et al.

  20. Palpebral myiasis in a Danish traveler caused by the human bot-fly (Dermatobia hominis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...

  1. Contact and spatial repellency from catnip essential oil, Nepeta cataria, against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presenting brief summaries of our significant findings on: 1). Development of an in vitro bioassay for screening/discovering biting fly repellents, 2). Strong repellency found from catnip oil and its ingredient compounds, nepetalactones against four filth fly species; 3). Feeding deterrency, oviposi...

  2. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ...) Ministry of Agriculture & Technical Department Peruvian Hass Avocado Growers Association (ProHass), Nonhost...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 319 RIN 0579-AD34 Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY...

  3. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. This action will allow interested persons additional...

  4. Predator detection and evasion by flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, David D

    2012-04-01

    Echolocating bats detect prey using ultrasonic pulses, and many nocturnally flying insects effectively detect and evade these predators through sensitive ultrasonic hearing. Many eared insects can use the intensity of the predator-generated ultrasound and the stereotyped progression of bat echolocation pulse rate to assess risk level. Effective responses can vary from gentle turns away from the threat (low risk) to sudden random flight and dives (highest risk). Recent research with eared moths shows that males will balance immediate bat predation risk against reproductive opportunity as judged by the strength and quality of conspecific pheromones present. Ultrasound exposure may, in fact, bias such decisions for up to 24 hours through plasticity in the CNS olfactory system. However, brain processing of ultrasonic stimuli to yield adaptive prey behaviors remains largely unstudied, so possible mechanisms are not known. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The buzz on fly neuronal remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Randall S

    2008-11-01

    Hormone-dependent rewiring of axons and dendrites is a conserved feature of nervous system development and plasticity. During metamorphosis in insects, steroid hormones (the ecdysteroids) and terpenoid hormones (the juvenile hormones) regulate extensive remodeling of the nervous system. These changes retool the nervous system for new behavioral and physiological functions that are required for the adult stage of the life cycle. In honey bees and other highly social insects, hormones also regulate behavioral changes and neuronal plasticity associated with transitions between social caste roles. This review focuses on recent work in fruit flies and honey bees that reveals hormonal and molecular mechanisms underlying metamorphic and caste-dependent neuronal remodeling, with specific emphasis on the role of Krüppel homolog 1.

  6. CZECH FLUID SULFOCALCIC ASH AND FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Skvara

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfocalcic ash is formed during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in the presence of limestone. It differs from classical fly ash by its composition and properties. Sulfocalcic ash contains free CaO, CaSO₄ and partially sintered aluminosilicates. In contact with water, it produces Ca(OH₂, expansive ettringite and a small amount of the CSH phase. There is little information about these ashes in the literature. At present, the possibility of using fluid sulfocalcic ashes is quite limited because of the formation of expansive ettringite. More research in the field of sulfocalcic ashes is a necessity because increasing quantities of this product are rejected by the energy-generation industry.

  7. The Hungry Fly: Hydrodynamics of feeding in the common house fly

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Manu; Steele, Miles

    2010-01-01

    A large number of insect species feed primarily on a fluid diet. To do so, they must overcome the numerous challenges that arise in the design of high-efficiency, miniature pumps. Although the morphology of insect feeding structures has been described for decades, their dynamics remain largely unknown even in the most well studied species (e.g. fruit fly). Here, in the fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate in-vivo imaging and microsurgery to elucidate the design principles of feeding structure...

  8. Oviposition deterrents for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) from fly faeces extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2006-02-01

    After oviposition, females of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann deposit a host-marking pheromone on the fruit surface that deters oviposition by conspecifics. Methanolic extracts of fruit fly faeces elicit a similar deterrent effect. The results of laboratory and field experiments using raw methanolic extracts of C. capitata faeces as an oviposition deterrent are reported. Laboratory bioassays revealed a significant positive relationship between concentration of faeces and the inhibition of oviposition responses by C. capitata. Treatment of halves of coffee bushes with methanolic extracts containing 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg faeces ml(-1) resulted in a significant reduction of infestation only at the highest concentration (P=0.03). Treatment of blocks of coffee bushes with an extract of 10 mg faeces ml(-1) resulted in an 84% reduction in infestation by C. capitata in sprayed plants and a 56% reduction in adjacent untreated coffee bushes surrounding treated plots, probably due to the deterrent effect of host-marking pheromone on fly oviposition. We conclude that faeces contain oviposition deterrent substances that effectively reduce fruit infestations by C. capitata, suggesting a clear potential for the use of this infochemical in integrated management programmes targeted at this pest.

  9. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsha Yap

    Full Text Available Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  10. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  11. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The test method followed the procedures applied for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC concrete. Test results show that fly ash-based geopolymer concrete undergoes low creep which is generally less than that of OPC concrete. After one year of loading, the results for specific creep of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete in this study ranges from 15 to 29 microstrain for concrete compressive strength 67–40 MPa respectively. From the test results, it is also found out that the creep coefficient of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is about half of that predicted using Gilbert’s Method for OPC concrete.

  12. Smelting disposal of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.; Lu, C.; Yang, J. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China); Huang, B. [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu Sichuan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash contains a significant amount of heavy metals which must be treated safely as it has a negative impact on the environment and the sustainable development of cities. The primary disposal methods used around the world are landfilling and incineration. In China, the most widely used treatment methods of MSW are open-air stacking and landfill disposal due to protected research on incineration. This paper explored the technology of the smelting operation process. It discussed the proportion of hydrated lime in the process of solidification and the effect of temperature on the separation rate of heavy metals in fly ash. The paper described the experiment and presented the physical and chemical properties of fly ash. The leaching toxicities of heavy metals in fly ash were also displayed in table format. The melting separation process of MSW incineration fly ash was discussed with particular reference to the solidification of fly ash and melting separation technology for heavy metals. It was concluded that it was feasible to use the smelting separation technology for disposal of MSW incineration fly ash as it could eliminate pollution due to heavy metals and dioxins, reduce secondary pollution, and recycle many of the heavy metals present. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li Liu

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME, a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  14. Development of Classified Fly Ash as a Pozzolanic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    This research studies the potential for using classified fly ash from Mae Moh power plant in Thailand as a pozzolanic material. Three different fly ash finenesses viz., coarse Original Fly Ash (OFA), Medium Fly Ash (MFA) and Fine Fly Ash (FFA) were used for the study. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was partially replaced with fly ash at 20 and 40% by weight of binder. The water to binder ratio was kept constant at 0.5 and the flow of mortar was maintained at 110±5% with the aid of superplasticizer (SP). Compressive strength, carbonation depth and porosity test of mortars were determined. FFA has a high potential to be used as a good pozzolanic material. The use of FFA produces mortars with good strength and low porosity. The resistance to carbonation of mortar improves with partial replacement of FFA in comparison with the normal coarse fly ash. The use of FFA results in a strong and dense mortar which is due to better dispersion and filling effect as well as an increase in the pozzolanic reaction.

  15. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  16. Dynamics of Dark-Fly Genome Under Environmental Selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Izutsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental adaptation is one of the most fundamental features of organisms. Modern genome science has identified some genes associated with adaptive traits of organisms, and has provided insights into environmental adaptation and evolution. However, how genes contribute to adaptive traits and how traits are selected under an environment in the course of evolution remain mostly unclear. To approach these issues, we utilize “Dark-fly”, a Drosophila melanogaster line maintained in constant dark conditions for more than 60 years. Our previous analysis identified 220,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Dark-fly genome, but did not clarify which SNPs of Dark-fly are truly adaptive for living in the dark. We found here that Dark-fly dominated over the wild-type fly in a mixed population under dark conditions, and based on this domination we designed an experiment for genome reselection to identify adaptive genes of Dark-fly. For this experiment, large mixed populations of Dark-fly and the wild-type fly were maintained in light conditions or in dark conditions, and the frequencies of Dark-fly SNPs were compared between these populations across the whole genome. We thereby detected condition-dependent selections toward approximately 6% of the genome. In addition, we observed the time-course trajectory of SNP frequency in the mixed populations through generations 0, 22, and 49, which resulted in notable categorization of the selected SNPs into three types with different combinations of positive and negative selections. Our data provided a list of about 100 strong candidate genes associated with the adaptive traits of Dark-fly.

  17. Barcoding Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni): impediments and improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacket, Mark J; Semeraro, Linda; Malipatil, Mallik B

    2012-05-01

    Identification of adult fruit flies primarily involves microscopic examination of diagnostic morphological characters, while immature stages, such as larvae, can be more problematic. One of the Australia's most serious horticultural pests, the Queensland Fruit Fly (Bactrocera tryoni: Tephritidae), is of particular biosecurity/quarantine concern as the immature life stages occur within food produce and can be difficult to identify using morphological characteristics. DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene could be employed to increase the accuracy of fruit fly species identifications. In our study, we tested the utility of standard DNA barcoding techniques and found them to be problematic for Queensland Fruit Flies, which (i) possess a nuclear copy (a numt pseudogene) of the barcoding region of COI that can be co-amplified; and (ii) as in previous COI phylogenetic analyses closely related B. tryoni complex species appear polyphyletic. We found that the presence of a large deletion in the numt copy of COI allowed an alternative primer to be designed to only amplify the mitochondrial COI locus in tephritid fruit flies. Comparisons of alternative commonly utilized mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome Oxidase II and Cytochrome b, revealed a similar level of variation to COI; however, COI is the most informative for DNA barcoding, given the large number of sequences from other tephritid fruit fly species available for comparison. Adopting DNA barcoding for the identification of problematic fly specimens provides a powerful tool to distinguish serious quarantine fruit fly pests (Tephritidae) from endemic fly species of lesser concern. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Mercury Retention by Fly Ashes from Oxy-fuel Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Miranda, Nuria; Villamil Rumayor, Marta; López Antón, María Antonia; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanism of mercury retention in fly ashes, the main solid waste from coal combustion power plants, and to evaluate the interactions between the type of mercury and fly ashes. The work was based on the results of mercury speciation in the gas and the solid fly ash before and after mercury retention. The identification of the mercury species in the gas was performed using previously validated methods, but the speciation of the mercury retained i...

  19. Leaching of nutrient salts from fly ash from biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  20. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  1. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  2. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (<10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and control...

  4. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  5. Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B; Thomas, A L R

    2002-12-12

    Flying insects generate forces that are too large to be accounted for by conventional steady-state aerodynamics. To investigate these mechanisms of force generation, we trained red admiral butterflies, Vanessa atalanta, to fly freely to and from artificial flowers in a wind tunnel, and used high-resolution, smoke-wire flow visualizations to obtain qualitative, high-speed digital images of the air flow around their wings. The images show that free-flying butterflies use a variety of unconventional aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force: wake capture, two different types of leading-edge vortex, active and inactive upstrokes, in addition to the use of rotational mechanisms and the Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism. Free-flying butterflies often used different aerodynamic mechanisms in successive strokes. There seems to be no one 'key' to insect flight, instead insects rely on a wide array of aerodynamic mechanisms to take off, manoeuvre, maintain steady flight, and for landing.

  6. Cost Avoidance Techniques for RC-135 Program Flying Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    FMT .................................................................... 22 Events per Hour on PMT and FMT ...PMT and FMT Event Summations .................................................................. 20 Figure 6 - PMT and FMT Events per Sortie...21 Figure 7 - FMT / FMT Flying Schedule

  7. Etiology of Human Genetic Disease on the Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clement Y; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2017-06-01

    The model organism Drosophila melanogaster has been at the forefront of genetic studies since before the discovery of DNA. Although human disease modeling in flies may still be rather novel, recent advances in genetic tool design and genome sequencing now confer huge advantages in the fly system when modeling human disease. In this review, we focus on new genomic tools for human gene variant analysis; new uses for the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) in detection of background alleles that influence a phenotype; and several examples of how multigenic conditions, both complex disorders and duplication and/or deletion syndromes, can be effectively studied in the fly model system. Fruit flies are a far cry from the quaint genetic model of the past, but rather, continue to evolve as a powerful system for the study of human genetic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Durability properties of high volume fly ash self compacting concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dinakar; K.G. Babu; Manu Santhanam [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India). Building Technology Division

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of self compacting concretes (SCCs) with high volume replacements of fly ash. Eight fly ash self compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at desired fly ash percentages of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 85%, in comparison with five different mixtures of normal vibrated concretes (NCs) at equivalent strength grades. The durability properties were studied through the measurement of permeable voids, water absorption, acid attack and chloride permeation. The results indicated that the SCCs showed higher permeable voids and water absorption than the vibrated normal concretes of the same strength grades. However, in acid attack and chloride diffusion studies the high volume fly ash SCCs had significantly lower weight losses and chloride ion diffusion.

  9. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  10. Chemical and Physical Characterization of Fly Ash as Geopolymer Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risdanareni Puput

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on finding suitable cement substitute material becomes massive due to environmental effect. Geopolymer as inorganic material is potential to be the smart solution to overcome global warming issue. Fly ash is a waste material rich in silica and alumina becomes popular raw material to produce geopolymer. The best properties ofgeopolymer paste come from the high quality of fly ash. Therefore, it is important to investigate various types of fly ash and geopolymer properties. Their chemical and physical properties characterized by XRF, pH value, XRD and SEM. The results showed that type of fly ash depended on amount of Si-based of Ca-based compound which consisted of spherical morphology. Geopolymer paste produced from the ash with different compound has bulky and irregular shape morphology. The pH value of each ash has also a correlation with the setting time of fresh paste.

  11. Fugitive particulate emission factors for dry fly ash disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stephen F; Mallard, Jonathan W; Mao, Qi; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2013-07-01

    Dry fly ash disposal involves dropping ash from a truck and the movement of a heavy grader or similar vehicle across the ash surface. These operations are known to produce fugitive particulate emissions that are not readily quantifiable using standard emission measurement techniques. However there are numerous situations--such as applying for a source air permit--that require these emissions be quantified. Engineers traditionally use emission factors (EFs) derived from measurements of related processes to estimate fly ash disposal emissions. This study near a dry fly ash disposal site using state-of-the-art particulate monitoring equipment examines for the first time fugitive emissions specific to fly ash handling at an active disposal site. The study measured hourly airborne mass concentrations for particles smaller than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 10 microm (PM10) along with meteorological conditions and atmospheric turbidity at high temporal resolution to characterize and quantify fugitive fly ash emissions. Fugitive fly ash transport and dispersion were computed using the on-site meteorological data and a regulatory air pollutant dispersion model (AERMOD). Model outputs coupled with ambient measurements yielded fugitive fly ash EFs that averaged 96 g Mg(-1) (of ash processed) for the PM(c) fraction (= PM10 - PM2.5) and 18 g Mg(-1) for PM2.5. Median EFs were much lower due to the strongly skewed shape of the derived EF distributions. Fugitive EFs from nearby unpaved roads were also characterized. Our primary finding is that EFs for dry fly ash disposal are considerably less than EFs derived using US Environmental Protection Agency AP-42 Emissions Handbook formulations for generic aggregate materials. This appears to be due to a large difference (a factor of 10+) between fugitive vehicular EFs estimated using the AP-42 formulation for vehicles driving on industrial roads (in this case, heavy slow-moving grading equipment) and EFs derived by the current study. Fugitive

  12. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham

    2009-01-01

    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  13. Adsorption of selenium using bagasse fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasewar, Kailas L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Visveswarya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur (India); Prasad, Basheshwar; Gulipalli, Sekhararao [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee (India)

    2009-07-15

    The present work involves the study of Se(IV) adsorption onto bagasse fly ash. The adsorbents were coated with a ferric chloride solution for the effective removal of selenium. The physico-chemical characterization of the adsorbent was carried out using standard methods, e. g., proximate analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the effect of various parameters such as adsorbent dose, initial pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process. Results obtained from these studies were analyzed using various kinetic models and isotherms. Se(IV) adsorption onto adsorbent was high at low pH values, and decreased with an increase in initial pH. A temperature study showed that the uptake of Se(IV) was greatest at 293 K, within the temperature range studied. The parameters of pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and Weber-Morris intra-particle kinetic models were determined. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Error analyses were also carried out using hybrid fractional error function and Marquardt's percent standard deviation. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Dietary requirements of seaweed flies ( Coelopa frigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Sally J.; Young, Alison M.; Day, Thomas H.

    1987-05-01

    The seaweed fly, Coelopa frigida (Fabricius), is mostly found in piles of decomposing seaweed deposited on the seashore which form its only breeding sites. It is shown that C. frigida can complete its life cycle in a wide variety of marine algae, and that the larvae are unable to survive without some, as yet unidentified, consituent of seaweed. The larvae also have a requirement for a microbial gut flora which probably derives from the bacterial flora naturally associated with algae growing in the sea. After deposition of the seaweed on the shore, the bacterial population increases enormously, and is ingested by the feeding Coelopa larvae. The dietary requirement for bacteria can be satisfied by a variety of pure bacterial cultures of marine origin, and also by pure cultures of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is suggested that the microbial cells are being used by the larvae as their principal source of energy. The bacterial populations naturally found on stranded seaweed are grazed by the feeding larvae. It is the combined activities of microbial and insect populations that result in rapid decomposition of the seaweed. The ecological relationships between marine algae, the microbial flora, and dipteran larvae are discussed.

  15. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (1997) also studied the hydrothermal reaction of fly ash with Ca(OH)2 and CaSO4⋅2H2O. Muntcan et al (1987) studied on the autoclaved limestone materials with addi- tion of fly ash. The physico-mechanical properties of the resulting ... tate in 1 litre of alcohol. It was standardized as follows: About 0⋅1 g of freshly ignited ...

  16. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation o...

  17. Comparison of creep of the cement pastes included fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padevět Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to comparison of creep of cement pastes containing fly ash admixture. The size of creep in time depends on the amount of components of the cement paste. Attention is paid to the content of classical fly ash in cement paste and its impact on the size of creep. The moisture of cement pastes is distinguished because it significantly affects the rheological properties of the material.

  18. Flying Geese” Paradigm: Review, Analytical Tool and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo,Tri

    2007-01-01

    The “flying geese” (FG) pattern is one of the well-recognized models to be strongly considered in explaining economic development in the East Asian region. This paper scrutinizes the flying geese (FG) pattern in East Asia. Firstly, the evolution of FG concept starting from the original Akamatsu’s concept to the modern one is briefly discussed. Secondly, this paper develops an analytical tool namely “products mapping” which is constructed by combining two fundamental variables derived from the...

  19. Fear of flying treatment programs for passengers: an international update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerwen, Lucas J; Diekstra, René F W; Arondeus, Josine M; Wolfger, Robert

    2004-02-01

    This article is an update of an earlier international review of fear of flying treatment programs. METHOD. One hundred and sixty two airlines and treatment facilities around the world were approached for information on treatment programs for flying phobia. In comparison to the earlier review, the number of treatment facilities able to provide relevant and valid information increased from 15 to 36. Information was obtained both with a written questionnaire and by obtaining oral information from treatment facility representatives. This information was obtained at the second international fear of flying conference in Vienna on December 2000. The increase in the number of participating facilities can presumably be attributed both to a world wide increase in the demand for treatment for fear of flying and professionals becoming more interested in entering the field of fear of flying treatment. However, the increase may also be due to the fact that some clinics or programs have only recently discovered the international network of treatment facilities. RESULTS. In comparison to the previous review, the number of facilities that provide treatment programs that meet high professional standards has increased considerably over the past few years. Although there is still substantial variety in the quality and components of treatment programs, there is also a significant number of facilities that provide more or less similar qualified treatment programs and carry out treatment evaluation on a regular basis. Furthermore, experts from the participating centers reached consensus on 'golden rules' for fear of flying patients and flying-phobia therapists. CONCLUSIONS. There is a growing consensus among fear of flying treatment facilities on methods and protocols.

  20. Biogeographic Patterns of Finnish Crane Flies (Diptera, Tipuloidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Jukka Salmela

    2012-01-01

    Species richness of terrestrial and freshwater biota generally decreases with increasing latitude. Some taxa, however, show an anomalous species richness pattern in a regional or global scale. The aim of this study was to examine (i) regional variation in species richness, (ii) faunistic composition, (iii) occupancy, and (iv) proportions of different distribution types of Finnish crane flies. Analyses were based on incidence data pooled into 20 biogeographical provinces. Finnish crane fly fau...

  1. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from...... potentiality to be valorized. The main conclusion of this paper regards fly ash’s profound dissimilarity, where each ash should be studied separately....

  2. Quantifying individual fruit fly consumption with Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, H N; Schumann, R A; Yang, J J; Yang, L K; Simpson, S E; Etxeberria, E; Burns, R E; Harris, D L; Fraser, S

    2004-12-01

    We needed a technique to compare the consumption of baits by individual Carribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). By improving consumption and determining individual dose, we could lower pesticide concentration while retaining bait/pesticide efficacy and potentially reduce the environmental impact of fruit fly bait/pesticide eradication methods. We report here a precise dye-based technique for the quantification of consumption by individual adult A. suspensa fruit flies. Fluorescein, measured at 491 nm, and cresol red, measured at 573 nm, were efficiently extracted with 0.1 M NaOH and quantified with a spectrophotometer. The lower limit for this method with 0.1% dye concentration is 300 nl consumed by an individual fly. Dye movement to the hindgut and possible defecation occurred in approximately 4 h; maximum ingestion occurred in approximately 1 h. Maximum experimental time is limited to 4 h. Flies preferred feeding upside down compared with right side up when given a choice; consumption was equal when flies were given no choice of feeding position. Thus, maximum bait/pesticide efficacy might be achieved with an upside-down presentation. Regurgitation led to a 100% overestimation of actual consumption with the J-tube presentation of food. Our individual fly consumption technique will be useful in comparing consumption in phagostimulant studies, estimating dose in oral toxicity tests, differentiating behavioral and physiological resistance in toxicant studies, ultimately leading to improved bait/pesticide methods and reduced environmental impact of area wide fruit fly eradication programs. This technique could be applied to studies of tephritid consumption, to the consumption of other insects, and to regurgitation studies.

  3. KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

    2000-11-01

    Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

  4. Pure zeolite synthesis from silica extracted from coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Andres, J.M.; Janssen, M.; Nugteren, H. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Earth Science ' Jaume Almera'

    2002-07-01

    Pure zeolites can be synthesised from silica extracted from fly ash by alkaline leaching. If the process is optimised the solid residue arising from this extraction may also contain a relatively high content of zeolitic material mixed with residual fly ash components. Both the pure and the impure zeolitic material have a high potential for application in waste-water and flue gas-cleaning technologies. The silica extraction potential of 23 European coal fly ashes covering most of the possible fly ash types is investigated in this study. Optimisation of leaching processes, by varying temperature, time and alkali/fly ash rates, permitted extraction yields up to 140 g of SiO{sub 2} per kg using a single step process, but the extraction yields may reach up to 210 g kg{sup -1} by applying thermal pre-treatments prior to the extraction. The solid residue arising from the silica extraction experiments shows a high NaP1 zeolite content. A high Si/Al ratio of the glass matrix, the occurrence of easily soluble silica phases in the original fly ash and a high reactive surface area were found to be the major parameters influencing silica extraction. High purity 4A and X zeolitic material was obtained by combining the silica extracts from the Meirama fly ash and a waste solution from the Al-anodising industry. The results allowed conversion of the silica extraction yields to an equivalent 630 g of pure 4A-X zeolite per kg of fly ash with a cation exchange capacity of 4.7 meq g{sup -1}.

  5. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Святослав Сергійович Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  6. Effects of organic farming on flies in Danish field boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sune

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to see if organic farming increases the diversity and abundance of fly families in field boundaries when compared to similar conventional biotopes. Secondly, it was investigated whether an increasing organic farming period would increase diversity and abundance of flies. Furthermore, the results from the sampling programme were interpreted ecologically in terms of general community patterns by subjecting data to multivariate analysis. The study reve...

  7. Fundamental Study of Low NOx Combustion Fly Ash Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. M. Suubert; I. Kuloats; K. Smith; N. Sabanegh; R.H. Hurt; W. D. Lilly; Y. M. Gao

    1997-05-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  8. Fundamental Study of Low-Nox Combustion Fly Ash Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. M. Suuberg; I. Kuloats; K. Smith; N. Sabanegh; R. H. Hurt; W. D. Lilly; Y. M. Gao

    1997-11-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  9. Development of fly ash-based automotive brake lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S.; Chugh, Y.P. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). College of Engineering

    2007-07-15

    Coal-fired power plants all over the world generate huge amounts of fly ash each year, 70 million tons of which are produced in the United States alone. Only 40% of all fly ashes generated in the USA find beneficial applications and rest have to be disposed off, which is burden for the generation industry. Fly ash particles possess certain characteristics that make them suitable for use in friction composites as a filter material. An attempt has been made through this research to incorporate more than 50wt% of fly ash particles in automotive brake lining friction composites. This paper presents the research carried out on development of friction composites, using fly ash obtained from a specific power plant in Illinois. Ingredients such as phenolic resin, aramid pulp, glass fiber, potassium titanate, graphite, aluminum fiber and copper powder were used in the composite development phase, in addition to the fly ash. The developed brake lining composites have exhibited consistent coefficients of friction in the range of 0.35-0.4, and wear rates lower than 12wt%.

  10. Pandora bullata (Entomophthoromycota: Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalva, Cristian; Collier, Karin; Luz, Christian; Humber, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was observed over several days in mid-February 2015 at the local garbage dump adjacent to the city of Cavalcante, northern Goiás. This site harbored large populations of both C. megacephala and a Musca sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) but only the population of oriental latrine fly was affected by any fungal pathogen and presented unusually dense populations of fresh cadavers. The fungus was identifiable as Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) only after a very small number of characteristically decorated resting spores were found in these flies two months later; this represents the first Brazilian (and South American) record of this species. P. bullata is known previously from a small number of North American, European and Australian collections, all of which have included relatively abundant production of resting spores. We cannot dismiss the possibility that the extremely sparse formation of resting spores at this Brazilian site may be due to abiotic factors such as latitude (13°46'40.53″S), day length, ambient temperatures, or even the precipitation patterns in this mid-tropical montaine site. Epizootic events affecting calliphorids in Brazil strengthen the interest in entomophthoran pathogens for biological control of flies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  12. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  13. Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus pa­patasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leish­maniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. kandelakii, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. keshishiani and P. alexandri are considered as probable vectors of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. A literature search was per­formed of the relevant multiple databases from 1966 to 2013 to include studies on sand flies, vector control, leish­maniasis, Phlebotomus. Sand fly control in Iran began in 1966 by Iranian researchers, and long-term evaluation of its effects was completed in the study areas of the country. Herein, a review of vector control strategies in Iran to com­bat leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, application of chemicals in rodent burrows, impregnation of bed nets and curtains with insecticides, the use of insect repellents, impregnation of dog collars and the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to various insecticides has been summarized thus far. The investigation of the behavioral patterns of the adults of different sand fly species, introduction of biological insecticide agents, the use of insecticidal plants and other novel strategies for the control of sand fly populations have received much attention in the areas of studies, hence should be recommended and improved since they provide optimistic results.

  14. Study on solidification for municipal solid waste incineration fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.; Liu, Q.; Yang, J.; Xi, W. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China); Huang, B. [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu (China)

    2008-07-01

    The appropriate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental issues, despite the significant efforts to prevent, reduce, reuse and recycle waste. Two primary options can be used for managing MSW incineration fly ash. These are landfill disposal or incineration. Incineration is effective in toxic substance destruction, waste volume reduction and energy recovery, as compared with landfill. MSW fly ash generally contains higher content of easily leachable heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and zinc. In China, source separation of municipal solid wastes is not well practiced and has resulted in high concentrations of heavy metals being detected in the MSW fly ash. This paper presented a preliminary study to examine the properties of MSW fly ash and the fixing abilities of ordinary Portland cement and hydrated time on heavy metals. The paper discussed the effects of experimental parameters on the properties of solidified fly ash and the optimal technology conditions. The fly ash used in the study was collected from solid waste incineration plants in Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Chongqing, China. It was concluded that the effect on solidification got better and the leaching quantities of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, cadmium, or chromium decreased with the addition of cement used as adhesive. The optimal proportion of cement was 8 per cent. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Fear of flying treatment programs for passengers: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerwen, L J; Diekstra, R F

    2000-04-01

    There are facilities established around the world for treating passenger flight anxiety, often as a joint activity of airlines and private entrepreneurs or mental health professionals. In the scientific and professional literature, there is little information about how these facilities operate and what the components of their treatment programs are. This paper is the first review to date to provide this information. There were 212 airlines and treatment facilities approached for information on treatment programs for flying phobia, 43 of which were active in this field. Extensive information could be obtained from 15, which were the best known and well-developed. Information was collected both with a questionnaire and by meeting representatives from 15 international fear of flying treatment facilities that participated in the First International Conference on Fear of Flying (Feb. 1996). Fear of flying among passengers is a phenomenon with epidemic proportions, effecting roughly 10-40% of the adult population. All treatment programs share two basic elements, an information component and a test flight. The programs vary considerably in terms of treatment components. However, there is little available information on efficacy. To date there is a wide variety between facilities for the treatment for fear of flying in terms of methods and protocols used. Experts agree on the clear-cut need for standardization of a "best" minimum protocol for fear of flying treatment programs for which the main components where identified.

  17. Population Dynamics of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the Mediterranean fruit fly was studied along Montenegro seacoast. Tephri traps baited with 3 component female-biased attractants were used in 11 different localities to monitor the fruit fly population in commercial citrus orchards, mixed-fruit orchards, and in backyards. From 2008–2010, the earliest captures were recorded no earlier than July. In 2011, the first adult fly was detected in mid-June. Low captures rates were recorded in July and August (below 0.5 flies per trap per day; FTD and peaked from mid-September to the end of October of each year. Our results indicate fluctuation of fly per trap per day depending on dates of inspection and locality, with significant differences in the adult population density. A maximum population was always reached in the area of Budva-Herceg Novi with an FTD of 66.5, 89.5, 71.63, and 24.64 (from 2008–2011 respectively. Fly activity lasts from mid-June/early-July to end December, with distinct seasonal variation in the population.

  18. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  19. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  20. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mochamad Solikin; Budi Setiawan

    2017-01-01

    ...) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete...

  1. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  2. Corrosion Studies of Fly Ash and Fly Ash-Slag Based Geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, F. F.; Amli, S. F. M.; Hussin, K.; Rahmat, A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of corrosion studies between Fly Ash Geopolymer (FG) paste and Fly Ash-Slag Geopolymer (FSG) paste. Geopolymer was made from aluminosilicate inorganic polymers mixed with the alkaline activator in order to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) to the ecosystem. Samples then were cured at 60ºC for 24 hours in the oven. Reinforcement bar is placed at the center of the paste. The samples were examined after 7, 14 and 28 days in terms of Open Circuit Potential (OCP) test, phase analysis and morphology analysis. The potential values regarding OCP test for FSG paste from 7 days until 28 days are 0.464 V, 0.474 V and 0.498 V more positive than FG paste which the potential values are 0.087 V, 0.133 V and 0.206 V respectively. From the Pourbaix diagram, all the potential values for FG paste and FSG paste were located in the same Fe2O3, passivity region. Passive layer which is the oxide form exists in this region to protect the reinforcement bar from corrosion agents. It can be proved from phase analysis results which iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH), hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) peaks exist. The differences of morphological structures of these pastes were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It shows that FSG paste had good corrosion resistance and low corrosion rate compared to FG paste.

  3. Mutational analysis of the flagellar protein FliG: sites of interaction with FliM and implications for organization of the switch complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Perry N; Terrazas, Moises; Paul, Koushik; Blair, David F

    2007-01-01

    The switch complex at the base of the bacterial flagellum is essential for flagellar assembly, rotation, and switching. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella, the complex contains about 26 copies of FliG, 34 copies of FliM, and more then 100 copies of FliN, together forming the basal body C ring. FliG is involved most directly in motor rotation and is located in the upper (membrane-proximal) part of the C ring. A crystal structure of the middle and C-terminal parts of FliG shows two globular domains connected by an alpha-helix and a short extended segment. The middle domain of FliG has a conserved surface patch formed by the residues EHPQ(125-128) and R(160) (the EHPQR motif), and the C-terminal domain has a conserved surface hydrophobic patch. To examine the functional importance of these and other surface features of FliG, we made mutations in residues distributed over the protein surface and measured the effects on flagellar assembly and function. Mutations preventing flagellar assembly occurred mainly in the vicinity of the EHPQR motif and the hydrophobic patch. Mutations causing aberrant clockwise or counterclockwise motor bias occurred in these same regions and in the waist between the upper and lower parts of the C-terminal domain. Pull-down assays with glutathione S-transferase-FliM showed that FliG interacts with FliM through both the EHPQR motif and the hydrophobic patch. We propose a model for the organization of FliG and FliM subunits that accounts for the FliG-FliM interactions identified here and for the different copy numbers of FliG and FliM in the flagellum.

  4. Mystery mushroom malingerers: Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015 (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Brown

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A mysterious female phorid fly, known for many years to be associated with fungal sporophores ("mushrooms" is identified as Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015. Male and female flies were collected emerging from the fungus Psathyrella candolleana (Fr. Maire, and females were observed swarming over the sporophores.

  5. Mystery mushroom malingerers: Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015 (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian V; Hartop, Emily A

    2017-01-01

    A mysterious female phorid fly, known for many years to be associated with fungal sporophores ("mushrooms") is identified as Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015. Male and female flies were collected emerging from the fungus Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Maire, and females were observed swarming over the sporophores.

  6. Selected elements in fly agaric Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Lipka, K; Mazur, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S

    2007-09-01

    Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies, as well as separately in caps and stalks, of fly agaric collected from three geographically distant sites in northern part of Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. For elements such as Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Ga, Mo, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, Tl, and V concentrations were similar in the caps and stalks, respectively, and for K, Zn, Ag, Ca, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg, Rb and Se were greater in the caps, while for Co, Cs and Na in the stalks. For Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Tl and V concentration in the caps showed spatial variations (P<0.05), while for Cu, K, Mg, Na, Se and Zn was independent of the site. The elements such as K with median or mean in the caps between 37,000 and 43,000 microg/g.dm and Mg with 920 and 1,100 microg/g dm were most abundant. Next, within median values range from approximately 100 to 500 microg/g dm were such as Ca, Fe and Al, and in descending order they followed by Rb (100-400 microg/g dm); V, Na, Zn (50-200 microg/g dm); Cu, Mn (10-50 microg/g dm); Cd (10-20 microg/g dm); Se (5 microg/g dm); Ba (<1-3); Cr, Ag, Pb, Sr (<1-2 microg/g dm); Cs, Co, Hg (<1-1 microg/g dm); Ga (<0.5), Sb, Mo and Tl (<0.1 microg/g dm).

  7. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  8. Size fraction characterization of highly-calcareous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 357-359 Mesogeion Avenue, GR-152 31, Halandri, Athens (Greece); Itskos, Socrates [Department of Chemical Technology and the Environment, Steam Electric Station of Amynteon-Filotas, Public Power Corporation of Greece, GR-532 00, Amynteon (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of lignite fly ash (FA) varies as a function of the prevalent conditions in both the processes of power production and lignite mining. The differentiation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the highly-calcareous lignite fly ash, as a function of its particle size distribution, is verified in this paper. According to the results of the conducted research, a fine-grained fraction of considerable amount presents properties that obstruct the sustainable exploitation of calcareous lignite fly ash in cement industry applications. On the other hand, the same grain fraction (because of its hydraulic properties) can be utilized in other sort of applications, based on different criteria, i.e. in road constructions. The coarse-grained fraction (which reflects a low proportion to the total fly ash output) presents the same undesired characteristics as well. Rather, the intermediate grain fraction (75-150 {mu}m) presents the highly desirable properties when fly ash is utilized as a pozzolanic additive. In addition, the mechanism of the formation of the intermediate grain fraction strongly prevents the factors that cause the variation of fly ash-quality. It is therefore the optimum part of the whole amount of lignite FA, to be utilized as additive in cement manufacturing. The outcomes of this paper will hopefully contribute towards the crucial goal of the expansion of the utilization of calcareous lignite fly ash by proposing a more effective way of using this material, basically by taking advantage of its fundamental chemical and mineralogical properties. (author)

  9. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present...... study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  10. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  11. The utilisation of fly ash in CO2 mineral carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschik Jolanta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fixation of CO2 in the form of inorganic carbonates, also known as mineral carbonation, is an interesting option for the removal of carbon dioxide from various gas streams. The captured CO2 is reacted with metal-oxide bearing materials, usually naturally occurring minerals. The alkaline industrial waste, such as fly ash can also be considered as a source of calcium or magnesium. In the present study the solubility of fly ash from conventional pulverised hard coal fired boilers, with and without desulphurisation products, and fly ash from lignite fluidised bed combustion, generated by Polish power stations was analysed. The principal objective was to assess the potential of fly ash used as a reactant in the process of mineral carbonation. Experiments were done in a 1 dm3 reactor equipped with a heating jacket and a stirrer. The rate of dissolution in water and in acid solutions was measured at various temperatures (20 - 80ºC, waste-to-solvent ratios (1:100 - 1:4 and stirrer speeds (300 - 1100 min-1. Results clearly show that fluidised lignite fly ash has the highest potential for carbonation due to its high content of free CaO and fast kinetics of dissolution, and can be employed in mineral carbonation of CO2.

  12. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  13. Evaluation and Treatment of Coal Fly Ash for Adsorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    Full Text Available Many researchers had investigated fly ash as an adsorbent for the uptake of organic compounds from petrochemical waste effluents. The availability, inexpensive and its adsorption characteristic had made it an alternative media for the removal of organic compounds from aqueous solution. The physical property of South African Coal Fly Ash (SACFA was investigated to determine its adsorption capability and how it can be improved. Chemical treatment using 1M HCl solution in the ratio of (1 g fly ash to (2 ml of acid was used and compared with untreated heat-treated samples. The chemically treated fly ash has a higher specific surface area of 5.4116 m2/g than the heat-treated fly ash with 2.9969 m2/g. More attention had to be given to the utilization of SACFA for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds through the application of Liquid phase adsorption process that was considered as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly technology.

  14. Biogeographic Patterns of Finnish Crane Flies (Diptera, Tipuloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Salmela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species richness of terrestrial and freshwater biota generally decreases with increasing latitude. Some taxa, however, show an anomalous species richness pattern in a regional or global scale. The aim of this study was to examine (i regional variation in species richness, (ii faunistic composition, (iii occupancy, and (iv proportions of different distribution types of Finnish crane flies. Analyses were based on incidence data pooled into 20 biogeographical provinces. Finnish crane fly fauna consists of 335 species; the provincial richness varies from 91 to 237. The species richness of all species and saproxylic/fungivorous species decreased with increasing latitude; mire-dwelling crane flies displayed a reversed pattern (Spearman's correlations. Thirty-one species occupied a single province and 11 species were present in all provinces. Provincial assemblages showed a strong latitudinal gradient (NMS ordination and faunistic distance increased with increasing geographical distance (Mantel test. Nearly half (48% of the Finnish crane flies are Trans-Palaearctic, roughly one-third (34% are West Palaearctic, and only 16 and 2% are Holarctic and Fennoscandian, respectively. Endemic Fennoscandian species are discussed in detail; most likely there are no true endemic crane flies in this region.

  15. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Biological meaning of the methyl eugenol to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, S.; Subahar, S

    1998-12-16

    The objective of this research is to test a hypothesis whether methyl eugenol has a benefit in sexual selection of fruit flies and to find at what age the male flies respond to methyl eugenol. This test was conducted using carambola fruit fly (Bractocera carambolae) at Inter University Center for Life Science of ITB. The results of the tests are summarized as follows ; 1. Males started to respond to methyl eugenol at the age of 11 days old and the maximum number of males were recorded on 14 and 15 days old. 2. Most of the carambola fruit fly start to respond to methyl eugenol before they become sexually mature. 3. A very small percentage of newly emerged males (less than 1%) survive to mate with females during treatment with methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol has benefit in sexual selection of carabola fruit fly, i.e., males responded to methyl eugenol before they engage in sexual activities, while females responded to methyl eugenol only when males started their mating activities. (author)

  17. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  18. Producing a synthetic zeolite from secondary coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Yan, Chunjie; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Hongquan; Luo, Wenjun

    2016-11-01

    Secondary coal fly ash is known as a by-product produced by the extracting alumina industry from high-alumina fly ash, which is always considered to be solid waste. Zeolitization of secondary coal fly ash offers an opportunity to create value-added products from this industrial solid waste. The influence of synthesis parameters on zeolite NaA such as alkalinity, the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3, crystallization time and temperature was investigated in this paper. It was found that the types of synthetic zeolites produced were to be highly dependent on the conditions of the crystallization process. Calcium ion exchange capacity and whiteness measurements revealed that the synthesized product meets the standard for being used as detergent, indicating a promising use as a builder in detergent, ion-exchangers or selective adsorbents. Yield of up to a maximum of 1.54 g/g of ash was produced for zeolite NaA from the secondary coal fly ash residue. This result presents a potential use of the secondary coal fly ash to obtain a high value-added product by a cheap and alternative zeolitization procedure.

  19. Availability of sulfur in fly ash to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elseewi, A.A.; Bingham, F.T.; Page, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was added to soil in variable amounts and the availability of sulfur to a variety of plant species from this source was compared to that of gypsum. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions with a calcareous and two acid soils which were low in plant-available sulfur. The fly ash used contained 0.4% S, all of which is extractable by NH/sub 4/OAc. When mixed with a calcareous and an acid soil at rates of 1 to 2% by weight, the fly ash corrected a S deficiency in the soil and maximized the yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.). The increase in yield (twofold to threefold in alfalfa and 40 to 70% in bermudagrass) was accompanied by an increase in the S content of the plant tops from a deficiency level (<0.1%) to a sufficiency level (greater than or equal to 0.2%). The availability of fly ash-S and gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ . 2H/sub 2/O)-S was compared by the addition of equal amounts of S from the two sources (25-, 50-, and 100-mg S/kg soil) to an acid soil. Yield and S content of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were equally improved, demonstrating that the availability of fly ash derived-S is equivalent to that of gympsum-S.

  20. Respiration in High Flying: (United Services Section).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, G S

    1937-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure falls, as height increases, to about one-ninth of its sea-level value at 50,000 feet. The intake of oxygen into the blood depends on the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air, which is about one-fifth of the atmospheric pressure. But since the gaseous content of the lungs is saturated with water vapour at body temperature, 47 mm. Hg. of the atmospheric pressure in the lungs is due to water vapour and is therefore not available for oxygen or other gases, while the alveolar air contains also an almost constant pressure of 40 mm. CO(2).Mental and physical output demand an adequate partial pressure of O(2); they begin to be limited as soon as this falls, and at heights above 18,000 feet are seriously reduced. Consequently in order to fly higher than about 15,000 feet it is necessary to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air. Up to about 44,000 feet this can be done by merely raising the percentage of oxygen, usually by allowing a regulated stream of oxygen to enter a small naso-buccal mask, but preferably by a closed system in which the negative pressure of inspiration opens a valve and allows oxygen to enter a bag from which it is inspired.Beyond 44,000 feet as a limit (and a lesser height for safety) it is necessary to create a local atmospheric pressure around the pilot higher than that of the surrounding air, by enclosing him in an airtight sit or cabin in which a relatively increased pressure with a maximum value of about 2(1/2) lb. per square inch is maintained, while he breathes pure oxygen. This device was used in the recent British world record high flight, when a height of 50,000 feet was attained. The pressure-suit used by the pilot on this occasion and the decompression chamber recently built at Farnborough are described in detail.

  1. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  2. Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankowski, P; Zou, L; Hodges, R

    2004-10-18

    Current regulations classify fly ash as a prescribed waste and prohibit its disposal in regular landfill. Treatment of the fly ash can reduce the leach rate of metals, and allow it to be disposed in less prescribed landfill. A geopolymer matrix was investigated as a potential stabilisation method for brown coal fly ash. Precipitator fly ash was obtained from electrostatic precipitators and leached fly ash was collected from ash disposal ponds, and leaching tests were conducted on both types of geopolymer stabilised fly ashes. The ratio of fly ash to geopolymer was varied to determine the effects of different compositions on leaching rates. Fourteen metals and heavy metals were targeted during the leaching tests and the results indicate that a geopolymer is effective at reducing the leach rates of many metals from the fly ash, such as calcium, arsenic, selenium, strontium and barium. The major element leachate concentrations obtained from leached fly ash were in general lower than that of precipitator fly ash. Conversely, heavy metal leachate concentrations were lower in precipitator fly ash than leached pond fly ash. The maximum addition of fly ash to this geopolymer was found to be 60wt% for fly ash obtained from the electrostatic precipitators and 70wt% for fly ash obtained from ash disposal ponds. The formation of geopolymer in the presence of fly ash was studied using 29Si MAS-NMR and showed that a geopolymer matrix was formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the interaction of the fly ash with the geopolymer, which was related to the leachate data and also the maximum percentage fly ash addition.

  3. We also CanFly! The 2nd MexFly drosophila research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirlis, Fanis; Nahmad, Marcos

    2017-04-03

    The 2nd Mexican Drosophila Research Conference (MexFly) took place on June 30th and July 1st, 2016 in Mexico City, at the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav). Principal investigators, postdocs, students, and technicians from Drosophila labs across Mexico attended. The guest speaker was Chris Rushlow from New York University, who presented work on Zelda, a key transcriptional activator of the early zygotic genome. Here we provide a brief report of the meeting, which sketches the present landscape of Drosophila research in Mexico. We also provide a brief historical note on one of the pioneers of the field in this country, Victor Salceda, personally trained by Theodosius Dobzhansky. Salceda presented at the meeting an update of his collaborative project with Dobzhansky on the distribution of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosomal inversions, initiated over forty years ago.

  4. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein.

  5. OpenFlyData: an exemplar data web integrating gene expression data on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Alistair; Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2010-10-01

    Integrating heterogeneous data across distributed sources is a major requirement for in silico bioinformatics supporting translational research. For example, genome-scale data on patterns of gene expression in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are widely used in functional genomic studies in many organisms to inform candidate gene selection and validate experimental results. However, current data integration solutions tend to be heavy weight, and require significant initial and ongoing investment of effort. Development of a common Web-based data integration infrastructure (a.k.a. data web), using Semantic Web standards, promises to alleviate these difficulties, but little is known about the feasibility, costs, risks or practical means of migrating to such an infrastructure. We describe the development of OpenFlyData, a proof-of-concept system integrating gene expression data on D. melanogaster, combining Semantic Web standards with light-weight approaches to Web programming based on Web 2.0 design patterns. To support researchers designing and validating functional genomic studies, OpenFlyData includes user-facing search applications providing intuitive access to and comparison of gene expression data from FlyAtlas, the BDGP in situ database, and FlyTED, using data from FlyBase to expand and disambiguate gene names. OpenFlyData's services are also openly accessible, and are available for reuse by other bioinformaticians and application developers. Semi-automated methods and tools were developed to support labour- and knowledge-intensive tasks involved in deploying SPARQL services. These include methods for generating ontologies and relational-to-RDF mappings for relational databases, which we illustrate using the FlyBase Chado database schema; and methods for mapping gene identifiers between databases. The advantages of using Semantic Web standards for biomedical data integration are discussed, as are open issues. In particular, although the performance of open

  6. Capillarity theory for the fly-casting mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizac, Emmanuel; Levy, Yaakov; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular folding and function are often coupled. During molecular recognition events, one of the binding partners may transiently or partially unfold, allowing more rapid access to a binding site. We describe a simple model for this fly-casting mechanism based on the capillarity approximation and polymer chain statistics. The model shows that fly casting is most effective when the protein unfolding barrier is small and the part of the chain which extends toward the target is relatively rigid. These features are often seen in known examples of fly casting in protein–DNA binding. Simulations of protein–DNA binding based on well-funneled native-topology models with electrostatic forces confirm the trends of the analytical theory. PMID:20133683

  7. Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek; Pach, Dorota; Butryn, Beata; Hydzik, Piotr; Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of Toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints.

  8. Elastic properties of fly ash-stabilized mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Dimter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilized mixes are used in the construction of bearing layers in asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Two nondestructive methods: resonant frequency method and ultrasonic pulse velocity method, were used for estimation of elastic properties of fly ash–stabilized mixes. Stabilized mixes were designed containing sand from the river Drava and binder composed of different share of cement and fly ash. The aim of the research was to analyze the relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity determined by different nondestructive methods. Data showed that average value of elasticity modulus obtained by the ultrasound velocity method is lower than the values of elasticity modulus obtained by resonant frequency method. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of elastic properties of fly ash stabilized mixes, see Dimter et al. [1].

  9. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  10. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  11. An endoparasitoid Cretaceous fly and the evolution of parasitoidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Zhang, Junfeng; Feng, Yitao; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Parasitoidism is a key innovation in insect evolution, and parasitoid insects, nowadays, play a significant role in structuring ecological communities. Despite their diversity and ecological impact, little is known about the early evolution and ecology of parasitoid insects, especially parasitoid true flies (Diptera). Here, we describe a bizarre fly, Zhenia xiai gen. et sp. nov., from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber (about 99 million years old) that represents the latest occurrence of the family Eremochaetidae. Z. xiai is an endoparasitoid insect as evidenced by a highly developed, hypodermic-like ovipositor formed by abdominal tergites VIII + IX that was used for injecting eggs into hosts and enlarged tridactylous claws supposedly for clasping hosts. Our results suggest that eremochaetids are among the earliest definite records of parasitoid insects. Our findings reveal an unexpected morphological specialization of flies and broaden our understanding of the evolution and diversity of ancient parasitoid insects.

  12. Fruit flies learn to avoid odours associated with virulent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Aurélie; Kolly, Sylvain; Schneider, Franziska; Dolivo, Vassilissa; Zini, Marco; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2014-03-01

    While learning to avoid toxic food is common in mammals and occurs in some insects, learning to avoid cues associated with infectious pathogens has received little attention. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster show olfactory learning in response to infection with their virulent intestinal pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila. This pathogen was not aversive to taste when added to food. Nonetheless, flies exposed for 3 h to food laced with P. entomophila, and scented with an odorant, became subsequently less likely to choose this odorant than flies exposed to pathogen-laced food scented with another odorant. No such effect occurred after an otherwise identical treatment with an avirulent mutant of P. entomophila, indicating that the response is mediated by pathogen virulence. These results demonstrate that a virulent pathogen infection can act as an aversive unconditioned stimulus which flies can associate with food odours, and thus become less attracted to pathogen-contaminated food.

  13. Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.

    Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.

  14. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97......% of the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  15. Stability and leaching of cobalt smelter fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vítková, Martina; Hyks, Jiri; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The leaching behaviour of fly ash from a Co smelter situated in the Zambian Copperbelt was studied as a function of pH (5–12) using the pH-static leaching test (CEN/TS 14997). Various experimental time intervals (48h and 168h) were evaluated. The leaching results were combined with the ORCHESTRA...... elements, the released concentrations were very similar after 48h and 168h, indicating near-equilibrium conditions in the system. Calcite, clinopyroxenes, quartz and amorphous phases predominated in the fly ash. Various metallic sulfides, alloys and the presence of Cu, Co and Zn in silicates and glass were...... and Cu. However, there is a high risk of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility in the acidic soils around the smelter facility. Therefore, potential local options for “stabilisation” of the fly ash were evaluated on the basis of the modelling results using the PHREEQC code....

  16. Treatment of MSW fly ashes using the electrodialytic remediation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work the electrodialytic remediation technique is applied for the treatment of fly ash, a hazardous by-product resulting from the incineration of municipal solid waste. Results are presented for an experiment conducted for 40 days at 38 mA, with a continuously stirred cell....... Experimental parameters monitored include voltage drop, pH and electrolyte's volumes. Evolution of heavy metal concentration with time in the different compartments is analysed. The performance of sodium gluconate for heavy metals extraction from fly ash in different pH conditions is evaluated in batch...... separating chambers III and IV and the dissolution of a large percentage of sample during the treatment. 39% of zinc, 14% of lead, 18% of copper and 60% of cadmium were removed from fly ash using the electrodialytic technique and these results are compared with previously reported experiments on similar...

  17. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    . The initial Cd concentration in the ashes varied between 8.8 mg Cd/kg DM (co-firing ash) and 64 mg Cd/kg DM (pre-washed straw ash), and pH varied from 3.7 to 13.3. In spite of large differences in ash characteristics, the electrodialytic remediation experiments indicated a good remediation potential for all......Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion...... fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  18. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  19. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  20. Bacteria of Phlebotominae Sand Flies Collected in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rafatbakhsh-Iran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms particularly bacteria presenting in insects such as Phlebotominae may play an important role in the epidemiology of human infectious disease. Nowadays, because of vector implications, the routine methods of controlling and spraying have no more beneficial effects on vectors and reservoirs. Little knows about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly bacteria. The main objective of this study was to determine the presence of bacteria of phlebotominae sand flies collected in Hamadan, west of Iran. This information is important in order to development of vector control strategies. The microbial flora of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti the main vector of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the old world, were investigated. We characterized 8 bacteria, including 5 Gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Edvardsiela sp. and Proteus mirabilis and Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Micrococcus luteus. Our study provides some data on the microbiota diversity of field-collected sand flies for the first time in Hamadan. Our results indicate that there is a range of variation of aerobic bacteria inhabiting sand fly, which possibly reflect the ecological condition of the habitat where the fly breeds. Microbiota is increasingly regarded as an important factor for modulating vector competence in insect vectors. So, mirobiota can be effects on the biology of phlebotominae and their roles in the sandfly-Leishmania interaction. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial role of sand flies. Because it is probable that in the future, factors such as environmental changes, migration and urbanization can ease the transmission of leishmaniasis in this area.

  1. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  2. Monostatic radar cross section of flying wing delta planforms

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitheeswaran, Sevoor Meenakshisundaram; Gowthami, Talapaneni Shantakumar; Prasad, Sunil; Yathirajam, Bharadwaja

    2017-01-01

    The design of the flying wing and its variants shapes continues to have a profound influence in the design of the current and future use of military aircraft. There is very little in the open literature available to the understanding and by way of comparison of the radar cross section of the different wing planforms, for obvious reasons of security and sensitivity. This paper aims to provide an insight about the radar cross section of the various flying wing planforms that would aid the need ...

  3. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  4. Enhancement of photon number reflected by the relativistic flying mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kando, M; Pirozhkov, A S; Kawase, K; Esirkepov, T Zh; Fukuda, Y; Kiriyama, H; Okada, H; Daito, I; Kameshima, T; Hayashi, Y; Kotaki, H; Mori, M; Koga, J K; Daido, H; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Ragozin, E N; Kawachi, T; Kato, Y; Tajima, T; Bulanov, S V

    2009-12-04

    Laser light reflection by a relativistically moving electron density modulation (flying mirror) in a wake wave generated in a plasma by a high intensity laser pulse is investigated experimentally. A counterpropagating laser pulse is reflected and upshifted in frequency with a multiplication factor of 37-66, corresponding to the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. The demonstrated flying mirror reflectivity (from 3 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-5), and from 1.3 x 10(-4) to 0.6 x 10(-3), for the photon number and pulse energy, respectively) is close to the theoretical estimate for the parameters of the experiment.

  5. Determination of anisotropy and multimorphology in fly ash based geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Irfan; Azizli, Khairun; Sufian, Suriati; Man, Zakaria; Siyal, Ahmer Ali; Ullah, Hafeez

    2015-07-01

    In this study, Malaysian coal fly ash-based geopolymers were investigated for its morphology and chemical composition using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX). Geopolymer was synthesized using sodium hydroxide as activator. SEM studies revealed multiphasous structure of the material, composed of geopolymeric gel, partially reacted fly ashparticles and selectively leached particles. EDX analysis confirmed the chemical composition of different regions. Infra red spectroscopic studies supported the SEM-EDX analysis by confirming presence of unreacted quartzite and mullite in geopolymers. It is concluded that geopolymers possese a non uniform chemistry through out the structure.

  6. Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nilssen

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

  7. Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, A C; Gjershaug, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena) tarandi) were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus) shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from ...

  8. Determination of anisotropy and multimorphology in fly ash based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Irfan, E-mail: mirfanwazir@gmail.com; Azizli, Khairun, E-mail: khairun-azizli@petronas.com.my; Sufian, Suriati, E-mail: suriati@petronas.com.my; Man, Zakaria, E-mail: zakaman@petronas.com.my; Siyal, Ahmer Ali, E-mail: ahmersiyal@gmail.com; Ullah, Hafeez, E-mail: Hafeez-wazir@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, Malaysian coal fly ash-based geopolymers were investigated for its morphology and chemical composition using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX). Geopolymer was synthesized using sodium hydroxide as activator. SEM studies revealed multiphasous structure of the material, composed of geopolymeric gel, partially reacted fly ashparticles and selectively leached particles. EDX analysis confirmed the chemical composition of different regions. Infra red spectroscopic studies supported the SEM-EDX analysis by confirming presence of unreacted quartzite and mullite in geopolymers. It is concluded that geopolymers possese a non uniform chemistry through out the structure.

  9. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  10. Alkali-aggregate reaction in activated fly ash systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Garcia-Lodeiro; A. Palomo; A. Fernandez-Jimenez [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    Certain aspects of the durability of a new cementitious material, alkali activated fly ash, are addressed in this article; specifically, a series of findings relating to the alkali-silica reaction are reported. The approach adopted in the study was to compare the new cementitious systems to analogous Portland cement mortars using aggregates of differing reactivity and a procedure based on the test described in ASTM standard C 1260. The results of SEM/EDX and XRD analysis of the materials showed that activated fly ash mortars performed better than the Portland cement equivalents.

  11. Diet Modification and Metformin Have a Beneficial Effect in a Fly Model of Obesity and Mucormycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanqing; Albert, Nathaniel; Kim-Anh, Do; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF) or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil) food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1) normal-weight flies (RF), 2) obese flies (HFD), 3) obese flies fed with RF, 4) flies continuously on HFD + metformin, 5) flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6) obese flies administered metformin after infection. Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001), compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients. PMID:25268492

  12. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1 normal-weight flies (RF, 2 obese flies (HFD, 3 obese flies fed with RF, 4 flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5 flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6 obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003 in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001, compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  13. Community-based tsetse fly control significantly reduces fly density and trypanosomosis prevalence in Metekel Zone, Northwest, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Gebrerufael; Arega, Bezna; Tesfaye, Dawit; Berkvens, Dirk; Muleta, Gadisa; Asefa, Getnet

    2016-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a great obstacle to livestock production where tsetse flies play a major role. Metekel zone is among the tsetse-infested areas. Community-based tsetse fly and trypanosomosis control using targets was conducted from June 2011 to May 2012 in Metekel zone, Ethiopia, to decrease trypanosomosis and tsetse fly. Cloth screen targets were developed, impregnated with 0.1 % deltamethrin, and deployed alongside rivers by the research team together with the community animal health workers. Monthly parasitological and entomological data were collected, processed, and compared with similar data collected before control. Overall average tsetse fly (Glossina tachinoides) density decreased from 1.13 to 0.18 fly/trap/day after control. The density was decreased in all sites with no significant difference among the sites. However, higher decrements were observed in the dry and late dry seasons by more than 12 and 6 times, respectively. The reduction in overall apparent prevalence of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma vivax from 12.14 % before to 3.61 % after control coincides with the tsetse fly reduction. In all the study sites, significant reduction was observed before and after control. The highest decrement was observed in the late dry season when the apparent prevalence was reduced from 7.89 to 1.17 % before and after control, respectively. As this approach is simple, cost-effective, and appropriate for riverine tsetse species, we recommend to be scaled up to other similar places.

  14. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Southern Flying Squirrel Use of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan C. Loeb; Shawna L. Reid; Donald J. Lipscomb

    2012-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (

  16. The forensically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is more likely to walk than fly to carrion at low light levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua L; Palermo, Nicholas A; Theobald, Jamie C; Wells, Jeffrey D

    2016-09-01

    One factor that influences estimates of time since death using entomological evidence is whether or not blow flies nocturnally oviposit. Field studies focusing on egg laying have found it occurs on an inconsistent basis. A key but poorly understood factor in nocturnal oviposition is a blow fly's ability to locate carrion under low light levels. It has been speculated that blow flies are more likely to walk than fly to carrion during the night, but this has not been empirically tested. We directly compared guided walking versus flying using infrared sensors under low light levels in laboratory conditions for Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a blow fly previously described to be nocturnal. We found C. megacephala is more likely to walk than fly toward carrion under low light levels (p=0.016). We did not, however, find differences between males and females for walking (p=0.48) or flying (p=0.42) despite male C. megacephala possessing eyes better suited for increased light capture. These results demonstrate the need to better understand where blow flies go at night, as bodies found within a fly's walking distance are more likely to be colonized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on Carbon-Fly Ash Composites with Chopped PANOX Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Patel,Rakesh V; Manocha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analysis and morphological studies of fly ash reveals the complex chemical constituents present as spherical particles with diameter of less than 25 μm. The constituents of fly ash are silica, alumina, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, calcium and magnesium oxide, and other trace elements. The use of thermosetting as well thermoplastic polymer matrix has been made by several workers to develop polymer matrix fly ash particulate composites by using the hard and abrasive properties of fly ...

  18. Effect of plant chemicals on the behavior of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, N.T., E-mail: nikopap@uth.g [University of Thessaly (Greece). Dept. of Crop Production and Rural Environment. Lab. of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology; Kouloussis, N.A.; Katsoyannos, B.I. [University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    A review of current information on the relation between plant chemicals and the Mediterranean fruit fly is presented. The influence of age and adult physiology on the response of med flies to plant chemicals is studied. The effect of plant chemicals on med fly behavior during host finding, mating and oviposition is analysed. The possible influence of plant chemicals on the dispersion patterns and spatial distribution of the fly is also addressed. (MAC)

  19. Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, 40511 Lexington, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Mining and Mineral Resources Building, University of Kentucky, 40506 Lexington, KY (United States)

    2001-10-05

    Fly ash quality, both as the amount of petrographically distinguishable carbons and in chemistry, varies in both time and space. Temporal variations are a function of a number of variables. Variables can include variations in the coal blend organic petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry; variations in the pulverization of the coal, both as a function of the coal's Hardgrove grindability index and as a function of the maintenance and settings of the pulverizers; and variations in the operating conditions of the boiler, including changes in the pollution control system. Spatial variation, as an instantaneous measure of fly ash characteristics, should not involve changes in the first two sets of variables listed above. Spatial variations are a function of the gas flow within the boiler and ducts, certain flow conditions leading to a tendency for segregation of the less-dense carbons in one portion of the gas stream.Caution must be applied in sampling fly ash. Samples from a single bin, or series of bins, may not be representative of the whole fly ash, providing a biased view of the nature of the material. Further, it is generally not possible to be certain about variation until the analysis of the ash is complete.

  20. Three flying fox (Pteropodidae: Pteropus rufus) roosts, three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At Amborabao, the bats roost in a sacred forest and hunting is forbidden. At Sainte Luce, the forest is highly degraded and the bats are hunted frequently, despite efforts to engage the local community in forest conservation. Questionnaires with people living near the roosts revealed the flying foxes were regarded as pests of ...

  1. NEAR MAG DATA FOR EROS/FLY/BY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the NEAR magnetometer (MAG) data for the EROS/FLY/BY phase. The data set begins on 1998-12-23T00:00:00.000 and ends 1998-12-23T23:59:59.999 ....

  2. Using FlyBase, a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Goodman, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY For nearly 25 years, FlyBase (flybase.org) has provided a freely available online database of biological information about Drosophila species, focusing on the model organism D. melanogaster. The need for a centralized, integrated view of Drosophila research has never been greater as advances in genomic, proteomic and high-throughput technologies add to the quantity and diversity of available data and resources. FlyBase has taken several approaches to respond to these changes in the research landscape. Novel report pages have been generated for new reagent types and physical interaction data; Drosophila models of human disease are now represented and showcased in dedicated Human Disease Model Reports; other integrated reports have been established that bring together related genes, datasets or reagents; Gene Reports have been revised to improve access to new data types and to highlight functional data; links to external sites have been organized and expanded; and new tools have been developed to display and interrogate all these data, including improved batch processing and bulk file availability. In addition, several new community initiatives have served to enhance interactions between researchers and FlyBase, resulting in direct user contributions and improved feedback. This chapter provides an overview of the data content, organization and available tools within FlyBase, focusing on recent improvements. We hope it serves as a guide for our diverse user base, enabling efficient and effective exploration of the database and thereby accelerating research discoveries. PMID:27730573

  3. Water Diffusion Modelling of CFB Fly Ash Thermoset Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Ralph P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shift in coal-fired power plants from pulverized coal (PC boiler technology into the greener circulating fluidized bed (CFB boiler technology resulted into a major deviation in the properties of the waste fly ash generated making it less suitable for its previous application as additives for construction materials. A new market for CFB fly ash had to be found for it not to end up as a zero value by-product. Using CFB fly ash as filler for thermoset composites is a new and remarkable application. Only a few studies, however, have been done to characterize the properties of this new material. Further experimentation and analysis may be costly and time-consuming since common procedures are material destructive. A computer-aided modeling of the composite’s water sorption behavior was done. The effect of particle loading, size and shape were considered. These properties were varied and the resulting overall diffusivities were compared to previous experimental studies. The comparison of the model and experimental diffusivity values showed satisfactory results. This model may then provide a cheaper and more time-efficient method for the characterization of the water sorption properties of CFB fly ash thermoset composites. In the future, this may lead to further studies on its application as a green material.

  4. Studies of the Constitution of Fly Ash Using Selective Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    crystalline phase based on its single strongest XRD peak. Fly ash collected at plants where anthracite or bituminous coal is burned tends to contain small...may be graphite . (e) One or two short crystals of prismatic habit were found in this residue. They had parallel extinction, high birefringency, and

  5. Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Eble, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Fly ash quality, both as the amount of petrographically distinguishable carbons and in chemistry, varies in both time and space. Temporal variations are a function of a number of variables. Variables can include variations in the coal blend organic petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry; variations in the pulverization of the coal, both as a function of the coal's Hardgrove grindability index and as a function of the maintenance and settings of the pulverizers; and variations in the operating conditions of the boiler, including changes in the pollution control system. Spatial variation, as an instantaneous measure of fly ash characteristics, should not involve changes in the first two sets of variables listed above. Spatial variations are a function of the gas flow within the boiler and ducts, certain flow conditions leading to a tendency for segregation of the less-dense carbons in one portion of the gas stream. Caution must be applied in sampling fly ash. Samples from a single bin, or series of bins, m ay not be representative of the whole fly ash, providing a biased view of the nature of the material. Further, it is generally not possible to be certain about variation until the analysis of the ash is complete. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phoretic Carrying Capacity of Flying Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser

    1976-01-01

    Mites do not have wings, but in their course of evolution many species have developed an association with insects, using them as a vehicle of distribution. Occasionally they cover the host so completely that the insect cannot fly. The literature is replete with these observations. Except for a single speculation (Fronk 1947), there are no reports as to how many mites...

  7. Incidence and composition of Ceratitid fruit flies in wild coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and composition of fruit flies were studied at afromontane rainforests of southwestern Ethiopia: Yayu, Berhane-kontir and Bonga forest which are located in Illubabor, Benchi- Maji and Kefa zones, respectively. Based on ecological descriptions of forest coffee population, each forest locality was stratified into three ...

  8. Separation of ultrafine particles from class F fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrafine particles were recovered from Çatalağzı (CFA and Sugözü (SFA thermal power plant fly ashes using a specific hydraulic classification technology. Since fly ashes have a high tendency to be flocculated in water, settling experiments were first designed to determine the more effective dispersant and the optimum dosage. Two different types of the superplasticizers (SP polymers based on sulphonate (NSF, Disal and carboxylate (Glenium 7500 were used as the dispersing agents in these settling experiments. Hydraulic classification experiments were then conducted to separate ultrafine fractions from the fly ash samples on the basis of the settling experiments. According to the settling experiments, better results were achieved with the use of Disal for both CFA and SFA. The classification experiments showed that the overflow products with average particle sizes of 5.2 μm for CFA and 4.4 μm for SFA were separated from the respective as-received samples with acceptable yields and high enough recoveries of -5 μm (ultrafine particles. Overall results pointed out that the hydraulic classification technology used provided promising results in the ultrafine particle separations from the fly ash samples.

  9. Modeling and control of a flying robot for contact inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Naldi, R.; Macchelli, A.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano; Marconi, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modeling and control of a flying robot. The complete system, composed of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle and a custom-made manipulator, has been designed for remote inspection by contact of industrial plants. The goal of this paper is to show the dynamical

  10. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.

    This guide lists information sources dealing with unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target." Included are: (1) subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which publications on this subject…

  11. "The Fly on the Wall" Reflecting Team Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Layne E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adapts reflecting team concept, a practical application of constructivist ideas, for use in group supervision. Evolving model includes a focus on the unique "fly on the wall" perspective of the reflecting team. Trainees are introduced to a multiverse of new ideas and perspectives in a context which integrates some of the most challenging…

  12. Sand fly evolution and its relationship to Leishmania transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD Ready

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary relationships of sand flies and Leishmania are discussed in this report, which draws distinctions between co-association, co-evolution and co-speciation (or co-cladogenesis. Examples focus on Phlebotomus vectors of Le. infantum and Le. major in the Mediterranean subregion.

  13. Chemosensory processing in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 5. Chemosensory processing in the fruit fly, ... B C Chandra1 Sandeep Singh2. Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL 60605, USA; Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA ...

  14. Screening coal combustion fly ashes for application in geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Sarabér, A.J.; Fischer, H.R.; Nugteren, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Driven by cost and sustainability, secondary resource materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and bottom ash are increasingly used for alternative types of concrete binders, such as geopolymers. Because secondary resources may be highly variable from the perspective of geopolymers, it is

  15. The statistical analysis of results of solidification of fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliešovská Natália

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis shows, that there is no statical dependence between contents of heavy metals in fly ash on one side, and contents in leaching characteristics of heavy metals from the stabilized waste and from the waste itself on the other side.

  16. How Birds Fly Together: The Dynamics of Flocking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 12. How Birds Fly Together: The Dynamics of Flocking. Kishore Dutta. General Article Volume 15 Issue 12 December 2010 pp 1097-1110. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Effectiveness of monoscreen traps for tsetse fly control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    orientated behaviour (Flint, 1986). Green (1986) caught tsetse flying around different coloured traps and targets to examine the effect of colour and odour on attraction of G. pallidipes and G. morsitans. The results showed that yellow and green were unattractive and inefficient, black and red attractive but inefficient, white ...

  18. On-the-fly Overlapping of Sparse Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2014-01-01

    generations can still be quite high compared to other sparse coding approaches. This paper focuses on an inherently different approach that combines (i) sparsely coded generations configured on-the- fly based on (ii) controllable and infrequent feedback that allows the system to remove some original packets...

  19. Self compacting concrete incorporating high-volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzoubaa, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete; Lachemi, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is now widely used in reinforced concrete structures. Fine materials such as fly ash ensure that the concrete has the necessary properties of high fluidity and cohesiveness. An experimental study was conducted in which 9 SCC mixtures and one control concrete were produced in order to evaluate SCC made with high-volumes of fly ash. The content of the cementitious materials remained constant at 400 kg/cubic metre, but the ratio of water to cementitious material ranged from 0.35 to 0.45. The viscosity and stability of the fresh concrete was determined for self-compacting mixtures of 40, 50 and 60 per cent Class F fly ash. The compressive strength and drying shrinkage were also determined for the hardened concretes. Results showed that the SCCs developed a 28-day compressive strength ranging from 26 to 48 MPa. It was concluded that high-volumes of Class F fly ash could offer the following advantages to an SCC: reduced construction time and labour cost; eliminate the need for vibration; reduce noise pollution; improve the filling capacity of highly congested structural members; and, ensure good structural performance. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Molecular identification of tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christopher

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) anti-vector measures are reliant upon accurate identification of species and their subpopulations. Two species were studied, Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA: cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and cytochrome ...

  1. Molecular identification of tsetse fly ( Diptera: Glossinidae ) species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspite of the few mixed clusters, the pattern produced in the phylogenetic trees can provide a good guide to support any other method of Glossina identification. It was recommended that evaluations be made to validate other genetic markers that can produce better resolutions to identify tsetse fly species using phylogenetic ...

  2. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product size (bp). Linkage group.

  3. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    obscured by multiple episodes of rapid diversification. We provide a phylogenomic estimate of fly relationships based on molecules and morphology from 149 of 157 families, including 30 kb from 14 nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes combined with 371 morphological characters. Multiple analyses...

  4. HYDRA: High Speed Simulation Architecture for Precision Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bryan J.; Sohl, Garett A.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes HYDRA, which is architecture to facilitate high-fidelity and real-time simulation of formation flying missions. The contents include: 1) Motivation; 2) Objective; 3) HYDRA-Description and Overview; 4) HYDRA-Hierarchy; 5) Communication in HYDRA; 6) Simulation Specific Concerns in HYDRA; 7) Example application (Formation Acquisition); and 8) Sample Problem Results.

  5. Making a Kite: The "Very" First Flying Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The kite design activity described in this article is "hands-on" and provides students the opportunity to learn and apply STEM concepts in the process of building and flying a traditional diamond-shaped bowed kite from scratch. Important components of the activity are that students read and follow instructions and lessons about the…

  6. Compressive strength and hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Irena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of geopolymerization involves the reaction of solid aluminosilicate materials with highly alkaline silicate solution yielding an aluminosilicate inorganic polymer named geopolymer, which may be successfully applied in civil engineering as a replacement for cement. In this paper we have investigated the influence of synthesis parameters: solid to liquid ratio, NaOH concentration and the ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH, on the mechanical properties and hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers in distilled water, sea water and simulated acid rain. The highest value of compressive strength was obtained using 10 mol dm-3 NaOH and at the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 1.5. Moreover, the results have shown that mechanical properties of fly ash based geopolymers are in correlation with their hydrolytic stability. Factors that increase the compressive strength also increase the hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers. The best hydrolytic stability of fly ash based geopolymers was shown in sea water while the lowest stability was recorded in simulated acid rain. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172054 i Nanotechnology and Functional Materials Center, funded by the European FP7 project No. 245916

  7. Non - flying mammalian fauna of Ampijoroa, Ankarafantsika National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no list of the mammalian fauna of Ampijoroa Forest Station, a dry deciduous forest within Ankarafantsika National Park. We set Sherman traps and pitfall traps and carried out transect surveys to survey the non - flying mammalian fauna of Ampijoroa. In total, 19 species of mammals were recorded, comprising 10 ...

  8. Amino acids as taste stimuli for tsetse flies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goes van Naters, W.M; den Otter, C.J

    This paper reports the responses of taste cells on the legs of the blood-feeding tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead 1910 (Diptera: Glossinidae) to twenty protein amino acids and to their mixture as it is present in human;sweat. It is investigated whether the mixture is sensed differently

  9. Chromatic cues to trap the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Yen; Chen, Yu-Po; Yang, En-Cheng

    2007-05-01

    Various colors have been used as visual cues to trap insect pests. For example, yellow traps for monitoring and control of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) have been in use for a very long time. However, the chromatic cue of using color traps has never been meticulously investigated. In this study, the spectral sensitivities of the photoreceptors in the compound eyes of B. dorsalis were measured intracellularly, and the theory of receptor quantum catch was applied to study the chromatic cue of fly attracting. Responses to five wavelength categories with peak wavelengths of 370, 380, 490, and 510 nm, and one with dual peaks at 350 and 490 nm were recorded. Based on spectral sensitivities, six colored papers were chosen to test the color preference of the fly, and an additional UV preference test was done to confirm the effect of the UV stimuli. It was concluded that UV and green stimuli (spectra: 300-380 nm and 500-570 nm) would enhance the attractiveness of a colored paper to the oriental fruit fly, and blue stimuli (380-500 nm) would diminish the attractiveness.

  10. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  11. From Self-Flying Helicopters to Classrooms of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    On a summer day four years ago, a Stanford University computer-science professor named Andrew Ng held an unusual air show on a field near the campus. His fleet of small helicopter drones flew under computer control, piloted by artificial-intelligence software that could teach itself to fly after watching a human operator. By the end of the day,…

  12. Skeletal muscle degeneration and regeneration in mice and flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mamta; Nongthomba, Upendra; Grounds, Miranda D

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of skeletal muscle biology are remarkably similar between mammals and tiny insects, and experimental models of mice and flies (Drosophila) provide powerful tools to understand factors controlling the growth, maintenance, degeneration (atrophy and necrosis), and regeneration of normal and diseased muscles, with potential applications to the human condition. This review compares the limb muscles of mice and the indirect flight muscles of flies, with respect to the mechanisms of adult myofiber formation, homeostasis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and the response to muscle degeneration, with some comment on myogenic precursor cells and common gene regulatory pathways. There is a striking similarity between the species for events related to muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, without contribution of any myoblast fusion. Since the flight muscles of adult flies lack a population of reserve myogenic cells (equivalent to satellite cells), this indicates that such cells are not required for maintenance of normal muscle function. However, since satellite cells are essential in postnatal mammals for myogenesis and regeneration in response to myofiber necrosis, the extent to which such regeneration might be possible in flight muscles of adult flies remains unclear. Common cellular and molecular pathways for both species are outlined related to neuromuscular disorders and to age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). The commonality of events related to skeletal muscles in these disparate species (with vast differences in size, growth duration, longevity, and muscle activities) emphasizes the combined value and power of these experimental animal models. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimising Ambient Setting Bayer Derived Fly Ash Geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Jamieson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bayer process utilises high concentrations of caustic and elevated temperature to liberate alumina from bauxite, for the production of aluminium and other chemicals. Within Australia, this process results in 40 million tonnes of mineral residues (Red mud each year. Over the same period, the energy production sector will produce 14 million tonnes of coal combustion products (Fly ash. Both industrial residues require impoundment storage, yet combining some of these components can produce geopolymers, an alternative to cement. Geopolymers derived from Bayer liquor and fly ash have been made successfully with a compressive strength in excess of 40 MPa after oven curing. However, any product from these industries would require large volume applications with robust operational conditions to maximise utilisation. To facilitate potential unconfined large-scale production, Bayer derived fly ash geopolymers have been optimised to achieve ambient curing. Fly ash from two different power stations have been successfully trialled showing the versatility of the Bayer liquor-ash combination for making geopolymers.

  14. Java EE 7 development with WildFly

    CERN Document Server

    Ćmil, Michał; Marchioni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who wants to learn about Java EE, this is the book for you. It's also ideal for developers who already have experience with the Java EE platform but would like to learn more about the new Java EE 7 features by analyzing fully functional sample applications using the new application server WildFly.

  15. On-the-fly conformance testing using Spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.G.; Tretmans, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we report on the construction of a tool for conformance testing based on Spin. The Spin tool has been adapted such that it can derive the building blocks for constructing test cases, called test primitives, from systems described in Promela. The test primitives support the on-the-fly

  16. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses by house flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The route of infection of pigeon fever remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate house flies (Musca domestica L.) as vectors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses. Eight ponies were used in a randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study. Ten wounds were creat...

  17. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of elevated temperature variation on the compressive strength of Fly Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Laterized concrete (LATCON). Cube specimens were cast, cured in water at ambient laboratory temperature and subjected to different temperature regimes before testing.

  18. The interplay between obesity and cancer: a fly view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Hirabayashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a strong clinical association between obesity and an increased risk of cancer. The global pandemic of obesity indicates a public health trend towards a substantial increase in cancer incidence and mortality. However, the mechanisms that link obesity to cancer remain incompletely understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been increasingly used to model an expanding spectrum of human diseases. Fly models provide a genetically simpler system that is ideal for use as a first step towards dissecting disease interactions. Recently, the combining of fly models of diet-induced obesity with models of cancer has provided a novel model system in which to study the biological mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and cancer. In this Review, I summarize recent advances, made using Drosophila, in our understanding of the interplay between diet, obesity, insulin resistance and cancer. I also discuss how the biological mechanisms and therapeutic targets that have been identified in fly studies could be utilized to develop preventative interventions and treatment strategies for obesity-associated cancers.

  19. Integrated acid mine drainage management using fly ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vadapalli, VRK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly Ash (FA) from a power station in South Africa was investigated to neutralise and remove contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). After this primary treatment the insoluble FA residue namely solid residue (SR) was investigated as a suitable...

  20. Laser system for identification, tracking, and control of flying insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flying insects are common vectors for transmission of pathogens and inflict significant harm on humans in large parts of the developing world. Besides the direct impact to humans, these pathogens also cause harm to crops and result in agricultural losses. Here, we present a laser-based system that c...

  1. Low-flying target position finding with a seismic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechak, Jaroslav; Hubacek, Petr; Vesely, Jiri

    2009-06-01

    The development of new sensor systems able to detect, identify and find position of the targets equipped with STEALTH technology began early in 1990s. Some of the sensor systems utilise acoustic, magnetic, seismic and/or other physical effects of target activity. A reason motivating the development of new sensor systems based on other than radar or optical principal of operation in detecting targets is that the systems usually emit no electromagnetic energy during operation. Thanks to their passive principle they provide the users with the advantages of hidden positioning and difficult discovery with reconnaissance tools. Therefore, some of the new UGS systems also allow detecting low-flying targets, such as helicopters, propeller or jet aircraft, etc., in the detection range of up to several kilometres. The information of flight direction is usually estimated and deduced from spatiotemporal sequence detections by multiple interlinked UGS systems. The submitted paper analyses low-flying target position finding principle on Time Direction Of Arrival (TDOA) basis. It presents the qualities of found UGS arrangement topologies and the characteristics of the unambiguous position determination of low-flying targets. It also contains mathematical description of signal digital processing intended to find low-flying target's position. The processed results are presented in table and diagram forms created in Matlab mathematical environment. All the presented detection and identification results were obtained from real recorded signals.

  2. Ovipositional behaviour of two mango fruit fly species (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tritrophic interactions between mangoes (Mangifera indica), two frugivorous fly species of great economic significance, Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis cosyra, and weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) were studied in Benin. We investigated whether Oecophylla cues affect B. invadens and C. cosyra oviposition ...

  3. Precise Relative Positioning of Formation Flying Spacecraft using GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying is considered as a key technology for advanced space missions. Compared to large individual spacecraft, the distribution of sensor systems amongst multiple platforms offers improved flexibility, shorter times to mission, and the prospect of being more cost effective.

  4. Enhancement of existing skew plate fly-overs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoiseth, K.V.; Kaptijn, N.; Boer, A. de; Rots, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    In connection with renovation of a skew plate fly-over in concrete, nonlinear analyses have been performed, to assess the load carrying capacity before and after strengthening. The FEM-model was justified by linear analyses, where the influence of spatial resolution, shear and longitudinal curvature

  5. Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit flies are major pest in West Africa. In Côte-d'Ivoire, they caused heavy losses. Thus, preventive measures are taken to reduce their damage. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of Success Appat® and Proteus 170 O-TEQ against fruit. Traps baited with sexual attractants were set in mango orchards and their ...

  6. Leaching studies of inorganic and organic compounds from fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, F.; Swart, K.; Morabito, R.; Brunori, C.; Balzamo, S.; Slobodnik, J.; Korenkova, E.; Janos, P.; Wildnerova, M.; Hlavay, J.; Polyak, K.; Fodor, P.; Muntau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fly ash is produced in massive quantities by fossil fuel based power plants and waste incinerators, and contains high levels of potentially toxic chemicals. Various leaching tests exist to determine the available fractions, but the outcome is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions, and

  7. Possible Use of Fly-Ash in Road Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krlièková Edita

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning the use of waste from industrial and other productions have been dealt with at out workplace for several years. The reason is not only a lack of natural material resources but mainly economical and environmental aspects. Current research at our workplace has been aimed at finding solutions to problems concerning the use of fly-ash in road building.

  8. Native Chromium Resistant Staphylococci Species from a Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-six chromium-resistant Staphylococci species belonging to S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. arlettae were previously isolated from a chromium-polluted Fly ash (FA) dumping site in South Africa. However the genetic mechanisms responsible for chromium resistance were not known. Polymerase chain ...

  9. Conceptual Design of the FAST-D Formation Flying Spacecraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Gunter, B.; Chu, Q.P.; Bakker, G.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Kruijff, M.; Zheng, G.T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the latest results in the design of FAST-D, the Dutch micro-satellite for the Dutch–Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) formation flying mission. Over the course of the 2.5 year mission, the two satellites, FAST-D and FAST-T, will

  10. Process parameter optimization for fly ash brick by Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Kumar Chaulia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to optimize the mix proportions of the fly ash brick by Taguchi method of parameter design. The experiments have been designed using an L9 orthogonal array with four factors and three levels each. Small quantity of cement has been mixed as binding materials. Both cement and the fly ash used are indicated as binding material and water binder ratio has been considered as one of the control factors. So the effects of water/binder ratio, fly ash, coarse sand, and stone dust on the performance characteristic are analyzed using signal-to-noise ratios and mean response data. According to the results, water/binder ratio and stone dust play the significant role on the compressive strength of the brick. Furthermore, the estimated optimum values of the process parameters are corresponding to water/binder ratio of 0.4, fly ash of 39%, coarse sand of 24%, and stone dust of 30%. The mean value of optimal strength is predicted as 166.22 kg.cm-2 with a tolerance of ± 10.97 kg.cm-2. Confirmatory experimental result obtained for the optimum conditions is 160.17 kg.cm-2.

  11. Are biting fly larvae biological reservoirs of Salmonella?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Salmonella Montevideo strain that is resistant to ampicillin and kanamycin and that expresses the green fluorescent protein (S Montevideo-GFP) was utilized to inoculate sterile and non-sterile cattle manure (1 x 105 CFU/gram manure) onto which sterilized horn fly embryos were placed and held for e...

  12. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van F.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The

  13. Optimising Ambient Setting Bayer Derived Fly Ash Geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Evan; Kealley, Catherine S.; van Riessen, Arie; Hart, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The Bayer process utilises high concentrations of caustic and elevated temperature to liberate alumina from bauxite, for the production of aluminium and other chemicals. Within Australia, this process results in 40 million tonnes of mineral residues (Red mud) each year. Over the same period, the energy production sector will produce 14 million tonnes of coal combustion products (Fly ash). Both industrial residues require impoundment storage, yet combining some of these components can produce geopolymers, an alternative to cement. Geopolymers derived from Bayer liquor and fly ash have been made successfully with a compressive strength in excess of 40 MPa after oven curing. However, any product from these industries would require large volume applications with robust operational conditions to maximise utilisation. To facilitate potential unconfined large-scale production, Bayer derived fly ash geopolymers have been optimised to achieve ambient curing. Fly ash from two different power stations have been successfully trialled showing the versatility of the Bayer liquor-ash combination for making geopolymers. PMID:28773513

  14. Phonotactic flight of the parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Nanina; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix locates its hosts using acoustic cues from sound producing males of the cicada Okanagana rimosa. Here, we experimentally analysed the flight path of the phonotaxis from a landmark to the target, a hidden loudspeaker in the field. During flight, the fly showed only small lateral deviations. The vertical flight direction angles were initially negative (directed downwards relative to starting position), grew positive (directed upwards) in the second half of the flight, and finally flattened (directed horizontally or slightly upwards), typically resulting in a landing above the loudspeaker. This phonotactic flight pattern was largely independent from sound pressure level or target distance, but depended on the elevation of the sound source. The flight velocity was partially influenced by sound pressure level and distance, but also by elevation. The more elevated the target, the lower was the speed. The accuracy of flight increased with elevation of the target as well as the landing precision. The minimal vertical angle difference eliciting differences in behaviour was 10°. By changing the elevation of the acoustic target after take-off, we showed that the fly is able to orientate acoustically while flying.

  15. Tracking of flying insects using pan-tilt cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, S N; Bichsel, M; Müller, P; Robert, D

    2000-08-15

    Potent and affordable video and computer systems for automatic data acquisition are becoming increasingly important in behavioural neuroscience. It has remained challenging, however, to acquire data from small and fast-moving animals, such as insects in flight, due to the limited spatial and temporal resolution of the systems currently available. Our research on free-flying insects motivated the development of new methods in the context of two different experimental settings. First, the position and precise body axis direction of honey bees approaching a food source were automatically measured. Second, the flight trajectories of a phonotactic parasitoid fly homing in on its cricket host were recorded in 3D. We used pan-tilt cameras, i.e. cameras with moveable optics, to follow the animal's path with a close up image. Novel methods were developed for image acquisition and position measurement using pan-tilt cameras, as well as calibration and data evaluation in 3D world coordinates. The innovations of this system comprise: (1) Acquisition of images in high spatial detail over large observation areas. (2) Image acquisition at a field rate of 50 Hz PAL. (3) Free positioning of the cameras for 3D acquisition. (4) Computation of the flight path in 3D world coordinates. We illustrate the capabilities of the system with data obtained from a calibration object as well as from the behaviour of unrestricted, free-flying flies and bees. Potential applications in behavioural neuroscience and the psychophysics of sensory perception are briefly discussed.

  16. Recovery of gallium and vanadium from gasification fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Casado, Raquel; Ruiz, Carmen R; López-Soler, Angel; Coca, Pilar; García Peña, Francisco

    2007-01-31

    The Puertollano Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (Spain) fly ash is characterized by a relatively high content of Ga and V, which occurs mainly as Ga2O3 and as Ga3+ and V3+ substituting for Al3+ in the Al-Si fly ash glass matrix. Investigations focused on evaluating the potential recovery of Ga and V from these fly ashes. Several NaOH based extraction tests were performed on the IGCC fly ash, at different temperatures, NaOH/fly ash (NaOH/FA) ratios, NaOH concentrations and extraction times. The optimal Ga extraction conditions was determined as 25 degrees C, NaOH 0.7-1 M, NaOH/FA ratio of 5 L/kg and 6 h, attaining Ga extraction yields of 60-86%, equivalent to 197-275 mg of Ga/kg of fly ash. Re-circulation of leachates increased initial Ga concentrations (25-38 mg/L) to 188-215 mg/L, while reducing both content of impurities and NaOH consumption. Carbonation of concentrated Ga leachate demonstrated that 99% of the bulk Ga content in the leachate precipitates at pH 7.4. At pH 10.5 significant proportions of impurities, mainly Al (91%), co-precipitate while >98% of the bulk Ga remains in solution. A second carbonation of the remaining solution (at pH 7.5) recovers the 98.8% of the bulk Ga. Re-dissolution (at pH 0) of the precipitate increases Ga purity from 7 to 30%, this being a suitable Ga end product for further purification by electrolysis. This method produces higher recovery efficiency than currently applied for Ga on an industrial scale. In contrast, low V extraction yields (<64%) were obtained even when using extreme alkaline extraction conditions, which given the current marked price of this element, limits considerably the feasibility of V recovery from IGCC fly ash.

  17. Flying-fox roost disturbance and Hendra virus spillover risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Bats of the genus Pteropus (flying-foxes are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which periodically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in Australia. The increased urban presence of flying-foxes often provokes negative community sentiments because of reduced social amenity and concerns of HeV exposure risk, and has resulted in calls for the dispersal of urban flying-fox roosts. However, it has been hypothesised that disturbance of urban roosts may result in a stress-mediated increase in HeV infection in flying-foxes, and an increased spillover risk. We sought to examine the impact of roost modification and dispersal on HeV infection dynamics and cortisol concentration dynamics in flying-foxes. The data were analysed in generalised linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The difference in mean HeV prevalence in samples collected before (4.9%, during (4.7% and after (3.4% roost disturbance was small and non-significant (P = 0.440. Similarly, the difference in mean urine specific gravity-corrected urinary cortisol concentrations was small and non-significant (before = 22.71 ng/mL, during = 27.17, after = 18.39 (P= 0.550. We did find an underlying association between cortisol concentration and season, and cortisol concentration and region, suggesting that other (plausibly biological or environmental variables play a role in cortisol concentration dynamics. The effect of roost disturbance on cortisol concentration approached statistical significance for region, suggesting that the relationship is not fixed, and plausibly reflecting the nature and timing of disturbance. We also found a small positive statistical association between HeV excretion status and urinary cortisol concentration. Finally, we found that the level of flying-fox distress associated with roost disturbance reflected the nature and timing of the activity, highlighting the need for a 'best practice' approach to dispersal or roost modification activities

  18. Flying-fox roost disturbance and Hendra virus spillover risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Daniel; Field, Hume; McMichael, Lee; Jordan, David; Kung, Nina; Mayer, David; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Bats of the genus Pteropus (flying-foxes) are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV) which periodically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in Australia. The increased urban presence of flying-foxes often provokes negative community sentiments because of reduced social amenity and concerns of HeV exposure risk, and has resulted in calls for the dispersal of urban flying-fox roosts. However, it has been hypothesised that disturbance of urban roosts may result in a stress-mediated increase in HeV infection in flying-foxes, and an increased spillover risk. We sought to examine the impact of roost modification and dispersal on HeV infection dynamics and cortisol concentration dynamics in flying-foxes. The data were analysed in generalised linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). The difference in mean HeV prevalence in samples collected before (4.9%), during (4.7%) and after (3.4%) roost disturbance was small and non-significant (P = 0.440). Similarly, the difference in mean urine specific gravity-corrected urinary cortisol concentrations was small and non-significant (before = 22.71 ng/mL, during = 27.17, after = 18.39) (P= 0.550). We did find an underlying association between cortisol concentration and season, and cortisol concentration and region, suggesting that other (plausibly biological or environmental) variables play a role in cortisol concentration dynamics. The effect of roost disturbance on cortisol concentration approached statistical significance for region, suggesting that the relationship is not fixed, and plausibly reflecting the nature and timing of disturbance. We also found a small positive statistical association between HeV excretion status and urinary cortisol concentration. Finally, we found that the level of flying-fox distress associated with roost disturbance reflected the nature and timing of the activity, highlighting the need for a 'best practice' approach to dispersal or roost modification activities. The

  19. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable fli...

  20. 14 CFR 121.489 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 121.489 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying. No pilot that is employed as a pilot by a certificate holder conducting flag operations may do any other commercial flying if that commercial flying... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial...

  1. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Version 2.9.2). Flies proportions were compared using Chi-square test. Statistical significance was achieved if P < 0.05. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. An overall total of 3,032 flies were trapped at the end of this study. The high abundance of flies.

  2. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. Several Dipteran flies are vectors of diseases in the Afro-tropical region. The study was carried out to determine the species abundance of biting and non biting flies prevalent at the Jos Museum. Zoological Garden, north central Nigeria. The flies were trapped using Biconical traps during the raining season of ...

  3. Effects of fly ash fineness on the mechanical properties of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Fly ash is an industrial waste and a material of puzzolanic characteristic occurring due to burn- ... important factor affecting index of puzzolanic activity was fineness of the fly ash, not its chemical composition. ..... Siddique R 2003 Performance characteristics of high-volume class f fly ash concrete. Cement and ...

  4. Transcriptome of the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol tool for Tephritid fruit fly suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The Braconoid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), both phytophagous fruit flies pest of economic importance in Hawaii. We have sequenced and assembled t...

  5. Global warming and house fly control: direct effects and biodiversity concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies are major pests of human and animal health throughout the world and are among the most difficult to control. Effective fly management relies on a balance of sanitation, insecticide use, and biological control. Climate change could upset that balance in favor of the fly unless pro-activ...

  6. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C. jej...

  7. Study on Strength Behavior of Organic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayshakhi Deb Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of fly ash on the consistency, compactness, acidic properties, and strength of organic soil. The presence of organic content in the soil has detrimental impacts on the physical and strength behavior of soil. To investigate the effectiveness of fly ash in the stabilization of organic soil, two types of fly ashes (Type I and Type II at different percentages were used. It is found that fly ash significantly reduces the plasticity index of the organic soil, whereas the liquid and plastic limits increase. The dry density of the fly ash-soil mixture increases significantly, while the water requirement reduces due to the addition of fly ash. The increase of dry density compromises higher strength. The increase of qu with the increase of fly ash content is mainly due to the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, although the reduction in water content results from the addition of dry fly ash solid. Moreover, Type I fly ash contributes a higher value of qu compared to Type II fly ash. This is attributed to the characteristics of fly ash including CaO and CaO/SiO2 ratio.

  8. Effect of fly ash on sorption behavior of metribuzin in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neera; Raunaq; Singh, Shashi B

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of two different fly ashes [Kota and Inderprastha (IP)] amendment on the sorption behavior of metribuzin in three Indian soil types. The IP fly ash was very effective in increasing the metribuzin sorption in the soils. The sorption with IP amendment was increased by 15-92%, whereas with the Kota fly ash an increase in sorption by 13-38% was noted. The adsorption isotherms fitted very well to the Freundlich adsorption equation and, in general, slope (1/n) values less then unity were observed. Although both the fly ashes significantly decreased metribuzin desorption, the IP fly ash was comparatively more effective in retaining metribuzin in the soils. Metribuzin sorption in the IP fly ash-amended soils showed strong correlation with the fly ash content and compared to K(f)/K(d) values, K(FA) values (sorption normalized to fly ash content) showed less variation. Metribuzin sorption-desorption did not correlate to the organic carbon content of the soil-fly ash mixture. The study demonstrates that all coal fly ashes may not be effective in enhancing the sorption of metribuzin in soils to the same extent. However, among the fly ashes used in this study, the IP fly ash was observed to be significantly effective in enhancing the sorption of metribuzin in soils. This may play an important role in reducing the run off and leaching losses of the herbicide by retaining it in the soil.

  9. The Royal Flying Doctor Service Flies to New Heights: The Journey of Health Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Julia

    2009-10-01

    The Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) of Australia was founded in 1928 by the Reverend John Flynn to deliver health services to the people of the Australian Outback. In this unique environment the RFDS Queensland Section provides both Primary Health Care and Aeromedical services to rural and remote communities throughout Queensland. It provides health services from a hub and spoke model and its clinicians work very closely with other health service providers, such as Queensland Heath, within the communities it visits. Currently, the RFDS' health records are both paper and electronic and clinicians duplicate much of patient information and data between RFDS and non-RFDS health records. Introduction of an off-the-shelf electronic medical record (EMR) would not meet the RFDS' clinical and organisational needs because of complexity, the multidisciplinary nature of the teams and the lack of communication technology in the communities the RFDS visits. This article defines the vision for a health information system designed to meet the requirements of the RFDS, and describes its implementation throughout RFDS Queensland using the PRINCE2 project management methodology.

  10. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  11. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Solikin Mochamad; Setiawan Budi

    2017-01-01

    High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly ...

  12. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeladhim, Maha; V Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano; Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Jochim, Ryan C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-07-01

    Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies.

  13. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure.

  14. Tetrameric structure of the flagellar cap protein FliD from Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, So Yeon; Song, Wan Seok; Hong, Ho Jeong; Lee, Geun-Shik; Kang, Seung Goo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun; Yoon, Sung-Il

    2017-07-15

    Bacterial motility is provided by the flagellum. FliD is located at the distal end of the flagellum and plays a key role in the insertion of each flagellin protein at the growing tip of the flagellar filament. Because FliD functions as an oligomer, the determination of the oligomeric state of FliD is critical to understanding the molecular mechanism of FliD-mediated flagellar growth. FliD has been shown to adopt a pentameric or a hexameric structure depending on the bacterial species. Here, we report another distinct oligomeric form of FliD based on structural and biochemical studies. The crystal structures of the D2 and D3 domains of Serratia marcescens FliD (smFliD) were determined in two crystal forms and together revealed that smFliD assembles into a tetrameric architecture that resembles a four-pointed star plate. smFliD tetramerization was also confirmed in solution by cross-linking experiments. Although smFliD oligomerizes in a head-to-tail orientation using a common primary binding interface between the D2 and D3' domains (the prime denotes the second subunit in the oligomer) similarly to other FliD orthologs, the smFliD tetramer diverges to present a unique secondary D2-D2' binding interface. Our structure-based comparative analysis of FliD suggests that bacteria have developed diverse species-specific oligomeric forms of FliD that range from tetramers to hexamers for flagellar growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Escherichia coli fly? The role of flies as transmitters of E. coli to food in an urban slum in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Phelps, Matthew; Tulsiani, Suhella; Farhana, Israt; Begum, Anowara; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the transmission of faecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. Over a period of 2 months, paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of Escherichia coli and genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. Rice was at greater risk (P coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (P 0·6 × 103 CFU. Genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified: the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). Flies may transmit large quantities of E. coli to food under field settings. The findings highlight the importance of implementing control measures to minimise exposure of food to flies to ensure food safety. Fly control measures should be considered for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases caused by E. coli. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; Alam, J; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  17. AIR ENTRAINING, AIR VOID SYSTEM AND FROST DURABILITY OF FLY ASH CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    千歩, 修; 濱, 幸雄

    2002-01-01

    Control of air content and resistance to frost damage are essential for fly ash concrete. This paper demonstrates a possibility of controlling the air content of fly ash concrete by the basic properties of fly ash. It also elucidates the tendencies of the effects of the presence of fly ash, mixing conditions, and type of air-entraining admixture on the air content, air void system, and air loss by agitation. The frost resistance test results of fly ash concrete slightly lower than normal conc...

  18. Fly Ash as a Time Marker for Anthropocene Alluvial Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. A., III; Grimley, D. A.; Anders, A. M.; Bates, B.; Hannan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Human land use has transformed the landscapes, ecosystems and hydrology of the North American Midcontinent. One widespread impact of this transformation is increased runoff and accelerated soil erosion, which, along with direct human channel modifications and artificial drainage, have dramatically altered hydrologic and ecological conditions in streams and rivers with far-reaching results. A legacy of this change in streams and rivers is preserved on floodplains throughout the region in sediment known as post-settlement alluvium (PSA). Documenting the spatial and temporal pattern of historic floodplain sedimentation in the drainage network is part of a larger effort to understand decadal and century-scale sediment routing through the drainage system and the role of floodplain sedimentation in carbon sequestration. Fly ash, a product of high-temperature coal combustion, began to accumulate on the landscape in the early historic period (c.a.1840-1850 in Iowa and Illinois) as coal-burning technology such as steam engines came into use after 1850; prior to which no source of fly ash was present. Release of fly ash from coal burning in power plants and steam locomotives likely peaked in the early-mid 20th century. Fly ash particles (~ 1 to 10 % magnetic) are identified by their spheroidal shape and range in size from coarse clay to silt (~1-63µ). By identifying the percentage of fly ash spheroids in the magnetic separate (10 - 60µ size range) of a soil or sediment profile, the pre-fly ash Historic surface could be discerned. Application of this technique in selected localities in eastern Iowa (Clear Creek drainage) and central Illinois (Sangamon River drainage) resulted in successful demarcation of the PSA contact in areas where the boundary was physically evident. Bolstered by this success we were able to confidently demark the PSA contact in other settings where the boundary was not as physically evident. This relatively easy to implement, inexpensive tool will

  19. Fly ash zeolite catalyst support for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campen, Adam

    This dissertation research aimed at evaluating a fly ash zeolite (FAZ) catalyst support for use in heterogeneous catalytic processes. Gas phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) over a fixed-bed of the prepared catalyst/FAZ support was identified as an appropriate process for evaluation, by comparison with commercial catalyst supports (silica, alumina, and 13X). Fly ash, obtained from the Wabash River Generating Station, was first characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, particle size, and nitrogen sorption techniques. Then, a parametric study of a two-step alkali fusion/hydrothermal treatment process for converting fly ash to zeolite frameworks was performed by varying the alkali fusion agent, agent:flyash ratio, fusion temperature, fused ash/water solution, aging time, and crystallization time. The optimal conditions for each were determined to be NaOH, 1.4 g NaOH: 1 g fly ash, 550 °C, 200 g/L, 12 hours, and 48 hours. This robust process was applied to the fly ash to obtain a faujasitic zeolite structure with increased crystallinity (40 %) and surface area (434 m2/g). Following the modification of fly ash to FAZ, ion exchange of H+ for Na+ and cobalt incipient wetness impregnation were used to prepare a FTS catalyst. FTS was performed on the catalysts at 250--300 °C, 300 psi, and with a syngas ratio H2:CO = 2. The HFAZ catalyst support loaded with 11 wt% cobalt resulted in a 75 % carbon selectivity for C5 -- C18 hydrocarbons, while methane and carbon dioxide were limited to 13 and 1 %, respectively. Catalyst characterization was performed by XRD, N2 sorption, TPR, and oxygen pulse titration to provide insight to the behavior of each catalyst. Overall, the HFAZ compared well with silica and 13X supports, and far exceeded the performance of the alumina support under the tested conditions. The successful completion of this research could add value to an underutilized waste product of coal combustion, in the form of catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalytic processes.

  20. Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Marlene K; Dentz, Holly N; Achando, Beryl; Mureithi, MaryAnne; Wolfe, Tim; Null, Clair; Pickering, Amy J

    2017-02-08

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for industrial settings, the Scudder fly grill, for field use in household settings. We evaluated its performance in comparison to a sticky tape fly trapping method at latrine and food preparation areas among households in rural Kenya. The grill method was more sensitive; it detected the presence of any flies at 80% (433/543) of sampling locations versus 64% (348/543) of locations by the sticky tape. We found poor concordance between the two methods, suggesting that standardizing protocols is important for comparison of fly densities between studies. Fly species identification was feasible with both methods; however, the sticky tape trap allowed for more nuanced identification. Both methods detected a greater presence of bottle flies near latrines compared with food preparation areas (P < 0.01). The grill method detected more flies at the food preparation area compared with near the latrine (P = 0.014) while the sticky tape method detected no difference. We recommend the Scudder grill as a sensitive fly enumeration tool that is rapid and low cost to implement. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. ACETYLATION INCREASES EWS-FLI1 DNA BINDING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eSchlottmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ewing Sarcoma (ES is associated with a balanced chromosomal translocation that in most cases leads to the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 has been shown to be crucial for ES cell survival and tumor growth. However, its regulation is still enigmatic. To date, no functionally significant posttranslational modifications of EWS-FLI1 have been shown. Since ES are sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors, and these inhibitors are advancing in clinical trials, we sought to identify if EWS-FLI1 is directly acetylated. We convincingly show acetylation of the C-terminal FLI1 (FLI1-CTD domain, which is the DNA binding domain of EWS-FLI1. In vitro acetylation studies showed that acetylated FLI1-CTD has higher DNA binding activity than the non-acetylated protein. Over-expression of PCAF or treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI increased the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, when co-expressed in COS7 cells. However, our data that evaluates the acetylation of ful-length EWS-FLI1 remains unclear, despite creating acetylation specific antibodies to four potential acetylation sites. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 may either gain access to chromatin as a result of histone acetylation or undergo regulation by direct acetylation. These data should be considered when patients are treated with HDAC inhibitors. Further investigation of this phenomenon will reveal if this potential acetylation has an impact on tumor response.

  2. Assessment of hardened characteristics of raw fly ash blended self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahalingam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is widely used as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Due to the implementation of new thermal power plants as a consequence of electricity demand, generation of fly ash is noticeably increased. In addition to pozzolana blended cement production, it is very imperative to use raw fly ash in concrete. Earlier research studies investigated the performance of processed fly ash in blended cement production as well as in concrete. In general, ground fly ash is used in blended cement production. A comprehensive study on the performance evaluation of raw fly ash in self-compacting concrete is not available in the existing literature. Moreover, utilization of raw fly ash in special concrete such as self-compacting concrete is essential to comprehend the performance of raw fly ash blended concrete compared to ordinary Portland concrete. Additionally, it will help to achieve maximum utilization of raw fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material rather than disposal as a waste, which eventually leads to several environmental issues. In the study, raw fly ash was collected and is directly used in development of self-compacting concrete. Two mixes were cast and hardened characteristics of blended concrete were investigated. Results from the study showed comparable performance with control concrete. Furthermore, significant reduction in chloride permeability was observed for raw fly ash blended concrete.

  3. Evaluating Perceived Probability of Threat-Relevant Outcomes and Temporal Orientation in Flying Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromoustakos, Elena; Clark, Gavin I; Rock, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Probability bias regarding threat-relevant outcomes has been demonstrated across anxiety disorders but has not been investigated in flying phobia. Individual temporal orientation (time perspective) may be hypothesised to influence estimates of negative outcomes occurring. The present study investigated whether probability bias could be demonstrated in flying phobia and whether probability estimates of negative flying events was predicted by time perspective. Sixty flying phobic and fifty-five non-flying-phobic adults were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Participants completed the Flight Anxiety Scale, Probability Scale (measuring perceived probability of flying-negative events, general-negative and general positive events) and the Past-Negative, Future and Present-Hedonistic subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (variables argued to predict mental travel forward and backward in time). The flying phobic group estimated the probability of flying negative and general negative events occurring as significantly higher than non-flying phobics. Past-Negative scores (positively) and Present-Hedonistic scores (negatively) predicted probability estimates of flying negative events. The Future Orientation subscale did not significantly predict probability estimates. This study is the first to demonstrate probability bias for threat-relevant outcomes in flying phobia. Results suggest that time perspective may influence perceived probability of threat-relevant outcomes but the nature of this relationship remains to be determined.

  4. Do Permethrin-Treated Screens Repel Sand Flies from Entering Houses ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basimike, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of permethrin-treated screens on sand flies entering treated houses were evaluated in Marigat area of Baringo District, Kenya. Screens treated with 0.50 g/m2 a. i. of permethrin 20 % E.C. were fitted inside houses and retreated every 6 months from January 1992 to December 1993. In the treated village, 40.62 % sand flies were caught inside while 67.34 % sand flies were collected outside houses. In the control village, 32.66 % sand flies were collected inside while 59.38 % sand flies were caught outside houses. The number of sand flies collected outside houses in the treated village was higher than those collected inside houses in the same village (X2 = 30.97, df = 11, P = 0.001. Twelve species of sand flies were collected in the area, of which nine species of the Sergentomyia and three species of the Phlebotomus genera. Phlebotomus martini and P. duboscqi, vecfors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis respectively were collected inside houses in both treated and control villages. Permethrin-treated screens fitted inside houses were effective against sand flies as they reduced the number of flies entering houses. However, the treated screens did not seem to have any effect on sand fly species composition. Permethrin-treated screens are an important tool for controlling sand flies in the communities.

  5. Effect of fly ash amendment on persistence of metribuzin in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neera; Raunaq; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the effect of fly ash amendment on persistence of metribuzin in three Indian soil types. Fly ash [Inderprastha (IP) and Kota] was amended at 1, 2 and 5% levels. Metribuzin was more persistent in the flooded soils (predominantly anaerobic) than the nonflooded (aerobic) soils. Kota fly ash amendment to nonflooded soils slightly enhanced metribuzin persistence while IP fly ash reduced the herbicide persistence in nonflooded soils. In flooded soils both types of fly ash reduced metribuzin persistence, but the extent of the effect was specific to the soil and type of fly ash. A better effect was observed in low organic matter soils and IP fly ash was more effective than the Kota fly ash. The effect of fly ash amendment on metribuzin degradation in soils was more pronounced at higher dose of fly ash. No degradation of metribuzin was observed in the sterilized soils, both without and with fly ash, suggesting that degradation of metribuzin was microbial in nature. Deaminometribuzin was recovered as the only metabolite of metribuzin degradation.

  6. Mechanical behaviour and durability of high volume fly ash cementitious composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Haider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to separate different morphological particles of ASTM class F fly ash, and study their effect on mechanical behaviour and durability of high volume cementitious mixtures. In this research wet separation of raw fly ash is carried out, which resulted in three layers of different morphological particles. The first layer of particles float, comprise of about 1-5% of fly ash, is identified as cenospheres or hollow spheres. The second layer of particles is measured to be 55-60% of raw fly ash and consisting of porous spherical and rounded particles rich in Si and Al. The third layer particles is measured to be about 35-40% of raw fly ash. High volume fly ash cementitious composites containing second or third layer particles are tested under compression and bending, highlighting a higher strength and ductility in comparison to cementitious ones containing raw fly ash particles

  7. A review of the interference of carbon containing fly ash with air entrainment in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov

    2008-01-01

    Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization is as pozzolanic additive in the production of concrete. However, the residual carbon in fly ash...... on the adsorption capacity of AEAs. The type of fuel used in the combustion process influences the amount and properties of the residual carbon. Fly ash derived from bituminous coal has generally higher carbon content compared with fly ash produced from subbituminous coal or lignite, but shows a lower AEA......-treatment methods applied to improve fly ash quality are described in the review. Ozonation, thermal treatment and physical cleaning of carbon have been found to improve the fly ash performance for concrete utilization. Ultimately, recommendations for further work are outlined in the discussion....

  8. Microstructure Development and Transport Properties of Portland Cement-fly Ash Binary Systems : In view of service life predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of burning coal in electric power generating plants. It is commonly known that owing to its pozzolanic properties fly ash is widely used as a partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete. The use of fly ash in concrete not only reduces the landfill costs of fly ash,

  9. Hovering of a jellyfish-like flying machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Childress, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Ornithopters, or flapping-wing aircraft, offer an alternative to helicopters in achieving maneuverability at small scales, although stabilizing such aerial vehicles remains a key challenge. Here, we present a hovering machine that achieves self-righting flight using flapping wings alone, without relying on additional aerodynamic surfaces and without feedback control. We design, construct, and test-fly a prototype that opens and closes four wings, resembling the motions of swimming jellyfish more so than any insect or bird. Lift measurements and high-speed video of free-flight are used to inform an aerodynamic model that explains the stabilization mechanism. These results show the promise of flapping-flight strategies beyond those that directly mimic the wing motions of flying animals.

  10. A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daler, Ludovic; Mintchev, Stefano; Stefanini, Cesare; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-19

    With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings' adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot.

  11. How lizards fly: A novel type of wing in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Maximilian Dehling

    Full Text Available Flying lizards of the genus Draco are renowned for their gliding ability, using an aerofoil formed by winglike patagial membranes and supported by elongated thoracic ribs. It remains unknown, however, how these lizards manoeuvre during flight. Here, I present the results of a study on the aerial behaviour of Dussumier's Flying Lizard (Draco dussumieri and show that Draco attaches the forelimbs to the leading edge of the patagium while airborne, forming a hitherto unknown type of composite wing. The attachment of the forelimbs to the patagium suggests that that aerofoil is controlled through movements of the forelimbs. One major advantage for the lizards is that the forelimbs retain their complete range of movement and functionality for climbing and running when not used as a part of the wing. These findings not only shed a new light on the flight of Draco but also have implications for the interpretation of gliding performance in fossil species.

  12. How lizards fly: A novel type of wing in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehling, J Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Flying lizards of the genus Draco are renowned for their gliding ability, using an aerofoil formed by winglike patagial membranes and supported by elongated thoracic ribs. It remains unknown, however, how these lizards manoeuvre during flight. Here, I present the results of a study on the aerial behaviour of Dussumier's Flying Lizard (Draco dussumieri) and show that Draco attaches the forelimbs to the leading edge of the patagium while airborne, forming a hitherto unknown type of composite wing. The attachment of the forelimbs to the patagium suggests that that aerofoil is controlled through movements of the forelimbs. One major advantage for the lizards is that the forelimbs retain their complete range of movement and functionality for climbing and running when not used as a part of the wing. These findings not only shed a new light on the flight of Draco but also have implications for the interpretation of gliding performance in fossil species.

  13. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    content of water soluble, mobile salts and heavy metals. It was shown that the mobility of salts and toxic elements can be significantly reduced by extraction with electrodialysis in stack [1, 2]; and that treated MSWI fly ash may potentially be utilized as a substitute for cement in concrete [3......As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high...... to investigate the leachability of salts and toxic elements as a function of treatment time and current density. Results show that a delicate balance between pH and treatment-time exist and that continuous monitoring of pH and conductivity may be used for controlling of the process at an industrial scale...

  14. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The passage through the Earth-Moon system allowed ground controllers to test Rosetta's 'asteroid fly-by mode' (AFM) using the Moon as a 'fake' asteroid, rehearsing the fly-bys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia due in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The AFM test started at 23:01 GMT and ran for nine minutes during which the two onboard navigation cameras successfully tracked the Moon, allowing Rosetta's attitude to be automatically adjusted. Before and after closest approach, the navigation cameras also acquired a series of images of the Moon and Earth; these data will be downloaded early today for ground processing and are expected to be available by 8 March. In addition, other onboard instruments were switched on, including ALICE (ultraviolet imaging spectrometer), VIRTIS (visible and infrared mapping spectrometer) and MIRO (microwave instrument for the Rosetta orbiter), for calibration and general testing using the Earth and Moon as targets. The fly-by manoeuvre swung the three-tonne spacecraft around our planet and out towards Mars, where it will make a fly-by on 26 February 2007. Rosetta will return to Earth again in a series of four planet fly-bys (three times with Earth, once with Mars) before reaching Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, when it will enter orbit and deliver a lander, Philae, onto the surface. The fly-bys are necessary to accelerate the spacecraft so as to eventually match the velocity of the target comet. They are a fuel-saving way to boost speed using planetary gravity. Yesterday's fly-by came one year and two days after launch and highlights the valuable opportunities for instrument calibration and data gathering available during the mission's multi-year voyage. In just three months, on 4 July, Rosetta will be in a good position to observe and gather data during NASA's spectacular Deep Impact event, when the Deep Impact probe will hurl a 380 kg projectile into Comet Tempel 1, revealing data on the comet's internal structure. Certain of

  15. Performance of Fly ash Based Geopolymer Mortars in Sulphate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of fly ash based geopolymer mortar specimens inMagnesium Sulphate solution. Specimens were manufactured from low calcium fly ash by activation with a mixture of SodiumHydroxide and Sodium Silicate solution and cured thermally. 10% by weight Magnesium Sulphate solution was usedto soak the specimen up to 24 weeks. Performance of the specimens was evaluated in terms of visual appearance, variationof pH of solution, change in weight, and change in compressive strength over the exposure period. White deposits occurredon the surface of specimen which was initially soft but later converted to hard crystals. pH of solution increased noticeablyduring the initial weeks which indicate migration of alkalis from mortar specimens. At the end of 24 weeks samples experiencedvery little weight gain and recorded a loss of compressive strength by up to 56%.

  16. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, M S; Nilssen, A C; Lyslo, A; Syrdalen, P; Dannevig, L

    1991-04-01

    Two boys with ophthalmomyiasis caused by the first instar larva of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma tarandi are reported. Both were 9 years old and came from the coast of northern Norway. One had ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior and one eye had been removed because of progressive pain and blindness. Histological examination showed the remains of a fly larva. The second boy had ophthalmomyiasis externa with a tumour in the upper eyelid, and histological examination showed a warble with a well preserved larva. Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi.

  17. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  18. Evaluation of Enterprise Performance Based on FLI-GA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyi Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are many kinds of methods to evaluate the performance of enterprise, but they still have some distinct shortcomings. In order to achieve a better evaluation result, we put forward a new model named FLI-GA (Fuzzy logic inference & Genetic algorithm. Approach: This model, mainly based on the fuzzy logic inference method, uses fuzzy rule-based system (FRBS to avoid the drawbacks of FRBS. Genetic algorithm is applied in this model. Findings: FLI-GA model can be used to evaluate certain enterprise performance, and its evaluation results are more accurate than fuzzy logic inference method. Originality: This model combines the genetic algorithm with the unclear reasoning methods so as to make the appraisal results more reasonable and more satisfying.

  19. Motion planning for a free-flying robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Donald Leo; Hawkins, Patrick J.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation is presented of motion planning combining low level control and obstacle avoidance for a free flying robot. This free flying robot is an outgrowth of the concept of an assistant for astronauts on the U.S. Space Station and Shuttle. A motion planner based on the Khatib potential field approach is described. Because of the uncluttered environment in space, it generates a path from representation of known obstacles rather than from a representation of free space. A global planner supplies the low level controller with interim points between the current position and the desired goal position so that the vehicle does not become trapped by local minima, a phenomenon of the potential field approach. Discussion of the feasibility of this system for space applications is presented.

  20. Detecting Flying Objects Using a Single Moving Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozantsev, Artem; Lepetit, Vincent; Fua, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    We propose an approach for detecting flying objects such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and aircrafts when they occupy a small portion of the field of view, possibly moving against complex backgrounds, and are filmed by a camera that itself moves. We argue that solving such a difficult problem requires combining both appearance and motion cues. To this end we propose a regression-based approach for object-centric motion stabilization of image patches that allows us to achieve effective classification on spatio-temporal image cubes and outperform state-of-the-art techniques. As this problem has not yet been extensively studied, no test datasets are publicly available. We therefore built our own, both for UAVs and aircrafts, and will make them publicly available so they can be used to benchmark future flying object detection and collision avoidance algorithms.

  1. Wing attachment position of fruit fly minimizes flight cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    Flight is energetically costly which means insects need to find ways to reduce their energy expenditure during sustained flight. Previous work has shown that insect muscles can recover some of the energy used for producing flapping motion. Moreover the form of flapping motions are efficient for generating the required force to balance the weight. In this talk, we show that one of the morphological parameters, the wing attachment point on a fly, is suitably located to further reduce the cost for flight, while allowing the fly to be close to stable. We investigate why this is the case and attempt to find a general rule for the optimal location of the wing hinge. Our analysis is based on computations of flapping free flight together with the Floquet stability analysis of periodic flight for descending, hovering and ascending cases.

  2. Rotor-Flying Manipulator: Modeling, Analysis, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipping multijoint manipulators on a mobile robot is a typical redesign scheme to make the latter be able to actively influence the surroundings and has been extensively used for many ground robots, underwater robots, and space robotic systems. However, the rotor-flying robot (RFR is difficult to be made such redesign. This is mainly because the motion of the manipulator will bring heavy coupling between itself and the RFR system, which makes the system model highly complicated and the controller design difficult. Thus, in this paper, the modeling, analysis, and control of the combined system, called rotor-flying multijoint manipulator (RF-MJM, are conducted. Firstly, the detailed dynamics model is constructed and analyzed. Subsequently, a full-state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller is designed through obtaining linearized model near steady state. Finally, simulations are conducted and the results are analyzed to show the basic control performance.

  3. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd...... the final Cd concentration was below 2.0. mg Cd/kg DM in at least one experiment done with each ash. This was obtained within 2 weeks of remediation and at liquid to solid (L/S) ratios of L/S 16 for the pre-washed straw ash and L/S 8 for the straw, co-firing and wood ash. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes...

  4. Geopolymer lightweight bricks manufactured from fly ash and foaming agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wan Mastura Wan; Hussin, Kamarudin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the development of lightweight geopolymer bricks by using foaming agent and fly ash. The mix parameters analysed through a laboratory experiment with fix ratio of sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide solution mass ratio 2.5, fly ash/alkaline activator solution mass ratio 2.0, foaming agent/paste mass ratio 1:2 and molarity of sodium hydroxide solution used was 12M. Different curing temperature (Room Temperature, 60, 80) and foaming agent/water mass ratio (1:10 and 1:20) were studied. Compressive strength, density analysis, and water absorption has been investigated. The results show that the foamed geopolymer bricks with a lower foam/water mass ratio (1:10)and high curing temperature (80°C) leading to a better properties. Mixtures with a low density of around 1420 kg/m3 and a compressive strength of around 10 MPa were achieved.

  5. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    stationed there ( Peralta et al. 1965). Rapid field assessments of sand flies for phleboviruses have been previously unavailable. The available tests are...antigenic differ- ences between viral strains ( Peralta et al. 1965, Sather 1970, Srihongse and Johnson 1974, Tesh et al. 1975). We also tested the...illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med 367:834–841. Peralta PH, Shelokov A, Brody JA. 1965. Chagres virus: a new human isolate from Panama. Am J Trop Med

  6. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-08

    Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizuwana Parween

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies.

  8. On-the-Fly Learning in a Perpetual Learning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Andrew J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of brain-inspired machine learning, deep neural networks (DNN) have frustratingly failed to bridge the deceptively large gap between learning and memory. Here, we introduce a Perpetual Learning Machine; a new type of DNN that is capable of brain-like dynamic 'on the fly' learning because it exists in a self-supervised state of Perpetual Stochastic Gradient Descent. Thus, we provide the means to unify learning and memory within a machine learning framework. We also explore ...

  9. Epithelial self-organization in fruit fly embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, M. Shane

    2010-03-01

    During fruit fly embryogenesis, there are several morphogenetic events in which sheets of epithelial cells expand, contract and bend due to coordinated intra- and intercellular forces. This tissue-level reshaping is accompanied by changes in the shape and arrangement of individual cells -- changes that can be measured quantitatively and dynamically using modern live-cell imaging techniques. Such data sets represent rich targets for computational modeling of self-organization; however, reproducing the observed cell- and tissue-level reshaping is not enough. The inverse problem of using cell shape changes to determine cell-level forces is ill-posed -- yielding non-unique solutions that cannot discriminate between active changes in cell shape and passive deformation. These non-unique solutions can be tested experimentally using in vivo laser-microsurgery -- i.e., cutting a targeted region of an epithelium and carefully tracking the temporal and spatial dependence of the subsequent strain relaxation. This technique uses a variety of incisions (hole, line or closed curve) to probe different aspects of epithelial mechanics: the local mesoscopic strain; the distribution of intracellular forces; changes in the cell-level power-law rheology; and the question of active versus passive deformation. I will discuss my group's work using laser-microsurgery to investigate two morphogenetic events in fruit fly embryogenesis: germband retraction and dorsal closure. In both cases, we find a substantial active mechanical role for the amnioserosa -- an epithelium that undergoes apoptosis near the end of embryogenesis and makes no part of the fly larva -- in reshaping an adjacent epithelium that becomes the larval epidermis. In these examples, self-organization of the fly embryo relies not only on self-organization of individual tissues, but also on the mechanical interactions between tissues.

  10. Economics of Surveillance: a Bioeconomic Assessment of Queensland Fruit Fly

    OpenAIRE

    White, Benedict; Sadler, Rohan; Florec, Veronique; Dominiak, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Regional management of endemic pests of trade significance typically requires a surveillance system, border controls, eradication protocols and conditions for market closure and reopening. An example is the systems for managing Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) in south east Australia where the preferred approach for intensive production areas is an Area Wide Management (AWM) scheme. An AWM, such as the Greater Sunraysia PFA (GSPFA) in northern Victoria and western New South Wales, depends for its ...

  11. Sensorimotor Integration of Antennal Positioning in Flying Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Flying Insects 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-11-1-4057 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant AOARD-114057 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research focuses primarily on insect flight. We look at this...migrations. Such an eclectic approach is necessary for a deeper understanding of the physics and biology of insect flight, its role in evolution and

  12. Different behaviours elicited by CO2 in fruit fly larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Nuno Pimpão Santos, 1987-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 CO2 molecules are present almost everywhere and have many biological roles, special as environmental cues or metabolic products of animals. Due to its importance, many insect species are able to sense its presence and concentration. In animals this molecule elicits appetitive behaviours, like moths and mosquitoes. On others, like fruit flies of the Drosophila melanogast...

  13. The High Flying Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    which is an important leadership quality … If it’s important to the supervisor to develop skills and education in both them- selves and employees, it...IATIO N THE HIGH FLYING Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most? Col Robert L. Tremaine, USAF (Ret.) Like many U.S. companies, the Department...every DoD organization invests in leadership development the same way. The ones that do think more deeply about their future have thoughtful and

  14. Radiological and material characterization of high volume fly ash concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Sas, Z; Dragaš, J; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of research presented in this paper was the material and radiological characterization of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) in terms of determination of natural radionuclide content and radon emanation and exhalation coefficients. All concrete samples were made with a fly ash content between 50% and 70% of the total amount of cementitious materials from one coal burning power plant in Serbia. Physical (fresh and hardened concrete density) and mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) of concrete were tested. The radionuclide content (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and radon massic exhalation of HVFAC samples were determined using gamma spectrometry. Determination of massic exhalation rates of HVFAC and its components using radon accumulation chamber techniques combined with a radon monitor was performed. The results show a beneficial effect of pozzolanic activity since the increase in fly ash content resulted in an increase in compressive strength of HVFAC by approximately 20% for the same mass of cement used in the mixtures. On the basis of the obtained radionuclide content of concrete components the I -indices of different HVFAC samples were calculated and compared with measured values (0.27-0.32), which were significantly below the recommended 1.0 index value. The prediction was relatively close to the measured values as the ratio between the calculated and measured I-index ranged between 0.89 and 1.14. Collected results of mechanical and radiological properties and performed calculations clearly prove that all 10 designed concretes with a certain type of fly ash are suitable for structural and non-structural applications both from a material and radiological point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Marín-Armijos; Noelia Quezada-Ríos; Carolina Soto-Armijos; Ximo Mengual

    2017-01-01

    Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity stud...

  16. The presumed oldest flying insect: more likely a myriapod?

    OpenAIRE

    Carolin Haug; Haug, Joachim T.

    2017-01-01

    The early fossil record of insects is scarce, with only few finds in the Devonian. All these finds appear problematic and controversial, partly due to incomplete preservation and challenging interpretation of many structures. We provide details of one of these important forms, Rhyniognatha hirsti from the famous Rhynie Chert Lagerst?tte with up-to-date 3D imaging techniques. The fossil has been interpreted as the remains of one of the earliest flying insects. The specimen mainly preserves the...

  17. The Neuronal Control of Flying Prey Interception in Dragonflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    activity rotates the head as well in the direction opposite the preferred target direction. Two TSDNs also move the legs and mouthparts. Insect ...flight, Prey interception, Insect vision, Receptive field, Dragonfly U U U UU 0 Robert M. Olberg 518 388 6509 THE NEURONAL CONTROL OF FLYING PREY...Fig. 11), and (2) the neurons that respond especially well to looming targets (MDT3 and DIT3) also move the front legs and open the mouth . It seems

  18. Physical mechanisms of control of gliding in flying snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Flying snakes possess a sophisticated gliding ability with a unique aerial behavior, in which they flatten their body to make a roughly triangular cross-sectional shape to produce lift and gain horizontal acceleration. Also, the snakes assume an S-like posture and start to undulate by sending traveling waves down the body. The present study aims to answer how the snakes are able to control their glide trajectory and remain stable without any specialized flight surfaces. Undulation is the most...

  19. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    .... After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  20. Optimising Ambient Setting Bayer Derived Fly Ash Geopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Jamieson; Catherine S. Kealley; Arie van Riessen; Hart, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The Bayer process utilises high concentrations of caustic and elevated temperature to liberate alumina from bauxite, for the production of aluminium and other chemicals. Within Australia, this process results in 40 million tonnes of mineral residues (Red mud) each year. Over the same period, the energy production sector will produce 14 million tonnes of coal combustion products (Fly ash). Both industrial residues require impoundment storage, yet combining some of these components can produce ...

  1. Thermal Resistance Variations of Fly Ash Geopolymers: Foaming Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Heah Cheng-Yong; Liew Yun-Ming; Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah; Kamarudin Hussin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the characteristic of unfoamed and foamed geopolymers after exposure to elevated temperatures (200?800??C). Unfoamed geopolymers were produced with Class F fly ash and sodium hydroxide and liquid sodium silicate. Porous geopolymers were prepared by foaming with hydrogen peroxide. Unfoamed geopolymers possessed excellent strength of 44.2?MPa and degraded 34% to 15?MPa in foamed geopolymers. The strength of unfoamed geopolymers decreased to 5?MPa with ...

  2. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    OpenAIRE

    Karter, Andrew J.; Ivar Folstad

    1989-01-01

    Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer), Hypoderma tarandi (L) and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasitt...

  3. Flocculation of cyanobacterial cells using coal fly ash modified chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Y.; Zhang, H; Pan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increasingly occurred worldwide, which pose serious threats to water environment safety. In this study, a compound flocculant (CFAL-Chitosan) was developed for HABs mitigation where chitosan was modified by coal fly ash leachate (CFAL). When using optimized dosage of CFAL-Chitosan flocculant, the zeta potential of Microcystis aeruginosa (M.A.) flocs stayed close to zero and the algal removal efficiency plateaued over 95 % in a wide dosage range from 3 to 6 mg/...

  4. Solidification of coal mining wastes using pozzolanic fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laczny, J.M.; Dabrowska, L. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    2001-07-01

    A detailed analysis of chemical composition of porous waters in coal mining wastes and fly ashes has shown that there is a possibility of such alternate disposal which would facilitate forming a protective barrier, which due to reactions undergoing between chemical compounds of both phases would result in forming the so called 'reactive barrier'. This new solution is under patent procedure. 6 refs.

  5. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diying; Nel, André; Cai, Chenyang; Lin, Qibin; Engel, Michael S

    2013-03-07

    The species of the Strashilidae (strashilids) have been the most perplexing of fossil insects from the Jurassic period of Russia and China. They have been widely considered to be ectoparasites of pterosaurs or feathered dinosaurs, based on the putative presence of piercing and sucking mouthparts and hind tibio-basitarsal pincers purportedly used to fix onto the host's hairs or feathers. Both the supposed host and parasite occur in the Daohugou beds from the Middle Jurassic epoch of China (approximately 165 million years ago). Here we analyse the morphology of strashilids from the Daohugou beds, and reach markedly different conclusions; namely that strashilids are highly specialized flies (Diptera) bearing large membranous wings, with substantial sexual dimorphism of the hind legs and abdominal extensions. The idea that they belong to an extinct order is unsupported, and the lineage can be placed within the true flies. In terms of major morphological and inferred behavioural features, strashilids resemble the recent (extant) and relict members of the aquatic fly family Nymphomyiidae. Their ontogeny are distinguished by the persistence in adult males of larval abdominal respiratory gills, representing a unique case of paedomorphism among endopterygote insects. Adult strashilids were probably aquatic or amphibious, shedding their wings after emergence and mating in the water.

  7. Aluminum recovery from coal fly ash by high temperature chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijatno, Hendra [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1977-10-01

    A study of aluminum recovery from power plant fly ash by high temperature chlorination was undertaken to demonstrate that fly ash could be a potential source of aluminum, iron and possibly silicon. Magnetic separation of the iron oxide served as a first step to alleviate the iron contamination problem. However, the agglomeration of some iron oxide with alumina and silica made it difficult to completely separate the iron from the fly ash. Further iron separation was achieved by chlorinating the nonmagnetic ash fraction at 550°C for 30 minutes. This reduced the iron oxide content to less than 4 percent by weight. Chlorine flow rates affected the reaction rate much more drastically than temperatures. This suggested that diffusion was the major rate-controlling step. Besides Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2, other oxides such as CaO, K2O, Na2O and MgO might have complicated the alumina recovery by forming individual chlorides or complexes. Investigating methods for separating more Fe2O3, and possibly CaO, K2O, Na2O and MgO from the nonmagnetic ash fraction before chlorinating it is highly recommended.

  8. Phosphate removal from water by fly ash: factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mevra Yalvac; Yildiz, Ergun

    2006-07-31

    The influence of three variables (phophate concentration, initial pH of solution (pH(0)) and the fly ash dosage) on the removal efficiency of phosphate (% E) and equilibrium pH of solution (pH(eq)) by using fly ash was studied by means of 2(3) full factorial experimental designs. The parameters coded as x(1), x(2) and x(3), consecutively(,) were used. The parameters were investigated at two levels (-1 and 1). The effects of these factors on dependent variables, namely, % E and pH(eq) were investigated. To determine the significance of effects, the analysis of variance with 95% confidence limits was used. It was shown that % E and pH(eq) obtained in this study were found to be 99.6% and 11.16, corresponding to the operating condition of 25 mg l(-1), 2 g l(-1) and 5.5 for the phosphate concentration, fly ash dosage and pH(0), respectively.

  9. Safe to Fly: Certifying COTS Hardware for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichuk, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Providing hardware for the astronauts to use on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS) involves a certification process that entails evaluating hardware safety, weighing risks, providing mitigation, and verifying requirements. Upon completion of this certification process, the hardware is deemed safe to fly. This process from start to finish can be completed as quickly as 1 week or can take several years in length depending on the complexity of the hardware and whether the item is a unique custom design. One area of cost and schedule savings that NASA implements is buying Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) hardware and certifying it for human spaceflight as safe to fly. By utilizing commercial hardware, NASA saves time not having to develop, design and build the hardware from scratch, as well as a timesaving in the certification process. By utilizing COTS hardware, the current detailed certification process can be simplified which results in schedule savings. Cost savings is another important benefit of flying COTS hardware. Procuring COTS hardware for space use can be more economical than custom building the hardware. This paper will investigate the cost savings associated with certifying COTS hardware to NASA s standards rather than performing a custom build.

  10. Hydrodynamic Properties of Planing Surfaces and Flying Boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, N. A.

    1950-01-01

    The study of the hydrodynamic properties of planing bottom of flying boats and seaplane floats is at the present time based exclusively on the curves of towing tests conducted in tanks. In order to provide a rational basis for the test procedure in tanks and practical design data, a theoretical study must be made of the flow at the step and relations derived that show not only qualitatively but quantitatively the inter-relations of the various factors involved. The general solution of the problem of the development of hydrodynamic forces during the motion of the seaplane float or flying boat is very difficult for it is necessary to give a three-dimensional solution, which does not always permit reducing the analysis to the form of workable computation formulas. On the other had, the problem is complicated by the fact that the object of the analysis is concerned with two fluid mediums, namely, air and water, which have a surface of density discontinuity between them. The theoretical and experimental investigations on the hydrodynamics of a ship cannot be completely carried over to the design of floats and flying-boat hulls, because of the difference in the shape of the contour lines of the bodies, and, because of the entirely different flow conditions from the hydrodynamic viewpoint.

  11. Snapping single flying photons based on tunneling assisted multiphoton absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyong; Matthiesen, Clemens; Wu, Chongqing; Atature, Mete; Institute of Optical Information Team; Quantum Information and Nanoscale Metrology Group Team

    2014-03-01

    Multi-photon absorption (MPA) can be used to measure the temporal correlation of flying photons at a much shorter timescale within a maximum delay (about 1 fs) given by the Heisenberg principle. We first measure the 2PA and 3PA of GaAsP material by using a mode locked laser (Mira 900) with pulse width less than 100 fs (76 MHz), and obtain pronounced 2PA and 3PA at 60 mW and 130 mW respectively (wavelength: 900 nm). We further strengthen the absorption process by using an extra electrical field through photon assisted tunneling, and double the MPA coefficient by a bias voltage of 5 V. Then, we demonstrate the tunneling assisted MPA in GaAsP by a pump-probe scheme, and successfully snap flying single photons in 1550-nm telecom band by using a synchronous 900-nm fs sampling pulse train, which scanning the flying photons through a motorizing translation stage. Experimental results show that the time-domain width of the single photon is around 250 fs, and further statistical investigations demonstrate that the single photons follow subPoisson distribution with Mandel Q parameter of about -0.2, which means the photons are antibunching definitely. The authors acknowledge the support of the NSFC (Nos.11274037 and 61275075), the NCET (No NCET-12-0765), and the FANEDD (No 201236).

  12. Fly ash: Perspective resource for geo-polymer materials production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, Aleksey; Baev, Vladimir; Mashkin, Nikolay; Uglyanica, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The present paper presents the information about the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ash and slag and their amounts at the dumps of the thermoelectric plants located in the city of Kemerovo. It is known that about 85% of ash and slag from the thermoelectric plants in Russia are removed by means of the hydraulic sluicing systems and only about 15% - by the systems of pneumatic ash handling. Currently, however, the transition from the "wet" ash removal systems to the "dry" ones is outlined. This process is quite logical since the fly ash has the higher reactivity compared with the hydraulic sluicing ash and therefore it is of the great interest for recycling and use. On the other hand, the recent trend is the increased use of fly ash in the production of geo-polymers due to their availability, workability and the increased life of the final product. The analysis is carried out to check the possibility of using the fly ash from various Kemerovo thermoelectric plants as a raw material for the production of the alkali-activated binder.

  13. Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha S Bhagavatula

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly--and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered--the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called 'population' bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment.

  14. Behavioral Lateralization and Optimal Route Choice in Flying Budgerigars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Partha S.; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2014-01-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly - and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered - the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called ‘population’ bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

  15. The value of patch-choice copying in fruit flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Golden

    Full Text Available Many animals copy the choices of others but the functional and mechanistic explanations for copying are still not fully resolved. We relied on novel behavioral protocols to quantify the value of patch-choice copying in fruit flies. In a titration experiment, we quantified how much nutritional value females were willing to trade for laying eggs on patches already occupied by larvae (social patches. Females were highly sensitive to nutritional quality, which was positively associated with their offspring success. Females, however, perceived social, low-nutrition patches (33% of the nutrients as equally valuable as non-social, high-nutrition ones (100% of the nutrients. In follow-up experiments, we could not, however, either find informational benefits from copying others or detect what females' offspring may gain from developing with older larvae. Because patch-choice copying in fruit flies is a robust phenomenon in spite of potential costs due to competition, we suggest that it is beneficial in natural settings, where fruit flies encounter complex dynamics of microbial communities, which include, in addition to the preferred yeast species they feed on, numerous harmful fungi and bacteria. We suggest that microbial ecology underlies many cases of copying in nature.

  16. Prevalence of Warble Fly Infestation in Buffalo in Chakwal, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Waheed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.

  17. Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Małgorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.

  18. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) locomotion during a sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark S.; Keller, Tony S.

    2008-05-01

    The locomotor activity of young Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) was studied during a Nike-Orion sounding rocket flight, which included a short-duration microgravity exposure. An infrared monitoring system was used to determine the activity level, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity of 240 (120 male, 120 female) fruit flies. Individual flies were placed in chambers that limit their motion to walking. Chambers were oriented both vertically and horizontally with respect to the rocket's longitudinal axis. Significant changes in Drosophila locomotion patterns were observed throughout the sounding rocket flight, including launch, microgravity exposure, payload re-entry, and after ocean impact. During the microgravity portion of the flight (3.8 min), large increases in all locomotion measurements for both sexes were observed, with some measurements doubling compared to pad (1 G) data. Initial effects of microgravity were probably delayed due to large accelerations from the payload despining immediately before entering microgravity. The results indicate that short-duration microgravity exposure has a large effect on locomotor activity for both males and females, at least for a short period of time. The locomotion increases may explain the increased male aging observed during long-duration exposure to microgravity. Studies focusing on long-duration microgravity exposure are needed to confirm these findings, and the relationship of increased aging and locomotion.

  19. The analysis of the flying wing in morphing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionică CÎRCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination between the flying wing morphing concept and the use of modern command and control system offers exponential advantages having a leverage effect in the economy and research. The flying wing architecture has the advantage of low cost against efficiency, the morphing of this concept defining the new characteristic frontiers and aerodynamic performances which derive immediately. On designing an unmanned aerial vehicle for a various range of missions, its lifting surface needs to display optimal geometrical features, so that the UAV may maintain the induced drag and the moment coefficient at reasonable levels. The command and control of the lifting surfaces in morphing concept offer characteristics and in-flight performances at a superior level. The limits of the system depend on the reliability of the execution elements and the grade of accuracy for the control laws which are implemented in the calculation module. The paper aims at presenting an analysis regarding the robotic air systems of flying wing type through the aerodynamic analysis and with the help of specific software instruments. The performances and flight qualities depend directly on the geometry of the lifting surface of the aerial vehicle.

  20. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), rat-tail maggot flies (Eristalis tenax) or yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) collected from MdSGHV-positive farms displayed characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). In laboratory transmission tests, SGH symptoms were not observed in stable flies, flesh...... in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish...

  1. DETERMINING THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL FLY ASH PARTICLES IN INFLUENCING THE VARIATION IN THE OVERALL PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Haider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of fly ashes vary because of the differences in the properties of their individual particles, and the determination of variation in these properties is of interest to the industries which use pulverized raw fly ash in applications, such as in cementitious materials and in the recovery of certain rare elements from raw fly ash. To investigate the differences in individual particles, four pulverized raw fly ashes from thermal power plants of the Czech Republic were used in this research. It was observed from FE-SEM that all four fly ashes consist of glassy hollow spherical, solid spherical, porous spherical, bright spherical, porous slaggy and compact slaggy particles. Box and whisker diagrams were plotted from the data of EDX individual particle analyses, which showed that the data of percentages for the Si, Al, and Fe elements is more scattered as compared to other elements. It was further observed from ternary phase diagrams and pseudo coloured images, that nature of fly ash particles changes from alumino silicate glassy to alumino silicate calcite metallic to pure ferro-metallic,where glassy particles showed high percentages and pure calcite particles were absent in fly ashes. Furthermore, a comparison between the XRF, the EDX total area analyses, showed that the EDX individual particle analysis gives more realistic and reliable data with median, mean, and the standard deviation for percentages of each element present in the fly ashes.

  2. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes. PMID:25471105

  3. Survival of the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) on Truvia and Other Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael L; Fowler, Fallon E; Denning, Steven S; Watson, David W

    2017-07-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  5. Overexpression of Fli-1 in astrocytoma is associated with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Pei; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Chih-Ling; Tsai, Yi-Cheng; She, Ting-Chang; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chai, Chee-Yin; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2017-04-25

    Astrocytoma, a common and highly malignant type of brain tumor, is associated with poor overall survival despite advances in surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The nuclear transcription factor Fli-1 has been shown to increase cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis in many types of cancer; however, previous reports have not described a correlation between clinical outcomes and Fli-1 in astrocytoma patients. The present study aimed to elucidate the clinical role of Fli-1 in astrocytoma. High-level of Fli-1 protein expression was significantly association with World Health Organization (WHO) high grade and poor prognosis. A multivariate analysis revealed that the WHO grade and Fli-1 protein expression were independent factor of prognostic factors of patients with astrocytoma. In addition, Fli-1 silencing inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion and led to the downregulation of Ki-67, VEGF, and cyclin D1 expression in the astrocytoma cells. Fli-1 protein expression in astrocytoma tissue samples were detected via immunohistochemistry, and potential correlations between clinical parameters and Fli-1 expression were assessed in patients with astrocytoma. Additionally, proliferation, invasion, and migration assays of astrocytoma cell lines were conducted to evaluate the effects of short interfering RNA (siRNA) on these processes; in addition, these cells were subjected to western blotting to detect the expression levels of Fli-1, Ki-67, VEGF, and Cyclin D1. Fli-1 shows promise as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic molecular target for astrocytoma patients.

  6. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  7. Infection with Haemoproteus iwa affects vector movement in a hippoboscid fly--frigatebird system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris I; Parker, Patricia G

    2014-02-01

    Haemosporidian parasites, which require both a vertebrate and invertebrate host, are most commonly studied in the life stages occurring in the vertebrate. However, aspects of the vector's behaviour and biology can have profound effects on parasite dynamics. We explored the effects of a haemosporidian parasite, Haemoproteus iwa, on a hippoboscid fly vector, Olfersia spinifera. Olfersia spinifera is an obligate ectoparasite of the great frigatebird, Fregata minor, living among bird feathers for all of its adult life. This study examined the movements of O. spinifera between great frigatebird hosts. Movement, or host switching, was inferred by identifying host (frigatebird) microsatellite genotypes from fly bloodmeals that did not match the host from which the fly was collected. Such host switches were analysed using a logistic regression model, and the best-fit model included the H. iwa infection status of the fly and the bird host sex. Uninfected flies were more likely to have a bird genotype in their bloodmeal that was different from their current host's genotype (i.e. to have switched hosts) than infected flies. Flies collected from female birds were more likely to have switched hosts than those collected on males. Reduced movement of infected flies suggests that there may be a cost of parasitism for the fly. The effect of host sex is probably driven by differences in the sex ratio of bird hosts available to moving flies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mites and spiders act as biological control agent to sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out natural biological control agents of sand flies vector of kala azar in Bihar, India. Methods: Sand flies collected from the field using CDC light trap installing overnight to the collection site scrutitinized for Phlebotomus argentipes, the established vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood fed adult females were confined in the insectary for its development of life cycle. During developmental stages 2nd to 4th instars larvae were examined closely by using compound microscope for mite infestation. Adult spider residing along with sand flies collected in trap were kept in cage along with sand flies and their activities were watched closely and recorded by video and picture. Results: Mites were found predating 2nd to 4th instars larvae only under the laboratory conditions and lowering down the population of sand flies up to basal level within 15 d after infestation. One specific spider was found eating blood fed female sand flies kept inside the cage (n=50 attacking on lower part of thoracic region to kill the sand fly and ate desired soft part. Conclusions: Both predators, mites and spiders are acting as biological control agents to larvae and adults of sand flies respectively resulting variable density of vectors due to variable association with these predators and also cause lowering the transmission of the disease as hidden natural controlling agent of sand flies. The extensive study will be of immense help in controlling sand flies without use of environmental pollutant i.e. chemical insecticide.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm(3) of 5 mol · dm(-3) NaOH + 0.4 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaCl, 95 °C). As synthesized materials were characterized to obtain mineral composition (X-ray diffractometry, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry), adsorption properties (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, N2 isotherm adsorption/desorption), and ion exchange capacity. The most effective reaction for zeolite preparation was when sodalite was formed and the quantitative content of zeolite from X-ray diffractometry was 90 wt%, compared with 70 wt% for the Na-X and 75 wt% for the Na-P1. Residues from each synthesis reaction were the following: mullite, quartz, and the remains of amorphous aluminosilicate glass. The best zeolitic material as characterized by highest specific surface area was Na-X at almost 166 m(2) · g(-1), while for the Na-P1 and sodalite it was 71 and 33 m(2) · g(-1), respectively. The ion exchange capacity decreased in the following order: Na-X at 1.8 meq · g(-1), Na-P1 at 0.72 meq · g(-1), and sodalite at 0.56 meq · g(-1). The resulting zeolites are competitive for commercially available materials and are used as ion exchangers in industrial wastewater and soil decontamination.

  10. Adaptive-Repetitive Visual-Servo Control of Low-Flying Aerial Robots via Uncalibrated High-Flying Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dejun; Bourne, Joseph R.; Wang, Hesheng; Yim, Woosoon; Leang, Kam K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system for a moving high-flying vehicle (HFV) with an uncalibrated camera to monitor, track, and precisely control the movements of a low-flying vehicle (LFV) or mobile ground robot. Applications of this control strategy include the use of high-flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with computer vision for monitoring, controlling, and coordinating the movements of lower altitude agents in areas, for example, where GPS signals may be unreliable or nonexistent. When deployed, a remote operator of the HFV defines the desired trajectory for the LFV in the HFV's camera frame. Due to the circular motion of the HFV, the resulting motion trajectory of the LFV in the image frame can be periodic in time, thus an adaptive-repetitive control system is exploited for regulation and/or trajectory tracking. The adaptive control law is able to handle uncertainties in the camera's intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The design and stability analysis of the closed-loop control system is presented, where Lyapunov stability is shown. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for controlling the movement of a low-flying quadcopter, demonstrating the capabilities of the visual-servo control system for localization (i.e.,, motion capturing) and trajectory tracking control. In fact, results show that the LFV can be commanded to hover in place as well as track a user-defined flower-shaped closed trajectory, while the HFV and camera system circulates above with constant angular velocity. On average, the proposed adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system reduces the average RMS tracking error by over 77% in the image plane and over 71% in the world frame compared to using just the adaptive visual-servo control law.

  11. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  12. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  13. Design and construction of a remote piloted flying wing. B.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alfred J.; Koopman, Fritz; Soboleski, Craig; Trieu, Thai-Ba; Duquette, Jaime; Krause, Scott; Susko, David; Trieu, Thuyba

    1994-01-01

    Currently, there is a need for a high-speed, high-lift civilian transport. Although unconventional, a flying wing could fly at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and still retain the capacity of a 747. The design of the flying wing is inherently unstable since it lacks a fuselage and a horizontal tail. The project goal was to design, construct, fly, and test a remote-piloted scale model flying wing. The project was completed as part of the NASA/USRA Advanced Aeronautics Design Program. These unique restrictions required us to implement several fundamental design changes from last year's Elang configuration including wing sweepback and wingtip endplates. Unique features such as a single ducted fan engine, composite structural materials, and an electrostatic stability system were incorporated. The result is the Banshee '94. Our efforts will aid future projects in design and construction techniques so that a viable flying wing can become an integral part of the aviation industry.

  14. Effect of Grinding Fineness of Fly Ash on the Properties of Geopolymer Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the development of geopolymer foam prepared from ground F class power station fly ash. The effect of the fly ash fineness on the rheology of the geopolymer paste and the foam properties have been investigated. The raw fly ash was ground in a ball mill for various duration, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. Geopolymer paste was prepared from the raw and ground fly ash with NaOH – sodium silicate mixture as alkaline activator. Geopolymer foam production was made using H2O2 as foaming agent. Additionally, the geopolymer material structure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the foam cell structure was monitored using optical microscopy. The rheological behaviour of the geopolymer paste changed due to the grinding of fly ash (from Bingham plastic to Newtonian liquid. Grinding of fly ash has a significant effect on the physical properties as well as on the cell structure of the geopolymer foam.

  15. Physical and Chemical Character of Fly Ash of Coal Fired Power Plant in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwulan; Priadana, K. A.; Ekaputri, J. J.; Bayuaji, R.

    2017-11-01

    Quality of fly ash is varying widely in the field, it depends on the combustion process and the quality of the basic ingredients, namely coal. It will affect the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete mixtures used. This study used 12 samples of fly ash. The physical and chemical properties and finesse modulus were analyzed. The fly ash was mixed with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) with the proportion of 20% fly ash and 80% OPC. The specimens were form with mortar dimension of 5cm x 5 cm. The test was affected by the correlation of fly ash fineness modulus to compressive strength, correlation density of fly ash to compressive strength, and correlation of carbon content to the compressive strength.

  16. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  17. Effect of fly ash preliminary calcination on the properties of geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuujin, J; van Riessen, A

    2009-05-30

    The influence of preliminary calcination of fly ashes on the geopolymerisation process has been studied. Preliminary calcination at 500 and 800 degrees C causes decarbonation of the fly ash while it also leads to a decrease of the amorphous content of the fly ashes from 60 to 57%. Geopolymer prepared using raw fly ash exhibited a compressive strength 55.7(9.2)MPa, while for 500 and 800 degrees C calcined samples it reduced to 54(5.8) and 44.4(5.4)MPa, respectively. The decrease in compressive strength of the geopolymers is discussed in terms of partial surface crystallisation of the fly ash particles. Reactivity of the fly ash also has been correlated with the shrinkage rate and presence of efflorescence on the surface of geopolymers.

  18. Potential use of fly ash to soil treatment in the Morava region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulíková, Lucia; Kresta, František; Rochovanský, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Soil treatment by binders is a standard technology and leads to optimal utilization of excavated soils in road constructions. Soil treatment is controlled in the Czech Republic by EN 14227-15 and Technical Requirement TP 94. Soil treatment using fly ash has not been performed in the Czech Republic, although there is a sufficient normative base. Fly ash produced by burning of hard coal in the Moravian region was tested as a potential binder. Fly ash samples were mixed with loess loams (CI). Tested siliceous fly ash of class F (ASTM C618) did not showed hydraulic properties but it showed positive effect on reducing maximum dry density of mixtures, increasing the IBI value (Immediate bearing index) and decreasing tendency to volume changes when the amount of fly ash was increased. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate the possibility of using fly ashes as a binder for soil treatment.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on properties of steam cured fly ash–lime ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    suggested that bulk substitution of coal fly ash for clay in building bricks and tiles was possible because the chemical composition of fly ash was mostly Al2O3 and SiO2 and its properties were very similar to those of clays. Kumar. (2002) made a perspective study on fly ash–lime–gypsum bricks and hollow blocks for low cost ...

  20. Evaluating the possibilities of obtaining initial concentrates of rare earth elements (REEs from fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Całus Moszko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of initial laboratory research into the possibilities of obtaining REE from fly ash from one of Polish powerhouses. In the work the authors have presented the results of investigations into the obtaining of initial REEs concentrations from fly ashes by physicochemical and hydrometallurgical methods. These investigations provide a basis for developing a technology of RRE recovery from fly ashes produced in the process of hard coals combustion.